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Sample records for pasteurella

  1. Pasteurella aerogenes as an Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaygut, Demet; Engin, Aynur

    2018-02-01

    'Asymptomatic bacteriuria' (ASB) is isolation of a specified quantitative count of bacteria in an appropriately collected urine specimen obtained from a person without symptoms or signs referable to urinary infection. Catheterized specimens are less likely to be contaminated compared with voided specimens; therefore, positive cultures of catheterized specimens are more likely to reflect true bladder bacteriuria even with low colony counts. The common pathogens for ASB are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Streptococcus spp. Pasteurella spp. was not previously reported as an ASB agent. ASB is important for pregnant women, children, individuals with obstructive uropathy, chronic renal failure and neutropenia, before the urologic procedures and after renal transplantation. Treatment of ASB is required for above situations. We report an 11-year-old-girl with neurogenic bladder who made clean intermittent catheterization and had Pasteurella aerogenes as an ASB agent. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Pasteurella multocida mastitis in cow - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Milanov Dubravka; Aleksić Nevenka; Todorović Dalibor; Bugarski Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Pasteurella (P.) multocida is a heterogeneous species of Gram-negative bacteria which are common commensals of the upper respiratory system of various mammal and bird species, but are also opportunistic contagious zoonotic pathogens which cause a wide spectre of infections in domestic animals and humans. P. multocida is a rare cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The source of infection mainly remains unknown, mastitis usually is acute, and the therapy by intramammary administration of antibiotic...

  3. Pasteurella multocida mastitis in cow: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Milanov, Dubravka; Aleksić, Nevenka; Todorović, Dalibor; Bugarski, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Pasteurella (P.) multocida is a heterogeneous species of Gram-negative bacteria which are common commensals of the upper respiratory system of various mammal and bird species, but are also opportunistic contagious zoonotic pathogens which cause a wide spectre of infections in domestic animals and humans. P. multocida is a rare cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The source of infection mainly remains unknown, mastitis usually is acute, and the therapy by intramammary administration of antibiotic...

  4. Pasteurella multocida Osteomyelitis: An Unusual Case Presentation

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    Herbert P von Schroeder

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A healthy male farm employee developed an unusual infection caused by Pasteurella multocida. Atypical features included the chronic nature of the infection, the development of osteomyelitis of the tibia without direct animal inoculation, and lack of fever and leukocytosis. Radiographic appearance of P multocida osteomyelitis may be the result of osteoclast activation and can be confused with musculoskeletal tumour. P multocida infection requires a high degree of suspicion, and should be considered in cases of farm- or animal-related injuries even if there is no history of direct animal contact.

  5. Pasteurella multocida mastitis in cow - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanov Dubravka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella (P. multocida is a heterogeneous species of Gram-negative bacteria which are common commensals of the upper respiratory system of various mammal and bird species, but are also opportunistic contagious zoonotic pathogens which cause a wide spectre of infections in domestic animals and humans. P. multocida is a rare cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The source of infection mainly remains unknown, mastitis usually is acute, and the therapy by intramammary administration of antibiotics does not lead to satisfactory results. Lethality is possible due to presence of endotoxins in blood. Literature data on P. multocida mastitis in dairy cows is particularly scarce, which is why such a case is described in the current work, with past medical history, clinical findings, laboratory diagnostics and therapeutic approach. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 31071 and Grant no. III 46002

  6. Pasteurella multocida Bacteremia in an Immunocompromised Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukrety, Shweta; Parekh, Jai; Townley, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian gentleman who presented with a one-day history of fever, chills, and altered mental status. His symptoms were initially thought to be secondary to cellulitis. Blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida , a rare pathogen to cause bacteremia. Our patient was treated with ciprofloxacin for two weeks and made a complete and uneventful recovery. Our patient's uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease put him at a higher risk for developing serious P. multocida infection. The patient's dog licking the wounds on his legs was considered as the possible source of infection. As P. multicoda bacteremia is rare, but severe with a high mortality rate, it is imperative to have a high index of suspicion for this infection especially in the vulnerable immunocompromised population.

  7. Pasteurella multocida Bacteremia in an Immunocompromised Patient

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    Shweta Kukrety

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian gentleman who presented with a one-day history of fever, chills, and altered mental status. His symptoms were initially thought to be secondary to cellulitis. Blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a rare pathogen to cause bacteremia. Our patient was treated with ciprofloxacin for two weeks and made a complete and uneventful recovery. Our patient’s uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease put him at a higher risk for developing serious P. multocida infection. The patient’s dog licking the wounds on his legs was considered as the possible source of infection. As P. multicoda bacteremia is rare, but severe with a high mortality rate, it is imperative to have a high index of suspicion for this infection especially in the vulnerable immunocompromised population.

  8. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

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    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  9. Draft genome sequences of two virulent serotypes of avian Pasteurella multocida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report the draft genome sequences of two virulent avian strains of Pasteurella multocida. Comparative analyses of these genomes were done with the published genome sequence of avirulent Pasteurella multocida strain Pm70....

  10. Revised description and classification of atypical isolates of Pasteurella multocida from bovine lungs based on genotypic characterization to include variants previously classified as biovar 2 of Pasteurella canis and Pasteurella avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Angen, Øystein; Olsen, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Strains deviating in key phenotypic characters, mainly isolated from cases of bovine pneumonia in five European countries, were genotyped in order to examine their genotypic relationship with Pasteurella multocida. Twenty-two strains of Pasteurella avium biovar 2, including variants in indole, xy...

  11. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. 113.68 Section 113.68 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Service. (4) A satisfactory challenge shall be evidenced in the controls by progression of clinical signs...

  12. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. 113.69 Section 113.69 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. (4) A satisfactory challenge shall be evidenced in the...

  13. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Virulent Serotypes of Avian Pasteurella multocida

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahante, Juan E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Hunter, Samuel S.; Maheswaran, Samuel K.; Hauglund, Melissa J.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Tatum, Fred M.; Briggs, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequences of two virulent avian strains of Pasteurella multocida. Comparative analyses of these genomes were done with the published genome sequence of avirulent P.?multocida strain Pm70.

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Virulent Serotypes of Avian Pasteurella multocida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahante, Juan E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Hunter, Samuel S.; Maheswaran, Samuel K.; Hauglund, Melissa J.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Tatum, Fred M.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequences of two virulent avian strains of Pasteurella multocida. Comparative analyses of these genomes were done with the published genome sequence of avirulent P. multocida strain Pm70. PMID:23405337

  16. [Molecular typing methods for Pasteurella multocida-A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhong; Liang, Wan; Wu, Bin

    2016-10-04

    Pasteurella multocida is an important gram-negative pathogenic bacterium that could infect wide ranges of animals. Humans could also be infected by P. multocida via animal bite or scratching. Current typing methods for P. multocida include serological typing methods and molecular typing methods. Of them, serological typing methods are based on immunological assays, which are too complicated for clinical bacteriological studies. However, the molecular methods including multiple PCRs and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods are more suitable for bacteriological studies of P. multocida in clinic, with their simple operation, high efficiency and accurate detection compared to the traditional serological typing methods, they are therefore widely used. In the current review, we briefly describe the molecular typing methods for P. multocida. Our aim is to provide a knowledge-foundation for clinical bacteriological investigation especially the molecular investigation for P. multocida.

  17. Pasteurella multocida Involved in Respiratory Disease of Wild Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köndgen, Sophie; Leider, Michaela; Lankester, Felix; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ewers, Christa

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida can cause a variety of diseases in various species of mammals and birds throughout the world but nothing is known about its importance for wild great apes. In this study we isolated P. multocida from wild living, habituated chimpanzees from Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Isolates originated from two chimpanzees that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in 2004 as well as from one individual that developed chronic air-sacculitis following this outbreak. Four isolates were subjected to a full phenotypic and molecular characterisation. Two different clones were identified using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) enabled the identification of previous unknown alleles and two new sequence types, ST68 and ST69, were assigned. Phylogenetic analysis of the superoxide dismutase (sodA) gene and concatenated sequences from seven MLST-housekeeping genes showed close clustering within known P. multocida isolated from various hosts and geographic locations. Due to the clinical relevance of the strains described here, these results make an important contribution to our knowledge of pathogens involved in lethal disease outbreaks among endangered great apes. PMID:21931664

  18. Sepsis puerperalis caused by a genotypically proven cat-derived Pasteurella multocida strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, A; van Zwam, Y H; Meis, J F; Melchers, W; Steegers, E A

    1998-01-01

    We report a disseminated intrauterine Pasteurella multocida infection in a puerperal woman who could not remember any traumatic exposure to her cat. An oral swab taken from the cat, just 2 days after the patient's admission, grew Pasteurella multocida, with an PCR-fingerprinting pattern identical to the patient's isolate. Hand-washing after every contact with cats and dogs and if feasible separation of in-house pets from mother and infant should be applied to prevent this uncommon but serious occurrence of post-partum infections. To our knowledge this is the first case of Pasteurella multocida 'child-bed fever', with a genotypically identical strain isolated from the in-house cat.

  19. Pasteurella haemolytica bacteriophage: identification, partial characterization, and relationship of temperate bacteriophages from isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, A.B.; Renshaw, H.W.; Sneed, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) isolates (n = 15) from the upper respiratory tract of clinically normal cattle, as well as from lung lesions from cases of fatal bovine pasteurellosis, were examined for the presence of bacteriophage after irradiation with UV light. Treatment of all P haemolytica isolates with UV irradiation resulted in lysis of bacteria due to the induction of vegetative development of bacteriophages. The extent of growth inhibition and bacterial lysis in irradiated cultures was UV dose-dependent. Bacterial cultures exposed to UV light for 20 s reached peak culture density between 60 and 70 minutes after irradiation; thereafter, culture density declined rapidly, so that by 120 minutes, it was approximately 60% of the original value. When examined ultrastructurally, lytic cultures from each isolate revealed bacteriophages with an overall length of approximately 200 nm and that appeared to have a head with icosahedral symmetry and a contractile tail. Cell-free filtrate from each noninduced bacterial isolate was inoculated onto the other bacterial isolates in a cross-culture sensitivity assay for the presence of phages lytic for the host bacterial isolates. Zones of lysis (plaques) did not develop when bacterial lawns grown from the different isolates were inoculated with filtrates from the heterologous isolates

  20. Mortalidad por meningitis por Pasteurella canis. Oportunidades de aprendizaje

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    Ana Rosa Ropero Vera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis bacteriana es una enfermedad importante de distribución mundial, causa mayor y sustancial de mortalidad y morbilidad en países en desarrollo. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS sostiene que la meningitis es una de las diez afecciones principales del ser humano y debe ser considerada como una emergencia infectológica; por eso es fundamental reconocer que esta enfermedad es causa de muerte en niños de todo el mundo, sin distinción de raza, nivel económico o sociocultural. Se realizó una investigación de caso en menor de 53 días de nacido, que cumplía con los criterios clínicos y de laboratorio compatible con meningitis bacteriana, con el propósito de analizar y fortalecer la toma de decisiones en salud pública por parte de la secretaría local de salud del municipio de Valledupar (Colombia. Entre los hallazgos se encontró antecedentes infecciosos en el menor, coloración de Gram y cultivo de LCR, en el que se identificó cocobacilos Gram negativos, que fueron aislados como agente causal Pasteurella canis. Este estudio pretende sensibilizar a los prestadores de salud para que cuenten con personal altamente capacitado para brindar tratamientos adecuados y prevenir complicaciones en la meningitis bacteriana en niños, y así disminuir la posibilidad de secuelas o muerte, tanto en pacientes con compromiso inmunológico o sin este.

  1. [Pasteurella] caballi infection not limited to horses - a closer look at taxon 42 of Bisgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Hommez, J.; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2006-01-01

    Aim To investigate if taxon 42 of Bisgaard isolated from pigs represents genuine [Pasteurella] caballi which has previously only been isolated from horses. Methods and Results A total of 15 field isolates from horses and pigs from 5 different countries representing three continents were to subjec...

  2. Utilization of L-aspartate, L-malate and fumarate by Pasteurella multocida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, M.; Flossmann, K.D. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Jena. Inst. fuer Bakterielle Tierseuchenforschung)

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Pasteurella multocida use L-aspartate, L-malate and furmarate, respectively, as substrates for production of succinic acid which accumulates in the medium. As was established by studies with /sup 14/C- and /sup 3/H-labelled substrates, the degradation of these substances proceeds analogously via the citric acid cycle.

  3. Effect of aerial ammonia on porcine infection of the respiratory tract with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Bækbo, P.; Nielsen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the experimental study was to examine whether aerial ammonia alone could predispose the respiratory system of pigs to infection with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida type A. Two groups of 5 pigs each were continuously exposed to 50 ppm ammonia and less than 5 ppm ammonia...

  4. Utilization of L-aspartate, L-malate and fumarate by Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefer, M.; Flossmann, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Pasteurella multocida use L-aspartate, L-malate and furmarate, respectively, as substrates for production of succinic acid which accumulates in the medium. As was established by studies with 14 C- and 3 H-labelled substrates, the degradation of these substances proceeds analogously via the citric acid cycle. (author)

  5. Interaction between Ascaris suum and Pasteurella multocida in the lungs of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Eriksen, Lizzie; Aalbaek, B

    1992-01-01

    In an experiment including 8 groups of 15 mice, the effect of migrating Ascaris suum larvae in the lungs on the establishment and pathogenicity of aerosol exposure to Pasteurella multocida was investigated. Following aerosol exposure to P. multocida, mice with migrating A. suum in their lungs...

  6. Pasteurella testudinis associated with respiratory disease and septicaemia in leopard (Geochelone pardalis and other tortoises in South Africa

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    M.M. Henton

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded isolates of Pasteurella testudinis from South African tortoises kept in captivity is presented. P. testudinis was found in association with respiratory disease in affected animals.

  7. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida subspec. Multocida from chronic periapical lesion: First isolation in ex-Yugoslavia

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    Suvajdžić Ljiljana Ð.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents five isolates of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multo-cida isolated from chronic periapical inflammatory lesion. We described the methods of sampling and cultivation as well as diagnostic criteria. Pasteurella multocida was diagnosed on the basis of characteristic cultural and tinctorial properties and the facts that all strains produced indole and induced ornithine decarboxilation, glucose, saccharose and manitole fermentation. Isolates produced neither urease, nor fermented lactose and maltose. Further classification to subspecies multocida was based on the fact that all investigated isolates fermented trechalose, xylose and sorbitol the traits which are diagnostically significant for the species. Patients deny any contact with farm animals or pets, which indicates a possible aerosol transport and animal-human as well as human-human infection. We consider that this organism should be paid more attention by dentist, oral surgeons and microbiologists.

  8. Restriction endonuclease analysis of Pasteurella multocida isolates from three California turkey premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, K H; Carpenter, T E; Snipes, K P; Hird, D W; Ghazikhanian, G Y

    1992-01-01

    Three California turkey premises that had repeated outbreaks of fowl cholera were studied for periods of 2 to 4 years. Using biochemical, serologic, plasmid DNA, and restriction endonuclease analyses of isolates of Pasteurella multocida from turkeys and wildlife on the premises, strains of the organism were found to be enzootic on two of the premises. On the third, a variety of strains of P. multocida were isolated from fowl cholera outbreak flocks.

  9. A novel Erm monomethyltransferase in antibiotic-resistant isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Rose, Simon; Warrass, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are aetiological agents commonly associated with respiratory tract infections in cattle. Recent isolates of these pathogens have been shown to be resistant to macrolides and other ribosome-targeting antibiotics. Direct analysis of the 23S r...... without any dimethyltransferase activity. Erm(42) is a novel addition to the Erm family: it is phylogenetically distant from the other Erm family members and it is unique in being a bona fide monomethyltransferase that is disseminated between bacterial pathogens....

  10. Pasteurella multocida urinary tract infection with molecular evidence of zoonotic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendy; Chemaly, Roy F; Tuohy, Marion J; LaSalvia, Margaret M; Procop, Gary W

    2003-02-15

    We describe a patient with a urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Pasteurella multocida. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the clinical isolate recovered from the patient was identical (100% band match) to P. multocida isolates recovered from the patient's cat, but the isolate differed from an isolate recovered from a visiting cat and from a laboratory control strain. The patient also had abnormal urologic anatomy secondary to surgery; this has also been associated with P. multocida UTI.

  11. Plasmid DNA Analysis of Pasteurella multocida Serotype B isolated from Haemorrhagic Septicaemia outbreaks in Malaysia

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    Jamal, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 150 purified isolates of Pasteurella multocida serotype B were used (Salmah, 2004 for plasmid DNA curing experiment to determine hyaluronidase activity, antibiotic resistance pattern (ARP and mice lethality test (LD50 for their role of pathogenicity. A plasmid curing experiment was carried out by using the intercalating agent; ethidium bromide and rifampicin, where it was found all the plasmids had been cured (plasmidless from Pasteurella multocida. All of these plasmidless isolates maintained their phenotypic characteristics. They showed the same antibiotic resistancepattern as before curing, produced hyaluronidase and possessed lethality activity in mice when injected intraperitoneally(i.p. Based on this observation, the antibiotic resistance, hyaluronidase activity and mice virulence could probably be chromosomal-mediated. Plasmids were detected 100% in all P. multocida isolates with identical profile of 2 plasmids size 3.0 and 5.5 kb. No large plasmids could be detected in all isolates. Since all the isolates appeared to have identicalplasmid profiles, they were subjected to restriction enzyme(RE analysis. From RE analysis results obtained, it can be concluded that the plasmid DNA in serotype B isolates are identical. Only 4 of 32 REs were found to cleave these plasmids with identical restriction fingerprints; BglII, HaeIII, RsaI and SspI. From RE analysis results, it can be concluded that the plasmid DNA isolates are identical. This plasmid might not played any role in pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida serotype B, however this information is important for the construction of shuttle vectors in genetic studies of the pathogenicity of haemorrhagic septicaemia(HS.

  12. In vitro susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida strains isolated from swine to 42 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Martin, C B; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1993-08-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 42 antimicrobial agents were determined against 59 strains of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida, all isolated from swine lungs with lesions indicative of pneumonia. Penicillins (except cloxacillin), aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, erythromycin, josamycin, thiamphenicol, colistin, rifampin and mupirocin showed good activities, with ranging resistance between 0 and 6.8%. Higher resistance was observed for spiramycin and fosfomycin. Tylosin, vancomycin, metronidazole, dapsone and tiamulin, to which strains showed high rates of resistance, were ineffective. Cephalosporins (especially the third-generation cephalosporins) and quinolones (especially the fluorinated quinolones) were the most effective antimicrobial agents against P. multocida subsp. multocida strains and they might be of value for in vivo use.

  13. Pasteurella multocida Septicemia in a Patient with Cirrhosis: An Autopsy Report

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    Takuma Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More people are keeping pets in their homes but may not be sufficiently aware of the potential danger from infections. We report an autopsy case of a 57-year-old man affected by cirrhosis. Septic shock with Pasteurella multocida pneumonia was the cause of his death. P. multocida was the source of infection via the respiratory tract and caused pneumonia. Cirrhosis is one of the risk factors for P. multocida infection. A detailed patient history about animal exposure should be obtained and a differential diagnosis of P. multocida infection must be kept in mind.

  14. Multiplex PCR To Identify Macrolide Resistance Determinants in Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Simon; Desmolaize, Benoit; Jaju, Puneet

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are major etiological agents in respiratory tract infections of cattle. Although these infections can generally be successfully treated with veterinary macrolide antibiotics, a few recent isolates have shown resistance...... to these drugs. Macrolide resistance in members of the family Pasteurellaceae is conferred by combinations of at least three genes: erm(42), which encodes a monomethyltransferase and confers a type I MLS(B) (macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B) phenotype; msr(E), which encodes a macrolide efflux pump...

  15. Clonal outbreaks of [ Pasteurella] pneumotropica biovar Heyl in two mouse colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikary, Sadhana; Bisgaard, Magne; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the pathogenic role of biovar Heyl of [Pasteurella] pneumotropica in mouse colonies. Fifty-three isolates associated with mastitis and orbital, cutaneous and vaginal abscesses as well as isolates from the nose and vagina of healthy mice were investigated...... strains with the same rpoB sequence type, as shown by the PFGE profiles. The investigation documented that members of biovar Heyl of [P.] pneumotropica caused disease outbreaks in mouse colonies since the clonality indicated a primary role of [P.] pneumotropica biovar Heyl in the infections observed....

  16. The Capsule Is a Virulence Determinant in the Pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida M1404 (B:2)

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, John D.; Adler, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Capsules from a range of pathogenic bacteria are key virulence determinants, and the capsule has been implicated in virulence in Pasteurella multocida. We have previously identified and determined the nucleotide sequence of the P. multocida M1404 (B:2) capsule biosynthetic locus (J. D. Boyce, J. Y. Chung, and B. Adler, Vet. Microbiol. 72:121–134, 2000). The cap locus consists of 15 genes, which can be grouped into three functional regions. Regions 1 and 3 contain genes proposed to encode prot...

  17. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  18. Isolation and Identification of Pasteurella multocida from Sheep & Goat in Iran

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    Valadan, M.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out with the objective of isolation and identification of agent(s of pasteurella pneumonia in sheep and goat in Iran using bacteriological and biochemical assays to be identified in the pursuant researches to be used in pasteurellosis vaccine production. To accomplish this objective, samples were gathered from areas suspicious to pasteurellosis infection and industrial abbatoirs according to clinical and autopsy symptoms from eight provinces of Bushehr, Esfahan, Kerman, Kohgilooyeh & Boyr Ahmad, Fars, Qom, Tehran and Qazvin in a period from spring 2008 to spring 2011. Samples were different in sort due to the existent condition but generally were comprised of palatine tonsil swabs or blood samples taken from jugular vein in live animals and lungs or upper respiratory tract lymph glands in dead or slaughtered animals. Totally, 1454 samples (1120 samples of sheep, 334 samples of goat composed if 1084 samples of live animals and 370 samples of dead or slaughterd animals were tested. Considering results obtained from assays, only 54 samples (3.71% were assessed as being pasteurella, genus of which was totally identified as multocida.

  19. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W

    1994-04-01

    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  20. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica-like strains isolated from diseased animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Ahrens, Peter; Bisgaard, M.

    2002-01-01

    Trehalose-negative strains of the Pasteurella haemolytica complex have recently been transferred to a new genus, Mannheimia. This genus presently consists of five named species: M. haemolytica, M. glucosida, M. granulomatis, M. ruminalis and M. varigena. The purpose of this study was to investigate...

  1. Outbreak of Pasteurella pneumotropica in a closed colony of STOCK-Cd28(tm1Mak) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artwohl, J.E.; Flynn, J.C.; Bunte, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen mice with Pasteurella pneumotropica orbital abscesses were noted in mice that were homozygous for a targeted Cd28 gene mutation. Only one mouse heterozygous for the Cd28 mutation was affected. According to phenotypic reactions and 16S rDNA sequencing, the isolates were most similar to bio...

  2. Characterization of sucrose-negative Pasteurella multocida variants, including isolates from large-cat bite wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Grimmig; Bisgaard, Magne; Angen, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    To validate the identification of Pasteurella multocida-like bacteria negative for acid formation from sucrose, including isolates from bite wounds caused by large cats, 17 strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of partially sequenced rpoB and infB genes...... showed the monophyly of the strains characterized and the reference strains of P. multocida. The sucrose-negative strains formed two groups, one related to reference strains of P. multocida and the other related to a separate species-like group (taxon 45 of Bisgaard). DNA-DNA hybridization further...... and the reference strains of P. multocida. Two strains isolated from leopard bite wounds were related to the type strain of P. dagmatis; however, they represented a new taxon (taxon 46 of Bisgaard), in accordance with their distinct phenotypic and genotypic identifications. The present study documents that sucrose-negative...

  3. Modulating the regioselectivity of a Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase for biocatalytic production of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yao; Jers, Carsten; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Several bacterial sialyltransferases have been reported to be multifunctional also catalysing sialidase and trans-sialidase reactions. In this study, we examined the trans-sialylation efficacy and regioselectivity of mutants of the multifunctional Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase (Pm...... activity was abolished. Histidine in this position is conserved in α-2,6-sialyltransferases and has been suggested, and recently confirmed, to be the determinant for strict regiospecificity in the sialyltransferase reaction. Our data verified this theorem. In trans-sialidase reactions, the P34H mutant...... displayed a distinct preference for 6'-sialyllactose synthesis but low levels of 3'-sialyllactose were also produced. The sialyllactose yield was however lower than when using PmSTWT under optimal conditions for 6'-sialyllactose formation. The discrepancy in regiospecificity between the two reactions could...

  4. Meningencefalite por Pasteurella multocida: estudo clínico-laboratorial de um caso em lactente

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    C. E. Levy

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam descrição clínico-laboratorial e evolutiva do caso de lactente com o diagnóstico de meningencefalite por Pasteurella multocida que apresentou na evolução atraso neuromotor, manifestações epilépticas, surdez neurossensorial e paresia crural à esquerda. Fazem também breve revisão do papel deste agente etiológico na patologia humana. Ressaltam a importância da P. multocida em casos de meningites bacterianas, fazendo-se o diagnóstico laboratorial diferencial com o Haemophilus influenzae e Neisseria meningitidis em processos infecciosos conseqüentes a arranhadura ou mordida de animais e nas bacteremias ou septicemias em pacientes com hepatopatias crônicas ou em estados de imunodepressão.

  5. Structure and function of C-terminal catalytic region of pasteurella multocida toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitadokoro, Kengo; Kamitami, Shigeki; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is one of virulence factors responsible for the pathogenesis in some Pasteurellosis. We determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal region of PMT (C-PMT), which carries an intracellularly active moiety. The overall structure of C-PMT displays three different domains designated C1, C2 and C3. We found in the C3 domain the Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad that is organized only when the Cys is released from a disulfide bond. The steric alignment of the triad corresponded well to that of papain or other enzymes carrying the Cys-His-Asp triad. Our results demonstrate that PMT is an enzymatic toxin carrying the cysteine-protease like catalytic triad, which is organized only under reducing conditions. (author)

  6. Isolation, characterization, antibiogram and pathology of Pasteurella multocida isolated from pigs

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    Mamta Tigga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Isolation, characterization and antibiogram of Pasteurella multocida from diseased pigs of district Durg of Chhattisgarh, and to study pathological changes caused by swine pasteurellosis. Materials and Methods: An outbreak of swine pasteurellosis was suspected in pigs of Ruwabandha (Bhilai, Anjora, Somni, Tedesara, Tirgajhola villages of Durg district in Chhattisgarh, India during August and September of 2011. Nasal Swabs and blood samples from ailing pigs and heart blood and impression smears from morbid pigs were processed for detection and isolation of P. multocida by bacteriological methods. Detailed necropsy was conducted and gross and histopathological lesions were recorded. The test Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity profile by disc-diffusion method. Results: The blood smears from heart blood and tissue impression smears revealed teaming of bipolar organisms indicating the presence of Pasteurella spp. The isolates obtained were subjected to Gram's staining for checking the purity and bipolar morphology and characterized biochemically. Gross lesions included severe acute pneumonia and haemorrhages in lungs, petechial haemorrhages on serous membranes and other visceral organs. On histopathological examination, lungs showed typical fibrinous bronchopneumonia, multifocal suppuration. All the isolates of P. multocida were 100% sensitive to Amoxicillin, Gentamicin, Enrofloxacin and showed100% resistance to Ceftizoxim and Cloxacillin. Conclusion: Gross and microscopic lesions in dead animals are of great diagnostic value and are of characteristic of P. multocida infection. Cultural, morphological and biochemical characters are useful to rule out the causative agent as P. multocida. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates should routinely be carried out for knowing the antibiotic resistance trends in an endemic area.

  7. Elimination of Pasteurella pneumotropica from a Mouse Barrier Facility by Using a Modified Enrofloxacin Treatment Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Justin W; Wagner, April M; Griffin, Kurt J; Buntzman, Adam S; Frelinger, Jeffrey A; Besselsen, David G

    2014-01-01

    Multiple NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1WjlTg(HLA-A2.1)Enge/Sz (NSG/A2) transgenic mice maintained in a mouse barrier facility were submitted for necropsy to determine the cause of facial alopecia, tachypnea, dyspnea, and sudden death. Pneumonia and soft-tissue abscesses were observed, and Pasteurella pneumotropica biotype Jawetz was consistently isolated from the upper respiratory tract, lung, and abscesses. Epidemiologic investigation within the facility revealed presence of this pathogen in mice generated or rederived by the intramural Genetically Engineered Mouse Model (GEMM) Core but not in mice procured from several approved commercial vendors. Epidemiologic data suggested the infection originated from female or vasectomized male ND4 mice obtained from a commercial vendor and then comingled by the GEMM Core to induce pseudopregnancy in female mice for embryo implantation. Enrofloxacin delivered in drinking water (85 mg/kg body weight daily) for 14 d was sufficient to clear bacterial infection in normal, breeding, and immune-deficient mice without the need to change the antibiotic water source. This modified treatment regimen was administered to 2400 cages of mice to eradicate Pasteurella pneumotropica from the facility. Follow-up PCR testing for P. pneumotropica biotype Jawetz remained uniformly negative at 2, 6, 12, and 52 wk after treatment in multiple strains of mice that were originally infected. Together, these data indicate that enrofloxacin can eradicate P. pneumotropica from infected mice in a less labor-intensive approach that does not require breeding cessation and that is easily adaptable to the standard biweekly cage change schedule for individually ventilated cages. PMID:25255075

  8. Elimination of Pasteurella pneumotropica from a mouse barrier facility by using a modified enrofloxacin treatment regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Justin W; Wagner, April M; Griffin, Kurt J; Buntzman, Adam S; Frelinger, Jeffrey A; Besselsen, David G

    2014-09-01

    Multiple NOD. Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2rg(tm1Wjl)Tg(HLA-A2.1)Enge/Sz (NSG/A2) transgenic mice maintained in a mouse barrier facility were submitted for necropsy to determine the cause of facial alopecia, tachypnea, dyspnea, and sudden death. Pneumonia and soft-tissue abscesses were observed, and Pasteurella pneumotropica biotype Jawetz was consistently isolated from the upper respiratory tract, lung, and abscesses. Epidemiologic investigation within the facility revealed presence of this pathogen in mice generated or rederived by the intramural Genetically Engineered Mouse Model (GEMM) Core but not in mice procured from several approved commercial vendors. Epidemiologic data suggested the infection originated from female or vasectomized male ND4 mice obtained from a commercial vendor and then comingled by the GEMM Core to induce pseudopregnancy in female mice for embryo implantation. Enrofloxacin delivered in drinking water (85 mg/kg body weight daily) for 14 d was sufficient to clear bacterial infection in normal, breeding, and immune-deficient mice without the need to change the antibiotic water source. This modified treatment regimen was administered to 2400 cages of mice to eradicate Pasteurella pneumotropica from the facility. Follow-up PCR testing for P. pneumotropica biotype Jawetz remained uniformly negative at 2, 6, 12, and 52 wk after treatment in multiple strains of mice that were originally infected. Together, these data indicate that enrofloxacin can eradicate P. pneumotropica from infected mice in a less labor-intensive approach that does not require breeding cessation and that is easily adaptable to the standard biweekly cage change schedule for individually ventilated cages.

  9. The pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida local isolates in mice and chicken

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    Supar

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cholera or fowl cholera is a bacterial disease caused by Pasteurella multocida strain of serogroup A, has been recognized as important disease in domestic poultry such as ducks and chicken. P. multocida strains derived from overseas and local isolates are stored as freeze dried and kept at the Research hlstitute for Veterinary Science (BALITVET culture collection (BCC. Some of those bacteria are still alive and can be used as vaccine candidates. Each strain or isolate was activated in brain heart infusion broth containing foetal calf serum and incubated at 37°C then it was identitied by biochemical reactions. Field surveys Were conducted in Central Java and South Kalimantan to observe fowl cholera problems and sample collections for isolation of pathogens. Of the 14 of Pasteurella multocida strains or isolates from BCC, II strains (9 imported 2 local isolates were still alive. In addition to this 2 isolates trom chicken and duck were viable. Seven out of 9 imported strains killed mice within 3 x 24 hours, similarly for the local isolates (BCC 299, 2331, DYI, DY2, 12TG, 15TG. However, the only BCC 2331 and DY2 isolates were able to kill two week old chicken witIlin 6 x 24 hours post inoculation. From this experiment indicated that the P. multocida local isolates (BCC 2,331 and DY2 are more pathogenic than that of imported strains. Two strains of imported P. multocida BCC 2331, 1362 and 6 local isolates (BCC 299, 2331, DYI, DY2, 12TG and 15TG would be selected for mono- and polyvalent vaccine candidates in the following experiments and the highly patogenic BCC 2331 and DY2 isolates would be used to challenge the vaccinated animals.

  10. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  11. Serotypes and DNA fingerprint profiles of Pasteurella multocida isolated from raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.A.; Duncan, R.M.; Nordholm, G.E.; Berlowski, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida isolates from 21 raptors were examined by DNA fingerprint profile and serotyping methods. Isolates were obtained from noncaptive birds of prey found in 11 states from November 28, 1979, through February 10, 1993. Nine isolates were from bald eagles, and the remaining isolates were from hawks, falcons, and owls. Seven isolates were members of capsule group A, and 14 were nonencapsulated. One isolate was identified as somatic type 3, and another was type 3,4,7; both had unique HhaI DNA fingerprint profiles. Nineteen isolates expressed somatic type 1 antigen; HhaI profiles of all type 1 isolates were identical to each other and to the HhaI profile of the reference somatic type 1, strain X-73. The 19 type 1 isolates were differentiated by sequential digestion of DNA with HpaII; four HpaII fingerprint profiles were obtained. The HpaII profile of one isolate was identical to the HpaII profile of strain X-73. Incidence of P. multocida somatic type 1 in raptors suggests that this type may be prevalent in other wildlife or wildlife environments.

  12. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Rabbits in Brazil

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    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

  13. Field study of pneumonia in vaccinated cattle associated with incorrect vaccination and Pasteurella multocida infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, W M; Caldow, G L

    2015-04-25

    This field study used data on the vaccine courses against bovine respiratory disease sold by one pharmaceutical company in conjunction with pharmacovigilance data to explore reported suspected lack of expected efficacy and the reasons for this. The study ran from May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2010, and covered vaccines sold in Scotland and part of Northumberland. In total, 83 groups of cattle reported suspected lack of expected efficacy, representing 1.6 per cent of the 804,618 vaccine courses sold. It was possible to investigate 45 of these outbreaks in depth using a standard questionnaire and diagnostic protocol. Vaccine usage outwith the specific product characteristics (SPC) occurred in 47 per cent of cases (21/45). The proportion of vaccination courses used where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected in the diseased cattle and vaccine use was consistent with the SPC was estimated at 0.12 per cent of the courses sold. Pasteurella multocida was the most common pathogen detected and was found in 21 of the outbreaks. For outbreaks where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected, P. multocida was found at a significantly greater frequency (P=0.03) where vaccine use was compliant with the SPC (five of six outbreaks) compared with outbreaks where vaccine use had not been compliant with the SPC (one of seven outbreaks). The limitations of the study, including the diagnostic tests employed and definition of vaccination outwith the SPC, are discussed. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis from Ontario swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K.; Pearl, David L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; McEwen, Beverly; Slavic, Durda; Fairles, Jim; McEwen, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility results for Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis isolated from swine clinical samples were obtained from January 1998 to October 2010 from the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, and used to describe variation in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to 4 drugs of importance in the Ontario swine industry: ampicillin, tetracycline, tiamulin, and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. Four temporal data-analysis options were used: visualization of trends in 12-month rolling averages, logistic-regression modeling, temporal-scan statistics, and a scan with the “What’s strange about recent events?” (WSARE) algorithm. The AMR trends varied among the antimicrobial drugs for a single pathogen and between pathogens for a single antimicrobial, suggesting that pathogen-specific AMR surveillance may be preferable to indicator data. The 4 methods provided complementary and, at times, redundant results. The most appropriate combination of analysis methods for surveillance using these data included temporal-scan statistics with a visualization method (rolling-average or predicted-probability plots following logistic-regression models). The WSARE algorithm provided interesting results for quality control and has the potential to detect new resistance patterns; however, missing data created problems for displaying the results in a way that would be meaningful to all surveillance stakeholders. PMID:25355992

  15. ESTUDIOS DE AISLAMIENTO Y FRACCIONAMIENTO DE UN COMPLEJO GLICOPROTEICO DE PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda de Navarro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la extracción con solución de NaCl 2.5% (p/v a 47' C, se obtuvo un complejo glicoproteíco de Pasteurella multocida que fue parcialmente purificado mediante filtración por gel usando Sephacryl S-200. Las fracciones 1, 2 y 3 presentaron líneas de precipitinas en imnunodifusión contra sueros hiperimnunes de conejos inoculados con extracto salino 2.5% (P/V a 47" C y 66' C. Por electroforesis SDS-PAGE. se determinaron bandas de proteínas con pesos moleculares entre 98.800 y 17.700 daltons. Lafracción lyel extracto salino crudo a 47" C se utilizaron como antígenos adsorbidos en gel de Al(OHj y con ellos se efectuaron ensayos de protección en ratones, teniendo como referencia la vacuna comercial contra Septicemia Hemorrágica producida por VECOL S.A. Mediante el método estadístico de Reed Muench se estableció el índice de protección y se encontró que todos los antígenos fueron considerados prolectores, siendo la fracción 1 la de mayor índice de protección con una dosis inferior.

  16. Transmission of Pasteurella multocida on California turkey premises in 1988-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, K H; Carpenter, T E; Snipes, K P; Hird, D W

    1992-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) of whole-cell DNA was used to determine possible sources of Pasteurella multocida for each outbreak of fowl cholera occurring in turkey flocks in eight commercial poultry companies in California from October 1988 to September 1989. Over this period, 179 isolates of P. multocida were obtained from dead turkeys in 80 meat and breeder flocks on 43 premises. P. multocida was isolated from wildlife on five premises. Isolates were characterized by subspecies, serotype, presence of plasmid DNA, and REA type. In 52 (65%) flocks, all isolates of P. multocida had the same REA pattern as the M9 live vaccine strain following digestion of DNA with the restriction enzyme SmaI. Field strains of P. multocida were obtained from 27 (34%) flocks, and one flock (1%) yielded both M9 and a field strain of the organism. REA of field strains of P. multocida revealed 17 different SmaI REA types. Based on matching SmaI REA types, potential sources of P. multocida were identified for 15 of the 28 flocks infected with field strains of the organism, and transmission between turkey premises was a possibility in only seven flocks.

  17. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A

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    Paula Esquinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n=2; healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n=2; healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n=2; diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n=3. The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide.

  18. Variability of Pasteurella multocida isolated from Icelandic sheep and detection of the toxA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Thorbjorg; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Sigurdardottir, Olof G; Jorundsson, Einar; Fridriksdottir, Vala; Thorarinsdottir, Gudridur E; Hjartardottir, Sigridur

    2016-09-01

    Pasteurella multocida can be part of the upper respiratory flora of animals, but under conditions of stress or immunocompromisation, the bacteria can cause severe respiratory symptoms. In this study, we compared 10 P. multocida isolates from Icelandic sheep with respiratory symptoms and 19 isolates from apparently healthy abattoir sheep. We examined capsule type, genetic variability and the presence of the toxA gene in the two groups. Surprisingly, we found that all ovine P. multocida isolates examined in this study carried the toxA gene, which markedly differs from what has been published from other studies. Interestingly, all isolates from abattoir animals were capsule type D, whilst bacteria isolated from animals with clinical respiratory symptoms had capsule type A, D or F. Examination of seven housekeeping genes indicated that the clinical respiratory isolates were significantly more heterogeneous than the abattoir isolates (P<0.05, two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test). The results suggest that there may be at least two groups of P. multocida in sheep - a genetically homogeneous group that resides in the respiratory tract and a genetically heterogeneous group that is the predominant cause of disease.

  19. Efficacy of a novel Pasteurella multocida vaccine against progressive atrophic rhinitis of swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Liao, Chih-Ming; Huang, Chienjin; Winton, James R.; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Chiou, Chwei-Jang; Yeh, Kuang-Sheng; Chien, Maw-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel vaccine composed of three short recombinant subunit Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) proteins in combination with a bi-valent P. multocida whole-cell bacterin (rsPMT–PM) was evaluated in field studies for prevention and control of progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) of swine at 15 conventional farrow-to-finish farms. Experimental piglets that were immunized twice with the rsPMT–PM vaccine developed detectable titers of neutralizing antibodies (greater than 1:8) that prevented the growth retardation and pathological lesions typically observed following challenge with authentic PMT. A total of 542 sows were vaccinated once or twice prior to parturition and serum neutralizing antibody titers were evaluated. Both single and double vaccination protocols induced neutralizing antibody titers of 1:16 or higher in 62% and 74% of sows, respectively. Notably, neither sows nor piglets at a farm experiencing a severe outbreak of PAR at the time of the vaccination trial had detectable antibody titers, but antibody titers increased significantly to 1:16 or higher in 40% of sows following double vaccination. During the year after vaccination, clinical signs of PAR decreased in fattening pigs and growth performance improved sufficiently to reduce the rearing period until marketing by 2 weeks. Collectively, these results indicate that the rsPMT–PM vaccine could be used to provide protective immunity for controlling the prevalence and severity of PAR among farm-raised swine.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis isolates associated with porcine pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis pig isolates obtained in the Czech Republic were tested for their susceptibility against selected antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution method between 2008 and 2011. A low degree of resistance was observed for ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, tulathromycin, tilmicosin, florfenicol and enrofloxacin in 20 (6.0%, 15 (4.5 %, 2 (0.6%, 8 (2.4%, 13 (3.9%, 5 (1.5% and 5 (1.5% P. multocida isolates as well as for tiamulin, gentamicin, tulathromycin, tilmicosin and ampicillin in 2 (2.4%, 2 (2.4%, 3 (3.6%, 3 (3.6% and 6 (7.2% H. parasuis isolates. In addition, moderate level of resistance to tiamulin was found in 60 (18.1% P. multocida isolates and high level of resistance for tetracycline was detected in 107 (32.2 % P. multocida isolates and in 23 (27.7 % H. parasuis isolates. Differences between resistance rates of P. multocida and H. parasuis were significant (P ≤ 0.5 only for tiamulin. These data confirmed that antimicrobial resistance is not very widespread among current porcine P. multocida and H. parasuis isolates in the Czech Republic.

  1. Associations between water quality, Pasteurella multocida, and avian cholera at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, M.A.; Botzler, R.G.; Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied patterns in avian cholera mortality, the presence of Pasteurella multocida in the water or sediment, and water chemistry characteristics in 10 wetlands at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex (California, USA), an area of recurrent avian cholera epizootics, during the winters of 1997 and 1998. Avian cholera outbreaks (a?Y50 dead birds) occurred on two wetlands during the winter of 1997, but no P. multocida were recovered from 390 water and 390 sediment samples from any of the 10 wetlands. No mortality events were observed on study wetlands during the winter of 1998; however, P. multocida was recovered from water and sediment samples in six of the 10 study wetlands. The pH levels were higher for wetlands experiencing outbreaks during the winter of 1997 than for nonoutbreak wetlands, and aluminum concentrations were higher in wetlands from which P. multocida were recovered during the winter of 1998. Water chemistry parameters (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and dissolved protein) previously linked with P. multocida and avian cholera mortality were not associated with the occurrence of avian cholera outbreaks or the presence of P. multocida in our study wetlands. Overall, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that wetland characteristics facilitate the presence of P. multocida and, thereby, allow some wetlands to serve as long-term sources (reservoirs) for P. multocida.

  2. Pneumonia in calves produced with aerosols of Pasteurella multocida alone and in combination with bovine herpesvirus 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Jericho, K W; Carter, G R

    1985-01-01

    Pathological changes in respiratory tracts were studied in 30 calves following exposure to aerosols of Pasteurella multocida or to bovine herpesvirus 1 and P. multocida. Two groups of five calves were exposed to aerosols of one of two types of P. multocida only, which produced lobar pneumonia in one calf of each group. Another five groups of four calves were exposed to aerosols of bovine herpesvirus 1 and four to seven days later to one of the two types or one sub-type of P. multocida. Extens...

  3. [Effect of lead microparticles introduced into the respiratory system of the sensitivity of mice to Pasteurella multocida infection via aerosol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, G; Dubreuil, A; Arsac, F; Boudène, C

    1977-12-19

    Lead microparticles, resulting from the pyrolysis of organic lead used as an anti-knock agent in gasoline, were introduced into the lungs of Mice, during a short single exposure. When 6 microgram of lead were retained in the lungs (mean value per Mouse), the phagocytic ability of the pulmonary alveolar macrophages harvested 6 and 18 hrs. later, was significantly reduced. It was observed, in the same conditions, that the resistance of Mice to experimental infection by aerosolized Pasteurella multocida, was significantly reduced. When 3 microgram of lead were retained in the lungs, there was no significant difference between control and intoxicated Mice.

  4. Development of a typing system for epidemiological studies of porcine toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Nielsen, Jens; Bisgaard, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate capsular-typing, plasmid-profiling, phage-typing and ribotyping for epidemiological studies of toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark. The evaluation of methods was based on 68 strains from nasal swabs and 14 strains from...... by HindIII ribotyping, as 85% of isolates from all herds were assigned to one ribotype. In conclusion, HindIII ribotyping seems to represent a useful tool for epidemiological studies of toxigenic P. multocida ssp. multocida....

  5. Mutant prevention concentration and PK-PD relationships of enrofloxacin for Pasteurella multocida in buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaje, R M; Sidhu, P K; Kaur, G; Rampal, S

    2013-12-01

    This study validated the use of mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach for optimization of dose regimen of enrofloxacin to contain the emergence of Pasteurella multocida resistance. The PK and PD characteristics of enrofloxacin were investigated in buffalo calves after intramuscular administration at a dose rate of 12 mg/kg. The concentration of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum peak concentration (Cmax), terminal half-life (t1/2K10), volume of distribution (Vd(area)/F) and mean residence time (MRT) of enrofloxacin were 1.89 ± 0.35 μg/ml, 5.14 ± 0.66 h, 5.59 ± 0.99 l/kg/h and 8.52 ± 1.29 h, respectively. The percent metabolite conversion ratio of ciprofloxacin to enrofloxacin was 79. The binding of enrofloxacin to plasma proteins was 11%. The MIC, MBC and MPC for enrofloxacin against P. multocida were 0.05, 0.06 μg/ml and 1.50 μg/ml.In vitro and ex-vivo bactericidal activity of enrofloxacin was concentration dependent. Modeling of ex-vivo growth inhibition data to the sigmoid Emax equation provided AUC24h/MIC values to produce bacteriostatic (19 h), bactericidal (43 h) and bacterial eradication (64 h). PK-PD data in conjunction with MPC and MIC90 data predicted dosage schedules for enrofloxacin that may achieve optimum efficacy in respect of bacteriological and clinical cure and minimize the risk of emergence of resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Capsular Polysaccharide Interferes with Biofilm Formation by Pasteurella multocida Serogroup A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana Petruzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is an important multihost animal and zoonotic pathogen that is capable of causing respiratory and multisystemic diseases, bacteremia, and bite wound infections. The glycosaminoglycan capsule of P. multocida is an essential virulence factor that protects the bacterium from host defenses. However, chronic infections (such as swine atrophic rhinitis and the carrier state in birds and other animals may be associated with biofilm formation, which has not been characterized in P. multocida. Biofilm formation by clinical isolates was inversely related to capsule production and was confirmed with capsule-deficient mutants of highly encapsulated strains. Capsule-deficient mutants formed biofilms with a larger biomass that was thicker and smoother than the biofilm of encapsulated strains. Passage of a highly encapsulated, poor-biofilm-forming strain under conditions that favored biofilm formation resulted in the production of less capsular polysaccharide and a more robust biofilm, as did addition of hyaluronidase to the growth medium of all of the strains tested. The matrix material of the biofilm was composed predominately of a glycogen exopolysaccharide (EPS, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and enzymatic digestion. However, a putative glycogen synthesis locus was not differentially regulated when the bacteria were grown as a biofilm or planktonically, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Therefore, the negatively charged capsule may interfere with biofilm formation by blocking adherence to a surface or by preventing the EPS matrix from encasing large numbers of bacterial cells. This is the first detailed description of biofilm formation and a glycogen EPS by P. multocida.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility, serotypes and genotypes of Pasteurella multocida isolates associated with swine pneumonia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jih-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Chou, Chi-Chung; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2017-09-21

    Pasteurella multocida (PM) can cause progressive atrophic rhinitis and suppurative bronchopneumonia in pigs. The present study performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotype and genotype identification on the 62 PM strains isolated from the lungs of diseased pigs with respiratory symptoms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing examined 13 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin, cefazolin, doxycycline, flumequine, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, kanamycin, lincomycin, Linco-Spectin (lincomycin and spectinomycin), erythromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and tiamulin). Antimicrobial resistance ratios were over 40% in all of the antimicrobial agents except for cefazolin. The highest levels of resistance (100%) were found for kanamycin, erythromycin and tylosin. The majority of isolated strains was serotype D:L6 (n=35) followed by A:L3 (n=17). Comparison of the antimicrobial resistance levels between the two serotypes showed that the antimicrobial resistance rates were higher in D:L6 than in A:L3 for all the tested antimicrobials except for tylosin and tilmicosin. For PM with erm (B), erm (T) or erm (42), the results showed no significant difference compared with non-resistance gene strains in phenotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping using Apa I restriction digestion of the genomic DNA demonstrated that there were 17 distinct clusters with a similarity of 85% or more, and the genotyping result was similar to that of serotyping. The results of the present study demonstrated that the PM isolated from diseased pigs in Taiwan was resistant to multiple antimicrobials, and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance was associated with pulsotype and serotype. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. The capsule is a virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida M1404 (B:2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J D; Adler, B

    2000-06-01

    Capsules from a range of pathogenic bacteria are key virulence determinants, and the capsule has been implicated in virulence in Pasteurella multocida. We have previously identified and determined the nucleotide sequence of the P. multocida M1404 (B:2) capsule biosynthetic locus (J. D. Boyce, J. Y. Chung, and B. Adler, Vet. Microbiol. 72:121-134, 2000). The cap locus consists of 15 genes, which can be grouped into three functional regions. Regions 1 and 3 contain genes proposed to encode proteins involved in capsule export, and region 2 contains genes proposed to encode proteins involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. In order to construct a mutant impaired in capsule export, the final gene of region 1, cexA, was disrupted by insertion of a tetracycline resistance cassette by allelic replacement. The genotype of the tet(M) OmegacexA mutant was confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The acapsular phenotype was confirmed by immunofluorescence, and the strain could be complemented and returned to capsule production by the presence of a cloned uninterrupted copy of cexA. Wild-type, mutant, and complemented strains were tested for virulence by intraperitoneal challenge of mice; the presence of the capsule was shown to be a crucial virulence determinant. Following intraperitoneal challenge of mice, the acapsular bacteria were removed efficiently from the blood, spleen, and liver, while wild-type bacteria multiplied rapidly. Acapsular bacteria were readily taken up by murine peritoneal macrophages, but wild-type bacteria were significantly resistant to phagocytosis. Both wild-type and acapsular bacteria were resistant to complement in bovine and murine serum.

  9. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Pasteurella multocida: a case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnorat, Estelle; Seng, Piseth; Savini, Hélène; Pinelli, Pierre-Olivier; Simon, Fabrice; Stein, Andreas

    2016-08-20

    Pasteurella multocida is a well-recognized zoonotic agent following dog or cat bites or scratches. Nevertheless, prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida are rarely reported. We report here a series of six cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida managed at a referral centre for the treatment of bone and joint infection in southern France. We also reviewed the 26 cases reported in literature. The mean age of our cases was 74 years [±8.2, range 63-85]. In majority of our cases (5 cases) were associated with knee prostheses and one case with a hip prosthesis. Most of cases occurred after cat or dog scratches or licks or contact. Diagnoses of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida were made by positive cultures of surgical biopsies or needle aspiration. Mean time delay between prosthetic joint implantation and infection onset was 7.6 years (±5.12 years, range 2-17). Local inflammation, which occurred in all six cases, was the most frequent clinical symptom, followed by pain in five cases, fever and swollen joints in four cases, and a fistula with purulent discharge inside the wound in two cases. The mean time of antibiotic therapy was 8 months. Surgical treatment with prosthesis removal was performed in three cases. Six of our cases were in remission without apparent relapse at 3 years after end of treatment. Prosthetic joint infections caused by P. multocida usually occur after animal scratches or bites, but can occasionally occur after a short animal lick. These infections are usually resulting from a contiguous infection and localized in the knee. An early antibiotic therapy after surgical debridement could avoid prosthetic withdrawal, notably in elderly patients. Patients with prosthetic joints should be warned that animals are potential sources of serious infection and urgent medical advice should be sought if they are bitten or scratched.

  10. Anatomopathological pneumonic aspects associated with highly pathogenic Pasteurella multocida in finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana S. Paladino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The bacterium Pasteurella multocida is a frequent cause of porcine respiratory disease complex in finishing pigs. Historically, the bacterium is recognized as an opportunistic agent, causing secondary bacterial pneumonia in pigs. Several Brazilian reports have suggested the ability of P. multocida to cause primary pulmonary infection that leads to the death of finishing pigs prior to slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate anatomopathological pulmonary findings associated with P. multocida infection that were obtained from animals with clinical respiratory disease and from animals at slaughter. Twenty-five lung samples from 14 herds of finishing pigs with acute clinical respiratory disease and 19 lungs collected at slaughter from a different set of 14 herds were studied. In all lung samples, bacterial isolation was performed, and only samples with pure P. multocida growth were included in the study. Gross and histopathological lesions were evaluated, as well as Influenza A, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae co-infections. Pleuritis and pericarditis were more often observed in clinical samples (P<0.05. Moreover, there was a numerical trend indicating that pericarditis, lymphadenomegaly and cavity exudates were more often present in clinical samples. Thirteen lung samples were negative to M. hyopneumoniae, Influenza A and PCV2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC, with only P. multocida identified. In these cases, gross lesions such as pleuritis, pericarditis and lymphadenomegaly were always present, and no histologic lesions indicative of other agents such as Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Actinobacillus suis or Haemophilus parasuis were observed. These findings suggest the ability of some P. multocida isolates to cause primary respiratory and systemic infection. However, in this study, it was not possible to determine specific virulence markers to explain these findings.

  11. Experimental contact transmission of Pasteurella haemolytica from clinically normal domestic sheep causing pneumonia in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderka, D K; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Two Rocky Mountain bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis canadensis) were held in captivity for 120 days before being housed with two domestic sheep. The lambs were clinically normal and had no Pasteurella spp. on nasal swab cultures. The domestic sheep were known to carry Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A in the nasal passages. After being in close contact for 19 days. P. haemolytica biotype A was cultured from nasal swabs of one of the bighorn lambs. By 26 days, both bighorn sheep developed coughs, were anorectic and became lethargic and nasal swabs yielded P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10. Twenty-nine days after contact, the lambs were necropsied and found to have extensive fibrinous bronchopneumonia. From affected tissues pure cultures of beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10 were grown. Both domestic sheep remained clinically normal and had no gross or microscopic lesions, but they carried the same P. haemolytica serotype in their tonsils. Behavioural observations gave no indication of stress in the bighorn lambs.

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characters of isolates of Pasteurella multocida obtained from back-yard poultry and from two outbreaks of avian cholera in avifauna in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Bisgaard, M.

    1998-01-01

    Two outbreaks of fowl cholera in the avifauna in Denmark, affecting primarily elders but also cormorants, gulls and oyster-catchers were shown to be caused by the same clone of Pasteurella multocida ssp, multocida by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping, using the enzymes HpaII and Hha...

  13. Comparative genome analysis of an avirulent and two virulent strains of avian Pasteurella multocida reveals candidate genes involved in fitness and pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowl cholera is a highly contagious systemic disease affecting wild and domestic birds, frequently resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The causative agent is Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida). The completed genome of P. multocida strain Pm70 has been available for over eleven years and has...

  14. Time-course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12-week-old free-range chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthia, P.G.; Njagi, L.W.; Nyaga, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immune-suppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322(T), and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS...

  15. Analysis of the polymerization initiation and activity of Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase PmHS2, an enzyme with glycosyltransferase and UDP-sugar hydrolase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavaroche, A.A.E.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Springer, J.; Boeriu, C.; Eggink, G.

    2011-01-01

    Heparosan synthase catalyzes the polymerization of heparosan [-4GlcUAß1-4GlcNAca1-]n by transferring alternatively the monosaccharide units from UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc to an acceptor molecule. Details on the heparosan chain initiation by Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase PmHS2 and its

  16. Susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Silflow, R M; Lagerquist, J E

    1996-10-01

    We evaluated susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to bacterial pneumonia induced by two strains of Pasteurella haemolytica of domestic sheep origin by evaluating the sensitivity of blood neutrophils of eight Dall sheep to lysis by cytotoxins of P. haemolytica, and by intratracheal inoculation of three Dall sheep, two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and two domestic sheep with 3.7 x 10(6) or 2.5 x 10(7) colony forming units of P. haemolytica. Neutrophils from the Dall sheep were more sensitive to lysis by cytotoxins from supernatants of a P. haemolytica, biotype A, serotype 2 (A2), of domestic sheep origin, than were neutrophils from six bighorn sheep. This cytotoxic bacterium was the same isolate that was used for intratracheal inoculation of two Dall sheep and two domestic sheep. Inoculation of this cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 resulted in fatal fibrinopurulent pleuropneumonia in the first Dall sheep within 24 hr of inoculation, and pneumonic lesions in the second Dall sheep before it was euthanized 52 hr after inoculation. This strain of P. haemolytica A2 did not cause respiratory disease when inoculated into two domestic sheep. A noncytotoxic strain of P. haemolytica; biotype T, serotype 3,4,10 of domestic sheep origin did not result in pneumonia in the third Dall sheep or two bighorn sheep. Prior to inoculation, P. haemolytica, biotype T isolates were obtained from all three Dall sheep, but none of these isolates was cytotoxic. At necropsy, cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 was isolated from lungs and other tissues of the two pneumonic Dall sheep. Based on these results, we conclude that Dall sheep appear to be at least as sensitive as bighorn sheep to pneumonia caused by P. haemolytica A2 of domestic sheep origin. Because in vitro and in vivo results appear closely correlated in this and other studies, we believe with additional evaluation and standardization, neutrophil cytotoxicity tests may serve as a substitute for live animal challenges in future

  17. Identificación, biotipificación y caracterización de cepas de Pasteurella multocida aisladas en la Argentina Identification, biotypification and characterization of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Leotta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Treinta cepas de Pasteurella multocida aisladas en la Argentina a partir de muestras de origen humano y animal fueron identificadas, biotipificadas y caracterizadas. Veintidós de ellas (73% correspondieron a P. multocida subsp. multocida; cinco (17% a P. multocida subsp. gallicida y tres (10% a P. multocida subsp. septica. Todas las cepas fueron agrupadas en 8 biotipos; el 70% presentó el tipo capsular A. Los serotipos somáticos más frecuentes fueron el 1 (n:11 y el 3 (n:9. Las cepas de origen porcino fueron resistentes a tiamulina, estreptomicina y tetraciclina. La caracterización de las cepas de P. multocida aisladas en la Argentina es el primer paso para concretar futuros estudios destinados a la prevención y al tratamiento de la pasteurelosis en medicina humana y veterinaria.Thirty Pasteurella multocida strains isolated in Argentina from human and animal samples were identified, biotypified and characterized. Twenty-two (73% strains were identified as P. multocida subsp. multocida, 5 (17% as P. multocida subsp. gallicida, and 3 (10% as P. multocida subsp. septica. All strains were grouped in 8 biotypes, and 70% of the strains presented capsular type A. The most frequent somatic serotypes were 1 (n:11 and 3 (n:9. P. multocida strains from swine source were resistant to tiamulin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Characterization of P. multocida strains isolated in Argentina is the first step to conduct future studies intended for the prevention and treatment of pasteurellosis in human and veterinary medicine.

  18. Serological evidence of avian encephalomyelitis virus and Pasteurella multocida infections in free-range indigenous chickens in Southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunde, Paula; Timbe, Palmira; Lucas, Ana Felicidade; Tchamo, Cesaltina; Chilundo, Abel; Dos Anjos, Filomena; Costa, Rosa; Bila, Custodio Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    A total of 398 serum samples from free-range indigenous chickens originating from four villages in Southern Mozambique were tested for the presence of avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) and Pasteurella multocida (PM) antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. AEV and PM antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed. The proportion of positive samples was very high: 59.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 51.7-67.7%) for AEV and 71.5% (95% CI 67.7-77.3%) for PM. Our findings revealed that these pathogens are widespread among free-range indigenous chickens in the studied villages and may represent a threat in the transmission of AEV and PM to wild, broiler or layer chickens in the region. Further research is warranted on epidemiology of circulating strains and impact of infection on the poultry industry.

  19. Lack of effect of aerial ammonia on atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and toxigenic Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Bækbo, P.; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to determine the effects of aerial ammonia on disease development and bacterial colonization in weaned pigs inoculated with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Two groups of 10 pigs each were continuously exposed to 50 and 100 p.......p.m ammonia, respectively, and compared to a non-exposed control, group of 20 pigs. Following aerosol inoculation with M. hyopneumoniae at day 9, ail pigs were aerosol-inoculated with toxigenic P. multocida type A at days 28, 42 and 56. Ac day 63 they were euthanized. Clinical signs including coughing...... with inoculations with M. hyopneumoniae and toxigenic P. multocida had no significant effect on disease development, but may have enhanced colonization by toxigenic P. multocida on the nasal turbinates....

  20. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    OpenAIRE

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-01-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal ...

  1. Comparison of standardised versus non-standardised methods for testing the in vitro potency of oxytetracycline against mannheimia haemolytica and pasteurella multocida

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, P; Illambas, J; Pelligand, L; Toutain, P L

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was established for six isolates of each of the calf pneumonia pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and bacterial time-kill curves were determined in two matrices, Mueller Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. Geometric mean MIC ratios, serum:MHB, were 25.2:1 (M. haemolytica) and 27.4:1 (P. multocida). The degree of binding of oxytetracycline to...

  2. Gamma-Irradiated Mannheimia (Pasteurella) Haemolytica Identified by rRNA Gene Sequencing as a Potential Vaccine in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araby, E.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonic pasteurellosis is a significant disease in beef production medicine. The most information suggests that this disease is a $700 million dollar per year economic burden in bovine food animal production. The current study was designed to assess the immune efficacy of whole cell killed of M. haemolytica strain from satisfactory cases (infected lung from sheep). The efficacy of gamma- irradiated M. haemolytica vaccine (GIV) was evaluated in mice in comparison to the classical aqueous formalized (AFV) one. The bacteria under study were cultivation on blood agar, purification and genetically identified. Then the bacterial cells were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (2- 20 kGy) with 2 kGy intervals and the dose response curve of the survivors was plotted and 20 kGy was selected as the dose for the preparation of the vaccine. A total of 30 male mice (two weeks – old) were used for the further experimental investigations. Animals were divided into three equal groups each of 10 animals. The first group (group A) was given GIV . The second group (group B) received AFV. The third group (group C) was injected with sterile saline solution and represents the control. Animals were vaccinated via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection with 1x10 8 CFU per treated mouse. After vaccination, the immuno response was determined by cellular surface antigens-reactive antibodies using a modified protein- electrophoresis procedure. Antibody-antigen hybrids was visualized at molecular weight more than 225 KDa in samples represented M. haemolytica antibodies group (A, B) against both bacterial samples (M. haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida ) , while non-treated bacterial cells in which cells incubated with serum of mice group (C) revealed no hybridization reaction, this results verify that, there is shared cellular surface antigens among the two Pasteurella species. Also, the bacterial distribution with (LD 50 ) 2x10 7 CFU of a live M. heamolytica into vaccinated and non

  3. Comparative studies on [Pasteurella] testudinis and [P.] testudinis-like bacteria and proposal of Chelonobacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov. as a new member of the family Pasteurellaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Rikke Heidemann; Neubauer, Claudia; Christensen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A collection of 12 strains isolated from diseased tortoises tentatively identified as [Pasteurella] testudinis-like based on phenotypical characters were compared with three reference strains of [Pasteurella] testudinis. All strains could be separated from the reference strains with resp...

  4. Multiorgan Failure and Refractory Lactic Acidosis due to Pasteurella multocida Septicemia in a Patient with No Animal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Pena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pasteurella multocida is a gram-negative coccobacillus pathogenic to animals. It can cause infection in humans by a bite, scratch, or lick from a cat or dog. P. multocida can cause a variety of infections in humans, including cellulitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, and septic shock. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old male presented to our hospital with a 2-day history of fever, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. He denied exposure to cats, dogs or other pets. He had severe respiratory distress requiring ventilator support, profound septic shock requiring multiple vasopressors, severe lactic acidosis, and renal failure requiring emergent hemodialysis. Blood cultures confirmed the presence of P. multocida. The patient subsequently died of cardiopulmonary arrest due to multiorgan failure with refractory shock. Conclusion. P. multocida septicemia can lead to septic shock. Early identification of this organism may decrease mortality. Although our patient had no known cat or dog exposure, physicians should enquire about a history of animal exposure when a patient presents with an infection with no obvious cause.

  5. Auranofin Inhibits the Enzyme Activity of Pasteurella multocida Toxin PMT in Human Cells and Protects Cells from Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Carle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The AB-type protein toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT contains a functionally important disulfide bond within its catalytic domain, which must be cleaved in the host cell cytosol to render the catalytic domain of PMT into its active conformation. Here, we found that the reductive potential of the cytosol of target cells, and more specifically, the activity of the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR is crucial for this process. This was demonstrated by the strong inhibitory effect of the pharmacological TrxR inhibitor auranofin, which inhibited the intoxication of target cells with PMT, as determined by analyzing the PMT-catalyzed deamidation of GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins in the cytosol of cells. The amount of endogenous substrate levels modified by PMT in cells pretreated with auranofin was reduced compared to cells treated with PMT alone. Auranofin had no inhibitory effect on the activity of the catalytic domain of constitutively active PMT in vitro, demonstrating that auranofin did not directly inhibit PMT activity, but interferes with the mode of action of PMT in cells. In conclusion, the results show that TrxR is crucial for the mode of action of PMT in mammalian cells, and that the drug auranofin can serve as an efficient inhibitor, which might be a starting point for novel therapeutic options against toxin-associated diseases.

  6. Genotyping of Pasteurella multocida ovine and bovine isolates from Iran based on PCR-RFLP of ompH gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida, A Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacterium, is a causative animal pathogen in porcine atrophic rhinitis and avian fowl cholera. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains of many different protein in very high copy numbers. One of the major outer membrane, the H proteins have functional as high immunogenicity and antigenicity. In this study to increase information about epidemiology of ovine and bovine P. multocida, the 24 isolates from sheep and nine isolates from cattle were investigated by PCR-RFLP analysis of the ompH gene. In all 33 isolates, digestion of the amplified fragment of ompH gene by using EcoRI, cfoI and HindIII produced 3, 5 and 3 different restriction patterns respectively. Sixteen RFLP patterns were found among 33 investigated P.multocida isolates. This study showed that, the PCR RFLP based on ompH gene is potentially a useful method for typing of P. multocida isolates from sheep and cattle. The RFLP patterns of this gene exhibited extensive restriction site heterogeneity, which may be particularly suitable for fingerprinting of P. multocida isolates.Considering ompH protein as a protective immunogenic moiety of P.ultocida, the results of this study showed a heterogenic bacteria and this means the possibility to produce a multivalent vaccine to be protective against diseases caused by this organism in sheep and cattle in Iran.

  7. Cellular defense of the avian respiratory system: effects of Pasteurella multocida on respiratory burst activity of avian respiratory tract phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, D L; Toth, T E; Pyle, R H; Siegel, P B

    1988-12-01

    The respiratory tract of healthy chickens contain few free-residing phagocytic cells. Intratracheal inoculation with Pasteurella multocida stimulated a significant (P less than 0.05) migration of cells to the lungs and air sacs of White Rock chickens within 2 hours after inoculation. We found the maximal number of avian respiratory tract phagocytes (22.9 +/- 14.0 x 10(6] at 8 hours after inoculation. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells revealed 2 populations on the basis of cell-size and cellular granularity. One of these was similar in size and granularity to those of blood heterophils. Only this population was capable of generating oxidative metabolites in response to phorbol myristate acetate. The ability of the heterophils to produce hydrogen peroxide, measured as the oxidation of intracellularly loaded 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, decreased with time after inoculation. These results suggest that the migration of heterophils, which are capable of high levels of oxidative metabolism, to the lungs and air sacs may be an important defense mechanism of poultry against bacterial infections of the respiratory tract.

  8. Pasteurella pneumotropica evades the human complement system by acquisition of the complement regulators factor H and C4BP.

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    Alfredo Sahagún-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Pasteurella pneumotropica is an opportunist Gram negative bacterium responsible for rodent pasteurellosis that affects upper respiratory, reproductive and digestive tracts of mammals. In animal care facilities the presence of P. pneumotropica causes severe to lethal infection in immunodeficient mice, being also a potential source for human contamination. Indeed, occupational exposure is one of the main causes of human infection by P. pneumotropica. The clinical presentation of the disease includes subcutaneous abscesses, respiratory tract colonization and systemic infections. Given the ability of P. pneumotropica to fully disseminate in the organism, it is quite relevant to study the role of the complement system to control the infection as well as the possible evasion mechanisms involved in bacterial survival. Here, we show for the first time that P. pneumotropica is able to survive the bactericidal activity of the human complement system. We observed that host regulatory complement C4BP and Factor H bind to the surface of P. pneumotropica, controlling the activation pathways regulating the formation and maintenance of C3-convertases. These results show that P. pneumotropica has evolved mechanisms to evade the human complement system that may increase the efficiency by which this pathogen is able to gain access to and colonize inner tissues where it may cause severe infections.

  9. Isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in laboratory settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudratullah; Muhammad, G; Saqib, M; Bilal, M Qamar

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbits and mice. Isolates of P. multocida, S. aureus and Str. agalactiae recovered from field cases of Hemorragic septicemia and mastitis were scrutinized for virulence/pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Mouse LD 50 of P. multocida showed that P. multocida isolate No.1 was more virulent than isolates No. 2 and 3. Virulence of isolate No.1S. aureus and Str. agalactiae revealed that 100, 80% rabbits died within 18h of inoculation. Seven-digit numerical profiles of these 4 isolates with API ® Staph test strips isolates, No.1 (6736153) showed good identification (S. aureus id=90.3%). Indirect ELISA-based serum antibody titers to P. multocida isolate No.1, S. aureus No.1, Str. agalactiae, isolate No.1 elicited high antibody titers 1.9, 1.23, 1.12 respectively. All the pathogens of Isolate No. 1 (P. multocida, S. aureus Str. agalactiae), were high antibody than others isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide. [Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus mirabilis; Pasteurella pneumotropica

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    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO/sub 2/ on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO/sub 2/ levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO/sub 2/ exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO/sub 2/-induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with /sup 32/P-labeled staphylococci.

  11. Mucoadhesive and pH-sensitive thiolated Eudragit microspheres for oral delivery of Pasteurella multocida antigens containing dermonecrotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Quan, Ji-Shan; Arote, Rohidas B; Kang, Mi-Lan; Yoo, Han-Sang; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2011-05-01

    In this study, cysteine was conjugated to the Eudragit to have mucoadhesive and pH-sensitive properties. Pasteurella multocida dermonecrotoxin (PMT) is a major virulence factor as a causative agent of atrophic rhinitis (AR) in swine and, therefore, inactivated P. multocida was used as a candidate vaccine in the current study. PMT-loaded thiolated Eudragit microspheres (TEMS) prepared using W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method were characterized to assess their efficacy in oral vaccination. PMT-loaded TEMS were observed as spherical shapes with smooth surfaces and average particle sizes were 5.2 +/- 0.55 microm. The loading efficiency of PMT in the TEMS was about 75.3%. A significantly higher percentage of PMT from PMT-loaded TEMS was released at pH 7.4 than at pH 1.5. Murine macrophage stimulated with PMT-loaded TEMS facilitated a gradual secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide as immune stimulatory mediators in a time dependent manner, suggesting that the released PMT from PMT-loaded TEMS had immune stimulating activity of AR vaccine in vitro.

  12. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  13. Ducks as a potential reservoir for Pasteurella multocida infection detected using a new rOmpH-based ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Cuiteng; Cheng, Longfei; Lu, Ronghui; Fu, Guanghua; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Lin, Jiansheng; Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-28

    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen of numerous domestic poultry and wild animals and is associated with a variety of diseases including fowl cholera. The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant outer-membrane protein H (rOmpH) for detection of anti-P. multocida antibodies in serum to determine their prevalence in Chinese ducks. The P. multocida ompH gene was cloned into pET32a, and rOmpH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blotting revealed that purified rOmpH was recognized by duck antisera against P. multocida, and an indirect ELISA was established. During analysis of serum samples (n=115) from ducks, the rOmpH ELISA showed 95.0% specificity, 100% sensitivity and a 92.0% κ coefficient (95% confidence interval 0.844-0.997) as compared with a microtiter agglutination test. Among 165 randomly selected serum samples, which were collected in 2015 and originated from six duck farms across Fujian Province, China, anti-P. multocida antibodies were detected in 22.42% of apparently healthy ducks, including 25 of 90 sheldrakes (27.8%), eight of 50 Peking ducks (16.0%) and four of 25 Muscovy ducks (16%). Overall, the data suggest that rOmpH is a suitable candidate antigen for the development of an indirect ELISA for detection of P. multocida in ducks; moreover, our results showed that ducks could serve as a potential reservoir for P. multocida infection.

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage is an ideal tool in evaluation of local immune response of pigs vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine

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    Shiney George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL technique in evaluating the local immune response of pig immunized with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine. Materials and Methods: Weaned piglets were immunized with formalin-inactivated P52 strain of P. multocida bacterin and evaluated for pulmonary immune response in BAL fluid. BAL was performed before vaccination and at different post vaccination days. The BAL fluid was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the development of P. multocida specific antibody isotypes and also evaluated for different cell populations using standard protocol. Results: The average recovery percentage of BAL fluid varies from 58.33 to 61.33 in vaccinated and control group of piglets. The BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs showed increase in antibody titer up to 60th days post vaccination (8.98±0.33, IgG being the predominant isotype reached maximum titer of 6.12±0.20 on 45th days post vaccination, followed by IgM and a meager concentration of IgA could be detected. An increased concentration of the lymphocyte population and induction of plasma cells was detected in the BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs. Conclusion: Though intranasal vaccination with P. multocida plain bacterin vaccine could not provoke a strong immune response, but is promising as lymphocyte population was increased and plasma cells were detected. BAL can be performed repeatedly up to 3/4 months of age in pigs to study pulmonary immune response without affecting their health.

  15. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

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    Halloy, David J.; Gustin, Pascal G.; Bouhet, Sandrine; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2005-01-01

    Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB 1 /kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-γ mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-α. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB 1 contaminated food or feed

  16. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halloy, David J [Department of Functional Sciences, Unit of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege (Belgium); Gustin, Pascal G [Department of Functional Sciences, Unit of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege (Belgium); Bouhet, Sandrine [INRA, UR66, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP3, 31931 Toulouse (France); Oswald, Isabelle P [INRA, UR66, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP3, 31931 Toulouse (France)

    2005-09-15

    Fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB{sub 1}/kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-{gamma} mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-{alpha}. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB{sub 1} contaminated food or feed.

  17. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of oxytetracycline for the porcine pneumonia pathogens Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, L; Pelligand, L; Cheng, Z; Lees, P

    2017-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules of oxytetracycline for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were determined in broth and porcine serum. PK/PD integration established ratios of average concentration over 48 h (C av0-48 h )/MIC of 5.87 and 0.27 μg/mL (P. multocida) and 0.70 and 0.85 μg/mL (A. pleuropneumoniae) for broth and serum MICs, respectively. PK/PD modelling of in vitro time-kill curves established broth and serum breakpoint values for area under curve (AUC 0-24 h )/MIC for three levels of inhibition of growth, bacteriostasis and 3 and 4 log 10 reductions in bacterial count. Doses were then predicted for each pathogen, based on Monte Carlo simulations, for: (i) bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels of kill; (ii) 50% and 90% target attainment rates (TAR); and (iii) single dosing and daily dosing at steady-state. For 90% TAR, predicted daily doses at steady-state for bactericidal actions were 1123 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 43 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae) based on serum MICs. Lower TARs were predicted from broth MIC data; corresponding dose estimates were 95 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 34 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae). © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Arf6-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Pasteurella multocida Toxin and pH-Dependent Translocation from Late Endosomes

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    Tracy P. M. Chong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH4Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn and cholera toxin (CT, the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity.

  19. Occurrence Of Virulence Factors And Antimicrobial Resistance In Pasteurella Multocida Strains Isolated From Slaughter Cattle In Iran

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    Faham eKhamesipour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 30 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from 333 pneumonic and apparently health slaughter cattle were examined for capsule biosynthesis genes and 23 virulence associated genes by polymerase chain reaction. The disc diffusion technique was used to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles among the isolates. Of the isolates, 23 belonged to capsular type A, 5 to capsular type D and two isolates were untypeable. The distribution of the capsular types in pneumonic lungs and in apparently health lungs was statistically similar. All virulence genes tested were detected among the isolates derived from pneumonic lungs; whereas isolates derived from apparently health lungs carried 16 of the 23 genes. The frequently detected genes among isolates from pneumonic lungs were exbD, hgbA, hgbB, ompA, ompH, oma87 and sodC; whereas tadD, toxA and pmHAS genes occurred less frequently. Most of the adhesins and superoxide dismutases; and all of the iron acquisition and protectin proteins occurred at significantly (p≤0.05 higher frequencies in isolates from pneumonic lungs. Isolates from apparently healthy lungs didn’t carry the following genes; hsf-1, hsf-2, tadD, toxA, nanB, nanH and pmHAS. One adhesion (hsf-1 and two iron acquisition (exbD and tonB genes occurred at significantly (p≤0.05 higher frequencies among capA isolates. All the P. multocida isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and tetracyclines. Different proportions of the isolates were however resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, penicillin, rifampin, streptomycin and florfenicol. Our results reveal presence of virulence factors in P. multocida strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic bovids. A higher frequency of the factors among isolates from symptomatic study animals may suggest their role in pathogenesis of P. multocida-associated bovine respiratory disease. The results further

  20. Establishment of a Pathogenicity Index for One-day-old Broilers to Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Clinical Cases in Poultry and Swine

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    RM Pilatti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although Pasteurella multocida is a member of the respiratory microbiota, under some circumstances, it is a primary agent of diseases , such as fowl cholera (FC, that cause significant economic losses. Experimental inoculations can be employed to evaluate the pathogenicity of strains, but the results are usually subjective and knowledge on the pathogenesis of this agent is still limited. The objective of this study was to establish a new methodology for classifying the pathogenicity of P. multocida by formulating a standard index. Strains isolated from FC cases and from swine with respiratory problems were selected. One hundred mL of a bacterial culture of each strain, containing 106 CFU, was inoculated in 10 one-day-old broilers. Mortality after inoculation, time of death (TD, and the presence of six macroscopic lesions were evaluated over a period of seven days post-inoculation (dpi. A Pathogenicity Index Per Bird (IPI, ranging 0 to 10, was calculated. Liver and heart fragments were collected to reisolate the bacteria. Blood was collected from the surviving birds, and an ELISA test was carried out to detect specific antibodies. The median of the pathogenicity indices, the number of lesions and the rate of bacteria reisolation were significantly different (p<0.05 among the origins of the isolates (p<0.05. The pathogenicity index developed in this study allows the classification of Pasteurella multocida pathogenicity and may be an alternative to the pathogenicity models currently used for screening.

  1. Evaluación de dos técnicas de subtipificación molecular para el estudio de Pasteurella multocida Evaluation of two techniques of molecular subtyping to study Pasteurella multocida

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    G. A. Leotta

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la tipibilidad, la reproducibilidad y el poder discriminatorio de ERIC-PCR y ApaI-PFGE para establecer la relación genética de cepas de Pasteurella multocida. Se estudiaron 49 cepas de diferente origen, subespecie, biotipo, grupo capsular, serotipo somático y perfil de resistencia antimicrobiana. Por ERIC-PCR se establecieron 31 patrones, los que presentaron entre 10 y 14 bandas en un rango comprendido entre 0,2 y 1,2 kb. Por ApaI-PFGE se detectaron 37 patrones de restricción, los cuales presentaron entre 7 y 15 bandas bien definidas de 34 a 450 kb. La tipibilidad de ERIC-PCR fue del 100% (T=1 y la de ApaI-PFGE del 94% (T=0,94. La reproducibilidad de ambas técnicas fue del 100% (R=1; sin embargo, el poder discriminatorio de ERIC-PCR fue 93% (D=0,93 y el de ApaI-PFGE 98% (D=0,98. Mediante ambas técnicas fue posible agrupar las cepas con relación epidemiológica y diferenciar claramente las cepas no relacionadas. Se demostró el valor de ERIC-PCR y ApaI-PFGE para complementar estudios epidemiológicos, principalmente si las cepas en estudio son analizadas por ambas técnicas.Typeability, reproducibility, and discriminatory power of ERIC-PCR and ApaI-PFGE to establish the genetic relation of P. multocida strains were determined. Forty-nine strains of different source, biotype, capsular group, somatic serotype, and resistance to antimicrobials were studied. By ERIC-PCR, 31 patterns were defined with 10 to 14 bands in a rank of 0.2 and 1.2 kb. By ApaI-PFGE, 37 restriction patterns were established with 7 to 15 bands of 34 to 450 kb. Typeability was 100% (T=1 for ERIC-PCR, and 94% (T=0.94 for ApaI-PFGE. Reproducibility of both techniques was 100% (R=1. Discriminatory power was 93% (D=0.93 for ERIC-PCR, and 98% (D=0.98 for ApaI-PFGE. By using both techniques, epidemiologically related strains were grouped, and unrelated strains were clearly differentiated. The value of ERIC-PCR and ApaI-PFGE as complements to epidemiologic studies

  2. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of florfenicol for the pig pneumonia pathogens Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida.

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    Lucy Dorey

    Full Text Available Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules for florfenicol for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Pharmacokinetic data were pooled for two bioequivalent products, pioneer and generic formulations, administered intramuscularly to pigs at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg. Antibacterial potency was determined in vitro as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and Mutant Prevention Concentration in broth and pig serum, for six isolates of each organism. For both organisms and for both serum and broth MICs, average concentration:MIC ratios over 48 h were similar and exceeded 2.5:1 and times greater than MIC exceeded 35 h. From in vitro time-kill curves, PK/PD modelling established serum breakpoint values for the index AUC24h/MIC for three levels of inhibition of growth, bacteriostasis and 3 and 4log10 reductions in bacterial count; means were 25.7, 40.2 and 47.0 h, respectively, for P. multocida and 24.6, 43.8 and 58.6 h for A. pleuropneumoniae. Using these PK and PD data, together with literature MIC distributions, doses for each pathogen were predicted for: (1 bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels of kill; (2 for 50 and 90% target attainment rates (TAR; and (3 for single dosing and daily dosing at steady state. Monte Carlo simulations for 90% TAR predicted single doses to achieve bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions over 48 h of 14.4 and 22.2 mg/kg (P. multocida and 44.7 and 86.6 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae. For daily doses at steady state, and 90% TAR bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions, dosages of 6.2 and 9.6 mg/kg (P. multocida and 18.2 and 35.2 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae were required. PK/PD integration and modelling approaches to dose determination indicate the possibility of tailoring dose to a range of end-points.

  3. Serological patterns of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis in pig herds affected by pleuritis.

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    Wallgren, Per; Nörregård, Erik; Molander, Benedicta; Persson, Maria; Ehlorsson, Carl-Johan

    2016-10-04

    Respiratory illness is traditionally regarded as the disease of the growing pig, and has historically mainly been associated to bacterial infections with focus on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. These bacteria still are of great importance, but continuously increasing herd sizes have complicated the scenario and the influence of secondary invaders may have been increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae and M. hyopneumoniae, as well as that of the secondary invaders Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis by serology in four pig herds (A-D) using age segregated rearing systems with high incidences of pleuritic lesions at slaughter. Pleuritic lesions registered at slaughter ranged from 20.5 to 33.1 % in the four herds. In herd A, the levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae exceeded A 450  > 1.5, but not to any other microbe searched for. The seroconversion took place early during the fattening period. Similar levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae were also recorded in herd B, with a subsequent increase in levels of antibodies to P. multocida. Pigs seroconverted to both agents during the early phase of the fattening period. In herd C, pigs seroconverted to P. multocida during the early phase of the fattening period and thereafter to A. pleuropneumoniae. In herd D, the levels of antibodies to P. multocida exceeded A 450  > 1.0 in absence (A 450  hyopneumoniae and to S. suis remained below A 450  hyopneumoniae late during the rearing period (herd B-D), or not at all (herd A). Different serological patterns were found in the four herds with high levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida, either alone or in combination with each other. Seroconversion to M. hyopneumoniae late during the rearing period or not at all, confirmed the positive effect of age segregated rearing in preventing or delaying infections with M

  4. [In vitro activity of 12 antibiotics used in veterinary medicine against Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida isolated from calves in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Hartman, E G

    2000-03-01

    Results of susceptibility tests of clinical isolates of animal pathogens are periodically summarized and reported by the Animal Health Service. However, these results are based upon qualitative test methods. In the present paper results of quantitative susceptibility tests of twelve antibacterial agents against Mannheimia haemolytica (MHA) and Pasteurella multocida (PMU) isolated from Dutch calves in 1996 and 1997 are presented. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, tilmicosin, neomycin, gentamicin, spectinomycin, flumequine, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol and florfenicol were determined. No resistance was detected for ceftiofur and florfenicol. Three strains had an intermediate susceptibility to tilmicosin. The resistance percentages of MHA and PMU for neomycin, gentamicin, spectinomycin, flumequine, enrofloxacin, and chloramphenicol varied from 2% to 16%. Higher resistance percentages (16%-53%) were observed for amoxicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. The MIC breakpoints used to determine whether a strain is susceptible, intermediate, or resistant are arbitrary and discussed in this paper.

  5. Susceptibilidade in vitro a antimicrobianos da Mannheimia haemolytica e da Pasteurella multocida isoladas de ovinos sadios e com doenças respiratórias

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    Leomar Viana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida e Mannheimia haemolytica (P. haemolytica estão associadas a enfermidades no sistema respiratório de ovinos. Com o objetivo de avaliar a susceptibilidade in vitro destes microrganismos frente aos antimicrobianos, foram colhidas amostras de nasofaringe (n=180 e orofaringe (n=82 de ovinos com e sem enfermidade respiratória. Dentre os antimicrobianos testados, a sensibilidade foi maior para enrofloxacina (100% e florfenicol (100%, considerando-se ambas as espécies bacterianas. Observou-se resistência de M. haemolytica e P. multocida à tetraciclina (15,64% e 17,65%, respectivamente e penicilina (1.82% e 4.2%, respectivamente.

  6. Why your housecat's trite little bite could cause you quite a fright: a study of domestic felines on the occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, A

    2008-10-01

    Approximately four to five million animal bite wounds are reported in the USA each year. Domestic companion animals inflict the majority of these wounds. Although canine bites far outnumber feline bites, unlike the dog, the cat's bite is worse than its bark; 20-80% of all cat bites will become infected, compared with only 3-18% of dog bite wounds. Pasteurella multocida is the most commonly cultured bacterium from infected cat bite wounds. Anyone seeking medical attention for a cat-inflicted bite wound is given prophylactic/empiric penicillin or a derivative to prevent Pasteurella infection (provided they are not allergic to penicillins). In an effort to establish a carriage rate of P. multocida in the domestic feline, bacterial samples from the gingival margins of domestic northern Ohio cats (n=409) were cultured. Isolates were tested for antibiotic sensitivity as prophylactic/empiric use of penicillin and its derivatives could potentially give rise to antibiotic resistance in P. multocida. The high carriage rate (approximately 90%) of P. multocida observed was found to be independent of physiological and behavioural variables including age, breed, food type, gingival scale, lifestyle and sex. High antibiotic susceptibility percentages were observed for benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, and azithromycin (100%, 100%, 98.37% and 94.02%, respectively) in P. multocida isolates. The high prevalence of P. multocida in the feline oral cavity indicates that prophylactic/empiric antibiotic therapy is still an appropriate response to cat bite wounds. Additionally, the susceptibility of P. multocida to penicillin and its derivatives indicates that they remain reliable choices for preventing and treating P. multocida infections.

  7. Development of fowl cholera vaccine: I. Protection of Pasteurella multocida local isolate vaccine against challenge of homologous and heterologous strains.

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    Supar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida locally isolated from chicken and ducks (BCC 299, BCC 2331, DY1, DY2, 12TG, 15TG andimported strains (BCC 1359, 1362; HEDDLESTON group 1 and 6 respectively had been tested for its pathogenicity in theprevious study. The aims of this experiment were to study the preparation of local isolate pasteurellosis vaccines and to determine the protective effect of that vaccines in chicken against the highly pathogenic local isolates of P. multocida. Killed monovalent, bivalent and polyvalent pasteurellosis vaccines were prepared and each was adjunvanted with aluminum hydroxide gel at a final concentration of 1.5% and the cell concentration was equal to the No 10 of MacFarland tube standard. Each of the vaccine prepared was used to vaccinated on a group of six week old of layer chicken (8 per group. Each chicken was subcutaneously injected with 0.2 ml of vaccine, four weeks later each was boostered with similar vaccine with the same dose. Two weeks after giving the boostered vaccine each group of chicken were challenged, half with life bacterium of P. Multocida BCC 2331 and other with DY2. Any chick which survive after challenge was designated as protected by vaccination. Before vaccination 1 ml of blood was drawn from each of chicken and then two weeks apart up to challenge. Serum from each sample was separated and kept in deep freeze until tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Chicken vaccinated with killed whole cell P. multocida vaccines of monovalent (BCC 2331 or DY2 and bivalent (BCC 2331 + DY2 were protected against challenge with live bacterium of either BCC 2331 or DY2 at rate 67-100%. There was no protection in chicken vaccinated with either BCC 299, DY1, 12TG, 15TG, BCC 1359, or 1362 killed vaccine. Similarly no protection of chicken vaccinated with either DY1 + BCC299, 12TG + 15TG or BCC 1359 + BCC 1362 bivalent vaccines. The protection rate of the polyvalent local isolate vaccine was at average 50-75%. All

  8. Pets and Pasteurella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present in some children, including an infection of the joints ( arthritis ), bones (osteomyelitis), and tendons (tenosynovitis). Less frequently, youngsters may have pneumonia , urinary tract ...

  9. Efeito do extrato alcoólico de própolis sobre a Pasteurella multocida “in vitro” e em coelhos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1952 Effect of alcohol extract of propolis on the Pasteurella multocida in vitro and in the rabbits - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1952

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    Hélio Langoni

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio in vitro objetivou avaliar o efeito do álcool PA e de diferentes concentrações (5%, 10% e 15% no Agar, do Extrato Alcoólico de Própolis (EAP, de três regiões do Estado de São Paulo, sobre a Pasteurella multocida, obtida a partir de swab nasal de coelhos. Por meio de outro ensaio, analisou-se o comportamento dessas bactérias em lavado tráqueo-brônquico de coelhos, alimentados com rações contendo álcool PA e diferentes concentrações de EAP (0,1%; 0,2% e 0,3%. O álcool só foi efetivo na inibição do desenvolvimento bacteriano in vitro na concentração mais elevada, enquanto o EAP demonstrou efetividade em todas as concentrações. As amostras de própolis das três regiões não diferiram entre si. No lavado tráqueo-brônquico, o número de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias por mililitro não diferiu entre os tratamentos, porém houve uma tendência de maior efetividade nos tratamentos com EAP em relação ao álcool, acompanhando a ação in vitro.The essay in vitro aimed to evaluate the effect of alcohol and different concentrations (5, 10 and 15% in the agar, of Alcoholic Extract of Propolis (AEP, from three regions of São Paulo State, Brazil, on Pasteurella multocida, obtained from rabbits’ nasal swabs. In other essay the reaction of this bacteria was observed. In tracheal regions of rabbits, fed on diets with alcohol and AEP in different concentrations (0.1; 0.2 and 0.3%. The alcohol was only effective on the inhibition of the bacteria in vitro on highest concentration, while the AEP was effective in all concentrations. The propolis samples from three regions did not differ. In the other assay, there wasn’t any difference between treatments, but the AEP showed to be more active than alcohol against Pasteurella multocida, in the tracheal region of the rabbits, as to the action in vitro.

  10. Isolation, identification, and monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from sheep in East Azerbaijan province, Iran

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    I. Khalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in order to isolate, identify, and assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the causative agent(s of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep in East Azerbaijan province, northwest of Iran. Pneumonia was detected in 320 cases, and the affected lungs were sampled in the slaughterhouse. The samples were investigated bacteriologically for the isolation of two microorganisms from the Pasteurellaceae family. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from six (1.87% samples, while none of the lung tissues were positive for Mannheimia haemolytica. After the isolation and detection of microorganisms via cultural and morphological tests, the bacteria were identified on the basis of biochemical criteria and polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all P. multocida isolates, using broth microdilution method. Evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of eight antimicrobial agents against the tested isolates showed that all the organisms were resistant to amoxicillin and relatively susceptible to ceftiofur. In conclusion, P. multocida was introduced as the main cause of ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis in the studied district, and the outbreak frequency significantly varied in different seasons of the year (P

  11. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal septicemia and fibrinous bronchopneumonia. The serotypes given were T3, T4, T15 and A1 and these were recovered from lung lesions and other organs. In three trials, domestic sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of bighorn sheep pneumonic lungs, and two concentrations of the P. haemolytica bighorn strain (10(4) and 10(12) organisms). One of these sheep was inoculated intrabronchially. The domestic sheep experienced a transient fever and elevated white blood cell counts. After six days, none of the sheep had lung lesions and inoculated organisms could not be recovered. It is suggested that bighorn sheep are very susceptible to P. haemolytica from domestic livestock and should not be allowed in contact with sheep or cattle.

  12. Isolation and molecular detection of Pasteurella multocida Type A from naturally infected chickens, and their histopathological evaluation in artificially infected chickens in Bangladesh

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    Sayedun Nahar Panna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida type A is the etiologic agent of fowl cholera, a highly contagious and fatal disease of chickens. The present research work was performed for the isolation, identification and molecular detection of P. multocida Type A from chickens. Liver, heart and spleen of suspected dead chicken (n=35 were collected from Gazipur and Pabna districts in Bangladesh. The targeted bacteria from the samples were isolated, identified and characterized based on their morphology, staining, cultural, biochemical characters, pathogenicity test, histopathological study and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The P. multocida organism was isolated from 11.42% (n=4/35 samples. The organisms were gram negative, non-spore forming rod, non-motile, occurring singly or pairs in Gram staining, whereas in Leishman's stain, bipolar shaped organisms were observed. All the isolates were found positive for oxidase and catalase tests, produced indole, and fermented glucose, mannitol and sucrose. Necrotic foci in liver and congestion with hemorrhages in heart were found on necropsy. After pathogenicity test, the pathological changes were reconfirmed by histopathology depicting congestion, hemorrhage and lymphocyte infiltration in heart, liver and spleen tissues. In type specific PCR reaction, the organisms were confirmed as P. multocida Type A. In conclusion, P. multocida type A is prevalent among poultry in the studied regions; thus, care must be taken to control of the disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 338-345

  13. The importance of subcutaneous abscess infection by Pasteurella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits

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    A. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous abscesses are lesions frequently reported in commercial rabbits. Both at farm and slaughterhouse level, these lesions are responsible for economic losses and a potential decrease in meat quality. The present study was devised to identify the main causes of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits and assess the importance of abscess lesions in this domain. For these purposes, 281423 rabbits were evaluated during meat inspection at the slaughterhouse. The results achieved showed that subcutaneous abscesses were the major cause of condemnation, being responsible for the rejection of 1355 (0.48% rabbit carcasses. The main affected area was the hind limbs (31.37%, followed by the cervical area (23.10%. Microbiological analyses of 27 abscess samples indicated Pasteurella spp. as the bacteria mostly isolated (59.3%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%. These results enable us to advise the industry on the significance of abscesses as an important cause of economic losses, due to meat condemnation during post mortem inspection, and highlight the importance of implementing monitoring plans as a way to control this pathological problem.

  14. Exhaust Air Dust Monitoring is Superior to Soiled Bedding Sentinels for the Detection of Pasteurella pneumotropica in Individually Ventilated Cage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Manuel; Ritter, Brbel; Zorn, Julia; Brielmeier, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Reliable detection of unwanted organisms is essential for meaningful health monitoring in experimental animal facilities. Currently, most rodents are housed in IVC systems, which prevent the aerogenic transmission of pathogens between cages. Typically soiled-bedding sentinels (SBS) exposed to soiled bedding collected from a population of animals within an IVC rack are tested as representatives, but infectious agents often go undetected due to inefficient transmission. Pasteurellaceae are among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated from experimental mice, and the failure of SBS to detect these bacteria is well established. In this study, we investigated whether analysis of exhaust air dust (EAD) samples by using a sensitive and specific real-time PCR assay is superior to conventional SBS monitoring for the detection of Pasteurella pneumotropica (Pp) infections. In a rack with a known prevalence of Pp-positive mice, weekly EAD sampling was compared with the classic SBS method over 3 mo. In 6 rounds of testing, with a prevalence of 5 infected mice in each of 7 cages in a rack of 63 cages, EAD PCR detected Pp at every weekly time point; SBS failed to detect Pp in all cases. The minimal prevalence of Pp-infected mice required to obtain a reliable positive result by EAD PCR testing was determined to be 1 in 63 cages. Reliable detection of Pp was achieved after only 1 wk of exposure. Analysis of EAD samples by real-time PCR assay provides a sensitive, simple, and reliable approach for Pp identification in laboratory mice.

  15. Identificação de transcritos diferencialmente expressos por Pasteurella multocida em condições de privação de ferro

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    Mayara I.V. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Ferro (Fe é um elemento essencial e a capacidade de adquiri-lo in vivo têm sido descrita em diversos agentes patogênicos através de fatores de virulência. Análises de transcritos durante a privação de Fe tem sido descritos através da técnica de "microarray", entretanto a técnica de RNA-seq recentemente tem demonstrado resultados superiores. Neste trabalho, o isolado de Pasteurella multocida (Pm 16759 altamente patogênico em suínos foi cultivado em duas condições com diferentes concentrações de Fe (controle e privação com o objetivo de analisar transcritos diferencialmente expressos. O RNA total das duas condições foi extraído e sequenciado através da plataforma de nova geração Ion Torrent. Os dados foram analisados no Software Ion Reporter(tm e processados no programa Rockhopper. Foram obtidas 1.341.615 leituras com tamanho médio de 81pb, com 96% de alinhamento com o genoma de Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida 3480 e 98,8% de acurácia. No mapeamento das leituras das duas condições, observou-se 2,652 transcritos e destes, 177 (6,7% foram diferencialmente expressos, sendo 93 na condição controle (Fe+ e 84 na condição de privação (Fe-. Na condição de privação de Fe, o perfil de transcritos foram associados a função de transporte celular (fbp ABC, permease de alta afinidade com Fe2+/Pb2+ e proteína periplasmática de alta afinidade com Fe2+ , reguladores transcricionais e proteínas hipotéticas. O perfil na condição controle (Fe+ apresentou transcritos diferencialmente expressos associados ao RNAs anti-sense (asRNA e genes do metabolismo energético (fructose-1,6-bisfosfatase. O estudo comprovou que a restrição de Fe aumenta a expressão de genes envolvidos no transporte celular, reguladores transcricionais, proteínas hipotéticas e desconhecidas e permitiu ainda a identificação de novos genes como a permease de alta afinidade com Fe2+/Pb2+ e proteina periplasmática de alta afinidade

  16. Pasteurella multocida isolated from wild birds of North America: a serotype and DNA fingerprint study of isolates from 1978 to 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.A.; Duncan, R.M.; Nordholm, G.E.; Berlowski, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Serotype and DNA fingerprint methods were used to study Pasteurella multocida isolated from 320 wild birds of North America. Isolates were collected during 1978-93. The HhaI profiles of 314 isolates matched the HhaI profile of somatic reference type 1, strain X-73; somatic type 1 antigen was expressed by 310 isolates, and the serotype of four isolates was undetected. Differentiation of the 314 isolates was observed by digestion of DNA with HpaII. None of the HpaII profiles matched the HpaII profile of X-73 (designated HhaI 001/HpaII 001). Three HpaII profiles were recognized among the somatic type 1 isolates: HpaII 002 (n = 18), HpaII 003 (n = 122), and HpaII 004 (n = 174). Profile HpaII 002 was found among isolates collected during 1979-83. Profile HpaII 003 was identified from isolates collected during 1979-89, with the exception of two isolates in 1992. The HpaII 004 profile was identified from isolates collected during 1983-93. Of the six remaining isolates, four expressed somatic type 4 and had HhaI profiles identical to the somatic type 4 reference strain P-1662 profile (designated HhaI 004); these isolates were differentiated by digestion of DNA with HpaII. One isolate was identified as serotype F:11, and another was serotype A:3,4. In the present study, 314 of 316 (99.4%) isolates from wild birds in the Central, Mississippi, and Pacific flyways during 1978-93, were P. multocida somatic type 1.

  17. Rapid diagnosis of virulent Pasteurella multocida isolated from farm animals with clinical manifestation of pneumonia respiratory infection using 16S rDNA and KMT1 gene

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    Gamal Mohamedin Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize intra-isolates variation between clinical isolates of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida isolated from sheep, cattle and buffalo at molecular level to check the distribution of pneumonia and hemorrhagic septicemia in some regions of Fayoum, Egypt. Methods: These isolates were obtained from various locations in the Fayoum Governorate, Egypt and they were identified by amplifying 16S rDNA and KMT1 genes using their DNA as a template in PCR reaction. Results: The results demonstrated that the five selective isolates of P. multocida had similar size of PCR products that generated one band of 16S rDNA having 1 471 bp and KMT1 gene having 460 bp. The phylogenetic tree and similarity of the five selective isolates of P. multocida which were collected from GenBank database were calculated and analyzed for the nucleotide sequence of 16S rDNA and KMT1 genes. The sequencing result of 16S rRNA gene product (1 471 bp for the five selective isolates of P. multocida showed that the isolates of sheep (FUP2 shared 94.08%, 88.10% homology with the buffalo isolate (FUP8 and cattle isolate (FUP9 respectively, whereas, the buffalo isolate (FUP5 shared 98.18% and 94.40% homology with the cattle isolates (FUP12 and FUP9. Conclusions: The results indicated the relationships of P. multocida isolated from buffalo and cattle rather than the close relationships between P. multocida isolated from cattle and sheep. Diagnosis of P. multocida by 16S rDNA and KMT1 gene sequences was important to determine the antigen that is responsible for protective cover within the same group of animals and to help for the production of new vaccines for the control of microbial infection for domestic animals.

  18. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida associated with ovine pneumonia using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence-associated gene profile analysis and comparison with porcine isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Andrés; Vela, Ana Isabel; San Martín, Elvira; Chaves, Fernando; Fernández-Garayzábal, José Francisco; Lucas, Domínguez; Cid, Dolores

    2017-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogen causing disease in a wide range of hosts including sheep and pigs. Isolates from ovine pneumonia were characterized by MLST (Multi-host and RIRDC databases) and virulence-associated gene (VAG) typing and compared with porcine isolates. Ovine and porcine isolates did not share any STs as determined by both schemes and exhibited different VAG profiles. With the Multi-host database, sixteen STs were identified among 43 sheep isolates with two STs (ST50 and ST19) comprising 53.5% of the isolates, and seven MLST genotypes (ST3, ST11 and ST62 included 75% of the isolates) among the 48 pig isolates. The most frequent VAG profile among sheep isolates was tbpA+/toxA+ (69.8% of isolates) and pfhA+ (62.5%) and hgbB+ (33.3%) among pig isolates. Representative ovine and porcine isolates of those STs identified by the Multi-host scheme were further typed using the RIRDC scheme. Seven STs were identified among the ovine isolates (ST95 RIRDC , ST131 RIRDC , ST203 RIRDC , ST320 RIRDC , ST324 RIRDC , ST321 RIRDC , and ST323 RIRDC ), with the latter four sequence types being new STs identified in this study, and six STs (ST9 RIRDC , ST13 RIRDC , ST27 RIRDC , ST50 RIRDC , and ST74 RIRDC and a new sequence type ST322 RIRDC ) among the porcine isolates. STs identified among ovine isolates have been detected exclusively in small ruminants, suggesting an adaptation to these hosts, while the genotypes identified among pig isolates have been previously identified in multiple hosts and therefore they are not restricted to pigs. The differences in genotypes and VAG profiles between ovine and pig isolates suggest they could represent different subpopulations of P. multocida. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinico-pathology, hematology and biochemistry responses in buffaloes towards Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 immunogen lypopolysaccharide via oral and intravenous routes of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd; Norsidin, Mohd Jefri

    2016-02-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia is a disease caused by Pasteurella multocida serotype B: 2 and E: 2. The organism causes acute, highly fatal septicaemic disease with high morbidity and mortality in cattle and more susceptible in buffaloes. Lipopolysaccharide can be found on the outer cell wall of the organism. Lipopolysaccharide is released during multiplication which leads to inflammatory reaction. It represents the endotoxin of P. multocida type B: 2 and responsible for toxicity in haemorrhagic septicaemia which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, blood parameters, gross post mortem lesions and histopathology changes caused by P. multocida type B:2 immunogen lipopolysaccharide infections initiated through intravenous and oral routes of infection. 9 buffalo heifers were divided equally into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline (PBS); Group 2 and 3 were inoculated with 10 ml of lipopolysaccharide broth intravenously and orally respectively. For the clinical signs, there were significant differences (p hematology and biochemistry findings, there were significant differences (p 0.05) in the MCHC, leukocytes, band neutrophils, basophils, thrombocytes, plasma protein, icterus index, total protein, globulin and A:G ratio between intravenous and oral group. For Group 2 buffaloes, there were gross lesions in the lung, trachea, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney. In contrast, lesions were only observed in the lung, trachea and liver of Group 3 buffaloes. There were significant differences (p 0.05) in edema lesion between groups. In conclusion, this study is a proof that oral route infection of P. multocida type B:2 immunogen lipopolysaccharide can be used to stimulate host cell responses where oral vaccine through feed could be developed in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution of the ompA-types among ruminant and swine pneumonic strains of Pasteurella multocida exhibiting various cap-locus and toxA patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vougidou, C; Sandalakis, V; Psaroulaki, A; Siarkou, V; Petridou, E; Ekateriniadou, L

    2015-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen in food-producing animals and numerous virulence genes have been identified in an attempt to elucidate the pathogenesis of pasteurellosis. Currently, some of these genes including the capsule biosynthesis genes, the toxA and the OMPs-encoding genes have been suggested as epidemiological markers. However, the number of studies concerning ruminant isolates is limited, while, no attempt has ever been made to investigate the existence of ompA sequence diversity among P. multocida isolates. The aim of the present study was the comparative analysis of 144 P. multocida pneumonic isolates obtained from sheep, goats, cattle and pigs by determining the distribution of the ompA-types in conjunction with the cap-locus and toxA patterns. The ompA genotypes of the isolates were determined using both a PCR-RFLP method and DNA sequence analysis. The most prevalent capsule biosynthesis gene among the isolates was capA (86.1%); a noticeable, however, rate of capD-positive isolates (38.6%) was found among the ovine isolates that had been associated primarily with the capsule type A in the past. Moreover, an unexpectedly high percentage of toxA-positive pneumonic isolates was noticed among small ruminants (93.2% and 85.7% in sheep and goats, respectively), indicating an important epidemiological role of toxigenic P. multocida for these species. Despite their great heterogeneity, certain ompA-genotypes were associated with specific host species, showing evidence of a host preference. The OmpA-based PCR-RFLP method developed proved to be a valuable tool in typing P. multocida strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Wael A; Ahmed, Ahmed I; Ibrahim, Awad A; Ahmed, Mohamed S

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6%) and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%), 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05%) and 5 could not be typed (23.8%). Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%), and 3 were type D (14.3%). The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  2. What is the true in vitro potency of oxytetracycline for the pig pneumonia pathogens Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, L; Hobson, S; Lees, P

    2017-10-01

    The pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was determined for pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Indices of potency were determined for the following: (i) two matrices, broth and pig serum; (ii) five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions; and (iii) a high strength starting culture. For A. pleuropneumoniae, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was similar for the two matrices, but for P. multocida, differences were marked and significantly different. MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) serum: broth ratios for A. pleuropneumoniae were 0.83:1 and 1.22:1, respectively, and corresponding values for P. multocida were 22.0:1 and 7.34:1. For mutant prevention concentration (MPC) serum: broth ratios were 0.79:1 (A. pleuropneumoniae) and 20.9:1 (P. multocida). These ratios were corrected for serum protein binding to yield fraction unbound (fu) serum: broth MIC ratios of 0.24:1 (A. pleuropneumoniae) and 6.30:1 (P. multocida). Corresponding fu serum: broth ratios for MPC were almost identical, 0.23:1 and 6.08:1. These corrections for protein binding did not account for potency differences between serum and broth for either species; based on fu serum MICs, potency in serum was approximately fourfold greater than predicted for A. pleuropneumoniae and sixfold smaller than predicted for P. multocida. For both broth and serum and both bacterial species, MICs were also dependent on initial inoculum strength. The killing action of oxytetracycline had the characteristics of codependency for both A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida in both growth media. The in vitro potency of oxytetracycline in pig serum is likely to be closer to the in vivo plasma/serum concentration required for efficacy than potency estimated in broths. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A capsule/lipopolysaccharide/MLST genotype D/L6/ST11 of Pasteurella multocida is likely to be strongly associated with swine respiratory disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhong; Wang, Haonan; Liang, Wan; Chen, Yibao; Tang, Xibiao; Chen, Huanchun; Wu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a leading cause of respiratory disease in pigs worldwide. In this study, we determined the genetic characteristics of 115 P. multocida isolates from the lungs of pigs with respiratory disease in China in 2015 using capsular typing, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) genotyping, and virulence genotyping based on the detection of virulence-associated genes. The results showed that the isolates belonged to three capsular types: A (49.6%), D (46.1%), and nontypable (4.3%); and two LPS genotypes: L3 (22.6%) and L6 (77.4%). When combining the capsular types with the LPS genotypes, a genotype group D: L6 (46.1%) was the most prevalent among the strains. Among the 23 virulence-associated genes detected in this study, a small number of them displayed a certain level of "genotype-preference". We found that pfhA, hgbA, and hgbB had a close association with P. multocida LPS genotypes, while tadD was more associated with P. multocida capsular types. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 40 P. multocida isolates identified four sequence types: ST3, ST10, ST11, and ST16, and the distribution of ST11 was significantly higher than the other MLST genotypes. Interestingly, all of the ST11 isolates detected in this study were genotype D: L6 strains and they were 100% positive for hgbB. Our data suggest that a capsule/LPS/MLST genotype D/L6/ST11 is likely to be strongly associated with respiratory clinical manifestation of the disease in pigs.

  4. Utilización de lectinas en la inhibición de la adhesión de Pasteurella multocida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Patricia Carrillo Lamus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El primer paso de la infección es la adhesión de los organismos patógenos a las células blanco. Esta característica les permite no solo penetrar y desplegar las estrategias ofensivas para iniciar la colonización, sino contribuir a la protección y el resguardo de estos a los mecanismos de defensa tanto inmunológicos como mecánicos del hospedero. Este proceso se lleva a cabo en gran medida por la interacción de lectinas, que son proteínas de origen no inmune con la capacidad de reconocer y aglutinar carbohidratos. Este mecanismo ha sido reportado para muchos microorganismos como virus y bacterias. En el caso particular de la Pasteurella multocida, que es una bacteria gramnegativa, patógena oportunista, que inicia la infección en el epitelio respiratorio de muchos animales, se han descrito sobre su superficie sustancias lectinas como la fimbria tipo IV y carbohidratos como el lipopolisacárido o la cápsula que reconocen carbohidratos y lectinas, respectivamente, sobre la superficie de las células epiteliales del tubo respiratorio, circunstancia que le permite adherirse y resguardarse del efecto mucociliar. Debido a que para la gran mayoría de estos microorganismos —incluida P. multocida— es evidente la disminución de la susceptibilidad a los antibacterianos y a la efectividad de las vacunas, se han buscado nuevas tácticas terapéuticas y profilácticas con el fin de interrumpir la infección de los patógenos por medio del bloqueo por competencia de la unión carbohidratos-lectina, donde se ve disminuida la unión del microorganismo al tejido y, por consiguiente, la infección.

  5. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moemen A. Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6% and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%, 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05% and 5 could not be typed (23.8%. Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%, and 3 were type D (14.3%. The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  6. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC of selected antimicrobials in bovine and swine Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the values of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC values ​​of three antimicrobial agents for 72 bovine isolates of Pasteurella multocida, 80 swine isolates of P. multocida, 80 bovine isolates of Escherichia coli, 80 swine isolates of E. coli, and 80 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis. The ratio of MIC90​​/MPC90 which limited mutant selection window (MSW was ≤ 0.12/4 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 0.5/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in bovine P. multocida isolates, ≤ 0.12/2 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 0.5/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in swine P. multocida isolates, 1/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 8/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 8/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in bovine E. coli isolates, 0.5/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, ≥ 64/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 8/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in swine E. coli isolates, and 0.25/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 4/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in S. aureus isolates. These findings indicate that the dosage of antimicrobial agents to achieve serum concentration equal to or higher than MPC could reduce selection of resistant bacterial subpopulation.

  7. Feeding of waste milk to Holstein calves affects antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida isolated from fecal and nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynou, G; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2017-04-01

    The use of milk containing antimicrobial residues in calf feeding programs has been shown to select for resistant fecal Escherichia coli in dairy calves. However, information is scarce about the effects of feeding calves waste milk (WM) on the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of fecal E. coli and nasal Pasteurella multocida isolates from calves fed either milk replacer (MR) or WM in 8 commercial dairy farms (4 farms per feeding program). Fecal and nasal swabs were collected from 20 ± 5 dairy calves at 42 ± 3.2 d of age, and from 10 of these at approximately 1 yr of age in each study farm to isolate the targeted bacteria. Furthermore, resistance of E. coli isolates from calf-environment and from 5 calves at birth and their dams was also evaluated in each study farm. Resistances were tested against the following antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, colistin, doxycycline (DO), enrofloxacin (ENR), erythromycin, florfenicol, imipenem, and streptomycin. A greater number of fecal E. coli resistant to ENR, florfenicol, and streptomycin and more multidrug-resistant E. coli phenotypes were isolated in feces of calves fed WM than in those fed MR. However, the prevalence of fecal-resistant E. coli was also influenced by calf age, as it increased from birth to 6 wk of age for ENR and DO and decreased from 6 wk to 1 yr of age for DO regardless of the feeding program. From nasal samples, an increase in the prevalence of colistin-resistant P. multocida was observed in calves fed WM compared with those fed MR. The resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from calves and their dams tended to differ, whereas similar resistance profiles among E. coli isolates from farm environment and calves were observed. The findings of this study suggest that feeding calves WM fosters the presence of resistant bacteria in the lower gut and respiratory tracts of dairy calves

  8. One-Step Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Capripoxvirus, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies (ssp.) capripneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settypalli, T.B.K.; Lamien, C.; Spergser, J.; Lelenta, M.; Wade, A.; Gelaye, E.; Loitsch, A.; Minoungou, G.; Thiaucourt, F.; Diallo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. In the present study, a one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV), Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Pasteurella multocida (PM) and Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumonia (Mccp) in pathological samples collected from small ruminants with respiratory disease symptoms. The test performed efficiently without any cross-amplification. The multiplex PCR efficiency was 98.31%, 95.48%, 102.77% and 91.46% whereas the singleplex efficiency was 93.43%, 98.82%, 102.55% and 92.0% for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99 for all the targets in both multiplex and singleplex. Based on cycle threshold values, intra and inter assay variability, ranged between the limits of 2%–4%, except for lower concentrations of Mccp. The detection limits at 95% confidence interval (CI) were 12, 163, 13 and 23 copies/reaction for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The multiplex assay was able to detect CaPVs from all genotypes, PPRV from the four lineages, PM and Mccp without amplifying the other subspecies of mycoplasmas. The discriminating power of the assay was proven by accurate detection of the targeted pathogen (s) by screening 58 viral and bacterial isolates representing all four targeted pathogens. Furthermore, by screening 81 pathological samples collected from small ruminants showing respiratory disease symptoms, CaPV was detected in

  9. One-Step Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for the Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Capripoxvirus, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies (ssp. capripneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Bharani Kumar Settypalli

    Full Text Available Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. In the present study, a one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV, Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV, Pasteurella multocida (PM and Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumonia (Mccp in pathological samples collected from small ruminants with respiratory disease symptoms. The test performed efficiently without any cross-amplification. The multiplex PCR efficiency was 98.31%, 95.48%, 102.77% and 91.46% whereas the singleplex efficiency was 93.43%, 98.82%, 102.55% and 92.0% for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99 for all the targets in both multiplex and singleplex. Based on cycle threshold values, intra and inter assay variability, ranged between the limits of 2%-4%, except for lower concentrations of Mccp. The detection limits at 95% confidence interval (CI were 12, 163, 13 and 23 copies/reaction for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The multiplex assay was able to detect CaPVs from all genotypes, PPRV from the four lineages, PM and Mccp without amplifying the other subspecies of mycoplasmas. The discriminating power of the assay was proven by accurate detection of the targeted pathogen (s by screening 58 viral and bacterial isolates representing all four targeted pathogens. Furthermore, by screening 81 pathological samples collected from small ruminants showing respiratory disease symptoms, CaPV was detected in

  10. Ocorrência de genes tad associados à formação de biofilme em isolados de Pasteurella multocida de pulmões de suínos com pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Danny Franciele da S.D.; Brandão, Laila Natasha S.; Pitchenin, Leticia C.; O. Filho, João Xavier; Morés, Nelson; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria

    2014-01-01

    Os atuais sistemas de criação intensiva de suínos aumentam a pressão de seleção microbiana propiciando a disseminação de doenças respiratórias. A bactéria Pasteurella multocida é associada a diversas patologias respiratórias em animais submetidos a esse tipo de criação, causando grandes perdas econômicas. A formação de biofilme foi descrita in vitro em P. multocida e fatores analisados indicaram a facilitação na colonização dos tecidos, aumentando a resistência às defesas do hospedeiro e aos ...

  11. Comparison of gene expression of Toll-like receptors and cytokines between Piau and Commercial line (Landrace×Large White crossbred) pigs vaccinated against Pasteurella multocida type D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Katiene Régia Silva; Ribeiro, André Mauric Frossard; Dantas, Waleska de Melo Ferreira; Oliveira, Leandro Licursi de; Gasparino, Eliane; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to compare Toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytokines expression in local Piau breed and a Commercial line (Landrace×Large White crossbred) pigs in response to vaccination against Pasteurella multocida type D. Seronegative gilts for Pasteurella multocida type D and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were used, from which peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected in four time points (T0, T1, T2 and T3; before and after each vaccination dose). For bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells (BALF), we set groups of vaccinated and unvaccinated animals for both genetic groups. Gene expression was evaluated on PBMC and BALF. In PBMC, when we analyzed time points within breeds, significant differences in expression for TLRs and cytokines, except TGFβ, were observed for Commercial animals. For the Piau pigs, only TGFβ showed differential expression. Comparing the expression among genetic groups, the Commercial pigs showed higher expression for TLRs after first vaccination dose, while for IL2, IL6, IL12 and IL13, higher expression was also observed in T3 and IL8 and IL10, in T1 and T3. Still comparing the breeds, the crossbred animals showed higher expression for TNFα in T1 and T2, while for TGFβ only in T2. For gene expression in BALF, vaccinated Commercial pigs showed higher expression of TLR6, TLR10, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα and TGFβ genes than vaccinated Piau pigs. The Commercial line pigs showed higher sensitivity to vaccination, while in local Piau breed lower responsiveness, which may partly explain genetic variability in immune response and will let us better understand the tolerance/susceptibility for pasteurellosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of genetic diversity and epidemiological characteristics of Pasteurella multocida isolates from poultry in southwest China by population structure, multi-locus sequence typing and virulence-associated gene profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangcheng; Cheng, Fangjun; Lan, Shimei; Guo, Jianhua; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan; Luo, Zeli; Zhang, Manli; Wu, Juan; Shi, Yang

    2018-04-25

    Fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida has always been a disease of global importance for poultry production. The aim of this study was to obtain more information about the epidemiology of avian P. multocida infection in southwest China and the genetic characteristics of clinical isolates. P. multocida isolates were characterized by biochemical and molecular-biological methods. The distributions of the capsular serogroups, the phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) genotyping and the presence of 19 virulence genes were investigated in 45 isolates of P. multocida that were associated with clinical disease in poultry. The genetic diversity of P. multocida strains was performed by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analysis as well as multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The results showed that most (80.0%) of the P. multocida isolates in this study represented special P. multocida subspecies, and 71.1% of the isolates showed multiple-drug resistance. 45 isolates belonged to capsular types: A (100%) and two LPS genotypes: L1 (95.6%) and L3 (4.4%). MLST revealed two new alleles (pmi77 and gdh57) and one new sequence type (ST342). ST129 types dominated in 45 P. multocida isolates. Isolates belonging to ST129 were with the genes ompH+plpB+ptfA+tonB, whereas ST342 included isolates with fur+hgbA+tonB genes. Population genetic analysis and the MLST results revealed that at least one new ST genotype was present in the avian P. multocida in China. These findings provide novel insights into the epidemiological characteristics of avian P. multocida isolates in southwest China.

  13. Demonstration that Australian Pasteurella multocida isolates from sporadic outbreaks of porcine pneumonia are non-toxigenic (toxA-) and display heterogeneous DNA restriction endonuclease profiles compared with toxigenic isolates from herds with progressive atrophic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, S P; Eamens, G J; Ha, H; Walker, M J; Chin, J C

    1998-08-01

    Capsular types A and D of Pasteurella multocida cause economic losses in swine because of their association with progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) and enzootic pneumonia. There have been no studies comparing whole-cell DNA profiles of isolates associated with these two porcine respiratory diseases. Twenty-two isolates of P. multocida from diseased pigs in different geographic localities within Australia were characterised genotypically by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) with the enzyme CfoI. Seven of 12 P. multocida isolates from nasal swabs from pigs in herds where PAR was either present or suspected displayed a capsular type D phenotype. These were shown to possess the toxA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridisation, and further substantiated by production of cytotoxin in vitro. The CfoI profile of one of these seven isolates, which was from the initial outbreak of PAR in Australia (in Western Australia, WA), was identical with profiles of all six other toxigenic isolates from sporadic episodes in New South Wales (NSW). The evidence suggests that the strain involved in the initial outbreak was responsible for the spread of PAR to the eastern states of Australia. Another 10 isolates, representing both capsular types A and D, were isolated exclusively from porcine lung lesions after sporadic outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in NSW and WA. CfoI restriction endonuclease profiles of these isolates revealed considerable genomic heterogeneity. Furthermore, none of these possessed the toxA gene. This suggests that P. multocida strains with the toxA gene do not have a competitive survival advantage in the lower respiratory tract or that toxin production does not play a role in the pathology of pneumonic lesions, or both. REA with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining was found to be a practical and discriminatory tool for epidemiological tracing of P. multocida outbreaks associated with PAR or pneumonia in pigs.

  14. Phenotypic variability among strains of Pasteurella multocida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 ... extended phenotypic characterization methods supported by DNA ... septicaemia African (Obudu) strain (E:2) which are currently employed as ...

  15. Prevalence and Biotyping of Pasteurella Haemolytica Isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. haemolytica isolated from Sahel sheep and goat in Maiduguri was characterized phenotypically. A total of 92 P. haemolytica isolates were obtained from the nasopharyngeal swabs while a total of 15 isolates came from pneumonic lung samples. The results showed that 37(20.22%) P. haemolytica isolates were obtained ...

  16. Isolation of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica serotypes A2 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tv.v23i2.4572 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  17. Estudio bacteriológico de la Pasteurella pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Colichón

    1942-10-01

    Full Text Available Un considerable número de cepas de P. pestis aisladas en el Perú han sido estudiadas bacteriológicamente y los resultados obtenidos pueden ser resumidos en la forma siguiente: 2 cepas entre 148 estudiadas en caldo produjeron franco enturbiamiento del medio. La liquefación de la gelatina, la producción de indol y acetil metilcarbinol fueron negativos para todas las cepas estudiadas. En las condiciones ordinarias puede haber débil producción de SH2 por muy pocas cepas; en cambio, en el agar-Martín-infusión-extracto hepático la producción de SH2 ocurre en el mayor número de cepas, y en un considerable número de ellas en forma notablemente intensa. La temperatura de incubación es decisiva en la producción de hidrógeno sulfurado. Salvo una excepción la reducción del azul de metileno fue negativa para las cepas estudiadas, en esta misma forma la reducción de nitratos a nitritos, la producción de ácido nitroso y reacción del rojo de metilo fueron positivas para las cepas de P. pestis probadas. Todas las cepas estudiadas dieron reacción de catalasas positiva y no desarrollaron en ácido úrico, ni en medio de Koser. La acción de la P. pestis sobre los carbohidratos fue dividida en los siguientes grupos: Carbohidratos atacados constantemente con producción de ácido, no gas; ellos son: glucosa, maltosa, manita, xilosa, salicina y leche tornasolada. Carbohidratos constantemente no atacados, como son: sacarosa, rafinosa, dulcita, inosita, glicerina y dextrina. Carbohidratos, inconstantemente atacados y son: rhamnosa, trehalosa, lactosa, sorbita y arabinosa. En condiciones adecuadas de cultivo, muchas cepas pueden desarrollar en papa, entre las que desarrollaron se observaron algunas que producen pigmentación amarillo-cepia o amarillo dorado. Las pruebas, del ácido nitroso, de la reducción del azul de metileno y de la rahmnosa tienen valor relativo para el Diagnóstico de la Peste, en cambio la glicerina, el indol, la sacarosa, salicina, el agar-sangre-humana y la leche tornasolada son pruebas de valor en la diferenciación de la P. pestis, P. pseudotuberculosis y la P. séptica.

  18. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  19. Further Pasteurella Isolates from the republic of Zambia: A brief report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tv.v20i3.4491 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  20. Combinations of macrolide resistance determinants in field isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Rose, Simon; Wilhelm, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    of these species exhibit resistance to veterinary macrolides with phenotypes that fall into three distinct classes. The first class has type I macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotic resistance and, consistent with this, the 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058 is monomethylated by the enzyme product......(E) genes within an isogenic Escherichia coli background to assess their individually contributions to resistance. Our findings indicate what types of compounds might have driven the selection for these resistance determinants....

  1. The origin of Pasteurella multocida impacts pathology and inflammation when assessed in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne E.; Chadfield, Mark S.; Sorensen, Dorte B.

    2016-01-01

    dose dependent and consisted of exudative bronchopneumonia, abscess formation in liver and a lower bacterial load in lung and liver. Both isolates caused increased expression of MMP9 and TIMP1. In conclusion, evaluation and comparison of pathogenicity and host-pathogen interaction of P. multocida......) of an isolate from porcine pneumonia or fowl cholera showed marked differences between the two isolates. The avian isolate was highly pathogenic with severe signs of necrotizing pneumonia, liver necrosis and high bacterial load in lung and liver. Clinical signs and pathology related to the porcine isolate were...

  2. Virulence Genotyping of Pasteurella multocida Isolated from Multiple Hosts from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Narayan Sarangi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 108 P. multocida isolates recovered from various host animals such as cattle, buffalo, swine, poultry (chicken, duck, and emu and rabbits were screened for carriage of 8 virulence associated genes. The results revealed some unique information on the prevalence of virulence associated genes among Indian isolates. With the exception of toxA gene, all other virulence associated genes were found to be regularly distributed among host species. Association study between capsule type and virulence genes suggested that pfhA, nanB, and nanH genes were regularly distributed among all serotypes with the exception of CapD, whereas toxA gene was found to be positively associated with CapD and CapA. The frequency of hgbA and nanH genes among swine isolates of Indian origin was found to be less in comparison to its equivalents around the globe. Interestingly, very high prevalence of tbpA gene was observed among poultry, swine, and rabbit isolates. Likewise, very high prevalence of pfhA gene (95.3% was observed among Indian isolates, irrespective of host species origin.

  3. Virulence genotyping of Pasteurella multocida isolated from multiple hosts from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Laxmi Narayan; Priyadarshini, Adyasha; Kumar, Santosh; Thomas, Prasad; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Nagaleekar, Viswas Konasagara; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 108 P. multocida isolates recovered from various host animals such as cattle, buffalo, swine, poultry (chicken, duck, and emu) and rabbits were screened for carriage of 8 virulence associated genes. The results revealed some unique information on the prevalence of virulence associated genes among Indian isolates. With the exception of toxA gene, all other virulence associated genes were found to be regularly distributed among host species. Association study between capsule type and virulence genes suggested that pfhA, nanB, and nanH genes were regularly distributed among all serotypes with the exception of CapD, whereas toxA gene was found to be positively associated with CapD and CapA. The frequency of hgbA and nanH genes among swine isolates of Indian origin was found to be less in comparison to its equivalents around the globe. Interestingly, very high prevalence of tbpA gene was observed among poultry, swine, and rabbit isolates. Likewise, very high prevalence of pfhA gene (95.3%) was observed among Indian isolates, irrespective of host species origin.

  4. Molecular analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from fowl cholera infection in backyard chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed-Wael Abdelazeem Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the previous findings, there are three spreading clusters that may indicate the association of a small number of P. multocida variants with the majority of cases suggesting that certain clones of P. multocida are able to colonize the examined backyard chickens. Also, the ease and rapidity of RAPD-PCR support the use of this technique as alternative to the more labour-intensive SDS-PAGE system for strain differentiation and epidemiological studies of avian P. multocida. Further application of RAPD technology to the examination of avian cholera outbreaks in commercially available flocks may facilitate more effective management of this disease by providing the potential to investigate correlations of P. multocida genotypes, to identify affiliations between bird types and bacterial genotypes, and to elucidate the role of specific bird species in disease transmission.

  5. Pasteurella multocida from outbreaks of avian cholera in wild and captive birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Jørgensen, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of avian cholera was observed among wild birds in a few localities in Denmark in 2001. The highest mortalities were among breeding ciders (Somateria mollissima) and gulls (Larus spp.). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted using ApaI and SmaI as restriction enzymes...... the outbreak strain. Among 68 isolates from wild birds, only one PFGE and one REA pattern were demonstrated, whereas among 23 isolates from domestic poultry, 14 different SmaI, 12 different ApaI, and 10 different HpaII patterns were found. The results suggest that a P. multocida strain has survived during...

  6. Yersinia philomiragia sp. n., a new member of the Pasteurella group of bacteria, naturally pathogenic for the muskrat (Ondatra zibethica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W.I.; Owen, C.R.; Jellison, W.L.

    1969-01-01

    A bacterium experimentally pathogenic for muskrats (Ondatra zibethica), white mice, mountain voles (Microtus montanus), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was isolated from the tissues of a sick muskrat captured on the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (Brigham City, Utah) and from four surface water samples collected within 15 miles of that point. In culture, the cells are chiefly coccoid, but in the tissues of muskrats and voles they resemble the bizarre forms of Yersinia pestis, except for their smaller size. The characteristics of the organism are described and the name Yersinia philomiragia sp. n. is proposed.

  7. Efficacy of Elimination of Pasteurella pneumotropica from a Mouse Specific Pathogen-Free Barrier Breeding Unit through Treatment with Enrofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Grete; Arnorsdottir, Stefania Embla; Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    , and enrofloxacin (EF) was chosen as the most appropriate antibiotic to treat this infection. Various doses of EF were tested for toxic effects on NMRI-mice prior to the treatment, and since no negative effects of EF, regardlessof dose tested, were observed, the highest dose of 150 mg/kg body weight was chosen...

  8. Cross protection against fowl cholera disease with the use of recombinant Pasteurella multocida FHAB2 peptides vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been demonstrated that fhaB2 (filamentous hemagglutinin) is an important virulence factor for P. multocida in development of fowl cholera disease and that recombinant FHAB2 peptides derived from P. multocida, Pm-1059, protect turkeys against Pm-1059 challenge. To test the hypothesis that rFHA...

  9. Hematology of layers chickens vaccinated with fowl cholera vaccine and experimentally inoculated with virulent Pasteurella multocida serotypes in Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Madaki Lekko

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion The PCV significantly decrease P≤0.05 in layers vaccinated and inoculated with P. multocida but increase in unvaccinated layers inoculated P. multocida. The mean serum ALP concentration significantly increase P≤0.05 in unvaccinated layers inoculated with P. multocida when compared to layers vaccinated and inoculated with P. multocida. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 234-240

  10. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in two chicken breeds and the correlation with experimental Pasteurella multocida infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Torben Wilde; Permin, Anders; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    of the chickens, suggesting that MBL plays an important role against P. multocida. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the specific antibody response and the genetic serum MBL concentration for both breeds. This indicates that MBL in chickens is capable of acting as the first line...

  11. Susceptibilité de Rattus norvegicus et Rattus rattus frugivurus de la ville de Recife à la Pasteurella pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. de Mello

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available L'auíeur a vérifié la susceptibilité de deux espèces de rongeurs domestiques de la ville de Recife. Etat du Pernambuco, R. norvegicus et Rattus rattus frugivurus, les comparant aux souris albinos de la souche "Swiss" avec deux souches de P. pestis dont une était isolée au municipe d'Exu, Etat du Pernambuco âenommée PEXU 19 et Vautre provenante du Venezuela dite RANGEL. Les deux espèces de rongeurs ont montré une resistence modérée par rapport aux deux souches de P. pestis tandis que les souris ont révélé d'être hautement susceptibles.

  12. Classification of varieties of pasteurella pestis strains isolated in the interior of the state of Pernambuco-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were made on the biochemical behavior of 100 strains of P.pestis isolated in Northeastern Brazil with regard to production of nitrous acid, reduction of nitrates to nitrltes, and aciáification of glycerol. Results showed that 98 strains can be classified as "orientalis variety", while the remaining two could not be included in any of the existing "varieties".

  13. The ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pasteurella multocida B:2 to induce clinical and pathological lesions in the nervous system of buffalo calves following experimental inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse Abdullah, Faez Firdaus; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Teik Chung, Eric Lim; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi

    2017-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. multocida B:2, a causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cattle and buffaloes, is considered as the main virulence factor and contribute in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies provided evidences about the involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS. However, the role of P. multocida B:2 immunogens, especially the LPS is still uncovered. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of P. multocida B:2 LPS to induce pathological changes in the nervous system. Nine eight-month-old, clinically healthy buffalo calves were used and distributed into three groups. Calves of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and intravenously with 10 ml of LPS broth extract represent 1 × 10 12  cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while calves of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. Significant differences were found in the mean scores for clinical signs, post mortem and histopathological changes especially in Group 2, which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system, mainly the brain. On the other hand, lower scores have been recorded for clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence about the ability of P. multocida B:2 LPS to cross the blood brain barrier and induce pathological changes in the nervous system of the affected buffalo calves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Specific detection of Pasteurella multocida in chickens with fowl cholera and in pig lung tissues using fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthia, P.G.; Christensen, H.; Boye, Mette

    2001-01-01

    in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissues from experimental fowl cholera in chickens and infections in pigs. In chicken lung tissues P. multocida cells were detected singly, in pairs, as microcolonies, and as massive colonies within air capillaries (septa and lumen), parabronchial septa, and blood...... and fast method for specific detection of P. multocida in histological formalin-fixed tissues. The test was replicable and reproducible and is recommended as a supplementary test for diagnosis and as a tool in pathogenesis studies of fowl cholera and respiratory tract infections in pigs due to P. multocida....

  15. A Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase displaying dual trans-sialidase activities for production of 3′-sialyl and 6′-sialyl glycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yao; Jers, Carsten; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    /Kmvalue for the enzyme using 3-sialyllactose as the donor for 6-sialyllactose synthesis at pH 5.4 and 40◦Cwas determined to be 23.22 ± 0.7 M−1s−1. Moreover, the enzyme was capable of catalyzing the synthesisof both 3- and 6-sialylated galactooligosaccharides, when galactooligosaccharides served as acceptors....

  16. 21 CFR 520.2261b - Sulfamethazine powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and bovine respiratory disease complex (shipping fever complex) (Pasteurella spp.), colibacillosis... (F. necrophorum), acute mastitis (Streptococcus spp.), and acute metritis (Streptococcus spp.) (iii...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2170 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pneumonia and bovine respiratory disease complex (shipping fever complex) associated with Pasteurella spp.; acute metritis and acute mastitis caused by Streptococcus spp. (3) Limitations. Administer orally...

  18. Studies of the binding of ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 from the complement lectin pathway to Leptospira biflexa, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahagún-Ruiz, Alfredo; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Valencia, Mónica Marcela Castiblanco

    2015-01-01

    Ficolins recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns and activate the lectin pathway of complement system. However, our knowledge regarding pathogen recognition of human ficolins is still limited. We therefore set out to explore and investigate the possible interactions of the two main serum...

  19. 鸭多杀性巴氏杆菌外膜蛋白A基因表达及抗原性鉴定%Cloning and Expression of the omp A Gene of pasteurella multocida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙龚; 郭东春; 刘家森; 姜骞; 司昌德; 林欢; 韩凌霞; 崔玉东; 曲连东

    2010-01-01

    根据已发表的Pm 70株的序列(GenBank登录号:AE004439)设计了两对引物,用PCR方法扩增了鸭多杀性巴氏杆菌标准株C48-102的外膜蛋白基因A(omp A),扩增的片段为1 062 bp.将测序结果与GenBank中多杀性巴氏杆菌P52、PM 70、T931317、194289的omp A序列比对结果表明,核苷酸水平上同源性为89.0%~98.9%;在氨基酸水平上同源性为90.7%~99.2%.全omp A序列在大肠杆菌中干扰蛋白的正常表达,因此截断omp A蛋白的信号肽序列,将去信号肽的omp A基因插入到pPRO-EX-Htb载体上,构建了原核表达载体Htb-omp A,转化BL21,并诱导表达,SDS-PAGE结果表明,表达蛋白约为35 kDa,与预期的分子量大小相符.Western-blot结果表明,表达的蛋白具有良好的抗原活性.本研究重组蛋白omp A的获得,为敲除omp A基因多杀性巴氏杆菌突变株的血清学检测奠定基础.

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_002663 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002663 gi|15602008 >1p3dA 1 463 17 479 e-156 ... ref|NP_245080.1| MurC [Pasteurell...a multocida subsp. multocida str. Pm70] ... gb|AAK02227.1| MurC [Pasteurella multocida subsp. ...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2218 - Sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, and sulfaquinoxaline powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) As an aid in the control of acute fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida susceptible to... days. If disease recurs, repeat treatment. (ii) Limitations. Make fresh solution daily. Do not treat... acute fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida susceptible to sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, and...

  2. The diagnostic activity on wild animals through the description of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnostic activity on wild animals through the description of a model case report (caseous lymphadenitis by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis associated with Pasteurella spp and parasites infection in an alpine ibex – Capra ibex )

  3. Inhibition of protein synthesis on the ribosome by tildipirosin compared with other veterinary macrolides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Møller; Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Warrass, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Tildipirosin is a 16-membered-ring macrolide developed to treat bacterial pathogens, including Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, that cause respiratory tract infections in cattle and swine. Here we evaluated the efficacy of tildipirosin at inhibiting protein synthesis...

  4. Disease: H00306 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available found in the animal's oral cavity. Disseminated Pasteurella infections can lead to serious diseases including septic shock and menin...gitis mostly in infants and pregnant women. Many patients with P. multocida-related

  5. A Comparative Study of the Oral Microbiome Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... external factors such as oral hygiene practices,[6] types. Original Article ..... exclusive bacterial species; Porphyromonas gingivalis,. Pasteurella pneumotropica, Tannerella .... oral health and disease. Virulence 2014;5:424-32.

  6. Demonstration of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) with pneumonia and airsacculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welchman, D. de B.; Ainsworth, H. L.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2013-01-01

    type 2, avian coronavirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and other Mycoplasma species, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, other Pasteurellaceae and Syngamus trachea, suggesting synergism with other agents. Exposure to other intercurrent factors, including adverse weather...

  7. 21 CFR 558.586 - Sulfaquinoxaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use. As an aid in the control of acute fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida susceptible to.... Treatment to be started after weaning. Feed continuously for 30 days or feed medicated feed for 2 days out...

  8. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tonsillitis, and bronchitis due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., E., coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus spp.; gastrointestinal infections due to...

  9. The isolation and antibiogram of aerobic nasal bacterial flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following microorganisms were identified from the normal flora of the grasscutters, they are; Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus cerus , E. coli, Serratia sp, Streptococcus sp, Pasteurella multocida, Streptacoccus, sp., Mannheimia heamolytica, Klebsiella sp., ...

  10. Molecular diagnosis of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Rajeev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is associated with hemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffaloes, pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep and goats, fowl cholera in poultry, atrophic rhinitis in pigs and snuffles in rabbits. Haemorrhagic septicaemia is caused by Pasteurella multocida type B:2, B:2,5 and B:5 in Asian countries and type E:2 in African countries. Pasteurella multocida have five types of capsular serotype i.e. type A, B, D, E and F. Diagnosis of the disease is mainly based on the clinical sign and symptom, post mortem findings. Confirmatory diagnosis is done by isolation and identification of causative agent. A variety of laboratory diagnostic techniques have been developed over the years for pasteurellosis and used routinely in the laboratory. Among these techniques molecular techniques of diagnosis is most important. This technique not only gives diagnosis but it also provides information regarding capsular type of Pasteurella multocida. Techniques which are used for molecular diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia are PCR based diagnosis, Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA, Ribotyping, Colony hybridization assay, Filled alternation gel electrophoresis (FAGE, Detection of Pasteurella multocida by Real Time PCR. Among these techniques real time PCR is most sensitive and specific. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 189-192

  11. Masked rat: an x-ray-induced mutant with chronic blepharitis, alopecia, and pasteurellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, R.L.; Lutzner, M.A.; Hansen, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    An autosomal recessive mutation had been previously x-ray-induced in the rat and named the masked rat (genotype mk/mk). This study describes the mutant's appearance, histology, and microflora. The rat's eyelids were swollen, often to the point of closure, and its face was partially covered by a brownish crust, giving the mutant a mask-like appearance. The chronic blepharitis was also accompanied by alopecia that appeared as bare patches across the mutant's back. Pasteurella pneumotropica was found in eyelids and on skin from all masked rats. The normal rat demonstrated a resistance to Pasteurella pneumotropica infection, or, conversely, the masked rat appeared to be genetically predisposed to pasteurellosis

  12. Antimicrobial effect of probiotics on bacterial species from dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambori, Csilla; Morvay, Attila Alexandru; Sala, Claudia; Licker, Monica; Gurban, Camelia; Tanasie, Gabriela; Tirziu, Emil

    2016-03-31

    The antimicrobial role of probiotic Lactobacillus casei subspecies casei DG (L. casei DG) and of the mix culture of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 was tested on species of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera from supragingival sites from dogs with dental disease of different breed, age, sex, weight, and diet. The research was conducted on these four genera because of their importance in zoonotic infections after dog bites. Species from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera were isolated and identified. To test the antimicrobial efficacy of L. casei DG and the mixed culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 on the pathogenic species, the agar overlay method was used. L. casei DG had a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera after 24 hours of incubation. The mixed probiotic culture made up of L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 species had no bactericidal effect on the species of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera, which were resistant. However, it had a bacteriostatic effect on several species of Pasteurella and Neisseria genera. This work highlights the antimicrobial potential of probiotics in vitro, demonstrating that the probiotic L. casei DG has a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from dental plaque and that the mix culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 has only a bacteriostatic effect.

  13. Characterisation of a novel Mannheimia sp from Australian feedlot cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackall, P.J.; Angen, Øystein; Fegan, N.

    2001-01-01

    glucosida, M granulomatis, M ruminalis and M varigena - using a range of phenotypic and genotypic methods. Results Phenotypic characterisation indicated that the isolates belonged to the trehalose-negative [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex. This complex has recently been reorganised into five species within...

  14. 75 FR 1274 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Florfenicol and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... flunixin meglumine), a combination injectable solution, for treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida... female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Use of florfenicol in this class of cattle may cause milk...

  15. 21 CFR 522.955 - Florfenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida... cause milk residues. A withdrawal period has not been established in preruminating calves. Do not use in... use. For control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing BRD associated with...

  16. 21 CFR 522.2471 - Tilmicosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at... dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Use of this antibiotic in this class of cattle may cause milk...

  17. All projects related to | Page 27 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Kenya, Morocco, Canada. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 213,100.00. Supporting the production of quality livestock vaccines for enterotoxaemia, pasteurella and Rift Valley fever in Kenya. Project. It is estimated that Kenya has 18. Region: Kenya, Morocco, Canada. Program: Agriculture ...

  18. Fulminant infection by uncommon organisms in animal bite wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, J K

    1998-10-01

    In 1995 and 1996, 215 patients exposed to different species of animals were treated at the Amarnath Polyclinic, Balasore, in India. Among them were two children infected by uncommon organisms, i.e., Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida; the patients recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  19. Fulminant infection by uncommon organisms in animal bite wounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, J. K.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, 215 patients exposed to different species of animals were treated at the Amarnath Polyclinic, Balasore, in India. Among them were two children infected by uncommon organisms, i.e., Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida; the patients recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  20. Efforts towards the development of recombinant Vaccines against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by gram-negative bacterium of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) strains. Most of the current vaccines against P. multocida have shortcomings. Presently, there is increasing efforts towards construction of recombinant clone for vaccine development against P. multocida. In this review an ...

  1. Efforts Towards The Development Of Recombinant Vaccines Against

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by gram-negative bacterium of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) strains. Most of the current vaccines against P. multocida have shortcomings. Presently, there is increasing efforts towards construction of recombinant clone for vaccine development against P. multocida.

  2. In vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other antimicrobial agents against five pathogens isolated in calves in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; van Miert, A S

    1990-10-01

    The in vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other drugs was tested against 17 P. multocida, 16 P. haemolytica, 21 S. dublin, 21 S. typhimurium and 21 E. coli strains, isolated in (veal) calves in the Netherlands. The MIC50 of flumequine for the respective pasteurellas was 0.25 and 1 microgram/ml, for the salmonellas and E. coli 0.5 micrograms/ml. In comparison with flumequine, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin showed higher in vitro activity, with MIC50 less than or equal to 0.008 micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin. Decreased susceptibility of the pasteurellas was found for kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and doxycycline. The MIC50 of minocycline for P. multocida was 0.5 micrograms/ml and there was no cross resistance with the other tetracyclines. P. multocida was very susceptible to ampicillin (MIC50 less than or equal to 0.03 micrograms/ml), P. haemolytica, however, was 100% resistant to this drug. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to cephalothin and approximately 50% of the strains of both bacteria were resistant to chloramphenicol. The MIC50 of either spiramycin or tylosin was greater than or equal to their respective breakpoint-MIC values. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to the combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. However, for P. multocida, the addition of sulphamethoxazole to trimethoprim had no synergistic effect on its MIC. In comparison with trimethorpim, aditoprim was less potent. Therefore only P. multocida was susceptible to aditoprim.

  3. 21 CFR 558.630 - Tylosin and sulfamethazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... grams sulfamethazine. (2) Indications for use-(i) Maintaining weight gains and feed efficiency in the presence of atrophic rhinitis; lowering the incidence and severity of Bordetella bronchiseptica rhinitis... (Pasteurella multocida and/or Corynebacterium pyogenes); for reducing the incidence of cervical lymphadenitis...

  4. Quantification and characterization of enzymatically produced hyaluronan with fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, F.K.; Muyuan Ma,; Beeftink, H.H.; Eggink, G.; Tramper, J.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a polysaccharide with high-potential medical applications, depending on the chain length and the chain length distribution. Special interest goes to homogeneous HA oligosaccharides, which can be enzymatically produced using Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase (PmHAS). We

  5. (PCR) for the identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... lactalbumin hydrolysate, 1% MEM, 20% decomplemented horse serum, 5% fresh yeast extract, 1% thallium acetate and 0.4% sodium pyruvate) in a high security laboratory. The DNA of. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica was maintained in the State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological ...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2260b - Sulfamethazine sustained-release boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pneumonia caused or complicated by Pasteurella multocida; as an aid in the treatment of foot rot, mastitis... sulfamethazine-sensitive organisms as follows: bacterial pneumonia and bovine respiratory disease complex... mastitis and acute metritis caused by Streptococcus spp.)1 (iii) Limitations. After 72 hours, all animals...

  7. Forekomst af resistente bakterier og forbrug af antibiotika til hunde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene

    2007-01-01

    ), Pasteurella multocida (n=25), Bordetella bronchiseptica (n=14), Proteus spp. (n=29), og E. coli (n=449). I undersøgelsen anvendtes data fra VetStat databasen. Størstedelen af de antibiotika, der bruges til hunde er bredspektrede. Penicilliner med udvidet spektrum, cephalosporiner samt sulphonamider...

  8. 21 CFR 558.415 - Novobiocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... susceptible to novobiocin; treatment of acute outbreaks of fowl cholera caused by strains of Pasteurella... lb. body weight per day. (a) Indications for use. Aid in the treatment of breast blisters associated.... body weight per day. (a) Indications for use. Treatment of staphylococcal synovitis and generalized...

  9. Management of common animal bites in the emergency centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professor Engelbrecht's current fields of interest are bites, stings and poisonous plants. Correspondence to: ... Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in. Cape Town ... infections. Wound infection with Pasteurella multocida usually occurs early (within 12 ..... Dog bite prevention: an assessment of child knowledge. J Pediatr ...

  10. In vitro screening of methanol plant extracts for their antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Arshad, M.; Khan, S.; Sattar, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the antibacterial activity of aqueous methanolic extracts of 10 plants against 2-gram negative bacteria (Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli) and 3-gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium bovis) by using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar well diffusion method and agar dilution method. All the bacteria were susceptible to different plant extracts. Lawsonia inermis, Embellia ribes and Santalum album showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. The extract of Santalum album showed maximum antibacterial activity of the 10 plant extracts used. Bacillus cereus and Pasteurella multocida were the most sensitive bacteria against most of the plant extracts. It is clear from the results of the present studies that the plant extracts have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against bacteria. However, there is a need of further research to isolate the active ingredients for further pharmacological evaluation. (author)

  11. Bacteremia and Peritonitis in a Patient With Cirrhosis: A Life-Threatening Case From a Prick of a Cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi-Anne Wallace MD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old male with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis presents with right lower extremity cellulitis, abdominal tenderness, and severe sepsis after sustaining puncture injury from a cactus on a property with feral cats. Blood cultures and diagnostic paracentesis were consistent with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Pasteurella multocida , a gram-negative coccobacillus found in the respiratory tract of domestic animals. The patient received timely antibiotic coverage with resolution of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and sepsis after 14-day treatment. This case emphasizes the life-threatening nature of systemic Pasteurella multocida infection as well as an indirect way of acquiring a zoonotic infection in a patient with end-stage liver disease.

  12. Avian cholera causes marine bird mortality in the Bering Sea of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Kimberlee Beckmen,; Gay Sheffield,; Kathy Kuletz,; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2015-01-01

    The first known avian cholera outbreak among wild birds in Alaska occurred during November 2013. Liver, intestinal, and splenic necrosis consistent with avian cholera was noted, and Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from liver and lung or spleen in Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella), Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), and Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens).

  13. Le FIVB annonce le financement de huit autres projets | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 avr. 2018 ... Découvrez les derniers récents projets soutenus par le Fonds d'innovation en matière de vaccins pour le bétail : Maladie de Newcastle · Pleuropneumonie contagieuse caprine – cowdriose · Plateforme de modification génétique CRISPR/cas9 · Entérotoxémie, la bactérie Pasteurella et la fièvre de la vallée ...

  14. Birds in Human Modified Environments and Bird Damage Control: Social, Economic, and Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Paratyphoid (Salmonella typhimurium) x x x + + .+ + + . + + + + Pasteurellasis (Fowl cholera ) (Pasteurella multocida) x x...enteritis (Clostridlum colinum) x 0 0 Vibriosis ( Vibrio fetu) x 30 Table 4 (ContWd Carriers r. .14 0 C c to to z ca -W V 0 4 w .,.4 ". Ca 0 3d ca DI .C...endemic vector of EEE in North America (Reeves et al. 1958, Howard and Wallis 1974). This species breeds in freshwater swamps from the Gulf of Mexico

  15. Effect of radiation on bacterial cells pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, M.; Tropilo, J.; Zajaczkowska, E.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of X rays on the pathogeny of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Pasteurella multocida 334 mice were infected subcutaneously with the germs exposed to 10 Gy and D 10 . It was found that a single exposition of E. rhusiopathiae and P. multocida to 10 Gy and D 10 did not change pathogenic properties of these cells. P. multocida showed higher sensitivity to X rays: D 10 for that species was 94 Gy and for E. rhusiopathiae - 156 Gy. (author)

  16. Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from diagnostic samples from dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 25 Pasteurella multocida, 29 Proteus spp. and 449 Escherichia coli isolates from clinical submissions from dogs were determined by a broth-dilution method for determination of minimal inhibitory concentration. Data for consumption of antimicrobials were retrieved from Vet....... intermedius and Proteus isolates. Conclusions: This investigation provided data on occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in important pathogenic bacteria from dogs, which may be useful for the small animal practitioner. Resistance was low to the compounds that were most often used, but unfortunately...

  17. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471 Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatoba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by

  18. Isolation of obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria from feline subcutaneous abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshuyama, S; Kanoe, M; Amimoto, A

    1996-03-01

    A total of 113 specimens collected from purulent skin lesions of household cats was examined bacteriologically. Ninety seven isolates obtained from 74 specimens (65.5%). Of these, 11 specimens (9.7%) contained obligate anaerobes only, 18 specimens (15.9%) yielded both obligate and facultative anaerobes. In the obligate anaerobes detected, genus Fusobacterium was the most frequently observed and F. nucleatum was most common species. Pasteurella multocida was the facultative anaerobe which was most frequently detected.

  19. Aspectos patológicos e microbiológicos das doenças respiratórias em suínos de terminação no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A.Z. Morés

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Para avaliação dos aspectos patológicos e microbiológicos de casos clínicos de doenças respiratórias em suínos de terminação foram analisados 75 suínos doentes oriundos de 36 lotes. Suínos que apresentavam sinais clínicos respiratórios evidentes foram necropsiados para avaliação macroscópica e colheita de amostras para análise histopatológica e microbiológica. Foram realizados testes de isolamento bacteriano para as principais bactérias do sistema respiratório dos suínos, PCR para Mycoplasma hyorhinis, imuno-histoquímica para Influenza A, Circovirus suíno tipo 2 e Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. A sensibilidade antimicrobiana de 24 amostras de Pasteurella multocida tipo A foi avaliada por testes de concentração inibitória mínima para os principais antimicrobianos utilizados em suinocultura. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e Pasteurella multocida tipo A foram os agentes infecciosos mais prevalentes. Broncopneumonia supurativa e pleurite foram as principais lesões respiratórias encontradas. Pasteurella multocida tipo A, quando presente, aumentou a extensão das lesões pulmonares. Todas as amostras de Pasteurella multocida testadas foram sensíveis aos antimicrobianos Doxiciclina, Enrofloxacina e Tilmicosina. Em 58% das amostras foi identificado mais de um agente infeccioso, evidenciando a alta prevalência da associação de agentes nas doenças respiratórias de suínos em terminação.

  20. Phylogeny of 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Olsen, I; Fraser, G J

    1992-03-01

    Virtually complete 16S rRNA sequences were determined for 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae. Of these strains, 15 were Pasteurella, 16 were Actinobacillus, and 23 were Haemophilus. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on sequence similarity, using the Neighbor-Joining method. Fifty-three of the strains fell within four large clusters. The first cluster included the type strains of Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. aphrophilus, H. haemolyticus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. This cluster also contained A. actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, and ATCC 29524 and H. aphrophilus NCTC 7901. The second cluster included the type strains of A. seminis and Pasteurella aerogenes and H. somnus OVCG 43826. The third cluster was composed of the type strains of Pasteurella multocida, P. anatis, P. avium, P. canis, P. dagmatis, P. gallinarum, P. langaa, P. stomatis, P. volantium, H. haemoglobinophilus, H. parasuis, H. paracuniculus, H. paragallinarum, and A. capsulatus. This cluster also contained Pasteurella species A CCUG 18782, Pasteurella species B CCUG 19974, Haemophilus taxon C CAPM 5111, H. parasuis type 5 Nagasaki, P. volantium (H. parainfluenzae) NCTC 4101, and P. trehalosi NCTC 10624. The fourth cluster included the type strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii, A. equuli, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis, A. ureae, H. parahaemolyticus, H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, H. ducreyi, and P. haemolytica. This cluster also contained Actinobacillus species strain CCUG 19799 (Bisgaard taxon 11), A. suis ATCC 15557, H. ducreyi ATCC 27722 and HD 35000, Haemophilus minor group strain 202, and H. parainfluenzae ATCC 29242. The type strain of P. pneumotropica branched alone to form a fifth group. The branching of the Pasteurellaceae family tree was quite complex. The four major clusters contained multiple subclusters. The clusters contained both rapidly and slowly evolving

  1. Indução de empiema em ratos através da inoculação pleural de bactérias Experimental empyema in rats through intrapleural injection of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fraga

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a indução experimental de empiema em ratos, através da inoculação intrapleural de duas bactérias (Pasteurella multocida e Staphylococcus aureus, utilizando técnica cirúrgica simples e de fácil execução. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 24 ratos albinos da raça Wistar, de ambos os sexos, pesando entre 250 e 300g, que, após a anestesia geral, foram submetidos à toracotomia anterior direita, afastamento da musculatura e inoculação de 0,2ml de solução, conforme descrição a seguir: grupo I (n=12, inoculação de Pasteurella multocida, 10(10 unidades formadoras de colônia/ml cultivados em caldo cérebro-coração; grupo II (n=8, inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus, 10(10 unidades formadoras de colônia/ml cultivados em caldo cérebro-coração; e grupo III (n=4, inoculação de caldo cérebro-coração estéril (controle. Os animais foram sacrificados em até 7 dias e a intensidade da reação pleural, analisada macroscopicamente conforme escala padronizada. Também foram avaliados a mortalidade, o volume de líquido na cavidade pleural e o exame bacteriológico (animais mortos e líquido pleural. RESULTADOS: no grupo I (Pasteurella multocida, sete ratos morreram nas primeiras 48 horas de experimento. Cinco ratos foram sacrificados no período programado, mas nenhum deles apresentava empiema. No grupo II (Staphylococcus aureus, somente um animal morreu nas primeiras 24 horas, os outros 7 (88% foram sacrificados e apresentavam empiema. No grupo III, considerados controles, todos os animais sobreviveram, não se observando nenhuma anormalidade torácica ao sacrifício. Analisando conjuntamente os grupos, a indução de empiema esteve associada de maneira significativa à inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus no espaço pleural (p OBJECTIVE: to evaluate empyema formation in rats through the injection of two bacteria (Pasteurella multocida and Staphylococcus aureus, using a simple, easy-to-use surgical technique

  2. Fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Jessup, D A

    1982-04-01

    During 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California and Washington. Contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. Circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. Pasteurella multocida and Corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of dead bighorns. The presence of domestic sheep may have been an important stress which initiated or compounded the disease.

  3. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    ), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC....... There was a broad range of microscopical lesions and the cases were characterized as acute (n=10), subacute (n=24) or chronic (n=114) bronchopneumonia. Five bacterial species, five viruses and two Mycoplasma spp. were detected in different combinations. PCV2, M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis and Pasteurella multocida...

  4. Isolation of the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Al-Mufti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to identify the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs. Twelve clinical cases of dogs (5 males and 7 females of different ages and breeds were observed. Tonsils swabs were taken from all the dogs, then cultured on different agars and bacterial smears prepared from all cultures and Gram stains were done. The study confirmed that the most bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella spp. and Pasteurella spp.

  5. RESPIRATORY SYNDROME: A MAJOR THREAT TO THE LIVESTOCK FARMERS AND ITS ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. ZAHUR, U. FAROOQ, M. HUSSAIN1, S. H. HASHMI2 AND R. MUNEER

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology of a respiratory syndrome was studied at Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC, Karachi, Pakistan and its economic impact was estimated. Among 5889 buffaloes examined, 2.3% animals were suffering from this syndrome. From some of the sick animals, Pasteurella multocida, the causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia, was isolated. In the present study, an average loss of Rs. 0.2 million per farm was calculated and the extrapolated values for 0.2 and 0.8 million animals present in LDC and other dairy colonies in Karachi were Rs. 225.6 and Rs. 1128.1 million, respectively.

  6. Microbiological and serological monitoring in hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in the Region Lombardia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The health status of 276 hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix from various provinces of Lombardy was monitored for three years. Bacteriological examination detected E. coli (76%, Campylobacter jejuni (17%, Salmonella typhimurium (11.6%, Yersinia spp. (6.5%, Clamydophila abortus and C. psittaci (2.6%; from six birds showing severe prostration Pasteurella multocida was isolated. Virological and serological tests were negative for Avian Influenza virus (AIV, West Nile virus (WNV and only three samples were positive for Newcastle disease virus (NDV but only at serology (titre 1:16.

  7. The tad locus: postcards from the widespread colonization island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomich, Mladen; Planet, Paul J; Figurski, David H

    2007-05-01

    The Tad (tight adherence) macromolecular transport system, which is present in many bacterial and archaeal species, represents an ancient and major new subtype of type II secretion. The tad genes are present on a genomic island named the widespread colonization island (WCI), and encode the machinery that is required for the assembly of adhesive Flp (fimbrial low-molecular-weight protein) pili. The tad genes are essential for biofilm formation, colonization and pathogenesis in the genera Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus), Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas, Yersinia, Caulobacter and perhaps others. Here we review the structure, function and evolution of the Tad secretion system.

  8. Biased distribution of DNA uptake sequences towards genome maintenance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, T.; Rodland, E.A.; Lagesen, K.

    2004-01-01

    Repeated sequence signatures are characteristic features of all genomic DNA. We have made a rigorous search for repeat genomic sequences in the human pathogens Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae and found that by far the most frequent 9-10mers residing within...... in these organisms. Pasteurella multocida also displayed high frequencies of a putative DUS identical to that previously identified in H. influenzae and with a skewed distribution towards genome maintenance genes, indicating that this bacterium might be transformation competent under certain conditions....

  9. Development of pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep after exposure to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, R J; Bunch, T D; Workman, G W; Mock, R E

    1991-03-15

    From 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 Ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 O c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. Bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. Treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of alpha interferon, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and vaccines. Treatments were chosen on the basis of recommendations of others for treating pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep as well as our own experience in sheep and cattle. Regardless of treatment used, bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 4 developed signs of pneumonia within 10 to 14 days of exposure. Bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 3 died within 11 to 17 days of initial exposure. In trial 4, the bighorn sheep was isolated from the carrier sheep for treatment of pneumonia on day 14 and died on day 30. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from lung tissue in 3 of the 4 bighorn sheep. On the basis of results of trials 1 to 4, a more in depth clinical study was conducted in trial 5. Nasal and blood specimens were collected prior to and during trial 5 for bacteriologic culturing and serologic testing for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 virus, and respiratory syncytial virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Use of radioactively labelled bacteria in animal experiments. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossmann, K.D.; Mueller, G.; Heilmann, P.; Finsterbusch, L.; Hubald, J.

    1981-01-01

    Intratracheal administration of 3 H-, 14 C-, 59 Fe- or 125 I-labelled Pasteurella multocida germs to mice resulted in a more or less differentiated, nuclidedependent distribution of radioactivity in blood, spleen, liver, lung, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract, and was comparable to that following subcutaneous application. The elimination of the antigen from the lungs and other organs could be characterised by an e function, after having reached a certain level of distribution. Some of the antigen was persistent in the lung not less than 14 days. Extremely high activity concentration and persistence was recordable, following the use of 59 Fe complete antigen. Phagocytosis of Pasteurella multocida germs through alveolar macrophages of the lung was secured by autoradiography. Most of the antigen seemed to be discharged from the lungs through the digestive tract. Antigen distribution recorded from immunized and non-immunized mice seemed to suggest that the fate of antigen applied was affected by the kind of immunization. No difference in antigen distribution between non-immunized and subcutaneously immunized animals were provable, following intratracheal antigen application, but is was clearly provable, following intratracheal immunization. Elimination of antigen from the lungs of intratracheally immunized animals was found to occur faster than it did from non-immunized animals. (author)

  11. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil = Infecção experimental em larvas e juvenis de Litopaenaeus vannamei cultivados no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Carlos Buglione

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and theeffects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrioalginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p Este estudo avaliou as características patogênicas de cepas de bactérias isoladas de Litopenaeus vannamei durante surto de mortalidade no Laboratório de Camarões Marinhos, UFSC, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Seu potencial de virulência em larvas e juvenis de camarão marinho e os efeitos sobre a contagem total de hemócito, atividade de fenoloxidase e título aglutinante do soro foramavaliados após infecção experimental. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de larvas e de camarões adultos e identificadas bioquimicamente pelo sistema API20E como: duas cepas de Vibrio alginolyticus, três de Aeromonas salmonicida e uma de Pasteurella sp. e P. multocida. Todas as cepas isoladas provocaram mortalidade em L. vannamei, e uma de V. alginolyticus resultou em mortalidade de 97,3 e 88,7% para larvas e juvenis de camarões, respectivamente. O sistema imunológico dos camarões juvenis sofreu influência da infecção experimental

  12. Rapport for Center for Vildtsundhed 1. halvår 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Enemark, Heidi L.; Therkildsen, Ole Roland

    for vurderingen af parasitbelastningen hos raske ederfugle. Redemateriale til undersøgelse af Pasteurella multocida, der forårsager udbrud af fjerkrækolera, fortsættes i et specialestudie af de dyrkbare bakterier. Med henblik på kortlægning af rævens dværgbændelorm (Echinococcus multilocularis) hos mårhund og ræv...... Danmark siden 2000, og det er første gang bændelormen er påvist i jyske ræve. Echinococcus multilocularis kan smitte til mennesker, hvor de i larvestadiet angriber leveren, hvilket kan have fatale følger, så det er vigtigt, at folk er opmærksomme på risikoen og tager deres forbehold. Mennesker smittes...

  13. Aspects relating to use of radioactively labelled bacteria in animal experiments. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, P.; Flossmann, K.D.; Mueller, G.; Finsterbusch, L.

    1983-01-01

    Two different types of aerosol dispensers were used in an aerosol compartment to apply 59 Fe-labelled bacteria (Pasteurella multocida) to SPE Mini-LEWE piglets as well as to conventionally raised piglets and calves. Germ intake was verified by detection of radioactivity in the lungs. Antigen deposition on each lung amounted to 2-3 . 10 8 in mini-piglets, 6-8 . 10 8 in ordinary piglets, and 2 . 10 9 in conventionally raised calves, as determined by SAG-1, a Soviet model of aerosol dispenser. More or less equally high concentrations of aerosol particles were retained in the pulmonary lobes, independent of the animal species used. Antigen intake could not be influenced by addition of skim milk or by restriction of germ suspensions. (author)

  14. [Transformation from chronic subdural hematoma into subdural empyema following cat bites: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takuya; Yamada, Kei; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 69-year-old man developed motor aphasia and right hemiparesis with severe headache, during the treatment of cellulitis and sepsis due to cat bites. Brain CT showed a low density, crescent-shaped lesion in the left subdural space, which was hypointense on brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). One week later, when his neurological symptoms had worsened, the signal of the subdural lesion had changed to hyperintense on DWI. The lesion was capsule-shaped when enhanced by Gadolinium. The signal changes on DWI of the lesion indicated the existing hematoma had changed to an empyema, or so-called infected subdural hematoma, due to a hematogenous bacterial infection. Pasteurella multocida, a resident microbe in the oral cavity of cats, could be the responsible pathogen in this case. The patient recovered completely after treatment with intravenous high dose antibiotics. This is an important case report describing the transformation from a chronic subdural hematoma into a subdural empyema by DWI.

  15. مطالعه بر روی ایمنی زایی یک واکسن آزمایشی سپتی سمی هموراژیک با ادجوان روغنی در گاو

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ا. ستوده نیا

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV was prepared from a local strain of Pasteurella multocida. Strain 6:B was cultured and inactivated by formalin. Bacterial pellet was prepared by centrifugation and subsequently adjuvanted by Montannide oil ISA-70. A dose of prepared vaccine containing 3ml (2mg dry weight/ml was injected into five calves by IM route. Animals were bled before and at 24, 90, 150, and 200 days post-vaccination. Collected sera were used in passive mouse protection test (PMPT. Active mouse protection test (AMPT was carried out for OAV according to standard method. Results of PMPT showed 100% protection up to 150 days and 66-83% up to 200 days post-vaccination. In AMPT, 4 log of protection was gained. In this experiment the immunity induced by OAV adjuvanted by ISA-70 could protect the calves.

  16. Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Margaret A.; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E. Frances; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L.; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep. PMID:22377321

  17. Causes of pneumonia epizootics among bighorn sheep, Western United States, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Highland, Margaret A; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E Frances; Anderson, Neil J; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2012-03-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep.

  18. Application of Enrofloxacin and Orbifloxacin Disks Approved in Japan for Susceptibility Testing of Representative Veterinary Respiratory Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARADA, Kazuki; USUI, Masaru; ASAI, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, susceptibilities of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin were tested using an agar diffusion method with the commercial disks and a broth microdilution method. Good correlation between the 2 methods for enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin was observed for P. multocida (r = −0.743 and −0.818, respectively), M. haemolytica (r = −0.739 and −0.800, respectively) and A. pleuropneumoniae (r = −0.785 and −0.809, respectively). Based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria for enrofloxacin, high-level categorical agreement between the 2 methods was found for P. multocida (97.9%), M. haemolytica (93.8%) and A. pleuropneumoniae (92.0%). Our findings indicate that the tested commercial disks can be applied for susceptibility testing of veterinary respiratory pathogens. PMID:25008965

  19. Avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera is a contagious disease resulting from infection by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Several subspecies of bacteria have been proposed for P. multocida, and at least 16 different P. multocida serotypes or characteristics of antigens in bacterial cells that differentiate bacterial variants from each other have been recognized. The serotypes are further differentiated by other methods, including DNA fingerprinting. These evaluations are useful for studying the ecology of avian cholera (Fig. 7.1), because different serotypes are generally found in poultry and free-ranging migratory birds. These evaluations also show that different P. multocida serotypes are found in wild birds in the eastern United States than those that are found in the birds in the rest of the Nation (Fig. 7.2).

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the α2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium sp. JT-ISH-224

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okino, Nozomu; Kakuta, Yoshimitsu; Kajiwara, Hitomi; Ichikawa, Masako; Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Makoto; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    Crystallization of the α2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium. Sialyltransferases transfer sialic acid from cytidine-5-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) to the nonreducing termini of the oligosaccharyl structures of various glycoproteins and glycolipids. The newly cloned α2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium sp. JT-ISH-224 (from the Vibrionaceae family) is composed of two domains: an unknown N-terminal domain and a catalytic C-terminal domain which shares significant homology with the Pasteurella multocida multifunctional sialyltransferase. The putative mature form of JT-ISH-224 α2,6-sialyltransferase was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. The crystal belonged to space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.29, c = 204.33 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution

  1. Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45% examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

  2. Investigation of genome sequences within the family Pasteurellaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Ussery, David

    Introduction The bacterial genome sequences are now available for an increasing number of strains within the family Pasteurellaceae. At present, 24 Pasteurellaceae genomes are publicly available through internet databases, and another 40 genomes are being sequenced. This investigation will describe...... the core genome for both the family Pasteurellaceae and for the species Haemophilus influenzae. Methods Twenty genome sequences from the following species were included: Haemophilus influenzae (11 strains), Haemophilus ducreyi (1 strain), Histophilus somni (2 strains), Haemophilus parasuis (1 strain......), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (2 strains), Actinobacillus succinogenes (1 strain), Mannheimia succiniciproducens (1 strain), and Pasteurella multocida (1 strain). The predicted proteins for each genome were BLASTed against each other, and a set of conserved core gene families was determined as described...

  3. Bovine mastitis caused by gram negative bacteria in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. A. Al-Dabbagh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis from different areas in Mosul city, in a period from October 2009 to June 2010, for the detection of gram negative bacteriological causative agents. The bacteria were identified using morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. thirty tow (35.3% gram negative bacterial isolates were obtained from the total count which included 14 isolates (15.5% for Escherichia coli, 7 isolates (7.7% for Klebsiella spp, 4 isolates (4.4% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 3 isolates (3.3% for Enterobacter aerogenes ,2 isolates for Serratia marcescens and one isolates (1.1% for each of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pasteurella multocida. Results of antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that most of these isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin following by Gentamycin and Cotrimoxazole, while most of these organisms were resistant to Ampicillin, the isolates showed different percentages of sensitivity to Doxycycline, Tetracycline, Neomycin and Chloramphenicol.

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFK338 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFK338 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - AFK338P (Link to Original s...ite) AFK338F 659 AFK338Z 221 AFK338P 880 - - Show AFK338 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFK338 (Link to dic...01175_2502( CP001175 |pid:none) Listeria monocytogenes HCC23, c... 40 0.099 AY714838_16( AY714838 |pid:none) Unculture...A sequence. 44 3.0 1 AE006080 |AE006080.1 Pasteurella multocida PM70 section 47 o... 0.003 BX294148_242( BX294148 |pid:none) Rhodopirellula baltica SH 1 comp... 44 0.005 CP000910_1528( CP00091

  5. A longitudinal study of serological patterns of respiratory infections in nine infected Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Margit; Nielsen, Jens; Bækbo, Poul

    2000-01-01

    Sixteen litters of seven pigs from each of nine Danish farrow-to-finish herds were followed to investigate the serological patterns caused by natural infection with Mycoplasma hyponeumoniae, Pasteurella multocida toxin and Actinobacillus pleuroneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7, 12. In seven of the herds......, pigs were followed as two separate cohorts started 4 weeks apart, and in two herds only one cohort was followed. A total of 999 pigs were included in the study. The pigs were blood sampled at weaning and subsequently every fourth week until slaughter. All pigs were examined for antibodies against M....... hyopneumoniae (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), P. multocida toxin (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7, 12 (complement-fixation tests). The most-common pattern (28%) of seroconversion was that of pigs first seroconverting to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, followed...

  6. The sensitivity of the most common microorganisms of pig liquid manure to the effect of 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szemeredy, Gy.; Simon, J.

    1979-01-01

    In model experiments the most common representatives of pathogens and facultative pathogens of pig liquid manure contaminating bacterial flora were examined for their sensitivity to different doses of 60 Co, using liquid medium supplemented with 1% glucose, as well as Korthof-medium and different kinds of selective media. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiea, Brucella suis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Pasteurella haemolytica proved to be the most senstive ones to irradiation, as they did not survive 100 krad dose. The highest resistances were observed in the cases of the following microorganisms: the spore containing Bacillus anthracis, killed by 700 krad irradiation dose, the saprophytic and pathogenic Mycobacteria and the spore containing Clostridium perfringens, killed by 1000-1500 krad irradiation. (author)

  7. Occurrence of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in the oral cavity of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lena; Hansen, Mie Johanne; Kelly, Androo

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) was investigated using phenotypic and subsequent genotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. A total of 62 bacterial isolates obtained from Tasmanian...... devils, tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae, were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequence similarity, which showed that the isolates investigated formed five distinct groups. A total of 15 strains formed a novel genus-like group within Pasteurellaceae...... with a 100% rpoB similarity with Pasteurella dagmatis. Finally, a single strain showed 97.1% resemblance to Haemophilus haemoglobinophilus. The results demonstrate that Tasmanian devils are hosting a variety of bacterial taxa affiliated with the family of Pasteurellaceae as part of their oral microflora....

  8. Aqueous Humor Antimicrobial Activity: In Vitro Analysis after Topical 0.5% Chloramphenicol Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagini, Carlo; Dragoni, Annalisa; Orsolini, Giampaolo; Fiore, Tito; Beccasio, Alfredo; Spadea, Leopoldo; Moretti, Amedeo; Mencacci, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    To assess aqueous humor antimicrobial activity in vitro after topical 0.5% chloramphenicol application. This investigation included 63 eyes from 65 cataract surgery patients. The study group of 48 eyes received preoperatively four topical applications of 0.5% chloramphenicol. The control group of 15 eyes was given no topical applications. Aqueous humor samples were collected for in vitro antimicrobial analysis using Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Pasteurella multocida organisms by means of disk diffusion test. No inhibition halo was observed around all aqueous humor samples from all chloramphenicol-treated patients, irrespective of the sample quantity added to the paper disks, with no significant difference from aqueous humor from untreated control patients. Aqueous humor displayed no bactericidal effect against any of the microorganisms evaluated after topical 0.5% chloramphenicol application.

  9. Main causes of mortality in Holstein calves on rural properties in the Bragantina region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moraes de Olivera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on two dairy farms that breed Holstein cattle in the municipality of Bragança Paulista, São Paulo. The study included 11 female calves that were one to three months old. The animals were autopsied. Tissue samples of affected organs were collected for histopathological and microbiological examination and blood was collected for serological tests. The aim of this study was to identify the main causes of death in calves of dairy cattle from the Bragantina region. Among the causes, the frequency of dysentery and respiratory diseases was similar. The samples evalulated identified a higher frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions when compared to intestinal lesions. The etiological agents associated with the diseases found were Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Pasteurella spp., syncytial virus and coronavirus, which affect the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems and can lead to septicemia and death.

  10. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2008-04-01

    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  11. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals.

  12. Septicemic pasteurellosis in free-ranging neonatal pronghorn in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael R.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Rimler, R.B.; Berlowski, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) neonates on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR), Oregon (USA), 55 of 104 neonates captured during May 1996 and 1997 were necropsied (n = 28, 1996; n = 27, 1997) to determine cause of death. Necropsies were conducted on fawns that died during May, June, or July of each year. The objectives of this study were to report the occurrence and pathology of pasteurellosis in neonates and determine if the isolated strain of Pasteurella multocida was unique. Septicemic pasteurellosis, caused by P. multocida, was diagnosed as the cause of death for two neonates in May and June 1997. Necropsy findings included widely scattered petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages found over a large portion of the subcutaneous tissue, meninges of the brain, epicardium, skeletal muscle, and serosal surface of the thorasic and abdominal cavities. Histological examination of lung tissues revealed diffuse congestion and edema and moderate to marked multifocal infiltrate of macrophages, neutrophils, and numerous bacteria within many terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Pasteurella multocida serotypes A:3,4, and B:1 were isolated from several tissues including lung, intestinal, thorasic fluid, and heart blood. Each B:1 isolate had DNA restriction endonuclease fingerprint profiles distinct from isolates previously characterized from domestic cattle, swan (Olor spp.), moose (Alces alces), and pronghorn from Montana (USA). This is the first report of pasteurellosis in pronghorn from Oregon and the B:1 isolates appear to be unique in comparison to DNA fingerprint profiles from selected domestic and wild species.

  13. Phylogenetic diversity of Pasteurellaceae and horizontal gene transfer of leukotoxin in wild and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott T; Cassirer, E Frances; Weiser, Glen C; Safaee, Shirin

    2007-01-01

    Wild and domestic animal populations are known to be sources and reservoirs of emerging diseases. There is also a growing recognition that horizontal genetic transfer (HGT) plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. We used molecular phylogenetic methods to assess diversity and cross-transmission rates of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in populations of bighorn sheep, Dall's sheep, domestic sheep and domestic goats. Members of the Pasteurellaceae cause an array of deadly illnesses including bacterial pneumonia known as "pasteurellosis", a particularly devastating disease for bighorn sheep. A phylogenetic analysis of a combined dataset of two RNA genes (16S ribosomal RNA and RNAse P RNA) revealed remarkable evolutionary diversity among Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica bacteria isolated from sheep and goats. Several phylotypes appeared to associate with particular host species, though we found numerous instances of apparent cross-transmission among species and populations. Statistical analyses revealed that host species, geographic locale and biovariant classification, but not virulence, correlated strongly with Pasteurellaceae phylogeny. Sheep host species correlated with P. trehalosi isolates phylogeny (PTP test; P=0.002), but not with the phylogeny of M. haemolytica isolates, suggesting that P. trehalosi bacteria may be more host specific. With regards to populations within species, we also discovered a strong correlation between geographic locale and isolate phylogeny in the Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (PTP test; P=0.001). We also investigated the potential for HGT of the leukotoxin A (lktA) gene, which produces a toxin that plays an integral role in causing disease. Comparative analysis of the combined RNA gene phylogeny and the lktA phylogenies revealed considerable incongruence between the phylogenies, suggestive of HGT. Furthermore, we found identical lktA alleles in unrelated bacterial species, some of which had been isolated

  14. Clinical approach to canine vaginitisAbordagem clínica da vaginite canina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Mello Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaginitis is a rare disease in adult female dogs. However, knowledge regarding this illness is important because, if secondary to reproductive tract anomalies that go uncorrected, it can cause ascending uterine infections and, consequently, subfertility or even infertility. Usually, these infections are caused by Enterobacter or microorganisms from the urogenital inferior system, such as Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pasteurella, etc. In some cases, vaginitis may be caused by primary infections with Brucella canis, which is zoonotic, or by canine herpesvirus; both of these agents have the potential to cause reproductive failure. The disease can occur in any age, breed or ovarian condition and can be identified by vaginal cytology, vaginoscopy and culture of vaginal secretions. The most common clinical signs are erythema of the vaginal mucous, vaginal discharge, pollakiuria, licking of the vulva and attraction of male dogs, independent of the phase of the estrous cycle. This disease is generally self-limiting, and the treatment, when necessary, consists of antibiotic therapy, vaginal cleaning with antiseptic and, eventually, surgical correction of predisposing abnormalities. A vaginite é uma afecção rara em cadelas adultas. É uma causa importante de subfertilidade ou infertilidade, quando secundária à anomalias do trato reprodutivo. Normalmente, são causadas por enterobactérias ou pela microbiota do sistema urogenital inferior, tais como Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pasteurella, entre outras. Em alguns casos, pode ser primária como infecções por Brucella canis, a qual é uma zoonose ou herpesvírus canino, importante causa de falhas reprodutivas. A afecção acomete fêmeas de qualquer idade, raça ou condição ovariana. Os sinais clínicos envolvem mucosa vaginal hiperêmica, corrimento vulvar, polaqui

  15. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  16. Isolamento e identificação da microbiota periodontal de cães da raça Pastor Alemão Isolate and identify of periodontal microbiota of German Shepherd dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Afonso da Silva Bitencourt Braga

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A microbiota indígena gengival de cães não está totalmente descrita, sendo sua identificação uma etapa importante no estabelecimento da etiopatogenia e terapia da doença periodontal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar e identificar a microbiota periodontal de cães da raça Pastor Alemão, considerando sítios saudáveis e com doença periodontal. Foram utilizados 29 cães, com idade variando de três a seis anos, sendo analisados espécimes clínicos de sítios periodontais saudáveis de 12 cães e sítios com periodontite de outros 17. Foram isoladas 672 amostras microbianas, com predomínio dos gêneros Pasteurella, Staphylococcus, Porphyromonas e Fusobacterium. A microbiota dos sítios saudáveis equiparou-se à dos sítios doentes, tratando-se de uma microbiota indígena. A microbiota dos sítios doentes apresentou-se aumentada em relação a dos sítios saudáveis, indicando mudança do ambiente do sítio periodontal.The indigenous gingival microbiota of dogs is not totally described, although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to isolate and identify the periodontal microbiota of German Shepherd dogs from healthy and with periodontal desease sites. Twenty nine German Shepherd dogs from three to six years of age were used in this study. Clinical specimens were analysed from healthy periodontal sites of 12 dogs and sites presenting gingivitis of 17 dogs. A total amount of 672 microbial samples, were isolated where the predominant genera were Pasteurella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Fusobacterium spp. The microbiological population of the affected sites was similar to the healthy sites, consisting on an indigenous microbiota. The microbiota on the affecteded sites was higher in number than on the healthy sites, showing change in the environment of the periodontal sites.

  17. New derivatives of salicylamides: Preparation and antimicrobial activity against various bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Karel; Zadražilová, Iveta; Imramovský, Aleš; Vinšová, Jarmila; Pokorná, Michaela; Masaříková, Martina; Cížek, Alois; Jampílek, Josef

    2013-11-01

    Three series of salicylanilides, esters of N-phenylsalicylamides and 2-hydroxy-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenylamino)-1-oxoalkan-2-yl]benzamides, in total thirty target compounds were synthesized and characterized. The compounds were evaluated against seven bacterial and three mycobacterial strains. The antimicrobial activities of some compounds were comparable or higher than the standards ampicillin, ciprofloxacin or isoniazid. Derivatives 3f demonstrated high biological activity against Staphylococcus aureus (⩽0.03μmol/L), Mycobacterium marinum (⩽0.40μmol/L) and Mycobacterium kansasii (1.58μmol/L), 3g shows activity against Clostridium perfringens (⩽0.03μmol/L) and Bacillus cereus (0.09μmol/L), 3h against Pasteurella multocida (⩽0.03μmol/L) and M. kansasii (⩽0.43μmol/L), 3i against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and B. cereus (⩽0.03μmol/L). The structure-activity relationships are discussed for all the compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  19. Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin: evaluation in vitro and in vivo in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, R J; Kinney, M L; Roberts, B J; Goodenough, K R; Hamel, J C; Ford, C W

    1987-07-01

    Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-resistant cephalosporin, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in mice. Ceftiofur is the sodium salt of (6R, 7R)-7[( 2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-Z- (methoxyimino)acetyl]amino)-3-[( (2-furanylcarbonyl)thio]methyl)-8-oxo-5- thia-1-azabicyclo-[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate. Minimal inhibitory concentration values were obtained with 264 strains representing 9 genera and 17 species of bacterial pathogens from cattle, swine, sheep, horses, poultry, dogs, cats, and human beings. Ceftiofur was more active than was ampicillin against all strains tested including beta-lactamase-producing organisms. In mice with systemic infections, ceftiofur was more active than or equivalent to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefamandole, cloxacillin, cefoperazone, or pirlimycin. These protection tests included infections with Escherichia coli, Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, H somnus, Pasteurella haemolytica, P multocida, Salmonella typhimurium, or Staphylococcus aureus. In infant mice with E coli-induced lethal diarrhea and in mice with S aureus and E coli-induced mastitis, ceftiofur was comparable or more active than was ampicillin.

  20. Development of colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips for detection of Riemerella anatipestifer.

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    Wanwan Hou

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer is one of the most important bacterial pathogen of ducks and causes a contagious septicemia. R. anatipestifer infection causes serositis syndromes similar to other bacterial infections in ducks, including infection by Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Pasteurella multocida. Clinically differentiating R. anatipestifer infections from other bacterial pathogen infections is usually difficult. In this study, MAb 1G2F10, a monoclonal antibody against R. anatipestifer GroEL, was used to develop a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip. Colloidal gold particles were prepared by chemical synthesis to an average diameter of 20 ± 5.26 nm by transmission electron microscope imaging. MAb 1G2F10 was conjugated to colloidal gold particles and the formation of antibody-colloidal gold conjugates was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Immunochromatographic strips were assembled in regular sequence through different accessories sticked on PVC plate. Strips specifically detected R. anatipestifer within 10 min, but did not detect E. coli, S. enterica and P. multocida. The detection limit for R. anatipestifer was 1 × 10(6 colony forming units, which was 500 times higher than a conventional agglutination test. Accuracy was 100% match to multiplex PCR. Assay stability and reproducibility were excellent after storage at 4°C for 6 months. The immunochromatographic strips prepared in this study offer a specific, sensitive, and rapid detection method for R. anatipestifer, which is of great importance for the prevention and control of R. anatipestifer infections.

  1. Isolation and polymerase chain reaction-based identification of Riemerella anatipestifer from ducks in Kerala, India

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    Manju Soman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to isolate and characterize Riemerella anatipestifer organisms from disease outbreaks in ducks in Kerala. Materials and Methods: Ducklings, suspected of Riemerella infection, were sacrificed and subjected to post-mortem examination. Heart blood smears and impression smears from liver and spleen were examined for the presence of pathogenic organisms. Heart blood, lung, liver, and spleen collected aseptically from the birds were subjected to isolation trials in brain heart infusion agar and 10% bovine blood agar. The isolates were characterized based on morphology, cultural characteristics and biochemical tests, and their identity were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the PCR amplified DNA was sequenced. The antibiotic sensitivity testing of the isolates were carried out using six antibiotics viz ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, and gentamicin. Results: Colonies suggestive of Riemerella organisms could be isolated on blood agar. Biochemical characterization and PCR confirmed the identity of isolates as R. anatipestifer. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product showed 99% homology to the R. anatipestifer sequences in the NCBI. The antibiogram revealed that the organisms were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the PCR assay can facilitate fast and proper identification of R. anatipestifer infection in ducks. The assay can also differentiate between R. anatipestifer and Pasteurella multocida and can replace the traditional methods of differentiation which are cumbersome and time-consuming.

  2. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction associated with enteric ganglionitis in a Persian cat

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    Jeremy Mortier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 7-year-old neutered male Persian cat was presented for acute vomiting and inappetence. Physical examination revealed severe abdominal distension. Radiographs demonstrated pneumoperitoneum, megaoesophagus and generalised gaseous distension of the digestive tract. Exploratory coeliotomy was performed, revealing markedly distended and thickened small and large intestines with no observable peristalsis. No intestinal perforation was present. Bacteriological and cytological analysis of abdominal fluid revealed a septic peritonitis involving Pasteurella multocida . Full-thickness intestinal biopsies demonstrated lymphocytic ganglioneuritis localised to the enteric nervous system, in association with glandular atrophy and muscular layer hypertrophy. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and analgesics were given. The cat’s general condition gradually improved after the addition of pyridostigmine bromide (0.5 mg/kg q12h PO, initiated 3 days postsurgery. Vomiting resolved and did not recur. Follow-up radiographs at 15 days, and 1 and 6 months showed persistent intestinal ileus, milder than on the pretreatment radiographs. Thirty months after presentation the cat is still alive, without clinical signs, and receives 1 mg/kg q12h pyridostigmine. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first case of ganglioneuritis of the myenteric plexus described in cats, as well as the first one successfully treated with pyridostigmine. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a very rare condition in cats but should be included in the differential diagnosis of generalised gastrointestinal ileus.

  3. Standard PK/PD concepts can be applied to determine a dosage regimen for a macrolide: the case of tulathromycin in the calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, P-L; Potter, T; Pelligand, L; Lacroix, M; Illambas, J; Lees, P

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of tulathromycin, administered to calves subcutaneously at the dosage of 2.5 mg/kg, was established in serum, inflamed (exudate), and noninflamed (transudate) fluids in a tissue cage model. The PK profile of tulathromycin was also established in pneumonic calves. For Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, tulathromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were approximately 50 times lower in calf serum than in Mueller-Hinton broth. The breakpoint value of the PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) index (AUC (0-24 h) /MIC) to achieve a bactericidal effect was estimated from in vitro time-kill studies to be approximately 24 h for M. haemolytica and P. multocida. A population model was developed from healthy and pneumonic calves and, using Monte Carlo simulations, PK/PD cutoffs required for the development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) were determined. The population distributions of tulathromycin doses were established by Monte Carlo computation (MCC). The computation predicted a target attainment rate (TAR) for a tulathromycin dosage of 2.5 mg/kg of 66% for M. haemolytica and 87% for P. multocida. The findings indicate that free tulathromycin concentrations in serum suffice to explain the efficacy of single-dose tulathromycin in clinical use, and that a dosage regimen can be computed for tulathromycin using classical PK/PD concepts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A bighorn sheep die-off in southern Colorado involving a Pasteurellaceae strain that may have originated from syntopic cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Diamond, Brandon; Spraker, Terry R; Sirochman, Michael A; Walsh, Daniel P; Machin, Chandra M; Bade, Donald J; Miller, Michael W

    2010-10-01

    We investigated a pasteurellosis epizootic in free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) wherein a Pasteurellaceae strain carried by syntopic cattle (Bos taurus) under severe winter conditions appeared to contribute to pneumonia in affected bighorns. Twenty-one moribund or dead bighorn sheep were found on the "Fossil Ridge" herd's winter range, Colorado, USA, between 13 December 2007 and 29 February 2008. Eight carcasses examined showed gross or microscopic evidence of acute to subacute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. All eight carcasses yielded at least one β-hemolytic Mannheimia haemolytica biogroup 1(±(G)) strain, and seven also yielded a β-hemolytic Bibersteinia trehalosi biogroup 4 (CDS) strain; evidence of Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, and parainfluenza 3 and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses was also detected. Isolates of β-hemolytic Manneimia haemolytica biogroup 1(G) from a bighorn carcass and a syntopic cow showed 99.5% similarity in genetic fingerprints; B. trehalosi biogroup 4(CDS) isolates were ≥94.9% similar to an isolate from a nearby bighorn herd. Field and laboratory observations suggested that pneumonia in affected bighorns may have been caused by a combination of pathogens including two pathogenic Pasteurellaceae strains--one likely of cattle origin and one likely of bighorn origin--with infections in some cases perhaps exacerbated by other respiratory pathogens and severe weather conditions. Our and others' findings suggest that intimate interactions between wild sheep and cattle should be discouraged as part of a comprehensive approach to health management and conservation of North American wild sheep species.

  5. How Respiratory Pathogens Contribute to Lamb Mortality in a Poorly Performing Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary E; Fox, Karen A; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Killion, Halcyon J; Amundson, Sierra; Miller, Michael W; Edwards, William H

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) ewes and their lambs in captivity to examine the sources and roles of respiratory pathogens causing lamb mortality in a poorly performing herd. After seven consecutive years of observed December recruitments of sheep from the remnant Gribbles Park herd in Colorado, US were captured and transported to the Thorne-Williams Wildlife Research Center in Wyoming in March 2013. Ewes were sampled repeatedly over 16 mo. In April 2014, ewes were separated into individual pens prior to lambing. Upon death, lambs were necropsied and tested for respiratory pathogens. Six lambs developed clinical respiratory disease and one lamb was abandoned. Pathology from an additional six lambs born in 2013 was also evaluated. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , leukotoxigenic Mannheimia spp., leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Pasteurella multocida all contributed to lamb pneumonia. Histopathology suggested a continuum of disease, with lesions typical of pasteurellosis predominating in younger lambs and lesions typical of mycoplasmosis predominating in older lambs. Mixed pathology was observed in lambs dying between these timeframes. We suspected that all the ewes in our study were persistently infected and chronically shedding the bacteria that contributed to summer lamb mortality.

  6. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.

  7. Fusobacterium necrophorum in North American Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Narayanan, Sanjeevkumar; Batra, Sai Arun; Jegarubee, Bavananthasivam; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum has been detected in pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis ) lungs, in addition to the aerobic respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica , Bibersteinia trehalosi , Pasteurella multocida , and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae . Similar to M. haemolytica , F. necrophorum produces a leukotoxin. Leukotoxin-induced lysis and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and macrophages are responsible for acute inflammation and lung tissue damage characteristic of M. haemolytica -caused pneumonia. As one approach in elucidating the role of F. necrophorum in BHS pneumonia, we determined the frequency of the presence of F. necrophorum in archived pneumonic BHS lung tissues, and susceptibility of BHS leukocytes to F. necrophorum leukotoxin. A species-specific PCR assay detected F. necrophorum in 37% of pneumonic BHS lung tissues (total tested n=70). Sequences of PCR amplicons were similar to the less virulent F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin exhibited cytotoxicity to BHS PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As with the M. haemolytica leukotoxin, F. necrophorum leukotoxin was more toxic to BHS PMNs than domestic sheep PMNs. It is likely that F. necrophorum enters the lungs after M. haemolytica and other aerobic respiratory pathogens enter the lungs and initiate tissue damage, thereby creating a microenvironment that is conducive for anaerobic bacterial growth. In summary, Fusobacterium leukotoxin is highly toxic for BHS leukocytes; however, based on the PCR findings, it is unlikely to play a direct role in the development of BHS pneumonia.

  8. Pneumonia in slaughtered sheep in south-western Iran: pathological characteristics and aerobic bacterial aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Korani, Farzad Shahrani; Oryan, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the lungs of 1,000 sheep carcasses were subjected to gross examination and those suspected to be infected with pneumonia were studied at histopathological level as well as examined for presence of bacteria. Pneumonia was detected in 42 (4.2%) carcasses. Based on histopathological lesions, 45.24% were affected with suppurative bronchopneumonia, 20.93% with interstitial pneumonia, 11.9% bronchointerstitial pneumonia, 7.14% with fibrinous bronchopneumonia and 2.38% with embolic pneumonia. In addition, 11.9% of the lungs showed lung abscesses and 2.33% were affected with pleuritis without involving pulmonary parenchyma. Bacteriological examination revealed presence of ovine pathogens, such as Pasteurella multocida (24.53%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.75%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.09%), Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (7.55%) and Actinomyces pyogenes (1.89%). The most common form of pneumonia was suppurative bronchopneumonia with moderate amounts of fibrin deposits on the pleural surface and inside the bronchioles and alveoli.

  9. Pneumonia in slaughtered sheep in south-western Iran: pathological characteristics and aerobic bacterial aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Azizi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the lungs of 1,000 sheep carcasses were subjected to gross examination and those suspected to be infected with pneumonia were studied at histopathological level as well as examined for presence of bacteria. Pneumonia was detected in 42 (4.2% carcasses. Based on histopathological lesions, 45.24% were affected with suppurative bronchopneumonia, 20.93% with interstitial pneumonia, 11.9% bronchointerstitial pneumonia, 7.14% with fibrinous bronchopneumonia and 2.38% with embolic pneumonia. In addition, 11.9% of the lungs showed lung abscesses and 2.33% were affected with pleuritis without involving pulmonary parenchyma. Bacteriological examination revealed presence of ovine pathogens, such as Pasteurella multocida (24.53%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.75%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.09%, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (7.55% and Actinomyces pyogenes (1.89%. The most common form of pneumonia was suppurative bronchopneumonia with moderate amounts of fibrin deposits on the pleural surface and inside the bronchioles and alveoli.

  10. PREVALENCE AND IN VITRO ANTIBIOGRAM OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH OMPHALITIS IN CHICKS

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    M. IQBAL, I. A. SHAH, A. ALI, M. A. KHAN AND S. JAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for the isolation of bacterial agents and in vitro antibiogram of the isolates from the yolk and visceral organs of up to one week old broiler and layer chicks suffering from omphalitis. Samples from the yolk and visceral organs were aseptically collected and cultured on various selective and differential media. The isolated organisms were identified and subjected to commonly used antibiotics for determination of antibiogram. During the period of 39 months (May, 2002 to August, 2005, 330 samples from yolk and visceral organs were taken from those chicks which were not medicated with antibiotics, as per history provided by the poultry farmers. Among these, 223(68% showed bacterial growth. Various bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (47.93%, proteus (5.87%, mixed infection (3.59%, streptococci (2.89%, klebsiella (1.79%, salmonella (0.5%, staphylococci (0.5%, pseudomonas (0.5%, pasteurella (0.5% and yarseinia (0.5%. The antibiotics found most effective were Norfloxacin (45.3%, Enrofloxacin (36.81%, Gentamicin (33.21%, Chloramphenicol (33.21%, Cephradin (25.1%, Augmentine (24.7%, Kanammycin (17.5% and Ampicillin (12.1%.

  11. Vectorial role of some dermanyssoid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata, Dermanyssoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiente Moro C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Among transmissible diseases, vectorial diseases represent a major problem for public health. In the group of acarina, while ticks are the most commonly implicated vectors, other arthropods and notably Dermanyssoidea are also involved in the transmission of pathogenic agents. Since the role of this superfamily is at present largely unknown, we have reviewed the vectorial role of these mites in the appearance, survival and propagation of pathogens. Various authors have shown that Dermanyssoidea are implicated in the transmission of both bacteria (Salmonella, Spirocheta, Rickettsia or Pasteurella and viruses (equine encephalitis viruses, West Nile virus, Fowl pox virus, the virus causing Newcastle disease and tick borne encephalitis viruses or hantaviruses. Finally, some authors have also shown their role in the transmission of some protozoa and filaria. As the vectorial character of such mites has been more clearly demonstrated (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Allodermanyssus sanguineus, it would be interesting to continue studies to better understand the role of this superfamily in the epidemiology of certain zoonoses.

  12. Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Central Bohemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubal, Radek; Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Thomayerova, Jana; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the tick Ixodes ricinus were assessed in specimens unattached or attached to the skin of cats, dogs and humans, collected in the Czech Republic. The bacteria were detected by PCR in 97 of 142 pooled samples including 204 ticks, i.e. 1-7 ticks per sample, collected at the same time from one host. A fragment of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from 32 randomly selected samples. The most frequent sequences were those related to Candidatus Midichloria midichlori (71% of cloned sequences), followed by Diplorickettsia (13%), Spiroplasma (3%), Rickettsia (3%), Pasteurella (3%), Morganella (3%), Pseudomonas (2%), Bacillus (1%), Methylobacterium (1%) and Phyllobacterium (1%). The phylogenetic analysis of Spiroplasma 16S rRNA gene sequences showed two groups related to Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Spiroplasma melliferum, respectively. Using group-specific primers, the following potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected: Borellia (in 20% of the 142 samples), Rickettsia (12%), Spiroplasma (5%), Diplorickettsia (5%) and Anaplasma (2%). In total, 68% of I. ricinus samples (97/142) contained detectable bacteria and 13% contained two or more putative pathogenic groups. The prevalence of tick-borne bacteria was similar to the observations in other European countries.

  13. Avian cholera in waterfowl: the role of lesser snow and Ross's geese as carriers of avian cholera in the Playa Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    We collected samples from apparently healthy geese in the Playa Lakes Region (USA) during the winters of 2000a??01 and 2001a??02 to determine whether carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, were present in wild populations. With the use of methods developed in laboratory challenge trials (Samuel et al., 2003a) and a serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction method for identification of P. multocida serotype 1, we found that a small proportion of 322 wild birds (cholera infection. Our results confirm the hypothesis that wild waterfowl are carriers of avian cholera and add support for the hypothesis that wild birds are a reservoir for this disease. In concert with other research, this work indicates that enzootic infection with avian cholera occurs in lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) populations throughout their annual cycle. Although fewer Rossa??s geese (Chen rossii) were sampled, we also found these birds were carriers of P. multocida. Even in the absence of disease outbreaks, serologic evidence indicates that chronic disease transmission and recent infection are apparently occurring year-round in these highly gregarious birds and that a small portion of these populations are potential carriers with active infection.

  14. Survey of susceptibility to marbofloxacin in bacteria isolated from diseased pigs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Garch, F; Kroemer, S; Galland, D; Morrissey, I; Woehrle, F

    2017-06-17

    A monitoring programme of marbofloxacin susceptibility of bacteria from Europe causing respiratory tract infection and meningitis in pigs has been active since 1994 and 2002, respectively. Monitoring digestive, metritis and urinary tract infection (UTI) in pigs has been active since 2005 and susceptibility results until 2013 are presented. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by broth microdilution. For MIC interpretation, Vétoquinol-evaluated breakpoints were applied. For digestive pathogens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella species (1717 and 300 isolates, respectively) exhibited 7.5 per cent resistance in E coli and no resistance in Salmonella species. Similarly, E coli from metritis (369 isolates) had 7.0 per cent resistance to marbofloxacin. However, E coli from UTI (633 isolates) had higher resistance (10.4 per cent). For Streptococcus suis causing meningitis (585 isolates), marbofloxacin susceptibility was very high with only 0.5 per cent resistance and 0.4 per cent resistance was observed with S suis causing respiratory disease (729 isolates). Other respiratory pathogens were also highly susceptible to marbofloxacin with no resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (647 isolates) or Bordetella bronchiseptica (504 isolates), 0.1 per cent resistance in Pasteurella multocida (1373 isolates) and 1.4 per cent resistance in Haemophilus parasuis (145 isolates). There was no apparent change in marbofloxacin MIC over time for any bacterial pathogen based on MIC 50/90 These data confirm previously published MIC results from porcine and other animal infections. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Tiamulin activity against fastidious and nonfastidious veterinary and human bacterial isolates: initial development of in vitro susceptibility test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Pfaller, Michael A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Walter, Donald H

    2002-02-01

    Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin derivative used in veterinary practice for the control and specific therapy of infections in swine. This report summarizes studies to establish standardized susceptibility testing methods, interpretive criteria, and reagent details for use in veterinary methods recently developed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) (standards M31-A and M37-A, NCCLS, Wayne, Pa., 1999). A total of 636 fastidious and nonfastidious animal and human pathogens were processed by using media and procedures described by the NCCLS. Tiamulin disk diffusion tests used a 30-microg disk concentration, and the proposed MIC breakpoints corresponding to levels achievable in animal target tissues (lung) were or =32 microg/ml for resistance. Correlate zone diameters for specific nonfastidious species were as follows: for Pasteurella multocida and staphylococci tested on Mueller-Hinton agar, susceptibility at > or =19 mm and resistance at or =16 mm and resistance at or =9 mm) was suggested for veterinary fastidious medium broth and enriched chocolate Mueller-Hinton agar. Absolute categorical agreement between NCCLS dilution and disk diffusion test results with these criteria ranged from 90.5 to 96.2%. Tiamulin susceptibility testing methods appear to be accurate in their categorical classification for indicated species, and their availability will allow immediate testing of animal isolates to guide therapy via appropriate levels of dosing and to monitor the development of resistance for agents in this unique class.

  16. Mouse infection models for space flight immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapes, Stephen Keith; Ganta, Roman Reddy; Chapers, S. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2005-01-01

    Several immunological processes can be affected by space flight. However, there is little evidence to suggest that flight-induced immunological deficits lead to illness. Therefore, one of our goals has been to define models to examine host resistance during space flight. Our working hypothesis is that space flight crews will come from a heterogeneous population; the immune response gene make-up will be quite varied. It is unknown how much the immune response gene variation contributes to the potential threat from infectious organisms, allergic responses or other long term health problems (e.g. cancer). This article details recent efforts of the Kansas State University gravitational immunology group to assess how population heterogeneity impacts host health, either in laboratory experimental situations and/or using the skeletal unloading model of space-flight stress. This paper details our use of several mouse strains with several different genotypes. In particular, mice with varying MHCII allotypes and mice on the C57BL background with different genetic defects have been particularly useful tools with which to study infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We propose that some of these experimental challenge models will be useful to assess the effects of space flight on host resistance to infection.

  17. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm (A), erm (B), or mef (A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  18. Disclosing respiratory co-infections: a broad-range panel assay for avian respiratory pathogens on a nanofluidic PCR platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croville, Guillaume; Foret, Charlotte; Heuillard, Pauline; Senet, Alexis; Delpont, Mattias; Mouahid, Mohammed; Ducatez, Mariette F; Kichou, Faouzi; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2018-06-01

    Respiratory syndromes (RS) are among the most significant pathological conditions in edible birds and are caused by complex coactions of pathogens and environmental factors. In poultry, low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, metapneumoviruses, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Mycoplasma spp. Escherichia coli and/or Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys are considered as key co-infectious agents of RS. Aspergillus sp., Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum or Chlamydia psittaci may also be involved in respiratory outbreaks. An innovative quantitative PCR method, based on a nanofluidic technology, has the ability to screen up to 96 samples with 96 pathogen-specific PCR primers, at the same time, in one run of real-time quantitative PCR. This platform was used for the screening of avian respiratory pathogens: 15 respiratory agents, including viruses, bacteria and fungi potentially associated with respiratory infections of poultry, were targeted. Primers were designed and validated for SYBR green real-time quantitative PCR and subsequently validated on the Biomark high throughput PCR nanofluidic platform (Fluidigm©, San Francisco, CA, USA). As a clinical assessment, tracheal swabs were sampled from turkeys showing RS and submitted to this panel assay. Beside systematic detection of E. coli, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae were frequently detected, with distinctive co-infection patterns between French and Moroccan flocks. This proof-of-concept study illustrates the potential of such panel assays for unveiling respiratory co-infection profiles in poultry.

  19. Enzymatic production of human milk oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yao

    . A recombinant Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase (EC 2.4.99.-), namely PmST, exhibiting promiscuous trans-sialidase activities was examined. The enzyme catalysed α-2,3- and α-2,6- sialylation of lactose using either 2- O -(p-nitrophenyl)-α- D - N -acetylneuraminic acid or casein glycomacropeptide...... galactooligosaccharides with use of galactooligosaccharides as acceptors. Secondly, we examined the regioselectivity of five designed mutants of PmST catalysing synthesis of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactoses using casein glycomacropeptide and lactose as substrates. The mutants PmST E271F , PmST R313Y and PmST E271F/R313Y...... was almost abolished. The k cat / K m value for PmST P34H catalysing 6'-sialyllactose synthesis using 3'-sialyllactose as donor was 31.2 M -1 s -1 . Moreover, both the wild type enzyme and PmST P34H were capable of catalysing the hydrolysis and transfer of α-2,6 bound sialic acid....

  20. Pathological and molecular based study of pneumonic pasteurellosis in cattle and buffalo (bubalus bubalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2014-01-01

    In present study the clinico-pathological findings were recorded in naturally infected cattle and buffaloes due to pasteurella multocida during an outbreak at different livestock herds. There was no significant difference in mortality among various groups of buffaloes (p>0.78) and cattle (p>0.49). The infected animals showed clinical signs of moderate to acute anorexia, salivation, fever, depression, dysponea, submandibular edema, mucopurulent nasal discharge and respiratory grunts. Few of infected animals died due to septicemia. the necropsy of dead animals was performed and visceral organs lungs, kidneys, heart and lymph nodes were observed for gross and histopathological lesions. The tissue samples from these organs were fixed in formalin for pathological changes. Necropsy of dead animals revealed severe pneumonia, consolidation of lungs and intense pleural adhesions. serosanguinous fluid was accumulated in pericardium and peritoneal cavities. Histopathologically affected lungs exhibited severe congestion, mononuclear cell infiltration, thick interlobular septae punctuated with macrophages, plasma cells and peri-vascular cuffing. Liver, kidneys and lymph nodes had degenerative changes in histological sections. The specificity of p. multocida was determined by colony characteristics on macconkey's agar and morphological features with gram's iodine. The pcr product size approximately 511bp from lung tissues confirmed a total of 82% (19/23) bacterial isolates from dead animals. (author)

  1. Serologic survey for selected arboviruses and other potential pathogens in wildlife from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A A; McLean, R G; Cook, R S; Quan, T J

    1992-07-01

    During 1988 and 1989, a serologic survey of wildlife was conducted in northeastern Mexico to determine the presence, prevalence, and distribution of arboviruses and other selected disease agents. Eighty mammal specimens were tested. Antibodies to vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Rio Grande virus, and vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey were detected predominantly in small mammals. Deer and mouflon (Ovis musimon) had antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease. Two species had serologic evidence of recent exposure to Francisella tularensis. A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) had antibodies to Anaplasma marginale. All specimens tested for antibodies against Yersinia pestis and Brucella abortus were negative. Sera from 315 birds were tested for antibody against five equine encephalitis viruses and six avian pathogens. During 1988, antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-TC83, St. Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, and western equine encephalitis were detected in birds of several species. Antibodies to Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus were also detected. Birds from five species presented antibodies to Mycoplasma meleagridis. Specimens tested for M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, and Chlamydia psittaci were negative. To the best of our knowledge, this survey represents the first serologic evidence of bluetongue, Cache Valley virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, Jamestown Canyon virus, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, Rio Grande virus, and tularemia reported among wildlife in Mexico.

  2. The Genomic Sequence of the Oral Pathobiont Strain NI1060 Reveals Unique Strategies for Bacterial Competition and Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Darzi

    Full Text Available Strain NI1060 is an oral bacterium responsible for periodontitis in a murine ligature-induced disease model. To better understand its pathogenicity, we have determined the complete sequence of its 2,553,982 bp genome. Although closely related to Pasteurella pneumotropica, a pneumonia-associated rodent commensal based on its 16S rRNA, the NI1060 genomic content suggests that they are different species thriving on different energy sources via alternative metabolic pathways. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that strain NI1060 is distinct from the genera currently described in the family Pasteurellaceae, and is likely to represent a novel species. In addition, we found putative virulence genes involved in lipooligosaccharide synthesis, adhesins and bacteriotoxic proteins. These genes are potentially important for host adaption and for the induction of dysbiosis through bacterial competition and pathogenicity. Importantly, strain NI1060 strongly stimulates Nod1, an innate immune receptor, but is defective in two peptidoglycan recycling genes due to a frameshift mutation. The in-depth analysis of its genome thus provides critical insights for the development of NI1060 as a prime model system for infectious disease.

  3. Isolation and Antibiogram of Aerobic Nasal Bacterial Flora of Apparently Healthy West African Dwarf Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Emikpe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Goats are important in the livestock economy by their adaptability to adverse environmental conditions as they are good sources of protein and income for the rural poor. Studies conducted on the bacterial flora of the respiratory tract in goats focused on the pneumonic lungs, with fewer studies on the apparently normal nasal passage and antibiogram of isolated organisms. This study was carried out on 60 apparently healthy West African Dwarf goats. The nasal swab from each goat was analyzed using standard methods. The disc diffusion technique was used for the antibiotic sensitivity test. Three hundred and twenty-eight isolates were obtained. The most frequently isolated species was Streptococcus spp., while Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the second dominant bacteria. Other species were isolated at relatively lower rates. The isolation of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy goats in this study reflects their possible role in most common respiratory diseases encountered in small ruminants. Most of the bacteria were found to be susceptible to streptomycin, quinolones (perfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and gentamicin, while they were resistant to tetracycline, augmentin and erythromycin. This study shows the relationship between misuse or unrestricted use of antibiotics and drug resistance. Therefore, there is a need for practitioners and researchers to be informed of the appropriate antibiotics to be used in respiratory infections and during control programs.

  4. [Pyothorax in 26 cats: clinical signs, laboratory results and therapy (2000-2007)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenjann, Mareike; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Linzmann, Helge; Brunnberg, Leo; Kohn, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Common historical findings in 26 cats with pyothorax were dyspnea (85%), lethargy (65%), and anorexia (62%), common clinical findings were dyspnea (89%), tachypnea (73%), fever (39%), and hypothermia (27%). Frequent laboratory abnormalities were leukocytosis (68%) with a left shift (100%), anemia (65%), hypoalbuminemia (91%), hyperglobulinemia (86%), hyperbilirubinemia (60%) as well as azotemia (52%). The thoracic effusion was purulent in all cats, the thoracic fluid evaluation (n = 19) met the criteria for an inflammatory exudate (protein 32-63 g/l, median 44; cell count 54.4-390 x 10(9)/l, median 100). Cytological analysis revealed bacteria in 21 of 24 cats. From 16 cats 13 different genera were isolated, 5 cultures were without bacterial growth. In 12.5% of the cats a single population of bacteria was identified, and in 87.5% a mixture of 2-4 different bacterial species were cultured. Obligate anaerobic bacteria were the most common isolates (70%) followed by facultative anaerob (22.5%) and aerob growing (7.5%) bacteria. Bacterial culture most often yielded Fusobacteria spp., Prevotella spp., Pasteurella spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Bacteroides spp. Three cats were euthanized at the day of presentation. A thoracic lavage was performed in 22 cats; mechanical complications with the chest tubes occured in 4 cats. Thoracotomy was performed in 2 cats. Of the 23 treated cats 17 survived (74%).

  5. Quantification and characterization of enzymatically produced hyaluronan with fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooy, Floor K; Ma, Muyuan; Beeftink, Hendrik H; Eggink, Gerrit; Tramper, Johannes; Boeriu, Carmen G

    2009-01-15

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a polysaccharide with high-potential medical applications, depending on the chain length and the chain length distribution. Special interest goes to homogeneous HA oligosaccharides, which can be enzymatically produced using Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase (PmHAS). We have developed a sensitive, simple, and fast method, based on fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE), for characterization and quantification of polymerization products. A chromatographic pure fluorescent template was synthesized from HA tetrasaccharide (HA4) and 2-aminobenzoic acid. HA4-fluor and HA4 were used as template for PmHAS-mediated polymerization of nucleotide sugars. All products, fluorescent and nonfluorescent, were analyzed with gel electrophoresis and quantified using lane densitometry. Comparison of HA4- and HA4-fluor-derived polymers showed that the fluorophore did not negatively influence the PmHAS-mediated polymerization. Only even-numbered oligosaccharide products were observed using HA4-fluor or HA4 as template. The fluorophore intensity was linearly related to its concentration, and the limit of detection was determined to be 7.4pmol per product band. With this assay, we can now differentiate oligosaccharides of size range DP2 (degree of polymerization 2) to approximately DP400, monitor the progress of polymerization reactions, and measure subtle differences in polymerization rate. Quantifying polymerization products enables us to study the influence of experimental conditions on HA synthesis.

  6. Potential probiotic attributes of a new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shao-Bin; Zhao, Li-Na; Wu, Ying; Li, Shi-Chang; Sun, Jian-Rui; Huang, Jing-Fang; Li, Dan-Dan

    2015-06-01

    A new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9551, which has a broad range of antibacterial activities against six main pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O8, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis, Streptococcus suis, Listeria monocytogenes and Pasteurella multocida, was isolated from healthy piglet feces. In adhesion assay, the isolate exhibited a stronger adhesion to pig intestinal mucus than that of B. subtilis JT143 and L. acidophilus LY24 respectively isolated from BioPlus(®)2B and FloraFIT(®) Probiotics (P coagulans CGMCC 9551 was reduced by only 20% at 4 h exposure under 0.9% w/v bile salt. The strain was fully resistant to pH 2 for 2 h with 90.1 ± 3.5% survival and susceptible to 15 antibiotics commonly used in veterinary medicine. Additionally, the bacteria showed amylase, protease and cellulase activities. The safety assessment demonstrated the lack of toxicity potential in B. coagulans CGMCC 9551 by ligated rabbit ileal loop assay, acute and subchronic toxicity test. These results implied that that the new strain of B. coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces has promising probiotic characteristics and offers desirable opportunities for its successful commercialization as one excellent candidate probiotic.

  7. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of marbofloxacin as a single injection for Pasteurellaceae respiratory infections in cattle using population pharmacokinetics and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, A; Schneider, M; Dron, F; Woehrle, F

    2018-02-01

    Population pharmacokinetic of marbofloxacin was investigated with 52 plasma concentration-time profiles obtained after intramuscular administration of Forcyl® in cattle. Animal's status, pre-ruminant, ruminant, or dairy cow, was retained as a relevant covariate for clearance. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a stratification by status, and 1000 virtual disposition curves were generated in each bovine subpopulation for the recommended dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg as a single injection. The probability of target attainment (PTA) of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and prevention of resistance was determined in each simulated subpopulation. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) of animals achieving a PK/PD ratio predictive of positive clinical outcome was then calculated for the simulated dosage regimen, taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Histophilus somni. When considering a ratio of AUC 0-24 hr /MIC (area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration) greater than 125 hr, CFRs ranging from 85% to 100% against the three Pasteurellaceae in each bovine subpopulation were achieved. The PTA of the PK/PD threshold reflecting the prevention of resistances was greater than 90% up to MPC (mutant prevention concentration) values of 1 μg/ml in pre-ruminants and ruminants and 0.5 μg/ml in dairy cows. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.

  9. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction associated with enteric ganglionitis in a Persian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Jeremy; Elissalt, Estelle; Palierne, Sophie; Semin, Marie Odile; Delverdier, Maxence; Diquélou, Armelle

    2016-01-01

    Case summary A 7-year-old neutered male Persian cat was presented for acute vomiting and inappetence. Physical examination revealed severe abdominal distension. Radiographs demonstrated pneumoperitoneum, megaoesophagus and generalised gaseous distension of the digestive tract. Exploratory coeliotomy was performed, revealing markedly distended and thickened small and large intestines with no observable peristalsis. No intestinal perforation was present. Bacteriological and cytological analysis of abdominal fluid revealed a septic peritonitis involving Pasteurella multocida . Full-thickness intestinal biopsies demonstrated lymphocytic ganglioneuritis localised to the enteric nervous system, in association with glandular atrophy and muscular layer hypertrophy. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and analgesics were given. The cat's general condition gradually improved after the addition of pyridostigmine bromide (0.5 mg/kg q12h PO), initiated 3 days postsurgery. Vomiting resolved and did not recur. Follow-up radiographs at 15 days, and 1 and 6 months showed persistent intestinal ileus, milder than on the pretreatment radiographs. Thirty months after presentation the cat is still alive, without clinical signs, and receives 1 mg/kg q12h pyridostigmine. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first case of ganglioneuritis of the myenteric plexus described in cats, as well as the first one successfully treated with pyridostigmine. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a very rare condition in cats but should be included in the differential diagnosis of generalised gastrointestinal ileus.

  10. Aerobic bacteria occurring in the vagina of bitches with reproductive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurström, L

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective survey was performed of aerobic bacterial species found in the vagina of 203 bitches with genital disorders, e.g. infertility, vaginitis, pyometra and puppy death. Escherichia coli, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus intermedius and Pasteurella multocida were the species most often isolated. From bitches with pyometra E. coli in pure culture was the most frequent isolate. In contrast, the majority of infertile bitches gave rise to mixed cultures, and no specific bacterial species was consistently associated with infertility. Thus, bacterial sampling from infertile bitches was concluded to be of low diagnostic value. Bacterial species isolated from the bitches having vaginitis were present in pure culture in 26.9% of the samples while nonspecific mixed cultures were obtained from 34.6% of the samples from these bitches. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacterial species from bitches with dead puppies. However, in such cases it is important to relate the vaginal bacterial findings to autopsy findings and the results of bacteriological cultures of the pups.

  11. Influence of Rack Design and Disease Prevalence on Detection of Rodent Pathogens in Exhaust Debris Samples from Individually Ventilated Caging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Beth A; Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Livingston, Robert S; Crim, Marcus J; Riley, Lela K; Myles, Matthew H

    2016-11-01

    Sampling of bedding debris within the exhaust systems of ventilated racks may be a mechanism for detecting murine pathogens in colony animals. This study examined the effectiveness of detecting pathogens by PCR analysis of exhaust debris samples collected from ventilated racks of 2 different rack designs, one with unfiltered air flow from within the cage to the air-exhaust pathway, and the other had a filter between the cage and the air-exhaust pathway. For 12 wk, racks were populated with either 1 or 5 cages of mice (3 mice per cage) infected with one of the following pathogens: mouse norovirus (MNV), mouse parvovirus (MPV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Helicobacter spp., Pasteurella pneumotropica, pinworms, Entamoeba muris, Tritrichomonas muris, and fur mites. Pathogen shedding by infected mice was monitored throughout the study. In the filter-containing rack, PCR testing of exhaust plenums yielded negative results for all pathogens at all time points of the study. In the rack with open air flow, pathogens detected by PCR analysis of exhaust debris included MHV, Helicobacter spp., P. pneumotropica, pinworms, enteric protozoa, and fur mites; these pathogens were detected in racks housing either 1 or 5 cages of infected mice. Neither MPV nor MNV was detected in exhaust debris, even though prolonged viral shedding was confirmed. These results demonstrate that testing rack exhaust debris from racks with unfiltered air flow detected MHV, enteric bacteria and parasites, and fur mites. However, this method failed to reliably detect MNV or MPV infection of colony animals.

  12. A bibliography of references to avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sonoma S.

    1979-01-01

    Mrs. Wilson has made a genuine effort to include in this bibliography every significant reference to avian cholera since Louis Pasteur's articles appeared in 1880, although she recognizes the likelihood that a few have been overlooked. New listings have been added throughout 1978, but comprehensive coverage of the literature cannot be claimed beyond June of that year.Textbook accounts, because they are generally summaries of work published elsewhere, are excluded. Papers dealing primarily with the biology of Pasteurella multocida, as opposed to the disease it induces in birds, are also excluded, unless they report information of diagnostic usefulness. Short abstracts are not included unless the journals in which they are published are more widely available than those in which the complete articles appear or they are English summaries of foreign language articles.In compiling this bibliography, Mrs. Wilson has made extensive use of Biological Abstracts, the Pesticide Documentation Bulletin, and printouts generated by Bibliographic Retrieval Services, Inc. The "Literature Cited" sections of textbooks and journal articles pertinent to the subject were sources of many additional references. Regardless of the origin of the citation, its accuracy was confirmed by comparison with the original publication, except in those few instances (marked with an asterisk) when the journal was not on the shelves of the libraries accessible to us.The author will be grateful to users of the bibliography who point out errors or omissions.Wayne I. JensenMicrobiologist In Charge

  13. Antibacterial Activity of the Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Juglans regia L. Stem Bark on Human Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moori Bakhtiari N.* PhD,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Bovine mastitis continues to be the most costly disease to the dairy farmers. It dominates in Iran as one of the most prevalent diseases in dairy cattle among the dairy farms. Mastitis treatment with antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant strains and consumer health problem.This study was performed for the first time to analyze in vitro effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark on 6 mastitis pathogens. Materials & Methods the susceptibility of 6 strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica were analyzed against hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC methods. Findings Hydro-alcoholic extract did not have antibacterial effects on E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentration for S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus spp. was 62.5mg/ml of hydro-alcoholic extract. There was not any significant response with concentrations below 100mg/disc on S. aureus, Streptococcus species, P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Minimum bactericidal concentration of this extract was 100mg/ml in all isolates. Conclusion Juglans regia L. have some antibacterial effects on S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus species.

  14. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states

  15. Granzyme A Produces Bioactive IL-1β through a Nonapoptotic Inflammasome-Independent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Hildebrand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial components are recognized by the immune system through activation of the inflammasome, eventually causing processing of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β, a pleiotropic cytokine and one of the most important mediators of inflammation, through the protease caspase-1. Synthesis of the precursor protein and processing into its bioactive form are tightly regulated, given that disturbed control of IL-1β release can cause severe autoinflammatory diseases or contribute to cancer development. We show that the bacterial Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT triggers Il1b gene transcription in macrophages independently of Toll-like receptor signaling through RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated NF-κΒ activation. Furthermore, PMT mediates signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT protein-controlled granzyme A (a serine protease expression in macrophages. The exocytosed granzyme A enters target cells and mediates IL-1β maturation independently of caspase-1 and without inducing cytotoxicity. These findings show that macrophages can induce an IL-1β-initiated immune response independently of inflammasome activity.

  16. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of Pig Respiratory Bacterial Pathogens with Elevated Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Macrolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayao, Denise Ann Estarez; Seddon, Jennifer M; Gibson, Justine S; Blackall, Patrick J; Turni, Conny

    2016-10-01

    Macrolides are often used to treat and control bacterial pathogens causing respiratory disease in pigs. This study analyzed the whole genome sequences of one clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella multocida, and Bordetella bronchiseptica, all isolated from Australian pigs to identify the mechanism underlying the elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for erythromycin, tilmicosin, or tulathromycin. The H. parasuis assembled genome had a nucleotide transition at position 2059 (A to G) in the six copies of the 23S rRNA gene. This mutation has previously been associated with macrolide resistance but this is the first reported mechanism associated with elevated macrolide MICs in H. parasuis. There was no known macrolide resistance mechanism identified in the other three bacterial genomes. However, strA and sul2, aminoglycoside and sulfonamide resistance genes, respectively, were detected in one contiguous sequence (contig 1) of A. pleuropneumoniae assembled genome. This contig was identical to plasmids previously identified in Pasteurellaceae. This study has provided one possible explanation of elevated MICs to macrolides in H. parasuis. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism causing the unexplained macrolide resistance in other Australian pig respiratory pathogens including the role of efflux systems, which were detected in all analyzed genomes.

  17. Occurrence and severity of lung lesions in slaughter pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with different strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Sonja; von Berg, Stephan; Köhler, Kernt; Reinacher, Manfred; Willems, Hermann; Reiner, Gerald

    2014-03-01

    Different vaccination strategies against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae have been adopted worldwide. Reports from the field indicate varying levels of protection among currently available vaccines. The goal of the present study was to compare the efficacies of three widespread commercial vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae under field conditions. 20 farms were included. 14 farms used different single dose vaccines (vaccine 1 [V1], 8 herds; vaccine 2 [V2], 6 herds); another 6 farms (V3) used a two dose vaccination strategy. Gross lesions of 854 lungs and histopathology from 140 lungs were quantified, and a quantitative PCR was applied to detect M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) DNA in lung tissue (n=140). In addition, porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida were tested by qualitative PCR. 53% of lungs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. 55.9% of lungs showed macroscopic enzootic pneumonia (EP)-like lesions. Lung lesion scores (Phyopneumoniae-loads (Phyopneumoniae indicating that the applied diagnostic tools are valuable in confirming the prevalence and severity of M. hyopneumoniae infections. Comparing different vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae indicates varying levels of protection. M. hyopneumoniae is still a major problem despite the widely applied vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO 2 on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO 2 levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO 2 exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO 2 -induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO 2 did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with 32 P-labeled staphylococci

  19. Bacterial meningoencephalomyelitis in dogs: a retrospective study of 23 cases (1990-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Simona T; Platt, Simon R

    2002-01-01

    The clinical records of 23 dogs (1990-1999) with histopathologically confirmed bacterial meningoencephalomyelitis were evaluated retrospectively. No breed, age, sex, or weight predisposition was found. All the dogs presented with clinical signs of a brain lesion, whereas 5 of 23 had neck pain. Pyrexia was detected in 11 of 23 dogs on admission. CBCs revealed neutrophilic leucocytosis in 7 of 21 dogs and thrombocytopenia in 3 of 21 dogs. The serum chemistry profiles were abnormal in 15 of 21 dogs. The results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis were abnormal in 13 of 14 dogs and aerobic CSF culture was positive for bacteria in 1of 8 samples. At postmortem examination, the lesions were localized to the central nervous system. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, and Klebsiella spp were the most frequently isolated bacteria from cultures collected at postmortem examination. Twelve papers reporting 51 total clinical cases of canine bacterial meningoencephalomyelitis were reviewed. The clinical signs and results of the CBC, serum chemistry, blood culture, and CSF analysis were collated and compared with those of this study. The results of the CSF analysis in this study were similar to those in the literature. CSF cultures documented in the literature were positive for Staphylococcus, Pasteurella. Actinomyces, Nocardia spp, and various anaerobic species including Peptostreptococcus, Eubacterium, and Bacteroides spp.

  20. Survival of bacteria of laboratory animal origin on cage bedding and inactivation by hydrogen peroxide vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga, Laurentiu; Benten, W Peter M; Engelhardt, Eva; Gougoula, Christina; Schulze-Röbbecke, Roland; Sager, Martin

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to determine the ability of laboratory animal bacteria to resist desiccation and inactivation by hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) on paper bedding pieces. Bedding pieces were saturated with bacterial suspensions in water or 2% (w/v) bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water, and held in a mouse facility. Viable counts showed variable survival rates over time for the bacterial species used ([ Pasteurella] pneumotropica, Muribacter muris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter redioresistens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Enterococcus faecalis, β-haemolytic Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus xylosus). Overall, BSA increased bacterial survival in the bedding pieces. The survival rates of Bacillus safensis were not influenced by BSA but depended on sporulation. When bedding pieces and Petri dishes inoculated with E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were subjected to HPV disinfection, all bacterial species on the bedding pieces inoculated with bacterial suspensions in water were readily inactivated. By contrast, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, but not E. coli cells survived HPV treatment in high numbers when inoculated on bedding pieces as a BSA suspension. Notably, all three bacterial species were readily inactivated by HPV even in the presence of BSA when smeared on smooth surfaces. In conclusion, the suspension medium and the carrier can influence the environmental survival and susceptibility of bacterial species to HPV. Our results may help to develop standard protocols that can be used to ensure the microbiological quality of experimental rodent housing.

  1. Actividad in vitro de bacterias endófitas fijadoras de nitrógeno y solubilizadoras de fosfatos.

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    Alexander Pérez-Cordero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar in vitro la actividad fijadora de nitrógeno y solubilizadora de fosfato de bacterias endófitas de pasto colosoana (Bothriochloa pertusa. Se colectó la raíz, los tallos y las hojas del pasto en cuatro zonas agroecológicas del municipio de Corozal, Sucre, Colombia, durante el segundo semestre del año 2012. Cada tejido fue sometido a proceso de desinfección superficial. Se aislaron bacterias endófitas en medio de cultivo agar R2A, a partir de cada tejido se determinó la densidad poblacional (UFC/g de tejido, por conteo en superficie; la separación de morfotipos se realizó mediante la forma, color, tamaño y apariencia. La actividad fijadora de nitrógeno y solubilizadora de fosfato se evaluó in vitro sobre medios de cultivos específicos. Todos los resultados obtenidos fueron analizados utilizando el programa estadístico R. Hubo diferencias significativas para densidades poblacional de bacterias con respecto a tejido, con mayores valores en raíz (1,61 x 1010/g raíz, seguida de tallo (7,44 x 109/g tallo y los valores más bajos se reportaron para hojas (5,42 x 109/g hoja. Se encontró significancia entre la densidad poblacional con relación a los factores de zona, fincas y tipo de tejido analizado. Los resultados de la identificación con kit API20E confirmaron la presencia de las bacterias endófitas Aeromonas salmonicida y Pasteurella pneumotropica con capacidad simultánea de solubilizar fosfatos y fijar nitrógeno.

  2. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities of an important medicinal plant (Euphorbia royleana from Pakistan

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    Aisha Ashraf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities of methanol, hexane, and aqueous extracts of fresh Euphorbia royleana. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated as gallic acid and querectin equivalents, respectively. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging of free 2,2′- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and reduction of ferric ions, and it was observed that inhibition values increase linearly with increase in concentration of extract. The results of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that hexane extract has maximum ferric reducing power (12.70 ± 0.49 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of plant extract. Maximum phenolic (47.47 ± 0.71 μg gallic acid equivalents/mg of plant extract and flavonoid (63.68 ± 0.43 μg querectin equivalents/mg of plant extract contents were also found in the hexane extract. Furthermore, we examined antimicrobial activity of the three extracts (methanol, hexane, aqueous against a panel of microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pasteurella multocida, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium solani by disc-diffusion assay, and found the hexane extract to be the best antimicrobial agent. Hexane extract was also observed as to be most effective in a potato disc assay. As hexane extract showed potent activity in all the investigated assays, it was targeted for cytotoxic assessment. Maximum cytotoxicity (61.66% by hexane extract was found at 800 μg/mL. It is concluded that investigated extracts have potential for isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Microbiologic, radiographic, and anatomic study of the nasolacrimal duct apparatus in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, R.P.; Foltz, C.J.; Kersten, D.; Batchelder, M.; Kaser, W.; Li, X.

    1996-01-01

    This study was motivated by the sporadic observation of epiphora in two male rabbits. The epiphora was unilateral and not associated with conjunctivitis or Pasteurella infection. To characterize the cause of epiphora, we studied 15 specific-pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits. This study group was composed of the two affected males, four unaffected males, and nine unaffected females. Clinical evaluation consisted of bacterial culture of conjunctival specimens, examination of conjunctival scrapings for chlamydial inclusions, culture and cytologic examination of specimens from the nasolacrimal duct, plain and contrast radiography, latex casting, histologic examination, and the Schirmer tear test. Important differences found in the rabbits with epiphora included an opalescent, gritty, nasolacrimal duct flush fluid and marked unilateral dilatation of the duct proximal to a dorsal flexure at the caudal limit of the incisor tooth root. The flush solution from one affected rabbit cleared with ether, suggesting the presence of triglycerides or cholesterol. The organisms most commonly isolated from the conjunctiva were Moraxella sp., Oligella urethralis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus viridans. The organisms most commonly isolated from the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid were Moraxella sp., S. viridans, and Neisseria sp. Culture of the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid yielded microorganisms more consistently than did culture of the conjunctival specimens. All microorganisms isolated from affected rabbits also were isolated from unaffected rabbits. There was no apparent contribution of microorganisms to the development of epiphora, and Schirmer tear test results for affected animals were within the range seen in unaffected animals. Occlusion of the nasolacrimal duct was presumed to be attributable to fat droplets nasolacrimal duct anatomic

  4. Avaliação de bacterina e Lactobacillus plantarum frente à infecção experimental por Vibrio harveyi em pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Celso Carlos Buglione

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the effect of probiotics and inactivated cells of bacterias such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida and Pasteurella multocida in larvae survival of Litopenaeus vannamei, in stress test and experimental infection with Vibrio harveyi. Conic tanks of 30 L, were stocked with 400 post-larvae stage five. Four experimental treatments with triplicates consisted of: 1: commercial feed (control, 2: commercial feed plus bacterin by oral administration in artemia, 3: commercial feed plus bacterin by immersion administration, 4: commercial feed with Lactobacillus plantarum inoculation. Bacterin application was conducted 6h before the infection and stress test, while probiotic administration was for 15 days before challenges. In stress test, post-larvae of treatment 4 (commercial feed supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum with reached the highest survival rate (87,86 ± 2,35% followed by the ones of treatment 3 and 2 (bacterim by immersion and bacterim by oral administration in artemia with 81,54±1,50% and 80,16 ± 2,15%, respectively, which were superior to the control treatment (72,63 ± 3,34%. Next to V. harveyi challenge, animals from treatment 3 presented the highest survival rate (79,60 ± 7,12% followed by treatments 4 (69,60 ± 10,43%, 2 (65,60 ± 5,18% and control (56,4 ± 5,58%. All treatments were different from control. The present results demonstrate the possible use of L. plantarum and bacterin as promoters in survival rates of L. vannamei post-larvae in the stress tests and challenges with Vibrio harveyi.

  5. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae - A Primary Cause of Severe Pneumonia Epizootics in the Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handeland, Kjell; Tengs, Torstein; Kokotovic, Branko; Vikøren, Turid; Ayling, Roger D.; Bergsjø, Bjarne; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G.; Bretten, Tord

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian muskox (Ovibos moschatus) population lives on the high mountain plateau of Dovre and originates from animals introduced from Greenland. In the late summers of 2006 and 2012, severe outbreaks of pneumonia with mortality rates of 25-30% occurred. During the 2012 epidemic high quality samples from culled sick animals were obtained for microbiological and pathological examinations. High throughput sequencing (pyrosequencing) of pneumonic lung tissue revealed high concentrations of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in all six animals examined by this method and Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida in four animals, whereas no virus sequences could be identified. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and P. multocida multocida were also isolated by culture. Using real time PCR on lung swabs, M. ovipneumoniae was detected in all of the 19 pneumonic lungs examined. Gross pathological examination revealed heavy consolidations primarily in the cranial parts of the lungs and it also identified one case of otitis media. Histologically, lung lesions were characterized as acute to subacute mixed exudative and moderately proliferative bronchoalveolar pneumonia. Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination revealed high load of M. ovipneumoniae antigens within lung lesions, with particularly intensive staining in the neutrophils. Similar IHC finding were observed in archived lung tissue blocks from animals examined during the 2006 epidemic. An M. ovipneumoniae specific ELISA was applied on bio-banked muskox sera from stray muskoxen killed in the period 2004–2013 and sick muskoxen culled, as well as sera from wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) on Dovre and muskoxen from Greenland. Serology and mycoplasma culturing was also carried out on sheep that had been on pasture in the muskox area during the outbreak in 2012. Our findings indicated separate introductions of M. ovipneumoniae infection in 2006 and 2012 from infected co-grazing sheep. Salt licks shared by the two species were a

  6. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--a primary cause of severe pneumonia epizootics in the Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos moschatus population.

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    Kjell Handeland

    Full Text Available The Norwegian muskox (Ovibos moschatus population lives on the high mountain plateau of Dovre and originates from animals introduced from Greenland. In the late summers of 2006 and 2012, severe outbreaks of pneumonia with mortality rates of 25-30% occurred. During the 2012 epidemic high quality samples from culled sick animals were obtained for microbiological and pathological examinations. High throughput sequencing (pyrosequencing of pneumonic lung tissue revealed high concentrations of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in all six animals examined by this method and Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida in four animals, whereas no virus sequences could be identified. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and P. multocida multocida were also isolated by culture. Using real time PCR on lung swabs, M. ovipneumoniae was detected in all of the 19 pneumonic lungs examined. Gross pathological examination revealed heavy consolidations primarily in the cranial parts of the lungs and it also identified one case of otitis media. Histologically, lung lesions were characterized as acute to subacute mixed exudative and moderately proliferative bronchoalveolar pneumonia. Immunohistochemical (IHC examination revealed high load of M. ovipneumoniae antigens within lung lesions, with particularly intensive staining in the neutrophils. Similar IHC finding were observed in archived lung tissue blocks from animals examined during the 2006 epidemic. An M. ovipneumoniae specific ELISA was applied on bio-banked muskox sera from stray muskoxen killed in the period 2004-2013 and sick muskoxen culled, as well as sera from wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus on Dovre and muskoxen from Greenland. Serology and mycoplasma culturing was also carried out on sheep that had been on pasture in the muskox area during the outbreak in 2012. Our findings indicated separate introductions of M. ovipneumoniae infection in 2006 and 2012 from infected co-grazing sheep. Salt licks shared by the two

  7. Protostrongylid parasites and pneumonia in captive and wild thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, E J; Veitch, A M; Kutz, S J; Bollinger, T K; Chirino-Trejo, J M; Elkin, B T; West, K H; Hoberg, E P; Polley, L

    2007-04-01

    We describe health significance of protostrongylid parasites (Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and Protostrongylus stilesi) and other respiratory pathogens in more than 50 naturally infected Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) from the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories (1998-2002) as well as in three Stone's sheep (O. d. stonei) experimentally infected with P. odocoilei (2000-2002). Histological lesions in the brain and distribution of P. odocoilei in the muscles of experimentally and naturally infected sheep were consistent with a previously hypothesized "central nervous system to muscle" pattern of migration for P. odocoilei. Dimensions of granulomas associated with eggs of P. odocoilei and density of protostrongylid eggs and larvae in the cranial lung correlated with intensity of larvae in feces, and all varied with season of collection. Prevalence of P. stilesi based on the presence of larvae in feces underestimated true prevalence (based on examination of lungs) in wild Dall's sheep collected in summer and fall. Similarly, counts of both types of protostrongylid larvae in feces were unreliable indicators of parasitic infection in wild Dall's sheep with concomitant bacterial pneumonia associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Pasteurella sp., and Mannheimia sp. Diffuse, interstitial pneumonia due to P. odocoilei led to fatal pulmonary hemorrhage and edema after exertion in one experimentally infected Stone's sheep and one naturally infected Dall's sheep. Bacterial and verminous pneumonia associated with pathogens endemic in wild Dall's sheep in the Mackenzie Mountains caused sporadic mortalities. There was no evidence of respiratory viruses or bacterial strains associated with domestic ruminants, from which this population of wild sheep has been historically isolated.

  8. Effects of Enrofloxacin on Porcine Phagocytic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoevers, E. J.; van Leengoed, L. A. M. G.; Verheijden, J. H. M.; Niewold, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between enrofloxacin and porcine phagocytes was studied with clinically relevant concentrations of enrofloxacin. Enrofloxacin accumulated in phagocytes, with cellular concentration/extracellular concentration ratios of 9 for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and 5 for alveolar macrophages (AMs). Cells with accumulated enrofloxacin brought into enrofloxacin-free medium released approximately 80% (AMs) to 90% (PMNs) of their enrofloxacin within the first 10 min, after which no further release was seen. Enrofloxacin affected neither the viability of PMNs and AMs nor the chemotaxis of PMNs at concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 μg/ml. Enrofloxacin (0.5 μg/ml) did not alter the capability of PMNs and AMs to phagocytize fluorescent microparticles or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Staphylococcus aureus. Significant differences in intracellular killing were seen with enrofloxacin at 5× the MIC compared with that for controls not treated with enrofloxacin. PMNs killed all S. aureus isolates in 3 h with or without enrofloxacin. Intracellular S. aureus isolates in AMs were less susceptible than extracellular S. aureus isolates to the bactericidal effect of enrofloxacin. P. multocida was not phagocytosed by PMNs. AMs did not kill P. multocida, and similar intra- and extracellular reductions of P. multocida isolates by enrofloxacin were found. Intraphagocytic killing of A. pleuropneumoniae was significantly enhanced by enrofloxacin at 5× the MIC in both PMNs and AMs. AMs are very susceptible to the A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin. This suggests that in serologically naive pigs the enhancing effect of enrofloxacin on the bactericidal action of PMNs may have clinical relevance. PMID:10471554

  9. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of bacterial culture of nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capik, Sarah F; White, Brad J; Lubbers, Brian V; Apley, Michael D; DeDonder, Keith D; Larson, Robert L; Harhay, Greg P; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Harhay, Dayna M; Kalbfleisch, Ted S; Schuller, Gennie; Clawson, Michael L

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare predictive values, extent of agreement, and gamithromycin susceptibility between bacterial culture results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). ANIMALS 28 beef calves with clinical BRD. PROCEDURES Pooled bilateral NPS samples and BALF samples were obtained for bacterial culture from calves immediately before and at various times during the 5 days after gamithromycin (6 mg/kg, SC, once) administration. For each culture-positive sample, up to 12 Mannheimia haemolytica, 6 Pasteurella multocida, and 6 Histophilus somni colonies underwent gamithromycin susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on all M haemolytica isolates. For paired NPS and BALF samples collected 5 days after gamithromycin administration, the positive and negative predictive values for culture results of NPS samples relative to those of BALF samples and the extent of agreement between the sampling methods were determined. RESULTS Positive and negative predictive values of NPS samples were 67% and 100% for M haemolytica, 75% and 100% for P multocida, and 100% and 96% for H somni. Extent of agreement between results for NPS and BALF samples was substantial for M haemolytica (κ, 0.71) and H somni (κ, 0.78) and almost perfect for P multocida (κ, 0.81). Gamithromycin susceptibility varied within the same sample and between paired NPS and BALF samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated culture results of NPS and BALF samples from calves with BRD should be interpreted cautiously considering disease prevalence within the population, sample collection relative to antimicrobial administration, and limitations of diagnostic testing methods.

  10. The leukocyte common antigen (CD45) on human pre-B leukemia cells: variant glycoprotein form expression during the cell exposure to phorbol ester is blocked by a nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraj, J.; Sedlak, J.; Chorvath, B.; Rauko, P.

    1997-01-01

    The human pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line REH6 was utilized for characterization of CD45 glycoprotein by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing four distinct CD45 antigen specificities, i.e. nonrestricted CD45, restricted, CD45RA, CD45RB and CD45R0. Immunoprecipitation revealed two antigen specificities on REH6 cells of m.w. 220 kDa and 190 kDa, both presenting wide range of isoelectric point pI∼6.0-7.5. Nonrestricted CD45 epitopes were not affected by the sialyl acid cleavage with sodium meta-periodate or neuraminidase, but were sensitive to both, tunicamycin, the N-glycosylation inhibitor and monensin, an inhibitor of protein transport through the Golgi compartment. O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase from Pasteurella haemolytica A1 partially cleaved CD45RA and CD45RB epitopes, while nonrestricted CD45 determinants were not affected by this enzyme. Limited proteolysis of this antigen resulted in the appearance of 160-180 kDa peptide domains which retained CD45 epitopes. Further, the treatment of cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced marked down-regulation of 220 and 190 kDa isoforms and the appearance of new 210, 180 and 170 kDa variant glycoprotein forms which were not found on parental cells. This PMA effect was not accompanied by the programmed cell death and was markedly blocked by a nonselective protein kinase (PK) inhibitor iso-quinoline sulfonamide H7. Modulation of CD45 by phorbol esters might serve as an in vitro model for an additional insight into the function of CD45 in hematopoietic cells. (author)

  11. Anti-BACE1 and Antimicrobial Activities of Steroidal Compounds Isolated from Marine Urechis unicinctus

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    Yong-Zhe Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The human β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme (BACE1 has been considered as an effective drug target for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In this study, Urechis unicinctus (U. unicinctus, which is a Far East specialty food known as innkeeper worm, ethanol extract was studied by bioassay-directed fractionation and isolation to examine its potential β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. The following compounds were characterized: hecogenin, cholest-4-en-3-one, cholesta-4,6-dien-3-ol, and hurgadacin. These compounds were identified by their mass spectrometry, 1H, and 13C NMR spectral data, comparing those data with NIST/EPA/NIH Mass spectral database (NIST11 and published values. Hecogenin and cholest-4-en-3-one showed significant inhibitory activity against BACE1 with EC50 values of 116.3 and 390.6 µM, respectively. Cholesta-4,6-dien-3-ol and hurgadacin showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, particularly strongly against Escherichia coli (E. coli, Salmonella enterica (S. enterica, Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida, and Physalospora piricola (P. piricola, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC ranging from 0.46 to 0.94 mg/mL. This is the first report regarding those four known compounds that were isolated from U. unicinctus and their anti-BACE1 and antimicrobial activity, highlighting the fact that known natural compounds may be a critical source of new medicine leads. These findings provide scientific evidence for potential application of those bioactive compounds for the development of AD drugs and antimicrobial agents.

  12. Anti-BACE1 and Antimicrobial Activities of Steroidal Compounds Isolated from Marine Urechis unicinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Liu, Jing-Wen; Wang, Xue; Jeong, In-Hong; Ahn, Young-Joon; Zhang, Chuan-Jie

    2018-03-14

    The human β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme (BACE1) has been considered as an effective drug target for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, Urechis unicinctus (U. unicinctus) , which is a Far East specialty food known as innkeeper worm, ethanol extract was studied by bioassay-directed fractionation and isolation to examine its potential β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. The following compounds were characterized: hecogenin, cholest-4- en -3-one, cholesta-4,6- dien -3-ol, and hurgadacin. These compounds were identified by their mass spectrometry, ¹H, and 13 C NMR spectral data, comparing those data with NIST/EPA/NIH Mass spectral database (NIST11) and published values. Hecogenin and cholest-4- en -3-one showed significant inhibitory activity against BACE1 with EC 50 values of 116.3 and 390.6 µM, respectively. Cholesta-4,6- dien -3-ol and hurgadacin showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, particularly strongly against Escherichia coli (E. coli) , Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) , Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) , and Physalospora piricola (P. piricola) , with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.46 to 0.94 mg/mL. This is the first report regarding those four known compounds that were isolated from U. unicinctus and their anti-BACE1 and antimicrobial activity, highlighting the fact that known natural compounds may be a critical source of new medicine leads. These findings provide scientific evidence for potential application of those bioactive compounds for the development of AD drugs and antimicrobial agents.

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria That Cause Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in Alberta, Canada

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    R. Michele Anholt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is the most important illness of feedlot cattle. Disease management targets the associated bacterial pathogens, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Trueperella pyogenes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant BRD pathogens using a collaborative network of veterinarians, industry, government, and a diagnostic laboratory. Seven private veterinary practices in southern Alberta collected samples from both living and dead BRD-affected animals at commercial feedlots. Susceptibility testing of 745 isolates showed that 100% of the M. haemolytica, M. bovis, P. multocida, and T. pyogenes isolates and 66.7% of the H. somni isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial class. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobials (90.2% of all isolates was notable for their importance to beef production and human medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR was high in all target pathogens with 47.2% of the isolates resistant to four or five antimicrobial classes and 24.0% resistance to six to nine classes. We compared the MDR profiles of isolates from two feedlots serviced by different veterinary practices. Differences in the average number of resistant classes were found for M. haemolytica (p < 0.001 and P. multocida (p = 0.002. Compared to previous studies, this study suggests an increasing trend of resistance in BRD pathogens against the antimicrobials used to manage the disease in Alberta. For the veterinary clinician, the results emphasize the importance of ongoing susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens to inform treatment protocols. Surveillance studies that collect additional epidemiological information and manage sampling bias will be necessary to develop strategies to limit the spread of resistance.

  14. Preliminary clinical pharmacological investigations of tylosin and tiamulin in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, G

    1980-10-15

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tiamulin and tylosin for mycoplasma, Gram-positive, and Gram-negative micro-organisms isolated from chickens were determinated by the agar dilution method. Median MIC values for tiamulin against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (0.05 microgram/ml) and Mycoplasma synoviae (0.10 microgram/ml) were 2 to 4 times lower than the corresponding values for tylosin. Tiamulin was also slightly more effective in vitro in inhibiting Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, and beta-haemolytic streptococci than was tylosin. Groups of chicken were offered tiamulin medicated drinking water at rates of 125 and 250 mg/litre for 48 hours. Average serum tiamulin concentrations were 0.38 and 0.78 microgram/ml, respectively. When tylosin tartrate was added to the drinking water at 500 and 700 mg/litre, average serum drug levels were 0.12 and 0.17 microgram/ml, respectively. Tiamulin was 45% bound in chicken serum, as against 30% serum protein binding for tylosin. Correlations were made between free (non protein bound) serum drug levels and the MIC values of the two drugs. Such comparisons suggest that when tiamulin is given in the drinking water at rates of 125 to 250 mg/litre, better antimycoplasmal activity is to be expected in vivo than by giving tylosin tartrate in the drinking water at 500 to 700 mg/litre. Based on these data, no clinical efficacy of these dose rates can be expected in flocks infected by gram-negative micro-organisms such as E. coli or P. multocida. The tylosin tartrate rate of 500 to 700 mg/litre, may be clinical ineffective the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections.

  15. Molecular identification of bacteria associated with canine periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Marcello P; Lennon, Alan; Taylor, David J; Bennett, David

    2011-06-02

    Periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases of adult dogs, with up to 80% of animals affected. The aetiology of the disease is poorly studied, although bacteria are known to play a major role. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with canine gingivitis and periodontitis and to compare this with the normal oral flora. Swabs were obtained from the gingival margin of three dogs with gingivitis and three orally healthy controls, and subgingival plaque was collected from three dogs with periodontitis. Samples were subjected to routine bacterial culture. The prevalent species identified in the normal, gingivitis and periodontitis groups were uncultured bacterium (12.5% of isolates), Bacteroides heparinolyticus/Pasteurella dagmatis (10.0%) and Actinomyces canis (19.4%), respectively. Bacteria were also identified using culture-independent methods (16S rRNA gene sequencing) and the predominant species identified were Pseudomonas sp. (30.9% of clones analysed), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (16.1%) and Desulfomicrobium orale (12.0%) in the normal, gingivitis and periodontitis groups, respectively. Uncultured species accounted for 13.2%, 2.0% and 10.5%, and potentially novel species for 38.2%, 38.3% and 35.3%, of clones in the normal, gingivitis and periodontitis groups, respectively. This is the first study to use utilise culture-independent methods for the identification of bacteria associated with this disease. It is concluded that the canine oral flora in health and disease is highly diverse and also contains a high proportion of uncultured and, in particular, potentially novel species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel

    2014-08-06

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <1%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was 3-6% and tetracycline resistance varied from 14.7% in A. pleuropneumoniae to 81.8% in S. suis. In conclusion, low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe, 2009-2012: VetPath results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Garch, Farid; de Jong, Anno; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Marion, Hervé; Haag-Diergarten, Silke; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Thomas, Valérie; Siegwart, Ed

    2016-10-15

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme that collects pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 996 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 10 countries during 2009-2012. Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MIC values of 16 or 17 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI standards. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. Cattle isolates were generally highly susceptible to most antibiotics, except to tetracycline (3.0-12.0% resistance). Low levels of resistance (0-4.0%) were observed for the macrolide antibiotics. Resistance to spectinomycin varied from 0 to 6.0%. In pig isolates similar observations were made. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tulathromycin, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <2%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance varied from 1.9 to 5.3%, but tetracycline resistance varied from 20.4% in P. multocida to 88.1% in S. suis. For most antibiotics and pathogens the percentage resistance remained unchanged or only increased numerically as compared to that of the period 2002-2006. In conclusion, absence or low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from livestock. Comparison of all antibiotics and organisms was hampered since for almost half of the antibiotics no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available. Copyright © 2016

  18. A survey of veterinary hospitals in Nigeria for the presence of some bacterial organisms of nosocomial and zoonotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Lawal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the type and estimate the prevalence of bacterial organisms on contact surfaces of five close-to-patient facilities in three veterinary health care settings within the Sokoto metropolis of north-western Nigeria. A total of 30 samples (10 from each setting were collected and analysed using culture, microscopy and biochemical testing. Bacterial species isolated from samples in this study included the following: Bacillus sp. (27.3%, Staphylococcus aureus (15.9%, Listeria sp. (13.6%, Streptococcus sp. (11.4%, Salmonella sp. (6.8%, Escherichia coli (4.5%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.5%, Citrobacter sp. (2.3%, Klebsiella sp. (2.3%, Lactobacillus sp. (2.3%, Micrococcus sp. (2.3%, Pasteurella sp. (2.3%, Proteus sp. (2.3%, and Yersinia sp. (2.3%. A higher percentage (64.3% of the total bacterial isolates were zoonotic in nature and hence of public health significance. Some pathogens have the potential of nosocomial spread. In this study, we seek to establish the first evidence of bacterial presence in the major veterinary health care settings in the Sokoto region of north-western Nigeria. Of particular interest is the hypothesis, which has not previously been formally tested, that nosocomial infections are especially likely to be implicated in both animals and occupational diseases in Nigeria. It was suggested that some of these isolates were associated with the risk of nosocomial and zoonotic infections and hence draws attention to the need to rigorously employ standard veterinary precautions as part of the hospital’s infection control programme in an attempt to protect both patients and staff from infections.

  19. Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock, poultry and humans: a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmberg, Johan; Berg, Charlotte; Lerner, Henrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Hessel, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans. Research thus far suggests that these birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus, Salmonella, Campylobacter , and antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, at present there is no evidence that geese and swans play a role in transmission of Newcastle disease, duck plague, West Nile virus, Vibrio, Yersinia, Clostridium, Chlamydophila , and Borrelia . Finally, based on present knowledge it is not possible to say if geese and swans play a role in transmission of Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Helicobacter, Brachyspira, Cryptosporidium, Giardia , and Microsporidia. This is largely due to changes in classification and taxonomy, rapid development of identification methods and lack of knowledge about host specificity. Previous research tends to overrate the role of geese and swans as disease vectors; we do not find any evidence that they are significant transmitters to humans or livestock of any of the pathogens considered in this review. Nevertheless, it is wise to keep poultry and livestock separated from small volume waters used by many wild waterfowl, but there is no need to discourage livestock grazing in nature reserves or pastures where geese and swans are present. Under some circumstances it is warranted to discourage swans and geese from using wastewater ponds, drinking water reservoirs, and public beaches. Intensified screening of swans and geese for AIV, West Nile virus and anatid herpesvirus is warranted.

  20. Aerobic bacteria from mucous membranes, ear canals, and skin wounds of feral cats in Grenada, and the antimicrobial drug susceptibility of major isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Harry; Matthew, Vanessa; Fountain, Jacqueline; Snell, Alicia; Doherty, Devin; King, Brittany; Shemer, Eran; Oliveira, Simone; Sharma, Ravindra N

    2011-03-01

    In a 2-year period 54 feral cats were captured in Grenada, West Indies, and a total of 383 samples consisting of swabs from rectum, vagina, ears, eyes, mouth, nose and wounds/abscesses, were cultured for aerobic bacteria and campylobacters. A total of 251 bacterial isolates were obtained, of which 205 were identified to species level and 46 to genus level. A commercial bacterial identification system (API/Biomerieux), was used for this purpose. The most common species was Escherichia coli (N=60), followed by Staphylococcus felis/simulans (40), S. hominis (16), S. haemolyticus (12), Streptococcus canis (9), Proteus mirabilis (8), Pasteurella multocida (7), Streptococcus mitis (7), Staphylococcus xylosus (7), S. capitis (6), S. chromogenes (4), S. sciuri (3), S. auricularis (2), S. lentus (2), S. hyicus (2), Streptococcus suis (2) and Pseudomonas argentinensis (2). Sixteen other isolates were identified to species level. A molecular method using 16S rRNA sequencing was used to confirm/identify 22 isolates. Salmonella or campylobacters were not isolated from rectal swabs. E. coli and S. felis/simulans together constituted 50% of isolates from vagina. S. felis/simulans was the most common species from culture positive ear and eye samples. P. multocida was isolated from 15% of mouth samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common isolates from nose and wound swabs. Staphylococcus aureus, or S. intemedius/S. pseudintermedius were not isolated from any sample. Antimicrobial drug resistance was minimal, most isolates being susceptible to all drugs tested against, including tetracycline. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early and late effects of fission-neutron or gamma irradiation on the clearance of bacteria from the lungs of B6CF1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.C.; Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    Enhanced susceptibility to experimental respiratory infection following chronic exposure to low-level gamma radiation has been reported, but no comparable information exists for neutron-irradiated animals. Such information is needed in view of the apparently greater additivity of repeated low fission-neutron doses. Consequently altered susceptibility to respiratory infection is being examined in the JANUS Neutron and Gamma-Ray Toxicity Program. Some B6CF 1 mice of various ages were challenged with Pasteurella pneumotropica either by intranasal instillation or by aerosol inhalation following single or fractionated doses of neutrons or 60 Co gamma radiation. Clearance of the bacteria from the lungs was assessed 4 days after challenge by a culture technique and by histological and immunofluorescence staining. From 5 to 21 days after a single dose of 288 neutron rads or 740 gamma rads, a ratio equal to the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for cell killing, there was little repair of the radiation-damaged clearance mechanism evident in neutron-irradiated mice; 85% were unable to clear the organism as long as 21 days after irradiation. Over the same period only 25% of gamma-irradiated mice failed to eliminate P. pneumotropica. Immunofluorescent-stained lung sections at all time intervals between 5 and 21 days were strikingly similar among neutron- and gamma-irradiated mice and unirradiated mice. Alveolar macrophages were swollen with fluorescent P. pneumotropica cells, and macrophages surrounding the bronchi and in the bronchial exudate were also intensely fluorescent. These data, coupled with the culture data, indicate that pulmonary macrophages in the irradiated host are capable of engulfing P. pneumotropica cells but that the ability to kill them is impaired

  2. Revisiting the genus Photobacterium: taxonomy, ecology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labella, Alejandro M; Arahal, David R; Castro, Dolores; Lemos, Manuel L; Borrego, Juan J

    2017-03-01

    The genus Photobacterium, one of the eight genera included in the family Vibrionaceae, contains 27 species with valid names and it has received attention because of the bioluminescence and pathogenesis mechanisms that some of its species exhibit. However, the taxonomy and phylogeny of this genus are not completely elucidated; for example, P. logei and P. fischeri are now considered members of the genus Aliivibrio, and previously were included in the genus Vibrio. In addition, P. damselae subsp. piscicida was formed as a new combination for former Vibrio damsela and Pasteurella piscicida. Moreover, P. damselae subsp. damselae is an earlier heterotypic synonym of P. histaminum. To avoid these incovenences draft and complete genomic sequences of members of Photobacterium are increasingly becoming available and their use is now routine for many research laboratories to address diverse goals: species delineation with overall genomic indexes, phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomics, and phenotypic inference. The habitats and isolation source of the Photobacterium species include seawater, sea sediments, saline lake waters, and a variety of marine organisms with which the photobacteria establish different relationships, from symbiosis to pathogenic interactions. Several species of this genus contain bioluminescent strains in symbiosis with marine fish and cephalopods; in addition, other species enhance its growth at pressures above 1 atmosphere, by means of several high-pressure adaptation mechanisms and for this, they may be considered as piezophilic (former barophilic) bacteria. Until now, only P. jeanii, P. rosenbergii, P. sanctipauli, and the two subspecies of P. damselae have been reported as responsible agents of several pathologies on animal hosts, such as corals, sponges, fish and homeothermic animals. In this review we have revised and updated the taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity of several members of this genus. [Int Microbiol 20(1): 1-10 (2017

  3. Avian Cholera emergence in Arctic-nesting northern Common Eiders: using community-based, participatory surveillance to delineate disease outbreak patterns and predict transmission risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Iverson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are a growing concern in wildlife conservation. Documenting outbreak patterns and determining the ecological drivers of transmission risk are fundamental to predicting disease spread and assessing potential impacts on population viability. However, evaluating disease in wildlife populations requires expansive surveillance networks that often do not exist in remote and developing areas. Here, we describe the results of a community-based research initiative conducted in collaboration with indigenous harvesters, the Inuit, in response to a new series of Avian Cholera outbreaks affecting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima and other comingling species in the Canadian Arctic. Avian Cholera is a virulent disease of birds caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Common Eiders are a valuable subsistence resource for Inuit, who hunt the birds for meat and visit breeding colonies during the summer to collect eggs and feather down for use in clothing and blankets. We compiled the observations of harvesters about the growing epidemic and with their assistance undertook field investigation of 131 colonies distributed over >1200 km of coastline in the affected region. Thirteen locations were identified where Avian Cholera outbreaks have occurred since 2004. Mortality rates ranged from 1% to 43% of the local breeding population at these locations. Using a species-habitat model (Maxent, we determined that the distribution of outbreak events has not been random within the study area and that colony size, vegetation cover, and a measure of host crowding in shared wetlands were significantly correlated to outbreak risk. In addition, outbreak locations have been spatially structured with respect to hypothesized introduction foci and clustered along the migration corridor linking Arctic breeding areas with wintering areas in Atlantic Canada. At present, Avian Cholera remains a localized threat to Common Eider populations in the

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline-Free Acid in Clinically Healthy Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Sarah E; Korte, Scott W; Giguère, Steeve; Fales, William H; Davis, Jennifer L; Dixon, Lonny W

    2016-03-01

    Economical, injectable antibiotics are beneficial when clinical manifestations of an animal model prevent the use of oral antibiotics. Ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) is an injectable, sustained-release form of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin that is labeled for use in swine, cattle, and horses. Because CCFA is an economical, injectable antibiotic that could be of value for use in research dogs, the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of CCFA in apparently healthy dogs and to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for veterinary pathogens cultured during 2011 through 2014 from the respiratory system, integumentary system, and urinary system of dogs. The study population comprised of 5 dogs (age, 1 y; weight, 24.7 to 26.9 kg) that were deemed healthy after no abnormalities were found on physical exam, CBC analysis, and clinical chemistry panel. Each dog received CCFA at 5.0 mg/kg SC, and blood samples were collected before administration of CCFA and at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 h after injection. The maximal plasma concentration (mean ± 1 SD) of CCFA was 1.98 ± 0.40 μ g/mL, time to reach maximal concentration was 22.3 ± 8.9 h, half-life was 56.6 ± 16.9 h, and AUC0-last was 124.98 ± 18.45 μ g-h/mL. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur ranged from ≤ 0.25 to ≥ 8.0 μ g/mL; ceftiofur was most effective against Pasteurella spp., Proteus spp., and Escherichia coli haemolytica and least effective against Bordatella bronchiseptica, Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  5. The Dutch Brucella abortus monitoring programme for cattle: the impact of false-positive serological reactions and comparison of serological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerzaal, A; de Wit, J J; Dijkstra, Th; Bakker, D; van Zijderveld, F G

    2002-02-01

    The Dutch national Brucella abortus eradication programme for cattle started in 1959. Sporadic cases occurred yearly until 1995; the last infected herd was culled in 1996. In August 1999 the Netherlands was declared officially free of bovine brucellosis by the European Union. Before 1999, the programme to monitor the official Brucella-free status of bovine herds was primarily based on periodical testing of dairy herds with the milk ring test (MRT) and serological testing of all animals older than 1 year of age from non-dairy herds, using the micro-agglutination test (MAT) as screening test. In addition, serum samples of cattle that aborted were tested with the MAT. The high number of false positive reactions in both tests and the serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for confirmation seemed to result in unnecessary blockade of herds, subsequent testing and slaughter of animals. For this reason, a validation study was performed in which three indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the CFT and the SAT were compared using a panel of sera from brucellosis-free cattle, sera from experimentally infected cattle, and sera from cattle experimentally infected with bacteria which are known to induce cross-reactive antibodies (Pasteurella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and Escherichia). Moreover, four ELISAs and the MRT were compared using a panel of 1000 bulk milk samples from Brucella-free herds and 12 milk samples from Brucella abortus- infected cattle. It is concluded that the ELISA obtained from ID-Lelystad is the most suitable test to monitor the brucelosis free status of herds because it gives rise to fewer false-positive reactions than the SAT.

  6. The effect of submersion denture base acrylic resin in a betel leaf ekstract solution against growth Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Izham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Denture base is a protesa which replace some or all of the lost original teeth and surrounding tissues. The Pupose of making protesa is for restore the function, appearance, comfort and impaired health result lost teeth. One part of the denture base is base plate. Microorganisms are often found in the oral cavity is Candida albicans (C.albicans approximately 40% in the oral cavity.C.albicans can penetrate the acrylic resin that can infect the soft tissue and is the cause of denture stomatitis therefore the disinfection of denture base is a important factor that must be done. In general betel leaves contant up to 4.2% essential oil compounds and phenyl propanoid and tannin. These compounds is a antimicroba and antifungal which can inhibit the growth of several type of bacteria among others Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aurens, Klebstella, Pasteurella and can turn off the C.albicans. The purpose of the research is to determine how the effect of submersion denture base acrylic resin in a betel leaf ekstract solution against growth C.albicans.Type of research is an experimental laboratory with a longitudinal design (follow-up study. The sampling method used is total sampling. The results showed that the number of C.albicans colonies n denture base acrylic resin which soaked betel leaf extract solution that the dilution 10-1  with consentration 2.5% total colony count is 2 and the results 2.0 x 101 CFU/ml, on a control solution that the dilution 10-2 total colony 355 and the result 3.55 x 104 CFU/ml, that the dilution  10-3 total colony 62 and the result 6.2 x 104 CFU/ml.

  7. Assessing respiratory pathogen communities in bighorn sheep populations: Sampling realities, challenges, and improvements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson J Butler

    Full Text Available Respiratory disease has been a persistent problem for the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, but has uncertain etiology. The disease has been attributed to several bacterial pathogens including Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurellaceae pathogens belonging to the Mannheimia, Bibersteinia, and Pasteurella genera. We estimated detection probability for these pathogens using protocols with diagnostic tests offered by a fee-for-service laboratory and not offered by a fee-for-service laboratory. We conducted 2861 diagnostic tests on swab samples collected from 476 bighorn sheep captured across Montana and Wyoming to gain inferences regarding detection probability, pathogen prevalence, and the power of different sampling methodologies to detect pathogens in bighorn sheep populations. Estimated detection probability using fee-for-service protocols was less than 0.50 for all Pasteurellaceae and 0.73 for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae. Non-fee-for-service Pasteurellaceae protocols had higher detection probabilities, but no single protocol increased detection probability of all Pasteurellaceae pathogens to greater than 0.50. At least one protocol resulted in an estimated detection probability of 0.80 for each pathogen except Mannheimia haemolytica, for which the highest detection probability was 0.45. In general, the power to detect Pasteurellaceae pathogens at low prevalence in populations was low unless many animals were sampled or replicate samples were collected per animal. Imperfect detection also resulted in low precision when estimating prevalence for any pathogen. Low and variable detection probabilities for respiratory pathogens using live-sampling protocols may lead to inaccurate conclusions regarding pathogen community dynamics and causes of bighorn sheep respiratory disease epizootics. We recommend that agencies collect multiples samples per animal for Pasteurellaceae detection, and one sample for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae detection from

  8. Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Nugroho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in MicrobialEnhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR. The objective of this study is to observe the capacity of gas production generatedfrom crude oil degradation by the isolated bacteria. The gas in the MEOR could increase pressure in the reservoir,decrease oil viscosity, increase oil permeability-due to the increase of the porosity and viscosity, and also increase oilvolume due to the amount of dissolved gas. A research on gas analysis of oil degradation by 6 isolated bacteria has beenconducted. The bacteria isolates including Bacillus badius (A, Bacillus circulans (B, Bacillus coagulans (C, Bacillusfirmus (D, Pasteurella avium (E and Streptobacillus moniliformis (F. The trial on gas production, gas analysis and oildegradation analysis, was carried out by using SMSS medium. The test of gas production was done by usingmicrorespirometer at 40°C. The result shows that B, C, D, E produce more gas than A and F. Gas of CO2, O2, CO, N2,CH4, and H2 were analyzed by using GC. The results show that only three gases were detected by GC i.e. CO2, N2, andO2. The concentration of CO2 and N2 gas increased while the concentration of O2 decreased over an 8th day ofobservation. CO2 gas producted by mix culture was higher than by the pure culture. On the 8th day of incubation, theproduction of CO2 gas by mix culture was 4,0452% while pure culture C and D only produced 2,4543% and 2,8729%.The mix culture increase simple hydrocarbon by 12.03% and the formation of a complex hydrocarbon by 3.07%. Themix culture (C-D generated the highest concentration of CO2 gas as well as a synergistic concortium that has ability todegrade crude oil.

  9. Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from diagnostic samples from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene; Finster, Kai; Jensen, Vibeke F; Heuer, Ole E

    2007-10-01

    To study the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among common bacterial pathogens from dogs and relate resistance patterns to data on consumption of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 201 Staphylococcus intermedius, 37 Streptococcus canis, 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 25 Pasteurella multocida, 29 Proteus spp. and 449 Escherichia coli isolates from clinical submissions from dogs were determined by a broth-dilution method for determination of minimal inhibitory concentration. Data for consumption of antimicrobials were retrieved from VetStat, a national database for reporting antimicrobial prescriptions. The majority of the antimicrobials prescribed for dogs were broad-spectrum compounds, and extended-spectrum penicillins, cephalosporins and sulphonamides + trimethoprim together accounted for 81% of the total amount used for companion animals. Resistance to cephalosporins and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid was very low for all bacterial species examined, except for P. aeruginosa, and resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim was low for most species. Among the S. intermedius isolates, 60.2% were resistant to penicillin, 30.2% to fusidic acid and 27.9% to macrolides. Among E. coli isolates, the highest level of resistance was recorded for ampicillin, sulphonamides, trimethoprim, tetracyclines and streptomycin. Certain differences in resistance patterns between isolates from different sites or organs were noticed for E. coli, S. intermedius and Proteus isolates. This investigation provided data on occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in important pathogenic bacteria from dogs, which may be useful for the small animal practitioner. Resistance was low to the compounds that were most often used, but unfortunately, these compounds were broad-spectrum. Data on resistance and usage may form a background for the establishment of a set of recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobials for companion animals.

  10. Aquatic bird disease and mortality as an indicator of changing ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Chmura, Aleksei; Converse, Kathy; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Patel, Nikkita; Lammers, Emily; Daszak, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed data from pathologic investigations in the United States, collected by the USGS National Wildlife Health Center between 1971 and 2005, into aquatic bird mortality events. A total of 3619 mortality events was documented for aquatic birds, involving at least 633 708 dead birds from 158 species belonging to 23 families. Environmental causes accounted for the largest proportion of mortality events (1737 or 48%) and dead birds (437 258 or 69%); these numbers increased between 1971 and 2000, with biotoxin mortalities due to botulinum intoxication (Types C and E) being the leading cause of death. Infectious diseases were the second leading cause of mortality events (20%) and dead birds (20%), with both viral diseases, including duck plague (Herpes virus), paramyxovirus of cormorants (Paramyxovirus PMV1) and West Nile virus (Flavivirus), and bacterial diseases, including avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida), chlamydiosis (Chalmydia psittici), and salmonellosis (Salmonella sp.), contributing. Pelagic, coastal marine birds and species that use marine and freshwater habitats were impacted most frequently by environmental causes of death, with biotoxin exposure, primarily botulinum toxin, resulting in mortalities of both coastal and freshwater species. Pelagic birds were impacted most severely by emaciation and starvation, which may reflect increased anthropogenic pressure on the marine habitat from over-fishing, pollution, and other factors. Our study provides important information on broad trends in aquatic bird mortality and highlights how long-term wildlife disease studies can be used to identify anthropogenic threats to wildlife conservation and ecosystem health. In particular, mortality data for the past 30 yr suggest that biotoxins, viral, and bacterial diseases could have impacted >5 million aquatic birds.

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  12. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2 and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b., Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h., and Pasteurella multocida (P. m. co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases.

  13. Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Common Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdul Qadir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of onion (Allium cepa, garlic (Allium sativum, mint (Mentha spicata, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, oak (Quercus, aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller, and ginger (Zingiber officinale. All extracts showed a wide range of total phenolic contents, that is, 4.96 to 98.37 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalents, and total flavonoid contents, that is, 0.41 to 17.64 mg/100 g catechin equivalents. Antioxidant activity (AA was determined by measuring reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging activity. Different extracts inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid by 16.6–84.2% while DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values ranged from 17.8% to 79.1 μg/mL. Reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration ranged from 0.11 to 0.84 nm. Furthermore the extracts of these medicinal herbs in 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone, and 100% water were screened for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method against selected bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pasteurella multocida, and fungal strains, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus solani, and Alternaria alternata. The extracts show better antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains as compared to fungal strains. Results of various assays were analyzed statistically by applying appropriate statistical methods.

  14. Plasma concentrations resulting from florfenicol preparations given to pigs in their drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, L; Vargas, D; Ocampo, L; Sumano, H; Martinez, R; Tapia, G

    2011-09-01

    Florfenicol administered through the drinking water has been recommended as a metaphylactic antibacterial drug to control outbreaks of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida, yet it is difficult to pinpoint in practice when the drug is given metaphylactically or therapeutically. Further, pigs are likely to reject florfenicol-medicated water, and plasma concentrations of the drug are likely to be marginal for diseases caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The reported minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for these organisms show a breakpoint of 2 to 3 μg/mL. An experiment was conducted during September and October 2009. One hundred twenty healthy crossbred pigs (Landrace-Yorkshire), weighing 23 ± 6.2 kg, were used in this trial. They were randomly assigned to 5 groups, with 3 replicates of 8 animals/group. Two commercial preparations of florfenicol were administered through the drinking water at 2 concentrations (0.01 and 0.015%). Water intake was measured before and after medication, and plasma concentrations of florfenicol were determined by HPLC. Considerable rejection of florfenicol-medicated water was observed. However, plasma florfenicol concentrations were of a range sufficient for a methaphylaxis approach to preventing disease by bacteria, with MIC breakpoints of ≤ 0.25 μg/mL. Decreased efficacy as a metaphylactic medication should be expected for bacteria with MIC >0.25 μg/mL, considering the reported existence of bacteria resistant to florfenicol and the natural resistance of Streptococcus suis or E. coli to this drug.

  15. Cryostored autologous skull bone for cranioplasty? A study on cranial bone flaps' viability and microbial contamination after deep-frozen storage at -80°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David Yuen Chung; Mok, Yi Tan; Lam, Ping Kuen; Tong, Cindy See Wai; Ng, Stephanie Chi Ping; Sun, Tin Fung David; Poon, Wai Sang

    2017-08-01

    Craniectomy is a life-saving procedure. Subsequent cranioplasty with autologous skull bone has a bone resorption rate from 4% to 22.8% and an infection rate from 3.3% to 26%. There are concerns with their viability and the potential microbial contamination as they were explanted for a long period of time. Eighteen cranial bone flaps stored at Prince of Wales Hospital Skull Bone Bank during the period from June 2011 to March 2016 were identified. Ethics approval was obtained. Bone chips and deep bone swabs were collected for osteoblast culture and microbial culture. Skull Bone Bank was kept at -80°C under strict aseptic technique during the study period. The storage period ranged from 4months to 55months. For the osteoblast culture, all eighteen bone flaps had no viable osteoblast growth. For the bacterial culture, five had positive bacteria growth (27.8%). Three were Pasteurella multocida and two were Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The mean duration of storage of the infected bone flap was 32.9months (±15.1months) versus 19.9months (±17.9months) of those bone flaps with no bacterial growth (p=0.1716). The mean size of the infected versus non-infected bone flaps was 117.7cm 2 (±44.96cm 2 ) versus 76.8cm 2 (±50.24cm 2 ) respectively (p=0.1318). Although in this study statistical significance was not reached, it was postulated that infected bone flaps tended to be larger in size and had a longer duration of storage. In conclusion, cryostored skull bone flaps beyond four months showed no viable osteoblasts. Bacterial contamination rate of bone flaps was 27.8% in this study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of cyclosporin-A on the oral microflora at gingival sulcus of the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R G; Edwardsson, S; Klinge, B; Attström, R

    1996-09-01

    The effect of cyclosporin-A (CyA) on the dentogingival flora of ferrets with healthy and experimentally induced periodontal breakdown was studied. Five animals were given 10 mg/kg/d CyA. At the start of the experiments (day 0), ligatures were placed around 4 teeth in the right upper and lower jaws; corresponding contralateral teeth on the left side served as control. On days 0 and 28 (end of the experiment), microbiological samples were collected from the gingival sulcus of the experimental and the control teeth and from closely located gingival mucosa membrane. The samples were subjected to viable counts and to darkfield microscopic analyses. On day 0, facultative anaerobic rods, mainly Pasteurella spp, Alcaligenes spp, Corynebacterium spp. and Rothia spp dominated in the viable counts. No anaerobic bacteria were detected in the viable counts. On day 28 spirochetes increased in the experimental gingival sulcus samples and anaerobic bacteria appeared in most of the samples and constituted 40-60% of the total cultivable flora; Fusobacterium necrophorum and Eubacterium spp. predominated in the samples from the experimental sites. The results of the present study were compared with those of our previous investigation of ferrets not medicated with cyclosporin but also subject to experimental ligature periodontitis. Eubacterium spp. were absent in the animals not treated with cyclosporin, while this species was frequently present in the immunosuppressed ferrets. The results indicate that the presence of the large numbers of gram negative rods and of anaerobic bacteria may have enhanced the inflammatory process and further provoked the gingival overgrowth observed.

  17. Oral associated bacterial infection in horses: studies on the normal anaerobic flora from the pharyngeal tonsillar surface and its association with lower respiratory tract and paraoral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, G D; Love, D N

    1991-02-15

    Two hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were obtained from the pharyngeal tonsillar surface of 12 normal horses and 98 obligatory anaerobic bacteria were characterised. Of these, 57 isolates belonging to 7 genera (Peptostreptococcus (1); Eubacterium (9); Clostridium (6); Veillonella (6); Megasphera (1); Bacteroides (28); Fusobacterium (6)) were identified, and 16 of these were identified to species level (P. anaerobius (1); E. fossor (9); C. villosum (1); B. fragilis (1); B. tectum (2); B. heparinolyticus (2)). Three hundred and twenty isolates were obtained from 23 samples from horses with lower respiratory tract (LRT) or paraoral (PO) bacterial infections. Of the 143 bacteria selected for detailed characterisation, obligate anaerobes accounted for 100 isolates, facultative anaerobes for 42 isolates and obligate aerobes for one isolate. Phenotypic characterisation separated 99 of the isolates into 14 genera. Among the obligately anaerobic species, Gram-positive cocci including P. anaerobius comprised 25% of isolates, E. fossor 11% and other Gram-positive rods (excluding Clostridium sp.) 18% of isolates. The Gram-negative rods comprised B. fragilis 5%, B. heparinolyticus 5%, asaccharolytic pigmented Bacteroides 3% and other Bacteroides 13%, while a so-far unnamed species of Fusobacterium (7%), and Gram-negative corroding rods (3%) were isolated. Among the facultatively anaerobic isolates, S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus accounted for 31% of isolates, followed by Pasteurella spp. 19%, Escherichia coli 17%, Actinomyces spp. 9%, Streptococcus spp. 9%. Incidental facultative isolates were Enterococcus spp. 2%, Enterobacter cloaceae 2%, Actinobacillus spp. 2% and Gram-negative corroding rods 5%. On the basis of the similarities (as determined by DNA hybridization data and/or phenotypic characteristics) of some of the bacterial species (e.g. E. fossor and B. heparinolyticus) isolated from both the normal pharyngeal tonsillar surfaces and LRT and PO diseases of horses, it

  18. Dose dependency of outcomes of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy in new rabbit empyema models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florova, Galina; Azghani, Ali O.; Buchanan, Ann; Boren, Jake; Allen, Timothy; Rahman, Najib M.; Koenig, Kathleen; Chamiso, Mignote; Karandashova, Sophia; Henry, James; Idell, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of empyema (EMP) is increasing worldwide; EMP generally occurs with pleural loculation and impaired drainage is often treated with intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy (IPFT) or surgery. A number of IPFT options are used clinically with empiric dosing and variable outcomes in adults. To evaluate mechanisms governing intrapleural fibrinolysis and disease outcomes, models of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus pneumoniae were generated in rabbits and the animals were treated with either human tissue (tPA) plasminogen activator or prourokinase (scuPA). Rabbit EMP was characterized by the development of pleural adhesions detectable by chest ultrasonography and fibrinous coating of the pleura. Similar to human EMP, rabbits with EMP accumulated sizable, 20- to 40-ml fibrinopurulent pleural effusions associated with extensive intrapleural organization, significantly increased pleural thickness, suppression of fibrinolytic and plasminogen-activating activities, and accumulation of high levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, plasminogen, and extracellular DNA. IPFT with tPA (0.145 mg/kg) or scuPA (0.5 mg/kg) was ineffective in rabbit EMP (n = 9 and 3 for P. multocida and S. pneumoniae, respectively); 2 mg/kg tPA or scuPA IPFT (n = 5) effectively cleared S. pneumoniae-induced EMP collections in 24 h with no bleeding observed. Although intrapleural fibrinolytic activity for up to 40 min after IPFT was similar for effective and ineffective doses of fibrinolysin, it was lower for tPA than for scuPA treatments. These results demonstrate similarities between rabbit and human EMP, the importance of pleural fluid PAI-1 activity, and levels of plasminogen in the regulation of intrapleural fibrinolysis and illustrate the dose dependency of IPFT outcomes in EMP. PMID:27343192

  19. Host-Derived Sialic Acids Are an Important Nutrient Source Required for Optimal Bacterial Fitness In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. McDonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing bacterial intestinal pathogens is competition for nutrient sources with the host microbiota. Vibrio cholerae is an intestinal pathogen that causes cholera, which affects millions each year; however, our knowledge of its nutritional requirements in the intestinal milieu is limited. In this study, we demonstrated that V. cholerae can grow efficiently on intestinal mucus and its component sialic acids and that a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic SiaPQM strain, transporter-deficient mutant NC1777, was attenuated for colonization using a streptomycin-pretreated adult mouse model. In in vivo competition assays, NC1777 was significantly outcompeted for up to 3 days postinfection. NC1777 was also significantly outcompeted in in vitro competition assays in M9 minimal medium supplemented with intestinal mucus, indicating that sialic acid uptake is essential for fitness. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the ability to utilize sialic acid was distributed among 452 bacterial species from eight phyla. The majority of species belonged to four phyla, Actinobacteria (members of Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Mycoplasma, and Streptomyces, Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroides, Capnocytophaga, and Prevotella, Firmicutes (members of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus, and Proteobacteria (including Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Pasteurella, Photobacterium, Vibrio, and Yersinia species, mostly commensals and/or pathogens. Overall, our data demonstrate that the ability to take up host-derived sugars and sialic acid specifically allows V. cholerae a competitive advantage in intestinal colonization and that this is a trait that is sporadic in its occurrence and phylogenetic distribution and ancestral in some genera but horizontally acquired in others.

  20. Temporal Sampling of White Band Disease Infected Corals Reveals Complex and Dynamic Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignoux-Wolfsohn, S.; Vollmer, S. V.; Aronson, F. M.

    2016-02-01

    dominated by Endozoicomonas at time one, we saw a decrease of Endozoicomonas in diseased corals, indicating that Endozoicomonas may be beneficial symbionts and/or antagonists of the pathogen(s). We also identified a clade of Pasteurella found in the disease dose and diseased corals at times two and three that is likely important in the WBD etiology.

  1. Microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses in pet guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarikova, A; Hauptman, K; Knotek, Z; Jekl, V

    2016-10-01

    Abscesses of odontogenic origin in guinea pigs pose a serious health problem and need to be treated with a combination of surgical and medical therapy. The aim of this prospective study was to describe the microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses associated with osteomyelitis in 24 pet guinea pigs, to perform antibiotic sensitivity testing, and to make recommendations for practitioners on the antibiotics of first choice. Inclusion criteria for the study included the animal being diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess which underwent surgery and was not pre-treated with an antibiotic. Inclusion criteria matched for 24 guinea pigs. Samples (pus, capsule and affected tooth/bone) for bacteriological examination were collected under sterile conditions during the surgical procedure. The most commonly isolated bacteria from abscesses of odontogenic origin were Bacteroides fragilis in 12.8 per cent (6/47) of cases, Pasteurella multocida in 10.6 per cent (5/47) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius in 8.5 per cent (4/47). Aerobic bacterial species only were isolated in 29.2 per cent (7/24) of cases, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 33.3 per cent (8/24), and mixed infection with anaerobic and aerobic bacterial species was seen in 37.5 per cent (9/24). Aerobes (n=20) were sensitive to enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in 100 per cent of samples, benzylpenicillin potassium (penicillin G, PNCG) in 90 per cent, cephalotin in 85 per cent, amoxicillin-clavulanate in 75 per cent, doxycycline in 70 per cent, gentamicin in 65 per cent and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 55 per cent. Anaerobes (n=27) were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate in 100 per cent of cases, clindamycin in 96.3 per cent, metronidazole in 92.6 per cent, PNCG in 92.6 per cent and cephalotin in 74.1 per cent. As guinea pigs are strictly herbivorous animals, based on the results of this study the recommended antibiotic treatment for odontogenic abscesses is a combination of fluoroquinolones and metronidazole

  2. Antioxidant, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical characterization of Melaleuca cajuputi extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abd, Nazeh M; Mohamed Nor, Zurainee; Mansor, Marzida; Azhar, Fadzly; Hasan, M S; Kassim, Mustafa

    2015-10-24

    The threat posed by drug-resistant pathogens has resulted in the increasing momentum in research and development for effective alternative medications. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phytochemical extracts makes them attractive alternative complementary medicines. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of Melaleuca cajuputi flower and leaf (GF and GL, respectively) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and Fe(2+)-chelating activity. Total antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assays were used to determine antibacterial activity against eight pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pasteurella multocida. We identified and quantified the phytochemical constituents in methanol extracts using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography (GC)/MS. This study reports the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of M. cajuputi methanolic extracts. The GF extract showed better efficacy than that of the GL extract. The total phenolic contents were higher in the flower extract than they were in the leaf extract (0.55 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.05 gallic acid equivalent per mg extract dry weight, respectively). As expected, the percentage radical inhibition by GF was higher than that by the GL extract (81 and 75 %, respectively). A similar trend was observed in Fe(2+)-chelating activity and β-carotene bleaching tests. The antibacterial assay of the extracts revealed no inhibition zones with the Gram-negative bacteria tested. However, the extracts demonstrated activity against B. cereus, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis. In

  3. Pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and PK-PD integration of ceftiofur after a single intravenous, subcutaneous and subcutaneous-LA administration in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Varón, Emilio; Cárceles-García, Carlos; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Cárceles-Rodríguez, Carlos M

    2016-10-13

    Bacterial pneumonia in goats is usually caused by Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Another important infection disease in lactating goats is intramammary infection producing mastitis, usually associated with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. However, treatment of bacterial pneumonia in goats not affected by mastitis problems should be restricted to antimicrobials with scant penetration to milk in order to avoid long withdrawal times. Ceftiofur is a third-generation cephalosporin antimicrobial with activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria encountered by domestic animals. The objectives of the present study were to establish the serum concentration-time profile for ceftiofur in lactating goats after intravenous, subcutaneous and a SC-long-acting ceftiofur formulation; to determine ceftiofur penetration into milk; to determine in vitro and ex vivo activity of ceftiofur establishing MIC, MBC, MPC and time-kill profiles against field strains of M. haemolytica and finally to calculate the main surrogate markers of efficacy. The pharmacokinetics studies revealed an optimal PK properties for the SC-LA formulation tested. Ceftiofur was well absorbed following SC and SC-LA administration, with absolute bioavailabilities (F) of 85.16 and 84.43 %, respectively. After ceftiofur analysis from milk samples, no concentrations were found at any sampling time. The MIC, MBC and MPC data of ceftiofur against five M. haemolytica strains isolated from goats affected by pneumonia were tested showing excelent sensitivity of ceftiofur against this pathogen. For PK-PD analysis, ratios were calculated suggesting a high level of bacterial kill against the five strains of M. haemolytica tested. The systemic ceftiofur exposure achieved in lactating goats following IV, SC and especially with the SC-LA administration is consistent with the predicted PK-PD ratios needed for a positive therapeutic outcome for M. haemolytica

  4. Mutant prevention concentration, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration, and modeling of enrofloxacin data established in diseased buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, B; Sidhu, P K; Kaur, G; Venkatachalam, D; Rampal, S

    2015-12-01

    The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling of enrofloxacin data using mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of enrofloxacin was conducted in febrile buffalo calves to optimize dosage regimen and to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The serum peak concentration (Cmax ), terminal half-life (t1/2 K10) , apparent volume of distribution (Vd(area) /F), and mean residence time (MRT) of enrofloxacin were 1.40 ± 0.27 μg/mL, 7.96 ± 0.86 h, 7.74 ± 1.26 L/kg, and 11.57 ± 1.01 h, respectively, following drug administration at dosage 12 mg/kg by intramuscular route. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration, and MPC of enrofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida were 0.055, 0.060, and 1.45 μg/mL, respectively. Modeling of ex vivo growth inhibition data to the sigmoid Emax equation provided AUC24 h /MIC values to produce effects of bacteriostatic (33 h), bactericidal (39 h), and bacterial eradication (41 h). The estimated daily dosage of enrofloxacin in febrile buffalo calves was 3.5 and 8.4 mg/kg against P. multocida/pathogens having MIC90 ≤0.125 and 0.30 μg/mL, respectively, based on the determined AUC24 h /MIC values by modeling PK/PD data. The lipopolysaccharide-induced fever had no direct effect on the antibacterial activity of the enrofloxacin and alterations in PK of the drug, and its metabolite will be beneficial for its use to treat infectious diseases caused by sensitive pathogens in buffalo species. In addition, in vitro MPC data in conjunction with in vivo PK data indicated that clinically it would be easier to eradicate less susceptible strains of P. multocida in diseased calves. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A rapid minor groove binder PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus 104M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Qin, Lide; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2018-01-24

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Gram-negative Brucella bacteria. Immunisation with attenuated vaccine is an effective method of prevention, but it can interfere with diagnosis. Live, attenuated Brucella abortus strain 104M has been used for the prevention of human brucellosis in China since 1965. However, at present, no fast and reliable method exists that can distinguish this strain from field strains. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based assays offer a new approach for such discrimination. SNP-based minor groove binder (MGB) and Cycleave assays have been used for rapid identification of four Brucella vaccine strains (B. abortus strains S19, A19 and RB51, and B. melitensis Rev1). The main objective of this study was to develop a PCR assay for rapid and specific detection of strain 104M. We developed a SNP-based MGB PCR assay that could successfully distinguish strain 104M from 18 representative strains of Brucella (B. abortus biovars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, B. melitensis biovars 1, 2 and 3, B. suis biovars 1, 2, 3 and 4, B. canis, B. neotomae, and B. ovis), four Brucella vaccine strains (A19, S19, S2, M5), and 55 Brucella clinical field strains. The assay gave a negative reaction with four non-Brucella species (Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 220 fg for the 104M strain and 76 fg for the single non-104M Brucella strain tested (B. abortus A19). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation = 0.006-0.022 and 0.012-0.044, respectively). A SNP-based MGB PCR assay was developed that could straightforwardly and unambiguously distinguish B. abortus vaccine strain 104M from non-104M Brucella strains. Compared to the classical isolation and identification approaches of bacteriology, this real-time PCR assay has substantial advantages in terms of

  6. Rapid detection of Mannheimia haemolytica in lung tissues of sheep and from bacterial culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to detect Mannheimia haemolytica in lung tissues of sheep and from a bacterial culture. Introduction: M. haemolytica is one of the most important and well-established etiological agents of pneumonia in sheep and other ruminants throughout the world. Accurate diagnosis of M. haemolytica primarily relies on bacteriological examination, biochemical characteristics and, biotyping and serotyping of the isolates. In an effort to facilitate rapid M. haemolytica detection, polymerase chain reaction assay targeting Pasteurella haemolytica serotype-1 specific antigens (PHSSA, Rpt2 and 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes were used to detect M. haemolytica directly from lung tissues and from bacterial culture. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 archived lung tissues from sheep that died of pneumonia on an organized farm were used. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR based on two-amplicons targeted PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica were used for identification of M. haemolytica isolates in culture from the lung samples. All the 12 lung tissue samples were tested for the presence M. haemolytica by PHSSA and Rpt2 genes based PCR and its confirmation by sequencing of the amplicons. Results: All the 12 lung tissue samples tested for the presence of PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica by mPCR were found to be positive. Amplification of 12S rRNA gene fragment as internal amplification control was obtained with each mPCR reaction performed from DNA extracted directly from lung tissue samples. All the M. haemolytica were also positive for mPCR. No amplified DNA bands were observed for negative control reactions. All the three nucleotide sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank (Accession No. KJ534629, KJ534630 and KJ534631. Sequencing of the amplified products revealed the identity of 99-100%, with published sequence of PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica available in the NCBI database. Sheep specific mitochondrial 12S r

  7. Effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on probability of conception in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM), occurring in different weekly intervals before or after artificial insemination (AI), on the probability of conception in Holstein cows. Clinical mastitis occurring in weekly intervals from 6 wk before until 6 wk after AI was modeled. The first 4 AI in a cow's lactation were included. The following categories of pathogens were studied: Streptococcus spp. (comprising Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and other Streptococcus spp.); Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level that can be detected from our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); and other pathogens [including Citrobacter, yeasts, Trueperella pyogenes, gram-negative bacilli (i.e., gram-negative organisms other than E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter, and Citrobacter), Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium spp., Pasteurella, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, and others]. Other factors included in the model were parity (1, 2, 3, 4 and higher), season of AI (winter, spring, summer, autumn), day in lactation of first AI, farm, and other non-CM diseases (retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Data from 90,271 AI in 39,361 lactations in 20,328 cows collected from 2003/2004 to 2011 from 5 New York State dairy farms were analyzed in a generalized linear mixed model with a Poisson distribution. The largest reductions in probability of conception were associated with CM occurring in the week before AI or in the 2 wk following AI. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. had the greatest adverse effects on probability of conception. The probability of conception for a cow with any combination of characteristics may be calculated based on the parameter estimates. These

  8. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of

  9. The role of lipooligosaccharide phosphorylcholine in colonization and pathogenesis of Histophilus somni in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elswaifi Shaadi F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Histophilus somni is a Gram-negative bacterium and member of the Pasteurellaceae that is responsible for respiratory disease and other systemic infections in cattle. One of the bacterium’s virulence factors is antigenic phase variation of its lipooligosaccharide (LOS. LOS antigenic variation may occur through variation in composition or structure of glycoses or their substitutions, such as phosphorylcholine (ChoP. However, the role of ChoP in the pathogenesis of H. somni disease has not been established. In Haemophilus influenzae ChoP on the LOS binds to platelet activating factor on epithelial cells, promoting bacterial colonization of the host upper respiratory tract. However, ChoP is not expressed in the blood as it also binds C-reactive protein, resulting in complement activation and killing of the bacteria. In order to simulate the susceptibility of calves with suppressed immunity due to stress or previous infection, calves were challenged with bovine herpes virus-1 or dexamethazone 3 days prior to challenge with H. somni. Following challenge, expression of ChoP on the LOS of 2 different H. somni strains was associated with colonization of the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, lack of ChoP expression was associated with bacteria recovered from systemic sites. Histopathology of cardiac tissue from myocarditis revealed lesions containing bacterial clusters that appeared similar to a biofilm. Furthermore, some respiratory cultures contained substantial numbers of Pasteurella multocida, which were not present on preculture screens. Subsequent biofilm experiments have shown that H. somni and P. multocida grow equally well together in a biofilm, suggesting a commensal relationship may exist between the two species. Our results also showed that ChoP contributed to, but was not required for, adhesion to respiratory epithelial cells. In conclusion, expression of ChoP on H. somni LOS contributed to colonization of the bacteria to the

  10. DC-STAMP Is an Osteoclast Fusogen Engaged in Periodontal Bone Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitrasameewong, W; Kajiya, M; Movila, A; Rittling, S; Ishii, T; Suzuki, M; Matsuda, S; Mazda, Y; Torruella, M R; Azuma, M M; Egashira, K; Freire, M O; Sasaki, H; Wang, C Y; Han, X; Taubman, M A; Kawai, T

    2017-06-01

    Dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) plays a key role in the induction of osteoclast (OC) cell fusion, as well as DC-mediated immune regulation. While DC-STAMP gene expression is upregulated in the gingival tissue with periodontitis, its pathophysiological roles in periodontitis remain unclear. To evaluate the effects of DC-STAMP in periodontitis, anti-DC-STAMP-monoclonal antibody (mAb) was tested in a mouse model of ligature-induced periodontitis ( n = 6-7/group) where Pasteurella pneumotropica ( Pp)-reactive immune response activated T cells to produce receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), which, in turn, promotes the periodontal bone loss via upregulation of osteoclastogenesis. DC-STAMP was expressed on the cell surface of mature multinuclear OCs, as well as immature mononuclear OCs, in primary cultures of RANKL-stimulated bone marrow cells. Anti-DC-STAMP-mAb suppressed the emergence of large, but not small, multinuclear OCs, suggesting that DC-STAMP is engaged in the late stage of cell fusion. Anti-DC-STAMP-mAb also inhibited pit formation caused by RANKL-stimulated bone marrow cells. Attachment of ligature to a second maxillary molar induced DC-STAMP messenger RNA and protein, along with elevated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) OCs and alveolar bone loss. As we expected, systemic administration of anti-DC-STAMP-mAb downregulated the ligature-induced alveolar bone loss. Importantly, local injection of anti-DC-STAMP-mAb also suppressed alveolar bone loss and reduced the total number of multinucleated TRAP+ cells in mice that received ligature attachment. Attachment of ligature induced significantly elevated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and RANKL in the gingival tissue compared with the control site without ligature ( P < 0.05), which was unaffected by local injection with either anti-DC-STAMP-mAb or control-mAb. Neither in vivo anti- Pp IgG antibody nor in vitro anti- Pp T

  11. Host-Derived Sialic Acids Are an Important Nutrient Source Required for Optimal Bacterial Fitness In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nathan D; Lubin, Jean-Bernard; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2016-04-12

    A major challenge facing bacterial intestinal pathogens is competition for nutrient sources with the host microbiota.Vibrio cholerae is an intestinal pathogen that causes cholera, which affects millions each year; however, our knowledge of its nutritional requirements in the intestinal milieu is limited. In this study, we demonstrated that V. cholerae can grow efficiently on intestinal mucus and its component sialic acids and that a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic SiaPQM strain, transporter-deficient mutant NC1777, was attenuated for colonization using a streptomycin-pretreated adult mouse model. In in vivo competition assays, NC1777 was significantly outcompeted for up to 3 days postinfection. NC1777 was also significantly outcompeted in in vitro competition assays in M9 minimal medium supplemented with intestinal mucus, indicating that sialic acid uptake is essential for fitness. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the ability to utilize sialic acid was distributed among 452 bacterial species from eight phyla. The majority of species belonged to four phyla, Actinobacteria (members of Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Mycoplasma, and Streptomyces), Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroides, Capnocytophaga, and Prevotella), Firmicutes (members of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus), and Proteobacteria (including Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Pasteurella, Photobacterium, Vibrio, and Yersinia species), mostly commensals and/or pathogens. Overall, our data demonstrate that the ability to take up host-derived sugars and sialic acid specifically allows V. cholerae a competitive advantage in intestinal colonization and that this is a trait that is sporadic in its occurrence and phylogenetic distribution and ancestral in some genera but horizontally acquired in others. Sialic acids are nine carbon amino sugars that are abundant on all mucous surfaces. The deadly human pathogen Vibrio cholerae contains

  12. Fatty acid intake alters growth and immunity in milk-fed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Vandehaar, M J; Sordillo, L M; Catherman, D R; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing milk replacer (MR) with NeoTec4 (Provimi North America, Brookville, OH), a commercially available blend of butyric acid, coconut oil, and flax oil, on calf growth, efficiency, and indices of immune function. In trial 1a, 48 male Holstein calves were fed either a control MR that contained only animal fat or the same MR with NeoTec4 (treatment) along with free-choice starter. The MR (28.7% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of dry matter (DM)/d. In trial 1b, weaned calves from trial 1a were all fed dry starter for 28 d without NeoTec4 (phase 1), and then half the calves were fed NeoTec4 for 28 d (phase 2). In trial 2, 40 male Holstein calves were fed a control MR with lard, coconut oil, and soy lecithin or the same MR supplemented with NeoTec4 (treatment). The MR (22.8% crude protein, 18.9% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of DM/d; no starter was fed. In trial 1a, NeoTec4 improved average daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency, reduced the number of days that calves experienced scours, and reduced the medical treatments for clostridium sickness. In trials 1a and 2, NeoTec4 altered the inflammatory response to vaccination with Pasteurella at 5 wk of age and to challenge with Salmonella toxin at less than 2 wk of age (fed NeoTec4 for 6 d), as observed by reduced hyperthermia and hypophagia, and altered the tumor necrosis factor-α response. In addition, NeoTec4 enhanced the response in IL-4 and globular protein estimates postchallenge and enhanced titers for bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3. Postchallenge serum concentrations of albumin were lower and urea nitrogen concentrations were greater in control calves than in calves fed NeoTec4. In trial 1b, performance did not differ during the first 28 d when no calves received NeoTec4, but calves receiving NeoTec4 in the second 28 d had greater average daily gain and feed efficiency. We conclude that

  13. Swamp Buffalo in South Kalimantan : Problem, Disease and Control

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    Lily Natalia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have been carried out to evaluate and investigate the important diseases of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus carabanensis in Kalimantan . More attention has been focused on the case of acute infectious diseases and sudden death in the buffaloes . Fasciolosis black disease, acute enteritis, especially fatal enterotoxaemia haemorrhagic septicaemia . and trypanosomiasis (Surra, are some of the important diseases found in these animals . Black disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium novyi occurs in the presence of the organism in the liver and the degree of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation . In regions where black disease is enzootic, Cl. novvi can be isolated from livers of normal healthy animals . In Hulu Sungai Utara district, South Kalimantan, the prevalence of fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica in swamp buffalo was 77% in 1991 . A gross sudden change in diet due to seasonal changes could induce rumen and intestinal stasis, which provide a favourable environment for the rapid proliferation of commensal toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine . Subsequent absorption of the toxin produced through the gut wall and its generalized dissemination culminated in a fatal enterotoxaemia . Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS is an acute, fatal disease affecting swamp buffalo, and caused by Pasteurella multocida B : 2 . The swamp buffalo is particularly susceptible for HS, and the reported greatest losses of swamp buffalo in Kalimantan due to HS is recorded in 1980s. The clinical signs of Surra in swamp buffalo were also found in certain areas in Danau Panggang area . Hulu Sungai Utara district . Vaccination is the accepted method for controlling Black disease, enterotoxaemia and HS. Multi component vaccine, alum adjuvant containing at least 5 types of clostridial toxoids and P. multocida B2 bacterin have been used and provide good protection to the animals . Control and treatment of liver fluke infestation

  14. Using Inuit traditional ecological knowledge for detecting and monitoring avian cholera among Common Eiders in the eastern Canadian Arctic

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    Dominique A. Henri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK has played an increasing role in wildlife management and biodiversity conservation in Canada and elsewhere. This study examined the potential contribution that Inuit TEK (which is one aspect of Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit or Inuit traditional knowledge could offer to detect and monitor avian cholera and other disease-related mortality among Northern Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima borealis breeding in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Avian cholera is an infectious disease (Pasteurella multocida that has been a major conservation issue because of its potential to cause high rates of disease and mortality in several bird species in repeating epizootics; it has spread geographically in North America since the 1940s. In 2004, Inuit hunters from Ivujivik, Nunavik, Québec, were the first to detect avian disease outbreaks among Northern Common Eiders nesting in northeastern Hudson Bay and western Hudson Strait. Laboratory analysis of bird tissues confirmed avian cholera in that region. From 2007 to 2009, we collected Inuit TEK about mortality among Common Eiders and other bird species north and west of where the outbreaks were first detected. During interviews in the communities of Kimmirut, Cape Dorset, Coral Harbour, and Igloolik, Nunavut, Canada (n = 40, Inuit participants reported seeing a total of 8 Common Eiders and 41 specimens of other bird species either sick or dead in northern Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay, and Foxe Basin. Most of the observed disease and mortality events were at sea, on sea ice, or on small nesting islands. Such events probably would have gone undetected by biologists, who were mainly monitoring avian cholera outbreaks on large nesting islands in that region. Inuit participants readily recalled details about the timing, location, and numbers of sick and dead birds that they observed. Some reported signs of disease that were consistent with avian cholera. Inuit also revealed

  15. Pericardite em suínos ao abate no Rio Grande Sul: avaliação de agentes bacterianos e lesões associadas

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    Carolini F. Coelho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a frequência de lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas e dos agentes bacterianos envolvidos em pericardites em suínos no abate no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram coletadas em frigoríficos de suínos com Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF entre fevereiro a outubro de 2010 e a condenação por pericardite dos animais acompanhados foi de 3,9% (299/7.571. No total foram investigados 91 casos de pericardites, 89% deles foram classificados como crônicos por histopatologia e pleurite crônica foi observada em 47% dos pulmões correspondentes, todavia não houve associação significativa entre as duas lesões. Os agentes bacterianos isolados a partir dos corações foram Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis e Streptococcus suis. DNA bacterianos mais detectados pela PCR foram de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Houve associação significativa entre isolamento de P. multocida e Streptococcus sp. nos corações e pulmões correspondentes. Esses resultados sugerem que a infecção no pulmão possa ter servido de porta de entrada para a colonização do pericárdio adjacente. Apesar de M. hyopneumoniae ter sido o agente detectado com maior frequência pela PCR em corações e pulmões correspondentes, não houve associação significativa da detecção dos agentes nos órgãos. Isto sugere que as infecções foram eventos independentes. Os demais agentes investigados não apresentaram associação significativa entre isolamento ou detecção de DNA em coração e pulmão correspondente. Outro achado importante foi a presença de coinfecções bacterianas em 2% dos corações e por PCR foi detectado DNA bacteriano de dois ou mais agentes em 16,5% dos corações. Esses resultados sugerem que as coinfecções em pericardites precisam ser melhor estudadas.

  16. Short communication: Interaction of the isomers carvacrol and thymol with the antibiotics doxycycline and tilmicosin: In vitro effects against pathogenic bacteria commonly found in the respiratory tract of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissels, W; Wu, X; Santos, R R

    2017-02-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is the major problem faced by cattle, specially calves, leading to reduced animal performance and increased mortality, consequently causing important economic losses. Hence, calves must be submitted to antibiotic therapy to counteract this infection usually initiated by the combination of environmental stress factors and viral infection, altering the animal's defense mechanism, and thus allowing lung colonization by the opportunistic bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Essential oils appear to be candidates to replace antibiotics or to act as antibiotic adjuvants due to their antimicrobial properties. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the 4 essential oil components carvacrol, thymol, trans-anethole, and 1,8 cineole as antibacterial agents or as adjuvants for the antibiotics doxycycline and tilmicosin against M. haemolytica and P. multocida. Bacteria were cultured according to standard protocols, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration. A checkerboard assay was applied to detect possible interactions between components, between antibiotics, and between components and antibiotics. Doxycycline at 0.25 and 0.125 μg/mL inhibited the growth of P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively, whereas tilmicosin MIC values were 1.0 and 4.0 μg/mL for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively. Carvacrol MIC values were 2.5 and 1.25 mM for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively, whereas thymol MIC values were 1.25 and 0.625 mM for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively. Trans-anethole and 1,8 cineole did not present any antibacterial effect even at 40 mM against the investigated pathogens. All minimum bactericidal concentration values were the same as MIC, except when thymol was tested against M. haemolytica, being twice the MIC data (i.e., 1.25 mM thymol). Based on fractional inhibitory concentration checkerboard assay, no

  17. Avian disease at the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    2002-01-01

    A review of existing records and the scientific literature was conducted for occurrences of avian diseases affecting free-ranging avifauna within the Salton Sea ecosystem. The period for evaluation was 1907 through 1999. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey and the scientific literature were the data sources for the period of 1907a??1939. The narrative reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sonny Bono National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the epizootic database of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center were the primary data sources for the remainder of the evaluation. The pattern of avian disease at the Salton Sea has changed greatly over time. Relative to past decades, there was a greater frequency of major outbreaks of avian disease at the Salton Sea during the 1990s than in previous decades, a greater variety of disease agents causing epizootics, and apparent chronic increases in the attrition of birds from disease. Avian mortality was high for about a decade beginning during the mid-1920s, diminished substantially by the 1940s and was at low to moderate levels until the 1990s when it reached the highest levels reported. Avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) was the only major cause of avian disease until 1979 when the first major epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocidia) was documented. Waterfowl and shorebirds were the primary species affected by avian botulism. A broader spectrum of species have been killed by avian cholera but waterfowl have suffered the greatest losses. Avian cholera reappeared in 1983 and has joined avian botulism as a recurring cause of avian mortality. In 1989, avian salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) was first diagnosed as a major cause of avian disease within the Salton Sea ecosystem and has since reappeared several times, primarily among cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). The largest loss from a single epizootic occurred in 1992, when an estimated

  18. Primera incursión en la obtención de curieles libre de patógenos específicos en Cuba

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    Bárbara O González Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Título corto: Primera incursión en la obtención de curieles SPF en Cuba Título en ingles: First foray into the production of specific pathogen-free guinea pigs in Cuba Resumen: Resultados confiables y económicos solo son obtenidos cuando los animales de experimentación son aislados de factores ambientales y biológicos, implantándose en el biomodelo una microbiota normal, lejos de la presencia de microorganismos patógenos. El objetivo de la investigación fue obtener curieles libre de patógenos específicos por cesárea aséptica, mantenidos en aisladores y alimentados con dietas estériles. Se realizaron 26 histerectomías. Los animales fueron alimentados con una fórmula modificada (L-477 en forma de papilla hasta los 21 días y permanentemente después la C-484 sólida y granulada, esterilizadas a 121oC/20 minutos o a 1,5Mrad. Además fueron suplementados con vitamina C y B1. El forraje o heno fue consumido a partir de la primera generación. La microbiota gastrointestinal se administró por vía oral en 0,5 ml de una dilución de 10-6/g de contenido de la porción final del íleon, ciego y principio del colon de curieles, a las 24 y 48 horas del nacimiento. Se utilizó para el monitoreo microbiológico caldo Tioglicolato, caldo Triptona Soya y caldo Saboraud incubados aeróbicamente a temperatura de 55, 37y 25oC respectivamente. Se obtuvieron 51 neonatos. La mortalidad más alta se registró entre los primeros 10 días de edad (58,8%. Se lograron 12 animales (3 machos y 9 hembras, 6 de las hembras se reprodujeron aproximadamente a los 9 meses de edad, lográndose 11 crías por parto normal. La metodología aplicada permitió obtener curieles libres de Salmonella sp, Pasteurella sp, Streptococcus del tipo A y C, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Toxoplasma gondii, Virus Sendai y parásitos internos y externos. Palabras clave: curieles, libre de patógenos específicos, aisladores, histerectomía y dietas estériles. Abstract

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Enrofloxacin and Danofloxacin in Plasma, Inflammatory Exudate, and Bronchial Secretions of Calves following Subcutaneous Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Quintin; Gibson, Ian; Monteiro, Ana; Bregante, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    concentration-time curve/MIC ratios in plasma) for Pasteurella multocida (MIC of enrofloxacin, 0.06 μg/ml [24]; MIC of danofloxacin, 0.06 μg/ml [6]), enrofloxacin produced scores of 8.17 and 52.00, respectively, compared to those of danofloxacin, which were 4.02 and 23.05, respectively. With the dosing rates recommended in some markets by manufacturers, enrofloxacin and danofloxacin achieved concentrations above the MICs for important pathogenic organisms in plasma, tissue cage exudate, and bronchial secretion. Since fluoroquinolones display concentration-dependent activities, Cmax/MIC ratios may be critical to efficacy. In the United States enrofloxacin is currently the only fluoroquinolone licensed for food animals and dosages for acute respiratory disease are 2.5 to 5 mg/kg for 3 days or 7.5 to 12.5 mg/kg once. The higher dosages on a single occasion are likely to confer Cmax/MIC ratios that are associated with greater clinical efficacy. PMID:10428924

  20. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of some Sinai medicinal plant extracts on bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Gamil S. G. Zeedan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis is the most economically important disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide from an economic, diagnostic and public-health point of view. The present study aimed to isolate and identify of bacteria causes mastitis in dairy cows and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of some selected medicinal plants extracts comparing antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 203 milk samples of dairy cows were collected during the period from February to June 2013 at different Governorates in Egypt. The use clinical inspection and California mastitis test examination were provided efficient diagnostic tool for detection of clinical, subclinical mastitis and apparently normal health cattle. The collected milk samples were cultured on Nutrient, Blood agar, Mannitol salt, Edward’s and MacConkey agar plates supporting the growth of various types of bacteria for their biochemical studies and isolation. The antimicrobial activity of plants extracts (Jasonia montana and Artemisia herb albawith different solvent (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and acetonewere studied in vitro against isolated bacteria from mastitis by paper desk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC. Results: The prevalence of clinical, subclinical mastitis and normal healthy animals were 34.50%, 24.7% and 40.8% respectively. The major pathogens isolated from collected milk samples were Escherichia coli (22.16%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.19%, Streptococcus spp. (13.3%, Streptococcus agalactiae (12.8%, Streptococcus dysgalactia (0.5%, Pasteurella spp. (2.45%, Klebsiella spp. (1.47%and Pseudomonas spp. (0.45%. The highest antibacterial activity of J. montana plant extracted with acetone solvent against S. agalactiae, E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococci with zone of inhibition values ± standard deviation (SD, ranging from 4.33±0.57 to 25.6±0.60 mm. The MIC values

  1. Comparative investigation on the efficacy of tulathromycin and florfenicol in the treatment of bronchopneumonia in feedlot calves

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    Jezdimirović Milanka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical efficacy of tulathromycin (TU and florfenicol (FL in the treatment of bronchopneumonia (BP caused by Pasteurella multocida which was isolated from nose swabs of diseased calves has been examined. The symptoms of bronchopneumonia (BP were quantified by means of the clinical score (CS with a maximum of 47 points. In the current investigation the average CS in diseased calves was 23.5± 0.15. The clinical efficacy of TU and FL was assessed every day in the first week after the administration of the drugs and was based on the decrease in CS and on microbiological findings on days 7, 28 and 35 after the completion of therapy. Tulathromycin was administered s.c., in the prescribed therapeutic dose (2.5 mg/kg BW, and florfenicol s.c., twice at a 48 h interval, in its respective therapeutic dose (40 mg/kg BW. In spite of the repeated administration of FL, TU was significantly more rapid to decrease the major clinical symptoms in the first four days following the application, in comparison with FL (P<0.05. On the fourth day after the administration, the clinical efficacy of TU in the therapy of BP in calves was 43.4±1.5 %, and of florfenicol 27.2±1.6 %. However, five days after the application of TU and two days after the repeated application of FL the assessed clinical efficacy of the two antibiotics was roughly the same. The average efficacy of TU was 57.1±0.0%, and of florfenicol 58.5±0.0%, both the individual and mean CS in the treated calves was 10 points, due to hyperthermia, which remained the only symptom. Six days after the administration of TU and three days after the repeated application of FL both antibiotics had equal maximum efficacy (100% in the treatment of BP. The clinical efficacy remained unchanged on day seven. The recovery was confirmed by the absence of P. multocida in nose swabs sampled on the seventh day after the initial treatment. However, in 4 calves (21.05 % of the 19 treated Streptococcus alpha haemolyticus