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Sample records for pasteurella haemolytica biotype

  1. Experimental contact transmission of Pasteurella haemolytica from clinically normal domestic sheep causing pneumonia in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderka, D K; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Two Rocky Mountain bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis canadensis) were held in captivity for 120 days before being housed with two domestic sheep. The lambs were clinically normal and had no Pasteurella spp. on nasal swab cultures. The domestic sheep were known to carry Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A in the nasal passages. After being in close contact for 19 days. P. haemolytica biotype A was cultured from nasal swabs of one of the bighorn lambs. By 26 days, both bighorn sheep developed coughs, were anorectic and became lethargic and nasal swabs yielded P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10. Twenty-nine days after contact, the lambs were necropsied and found to have extensive fibrinous bronchopneumonia. From affected tissues pure cultures of beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10 were grown. Both domestic sheep remained clinically normal and had no gross or microscopic lesions, but they carried the same P. haemolytica serotype in their tonsils. Behavioural observations gave no indication of stress in the bighorn lambs.

  2. Pasteurella haemolytica bacteriophage: identification, partial characterization, and relationship of temperate bacteriophages from isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, A.B.; Renshaw, H.W.; Sneed, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) isolates (n = 15) from the upper respiratory tract of clinically normal cattle, as well as from lung lesions from cases of fatal bovine pasteurellosis, were examined for the presence of bacteriophage after irradiation with UV light. Treatment of all P haemolytica isolates with UV irradiation resulted in lysis of bacteria due to the induction of vegetative development of bacteriophages. The extent of growth inhibition and bacterial lysis in irradiated cultures was UV dose-dependent. Bacterial cultures exposed to UV light for 20 s reached peak culture density between 60 and 70 minutes after irradiation; thereafter, culture density declined rapidly, so that by 120 minutes, it was approximately 60% of the original value. When examined ultrastructurally, lytic cultures from each isolate revealed bacteriophages with an overall length of approximately 200 nm and that appeared to have a head with icosahedral symmetry and a contractile tail. Cell-free filtrate from each noninduced bacterial isolate was inoculated onto the other bacterial isolates in a cross-culture sensitivity assay for the presence of phages lytic for the host bacterial isolates. Zones of lysis (plaques) did not develop when bacterial lawns grown from the different isolates were inoculated with filtrates from the heterologous isolates

  3. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    OpenAIRE

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-01-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal ...

  4. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W

    1994-04-01

    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  5. Susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Silflow, R M; Lagerquist, J E

    1996-10-01

    We evaluated susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to bacterial pneumonia induced by two strains of Pasteurella haemolytica of domestic sheep origin by evaluating the sensitivity of blood neutrophils of eight Dall sheep to lysis by cytotoxins of P. haemolytica, and by intratracheal inoculation of three Dall sheep, two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and two domestic sheep with 3.7 x 10(6) or 2.5 x 10(7) colony forming units of P. haemolytica. Neutrophils from the Dall sheep were more sensitive to lysis by cytotoxins from supernatants of a P. haemolytica, biotype A, serotype 2 (A2), of domestic sheep origin, than were neutrophils from six bighorn sheep. This cytotoxic bacterium was the same isolate that was used for intratracheal inoculation of two Dall sheep and two domestic sheep. Inoculation of this cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 resulted in fatal fibrinopurulent pleuropneumonia in the first Dall sheep within 24 hr of inoculation, and pneumonic lesions in the second Dall sheep before it was euthanized 52 hr after inoculation. This strain of P. haemolytica A2 did not cause respiratory disease when inoculated into two domestic sheep. A noncytotoxic strain of P. haemolytica; biotype T, serotype 3,4,10 of domestic sheep origin did not result in pneumonia in the third Dall sheep or two bighorn sheep. Prior to inoculation, P. haemolytica, biotype T isolates were obtained from all three Dall sheep, but none of these isolates was cytotoxic. At necropsy, cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 was isolated from lungs and other tissues of the two pneumonic Dall sheep. Based on these results, we conclude that Dall sheep appear to be at least as sensitive as bighorn sheep to pneumonia caused by P. haemolytica A2 of domestic sheep origin. Because in vitro and in vivo results appear closely correlated in this and other studies, we believe with additional evaluation and standardization, neutrophil cytotoxicity tests may serve as a substitute for live animal challenges in future

  6. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal septicemia and fibrinous bronchopneumonia. The serotypes given were T3, T4, T15 and A1 and these were recovered from lung lesions and other organs. In three trials, domestic sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of bighorn sheep pneumonic lungs, and two concentrations of the P. haemolytica bighorn strain (10(4) and 10(12) organisms). One of these sheep was inoculated intrabronchially. The domestic sheep experienced a transient fever and elevated white blood cell counts. After six days, none of the sheep had lung lesions and inoculated organisms could not be recovered. It is suggested that bighorn sheep are very susceptible to P. haemolytica from domestic livestock and should not be allowed in contact with sheep or cattle.

  7. Prevalence and Biotyping of Pasteurella Haemolytica Isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. haemolytica isolated from Sahel sheep and goat in Maiduguri was characterized phenotypically. A total of 92 P. haemolytica isolates were obtained from the nasopharyngeal swabs while a total of 15 isolates came from pneumonic lung samples. The results showed that 37(20.22%) P. haemolytica isolates were obtained ...

  8. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. 113.68 Section 113.68 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Service. (4) A satisfactory challenge shall be evidenced in the controls by progression of clinical signs...

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica-like strains isolated from diseased animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Ahrens, Peter; Bisgaard, M.

    2002-01-01

    Trehalose-negative strains of the Pasteurella haemolytica complex have recently been transferred to a new genus, Mannheimia. This genus presently consists of five named species: M. haemolytica, M. glucosida, M. granulomatis, M. ruminalis and M. varigena. The purpose of this study was to investigate...

  10. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  11. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  12. Comparison of standardised versus non-standardised methods for testing the in vitro potency of oxytetracycline against mannheimia haemolytica and pasteurella multocida

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, P; Illambas, J; Pelligand, L; Toutain, P L

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was established for six isolates of each of the calf pneumonia pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and bacterial time-kill curves were determined in two matrices, Mueller Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. Geometric mean MIC ratios, serum:MHB, were 25.2:1 (M. haemolytica) and 27.4:1 (P. multocida). The degree of binding of oxytetracycline to...

  13. Multiplex PCR To Identify Macrolide Resistance Determinants in Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Simon; Desmolaize, Benoit; Jaju, Puneet

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are major etiological agents in respiratory tract infections of cattle. Although these infections can generally be successfully treated with veterinary macrolide antibiotics, a few recent isolates have shown resistance...... to these drugs. Macrolide resistance in members of the family Pasteurellaceae is conferred by combinations of at least three genes: erm(42), which encodes a monomethyltransferase and confers a type I MLS(B) (macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B) phenotype; msr(E), which encodes a macrolide efflux pump...

  14. A novel Erm monomethyltransferase in antibiotic-resistant isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Rose, Simon; Warrass, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are aetiological agents commonly associated with respiratory tract infections in cattle. Recent isolates of these pathogens have been shown to be resistant to macrolides and other ribosome-targeting antibiotics. Direct analysis of the 23S r...... without any dimethyltransferase activity. Erm(42) is a novel addition to the Erm family: it is phylogenetically distant from the other Erm family members and it is unique in being a bona fide monomethyltransferase that is disseminated between bacterial pathogens....

  15. Susceptibilidade in vitro a antimicrobianos da Mannheimia haemolytica e da Pasteurella multocida isoladas de ovinos sadios e com doenças respiratórias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leomar Viana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida e Mannheimia haemolytica (P. haemolytica estão associadas a enfermidades no sistema respiratório de ovinos. Com o objetivo de avaliar a susceptibilidade in vitro destes microrganismos frente aos antimicrobianos, foram colhidas amostras de nasofaringe (n=180 e orofaringe (n=82 de ovinos com e sem enfermidade respiratória. Dentre os antimicrobianos testados, a sensibilidade foi maior para enrofloxacina (100% e florfenicol (100%, considerando-se ambas as espécies bacterianas. Observou-se resistência de M. haemolytica e P. multocida à tetraciclina (15,64% e 17,65%, respectivamente e penicilina (1.82% e 4.2%, respectivamente.

  16. Gamma-Irradiated Mannheimia (Pasteurella) Haemolytica Identified by rRNA Gene Sequencing as a Potential Vaccine in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araby, E.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonic pasteurellosis is a significant disease in beef production medicine. The most information suggests that this disease is a $700 million dollar per year economic burden in bovine food animal production. The current study was designed to assess the immune efficacy of whole cell killed of M. haemolytica strain from satisfactory cases (infected lung from sheep). The efficacy of gamma- irradiated M. haemolytica vaccine (GIV) was evaluated in mice in comparison to the classical aqueous formalized (AFV) one. The bacteria under study were cultivation on blood agar, purification and genetically identified. Then the bacterial cells were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (2- 20 kGy) with 2 kGy intervals and the dose response curve of the survivors was plotted and 20 kGy was selected as the dose for the preparation of the vaccine. A total of 30 male mice (two weeks – old) were used for the further experimental investigations. Animals were divided into three equal groups each of 10 animals. The first group (group A) was given GIV . The second group (group B) received AFV. The third group (group C) was injected with sterile saline solution and represents the control. Animals were vaccinated via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection with 1x10 8 CFU per treated mouse. After vaccination, the immuno response was determined by cellular surface antigens-reactive antibodies using a modified protein- electrophoresis procedure. Antibody-antigen hybrids was visualized at molecular weight more than 225 KDa in samples represented M. haemolytica antibodies group (A, B) against both bacterial samples (M. haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida ) , while non-treated bacterial cells in which cells incubated with serum of mice group (C) revealed no hybridization reaction, this results verify that, there is shared cellular surface antigens among the two Pasteurella species. Also, the bacterial distribution with (LD 50 ) 2x10 7 CFU of a live M. heamolytica into vaccinated and non

  17. Rapid detection of Mannheimia haemolytica in lung tissues of sheep and from bacterial culture

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    Jyoti Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to detect Mannheimia haemolytica in lung tissues of sheep and from a bacterial culture. Introduction: M. haemolytica is one of the most important and well-established etiological agents of pneumonia in sheep and other ruminants throughout the world. Accurate diagnosis of M. haemolytica primarily relies on bacteriological examination, biochemical characteristics and, biotyping and serotyping of the isolates. In an effort to facilitate rapid M. haemolytica detection, polymerase chain reaction assay targeting Pasteurella haemolytica serotype-1 specific antigens (PHSSA, Rpt2 and 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes were used to detect M. haemolytica directly from lung tissues and from bacterial culture. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 archived lung tissues from sheep that died of pneumonia on an organized farm were used. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR based on two-amplicons targeted PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica were used for identification of M. haemolytica isolates in culture from the lung samples. All the 12 lung tissue samples were tested for the presence M. haemolytica by PHSSA and Rpt2 genes based PCR and its confirmation by sequencing of the amplicons. Results: All the 12 lung tissue samples tested for the presence of PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica by mPCR were found to be positive. Amplification of 12S rRNA gene fragment as internal amplification control was obtained with each mPCR reaction performed from DNA extracted directly from lung tissue samples. All the M. haemolytica were also positive for mPCR. No amplified DNA bands were observed for negative control reactions. All the three nucleotide sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank (Accession No. KJ534629, KJ534630 and KJ534631. Sequencing of the amplified products revealed the identity of 99-100%, with published sequence of PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica available in the NCBI database. Sheep specific mitochondrial 12S r

  18. [In vitro activity of 12 antibiotics used in veterinary medicine against Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida isolated from calves in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Hartman, E G

    2000-03-01

    Results of susceptibility tests of clinical isolates of animal pathogens are periodically summarized and reported by the Animal Health Service. However, these results are based upon qualitative test methods. In the present paper results of quantitative susceptibility tests of twelve antibacterial agents against Mannheimia haemolytica (MHA) and Pasteurella multocida (PMU) isolated from Dutch calves in 1996 and 1997 are presented. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, tilmicosin, neomycin, gentamicin, spectinomycin, flumequine, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol and florfenicol were determined. No resistance was detected for ceftiofur and florfenicol. Three strains had an intermediate susceptibility to tilmicosin. The resistance percentages of MHA and PMU for neomycin, gentamicin, spectinomycin, flumequine, enrofloxacin, and chloramphenicol varied from 2% to 16%. Higher resistance percentages (16%-53%) were observed for amoxicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. The MIC breakpoints used to determine whether a strain is susceptible, intermediate, or resistant are arbitrary and discussed in this paper.

  19. Isolation, identification, and monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from sheep in East Azerbaijan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Khalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in order to isolate, identify, and assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the causative agent(s of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep in East Azerbaijan province, northwest of Iran. Pneumonia was detected in 320 cases, and the affected lungs were sampled in the slaughterhouse. The samples were investigated bacteriologically for the isolation of two microorganisms from the Pasteurellaceae family. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from six (1.87% samples, while none of the lung tissues were positive for Mannheimia haemolytica. After the isolation and detection of microorganisms via cultural and morphological tests, the bacteria were identified on the basis of biochemical criteria and polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all P. multocida isolates, using broth microdilution method. Evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of eight antimicrobial agents against the tested isolates showed that all the organisms were resistant to amoxicillin and relatively susceptible to ceftiofur. In conclusion, P. multocida was introduced as the main cause of ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis in the studied district, and the outbreak frequency significantly varied in different seasons of the year (P

  20. Elimination of Pasteurella pneumotropica from a Mouse Barrier Facility by Using a Modified Enrofloxacin Treatment Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Justin W; Wagner, April M; Griffin, Kurt J; Buntzman, Adam S; Frelinger, Jeffrey A; Besselsen, David G

    2014-01-01

    Multiple NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1WjlTg(HLA-A2.1)Enge/Sz (NSG/A2) transgenic mice maintained in a mouse barrier facility were submitted for necropsy to determine the cause of facial alopecia, tachypnea, dyspnea, and sudden death. Pneumonia and soft-tissue abscesses were observed, and Pasteurella pneumotropica biotype Jawetz was consistently isolated from the upper respiratory tract, lung, and abscesses. Epidemiologic investigation within the facility revealed presence of this pathogen in mice generated or rederived by the intramural Genetically Engineered Mouse Model (GEMM) Core but not in mice procured from several approved commercial vendors. Epidemiologic data suggested the infection originated from female or vasectomized male ND4 mice obtained from a commercial vendor and then comingled by the GEMM Core to induce pseudopregnancy in female mice for embryo implantation. Enrofloxacin delivered in drinking water (85 mg/kg body weight daily) for 14 d was sufficient to clear bacterial infection in normal, breeding, and immune-deficient mice without the need to change the antibiotic water source. This modified treatment regimen was administered to 2400 cages of mice to eradicate Pasteurella pneumotropica from the facility. Follow-up PCR testing for P. pneumotropica biotype Jawetz remained uniformly negative at 2, 6, 12, and 52 wk after treatment in multiple strains of mice that were originally infected. Together, these data indicate that enrofloxacin can eradicate P. pneumotropica from infected mice in a less labor-intensive approach that does not require breeding cessation and that is easily adaptable to the standard biweekly cage change schedule for individually ventilated cages. PMID:25255075

  1. Elimination of Pasteurella pneumotropica from a mouse barrier facility by using a modified enrofloxacin treatment regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Justin W; Wagner, April M; Griffin, Kurt J; Buntzman, Adam S; Frelinger, Jeffrey A; Besselsen, David G

    2014-09-01

    Multiple NOD. Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2rg(tm1Wjl)Tg(HLA-A2.1)Enge/Sz (NSG/A2) transgenic mice maintained in a mouse barrier facility were submitted for necropsy to determine the cause of facial alopecia, tachypnea, dyspnea, and sudden death. Pneumonia and soft-tissue abscesses were observed, and Pasteurella pneumotropica biotype Jawetz was consistently isolated from the upper respiratory tract, lung, and abscesses. Epidemiologic investigation within the facility revealed presence of this pathogen in mice generated or rederived by the intramural Genetically Engineered Mouse Model (GEMM) Core but not in mice procured from several approved commercial vendors. Epidemiologic data suggested the infection originated from female or vasectomized male ND4 mice obtained from a commercial vendor and then comingled by the GEMM Core to induce pseudopregnancy in female mice for embryo implantation. Enrofloxacin delivered in drinking water (85 mg/kg body weight daily) for 14 d was sufficient to clear bacterial infection in normal, breeding, and immune-deficient mice without the need to change the antibiotic water source. This modified treatment regimen was administered to 2400 cages of mice to eradicate Pasteurella pneumotropica from the facility. Follow-up PCR testing for P. pneumotropica biotype Jawetz remained uniformly negative at 2, 6, 12, and 52 wk after treatment in multiple strains of mice that were originally infected. Together, these data indicate that enrofloxacin can eradicate P. pneumotropica from infected mice in a less labor-intensive approach that does not require breeding cessation and that is easily adaptable to the standard biweekly cage change schedule for individually ventilated cages.

  2. A multivalent Mannheimia-Bibersteinia vaccine protects bighorn sheep against Mannheimia haemolytica challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Kugadas, Abirami; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J; Hodgins, Douglas C; Shewen, Patricia E; Barrington, George M; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-10-01

    Bighorn sheep (BHS) are more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS) to Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia. Although both species carry M. haemolytica as a commensal bacterium in the nasopharynx, DS carry mostly leukotoxin (Lkt)-positive strains while BHS carry Lkt-negative strains. Consequently, antibodies to surface antigens and Lkt are present at much higher titers in DS than in BHS. The objective of this study was to determine whether repeated immunization of BHS with multivalent Mannheimia-Bibersteinia vaccine will protect them upon M. haemolytica challenge. Four BHS were vaccinated with a culture supernatant vaccine prepared from M. haemolytica serotypes A1 and A2 and Bibersteinia trehalosi serotype T10 on days 0, 21, 35, 49, and 77. Four other BHS were used as nonvaccinated controls. On the day of challenge, 12 days after the last immunization, the mean serum titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to surface antigens against M. haemolytica were 1:160 and 1:4,000, respectively. Following intranasal challenge with M. haemolytica A2 (1 × 10(5) CFU), all four control BHS died within 48 h. Necropsy revealed acute fibrinonecrotic pneumonia characteristic of M. haemolytica infection. None of the vaccinated BHS died during the 8 weeks postchallenge observation period. Radiography at 3 weeks postchallenge revealed no lung lesions in two vaccinated BHS and mild lesions in the other two, which resolved by 8 weeks postchallenge. These results indicate that if BHS can be induced to develop high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to surface antigens, they are likely to survive M. haemolytica challenge which is likely to reduce the BHS population decline due to pneumonia.

  3. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae can predispose bighorn sheep to fatal Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Herndon, Caroline N; Subramaniam, Renuka; Lawrence, Paulraj K; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Cassirer, E Frances; Haldorson, Gary J; Foreyt, William J; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Knowles, Donald P; Besser, Thomas E; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-10-26

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae has been isolated from the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS). However experimental reproduction of fatal pneumonia in BHS with M. ovipneumoniae was not successful. Therefore the specific role, if any, of M. ovipneumoniae in BHS pneumonia is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether M. ovipneumoniae alone causes fatal pneumonia in BHS, or predisposes them to infection by Mannheimia haemolytica. We chose M. haemolytica for this study because of its isolation from pneumonic BHS, and its consistent ability to cause fatal pneumonia under experimental conditions. Since in vitro culture could attenuate virulence of M. ovipneumoniae, we used ceftiofur-treated lung homogenates from pneumonic BHS lambs or nasopharyngeal washings from M. ovipneumoniae-positive domestic sheep (DS) as the source of M. ovipneumoniae. Two adult BHS were inoculated intranasally with lung homogenates while two others received nasopharyngeal washings from DS. All BHS developed clinical signs of respiratory infection, but only one BHS died. The dead BHS had carried leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica in the nasopharynx before the onset of this study. It is likely that M. ovipneumoniae colonization predisposed this BHS to fatal infection with the M. haemolytica already present in this animal. The remaining three BHS developed pneumonia and died 1-5 days following intranasal inoculation with M. haemolytica. On necropsy, lungs of all four BHS showed lesions characteristic of bronchopneumonia. M. haemolytica and M. ovipneumoniae were isolated from the lungs. These results suggest that M. ovipneumoniae alone may not cause fatal pneumonia in BHS, but can predispose them to fatal pneumonia due to M. haemolytica infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ovis aries CR4 is involved in Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Dassanayake, Rohana P

    2010-06-15

    Pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica is an important disease of domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) and cattle (BO). M. haemolytica is a normal commensal of the upper respiratory tract in ruminants, but during stress and viral infection it breaches the host innate mucosal defense and descents into lungs causing fibrinous pleuropneumonia. Leukotoxin (Lkt) produced by M. haemolytica is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes. Earlier, we and others have shown that DS and BO LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) and Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) can mediate Lkt-induced cytolysis. It is not clear whether CR4 (CD11c/CD18), which is involved in chemotaxis, phagocytosis and regulates host immune response can also mediate Lkt-induced cytolysis in ruminants. The host innate immune response to M. haemolytica is poorly understood and the involvement of CR4 in M. haemolytica pathogenesis is one of the most understudied. This problem is further compounded by the lack of cd11c genes from any ruminant species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to clone cd11c and determine whether CR4 can serve as a receptor for Lkt. In this direction we cloned two alleles of cd11c gene from leukocytes isolated from DS blood by RT-PCR. Transfectants developed expressing functional DS CR4 were found to be cytotoxic to Lkt from four different isolates of M. haemolytica. This is the first report confirming the ability of a recombinant ovine CR4 to bind to M. haemolytica Lkt and mediate concentration-dependent lysis of host cells, thus, confirming their role in M. haemolytica pathogenesis. This is a critical step in understanding host innate immunity and the management of pneumonia in sheep. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Multivalent Mannheimia-Bibersteinia Vaccine Protects Bighorn Sheep against Mannheimia haemolytica Challenge ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Kugadas, Abirami; Potter, Kathleen A.; Foreyt, William J.; Hodgins, Douglas C.; Shewen, Patricia E.; Barrington, George M.; Knowles, Donald P.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (BHS) are more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS) to Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia. Although both species carry M. haemolytica as a commensal bacterium in the nasopharynx, DS carry mostly leukotoxin (Lkt)-positive strains while BHS carry Lkt-negative strains. Consequently, antibodies to surface antigens and Lkt are present at much higher titers in DS than in BHS. The objective of this study was to determine whether repeated immunization of BHS with multivalent Mannheimia-Bibersteinia vaccine will protect them upon M. haemolytica challenge. Four BHS were vaccinated with a culture supernatant vaccine prepared from M. haemolytica serotypes A1 and A2 and Bibersteinia trehalosi serotype T10 on days 0, 21, 35, 49, and 77. Four other BHS were used as nonvaccinated controls. On the day of challenge, 12 days after the last immunization, the mean serum titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to surface antigens against M. haemolytica were 1:160 and 1:4,000, respectively. Following intranasal challenge with M. haemolytica A2 (1 × 105 CFU), all four control BHS died within 48 h. Necropsy revealed acute fibrinonecrotic pneumonia characteristic of M. haemolytica infection. None of the vaccinated BHS died during the 8 weeks postchallenge observation period. Radiography at 3 weeks postchallenge revealed no lung lesions in two vaccinated BHS and mild lesions in the other two, which resolved by 8 weeks postchallenge. These results indicate that if BHS can be induced to develop high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to surface antigens, they are likely to survive M. haemolytica challenge which is likely to reduce the BHS population decline due to pneumonia. PMID:21832104

  6. Identificación, biotipificación y caracterización de cepas de Pasteurella multocida aisladas en la Argentina Identification, biotypification and characterization of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Leotta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Treinta cepas de Pasteurella multocida aisladas en la Argentina a partir de muestras de origen humano y animal fueron identificadas, biotipificadas y caracterizadas. Veintidós de ellas (73% correspondieron a P. multocida subsp. multocida; cinco (17% a P. multocida subsp. gallicida y tres (10% a P. multocida subsp. septica. Todas las cepas fueron agrupadas en 8 biotipos; el 70% presentó el tipo capsular A. Los serotipos somáticos más frecuentes fueron el 1 (n:11 y el 3 (n:9. Las cepas de origen porcino fueron resistentes a tiamulina, estreptomicina y tetraciclina. La caracterización de las cepas de P. multocida aisladas en la Argentina es el primer paso para concretar futuros estudios destinados a la prevención y al tratamiento de la pasteurelosis en medicina humana y veterinaria.Thirty Pasteurella multocida strains isolated in Argentina from human and animal samples were identified, biotypified and characterized. Twenty-two (73% strains were identified as P. multocida subsp. multocida, 5 (17% as P. multocida subsp. gallicida, and 3 (10% as P. multocida subsp. septica. All strains were grouped in 8 biotypes, and 70% of the strains presented capsular type A. The most frequent somatic serotypes were 1 (n:11 and 3 (n:9. P. multocida strains from swine source were resistant to tiamulin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Characterization of P. multocida strains isolated in Argentina is the first step to conduct future studies intended for the prevention and treatment of pasteurellosis in human and veterinary medicine.

  7. Effect of intranasal recombinant Mannheimia haemolytica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-03-20

    Mar 20, 2015 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +2348066486080, E-mail: banabis2001@yahoo.com. Abstract. There is dearth of information on the haematological changes associated with Mannheimia haemolytica vaccination in goats, hence this report which describes some haematological changes observed following.

  8. Bighorn sheep × domestic sheep hybrids survive Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in the absence of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, R; Shanthalingam, S; Bavananthasivam, J; Kugadas, A; Raghavan, B; Batra, S A; Herndon, C N; Rodriguez, J; Tibary, A; Nelson, D; Potter, K A; Foreyt, W J; Srikumaran, S

    2014-06-04

    Bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are much more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) to pneumonia caused by leukotoxin (Lkt)-producing members of the Family Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Leukotoxin is widely accepted as the critical virulence factor of these bacteria since Lkt-negative mutants do not cause death of BHS. Typically, DS carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi as commensal bacteria in their nasopharynx. In contrast, most BHS do not carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica or B. trehalosi, or carry Lkt-negative strains in their nasopharynx. In previous studies, we demonstrated that unimmunized DS resist M. haemolytica challenge while BHS succumb to it. We hypothesized that Lkt-neutralizing antibodies, induced by Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi innately carried by DS in their nasopharynx, render them less susceptible to infection by these bacteria. In this study we developed BHS×DS F1 hybrids by artificial insemination of domestic ewes with BHS semen. F1 hybrids were fertile, and produced F2 hybrids and back-crosses. The F1, F2, and back-crosses were raised together with domestic ewes. All these animals acquired Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi, and developed high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies in the absence of vaccination. Furthermore, all of these animals resisted challenge with lethal dose of M. haemolytica. These results suggest that lack of previous exposure to Lkt is at least partially responsible for fatal pneumonia in BHS when they acquire Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi from DS when the two species commingle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Revised description and classification of atypical isolates of Pasteurella multocida from bovine lungs based on genotypic characterization to include variants previously classified as biovar 2 of Pasteurella canis and Pasteurella avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Angen, Øystein; Olsen, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Strains deviating in key phenotypic characters, mainly isolated from cases of bovine pneumonia in five European countries, were genotyped in order to examine their genotypic relationship with Pasteurella multocida. Twenty-two strains of Pasteurella avium biovar 2, including variants in indole, xy...

  10. Immersion vaccination against Yersinia ruckeri O1, biotype 2 confers cross protection against Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Neumann, Lukas; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    A new biotype 2 of Y. ruckeri O1, which lacks motility has proven highly virulent for rainbow trout, and is causing disease in cultured trout even in fish vaccinated with commercial ERM biotype 1 vaccines. Not much is known about immunity against biotype 2, and therefore have we produced a Y...... resulted in very low mortalities with no significant difference in mortality between vaccinated and mock-vaccinated fish. Challenge with biotype 1 resulted in a significantly lower mortality (P=0.0001) in the vaccinated group. This result was confirmed 15 months post vaccination (P... 2 confers significant cross protection against biotype 1....

  11. Inhibition of protein synthesis on the ribosome by tildipirosin compared with other veterinary macrolides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Møller; Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Warrass, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Tildipirosin is a 16-membered-ring macrolide developed to treat bacterial pathogens, including Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, that cause respiratory tract infections in cattle and swine. Here we evaluated the efficacy of tildipirosin at inhibiting protein synthesis...

  12. Characterisation of a novel Mannheimia sp from Australian feedlot cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackall, P.J.; Angen, Øystein; Fegan, N.

    2001-01-01

    glucosida, M granulomatis, M ruminalis and M varigena - using a range of phenotypic and genotypic methods. Results Phenotypic characterisation indicated that the isolates belonged to the trehalose-negative [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex. This complex has recently been reorganised into five species within...

  13. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a three-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor W. Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a three-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4 and again from the same cattle after ≥ 60 d on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7% entry samples and 1,038 (20.6% ≥ 60 d samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5%, 2.9%, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas 5 isolates (0.4% were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥ 89% similarity according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42, erm(A, erm(B, erm(F, erm(X and msr(E-mph(E, were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a three-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle.

  14. A multiplex PCR assay for molecular capsular serotyping of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, and 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an important respiratory pathogen of ruminants. Of the 12 capsular serovars identified, 1 and 6 are most frequently associated with disease in cattle, while 2 is largely a commensal. Comparative analysis of 24 M. haemolytica genomes was used to identify unique genes associa...

  15. 75 FR 1274 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Florfenicol and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... flunixin meglumine), a combination injectable solution, for treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida... female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Use of florfenicol in this class of cattle may cause milk...

  16. 21 CFR 522.955 - Florfenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida... cause milk residues. A withdrawal period has not been established in preruminating calves. Do not use in... use. For control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing BRD associated with...

  17. THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were identified numerous biotypes of cornelian cherry, rosehip and seabuckthorn. All these native biotypes were subjected to studies of phenology, productivity, and quality of fruits. These researches identified the highest productivity in the following biotypes: MS-40 (cornelian cherry, RC-CN (rose hip and MPR2P3 (seabuckthorn.

  18. Vibrio cholerae Classical Biotype Strains Reveal Distinct Signatures in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M. Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A.; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R.; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 199...

  19. Defective bacterial clearance is responsible for the enhanced lung pathology characteristic of Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Potter, Kathleen A; Knowles, Donald P; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-12-15

    The molecular and cellular basis for the enhanced lung pathology and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadenesis), in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries), is not clear. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of BHS are four- to eight-fold more susceptible to M. haemolytica leukotoxin-induced cytolysis, which is likely to reduce the number of functional phagocytes in the lung. We hypothesized that enhanced lung pathology is due to defective clearance of M. haemolytica from the lungs of BHS. To test this hypothesis, M. haemolytica (1 × 10(7) colony forming units [cfu]) were inoculated intra-tracheally into three groups each of BHS and DS, which were euthanized and necropsied at 4, 12, and 18 h post-inoculation (hpi). Bacterial and leukocyte counts were performed on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected at necropsy. BALF from BHS euthanized at 4 and 12 hpi contained a significantly higher number of M. haemolytica than that from DS. More importantly, DS did not have any bacteria in BALF at 18 hpi, while the BHS still had significant numbers. As expected, the BHS did exhibit more extensive lung lesions at 12 and 18 hpi when compared to DS. At 18 hpi, necrotic PMNs were observed in the lesional lung tissues of BHS, but not DS. Furthermore, BALF from BHS had significantly lower titers of antibodies to Lkt and surface antigens of M. haemolytica, than that of DS. These findings suggest that the enhanced pathology in BHS lungs is due to defective clearance of M. haemolytica from the lungs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. RELATIVE COMPETITIVENESS OF GOOSEGRASS BIOTYPES AND SOYBEAN CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JADER JOB FRANCO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he goosegrass ( Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn is an annual plant that has a low - level resistance to glyphosate (LLRG, resulting in control failure in genetically modified soybean crops for resistance to this herbicide. Alleles related to resistance may cause changes in the plant biotype, such as inferior competitive ability. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluated the competitive ability of soybean crops and susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. Replacement series experiments were conducted with soybean crops and goosegrass biotypes. The ratios of soybean to susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass plants were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, with a total population of 481 plants m - 2 . The leaf area, plant height and shoot dry weight were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the soybean crops and weeds. The soybean crop had superior competitive ability to the susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The soybean crop showed similar competitive ability in both competitions, either with the susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The intraspecific competition was more harmful to the soybean crop, while the interspecific competition caused greater damage to the goosegrass biotypes competing with the soybean crop

  1. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype strains reveal distinct signatures in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. Antibiograms revealed the majority of the Bangladeshi strains to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, furazolidone, ampicillin, and gentamicin, while the Mexican strains were sensitive to all of these drugs, as well as to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed characteristic banding patterns for all of the CL biotype strains although the Mexican strains differed from the Bangladeshi strains in 1 to 2 DNA bands. The difference was subtle but consistent, as confirmed by the subclustering patterns in the PFGE-based dendrogram, and can serve as a regional signature, suggesting the pre-1991 existence and evolution of the CL biotype strains in the Americas, independent from Asia.

  2. (PCR) for the identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... lactalbumin hydrolysate, 1% MEM, 20% decomplemented horse serum, 5% fresh yeast extract, 1% thallium acetate and 0.4% sodium pyruvate) in a high security laboratory. The DNA of. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica was maintained in the State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological ...

  3. Probiotic bacteria inhibit the bovine respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, S; Subramanian, S; Timsit, E; Alexander, T W

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the potential of probiotic bacteria to inhibit growth and cell adhesion of the bovine respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemoltyica serotype 1. The inhibitory effects of nine probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and two Paenibacillus polymyxa strains) against M. haemolytica were evaluated using a spot-on-lawn method. Probiotic strains were then tested for their adherence to bovine bronchial epithelial (BBE) cells and the ability to displace and compete against M. haemolytica on BBE. Except for S. thermophilus, all probiotic strains inhibited the growth of M. haemolytica, with zones of inhibition ranging between 12 and 19 mm. Lactobacillus strains and Lactococcus lactis displayed greater (P probiotics (probiotics. The results of this study suggest that probiotics may have the potential to colonize the bovine respiratory tract, and exert antagonistic effects against M. haemolytica serotype 1. A common method to control bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlots is through mass medication with antibiotics upon cattle entry (i.e. metaphylaxis). Increasingly, antimicrobial resistance in BRD bacterial pathogens has been observed in feedlots, which may have important implications for cattle health. In this study, probiotic strains were shown to adhere to bovine respiratory cells and inhibit the BRD pathogen M. haemolytica serotype 1 through competition and displacement. Probiotics may therefore offer a mitigation strategy to reduce BRD bacterial pathogens, in place of metaphylactic antimicrobials. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

  4. In vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other antimicrobial agents against five pathogens isolated in calves in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; van Miert, A S

    1990-10-01

    The in vitro activity of flumequine in comparison with several other drugs was tested against 17 P. multocida, 16 P. haemolytica, 21 S. dublin, 21 S. typhimurium and 21 E. coli strains, isolated in (veal) calves in the Netherlands. The MIC50 of flumequine for the respective pasteurellas was 0.25 and 1 microgram/ml, for the salmonellas and E. coli 0.5 micrograms/ml. In comparison with flumequine, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin showed higher in vitro activity, with MIC50 less than or equal to 0.008 micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin. Decreased susceptibility of the pasteurellas was found for kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and doxycycline. The MIC50 of minocycline for P. multocida was 0.5 micrograms/ml and there was no cross resistance with the other tetracyclines. P. multocida was very susceptible to ampicillin (MIC50 less than or equal to 0.03 micrograms/ml), P. haemolytica, however, was 100% resistant to this drug. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to cephalothin and approximately 50% of the strains of both bacteria were resistant to chloramphenicol. The MIC50 of either spiramycin or tylosin was greater than or equal to their respective breakpoint-MIC values. Both pasteurellas were susceptible to the combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. However, for P. multocida, the addition of sulphamethoxazole to trimethoprim had no synergistic effect on its MIC. In comparison with trimethorpim, aditoprim was less potent. Therefore only P. multocida was susceptible to aditoprim.

  5. Draft genome sequences of two virulent serotypes of avian Pasteurella multocida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report the draft genome sequences of two virulent avian strains of Pasteurella multocida. Comparative analyses of these genomes were done with the published genome sequence of avirulent Pasteurella multocida strain Pm70....

  6. 21 CFR 522.2471 - Tilmicosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at... dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Use of this antibiotic in this class of cattle may cause milk...

  7. Glyphosate efficacy on sourgrass biotypes with suspected resistance collected in GR-crop fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Martins da Silveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, infestations of crop areas with glyphosate-resistant (GR sourgrass (Digitaria insularis (L. Fedde biotypes has risen significantly, increasing crop production costs. Glyphosate efficacy on three biotypes (GO, BA and MT of sourgrass with suspected resistance was evaluated. A susceptible biotype (MG was used as the control. The results confirmed that the MG and GO biotypes were susceptible to glyphosate (control > 90%. The MG biotype exhibited growth reduction and mortality by 50% (GR50 and LD50, respectively with mean glyphosate doses of 243.7 and 431.6 g ae ha-1. The resistance index of the biotypes with suspected resistance ranged from 2.8 to 6.1 in relation to GR50 and between 1.4 to 26.7 in relation to LD50. The glyphosate susceptibility ranking of the sourgrass biotypes was MG < GO < MT < BA. The MT and BA biotypes demonstrated high glyphosate resistance levels, and the GO biotype had a high potential to develop resistance. Farmers should avoid the application of glyphosate overdoses to minimize the selection pressure on weeds.

  8. Differential content of glyphosate and its metabolites in Digitaria insularis biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in controlled conditions to analyze the role of metabolism of glyphosate in Digitaria insularis (sourgrass biotypes with differential response to the herbicide. Contents of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA, glyoxylate, and sarcosine was detected in leaf tissues by using reversed-polarity capillarity electrophoresis. Glyphosate content in the A biotype increased from 19.7 up to 65.5 µg g fresh weight-1, whereas decreasing from 19.9 down to 5.0 µg g fresh weight-1 in the B biotype, from 48 up to 168 hours after treatment. At 168 hours after treatment, percentage of the sum of AMPA, glyoxylate, and sarcosine was > 56% in the B biotype, whereas a small percentage of metabolites (< 10% was found in the A biotype. Thus, the faster herbicide degradation in the B biotype is evidence that a differential metabolism of glyphosate can be conferring its lesser susceptibility to the herbicide.

  9. Accumulation and resistance to copper of two biotypes of Cynodon dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youbao; Zhang, Li; Yao, Jing; Huang, Yongjie; Yan, Mi

    2009-04-01

    The effects of copper accumulation and resistance in two biotypes of Cynodon dactylon were studied. Results showed that at a low concentration of copper (Cynodon dactylon was generally unaffected. As copper concentration increased, negative effects on the growth of Cynodon dactylon became apparent. The critical concentration at which the plant exhibited poisoning symptoms was different for the two biotypes of Cynodon dactylon. At 500 mg/kg copper concentration in soil, the biotype from the polluted area showed significantly higher tolerance of copper than the biotype from the unpolluted area.

  10. Application of Enrofloxacin and Orbifloxacin Disks Approved in Japan for Susceptibility Testing of Representative Veterinary Respiratory Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARADA, Kazuki; USUI, Masaru; ASAI, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, susceptibilities of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin were tested using an agar diffusion method with the commercial disks and a broth microdilution method. Good correlation between the 2 methods for enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin was observed for P. multocida (r = −0.743 and −0.818, respectively), M. haemolytica (r = −0.739 and −0.800, respectively) and A. pleuropneumoniae (r = −0.785 and −0.809, respectively). Based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria for enrofloxacin, high-level categorical agreement between the 2 methods was found for P. multocida (97.9%), M. haemolytica (93.8%) and A. pleuropneumoniae (92.0%). Our findings indicate that the tested commercial disks can be applied for susceptibility testing of veterinary respiratory pathogens. PMID:25008965

  11. Interference of Selected Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes in Soybean (Glycine max

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    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. has become difficult to control in row crops due to selection for biotypes that are no longer controlled by acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides and/or glyphosate. Early season interference in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] for 40 days after emergence by three glyphosate-resistant (GR and three glyphosate-susceptible (GS Palmer amaranth biotypes from Georgia and North Carolina was compared in the greenhouse. A field experiment over 2 years compared season-long interference of these biotypes in soybean. The six Palmer amaranth biotypes reduced soybean height similarly in the greenhouse but did not affect soybean height in the field. Reduction in soybean fresh weight and dry weight in the greenhouse; and soybean yield in the field varied by Palmer amaranth biotypes. Soybean yield was reduced 21% by Palmer amaranth at the established field density of 0.37 plant m−2. When Palmer amaranth biotypes were grouped by response to glyphosate, the GS group reduced fresh weight, dry weight, and yield of soybean more than the GR group. The results indicate a possible small competitive disadvantage associated with glyphosate resistance, but observed differences among biotypes might also be associated with characteristics within and among biotypes other than glyphosate resistance.

  12. Immunogenic Response of Rabbits to Monovalent and Polyvalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was carried out in University of Surrey UK Department of Microbiology. In this study, the efficacy of monovalent and polyvalent vaccines made from Mannhaemia haemolytica antigens, were evaluated by measuring specific serum antibody titers produced against the bacteria in immunized rabbits. Eleven biotype A ...

  13. Sepsis puerperalis caused by a genotypically proven cat-derived Pasteurella multocida strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, A; van Zwam, Y H; Meis, J F; Melchers, W; Steegers, E A

    1998-01-01

    We report a disseminated intrauterine Pasteurella multocida infection in a puerperal woman who could not remember any traumatic exposure to her cat. An oral swab taken from the cat, just 2 days after the patient's admission, grew Pasteurella multocida, with an PCR-fingerprinting pattern identical to the patient's isolate. Hand-washing after every contact with cats and dogs and if feasible separation of in-house pets from mother and infant should be applied to prevent this uncommon but serious occurrence of post-partum infections. To our knowledge this is the first case of Pasteurella multocida 'child-bed fever', with a genotypically identical strain isolated from the in-house cat.

  14. Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 exhibits differential pathogenicity in two related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Herndon, Caroline N; Lawrence, Paulraj K; Frances Cassirer, E; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2009-02-02

    Mannheimia haemolytica causes pneumonia in both bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) and domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). Under experimental conditions, co-pasturing of BHS and DS results in fatal pneumonia in BHS. It is conceivable that certain serotypes of M. haemolytica carried by DS are non-pathogenic to them, but lethal for BHS. M. haemolytica serotypes A1 and A2 are carried by DS in the nasopharynx. However, it is the serotype A2 that predominantly causes pneumonia in DS. The objectives of this study were to determine whether serotype A1 exhibits differential pathogenicity to BHS and DS, and to determine whether leukotoxin (Lkt) secreted by this organism is its primary virulence factor. Three groups each of BHS and DS were intra-tracheally administered either 1 x 10(9)cfu of serotype A1 wild-type (lktA-Wt group), Lkt-deletion mutant of serotype A1-(lktA-Mt group), or saline (control group), respectively. In the lktA-Wt groups, all four BHS died within 48h while none of the DS died during the 2-week study period. In the lktA-Mt groups, none of the BHS or DS died. In the control groups, one DS died due to an unrelated cause. Necropsy and histopathological findings revealed that death of BHS in the lktA-Wt group was due to bilateral, fibrinohemorrhagic pneumonia. Although the A1-Mt-inoculated BHS were clinically normal, on necropsy, lungs of two BHS showed varying degrees of mild chronic pneumonia. These results indicate that M. haemolytica serotype A1 is non-pathogenic to DS, but highly lethal to BHS, and that Lkt is the primary virulence factor of M. haemolytica.

  15. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.

  16. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica from Bovine Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Cassidy L; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Laing, Chad; Gannon, Vick P; Xu, Yong; Rasmussen, Jay; Potter, Andrew; Hendrick, Steve; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A

    2016-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1) and 6 (S6) isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2) found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2-8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design intended to reduce the

  17. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica from Bovine Sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy L Klima

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1 and 6 (S6 isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2 found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2-8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design

  18. Examining the competitive advantage of Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotype 2 over biotype 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Randolph, Terri L; Peairs, Frank B; Michels, G J; Walker, C B

    2014-08-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) is a serious pest of small grains, such as wheat and barley. High population growth rates and a broad gramineae host range have allowed this aphid to successfully establish and become pestiferous across much of North America since its invasion in the mid-1980s. Resistant wheat cultivars were developed and provided control ofD. noxia until 2003, when a new biotype (designated RWA2, as contrasted with the original biotype's designation, RWA1) emerged and rapidly spread through dryland winter wheat-growing regions. RWA2 displaced RWA1 more quickly than expected, based on RWA2's advantage in RWA1-resistant wheat cultivars. Previous research suggested that RWA2 may out-compete RWA1 in cooler temperatures. Thus, we sought to determine if RWA2 had a competitive advantage over RWA1 during the overwintering period. We placed a known distribution of RWA1 and RWA2 aphids in the field for the winter at three sites across a latitudinal gradient (from northern Colorado to Texas) to test for a competitive advantage between these biotypes. We found overwhelming support for an overwintering competitive advantage by RWA2 over RWA1, with evidence suggesting a > 10-fold advantage even at our Texas site (i.e., the site with the mildest winter). This substantial overwintering advantage helps explain the quick dispersion and displacement of RWA1 by RWA2.

  19. Evaluation of the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system for identification of Staphylococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenming; Sieradzki, Krzysztof; Albrecht, Valerie; McAllister, Sigrid; Lin, Wen; Stuchlik, Olga; Limbago, Brandi; Pohl, Jan; Kamile Rasheed, J

    2015-10-01

    The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS (Biotyper) system, with a modified 30 minute formic acid extraction method, was evaluated by its ability to identify 216 clinical Staphylococcus isolates from the CDC reference collection comprising 23 species previously identified by conventional biochemical tests. 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used to resolve discrepancies. Of these, 209 (96.8%) isolates were correctly identified: 177 (84.7%) isolates had scores ≥2.0, while 32 (15.3%) had scores between 1.70 and 1.99. The Biotyper identification was inconsistent with the biochemical identification for seven (3.2%) isolates, but the Biotyper identifications were confirmed by 16S rDNA analysis. The distribution of low scores was strongly species-dependent, e.g. only 5% of Staphylococcus epidermidis and 4.8% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates scored below 2.0, while 100% of Staphylococcus cohnii, 75% of Staphylococcus sciuri, and 60% of Staphylococcus caprae produced low but accurate Biotyper scores. Our results demonstrate that the Biotyper can reliably identify Staphylococcus species with greater accuracy than conventional biochemicals. Broadening of the reference database by inclusion of additional examples of under-represented species could further optimize Biotyper results. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  1. Plane of nutrition during the preweaned period and Mannheimia haemolytica dose influence metabolic responses in post-weaned Holstein calves challenged with bovine herpesvirus-1 and Mannheimia haemolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether previous plane of milk replacer nutrition (PON) and M. haemolytica (MH) dose influences metabolic responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge, Holstein calves (1 day of age; n=30) were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial with preweaned PON and dose of M...

  2. BIÓPSIA PULMONAR EM BEZERROS COM BRONCOPNEUMONIA INDUZIDA PELA Mannheimia haemolytica PULMONAR BIOPSY IN CALVES WITH BRONCHOPNEUMONIA INDUCED BY Mannheimia haemolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pessoa Gomes da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de avaliar a segurança, a eficácia diagnóstica da biópsia pulmonar e comparar a possível ocorrência de complicações decorrentes da técnica, entre bezerros sadios e com broncopneumonia induzida, utilizaram-se dez bezerros (G1 sadios e vinte bezerros portadores de broncopneumonia, divididos em quatro grupos de cinco bezerros (G2 a G5, os quais foram biopsiados 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas após a inoculação com Mannheimia haemolytica, respectivamente. A presença de crepitação grossa, som submaciço à percussão e as alterações radiográficas auxiliaram no diagnóstico da broncopneumonia e localizaram a área pulmonar a ser biopsiada nos grupos G2 a G5. As alterações microscópicas, visualizadas nos animais do grupo G2 a G5, foram as de broncopneumonia fibrinopurulenta. Nos bezerros do grupo G1 as alterações relacionadas à técnica foram: tosse, epistaxe, dispneia mista, taquipneia e taquicardia. Cinco (25% bezerros com broncopneumonia desenvolveram hemotórax após a biópsia e as alterações relacionadas à técnica foram: taquipneia, taquicardia, tosse, dispneia mista, apatia, mucosas pálidas e decúbito. Conclui-se que a biópsia pulmonar permite o diagnóstico de broncopneumonia em bezerros, contudo as complicações decorrentes da técnica limitam o seu uso apenas nas situações em que os métodos convencionais não tenham possibilitado o diagnóstico.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bezerros, biópsia pulmonar, broncopneumonia, Mannheimia haemolytica.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and diagnostic efficacy of lung biopsy and to compare the possible occurrence of complications due to this technique in healthy calves and in calves with bronchopneumonia. Thirty Holstein calves were divided into a group of ten healthy animals (G1 and into four experimental groups (G2 to G5 of five calves each

  3. Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45% examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

  4. Pasteurella aerogenes as an Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaygut, Demet; Engin, Aynur

    2018-02-01

    'Asymptomatic bacteriuria' (ASB) is isolation of a specified quantitative count of bacteria in an appropriately collected urine specimen obtained from a person without symptoms or signs referable to urinary infection. Catheterized specimens are less likely to be contaminated compared with voided specimens; therefore, positive cultures of catheterized specimens are more likely to reflect true bladder bacteriuria even with low colony counts. The common pathogens for ASB are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Streptococcus spp. Pasteurella spp. was not previously reported as an ASB agent. ASB is important for pregnant women, children, individuals with obstructive uropathy, chronic renal failure and neutropenia, before the urologic procedures and after renal transplantation. Treatment of ASB is required for above situations. We report an 11-year-old-girl with neurogenic bladder who made clean intermittent catheterization and had Pasteurella aerogenes as an ASB agent. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Plane of nutrition during the preweaned period and Mannheimia haemolytica dose influences inflammatory responses to a combined bovine herpesvirus-1 and Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in post-weaned Holstein calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether previous plane of milk replacer nutrition (PON) and M. haemolytica (MH) dose influences inflammatory responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge, Holstein calves (1 day of age; n=30) were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial with preweaned PON and dose o...

  6. Differentiation of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A from pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes by detection of β-glucosidase activity: comparison of two chromogenic culture media and Vitek2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhukorpi, Jari; Päivänurmi, Marjut

    2014-01-01

    Aesculin hydrolysis (ESC) is one of the key reactions in differentiating pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 from the less-pathogenic biotype 1A. Because the ESC reaction is caused by β-glucosidase (βGLU) activity of the bacteria, we studied whether two commonly used methods (BBL CHROMagar Orientation and Vitek2 Gram-negative identification card) could be used in assessing βGLU activity of 74 Yersinia strains. Both methods were sensitive (100 % and 97 %) and specific (100 % and 100 %) in differentiating βGLU-positive YE BT1A from βGLU-negative Y. enterocolitica biotypes. For a subset of strains (n = 69), a new selective CHROMagar Yersinia showed excellent agreement with the strains' βGLU activity. Thus all the methods evaluated in this study may be used to differentiate between YE BT1A and other Y. enterocolitica biotypes.

  7. Differential expression of interleukin-8 by polymorphonuclear leukocytes of two closely related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries, in response to Mannheimia haemolytica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Caroline N; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-08-01

    The pneumonic lesions and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) are more severe than those in the related species, domestic sheep (DS; Ovis aries), under both natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin (Lkt) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the most important virulence factors of this organism. One hallmark of pathogenesis of pneumonia is the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the lungs. Lkt-induced cytolysis of PMNs results in the release of cytotoxic compounds capable of damaging lung tissue. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent PMN chemoattractant. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is differential expression of IL-8 by the macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS in response to M. haemolytica. Macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS were stimulated with heat-killed M. haemolytica or LPS. IL-8 expression by the cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The PMNs of BHS expressed severalfold higher levels of IL-8 than those of DS upon stimulation. Lesional lung tissue of M. haemolytica-infected BHS contained significantly higher levels of IL-8 than nonlesional tissue. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected BHS also contained higher levels of IL-8 than that of infected DS. Depletion of IL-8 reduced migration of PMNs toward BAL fluid by approximately 50%, indicating that IL-8 is integral to PMN recruitment to the lung during M. haemolytica infection. Excessive production of IL-8, enhanced recruitment of PMNs, and PMN lysis by Lkt are likely responsible for the severity of the lung lesions in M. haemolytica-infected BHS.

  8. Buprofezin inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity in B-biotype Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottage, Emma L A; Gunning, Robin V

    2006-01-01

    B-biotype Bemisia tabaci is a severe insect pest worldwide in many ornamental, agricultural, and horticultural industries. Control of this insect is hampered by resistance to many acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting insecticides, such as organophosphates and carbamates. Consequently, insect growth regulators such as buprofezin, which act by inhibiting chitin synthesis, are being investigated for use against B-biotype B. tabaci in Australia. This study discusses the effects of buprofezin on B. tabaciAChE.

  9. Ocorrência de pneumonia associada à infecção por Mannheimia haemolytica em ovinos de Minas Gerais Occurrence of pneumonia associated to infection by Mannheimia haemolytica in sheep of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rios de Araújo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho descreve um surto de pneumonia em ovinos em uma propriedade na região central de Minas Gerais. Clinicamente os animais apresentavam apatia, mostravam dificuldade respiratória durante dois ou três dias ou morriam subitamente. À necropsia as alterações pulmonares eram similares em todos os ovinos. Havia consolidação dos lobos craniais e da parte ventral dos lobos caudais e ao corte fluía exsudato mucopurulento da traquéia e dos brônquios. No parênquima dos lobos craniais havia áreas brancas multifocais a coalescentes com 0,2-0,5cm de diâmetro, levemente proeminentes e intercaladas por áreas vermelho-escuras. Pleurite fibrinosa foi observada nos Ovinos 1, 2 e 3. As lesões de consolidação ocupavam cerca de 70-80% da extensão pulmonar. Microscopicamente, as alterações eram de broncopneumonia fibrinopurulenta com intensa hiperemia, áreas com hemorragia intra-alveolar e espessamento dos septos interlobulares por inúmeros neutrófilos, restos celulares e intensa exsudação de fibrina. Áreas multifocais com necrose de liquefação contendo numerosas colônias bacterianas foram observadas no Ovino 3. Nos lobos craniais dos Ovinos 1, 2 e 3, haviam áreas com neutrófilos degenerados formando aglomerados de células alongadas com formato de "grãos de aveia" associados a colônias bacterianas. As alterações histológicas foram características de pneumonia causada por Mannheimia (M. haemolytica. Amostras dos lobos craniais de todos os ovinos foram encaminhadas para cultivo bacteriológico e M. haemolytica foi isolada e identificada em todos os animais. Este é o primeiro relato correlacionando os achados patológicos e o isolamento de M. haemolytica como causa de broncopneumonia em ovinos no Brasil.This paper describes an outbreak of pneumonia in a sheep herd in the central region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Clinically, the animals presented apathy, exhibited respiratory difficulty during 2 to 3 days or sudden death. The

  10. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep.

  11. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet eTopuz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron, an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS. DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (‘R’ biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197 to TCT (Ser 197 in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197 to ACT (Thr 197 in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the ‘R’ S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis ‘R’ biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4 to 48 months of dry storage (after-ripening compared to the susceptible (‘S’ biotypes. Seeds of the ‘S’ biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the ‘R’ biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months’ of dry storage. The ‘R’ biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of ‘R’ and ‘S’ biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, ‘R’ seeds were significantly heavier than those of the ‘S’ seeds. Differential seed germinability between ‘S’ and ‘R’ biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination.

  12. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar

    2015-07-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (‘R’) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the ‘R’ S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis ‘R’ biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4 to 48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (‘S’) biotypes. Seeds of the ‘S’ biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the ‘R’ biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months’ of dry storage. The ‘R’ biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of ‘R’ and ‘S’ biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, ‘R’ seeds were significantly heavier than those of the ‘S’ seeds. Differential seed germinability between ‘S’ and ‘R’ biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination.

  13. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  14. Application of the MALDI Biotyper to clinical microbiology: progress and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa, Markus

    2018-03-01

    The introduction of the MALDI Biotyper in laboratories substantially changed microbiology practice, this has been called a revolution. The system accelerated diagnostic while costs were reduced and accuracy was increased. In just a few years MALDI-TOF MS became the first-line identification tool for microorganisms. Ten years after its introduction, more than 2000 MALDI Biotyper systems are installed in laboratories which are performing routine diagnostic, and the number is still increasing. Areas covered: This article summarises changes in clinical microbiology introduced by the MALDI Biotyper and its effects, as it has been published in peer reviewed articles found in PubMed. Further, the potential of novel developments to increase the value of the system is described. Expert commentary: The MALDI Biotyper has significantly improved clinical microbiology in the area of microorganism identification. Now new developments and applications, e.g. for typing and resistance testing, might further increase its value in clinical microbiology. The systems might get the central diagnostic analyser which is getting integrated into the widely automated microbiology laboratories of the future.

  15. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF WHEAT IN ASSOCIATION WITH BIOTYPES OF Raphanus raphanistrum L. RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE TO ALS-INHIBITOR HERBICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Oliveira da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Raphanus raphanistrum ALS herbicide-resistant in wheat crops causes crop yield losses, which makes it necessary to understand the factors that influence the interference of this weed to develop safer management strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the competitive ability of wheat in coexistence with biotypes of R. raphanistrum that are resistant (R biotype and susceptible (S biotypes to ALS herbicides and to determine whether there are differences in the competitiveness of these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments were placed in pots and arranged in replacement series for three experiments (1 - wheat with the R biotype; 2 - wheat with the S biotype; and 3 - the R biotype with the S biotype at the following ratios: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. The competitiveness was analyzed through diagrams applied to replacement experiments and competitiveness indices, including the evaluation of the shoot dry matter of the plants (experiments 1, 2, and 3 and the leaf area (experiment 3. The R and S biotypes significantly decreased the shoot dry matter of the wheat cultivar and demonstrated superior competitive ability compared with the culture. The interspecific competition was more important for the wheat and for the S biotype. The competitiveness of the R biotype compared to the S biotype was similar, with synergism in the leaf area production, which indicates the predominant intraspecific competition exhibited by the R biotype.

  16. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. 113.69 Section 113.69 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. (4) A satisfactory challenge shall be evidenced in the...

  17. Antibacterial Activity of the Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Juglans regia L. Stem Bark on Human Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moori Bakhtiari N.* PhD,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Bovine mastitis continues to be the most costly disease to the dairy farmers. It dominates in Iran as one of the most prevalent diseases in dairy cattle among the dairy farms. Mastitis treatment with antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant strains and consumer health problem.This study was performed for the first time to analyze in vitro effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark on 6 mastitis pathogens. Materials & Methods the susceptibility of 6 strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica were analyzed against hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC methods. Findings Hydro-alcoholic extract did not have antibacterial effects on E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentration for S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus spp. was 62.5mg/ml of hydro-alcoholic extract. There was not any significant response with concentrations below 100mg/disc on S. aureus, Streptococcus species, P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Minimum bactericidal concentration of this extract was 100mg/ml in all isolates. Conclusion Juglans regia L. have some antibacterial effects on S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus species.

  18. Fusobacterium necrophorum in North American Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Narayanan, Sanjeevkumar; Batra, Sai Arun; Jegarubee, Bavananthasivam; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum has been detected in pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis ) lungs, in addition to the aerobic respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica , Bibersteinia trehalosi , Pasteurella multocida , and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae . Similar to M. haemolytica , F. necrophorum produces a leukotoxin. Leukotoxin-induced lysis and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and macrophages are responsible for acute inflammation and lung tissue damage characteristic of M. haemolytica -caused pneumonia. As one approach in elucidating the role of F. necrophorum in BHS pneumonia, we determined the frequency of the presence of F. necrophorum in archived pneumonic BHS lung tissues, and susceptibility of BHS leukocytes to F. necrophorum leukotoxin. A species-specific PCR assay detected F. necrophorum in 37% of pneumonic BHS lung tissues (total tested n=70). Sequences of PCR amplicons were similar to the less virulent F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin exhibited cytotoxicity to BHS PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As with the M. haemolytica leukotoxin, F. necrophorum leukotoxin was more toxic to BHS PMNs than domestic sheep PMNs. It is likely that F. necrophorum enters the lungs after M. haemolytica and other aerobic respiratory pathogens enter the lungs and initiate tissue damage, thereby creating a microenvironment that is conducive for anaerobic bacterial growth. In summary, Fusobacterium leukotoxin is highly toxic for BHS leukocytes; however, based on the PCR findings, it is unlikely to play a direct role in the development of BHS pneumonia.

  19. Rapid typing of Mannheimia haemolytica major genotypes 1 and 2 using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotype 2 M. haemolytica predominantly associate over genotype 1 with the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease and ICEs containing antimicrobial resistance genes. Distinct protein masses were detected by MALDI-TOF MS between genotype 1 and 2 strains. MALDI-TOF MS could rapidly differentiate ge...

  20. Yersinia ruckeri biotype 2 isolates from mainland Europe and the UK likely represent different clonal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wheeler, Richard W.; Davies, Robert L.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2009-01-01

    the restriction enzyme NotI. Serotype O1 isolates responsible for ERM in rainbow trout in both the US and Europe, and including biotype 2 isolates, represented a distinct subgroup of similar pulsotypes. Biotype 2 isolates, responsible for outbreaks of the disease in rainbow trout in the UK, Denmark and Spain, had....... In contrast, US biotype 2 isolate YRNC10 had an identical pulsotype and OMP profile to UK biotype 2 isolates, suggesting that there had been exchange of these isolates between the UK and the US in the past. UK Atlantic salmon isolates were genetically and serologically diverse, with 12 distinct pulsotypes...... their likely origins and relationships, a geographically and temporally diverse collection of isolates were characterised by serotyping, biotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and outer membrane protein (OMP) profiling. A total of 44 pulsotypes were identified from 160 isolates by PFGE, using...

  1. Comparative genomic fingerprinting for the subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Thermophilic campylobacters, especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli (C. coli, are the most important causes of bacterial diarrhea in developed and developing countries. The disease can occur as a sporadic infection or as large and small outbreaks. Phenotyping and genotyping methods are in use to determine similarities between strains as well their possible common origin. The goal of the study was to compare discriminatory power of biotyping tests and comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF 40 (100%, as well as a combination of the two tests in detection of clonality or epidemiological relatedness between the studied strains. Methods. We investigated 23 Campylobacter strains using biotyping and CGF typing. Results. We found that biotyping was a more discriminatory method for C. coli, and CGF for C. jejuni strains. In the discrimination of C. jejuni strains, CGF had better discriminatory power [Simpson’s index of diversity (ID was 0.879] over the discrimination of C. coli strains (Simpson’s ID was 0.389. Conclusion. Biotyping and CGF can be complementary methods in detection of similarity, relatedness and possible common origin between strains since the combination of biotyping and CGF methods gives more precise data about diversity within C. coli and C. jejuni strains. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR34008

  2. Genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 strains D153 and D193 from bovine pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report two genomes, one complete and one draft, from virulent bovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica(strains D171 and D35)serotype A2 recovered prior to the field usage of modern antimicrobial drugs....

  3. Inheritance of Evolved Glyphosate Resistance in a North Carolina Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in a Palmer amaranth biotype from North Carolina was studied. Glyphosate rates for 50% survival of glyphosate-resistant (GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS biotypes were 1288 and 58 g ha−1, respectively. These values for F1 progenies obtained from reciprocal crosses (GR×GS and GS×GR were 794 and 501 g ha−1, respectively. Dose response of F1 progenies indicated that resistance was not fully dominant over susceptibility. Lack of significant differences between dose responses for reciprocal F1 families suggested that genetic control of glyphosate resistance was governed by nuclear genome. Analysis of F1 backcross (BC1F1 families showed that 10 and 8 BC1F1 families out of 15 fitted monogenic inheritance at 2000 and 3000 g ha−1 glyphosate, respectively. These results indicate that inheritance of glyphosate resistance in this biotype is incompletely dominant, nuclear inherited, and might not be consistent with a single gene mechanism of inheritance. Relative 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS copy number varied from 22 to 63 across 10 individuals from resistant biotype. This suggested that variable EPSPS copy number in the parents might be influential in determining if inheritance of glyphosate resistance is monogenic or polygenic in this biotype.

  4. Pasteurella multocida mastitis in cow - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Milanov Dubravka; Aleksić Nevenka; Todorović Dalibor; Bugarski Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Pasteurella (P.) multocida is a heterogeneous species of Gram-negative bacteria which are common commensals of the upper respiratory system of various mammal and bird species, but are also opportunistic contagious zoonotic pathogens which cause a wide spectre of infections in domestic animals and humans. P. multocida is a rare cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The source of infection mainly remains unknown, mastitis usually is acute, and the therapy by intramammary administration of antibiotic...

  5. Pasteurella multocida mastitis in cow: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Milanov, Dubravka; Aleksić, Nevenka; Todorović, Dalibor; Bugarski, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Pasteurella (P.) multocida is a heterogeneous species of Gram-negative bacteria which are common commensals of the upper respiratory system of various mammal and bird species, but are also opportunistic contagious zoonotic pathogens which cause a wide spectre of infections in domestic animals and humans. P. multocida is a rare cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The source of infection mainly remains unknown, mastitis usually is acute, and the therapy by intramammary administration of antibiotic...

  6. Diversity analysis of Bemisia tabaci biotypes: RAPD, PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS1 rDNA region

    OpenAIRE

    Rabello, Aline R.; Queiroz, Paulo R.; Simões, Kenya C.C.; Hiragi, Cássia O.; Lima, Luzia H.C.; Oliveira, Maria Regina V.; Mehta, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The Bemisia tabaci complex is formed by approximately 41 biotypes, two of which (B and BR) occur in Brazil. In this work we aimed at obtaining genetic markers to assess the genetic diversity of the different biotypes. In order to do that we analyzed Bemisia tabaci biotypes B, BR, Q and Cassava using molecular techniques including RAPD, PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS1 rDNA region. The analyses revealed a high similarity between the individuals of the B and Q biotypes, which could be distin...

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Virulent Serotypes of Avian Pasteurella multocida

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahante, Juan E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Hunter, Samuel S.; Maheswaran, Samuel K.; Hauglund, Melissa J.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Tatum, Fred M.; Briggs, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequences of two virulent avian strains of Pasteurella multocida. Comparative analyses of these genomes were done with the published genome sequence of avirulent P.?multocida strain Pm70.

  8. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Vibrio Vulnificus Isolates Revealed Biotype 3 Evolutionary Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eKotton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 a common-source outbreak of severe soft tissue and bloodstream infections erupted among Israeli fish farmers and fish consumers due to changes in fish marketing policies. The causative pathogen was a new strain of Vibrio vulnificus, named biotype 3, which displayed a unique biochemical and genotypic profile. Initial observations suggested that the pathogen erupted as a result of genetic recombination between two distinct populations. We applied a whole genome shotgun sequencing approach using several V. vulnificus strains from Israel in order to study the pan genome of V. vulnificus and determine the phylogenetic relationship of biotype 3 with existing populations. The core genome of V. vulnificus based on 16 draft and complete genomes consisted of 3068 genes, representing between 59% and 78% of the whole genome of 16 strains. The accessory genome varied in size from 781 kbp to 2044 kbp. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole, core, and accessory genomes displayed similar clustering patterns with two main clusters, clinical (C and environmental (E, all biotype 3 strains formed a distinct group within the E cluster. Annotation of accessory genomic regions found in biotype 3 strains and absent from the core genome yielded 1732 genes, of which the vast majority encoded hypothetical proteins, phage-related proteins, and mobile element proteins. A total of 1916 proteins (including 713 hypothetical proteins were present in all human pathogenic strains (both biotype 3 and non-biotype 3 and absent from the environmental strains. Clustering analysis of the non-hypothetical proteins revealed 148 protein clusters shared by all human pathogenic strains; these included transcriptional regulators, arylsulfatases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, acetyltransferases, GGDEF family proteins, transposases, type IV secretory system (T4SS proteins, and integrases. Our study showed that V. vulnificus biotype 3 evolved from environmental populations and

  9. Genome sequences of serotype A6 Mannheimia haemolytica isolates D174 and D38 recovered from bovine pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report two genomes, one complete and one draft, from virulent bovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica(strains D174 and D38)serotype A2 recovered prior to the field usage of modern antimicrobial drugs....

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Virulent Serotypes of Avian Pasteurella multocida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahante, Juan E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Hunter, Samuel S.; Maheswaran, Samuel K.; Hauglund, Melissa J.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Tatum, Fred M.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequences of two virulent avian strains of Pasteurella multocida. Comparative analyses of these genomes were done with the published genome sequence of avirulent P. multocida strain Pm70. PMID:23405337

  11. Isolation of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica serotypes A2 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tv.v23i2.4572 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  12. Distribution of smile line, gingival angle and tooth shape among the Saudi Arabian subpopulation and their association with gingival biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Nabeeh A; Haralur, Satheesh B; AlMaqbol, Mohammad; AlMufarrij, Ali Jubran; Al Dera, Ahmed Ali; Al-Qarni, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    To determine the occurrence of smile line and maxillary tooth shape in the Saudi Arabian subpopulation, and to estimate the association between these parameters with gingival biotype. On the fulfillment of selection criteria, total 315 patients belong to Saudi Arabian ethnic group were randomly selected. Two frontal photographs of the patients were acquired. The tooth morphology, gingival angle, and smile line classification were determined with ImageJ image analyzing software. The gingival biotype was assessed by probe transparency method. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 19 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA) software to determine the frequency and association between other parameters and gingival biotype. Among the clinical parameters evaluated, the tapering tooth morphology (56.8%), thick gingival biotype (53%), and average smile line (57.5%) was more prevalent. The statistically significant association was found between thick gingival biotype and the square tooth, high smile line. The high gingival angle was associated with thin gingival biotype. The study results indicate the existence of an association between tooth shape, smile line, and gingival angle with gingival biotype.

  13. Serious systemic infection caused by non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae biotype III in an adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Anne; Pedersen, P B

    1991-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is the aetiological agent in less than 1% of septic arthritis cases in adults and most often serotype b is involved. We report here a case of severe systemic infection due to non-encapsulated H. influenzae biotype III in a 40-year-old man, previously healthy although alcohol...... abuser. Cholangitis and acute alcoholic hepatitis were diagnosed simultaneously. The organism was grown from blood and from synovial fluid of the left knee, but several other joints were also affected. The close relationship between H. influenzae biotype III and H. aegyptius is mentioned in view...... of recent reports of fatal childhood illness caused by a special clone of H. aegyptius and the importance of reporting both serotype and biotype in severe H. influenzae induced disease is emphasized....

  14. Comparative Metabolomic Analyses of Ipomoea lacunosa Biotypes with Contrasting Glyphosate Tolerance Captures Herbicide-Induced Differential Perturbations in Cellular Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2018-02-28

    Glyphosate-tolerant Ipomoea lacunosa is emerging as a problematic weed in the southeastern United States. Metabolomic profiling was conducted to examine the innate physiology and the glyphosate induced perturbations in two biotypes of I. lacunosa (WAS and QUI) that had contrasting glyphosate tolerance. Compared to the less tolerant QUI-biotype, the innate metabolism of the more tolerant WAS-biotype was characterized by a higher abundance of amino acids, and pyruvate; whereas the sugar profile of the QUI biotype was dominated by the transport sugar sucrose. Glyphosate application (80 g ae/ha) caused similar shikimate accumulation in both biotypes. Compared to QUI, in WAS, the content of aromatic amino acids was less affected by glyphosate treatment, and the content of Ala, Val, Ile, and Pro increased. However, the total sugars decreased by ∼75% in WAS, compared to ∼50% decrease in QUI. The innate, higher proportional abundance, of the transport-sugar sucrose in QUI coud partly explain the higher translocation and greater sensitivity of this biotype to glyphosate. The decrease in sugars, accompanied by an increase in amino acids could delay feedback regulation of upstream enzymes of the shikimate acid pathway in WAS, which could contribute to a greater glyphosate tolerance. Our study, through a metabolomics approach, provides complementary data that elucidates the cellular physiology of herbicide tolerance in Ipomoea lacunosa biotypes.

  15. Comparison of passively transferred antibodies in bighorn and domestic lambs reveals one factor in differential susceptibility of these species to Mannheimia haemolytica-induced pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Caroline N; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Knowles, Donald P; Call, Douglas R; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-07-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries (domestic sheep [DS]). In BHS herds affected by pneumonia, lamb recruitment is severely impaired for years subsequent to an outbreak. We hypothesized that a lack of maternally derived antibodies (Abs) against M. haemolytica provides an immunologic basis for enhanced susceptibility of BH lambs to population-limiting pneumonia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the titers of Abs directed against M. haemolytica in the sera of BH and domestic lambs at birth through 12 weeks of age. Results revealed that BH lambs had approximately 18-fold lower titers of Ab against surface antigens of M. haemolytica and approximately 20-fold lower titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs than domestic lambs. The titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the serum and colostrum samples of BH ewes were approximately 157- and 50-fold lower than those for domestic ewes, respectively. Comparatively, the higher titers of parainfluenza 3 virus-neutralizing Abs in the BH lambs ruled out the possibility that these BHS had an impaired ability to passively transfer Abs to their lambs. These results suggest that lower levels of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the sera of BH ewes, and resultant low Ab titers in their lambs, may be a critical factor in the poor lamb recruitment in herds affected by pneumonia.

  16. Sequence diversity of the leukotoxin (lktA) gene in caprine and ovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vougidou, C; Sandalakis, V; Psaroulaki, A; Petridou, E; Ekateriniadou, L

    2013-04-20

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the aetiological agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis in small ruminants. The primary virulence factor of the bacterium is a leukotoxin (LktA), which induces apoptosis in susceptible cells via mitochondrial targeting. It has been previously shown that certain lktA alleles are associated either with cattle or sheep. The objective of the present study was to investigate lktA sequence variation among ovine and caprine M haemolytica strains isolated from pneumonic lungs, revealing any potential adaptation for the caprine host, for which there is no available data. Furthermore, we investigated amino acid variation in the N-terminal part of the sequences and its effect on targeting mitochondria. Data analysis showed that the prevalent caprine genotype differed at a single non-synonymous site from a previously described uncommon bovine allele, whereas the ovine sequences represented new, distinct alleles. N-terminal sequence differences did not affect the mitochondrial targeting ability of the isolates; interestingly enough in one case, mitochondrial matrix targeting was indicated rather than membrane association, suggesting an alternative LktA trafficking pattern.

  17. Acylation Enhances, but Is Not Required for, the Cytotoxic Activity of Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin in Bighorn Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Sai A; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Munske, Gerhard R; Raghavan, Bindu; Kugadas, Abirami; Bavanthasivam, Jegarubee; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2015-10-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica causes pneumonia in domestic and wild ruminants. Leukotoxin (Lkt) is the most important virulence factor of the bacterium. It is encoded within the four-gene lktCABD operon: lktA encodes the structural protoxin, and lktC encodes a trans-acylase that adds fatty acid chains to internal lysine residues in the protoxin, which is then secreted from the cell by a type 1 secretion system apparatus encoded by lktB and lktD. It has been reported that LktC-mediated acylation is necessary for the biological effects of the toxin. However, an LktC mutant that we developed previously was only partially attenuated in its virulence for cattle. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of LktC-mediated acylation in Lkt-induced cytotoxicity. We performed this study in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) (BHS), since they are highly susceptible to M. haemolytica infection. The LktC mutant caused fatal pneumonia in 40% of inoculated BHS. On necropsy, a large number of necrotic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were observed in the lungs. Lkt from the mutant was cytotoxic to BHS PMNs in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Flow cytometric analysis of mutant Lkt-treated PMNs revealed the induction of necrosis. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed the presence of pores and blebs on mutant-Lkt-treated PMNs. Mass spectrometric analysis confirmed that the mutant secreted an unacylated Lkt. Taken together, these results suggest that acylation is not necessary for the cytotoxic activity of M. haemolytica Lkt but that it enhances the potency of the toxin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Pasteurella multocida Osteomyelitis: An Unusual Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert P von Schroeder

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A healthy male farm employee developed an unusual infection caused by Pasteurella multocida. Atypical features included the chronic nature of the infection, the development of osteomyelitis of the tibia without direct animal inoculation, and lack of fever and leukocytosis. Radiographic appearance of P multocida osteomyelitis may be the result of osteoclast activation and can be confused with musculoskeletal tumour. P multocida infection requires a high degree of suspicion, and should be considered in cases of farm- or animal-related injuries even if there is no history of direct animal contact.

  19. Comparison of Passively Transferred Antibodies in Bighorn and Domestic Lambs Reveals One Factor in Differential Susceptibility of These Species to Mannheimia haemolytica-Induced Pneumonia ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Caroline N.; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Knowles, Donald P.; Call, Douglas R.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries (domestic sheep [DS]). In BHS herds affected by pneumonia, lamb recruitment is severely impaired for years subsequent to an outbreak. We hypothesized that a lack of maternally derived antibodies (Abs) against M. haemolytica provides an immunologic basis for enhanced susceptibility of BH lambs to population-limiting pneumonia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the titers of Abs directed against M. haemolytica in the sera of BH and domestic lambs at birth through 12 weeks of age. Results revealed that BH lambs had approximately 18-fold lower titers of Ab against surface antigens of M. haemolytica and approximately 20-fold lower titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs than domestic lambs. The titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the serum and colostrum samples of BH ewes were approximately 157- and 50-fold lower than those for domestic ewes, respectively. Comparatively, the higher titers of parainfluenza 3 virus-neutralizing Abs in the BH lambs ruled out the possibility that these BHS had an impaired ability to passively transfer Abs to their lambs. These results suggest that lower levels of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the sera of BH ewes, and resultant low Ab titers in their lambs, may be a critical factor in the poor lamb recruitment in herds affected by pneumonia. PMID:21613459

  20. Utilization of L-aspartate, L-malate and fumarate by Pasteurella multocida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, M.; Flossmann, K.D. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Jena. Inst. fuer Bakterielle Tierseuchenforschung)

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Pasteurella multocida use L-aspartate, L-malate and furmarate, respectively, as substrates for production of succinic acid which accumulates in the medium. As was established by studies with /sup 14/C- and /sup 3/H-labelled substrates, the degradation of these substances proceeds analogously via the citric acid cycle.

  1. Utilization of L-aspartate, L-malate and fumarate by Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefer, M.; Flossmann, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Pasteurella multocida use L-aspartate, L-malate and furmarate, respectively, as substrates for production of succinic acid which accumulates in the medium. As was established by studies with 14 C- and 3 H-labelled substrates, the degradation of these substances proceeds analogously via the citric acid cycle. (author)

  2. The Prevalence of Brucella Biotypes Isolated From Sterile Body Fluids of Patients With Brucellosis in Kashan, Iran in 2013

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    Erami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucella species are classified based on their pathogenic and genetic properties and hosts. Considering the significance of identifying different biotypes of Brucella from the epidemiological point of view and lack of such information in the city of Kashan, Iran. Objectives This study was designed to determine the biotypes and strains of Brucella isolated from patients with brucellosis. Methods This was a descriptive study of 206 samples obtained from patients with suspected brucellosis in 2013 in Kashan. BACTEC 9050 culture media was employed to test the samples. Suspected colonies of Brucella were identified through morphology, staining, and biochemical tests. The biotypes were identified by the Razi Research Institute. Lysis tests with the Tbilisi (Tb phage were performed, the need for CO2, SH2 production, sensitivity to basic fuchsin and thionin stains, and the reaction of all the samples to specific antiserum A and M (monospecific were tested. Results Fifty (24.3% of the 206 samples were culture positive. SH3 production was not detected in any of the isolates, and none of the isolated strains required CO2. The results of the sensitivity test to basic fuchsin and thionin staining and specific agglutination and phage lysis (phage typing tests indicated that all the isolated strains were biotype 1 B. melitansis. Conclusions The cause of human brucellosis in Kashan and its suburbs was biotype 1 B. melitensis. The identification of various biotypes of Brucella is important. Similar studies should be performed to detect the presence of new biotypes originating from neighboring countries.

  3. Comparative protection of two different commercial vaccines against Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 and biotype 2 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, S.; Raida, M. K.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Differentially extended specific protection by two commercial vaccines against Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 2 was studied following 30s immersion exposure. Rainbow trout were challenged intra-peritoneally (i.p.) with Y. ruckeri serotype O1, biotype 2 (≈106 to 107CFU/fish) at 4, 6 and 8...... months after vaccination with vaccines containing either biotype 1 (AquaVac® ERM) or both biotypes 1 and 2 (AquaVac® RELERA™). The specific pattern of vaccine-mediated protection was evaluated by relative percentage survival (RPS) analysis at 4 and 6 months post-vaccination and by obtaining gross...

  4. Transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to brucella abortus biotype 1 in sprague-dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Baek, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    In the investigation on the transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to Brucella abortus biotype 1 in Sprague- Dawley rats, neither any stillbirth, abortion or premature birth nor any abnormality of fetus was observed in the infected group or in the control group. B. abortus biotype was isolated from the fetus of infected rats only. Only one band of 498 base pair DNA was obtained in polymerase chain reaction products from DNA of the fetuses of infected SD rats. (author)

  5. Ozone and Water Stress: Effects on the Behaviour of Two White Clover Biotypes

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    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available ozone pollution, water stress, stomata conductance, ozone uptake, clover, OTC.Ozone is a strong oxidizing pollutant which derives by alteration of the photolytic NOx cycle and it accumulates in the troposphere spreading in rural areas and therefore determining injuries on natural vegetation and crops. Since its penetration occurs mainly through stomata, all factors which alter plant-atmosphere relations could be able to modify plant response to ozone. Interaction between ozone and water stress in Mediterranean environment was studied on ozone resistant and sensitive biotypes of white clover, which were grown in charcoal filtered and notfiltered Open Top Chambers in factorial combination with different levels of water supply. Measurements of biomass, leaf area and stomatal conductance were made during the growth period. Ozone injuries were estimated as not-filtered/filtered OTC yield ratio; the stomatal flux of ozone was estimated multiplying stomata conductance x diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour (0.613 x ozone hourly concentrations. The hourly values of ozone uptake were cumulated throughout the cropping periods of the two years. In the sensitive biotype, water stress reduced yield losses due to ozone from 38% to 22%, as well as yield losses due to water stress were reduced by the presence of ozone from 43% to 29%, while no interaction between ozone and water stress was observed in the resistant biotype. Biomass yield losses of the sensitive biotype were strictly correlated to cumulated ozone uptake (R2 = 0.99, while biomass yield losses of the resistant biotype were not affected by the ozone fluxes variations created by the treatments. Flux based models could better estimate yield losses due to ozone in Mediterranean environments in which other stresses could be contemporary present; therefore, the new European directives might replace the actual thresholds based

  6. Interaction between Ascaris suum and Pasteurella multocida in the lungs of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Eriksen, Lizzie; Aalbaek, B

    1992-01-01

    In an experiment including 8 groups of 15 mice, the effect of migrating Ascaris suum larvae in the lungs on the establishment and pathogenicity of aerosol exposure to Pasteurella multocida was investigated. Following aerosol exposure to P. multocida, mice with migrating A. suum in their lungs...

  7. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of bacterial culture of nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capik, Sarah F; White, Brad J; Lubbers, Brian V; Apley, Michael D; DeDonder, Keith D; Larson, Robert L; Harhay, Greg P; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Harhay, Dayna M; Kalbfleisch, Ted S; Schuller, Gennie; Clawson, Michael L

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare predictive values, extent of agreement, and gamithromycin susceptibility between bacterial culture results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). ANIMALS 28 beef calves with clinical BRD. PROCEDURES Pooled bilateral NPS samples and BALF samples were obtained for bacterial culture from calves immediately before and at various times during the 5 days after gamithromycin (6 mg/kg, SC, once) administration. For each culture-positive sample, up to 12 Mannheimia haemolytica, 6 Pasteurella multocida, and 6 Histophilus somni colonies underwent gamithromycin susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on all M haemolytica isolates. For paired NPS and BALF samples collected 5 days after gamithromycin administration, the positive and negative predictive values for culture results of NPS samples relative to those of BALF samples and the extent of agreement between the sampling methods were determined. RESULTS Positive and negative predictive values of NPS samples were 67% and 100% for M haemolytica, 75% and 100% for P multocida, and 100% and 96% for H somni. Extent of agreement between results for NPS and BALF samples was substantial for M haemolytica (κ, 0.71) and H somni (κ, 0.78) and almost perfect for P multocida (κ, 0.81). Gamithromycin susceptibility varied within the same sample and between paired NPS and BALF samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated culture results of NPS and BALF samples from calves with BRD should be interpreted cautiously considering disease prevalence within the population, sample collection relative to antimicrobial administration, and limitations of diagnostic testing methods.

  8. Response of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B to genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum (Solanales: Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballina-Gomez, H; Ruiz-Sanchez, E; Chan-Cupul, W; Latournerie-Moreno, L; Hernández-Alvarado, L; Islas-Flores, I; Zuñiga-Aguilar, J J

    2013-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci Genn. biotype B is a widely distributed plant pest that represents one of the major constraints for horticultural crop production. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the oviposition preference, survivorship, and development of B. tabaci biotype B on semi-cultivated genotypes of Capsicum annuum from southeast Mexico. In free-choice experiments to evaluate the oviposition preference, lower number of eggs laid by B. tabaci biotype B was observed in the genotypes Maax and Xcat´ik relative to that in the commercial genotype Parado. Egg hatchability was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, Blanco, Chawa, Payaso, and Xcat´ik than in the rest of the genotypes, including the commercial genotype Jalapeño. Likewise, survivorship of nymphs was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco than in the remaining genotypes. Nymph developmental time and the period of development from egg to adult were the shortest in Amaxito. Therefore, sources of resistance to B. tabaci biotype B by antibiosis (accumulation of plant defense compounds) might be found in the semi-cultivated genotypes Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco.

  9. Isolation and Identification of Pasteurella multocida from Sheep & Goat in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valadan, M.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out with the objective of isolation and identification of agent(s of pasteurella pneumonia in sheep and goat in Iran using bacteriological and biochemical assays to be identified in the pursuant researches to be used in pasteurellosis vaccine production. To accomplish this objective, samples were gathered from areas suspicious to pasteurellosis infection and industrial abbatoirs according to clinical and autopsy symptoms from eight provinces of Bushehr, Esfahan, Kerman, Kohgilooyeh & Boyr Ahmad, Fars, Qom, Tehran and Qazvin in a period from spring 2008 to spring 2011. Samples were different in sort due to the existent condition but generally were comprised of palatine tonsil swabs or blood samples taken from jugular vein in live animals and lungs or upper respiratory tract lymph glands in dead or slaughtered animals. Totally, 1454 samples (1120 samples of sheep, 334 samples of goat composed if 1084 samples of live animals and 370 samples of dead or slaughterd animals were tested. Considering results obtained from assays, only 54 samples (3.71% were assessed as being pasteurella, genus of which was totally identified as multocida.

  10. Biotypes and ScM types of isolates of Streptococcus canis from diseased and healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, J F; Velineni, S; Ulrich, B; Blanchard, P

    2017-04-08

    Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences. With few exceptions, isolates associated with disease were biotype 1. Four alleles of scm were identified of which type 1 dominated in diseased cats. Type 4 allelic variants were found only in healthy cats and all but one were biotype 2. Type 2 and 3 alleles showed extensive N-terminal variation suggesting a plasminogen-binding site as found on the type 1 allele was absent. Cat antisera to ScM were opsonobactericidal, and these potentially protective antibodies increased during convalescence. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Standard PK/PD concepts can be applied to determine a dosage regimen for a macrolide: the case of tulathromycin in the calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, P-L; Potter, T; Pelligand, L; Lacroix, M; Illambas, J; Lees, P

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of tulathromycin, administered to calves subcutaneously at the dosage of 2.5 mg/kg, was established in serum, inflamed (exudate), and noninflamed (transudate) fluids in a tissue cage model. The PK profile of tulathromycin was also established in pneumonic calves. For Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, tulathromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were approximately 50 times lower in calf serum than in Mueller-Hinton broth. The breakpoint value of the PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) index (AUC (0-24 h) /MIC) to achieve a bactericidal effect was estimated from in vitro time-kill studies to be approximately 24 h for M. haemolytica and P. multocida. A population model was developed from healthy and pneumonic calves and, using Monte Carlo simulations, PK/PD cutoffs required for the development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) were determined. The population distributions of tulathromycin doses were established by Monte Carlo computation (MCC). The computation predicted a target attainment rate (TAR) for a tulathromycin dosage of 2.5 mg/kg of 66% for M. haemolytica and 87% for P. multocida. The findings indicate that free tulathromycin concentrations in serum suffice to explain the efficacy of single-dose tulathromycin in clinical use, and that a dosage regimen can be computed for tulathromycin using classical PK/PD concepts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comprehensive MALDI-TOF biotyping of the non-redundant Harvard Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 transposon insertion mutant library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumeraci, Tonio; Jensen, Vanessa; Talbot, Steven R; Hofmann, Winfried; Kostrzewa, Markus; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; von Neuhoff, Nils; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium that is ubiquitously present in the aerobic biosphere. As an antibiotic-resistant facultative pathogen, it is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. Its rapid and accurate identification is crucial in clinical and therapeutic environments. In a large-scale MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based screen of the Harvard transposon insertion mutant library of P. aeruginosa strain PA14, intact-cell proteome profile spectra of 5547 PA14 transposon mutants exhibiting a plethora of different phenotypes were acquired and analyzed. Of all P. aeruginosa PA14 mutant profiles 99.7% were correctly identified as P. aeruginosa with the Biotyper software on the species level. On the strain level, 99.99% of the profiles were mapped to five different individual P. aeruginosa Biotyper database entries. A principal component analysis-based approach was used to determine the most important discriminatory mass features between these Biotyper groups. Although technical replicas were consistently categorized to specific Biotyper groups in 94.2% of the mutant profiles, biological replicas were not, indicating that the distinct proteotypes are affected by growth conditions. The PA14 mutant profile collection presented here constitutes the largest coherent P. aeruginosa MALDI-TOF spectral dataset publicly available today. Transposon insertions in thousands of different P. aeruginosa genes did not affect species identification from MALDI-TOF mass spectra, clearly demonstrating the robustness of the approach. However, the assignment of the individual spectra to sub-groups proved to be non-consistent in biological replicas, indicating that the differentiation between biotyper groups in this nosocomial pathogen is unassured.

  13. Binding of paraquat to cell walls of paraquat resistant and susceptible biotypes of Hordeum glaucum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, H.M.; Preston, C.; Powles, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Paraquat is a widely used, non-selective, light activated contact herbicide acting as a photosystem electron acceptor. Resistance to paraquat in weed species has occurred in Australia and world-wide following extensive use of this herbicide. The mechanism of resistance to paraquat in 'Hordeum glaucum' is correlated with reduced herbicide translocation and may be due to sequestration of herbicide away from its site of action by either binding to cell walls or other means. We measured paraquat binding to a cell wall fraction in resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum to determine whether differences in binding of paraquat to cell walls could explain herbicide resistance. The cell wall fraction was isolated from leaves of resistant and susceptible biotypes and incubated with 14 C-labelled paraquat. Of the total paraquat - absorbed by a cell wall preparation, about 80% remains strongly bind to the cell wall and doesn't readily exchange with solution in the absence of divalent cations. Divalent cations (Ca 2+ ,putrescine and paraquat) can competitively exchange for paraquat tightly bound to the cell wall. From kinetic experiments it seems that there are two types of binding sites in the cell wall with different affinities for paraquat. No significant differences between cell wall, characteristics of resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum have been found in any of our experiments. Therefore, increased binding of paraquat to the cell wall appears not to be a mechanism for exclusion of paraquat in resistant biotype

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica in sheep - a high frequency of biotype 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderqvist Karin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are regarded as the main reservoir for human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is dominated by bioserotype 4/O:3. Other animals, including sheep, have occasionally been reported as carriers of pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in the Nordic countries in which the presence of Y. enterocolitica in sheep is investigated. Methods Tonsils and faecal samples collected from sheep slaughtered on the island Gotland (Sweden from September 2010 through January 2011 were analysed for presence of Y. enterocolitica. In an attempt to maximize recovery, several cultural strategies were applied. Various non-selective media were used and different temperatures and durations of the enrichment were applied before subculturing on Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin (CIN agar. Presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies were subjected to urease, API 20E and agglutination test. Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were biotyped, serotyped, and tested for pathogenicity using a TaqMan PCR directed towards the ail-gene that is associated with human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. Results The samples collected from 99 sheep yielded 567 presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies. Eighty urease positive isolates, from 35 sheep, were identified as Y. enterocolitica by API 20E. Thirty-four of 35 further subtyped Y. enterocolitica isolates, all from faecal samples, belonged to biotype 1A serotype O:5, O:6. O:13,7 and O:10. One strain was Yersinia mollaretii serotype O:62. No human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica were found in the investigated sheep. Other species identified were Y. kristensenii (n = 4, Y. frederiksenii/intermedia (n = 3, Providencia rettgeri (n = 2, Serratia marcescens (n = 1 and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1. Conclusions This study does not support the hypothesis that sheep play an important role in transmission of the known human pathogenic Y

  15. Yersinia enterocolitica in sheep--a high frequency of biotype 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderqvist, Karin; Boqvist, Sofia; Wauters, Georges; Vågsholm, Ivar; Thisted-Lambertz, Susanne

    2012-06-29

    Pigs are regarded as the main reservoir for human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is dominated by bioserotype 4/O:3. Other animals, including sheep, have occasionally been reported as carriers of pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in the Nordic countries in which the presence of Y. enterocolitica in sheep is investigated. Tonsils and faecal samples collected from sheep slaughtered on the island Gotland (Sweden) from September 2010 through January 2011 were analysed for presence of Y. enterocolitica. In an attempt to maximize recovery, several cultural strategies were applied. Various non-selective media were used and different temperatures and durations of the enrichment were applied before subculturing on Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin (CIN) agar. Presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies were subjected to urease, API 20E and agglutination test. Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were biotyped, serotyped, and tested for pathogenicity using a TaqMan PCR directed towards the ail-gene that is associated with human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. The samples collected from 99 sheep yielded 567 presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies. Eighty urease positive isolates, from 35 sheep, were identified as Y. enterocolitica by API 20E. Thirty-four of 35 further subtyped Y. enterocolitica isolates, all from faecal samples, belonged to biotype 1A serotype O:5, O:6. O:13,7 and O:10. One strain was Yersinia mollaretii serotype O:62. No human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica were found in the investigated sheep. Other species identified were Y. kristensenii (n = 4), Y. frederiksenii/intermedia (n = 3), Providencia rettgeri (n = 2), Serratia marcescens (n = 1) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1). This study does not support the hypothesis that sheep play an important role in transmission of the known human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in the studied geographical region. However

  16. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida subspec. Multocida from chronic periapical lesion: First isolation in ex-Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvajdžić Ljiljana Ð.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents five isolates of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multo-cida isolated from chronic periapical inflammatory lesion. We described the methods of sampling and cultivation as well as diagnostic criteria. Pasteurella multocida was diagnosed on the basis of characteristic cultural and tinctorial properties and the facts that all strains produced indole and induced ornithine decarboxilation, glucose, saccharose and manitole fermentation. Isolates produced neither urease, nor fermented lactose and maltose. Further classification to subspecies multocida was based on the fact that all investigated isolates fermented trechalose, xylose and sorbitol the traits which are diagnostically significant for the species. Patients deny any contact with farm animals or pets, which indicates a possible aerosol transport and animal-human as well as human-human infection. We consider that this organism should be paid more attention by dentist, oral surgeons and microbiologists.

  17. A proteomic analysis of the regulon of the NarP two-component regulatory system response regulator in the bovine pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamoto Ichiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of the NarQP two-component signal transduction system regulon in response to the presence of nitrate for the bovine pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica A1 was investigated by proteomic analysis. Total proteins from a narP mutant and the parent SH1217 grown with or without NaNO3 supplement were examined by ISO-DALT 2D electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Seventeen proteins were differentially expressed in the parent strain SH1217 in response to the addition of NaNO3 to the growth media. These responses were absent in the narP mutant, indicating that the altered production of these proteins is mediated by NarPMh. Interestingly, NarPMh mediated the increased production of some proteins which are not generally associated with nitrate respiration, such as the iron transporters FbpA and YfeA. The increased production of proteins such as superoxide dismutase, SodA, and GAPDH were also observed. The increased production of these iron-regulated proteins by NarPMh is thought to enhance the swift establishment of the nitrate respiration mechanism of M. haemolytica during pathogenesis. Conclusion The data suggested NarPMh acts as an important regulator which regulates the expression of a small set of proteins in response to nitrate availability. This may contribute to the prevalence of M. haemolytica A1 in its host during pathogenesis of BPP, through enhancing the effectiveness of nitrate respiration either directly or indirectly.

  18. THE STUDY OF ENTEROTOXIGENICITY OF THE BIOTYPE 1A YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA

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    E. A. Bogumilchik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The representatives of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1А which are considered as nonpathogenic microorganisms were tested for production of the thermostable enterotoxin YST B (Yersinia Stable Toxin. This toxin is characterized by strong toxic action and it can bring on diarrhea in human and animals. The chromosome gene of thermostable enterotoxin ystB was detected by PCR in 87.1% out of 116 studied strains of different origin and territorial isolation. To determine toxin production in vitro the studied strains cultivated in various conditions: in 26°C and 37°С in usual culture medium and in 37°С in the medium corresponded to the content of intestine. In part of the studied strains the toxin production was revealed on the model of newborn mice in both temperature regimes of cultivation 26°С and 37°С. The study of toxin production in representatives of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1А showed their possible role as etiological agents of diarrhea.

  19. Plasmid DNA Analysis of Pasteurella multocida Serotype B isolated from Haemorrhagic Septicaemia outbreaks in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 150 purified isolates of Pasteurella multocida serotype B were used (Salmah, 2004 for plasmid DNA curing experiment to determine hyaluronidase activity, antibiotic resistance pattern (ARP and mice lethality test (LD50 for their role of pathogenicity. A plasmid curing experiment was carried out by using the intercalating agent; ethidium bromide and rifampicin, where it was found all the plasmids had been cured (plasmidless from Pasteurella multocida. All of these plasmidless isolates maintained their phenotypic characteristics. They showed the same antibiotic resistancepattern as before curing, produced hyaluronidase and possessed lethality activity in mice when injected intraperitoneally(i.p. Based on this observation, the antibiotic resistance, hyaluronidase activity and mice virulence could probably be chromosomal-mediated. Plasmids were detected 100% in all P. multocida isolates with identical profile of 2 plasmids size 3.0 and 5.5 kb. No large plasmids could be detected in all isolates. Since all the isolates appeared to have identicalplasmid profiles, they were subjected to restriction enzyme(RE analysis. From RE analysis results obtained, it can be concluded that the plasmid DNA in serotype B isolates are identical. Only 4 of 32 REs were found to cleave these plasmids with identical restriction fingerprints; BglII, HaeIII, RsaI and SspI. From RE analysis results, it can be concluded that the plasmid DNA isolates are identical. This plasmid might not played any role in pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida serotype B, however this information is important for the construction of shuttle vectors in genetic studies of the pathogenicity of haemorrhagic septicaemia(HS.

  20. Phylogenetic diversity of Pasteurellaceae and horizontal gene transfer of leukotoxin in wild and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott T; Cassirer, E Frances; Weiser, Glen C; Safaee, Shirin

    2007-01-01

    Wild and domestic animal populations are known to be sources and reservoirs of emerging diseases. There is also a growing recognition that horizontal genetic transfer (HGT) plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. We used molecular phylogenetic methods to assess diversity and cross-transmission rates of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in populations of bighorn sheep, Dall's sheep, domestic sheep and domestic goats. Members of the Pasteurellaceae cause an array of deadly illnesses including bacterial pneumonia known as "pasteurellosis", a particularly devastating disease for bighorn sheep. A phylogenetic analysis of a combined dataset of two RNA genes (16S ribosomal RNA and RNAse P RNA) revealed remarkable evolutionary diversity among Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica bacteria isolated from sheep and goats. Several phylotypes appeared to associate with particular host species, though we found numerous instances of apparent cross-transmission among species and populations. Statistical analyses revealed that host species, geographic locale and biovariant classification, but not virulence, correlated strongly with Pasteurellaceae phylogeny. Sheep host species correlated with P. trehalosi isolates phylogeny (PTP test; P=0.002), but not with the phylogeny of M. haemolytica isolates, suggesting that P. trehalosi bacteria may be more host specific. With regards to populations within species, we also discovered a strong correlation between geographic locale and isolate phylogeny in the Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (PTP test; P=0.001). We also investigated the potential for HGT of the leukotoxin A (lktA) gene, which produces a toxin that plays an integral role in causing disease. Comparative analysis of the combined RNA gene phylogeny and the lktA phylogenies revealed considerable incongruence between the phylogenies, suggestive of HGT. Furthermore, we found identical lktA alleles in unrelated bacterial species, some of which had been isolated

  1. Pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and PK-PD integration of ceftiofur after a single intravenous, subcutaneous and subcutaneous-LA administration in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Varón, Emilio; Cárceles-García, Carlos; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Cárceles-Rodríguez, Carlos M

    2016-10-13

    Bacterial pneumonia in goats is usually caused by Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Another important infection disease in lactating goats is intramammary infection producing mastitis, usually associated with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. However, treatment of bacterial pneumonia in goats not affected by mastitis problems should be restricted to antimicrobials with scant penetration to milk in order to avoid long withdrawal times. Ceftiofur is a third-generation cephalosporin antimicrobial with activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria encountered by domestic animals. The objectives of the present study were to establish the serum concentration-time profile for ceftiofur in lactating goats after intravenous, subcutaneous and a SC-long-acting ceftiofur formulation; to determine ceftiofur penetration into milk; to determine in vitro and ex vivo activity of ceftiofur establishing MIC, MBC, MPC and time-kill profiles against field strains of M. haemolytica and finally to calculate the main surrogate markers of efficacy. The pharmacokinetics studies revealed an optimal PK properties for the SC-LA formulation tested. Ceftiofur was well absorbed following SC and SC-LA administration, with absolute bioavailabilities (F) of 85.16 and 84.43 %, respectively. After ceftiofur analysis from milk samples, no concentrations were found at any sampling time. The MIC, MBC and MPC data of ceftiofur against five M. haemolytica strains isolated from goats affected by pneumonia were tested showing excelent sensitivity of ceftiofur against this pathogen. For PK-PD analysis, ratios were calculated suggesting a high level of bacterial kill against the five strains of M. haemolytica tested. The systemic ceftiofur exposure achieved in lactating goats following IV, SC and especially with the SC-LA administration is consistent with the predicted PK-PD ratios needed for a positive therapeutic outcome for M. haemolytica

  2. Short communication: Interaction of the isomers carvacrol and thymol with the antibiotics doxycycline and tilmicosin: In vitro effects against pathogenic bacteria commonly found in the respiratory tract of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissels, W; Wu, X; Santos, R R

    2017-02-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is the major problem faced by cattle, specially calves, leading to reduced animal performance and increased mortality, consequently causing important economic losses. Hence, calves must be submitted to antibiotic therapy to counteract this infection usually initiated by the combination of environmental stress factors and viral infection, altering the animal's defense mechanism, and thus allowing lung colonization by the opportunistic bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Essential oils appear to be candidates to replace antibiotics or to act as antibiotic adjuvants due to their antimicrobial properties. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the 4 essential oil components carvacrol, thymol, trans-anethole, and 1,8 cineole as antibacterial agents or as adjuvants for the antibiotics doxycycline and tilmicosin against M. haemolytica and P. multocida. Bacteria were cultured according to standard protocols, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration. A checkerboard assay was applied to detect possible interactions between components, between antibiotics, and between components and antibiotics. Doxycycline at 0.25 and 0.125 μg/mL inhibited the growth of P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively, whereas tilmicosin MIC values were 1.0 and 4.0 μg/mL for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively. Carvacrol MIC values were 2.5 and 1.25 mM for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively, whereas thymol MIC values were 1.25 and 0.625 mM for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively. Trans-anethole and 1,8 cineole did not present any antibacterial effect even at 40 mM against the investigated pathogens. All minimum bactericidal concentration values were the same as MIC, except when thymol was tested against M. haemolytica, being twice the MIC data (i.e., 1.25 mM thymol). Based on fractional inhibitory concentration checkerboard assay, no

  3. Pasteurella multocida urinary tract infection with molecular evidence of zoonotic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendy; Chemaly, Roy F; Tuohy, Marion J; LaSalvia, Margaret M; Procop, Gary W

    2003-02-15

    We describe a patient with a urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Pasteurella multocida. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the clinical isolate recovered from the patient was identical (100% band match) to P. multocida isolates recovered from the patient's cat, but the isolate differed from an isolate recovered from a visiting cat and from a laboratory control strain. The patient also had abnormal urologic anatomy secondary to surgery; this has also been associated with P. multocida UTI.

  4. Pasteurella multocida Bacteremia in an Immunocompromised Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukrety, Shweta; Parekh, Jai; Townley, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian gentleman who presented with a one-day history of fever, chills, and altered mental status. His symptoms were initially thought to be secondary to cellulitis. Blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida , a rare pathogen to cause bacteremia. Our patient was treated with ciprofloxacin for two weeks and made a complete and uneventful recovery. Our patient's uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease put him at a higher risk for developing serious P. multocida infection. The patient's dog licking the wounds on his legs was considered as the possible source of infection. As P. multicoda bacteremia is rare, but severe with a high mortality rate, it is imperative to have a high index of suspicion for this infection especially in the vulnerable immunocompromised population.

  5. [Pasteurella] caballi infection not limited to horses - a closer look at taxon 42 of Bisgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Hommez, J.; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2006-01-01

    Aim To investigate if taxon 42 of Bisgaard isolated from pigs represents genuine [Pasteurella] caballi which has previously only been isolated from horses. Methods and Results A total of 15 field isolates from horses and pigs from 5 different countries representing three continents were to subjec...

  6. Effect of aerial ammonia on porcine infection of the respiratory tract with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Bækbo, P.; Nielsen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the experimental study was to examine whether aerial ammonia alone could predispose the respiratory system of pigs to infection with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida type A. Two groups of 5 pigs each were continuously exposed to 50 ppm ammonia and less than 5 ppm ammonia...

  7. Using blood cytokine measures to define high inflammatory biotype of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerrigter, Danny; Weickert, Thomas W; Lenroot, Rhoshel; O'Donnell, Maryanne; Galletly, Cherrie; Liu, Dennis; Burgess, Martin; Cadiz, Roxanne; Jacomb, Isabella; Catts, Vibeke S; Fillman, Stu G; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2017-09-18

    Increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines are found in the brain and blood of people with schizophrenia. However, increased cytokines are not evident in all people with schizophrenia, but are found in a subset. The cytokine changes that best define this subset, termed the "elevated inflammatory biotype", are still being identified. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we measured five cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-2 IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18) from peripheral blood of healthy controls and of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 165). We used a cluster analysis of the transcript levels to define those with low and those with elevated levels of cytokine expression. From the same cohort, eight cytokine proteins (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IFNγ and TNFα) were measured in serum and plasma using a Luminex Magpix-based assay. We compared peripheral mRNA and protein levels across diagnostic groups and between those with low and elevated levels of cytokine expression according to our transcription-based cluster analysis. We found an overall decrease in the anti-inflammatory IL-2 mRNA (p = 0.006) and an increase in three serum cytokines, IL-6 (p = 0.010), IL-8 (p = 0.024) and TNFα (p schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. A greater percentage of people with schizophrenia (48%) were categorised into the elevated inflammatory biotype compared to healthy controls (33%). The magnitude of increase in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 mRNAs in people in the elevated inflammation biotype ranged from 100 to 220% of those in the non-elevated inflammatory biotype and was comparable between control and schizophrenia groups. Blood cytokine protein levels did not correlate with cytokine mRNA levels, and plasma levels of only two cytokines distinguished the elevated and low inflammatory biotypes, with IL-1β significantly increased in the elevated cytokine control group and IL-8 significantly increased in the elevated cytokine schizophrenia group. Our results

  8. Pasteurella testudinis associated with respiratory disease and septicaemia in leopard (Geochelone pardalis and other tortoises in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Henton

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded isolates of Pasteurella testudinis from South African tortoises kept in captivity is presented. P. testudinis was found in association with respiratory disease in affected animals.

  9. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Biotype Variant Clinical Isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti, Including a Molecular Genetic Analysis of Virulence Genes ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mike S.; Megli, Christina J.; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Qadri, Firdausi; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, is divided into two biotypes: classical and El Tor. Both biotypes produce the major virulence factors toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT). Although possessing genotypic and phenotypic differences, El Tor biotype strains displaying classical biotype traits have been reported and subsequently were dubbed El Tor variants. Of particular interest are reports of El Tor variants that produce various levels of CT, including levels typical of classical biotype strains. Here, we report the characterization of 10 clinical isolates from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and a representative strain from the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak. We observed that all 11 strains produced increased CT (2- to 10-fold) compared to that of wild-type El Tor strains under in vitro inducing conditions, but they possessed various TcpA and ToxT expression profiles. Particularly, El Tor variant MQ1795, which produced the highest level of CT and very high levels of TcpA and ToxT, demonstrated hypervirulence compared to the virulence of El Tor wild-type strains in the infant mouse cholera model. Additional genotypic and phenotypic tests were conducted to characterize the variants, including an assessment of biotype-distinguishing characteristics. Notably, the sequencing of ctxB in some El Tor variants revealed two copies of classical ctxB, one per chromosome, contrary to previous reports that located ctxAB only on the large chromosome of El Tor biotype strains. PMID:21880975

  10. Restriction endonuclease analysis of Pasteurella multocida isolates from three California turkey premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, K H; Carpenter, T E; Snipes, K P; Hird, D W; Ghazikhanian, G Y

    1992-01-01

    Three California turkey premises that had repeated outbreaks of fowl cholera were studied for periods of 2 to 4 years. Using biochemical, serologic, plasmid DNA, and restriction endonuclease analyses of isolates of Pasteurella multocida from turkeys and wildlife on the premises, strains of the organism were found to be enzootic on two of the premises. On the third, a variety of strains of P. multocida were isolated from fowl cholera outbreak flocks.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel

    2014-08-06

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <1%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was 3-6% and tetracycline resistance varied from 14.7% in A. pleuropneumoniae to 81.8% in S. suis. In conclusion, low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pasteurella multocida Bacteremia in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Kukrety

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian gentleman who presented with a one-day history of fever, chills, and altered mental status. His symptoms were initially thought to be secondary to cellulitis. Blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a rare pathogen to cause bacteremia. Our patient was treated with ciprofloxacin for two weeks and made a complete and uneventful recovery. Our patient’s uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease put him at a higher risk for developing serious P. multocida infection. The patient’s dog licking the wounds on his legs was considered as the possible source of infection. As P. multicoda bacteremia is rare, but severe with a high mortality rate, it is imperative to have a high index of suspicion for this infection especially in the vulnerable immunocompromised population.

  13. Uptake of Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor from contaminated water by water hyacinth (eichornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, W M; Huq, A; Ahmed, Q S; Saeed, Y A

    1981-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor appears to concentrate on the surface of the water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), thereby enhancing its survival and its potential for transmission through waterways of cholera-endemic regions such as Bangladesh.

  14. Uptake of Vibrio cholerae Biotype eltor from Contaminated Water by Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Spira, William M.; Huq, Anwarul; Ahmed, Qazi Shafi; Saeed, Yusuf A.

    1981-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor appears to concentrate on the surface of the water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), thereby enhancing its survival and its potential for transmission through waterways of cholera-endemic regions such as Bangladesh.

  15. An atypical biotype I Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 13 is present in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Malcolm B.; Angen, Øystein; MacLean, Leann L.

    2012-01-01

    Atypical Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 13 strains present in North America are described here for the first time. Different from serotype 13 strains described in Europe, North America strains are biotype I and antigenically related to both, serotypes 13 and 10. Chemical and structural...

  16. Evaluación de dos técnicas de subtipificación molecular para el estudio de Pasteurella multocida Evaluation of two techniques of molecular subtyping to study Pasteurella multocida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Leotta

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la tipibilidad, la reproducibilidad y el poder discriminatorio de ERIC-PCR y ApaI-PFGE para establecer la relación genética de cepas de Pasteurella multocida. Se estudiaron 49 cepas de diferente origen, subespecie, biotipo, grupo capsular, serotipo somático y perfil de resistencia antimicrobiana. Por ERIC-PCR se establecieron 31 patrones, los que presentaron entre 10 y 14 bandas en un rango comprendido entre 0,2 y 1,2 kb. Por ApaI-PFGE se detectaron 37 patrones de restricción, los cuales presentaron entre 7 y 15 bandas bien definidas de 34 a 450 kb. La tipibilidad de ERIC-PCR fue del 100% (T=1 y la de ApaI-PFGE del 94% (T=0,94. La reproducibilidad de ambas técnicas fue del 100% (R=1; sin embargo, el poder discriminatorio de ERIC-PCR fue 93% (D=0,93 y el de ApaI-PFGE 98% (D=0,98. Mediante ambas técnicas fue posible agrupar las cepas con relación epidemiológica y diferenciar claramente las cepas no relacionadas. Se demostró el valor de ERIC-PCR y ApaI-PFGE para complementar estudios epidemiológicos, principalmente si las cepas en estudio son analizadas por ambas técnicas.Typeability, reproducibility, and discriminatory power of ERIC-PCR and ApaI-PFGE to establish the genetic relation of P. multocida strains were determined. Forty-nine strains of different source, biotype, capsular group, somatic serotype, and resistance to antimicrobials were studied. By ERIC-PCR, 31 patterns were defined with 10 to 14 bands in a rank of 0.2 and 1.2 kb. By ApaI-PFGE, 37 restriction patterns were established with 7 to 15 bands of 34 to 450 kb. Typeability was 100% (T=1 for ERIC-PCR, and 94% (T=0.94 for ApaI-PFGE. Reproducibility of both techniques was 100% (R=1. Discriminatory power was 93% (D=0.93 for ERIC-PCR, and 98% (D=0.98 for ApaI-PFGE. By using both techniques, epidemiologically related strains were grouped, and unrelated strains were clearly differentiated. The value of ERIC-PCR and ApaI-PFGE as complements to epidemiologic studies

  17. Clonal outbreaks of [ Pasteurella] pneumotropica biovar Heyl in two mouse colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikary, Sadhana; Bisgaard, Magne; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the pathogenic role of biovar Heyl of [Pasteurella] pneumotropica in mouse colonies. Fifty-three isolates associated with mastitis and orbital, cutaneous and vaginal abscesses as well as isolates from the nose and vagina of healthy mice were investigated...... strains with the same rpoB sequence type, as shown by the PFGE profiles. The investigation documented that members of biovar Heyl of [P.] pneumotropica caused disease outbreaks in mouse colonies since the clonality indicated a primary role of [P.] pneumotropica biovar Heyl in the infections observed....

  18. Outbreak of Pasteurella pneumotropica in a closed colony of STOCK-Cd28(tm1Mak) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artwohl, J.E.; Flynn, J.C.; Bunte, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen mice with Pasteurella pneumotropica orbital abscesses were noted in mice that were homozygous for a targeted Cd28 gene mutation. Only one mouse heterozygous for the Cd28 mutation was affected. According to phenotypic reactions and 16S rDNA sequencing, the isolates were most similar to bio...

  19. Pasteurella multocida mastitis in cow - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanov Dubravka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella (P. multocida is a heterogeneous species of Gram-negative bacteria which are common commensals of the upper respiratory system of various mammal and bird species, but are also opportunistic contagious zoonotic pathogens which cause a wide spectre of infections in domestic animals and humans. P. multocida is a rare cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The source of infection mainly remains unknown, mastitis usually is acute, and the therapy by intramammary administration of antibiotics does not lead to satisfactory results. Lethality is possible due to presence of endotoxins in blood. Literature data on P. multocida mastitis in dairy cows is particularly scarce, which is why such a case is described in the current work, with past medical history, clinical findings, laboratory diagnostics and therapeutic approach. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 31071 and Grant no. III 46002

  20. The sensitivity of the most common microorganisms of pig liquid manure to the effect of 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szemeredy, Gy.; Simon, J.

    1979-01-01

    In model experiments the most common representatives of pathogens and facultative pathogens of pig liquid manure contaminating bacterial flora were examined for their sensitivity to different doses of 60 Co, using liquid medium supplemented with 1% glucose, as well as Korthof-medium and different kinds of selective media. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiea, Brucella suis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Pasteurella haemolytica proved to be the most senstive ones to irradiation, as they did not survive 100 krad dose. The highest resistances were observed in the cases of the following microorganisms: the spore containing Bacillus anthracis, killed by 700 krad irradiation dose, the saprophytic and pathogenic Mycobacteria and the spore containing Clostridium perfringens, killed by 1000-1500 krad irradiation. (author)

  1. Study on the Efficacy of Some Current Herbicides for Control of Resistant and Susceptible Canarygrass (Phalaris spp. Biotypes to Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACCase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    e Zand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two separate greenhouse experiments were conducted in the greenhouse facilities of the Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute, Tehran, to study the efficacy of some herbicides to control of resistant and susceptible P. minor and P. paradoxa biotypes. In each experiment, resistant and susceptible biotypes were treated separately by 19 herbicide treatments. Treatments included 10 ACCase inhibitors, 6 Acetolactate Synthase (ALS inhibitors, prosulfocarb, flamprop-M-isopropyl, isoproturon plus diflufenican and a non-sprayed control. To evaluate the effects of treatments, different characteristics including percent damage based on EWRC scores at 15 and 30 days after spraying, percentage of survived plants after spraying relative to before spraying, and percentage of dry weight and wet weight of individual plants relative to control were studied. Results showed that the susceptible biotypes of P. minor were best controlled by clodinafop propargyl and pinoxaden at 450 ml/ha while pinoxaden at 450 ml/ha and cycloxydim were best options for control of the resistant biotype. Among ALS inhibitors, iodosulfuron plus mesosulfuron could control susceptible and resistant biotypes of P. minor very effectively and semi-satisfactory, respectively. Iodosulfuron plus mesosulfuron and sulfosulfuron plus metsulfuron could remarkably reduce the wet weight of individual plants compared to control so that the plants were not damaging any more. Among other herbicides, isoproturon plus diflufenican could control the susceptible and resistant biotypes semi-satisfactory and very effectively, respectively. Keywords: Herbicide resistance, ACCase inhibitors, ALS inhibitors

  2. Inheritance of resistance to anti-microtubule dinitroaniline herbicides in an "intermediate" resistant biotype of Eleusine indica (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L; Baird, W V

    1999-07-01

    Inheritance of resistance to the anti-microtubule dinitroaniline herbicides was investigated in a goosegrass biotype displaying an intermediate level of resistance (I). Reciprocal crosses were made between the I biotype and previously characterized susceptible (S) or resistant (R) biotypes. Eight F(1) hybrids were identified, and F(2) populations were produced by selfing. The dinitroaniline-herbicide response phenotype (DRP) of F(1) plants, and F(2) seedlings was determined using a root-growth bioassay. The DRP of F(1) plants of S × I was "susceptible" (i.e., identical to the S parental plants), and the DRP of F(1) plants of I × R was "intermediate" (i.e., identical to the I parental plants). Nonparental phenotypes were not observed in F(1) plants. Results indicated susceptibility to be dominant over intermediate resistance and intermediate resistance to be dominant over high resistance. Analysis of reciprocal crosses ruled out any role for cytoplasmic inheritance. When treated at the discriminating concentration (e.g., 0.28 ppm oryzalin), F(2) seedlings of S × I were classified as either S or I phenotype, and F(2) seedlings of I × R were classified as either I or R phenotype. Again, nonparental phenotypes were not observed. The 3:1 (S:I or I:R) segregation ratios in F(2) seedlings were consistent across all eight F(2) families. The results show that dinitroaniline herbicide resistance in the I biotype of goosegrass is inherited as a single, nuclear gene. Furthermore, it suggests that dinitroaniline resistance in goosegrass is controlled by three alleles at a single locus (i.e., Drp-S, Drp-i, and Drp-r).

  3. Molecular characterization of four beta-tubulin genes from dinitroaniline susceptible and resistant biotypes of Eleusine indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, E; Baird, W V

    1999-01-01

    Dinitroaniline herbicides are antimicrotubule drugs that bind to tubulins and inhibit polymerization. As a result of repeated application of dinitroaniline herbicides, resistant biotypes of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) developed in previously susceptible wild-type populations. We have previously reported that alpha-tubulin missense mutations correlate with dinitroaniline response phenotypes (Drp) (Plant Cell 10: 297-308, 1998). In order to ascertain associations of other tubulins with dinitroaniline resistance, four beta-tubulin cDNA classes (designated TUB1, TUB2, TUB3, and TUB4) were isolated from dinitroaniline-susceptible and -resistant biotypes. Sequence analysis of the four beta-tubulin cDNA classes identified no missense mutations. Identified nucleotide substitutions did not result in amino acid replacements. These results suggest that the molecular basis of dinitroaniline resistance in goosegrass differs from those of colchicine/dinitroaniline cross-resistant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and benzimidazole-resistant fungi and yeast. Expression of the four beta-tubulins was highest in inflorescences. This is in contrast to alpha-tubulin TUA1 that is expressed predominantly in roots. Collectively, these results imply that beta-tubulin genes are not associated with dinitroaniline resistance in goosegrass. Phylogenetic analysis of the four beta-tubulins, together with three alpha-tubulins, suggests that the resistant biotype developed independently in multiple locations rather than spreading from one location.

  4. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  5. Isolation, characterization, antibiogram and pathology of Pasteurella multocida isolated from pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Tigga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Isolation, characterization and antibiogram of Pasteurella multocida from diseased pigs of district Durg of Chhattisgarh, and to study pathological changes caused by swine pasteurellosis. Materials and Methods: An outbreak of swine pasteurellosis was suspected in pigs of Ruwabandha (Bhilai, Anjora, Somni, Tedesara, Tirgajhola villages of Durg district in Chhattisgarh, India during August and September of 2011. Nasal Swabs and blood samples from ailing pigs and heart blood and impression smears from morbid pigs were processed for detection and isolation of P. multocida by bacteriological methods. Detailed necropsy was conducted and gross and histopathological lesions were recorded. The test Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity profile by disc-diffusion method. Results: The blood smears from heart blood and tissue impression smears revealed teaming of bipolar organisms indicating the presence of Pasteurella spp. The isolates obtained were subjected to Gram's staining for checking the purity and bipolar morphology and characterized biochemically. Gross lesions included severe acute pneumonia and haemorrhages in lungs, petechial haemorrhages on serous membranes and other visceral organs. On histopathological examination, lungs showed typical fibrinous bronchopneumonia, multifocal suppuration. All the isolates of P. multocida were 100% sensitive to Amoxicillin, Gentamicin, Enrofloxacin and showed100% resistance to Ceftizoxim and Cloxacillin. Conclusion: Gross and microscopic lesions in dead animals are of great diagnostic value and are of characteristic of P. multocida infection. Cultural, morphological and biochemical characters are useful to rule out the causative agent as P. multocida. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates should routinely be carried out for knowing the antibiotic resistance trends in an endemic area.

  6. [Molecular typing methods for Pasteurella multocida-A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhong; Liang, Wan; Wu, Bin

    2016-10-04

    Pasteurella multocida is an important gram-negative pathogenic bacterium that could infect wide ranges of animals. Humans could also be infected by P. multocida via animal bite or scratching. Current typing methods for P. multocida include serological typing methods and molecular typing methods. Of them, serological typing methods are based on immunological assays, which are too complicated for clinical bacteriological studies. However, the molecular methods including multiple PCRs and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods are more suitable for bacteriological studies of P. multocida in clinic, with their simple operation, high efficiency and accurate detection compared to the traditional serological typing methods, they are therefore widely used. In the current review, we briefly describe the molecular typing methods for P. multocida. Our aim is to provide a knowledge-foundation for clinical bacteriological investigation especially the molecular investigation for P. multocida.

  7. Pasteurella multocida Septicemia in a Patient with Cirrhosis: An Autopsy Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More people are keeping pets in their homes but may not be sufficiently aware of the potential danger from infections. We report an autopsy case of a 57-year-old man affected by cirrhosis. Septic shock with Pasteurella multocida pneumonia was the cause of his death. P. multocida was the source of infection via the respiratory tract and caused pneumonia. Cirrhosis is one of the risk factors for P. multocida infection. A detailed patient history about animal exposure should be obtained and a differential diagnosis of P. multocida infection must be kept in mind.

  8. Identification of Apis mellifera gut microbiota with MALDI TOF MS Biotyper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gasper

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is critically important for the pollination of many economically important crops. Continued colony losses have called for a deeper understanding of both symbiotic and pathogenic microbial interactions, particularly as they relate to food storage and the pollination environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore and characterize the bacteria colonizing the alimentary tract of the native honey bees using MALDI TOF MS Biotyper. Content of the intestinal tract was cultured for isolation of Gram-negative, Gram-positive microorganisms and yeasts. Then, the identification of isolates with MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper was done. Results showed that the most abundant genera in bees’ samples were Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas and Serratia. Altogether, 12 genera with 21 bacterial species and one yeast genus with two species were isolated. Bacteria were represented with Acidovorax facilis, Lactobacillus gasseri, L. amylovorus, L. kunkeei, L. fructivorans, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Ps. brenneri, Ps. indica, Micrococcus luteus, Serratia fonticola, Ser. marcescens, Ser. ureilytica, Hafnia alvei, Candida magnolia, Bacillus oleronius, B. horneckiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staph. pasteuri, Shewanella profunda.  The results of the study shows that the microflora of the bees gut is heterogenic and depend of locality and resources of environment for bees.

  9. Characterization of Antixenosis in Soybean Genotypes to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, E L L; Cruz, P L; Morando, R; Silva, I F; Bentivenha, J P F; Tozin, L R S; Rodrigues, T M

    2017-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) is one of the most important soybean pest worldwide. Herein, 15 soybean genotypes were evaluated, to characterize the occurrence of antixenosis to B. tabaci biotype B. Initially, a multiple-choice test with all genotypes was carried out, evaluating the settling and oviposition preference at 3 d after infestation, and the colonization by nymphs after 48 d of infestation. Subsequently, a no-choice test, using 14 genotypes, was conducted with infested plants individually, and the number of eggs was counted after 72 h. Then, 10 genotypes were selected (indicative of resistance and susceptibility), which were evaluated for whitefly settling 24, 48, and 72 h after infestation and for oviposition 72 h after infestation. The trichomes of the leaflets were characterized for density, size, and inclination to establish possible correlations with the settling and oviposition in the genotypes. In the first multiple-choice test, involving 15 genotypes, 'IAC-17,' 'IAC-19,' and UX-2569-159 expressed antixenosis against B. tabaci. 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and PI-229358 exhibited the same behavior in the no-choice test. In the multiple-choice test, 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and 'TMG1176 RR' were the least attractive and least used for oviposition. The antixenosis shown by 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and PI-229358 may be related to the characteristics of the trichomes (lower density and inclined). Based on the experiments carried out, 'IAC-17,' 'IAC-19,' 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' PI-229358, TMG1176 RR, and UX-2569-159 are considered promising for resistance to B. tabaci biotype B and may be exploited in soybean breeding programs for resistance to insects. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains isolated from pigs in two Danish herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1997-01-01

    Eight Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains were isolated in pure culture from lungs of pigs originating from two Danish herds with growing and finishing pigs. The antigenic properties were studied by indirect haemagglutination (IHA) and immunodiffusion (ID) tests using soluble surface...

  11. A rapid microtiter plate serum bactericidal assay method for determining serum complement-mediated killing of Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Sahlu; Confer, Anthony W; Shrestha, Binu; Payton, Mark E

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we describe a rapid microtiter serum bactericidal assay (RMSBA) that can be used to measure the functionality of immune sera. It quantifies bactericidal activity of immune sera in the presence of complement against a homologous bacterium, M. haemolytica in this case. There is high correlation between data from RMSBA and standard complement-mediated bacterial killing assay (r=0.756; p<0.0001). The RMSBA activity of sera can be generated in less than 5 h instead of overnight incubation. RMSBA costs substantially less in terms of time, labor, and resources and is highly reproducible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mannheimia haemolytica growth and leukotoxin production for vaccine manufacturing — A bioprocess review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Oppermann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin (LKT is a known cause of bovine respiratory disease (BRD which results in severe economic losses in the cattle industry (up to USD 1 billion per year in the USA. Vaccines based on LKT offer the most promising measure to contain BRD outbreaks and are already commercially available. However, insufficient LKT yields, predominantly reflecting a lack of knowledge about the LKT expression process, remain a significant engineering problem and further bioprocess optimization is required to increase process efficiency. Most previous investigations have focused on LKT activity and cell growth, but neither of these parameters defines reliable criteria for the improvement of LKT yields. In this article, we review the most important process conditions and operational parameters (temperature, pH, substrate concentration, dissolved oxygen level, medium composition and the presence of metabolites from a bioprocess engineering perspective, in order to maximize LKT yields.

  13. Identification of Apis mellifera gut microbiota with MALDI TOF MS Biotyper

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Gasper; Margarita Terentjeva; Attila Kántor; Eva Ivanišová; Maciej Kluz; Miroslava Kačániová

    2017-01-01

    The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is critically important for the pollination of many economically important crops. Continued colony losses have called for a deeper understanding of both symbiotic and pathogenic microbial interactions, particularly as they relate to food storage and the pollination environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore and characterize the bacteria colonizing the alimentary tract of the native honey bees using MALDI TOF MS Biotyper. Content of the intestin...

  14. Comparative studies on [Pasteurella] testudinis and [P.] testudinis-like bacteria and proposal of Chelonobacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov. as a new member of the family Pasteurellaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Rikke Heidemann; Neubauer, Claudia; Christensen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A collection of 12 strains isolated from diseased tortoises tentatively identified as [Pasteurella] testudinis-like based on phenotypical characters were compared with three reference strains of [Pasteurella] testudinis. All strains could be separated from the reference strains with resp...

  15. The pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida local isolates in mice and chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cholera or fowl cholera is a bacterial disease caused by Pasteurella multocida strain of serogroup A, has been recognized as important disease in domestic poultry such as ducks and chicken. P. multocida strains derived from overseas and local isolates are stored as freeze dried and kept at the Research hlstitute for Veterinary Science (BALITVET culture collection (BCC. Some of those bacteria are still alive and can be used as vaccine candidates. Each strain or isolate was activated in brain heart infusion broth containing foetal calf serum and incubated at 37°C then it was identitied by biochemical reactions. Field surveys Were conducted in Central Java and South Kalimantan to observe fowl cholera problems and sample collections for isolation of pathogens. Of the 14 of Pasteurella multocida strains or isolates from BCC, II strains (9 imported 2 local isolates were still alive. In addition to this 2 isolates trom chicken and duck were viable. Seven out of 9 imported strains killed mice within 3 x 24 hours, similarly for the local isolates (BCC 299, 2331, DYI, DY2, 12TG, 15TG. However, the only BCC 2331 and DY2 isolates were able to kill two week old chicken witIlin 6 x 24 hours post inoculation. From this experiment indicated that the P. multocida local isolates (BCC 2,331 and DY2 are more pathogenic than that of imported strains. Two strains of imported P. multocida BCC 2331, 1362 and 6 local isolates (BCC 299, 2331, DYI, DY2, 12TG and 15TG would be selected for mono- and polyvalent vaccine candidates in the following experiments and the highly patogenic BCC 2331 and DY2 isolates would be used to challenge the vaccinated animals.

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria That Cause Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in Alberta, Canada

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    R. Michele Anholt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is the most important illness of feedlot cattle. Disease management targets the associated bacterial pathogens, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Trueperella pyogenes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant BRD pathogens using a collaborative network of veterinarians, industry, government, and a diagnostic laboratory. Seven private veterinary practices in southern Alberta collected samples from both living and dead BRD-affected animals at commercial feedlots. Susceptibility testing of 745 isolates showed that 100% of the M. haemolytica, M. bovis, P. multocida, and T. pyogenes isolates and 66.7% of the H. somni isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial class. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobials (90.2% of all isolates was notable for their importance to beef production and human medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR was high in all target pathogens with 47.2% of the isolates resistant to four or five antimicrobial classes and 24.0% resistance to six to nine classes. We compared the MDR profiles of isolates from two feedlots serviced by different veterinary practices. Differences in the average number of resistant classes were found for M. haemolytica (p < 0.001 and P. multocida (p = 0.002. Compared to previous studies, this study suggests an increasing trend of resistance in BRD pathogens against the antimicrobials used to manage the disease in Alberta. For the veterinary clinician, the results emphasize the importance of ongoing susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens to inform treatment protocols. Surveillance studies that collect additional epidemiological information and manage sampling bias will be necessary to develop strategies to limit the spread of resistance.

  17. Presence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A isolates from game animals in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt-Samoraj, A; Syczyło, K; Szczerba-Turek, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Jabłoński, A; Łabuć, S; Pajdak, J; Oshakbaeva, N; Szweda, W

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica is associated with the presence of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. Strains belonging to biotype 1A do not possess pYV plasmids, often harbour the ystB gene and usually lack the ail gene, which is the main virulence marker for Y. enterocolitica. The simultaneous presence of ail and ystB is uncommon. In this study, 21/218 (9.6%) biotype 1A Y. enterocolitica isolates from rectal swabs of wild boar (Sus scrofa; n = 18), red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 2) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; n = 1) in Poland harboured both ail and ystB genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Aspergillus Species Directly from Growth on Solid Agar Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the accuracy of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS system at identifying clinical isolates of Aspergillus species that were grown on agar media. A total of 381 non-duplicate Aspergillus isolates representing 21 different Aspergillus species identified by molecular analysis were included in this study. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system was able to identify 30.2% (115/381 of the isolates to the species level (score values of ≥2.000 and 49.3% to the genus level (score values of 1.700–1.999. When the identification cutoff value was lowered from ≥2.000 to ≥1.700, the species-level identification rate increased to 79.5% with a slight rise of false identification from 2.6 to 5.0%. From another aspect, a correct species-level identification rate of 89% could be reached by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system regardless of the score values obtained. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system had a moderate performance in identification of Aspergillus directly inoculated on solid agar media. Continued expansion of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database and adoption of alternative cutoff values for interpretation are required to improve the performance of the system for identifying highly diverse species of clinically encountered Aspergillus isolates.

  19. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Aspergillus Species Directly from Growth on Solid Agar Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Wang, He; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Xu, Ying-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system at identifying clinical isolates of Aspergillus species that were grown on agar media. A total of 381 non-duplicate Aspergillus isolates representing 21 different Aspergillus species identified by molecular analysis were included in this study. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system was able to identify 30.2% (115/381) of the isolates to the species level (score values of ≥2.000) and 49.3% to the genus level (score values of 1.700-1.999). When the identification cutoff value was lowered from ≥2.000 to ≥1.700, the species-level identification rate increased to 79.5% with a slight rise of false identification from 2.6 to 5.0%. From another aspect, a correct species-level identification rate of 89% could be reached by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system regardless of the score values obtained. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system had a moderate performance in identification of Aspergillus directly inoculated on solid agar media. Continued expansion of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database and adoption of alternative cutoff values for interpretation are required to improve the performance of the system for identifying highly diverse species of clinically encountered Aspergillus isolates.

  20. Biotyping and genotyping (MLVA16 of Brucella abortus isolated from cattle in Brazil, 1977 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Minharro

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that causes important economic losses to animal production. In Brazil, information on the distribution of biovars and genotypes of Brucella spp. is scarce or unavailable. This study aimed (i to biotype and genotype 137 Brazilian cattle isolates (from 1977 to 2008 of B. abortus and (ii to analyze their distribution. B. abortus biovars 1, 2 and 3 (subgroup 3b were confirmed and biovars 4 and 6 were first described in Brazil. Genotyping by the panel 1 revealed two groups, one clustering around genotype 40 and another around genotype 28. Panels 2A and 2B disclosed a high diversity among Brazilian B. abortus strains. Eighty-nine genotypes were found by MLVA16. MLVA16 panel 1 and 2 showed geographic clustering of some genotypes. Biotyping and MLVA16 genotyping of Brazilian B. abortus isolates were useful to better understand the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the region.

  1. Comparative efficacy of enrofloxacin to that of tulathromycin for the control of bovine respiratory disease and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica in calves at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, S; Credille, B; Giguère, S; Berghaus, R

    2018-04-14

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in North American beef cattle. Mannheimia haemolytica is the bacterial pathogen most often isolated from cattle with BRD, and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in this organism has increased in recent years. Antimicrobials are commonly used to prevent BRD in cattle at high risk of developing BRD; however, recent work would suggest that this practice might be one factor contributing to the increased prevalence of AMR in M. haemolytica. We hypothesized that the administration of the short-acting fluoroquinolone, enrofloxacin, would be just as effective as the long-acting triamilide, tulathromycin, in preventing BRD but would be less likely to select for AMR M. haemolytica in stocker calves at high risk of developing BRD. Three hundred forty-one stocker calves were enrolled in the study with 172 calves in 4 pens being randomly assigned to treatment with enrofloxacin and 169 calves in 4 pens randomly assigned to treatment with tulathromycin. Calves within each treatment group were allocated to one of 4 replicate pens based on the week of enrollment. Of calves receiving enrofloxacin, 33.7% required treatment for BRD at least once within 45 d after arrival, compared with 18.3% of calves receiving tulathromycin (P = 0.040). The percentages of calves that required more than one treatment for BRD within 45 d after arrival did not differ statistically for those receiving enrofloxacin compared with those receiving tulathromycin (10.5% and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.107) Likewise, the percentages of calves that died during the 45-d follow-up period did not differ for those receiving enrofloxacin compared with those receiving tulathromycin (12.2% and 10.1%, respectively; P = 0.592). Mannheimia haemolytica was cultured from 11% of calves sampled at arrival and from 50% of calves sampled at revaccination 14 to 17 d later. There was a significanst effect of sampling time on the

  2. Phylogeny of 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Olsen, I; Fraser, G J

    1992-03-01

    Virtually complete 16S rRNA sequences were determined for 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae. Of these strains, 15 were Pasteurella, 16 were Actinobacillus, and 23 were Haemophilus. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on sequence similarity, using the Neighbor-Joining method. Fifty-three of the strains fell within four large clusters. The first cluster included the type strains of Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. aphrophilus, H. haemolyticus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. This cluster also contained A. actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, and ATCC 29524 and H. aphrophilus NCTC 7901. The second cluster included the type strains of A. seminis and Pasteurella aerogenes and H. somnus OVCG 43826. The third cluster was composed of the type strains of Pasteurella multocida, P. anatis, P. avium, P. canis, P. dagmatis, P. gallinarum, P. langaa, P. stomatis, P. volantium, H. haemoglobinophilus, H. parasuis, H. paracuniculus, H. paragallinarum, and A. capsulatus. This cluster also contained Pasteurella species A CCUG 18782, Pasteurella species B CCUG 19974, Haemophilus taxon C CAPM 5111, H. parasuis type 5 Nagasaki, P. volantium (H. parainfluenzae) NCTC 4101, and P. trehalosi NCTC 10624. The fourth cluster included the type strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii, A. equuli, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis, A. ureae, H. parahaemolyticus, H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, H. ducreyi, and P. haemolytica. This cluster also contained Actinobacillus species strain CCUG 19799 (Bisgaard taxon 11), A. suis ATCC 15557, H. ducreyi ATCC 27722 and HD 35000, Haemophilus minor group strain 202, and H. parainfluenzae ATCC 29242. The type strain of P. pneumotropica branched alone to form a fifth group. The branching of the Pasteurellaceae family tree was quite complex. The four major clusters contained multiple subclusters. The clusters contained both rapidly and slowly evolving

  3. Crescimento diferencial de biótipos de Conyza SPP. resistente e suscetível ao herbicida glifosato Differential growth of glyphosate-resistant and susceptible biotypes of Conyza SPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Sala Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar, em condição controlada e não-competitiva, o crescimento de biótipos de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis resistente e suscetível ao herbicida glifosato, a fim de quantificar os efeitos da pressão de seleção para resistência nos biótipos. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos com tratamentos organizados em esquema fatorial 9 x 2, com nove avaliações periódicas de crescimento e dois biótipos de cada espécie. As variáveis avaliadas por planta foram: área foliar; massa seca da parte aérea, das raízes e total, obtendo-se, a partir desta última, a taxa de crescimento absoluto. O biótipo de C. canadensis resistente ao glifosato possui crescimento mais lento, menor acúmulo de área foliar e de massa seca que o biótipo suscetível. Menores áreas foliar e massa seca também foram registradas para o biótipo de C. bonariensis resistente ao glifosato quando comparado ao suscetível, porém com diferenças mais sutis que aquelas constatadas para C. canadensis. O crescimento absoluto do biótipo suscetível foi superior ao do resistente em ambas as espécies. A pressão de seleção para resistência ao glifosato teve impactos negativos na habilidade de crescimento dos biótipos.This work was carried out with the objective of comparing, under controlled and non-competitive condition, the growth of glyphosate-resistant and susceptible biotypes of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; to quantify the effects of resistance selection pressure on the biotypes. Two trials were developed with treatments organized according to a factorial scheme 9 x 2, where nine were periodical growth evaluations and two were biotypes of each species. The variables evaluated per plant were: leaf area and dry mass (shoot, root and total; to determine absolute growth rate from the total dry mass. The glyphosate-resistant biotype of C. canadensis exhibits slower growth and smaller accumulation of leaf area

  4. Identification and characterization of RAPD-SCAR markers linked to glyphosate-susceptible and -resistant biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Thye San; Anne-Marie, Kaben; Chuah, Tse Seng

    2014-02-01

    Eleusine indica is one of the most common weed species found in agricultural land worldwide. Although herbicide-glyphosate provides good control of the weed, its frequent uses has led to abundant reported cases of resistance. Hence, the development of genetic markers for quick detection of glyphosate-resistance in E. indica population is imperative for the control and management of the weed. In this study, a total of 14 specific random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were identified and two of the markers, namely S4R727 and S26R6976 were further sequence characterized. Sequence alignment revealed that marker S4R727 showing a 12-bp nucleotides deletion in resistant biotypes, while marker S26R6976 contained a 167-bp nucleotides insertion in the resistant biotypes. Based on these sequence differences, three pairs of new sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers were developed. The specificity of these primer pairs were further validated with genomic DNA extracted from ten individual plants of one glyphosate-susceptible and five glyphosate-resistant (R2, R4, R6, R8 and R11) populations. The resulting RAPD-SCAR markers provided the basis for assessing genetic diversity between glyphosate-susceptible and -resistant E. indica biotypes, as well for the identification of genetic locus link to glyphosate-resistance event in the species.

  5. Enterococcus genus identification isolated from gastrointestinal tract of chickens after bees products application using MALDI TOF MS Biotyper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to examine the effect of bee product on the Enterococci colonization of chickens. Bee products were administered to both feed mixtures in various amounts in addition to the control group. First experimental group was with propolis in feed mixture with the addition of 200 mg propolis per 1 kg of compound and second group was with pollen with the addition of 250 mg pollen per 1 kg of compound. In this experiment, quantitative counts of Enterococci in ceca of 49-day-old chicken (Ross 308 using classical and MALDI TOF MS Biotyper method were investigated. Counts of Enterococci on Slanetz-Bartley agar were monitored. Enterococcus cells, isolated from gastrointestinal tract, were detected using MALDI TOF MS Biotyper. Counts of CFU of Enterococci were compared in experimental and control treatments, respectively. The lowest count was detected in the control experimental group. The highest count was detected in the first experimental group where was 200 mg of propolis added to 1 kg of feed mixture. Using MALDI TOF MS Biotyper, we identified the species range of the genera Enterococcus in the intestinal tract of broiler. Detected species from the genus Enterococcus were:      E. avium, E. casseliflavus, E cecorum, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. gallinarum, E. hirae and E. malodoratus. In the experimental groups (caecal samples were most frequent species of E. avium E. faecium and E. gallinarum.

  6. Resistance to a new biotype of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri in Lactuca virosa accession IVT280

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Host plant resistance is an effective protection strategy to control aphids in many crops. However, the evolution of insensitive aphid biotypes necessitates the search for new resistance sources. Wild relatives of crop plants can be important sources for resistance genes to be introgressed into new

  7. The Capsule Is a Virulence Determinant in the Pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida M1404 (B:2)

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, John D.; Adler, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Capsules from a range of pathogenic bacteria are key virulence determinants, and the capsule has been implicated in virulence in Pasteurella multocida. We have previously identified and determined the nucleotide sequence of the P. multocida M1404 (B:2) capsule biosynthetic locus (J. D. Boyce, J. Y. Chung, and B. Adler, Vet. Microbiol. 72:121–134, 2000). The cap locus consists of 15 genes, which can be grouped into three functional regions. Regions 1 and 3 contain genes proposed to encode prot...

  8. Comparative genome analysis of an avirulent and two virulent strains of avian Pasteurella multocida reveals candidate genes involved in fitness and pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowl cholera is a highly contagious systemic disease affecting wild and domestic birds, frequently resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The causative agent is Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida). The completed genome of P. multocida strain Pm70 has been available for over eleven years and has...

  9. Time-course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12-week-old free-range chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthia, P.G.; Njagi, L.W.; Nyaga, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immune-suppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322(T), and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS...

  10. Caracterização de biótipos de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite bovina Biotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.V.P. Brito

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos e dezoito amostras de Staphylococcus aureus, isoladas de infecção intramamária de vacas de 44 rebanhos leiteiros, foram classificadas em biótipos de acordo com os testes de produção de estafiloquinase (K, beta-hemolisina (beta , coagulação do plasma bovino (Pl e crescimento na presença de cristal violeta (CV. As amostras foram distribuídas em 10 biótipos e 63 delas foram classificadas nas ecovariedades bovina (35, ovina (17, aviária (10 e humana (1 e 155 não apresentaram características específicas de hospedeiro. Estas últimas podem ser isoladas de homem, cabra, coelho, suíno, alimentos e de mastite bovina. O biótipo 1, encontrado com maior freqüência (37,2%, apresentou o padrão K (-, beta (+, Pl (- e CV (azul. Em sete rebanhos nos quais se examinaram 10 ou mais amostras, verificou-se que, apesar da ocorrência simultânea de mais de um biótipo por rebanho, houve predominância de um sobre os demais.Two hundred and eighteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections, obtained from 44 different dairy herds, were classified in biotypes based on staphylokinase (K and beta-haemolysin (beta production, bovine plasma coagulation (Pl and growth on crystal violet agar (CV. The strains were assigned to 10 different types, with 63 in the bovine (35, ovine (17, poultry (10 and human (1 ecovars and 155 in non-host specific biotypes. The latter can be isolated from man, goat, rabbit, pig, food, and bovine mastitis. The biotype 1, with reaction pattern K (-, beta (+, Pl (- and CV (blue, was the most frequently found (37,2%. From seven herds ten or more strains were examined. It was found that in spite of the presence of different biotypes per herd, there was always one prevalent biotype.

  11. Structure and function of C-terminal catalytic region of pasteurella multocida toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitadokoro, Kengo; Kamitami, Shigeki; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is one of virulence factors responsible for the pathogenesis in some Pasteurellosis. We determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal region of PMT (C-PMT), which carries an intracellularly active moiety. The overall structure of C-PMT displays three different domains designated C1, C2 and C3. We found in the C3 domain the Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad that is organized only when the Cys is released from a disulfide bond. The steric alignment of the triad corresponded well to that of papain or other enzymes carrying the Cys-His-Asp triad. Our results demonstrate that PMT is an enzymatic toxin carrying the cysteine-protease like catalytic triad, which is organized only under reducing conditions. (author)

  12. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  13. Validation of a for anaerobic bacteria optimized MALDI-TOF MS biotyper database: The ENRIA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, A C M; Jean-Pierre, H; Justesen, U S; Morris, T; Urban, E; Wybo, I; Kostrzewa, M; Friedrich, A W

    2018-03-12

    Within the ENRIA project, several 'expertise laboratories' collaborated in order to optimize the identification of clinical anaerobic isolates by using a widely available platform, the Biotyper Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Main Spectral Profiles (MSPs) of well characterized anaerobic strains were added to one of the latest updates of the Biotyper database db6903; (V6 database) for common use. MSPs of anaerobic strains nominated for addition to the Biotyper database are included in this validation. In this study, we validated the optimized database (db5989 [V5 database] + ENRIA MSPs) using 6309 anaerobic isolates. Using the V5 database 71.1% of the isolates could be identified with high confidence, 16.9% with low confidence and 12.0% could not be identified. Including the MSPs added to the V6 database and all MSPs created within the ENRIA project, the amount of strains identified with high confidence increased to 74.8% and 79.2%, respectively. Strains that could not be identified using MALDI-TOF MS decreased to 10.4% and 7.3%, respectively. The observed increase in high confidence identifications differed per genus. For Bilophila wadsworthia, Prevotella spp., gram-positive anaerobic cocci and other less commonly encountered species more strains were identified with higher confidence. A subset of the non-identified strains (42.1%) were identified using 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The obtained identities demonstrated that strains could not be identified either due to the generation of spectra of insufficient quality or due to the fact that no MSP of the encountered species was present in the database. Undoubtedly, the ENRIA project has successfully increased the number of anaerobic isolates that can be identified with high confidence. We therefore recommend further expansion of the database to include less frequently isolated species as this would also allow us to gain valuable insight into the clinical

  14. Differential Susceptibility of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) Neutrophils to Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to Differential Expression of Cell Surface CD18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Liu, Weiguo; Casas, Eduardo; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-07-01

    Bighornsheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are four- to eightfold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes. Our objective was to quantify CD18 expression on neutrophils of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Cell-surface CD18 expression on bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils was measured as antibody binding capacity of cells by flow cytometric analysis with two fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (BAQ30A and HUH82A) and microspheres. Contrary to our expectations, CD18 expression was higher (Psheep neutrophils in comparison to bighorn sheep neutrophils. These findings suggest that the higher in vitro susceptibility to leukotoxin of bighorn sheep neutrophils compared to domestic sheep neutrophils is not due to higher expression of the leukotoxin receptor CD18 on bighorn sheep neutrophils.

  15. Evaluation of Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS for the identification of Candida tropicalis on different solid culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Li, Ying; Fan, Xin; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Xu, Ying-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2017-11-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Vitek MS systems for identification of genetically-confirmed blood isolates of Candida tropicalis that had been grown on several types of culture media commonly used for primary fungal isolation. Isolates included 105 from the National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net program (CHIF-NET) and 120 from National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Culture media tested for CHIF-NET isolates included trypticase soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood (BAP), Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA-C), CHROMagar, China blue agar (CBA), chocolate agar supplemented with vancomycin (CAP-VA), and MacConkey agar (MAC). Culture media used for NTUH isolates included BAP, SDA, CHROMagar, eosin methylene blue (EMB), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), Mycosel agar, and cornmeal agar (CMA). The Bruker Biotyper correctly identified all CHIF-NET isolates to the species level on all six agar media tested and correctly identified the majority of NTUH isolates with the exception of isolates grown on SDA (85.8%) and CMA (52.5%). The Vitek MS system correctly identified all CHIF-NET isolates to the species level with the exception of isolates grown on CHROMagar (84.8%), and correctly identified the majority of NTUH isolates with the exception of isolates grown on SDA (51.7%), Mycosel agar (57.5%), and CMA (9.2%) for NTUH isolates. Clinical microbiologists should be aware that different culture media can affect the performance of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek MS systems in identifying C. tropicalis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Combinations of macrolide resistance determinants in field isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Rose, Simon; Wilhelm, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    of these species exhibit resistance to veterinary macrolides with phenotypes that fall into three distinct classes. The first class has type I macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotic resistance and, consistent with this, the 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058 is monomethylated by the enzyme product......(E) genes within an isogenic Escherichia coli background to assess their individually contributions to resistance. Our findings indicate what types of compounds might have driven the selection for these resistance determinants....

  17. Pneumonia in calves produced with aerosols of Pasteurella multocida alone and in combination with bovine herpesvirus 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Jericho, K W; Carter, G R

    1985-01-01

    Pathological changes in respiratory tracts were studied in 30 calves following exposure to aerosols of Pasteurella multocida or to bovine herpesvirus 1 and P. multocida. Two groups of five calves were exposed to aerosols of one of two types of P. multocida only, which produced lobar pneumonia in one calf of each group. Another five groups of four calves were exposed to aerosols of bovine herpesvirus 1 and four to seven days later to one of the two types or one sub-type of P. multocida. Extens...

  18. Evaluation of an experimental and commercial state-of-the-art vaccine against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout by waterborne challenge with Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer

    strain obtained from an ERM disease outbreak in a Danish trout farm. This waterborne infection model gives us the opportunity to test and evaluate the effect of commercial and experimental vaccines against Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 2. An experimental vaccine containing equal amounts of Y. ruckeri O1 biotype...... has been compared to a state-of-the-art commercial ERM immersion vaccine (AquaVac® ReleraTM). Un-vaccinated and sham vaccinated rainbow trout were included as controls. Two months post vaccination the rainbow trout were challenged in duplicate with Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 2 by bath. No effect...... of the experimental immersion or bath vaccine was observed in the present study. However, full protection was achieved with i.p. injection of the experimental vaccine (pVac® ReleraTM induced a significant, partial protection relative to the control groups (p=0.002, RPS=58...

  19. Development of a typing system for epidemiological studies of porcine toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Nielsen, Jens; Bisgaard, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate capsular-typing, plasmid-profiling, phage-typing and ribotyping for epidemiological studies of toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark. The evaluation of methods was based on 68 strains from nasal swabs and 14 strains from...... by HindIII ribotyping, as 85% of isolates from all herds were assigned to one ribotype. In conclusion, HindIII ribotyping seems to represent a useful tool for epidemiological studies of toxigenic P. multocida ssp. multocida....

  20. Pasteurella multocida Involved in Respiratory Disease of Wild Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köndgen, Sophie; Leider, Michaela; Lankester, Felix; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ewers, Christa

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida can cause a variety of diseases in various species of mammals and birds throughout the world but nothing is known about its importance for wild great apes. In this study we isolated P. multocida from wild living, habituated chimpanzees from Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Isolates originated from two chimpanzees that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in 2004 as well as from one individual that developed chronic air-sacculitis following this outbreak. Four isolates were subjected to a full phenotypic and molecular characterisation. Two different clones were identified using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) enabled the identification of previous unknown alleles and two new sequence types, ST68 and ST69, were assigned. Phylogenetic analysis of the superoxide dismutase (sodA) gene and concatenated sequences from seven MLST-housekeeping genes showed close clustering within known P. multocida isolated from various hosts and geographic locations. Due to the clinical relevance of the strains described here, these results make an important contribution to our knowledge of pathogens involved in lethal disease outbreaks among endangered great apes. PMID:21931664

  1. The optimization and validation of the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database for the identification of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; de Vries, E D; Jean-Pierre, H.; Justesen, U. S.; Morris, T.; Urban, E.; Wybo, I.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    OBJECTIVES: Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) account for 24-31% of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens. At present GPAC are underrepresented in the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database. Profiles of new species have yet to be added. We present the optimization of the MALDI-TOF

  2. Genotyping of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains from clinical and nonclinical origins by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioni, Fábio; Falcão, Juliana P

    2014-06-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A (B1A) strains are considered mainly nonpathogenic. However, some studies considered strains of this biotype to be the causal agents of infections in humans and animals. In South America, there are no studies that have compared clinical and nonclinical strains of B1A typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and none that have compared the capability of different enzymes on typing these strains. This study typed 51 Y. enterocolitica B1A strains isolated in Brazil and Chile by PFGE, testing the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI. The resulting dendrograms discriminated the strains in 47, 40, and 49 pulsotypes generated by the cleavage with the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI, respectively. The majority of the strains were grouped independently of their clinical or nonclinical origins. The high discriminatory power of PFGE confirmed the heterogeneity of B1A strains but could not divide the strains studied into clusters that differed in the frequency of some virulence genes as observed in studies using other methodologies.

  3. A bighorn sheep die-off in southern Colorado involving a Pasteurellaceae strain that may have originated from syntopic cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Diamond, Brandon; Spraker, Terry R; Sirochman, Michael A; Walsh, Daniel P; Machin, Chandra M; Bade, Donald J; Miller, Michael W

    2010-10-01

    We investigated a pasteurellosis epizootic in free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) wherein a Pasteurellaceae strain carried by syntopic cattle (Bos taurus) under severe winter conditions appeared to contribute to pneumonia in affected bighorns. Twenty-one moribund or dead bighorn sheep were found on the "Fossil Ridge" herd's winter range, Colorado, USA, between 13 December 2007 and 29 February 2008. Eight carcasses examined showed gross or microscopic evidence of acute to subacute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. All eight carcasses yielded at least one β-hemolytic Mannheimia haemolytica biogroup 1(±(G)) strain, and seven also yielded a β-hemolytic Bibersteinia trehalosi biogroup 4 (CDS) strain; evidence of Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, and parainfluenza 3 and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses was also detected. Isolates of β-hemolytic Manneimia haemolytica biogroup 1(G) from a bighorn carcass and a syntopic cow showed 99.5% similarity in genetic fingerprints; B. trehalosi biogroup 4(CDS) isolates were ≥94.9% similar to an isolate from a nearby bighorn herd. Field and laboratory observations suggested that pneumonia in affected bighorns may have been caused by a combination of pathogens including two pathogenic Pasteurellaceae strains--one likely of cattle origin and one likely of bighorn origin--with infections in some cases perhaps exacerbated by other respiratory pathogens and severe weather conditions. Our and others' findings suggest that intimate interactions between wild sheep and cattle should be discouraged as part of a comprehensive approach to health management and conservation of North American wild sheep species.

  4. Analysis of the polymerization initiation and activity of Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase PmHS2, an enzyme with glycosyltransferase and UDP-sugar hydrolase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavaroche, A.A.E.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Springer, J.; Boeriu, C.; Eggink, G.

    2011-01-01

    Heparosan synthase catalyzes the polymerization of heparosan [-4GlcUAß1-4GlcNAca1-]n by transferring alternatively the monosaccharide units from UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc to an acceptor molecule. Details on the heparosan chain initiation by Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase PmHS2 and its

  5. Significance of buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation on the level of the midbuccal mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation affects the level of the midbuccal mucosa (MBM). Ninety patients with a single-tooth implant in the esthetic zone were included. The level of the MBM was measured on photographs

  6. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriani, Maria A. de G.

    2008-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  7. Fotossíntese de biótipos de azevém sob condição de competição Photosynthesis of ryegrass biotypes under different competition levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As características associadas à atividade fotossintética de biótipos de azevém, resistente e suscetível ao herbicida glyphosate, foram avaliadas sob diferentes níveis de competição entre biótipos. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com dois biótipos de azevém, resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, cultivados em planta única no centro da parcela, competindo com zero, um, dois, três ou quatro plantas do biótipo oposto. Cinqüenta dias após a emergência, foram determinadas a taxa de fluxo de gases pelos estômatos (U - µmol s-1, a concentração de CO2 subestomática (Ci - µmol mol-1 e a taxa fotossintética (A - µmol m-2 s-1, sendo calculado ainda o CO2 consumido (ΔC - µmol mol-1 a partir dos valores de CO2 de referência e CO2 na câmara de avaliação. Os dados foram coletados utilizando-se analisador de gases no infravermelho (IRGA, marca ADC, modelo LCA 4. Foi elaborada matriz de correlação entre as variáveis. Os biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate não diferiram quanto à atividade fotossintética na ausência de competição. No entanto, a taxa fotossintética foi reduzida com o aumento na intensidade de competição com plantas do biótipo oposto, tanto para o biótipo resistente como para o suscetível, e também para o biótipo resistente quando em competição com plantas do mesmo biótipo. Atribuiu-se tal comportamento ao aumento no sombreamento mútuo e à competição por luz.Characteristics associated with photosynthetic activity of ryegrass biotypes, susceptible and resistant to glyphosate, were evaluated under different competition levels. The experiment was installed in a factorial design, with two ryegrass biotypes, susceptible and resistant to glyphosate, growing in the plot center, surrounded by 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 plants of the opposite biotype. Fifty days after emergence, stomatal gas flow rate (U µmol s¹, sub-stomatal CO2 concentration (Ci - µmol mol-1

  8. Implementing the Bruker MALDI Biotyper in the Public Health Laboratory for C. botulinum Neurotoxin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Perry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the gold standard method for active botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT detection is the mouse bioassay (MBA. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-developed mass spectrometry (MS-based assay that detects active BoNT was successfully validated and implemented in a public health laboratory in clinical matrices using the Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry Biotyper. For the first time, a direct comparison with the MBA was performed to determine MS-based assay sensitivity using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper. Mice were injected with BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F at concentrations surrounding the established MS assay limit of detection (LOD and analyzed simultaneously. For BoNT/B, /E, and /F, MS assay sensitivity was equivalent or better than the MBA at 25, 0.3, and 8.8 mLD50, respectively. BoNT/A was detected by the MBA between 1.8 and 18 mLD50, somewhat more sensitive than the MS method of 18 mLD50. Studies were performed to compare assay performance in clinical specimens. For all tested specimens, the MS method rapidly detected BoNT activity and serotype in agreement with, or in the absence of, results from the MBA. We demonstrate that the MS assay can generate reliable, rapid results while eliminating the need for animal testing.

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characters of isolates of Pasteurella multocida obtained from back-yard poultry and from two outbreaks of avian cholera in avifauna in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Bisgaard, M.

    1998-01-01

    Two outbreaks of fowl cholera in the avifauna in Denmark, affecting primarily elders but also cormorants, gulls and oyster-catchers were shown to be caused by the same clone of Pasteurella multocida ssp, multocida by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping, using the enzymes HpaII and Hha...

  10. In vitro susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida strains isolated from swine to 42 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Martin, C B; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1993-08-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 42 antimicrobial agents were determined against 59 strains of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida, all isolated from swine lungs with lesions indicative of pneumonia. Penicillins (except cloxacillin), aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, erythromycin, josamycin, thiamphenicol, colistin, rifampin and mupirocin showed good activities, with ranging resistance between 0 and 6.8%. Higher resistance was observed for spiramycin and fosfomycin. Tylosin, vancomycin, metronidazole, dapsone and tiamulin, to which strains showed high rates of resistance, were ineffective. Cephalosporins (especially the third-generation cephalosporins) and quinolones (especially the fluorinated quinolones) were the most effective antimicrobial agents against P. multocida subsp. multocida strains and they might be of value for in vivo use.

  11. Discovery of three woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes in Australia: the role of antixenosis and antibiosis in apple tree resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Costa, Arnaud; Williams, D. G.; Powell, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2014), s. 280-287 ISSN 2052-1758 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aphid * apple * biotype Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aen.12074/pdf

  12. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 strains antigenically related to both serotypes 2 and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1996-01-01

    Nine Danish Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 isolates were shown by latex agglutination and indirect haemagglutination to possess capsular polysaccharide epitopes identical to those of serotype 2 strain 1536 (reference strain of serotype 2) and strain 4226 (Danish serotype 2 strain). Imm...... in the LPS of strains 1536 and 7317 were revealed. Since an antigenic determinant specific for the 9 isolates could not be demonstrated with the methods used, the strains are proposed to be designated K2:O7....

  13. Genetic diversity among proso millet (Panicum miliaceum biotypes assessed by AFLP technique Diversidade genética entre biótipos de proso millet (Panicum miliaceum revelada pela técnica de AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Karam

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP technique was used to access genetic diversity between three domestic and nine wild proso millet biotypes from the United States and Canada. Eight primer combinations detected 39 polymorphic DNA fragments, with the genetic distance estimates among biotypes ranging from 0.02 to 0.04. Colorado-Weld County black seeded and Wyoming-Platte County were the most distinct biotypes according to the dissimilarity level. A UPGMA cluster analysis revealed two distinct groups of proso millet without any geographic association. Six weed biotypes exhibiting some characters of cultivated plants were grouped together with domesticated biotypes of proso millet while the three typical wild phenotypes were clearly clustered into another group according to AFLP markers.A técnica de AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism foi empregada para acessar a diversidade genética entre três biótipos domesticados e nove biótipos selvagens de proso millet dos Estados Unidos e do Canadá. Oito combinações de primers detectaram 39 fragmentos polimórficos de DNA, e a estimativa da distância genética entre os biótipos variou de 0,02 a 0,04. Colorado-Weld County de sementes pretas e Wyoming-Platte County foram os biótipos mais distintos de acordo com o índice de dissimilaridade. A análise de cluster por UPGMA revelou dois grupos distintos de proso millet mas sem nenhuma relação geográfica. Seis biótipos selvagens que exibiam algumas características de plantas cultivadas foram agrupados juntamente com os biótipos domesticados de proso millet, enquanto os três fenótipos tipicamente selvagens formaram outro grupo distinto por marcadores AFLP.

  14. Meningencefalite por Pasteurella multocida: estudo clínico-laboratorial de um caso em lactente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Levy

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam descrição clínico-laboratorial e evolutiva do caso de lactente com o diagnóstico de meningencefalite por Pasteurella multocida que apresentou na evolução atraso neuromotor, manifestações epilépticas, surdez neurossensorial e paresia crural à esquerda. Fazem também breve revisão do papel deste agente etiológico na patologia humana. Ressaltam a importância da P. multocida em casos de meningites bacterianas, fazendo-se o diagnóstico laboratorial diferencial com o Haemophilus influenzae e Neisseria meningitidis em processos infecciosos conseqüentes a arranhadura ou mordida de animais e nas bacteremias ou septicemias em pacientes com hepatopatias crônicas ou em estados de imunodepressão.

  15. Serotypes and DNA fingerprint profiles of Pasteurella multocida isolated from raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.A.; Duncan, R.M.; Nordholm, G.E.; Berlowski, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida isolates from 21 raptors were examined by DNA fingerprint profile and serotyping methods. Isolates were obtained from noncaptive birds of prey found in 11 states from November 28, 1979, through February 10, 1993. Nine isolates were from bald eagles, and the remaining isolates were from hawks, falcons, and owls. Seven isolates were members of capsule group A, and 14 were nonencapsulated. One isolate was identified as somatic type 3, and another was type 3,4,7; both had unique HhaI DNA fingerprint profiles. Nineteen isolates expressed somatic type 1 antigen; HhaI profiles of all type 1 isolates were identical to each other and to the HhaI profile of the reference somatic type 1, strain X-73. The 19 type 1 isolates were differentiated by sequential digestion of DNA with HpaII; four HpaII fingerprint profiles were obtained. The HpaII profile of one isolate was identical to the HpaII profile of strain X-73. Incidence of P. multocida somatic type 1 in raptors suggests that this type may be prevalent in other wildlife or wildlife environments.

  16. Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Margaret A.; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E. Frances; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L.; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep. PMID:22377321

  17. Causes of pneumonia epizootics among bighorn sheep, Western United States, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Highland, Margaret A; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E Frances; Anderson, Neil J; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2012-03-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep.

  18. Evaluation of culture methods for rapid screening of swine faecal samples for Yersinia enterocolitica O : 3 biotype 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Holmvig, C.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    In two studies, seven different culture protocols were compared to test naturally contaminated faecal samples from pigs for isolation of Y. enterocolitica serotype O; 3/biotype 4( n = 70 and n = 79). Four of the protocols were based on the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL protocols), while...... indicate possibilities of shortening the culture methods by replacing most of the biochemical tests with an agglutination test based on a monoclonal antibody....

  19. Detection of different microenvironments and Lactobacillus sakei biotypes in Ventricina, a traditional fermented sausage from central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Sorrentino, Elena; Pannella, Gianfranco; Tipaldi, Luca; Sturchio, Marina; Masucci, Armando; Maiuro, Lucia; Coppola, Raffaele; Succi, Mariantonietta

    2017-02-02

    The present study evaluated the physico-chemical and microbiological features of Ventricina, considering for the first time the presence of different compartments deriving from the technology of production. In fact meat pieces (pork muscle and fat cut into cubes of about 10-20cm 3 ), mixed with other ingredients and then stuffed into pig bladder, are still distinguishable at the end of the ripening. They appear delimited on the outside by the casing and inside by thin layers consisting of spices (mainly red pepper powder), salt and meat juices. Our results showed that the exterior (portion of the product in contact with the casing), the interstice (area between the different cubes of meat or fat) and the heart (the inner portion of meat cubes) had distinctive values of pH and a w , and a typical microbial progression, so that they can be considered as different ecological niches, here called microenvironments. The study of lactic acid bacteria population, performed with PCR-DGGE and sequence analysis targeting the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene (rDNA), highlighted the presence of a few species, including Lactobacillus sakei, Lb. plantarum, Weissella hellenica and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The RAPD-PCR analysis performed on Lb. sakei, recognised as the predominant species, allowed the differentiation into three biotypes, with that characterised by the highest acidifying and proteolytic activities and the highest ability to grow in the presence of sodium chloride prevailing. This leading biotype, detectable in the interstice during the entire ripening period, was isolated in the microenvironments exterior and heart starting from the 30th d of ripening, and it was the sole biotype present at the end of the ripening. The analysis of microenvironments through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evidenced the presence of micro-channels, which could favour the microbial flow from the interstice to the exterior and the heart. Moreover, the SEM analysis allowed the

  20. The optimization and validation of the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database for the identification of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veloo, A C M; de Vries, E D; Jean-Pierre, H

    2016-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) account for 24%-31% of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens. At present, GPAC are under-represented in the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database. Profiles of new species have yet to be added. We present the optimization of the matrix-assisted......Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) account for 24%-31% of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens. At present, GPAC are under-represented in the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database. Profiles of new species have yet to be added. We present the optimization of the matrix......-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) database for the identification of GPAC. Main spectral profiles (MSPs) were created for 108 clinical GPAC isolates. Identity was confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Species identification was considered to be reliable...... if the sequence similarity with its closest relative was ≥98.7%. The optimized database was validated using 140 clinical isolates. The 16S rRNA sequencing identity was compared with the MALDI-TOF MS result. MSPs were added from 17 species that were not yet represented in the MALDI-TOF MS database or were under...

  1. Characterization of sucrose-negative Pasteurella multocida variants, including isolates from large-cat bite wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Grimmig; Bisgaard, Magne; Angen, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    To validate the identification of Pasteurella multocida-like bacteria negative for acid formation from sucrose, including isolates from bite wounds caused by large cats, 17 strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of partially sequenced rpoB and infB genes...... showed the monophyly of the strains characterized and the reference strains of P. multocida. The sucrose-negative strains formed two groups, one related to reference strains of P. multocida and the other related to a separate species-like group (taxon 45 of Bisgaard). DNA-DNA hybridization further...... and the reference strains of P. multocida. Two strains isolated from leopard bite wounds were related to the type strain of P. dagmatis; however, they represented a new taxon (taxon 46 of Bisgaard), in accordance with their distinct phenotypic and genotypic identifications. The present study documents that sucrose-negative...

  2. Susceptibility of MED-Q1 and MED-Q3 Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Populations to Essential and Seed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Fogné, Drabo; Olivier, Gnankine; Bassolé, Imael H N; Nébié, Roger Charles; Laurence, Mouton

    2017-06-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops in tropical and subtropical regions causing damages that result in important economic losses. Insecticides are commonly used in greenhouses or fields to control B. tabaci populations leading to rapid evolution of resistance that render treatments inefficient. Therefore, and for environmental and human health concerns, other approaches must be developed for this pest management. In the present study, we compare, using the leaf dip method, the toxicity of three essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum, and Hyptis spicigera) and three seed oils (Lannea microcarpa, Lannea acida, and Carapa procera) with three chemical insecticides (acetamiprid, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) on adults. Two B. tabaci biotypes (MED-Q1 and MED-Q3) belonging to the Mediterranean species and collected in Burkina Faso were used. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. We showed that these two biotypes have different levels of resistance to the three insecticides, MED-Q3 being more sensitive than MED-Q1. Moreover, they differ in the frequency of resistance alleles to insecticides, especially for organophosphates, as these alleles are almost fixed in MED-Q1. On the other hand, the two biotypes prove to be more susceptible to the plant extracts than to insecticides except for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, with essential oils that showed the highest insecticidal activities. Monoterpenes content were the most abundant and showed the highest insecticidal activities. Our results indicated that essential oils, but also seed oils, have the potential to constitute an alternative strategy of pest management. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Suscetibilidade de biótipos de arroz-vermelho e de cultivares de arroz irrigado ao herbicida imazethapyr Susceptibility of red rice biotypes and commercial rice cultivars to imazethapyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H.B. Dornelles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a suscetibilidade de biótipos de arroz-vermelho(Oryza sativa e cultivares comerciais de arroz ao herbicida imazethapyr, realizou-se um ensaio em casa de vegetação com cinco biótipos de arroz-vermelho (acessos Santa Maria 5, Pelotas 3, Rio Pardo 1, Manoel Viana 2 e Catuçaba 1, dois cultivares comerciais de arroz: Clearfield® (IRGA 422 CL e Puitá INTA CL e um cultivar convencional (IRGA 417. Utilizou-se a metodologia de curvas de dose-resposta proposta por Seefeldt et al. (1995. A metodologia de curvas de resposta foi gerada a partir dos parâmetros do modelo logístico e dos valores de I50. Os biótipos de arroz-vermelho e os cultivares foram submetidos a seis doses do herbicida imazethapyr (0; 33,12; 66,25; 132,5; 265,0; e 530,0 g i.a. ha-1. As plantas de arroz foram contadas e coletadas no 20º dia após a aplicação dos tratamentos. A análise do percentual de dano foi realizada através de avaliação visual da fitointoxicação (%, massa verde e massa seca das plantas. Analisando as curvas e os resultados da análise da variância, pode-se inferir que os cultivares Clearfield Irga 422 CL e Puitá INTA CL foram significativamente iguais ao biótipo de arroz-vermelho Catuçaba 1, resistindo a doses de imazethapyr superiores à recomendada em campo para o sistema Clearfield®. Os biótipos Manoel Viana 2, Santa Maria 5 e Pelotas 3 agruparam-se com o cultivar convencional IRGA 417, sendo suscetíveis à dose comercial do herbicida. O biótipo Rio Pardo 1 também é resistente ao herbicida imazethapyr, porém menos resistente que o biótipo Catuçaba 1.To evaluate the susceptibility of biotypes of red rice (Oryza sativa and commercial rice cultivars to the herbicide imazethapyr, a greenhouse assay was conducted with five red rice biotypes (accesses Santa Maria 5, Pelotas 3, Rio Pardo 1, 2 and Manoel Viana Catuçaba 1, two commercial rice cultivars: Clearfield ® (Irga CL 422 and CL Puit INTA, and a conventional cultivar (Irga

  4. Modulating the regioselectivity of a Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase for biocatalytic production of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yao; Jers, Carsten; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Several bacterial sialyltransferases have been reported to be multifunctional also catalysing sialidase and trans-sialidase reactions. In this study, we examined the trans-sialylation efficacy and regioselectivity of mutants of the multifunctional Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase (Pm...... activity was abolished. Histidine in this position is conserved in α-2,6-sialyltransferases and has been suggested, and recently confirmed, to be the determinant for strict regiospecificity in the sialyltransferase reaction. Our data verified this theorem. In trans-sialidase reactions, the P34H mutant...... displayed a distinct preference for 6'-sialyllactose synthesis but low levels of 3'-sialyllactose were also produced. The sialyllactose yield was however lower than when using PmSTWT under optimal conditions for 6'-sialyllactose formation. The discrepancy in regiospecificity between the two reactions could...

  5. Transmission of Pasteurella multocida on California turkey premises in 1988-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, K H; Carpenter, T E; Snipes, K P; Hird, D W

    1992-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) of whole-cell DNA was used to determine possible sources of Pasteurella multocida for each outbreak of fowl cholera occurring in turkey flocks in eight commercial poultry companies in California from October 1988 to September 1989. Over this period, 179 isolates of P. multocida were obtained from dead turkeys in 80 meat and breeder flocks on 43 premises. P. multocida was isolated from wildlife on five premises. Isolates were characterized by subspecies, serotype, presence of plasmid DNA, and REA type. In 52 (65%) flocks, all isolates of P. multocida had the same REA pattern as the M9 live vaccine strain following digestion of DNA with the restriction enzyme SmaI. Field strains of P. multocida were obtained from 27 (34%) flocks, and one flock (1%) yielded both M9 and a field strain of the organism. REA of field strains of P. multocida revealed 17 different SmaI REA types. Based on matching SmaI REA types, potential sources of P. multocida were identified for 15 of the 28 flocks infected with field strains of the organism, and transmission between turkey premises was a possibility in only seven flocks.

  6. Multicenter Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System for the Identification of Clinically Important Bacteria and Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah A; Young, Stephen; Timm, Karen; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Marlowe, Elizabeth M; Madisen, Neil; Lillie, Jennifer L; Ledeboer, Nathan A; Smith, Rebecca; Hyke, Josh; Griego-Fullbright, Christen; Jim, Patricia; Granato, Paul A; Faron, Matthew L; Cumpio, Joven; Buchan, Blake W; Procop, Gary W

    2017-06-01

    A report on the multicenter evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System (MBT-CA; Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA) for the identification of clinically important bacteria and yeasts. In total, 4,399 isolates of medically important bacteria and yeasts were assessed in the MBT-CA. These included 2,262 aerobic gram-positive (AGP) bacteria, 792 aerobic gram-negative (AGN) bacteria 530 anaerobic (AnA) bacteria, and 815 yeasts (YSTs). Three processing methods were assesed. Overall, 98.4% (4,329/4,399) of all bacterial and yeast isolates were correctly identified to the genus and species/species complex level, and 95.7% of isolates were identified with a high degree of confidence. The percentage correctly identified and the percentage identified correctly with a high level of confidence, respectively, were as follows: AGP bacteria (98.6%/96.5%), AGN bacteria (98.5%/96.8%), AnA bacteria (98.5%/97.4%), and YSTs (97.8%/87.6%). The extended direct transfer method was only minimally superior to the direct transfer method for bacteria (89.9% vs 86.8%, respectively) but significantly superior for yeast isolates (74.0% vs 48.9%, respectively). The Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System accurately identifies most clinically important bacteria and yeasts and has optional processing methods to improve isolate characterization. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Proteins of bovine viral diarrhea virus: characterization, biotype-specific differences, and immunological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donis, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Virus-specific polypeptides in bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) virus-infected bovine cells were studied by radiolabeling. A total of 12 polypeptides with apparent Mr of 165, 135, 118, 80, 75, 62, 56-58, 48, 37, 32, 25 and 19 kilodaltons (k) were identified in infected cells. Five glycoproteins were detected in infected cells. Two abundant species had apparent Mr of 48 k and 56-58 k while the minor species had masses of 118, 75 and 65 k. When cells were radiolabeled with L-[ 35 S]-methionine in the presence of tunicamycin the 56-58 k migrated with apparent masses of 54 k and 48-50 K in PAGE. Endoglycosidase F digestion of virus-induced polypeptides caused a 4-6 K reduction in the apparent molecular mass of the 56-58 k yielding a 52 k digested product. Tunicamycin caused a drastic reduction in the yield of infectious virus indicating that the carbohydrate moieties serve a vital role in the infection cycle of BVD virus. The noncytopathic biotype BVD (NCB-BVD) virus isolates can be consistently differentiated from cytopathic biotype BVD (CB-BVD) isolates on the basis of unique polypeptide profiles they induce in the infected cell: the most abundant polypeptide in CB-BVD infected cells is the 80 kD polypeptide while NCB-BVD lack this polypeptide and induce a predominant 118 k polypeptide. A panel of 25 murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the two major glycoproteins of BVD virus was produced. Based on their viral polypeptide specificity and on their ability to neutralize viral infectivity the Mabs in the panel were divided into 3 classes: Class 1 Mabs reacted with the 56-58 k glycoprotein and neutralized the virus, Class 2 Mabs recognized the 56-58 k glycoprotein but were not neutralizing and Class 3 Mabs reacted with the 48 k glycoprotein and did not neutralize the virus. These results identify the 56-58 k as one of the envelope glycoproteins of BVD virus

  8. Competitiveness of ALS inhibitors resistant and susceptible biotypes of Greater Beggarticks (Bidens subalternans Competitividade de biótipos de Picão-Preto (Bidens subalternans Resistente e euscetível aos inibidores da ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Lamego

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of ALS-inhibiting herbicides has led to the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide. Greater beggarticks is one of the most troublesome weeds found in the soybean production system in Brazil. Recently, a greater beggarticks biotype that is resistant (R to ALS inhibitors due to Trp574Leu mutation in the ALS gene was identified. Also, the adaptive traits between susceptible (S and R to ALS inhibitors biotypes of greater beggarticks were compared. Specifically, we aimed to: (1 evaluate and compare the relative growth rates (RGR between the biotypes; (2 analyze the seed germination characteristics of R and S biotypes under different temperature conditions; and (3 evaluate their competitive ability in a replacement series study. The experiments were conducted at the University of Arkansas, USA, in 2007 and at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2008. Plant proportions for replacement series studies were respectively 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, with a total population of 150 plants m-2. There was no difference in RGR between R and S biotypes. The R-biotype germination rate was lower than that of the S biotype. However, at low temperature conditions (15 ºC, the reverse was observed. In general, there is no difference in the competitive ability between R and S greater beggarticks biotypes.O uso contínuo de herbicidas inibidores da ALS tem levado à evolução de plantas daninhas resistentes mundialmente. Picão-preto é uma das mais importantes plantas daninhas no sistema de produção de soja no Brasil. Recentemente, foi identificado um biótipo de picao-preto resistente (R aos inibidores da ALS devido à mutação Trp574Leu no gene ALS. Também, foram comparadas características adaptativas entre biótipos de picao-preto suscetível (S e R aos inibidores da ALS. Especificamente, os objetivos deste trabalho foram: (1 avaliar e comparar o crescimento

  9. [Effect of lead microparticles introduced into the respiratory system of the sensitivity of mice to Pasteurella multocida infection via aerosol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, G; Dubreuil, A; Arsac, F; Boudène, C

    1977-12-19

    Lead microparticles, resulting from the pyrolysis of organic lead used as an anti-knock agent in gasoline, were introduced into the lungs of Mice, during a short single exposure. When 6 microgram of lead were retained in the lungs (mean value per Mouse), the phagocytic ability of the pulmonary alveolar macrophages harvested 6 and 18 hrs. later, was significantly reduced. It was observed, in the same conditions, that the resistance of Mice to experimental infection by aerosolized Pasteurella multocida, was significantly reduced. When 3 microgram of lead were retained in the lungs, there was no significant difference between control and intoxicated Mice.

  10. Exigências térmicas e estimativa do número de gerações dos biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de Spodoptera frugiperda Thermal requirements and estimate of the number of generations of biotypes "corn" and "rice" of Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossato Busato

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura sobre a biologia dos biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e estimar o número de gerações por ano em laboratório e campo. Foram coletadas lagartas de quatro populações de S. frugiperda no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, identificadas eletroforeticamente como os biótipos "milho" e "arroz", em áreas isoladas, distanciadas entre si em mais de 300 km, produtoras de milho e arroz irrigado e em áreas adjacentes, que produzem milho e arroz irrigado lado a lado. A temperatura mais adequada para o desenvolvimento dos dois biótipos foi 25ºC. Em laboratório, podem ser obtidas 11,0 e 11,3 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "milho" proveniente de áreas isoladas e adjacentes, respectivamente. Foram estimadas 12,1 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "arroz" quando proveniente de áreas isoladas e 12,2 gerações ano-1 quando proveniente de áreas adjacentes. Em campo, estimou-se a ocorrência de 8,3 e 6,1 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "milho", respectivamente, em áreas isoladas e áreas adjacentes e 8,4 e 7,0 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "arroz", respectivamente, em áreas isoladas e áreas adjacentes. Em áreas adjacentes, o biótipo "arroz" apresenta uma geração a mais ao longo de um ano em relação ao biótipo "milho".The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the temperature on the biology of the biotypes "corn" and "rice" of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and to estimate the number of generations per year in laboratory and field. Caterpillars of four populations of S. frugiperda were collected in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, identified by electrophoresis as the biotypes "corn" and "rice" in isolated areas (spaced for more than 300 km, areas of corn and irrigated rice production, as well as in adjacent areas that produces corn and rice irrigated side by side. The most appropriate

  11. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and MALDI BioTyper in comparison to 16S rDNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria isolated from Arctic sea water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Timperio

    Full Text Available MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry in association with the MALDI BioTyper 3.1 software has been evaluated for the identification and classification of 45 Arctic bacteria isolated from Kandalaksha Bay (White Sea, Russia. The high reliability of this method has been already demonstrated, in clinical microbiology, by a number of studies showing high attribution concordance with other credited analyses. Recently, it has been employed also in other branches of microbiology with controversial performance. The phyloproteomic results reported in this study were validated with those obtained by the "gold standard" 16S rDNA analysis. Concordance between the two methods was 100% at the genus level, while at the species level it was 48%. These percentages appeared to be quite high compared with other studies regarding environmental bacteria. However, the performance of MALDI BioTyper changed in relation to the taxonomical group analyzed, reflecting known identification problems related to certain genera. In our case, attribution concordance for Pseudomonas species was rather low (29%, confirming the problematic taxonomy of this genus, whereas that of strains from other genera was quite high (> 60%. Among the isolates tested in this study, two strains (Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans and Pseudomonas costantinii were misidentified by MALDI BioTyper due to absence of reference spectra in the database. Accordingly, missing spectra were acquired for the database implementation.

  12. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and MALDI BioTyper in comparison to 16S rDNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria isolated from Arctic sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna Maria; Gorrasi, Susanna; Zolla, Lello; Fenice, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry in association with the MALDI BioTyper 3.1 software has been evaluated for the identification and classification of 45 Arctic bacteria isolated from Kandalaksha Bay (White Sea, Russia). The high reliability of this method has been already demonstrated, in clinical microbiology, by a number of studies showing high attribution concordance with other credited analyses. Recently, it has been employed also in other branches of microbiology with controversial performance. The phyloproteomic results reported in this study were validated with those obtained by the "gold standard" 16S rDNA analysis. Concordance between the two methods was 100% at the genus level, while at the species level it was 48%. These percentages appeared to be quite high compared with other studies regarding environmental bacteria. However, the performance of MALDI BioTyper changed in relation to the taxonomical group analyzed, reflecting known identification problems related to certain genera. In our case, attribution concordance for Pseudomonas species was rather low (29%), confirming the problematic taxonomy of this genus, whereas that of strains from other genera was quite high (> 60%). Among the isolates tested in this study, two strains (Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans and Pseudomonas costantinii) were misidentified by MALDI BioTyper due to absence of reference spectra in the database. Accordingly, missing spectra were acquired for the database implementation.

  13. Establishment of a Pathogenicity Index for One-day-old Broilers to Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Clinical Cases in Poultry and Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Pilatti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although Pasteurella multocida is a member of the respiratory microbiota, under some circumstances, it is a primary agent of diseases , such as fowl cholera (FC, that cause significant economic losses. Experimental inoculations can be employed to evaluate the pathogenicity of strains, but the results are usually subjective and knowledge on the pathogenesis of this agent is still limited. The objective of this study was to establish a new methodology for classifying the pathogenicity of P. multocida by formulating a standard index. Strains isolated from FC cases and from swine with respiratory problems were selected. One hundred mL of a bacterial culture of each strain, containing 106 CFU, was inoculated in 10 one-day-old broilers. Mortality after inoculation, time of death (TD, and the presence of six macroscopic lesions were evaluated over a period of seven days post-inoculation (dpi. A Pathogenicity Index Per Bird (IPI, ranging 0 to 10, was calculated. Liver and heart fragments were collected to reisolate the bacteria. Blood was collected from the surviving birds, and an ELISA test was carried out to detect specific antibodies. The median of the pathogenicity indices, the number of lesions and the rate of bacteria reisolation were significantly different (p<0.05 among the origins of the isolates (p<0.05. The pathogenicity index developed in this study allows the classification of Pasteurella multocida pathogenicity and may be an alternative to the pathogenicity models currently used for screening.

  14. Characterization of main primary and secondary metabolites and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties in the mesocarp of three biotypes of Pouteria lucuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Claudia; Gálvez, Lena; Cobos, Ariel; Olaeta, José Antonio; Defilippi, Bruno G; Chirinos, Rosana; Campos, David; Pedreschi, Romina

    2016-01-01

    Pouteria lucuma is an Andean fruit from pre-Incas' times highly appreciated due to its characteristic flavor and taste in its homeland. We characterized the primary (e.g., sugars and organic acids), and secondary (e.g., phenolics and carotenoids) and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Rosalia, Montero and Leiva 1 lucuma biotypes. Significant differences were found in these metabolites and functional properties related to biotype and ripeness stage. Results showed significant amounts of sugars (119.4-344 mg total sugars g(-1)DW) and organic acids (44.4-30.0 mg g(-1)DW) and functional associated compounds such as ascorbic acid (0.35-1.07 mg g(-1)DW), total phenolics (0.7-61.6 mg GAE g(-1)DW) and total carotenoids (0.22-0.50 mg β-carotene g(-1)DW). Important in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties were found and provide the base for the standardization of lucuma harvest and postharvest focused not only on the enhancement of sensory but functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efeito do extrato alcoólico de própolis sobre a Pasteurella multocida “in vitro” e em coelhos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1952 Effect of alcohol extract of propolis on the Pasteurella multocida in vitro and in the rabbits - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Langoni

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio in vitro objetivou avaliar o efeito do álcool PA e de diferentes concentrações (5%, 10% e 15% no Agar, do Extrato Alcoólico de Própolis (EAP, de três regiões do Estado de São Paulo, sobre a Pasteurella multocida, obtida a partir de swab nasal de coelhos. Por meio de outro ensaio, analisou-se o comportamento dessas bactérias em lavado tráqueo-brônquico de coelhos, alimentados com rações contendo álcool PA e diferentes concentrações de EAP (0,1%; 0,2% e 0,3%. O álcool só foi efetivo na inibição do desenvolvimento bacteriano in vitro na concentração mais elevada, enquanto o EAP demonstrou efetividade em todas as concentrações. As amostras de própolis das três regiões não diferiram entre si. No lavado tráqueo-brônquico, o número de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias por mililitro não diferiu entre os tratamentos, porém houve uma tendência de maior efetividade nos tratamentos com EAP em relação ao álcool, acompanhando a ação in vitro.The essay in vitro aimed to evaluate the effect of alcohol and different concentrations (5, 10 and 15% in the agar, of Alcoholic Extract of Propolis (AEP, from three regions of São Paulo State, Brazil, on Pasteurella multocida, obtained from rabbits’ nasal swabs. In other essay the reaction of this bacteria was observed. In tracheal regions of rabbits, fed on diets with alcohol and AEP in different concentrations (0.1; 0.2 and 0.3%. The alcohol was only effective on the inhibition of the bacteria in vitro on highest concentration, while the AEP was effective in all concentrations. The propolis samples from three regions did not differ. In the other assay, there wasn’t any difference between treatments, but the AEP showed to be more active than alcohol against Pasteurella multocida, in the tracheal region of the rabbits, as to the action in vitro.

  16. Mortalidad por meningitis por Pasteurella canis. Oportunidades de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Ropero Vera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis bacteriana es una enfermedad importante de distribución mundial, causa mayor y sustancial de mortalidad y morbilidad en países en desarrollo. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS sostiene que la meningitis es una de las diez afecciones principales del ser humano y debe ser considerada como una emergencia infectológica; por eso es fundamental reconocer que esta enfermedad es causa de muerte en niños de todo el mundo, sin distinción de raza, nivel económico o sociocultural. Se realizó una investigación de caso en menor de 53 días de nacido, que cumplía con los criterios clínicos y de laboratorio compatible con meningitis bacteriana, con el propósito de analizar y fortalecer la toma de decisiones en salud pública por parte de la secretaría local de salud del municipio de Valledupar (Colombia. Entre los hallazgos se encontró antecedentes infecciosos en el menor, coloración de Gram y cultivo de LCR, en el que se identificó cocobacilos Gram negativos, que fueron aislados como agente causal Pasteurella canis. Este estudio pretende sensibilizar a los prestadores de salud para que cuenten con personal altamente capacitado para brindar tratamientos adecuados y prevenir complicaciones en la meningitis bacteriana en niños, y así disminuir la posibilidad de secuelas o muerte, tanto en pacientes con compromiso inmunológico o sin este.

  17. Análise de crescimento de biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of resistant and susceptible wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de analisar comparativamente o crescimento de três biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla - EPHHL resistentes (R (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque e Rio Pardo e um suscetível (S (Porto Alegre aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, por meio do cálculo da taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR e dos índices que a compõem. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três repetições e tratamentos organizados em fatorial 2 x 4 x 4, em que o fator A correspondeu às duas estações de crescimento (outono e primavera, o fator B aos quatro biótipos de EPHHL e o fator C às quatro épocas de determinação dos índices de crescimento das plantas de leiteira - no primeiro experimento, aos 15, 25, 35 e 45, e, no segundo, aos 23, 33, 43 e 53 dias após a emergência (DAE. No experimento realizado no outono não houve interação entre época de avaliação e biótipo nem efeito simples de biótipo. No experimento realizado na primavera, a razão de peso foliar (RPF do biótipo de Não-Me-Toque foi superior em média à dos demais biótipos; a razão de área foliar (RAF foi superior no biótipo de Não-Me-Toque aos 23 e 53 DAE; e não houve diferenças da TAL e TCR entre os biótipos. Esses resultados sugerem produtividade semelhante entre os biótipos R e S e, portanto, sua equivalência competitiva.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to compare the development of three ALS inhibitor herbicides resistant (R wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque and Rio Pardo - RS - Brazil and one susceptible (S (Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil using relative growth rate (RGR and related indices. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design, with three replications, in a 2 x 4 x 4 factorial, where factor A was two growth seasons (fall and spring; factor B, four biotypes of wild poinsettia

  18. Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin: evaluation in vitro and in vivo in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, R J; Kinney, M L; Roberts, B J; Goodenough, K R; Hamel, J C; Ford, C W

    1987-07-01

    Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-resistant cephalosporin, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in mice. Ceftiofur is the sodium salt of (6R, 7R)-7[( 2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-Z- (methoxyimino)acetyl]amino)-3-[( (2-furanylcarbonyl)thio]methyl)-8-oxo-5- thia-1-azabicyclo-[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate. Minimal inhibitory concentration values were obtained with 264 strains representing 9 genera and 17 species of bacterial pathogens from cattle, swine, sheep, horses, poultry, dogs, cats, and human beings. Ceftiofur was more active than was ampicillin against all strains tested including beta-lactamase-producing organisms. In mice with systemic infections, ceftiofur was more active than or equivalent to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefamandole, cloxacillin, cefoperazone, or pirlimycin. These protection tests included infections with Escherichia coli, Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, H somnus, Pasteurella haemolytica, P multocida, Salmonella typhimurium, or Staphylococcus aureus. In infant mice with E coli-induced lethal diarrhea and in mice with S aureus and E coli-induced mastitis, ceftiofur was comparable or more active than was ampicillin.

  19. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense.

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    Guoxia Liu

    Full Text Available Chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1 was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde. This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity.

  20. ESTUDIOS DE AISLAMIENTO Y FRACCIONAMIENTO DE UN COMPLEJO GLICOPROTEICO DE PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA

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    Yolanda de Navarro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la extracción con solución de NaCl 2.5% (p/v a 47' C, se obtuvo un complejo glicoproteíco de Pasteurella multocida que fue parcialmente purificado mediante filtración por gel usando Sephacryl S-200. Las fracciones 1, 2 y 3 presentaron líneas de precipitinas en imnunodifusión contra sueros hiperimnunes de conejos inoculados con extracto salino 2.5% (P/V a 47" C y 66' C. Por electroforesis SDS-PAGE. se determinaron bandas de proteínas con pesos moleculares entre 98.800 y 17.700 daltons. Lafracción lyel extracto salino crudo a 47" C se utilizaron como antígenos adsorbidos en gel de Al(OHj y con ellos se efectuaron ensayos de protección en ratones, teniendo como referencia la vacuna comercial contra Septicemia Hemorrágica producida por VECOL S.A. Mediante el método estadístico de Reed Muench se estableció el índice de protección y se encontró que todos los antígenos fueron considerados prolectores, siendo la fracción 1 la de mayor índice de protección con una dosis inferior.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis isolates associated with porcine pneumonia

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    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis pig isolates obtained in the Czech Republic were tested for their susceptibility against selected antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution method between 2008 and 2011. A low degree of resistance was observed for ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, tulathromycin, tilmicosin, florfenicol and enrofloxacin in 20 (6.0%, 15 (4.5 %, 2 (0.6%, 8 (2.4%, 13 (3.9%, 5 (1.5% and 5 (1.5% P. multocida isolates as well as for tiamulin, gentamicin, tulathromycin, tilmicosin and ampicillin in 2 (2.4%, 2 (2.4%, 3 (3.6%, 3 (3.6% and 6 (7.2% H. parasuis isolates. In addition, moderate level of resistance to tiamulin was found in 60 (18.1% P. multocida isolates and high level of resistance for tetracycline was detected in 107 (32.2 % P. multocida isolates and in 23 (27.7 % H. parasuis isolates. Differences between resistance rates of P. multocida and H. parasuis were significant (P ≤ 0.5 only for tiamulin. These data confirmed that antimicrobial resistance is not very widespread among current porcine P. multocida and H. parasuis isolates in the Czech Republic.

  2. Lack of effect of aerial ammonia on atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and toxigenic Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Bækbo, P.; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to determine the effects of aerial ammonia on disease development and bacterial colonization in weaned pigs inoculated with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Two groups of 10 pigs each were continuously exposed to 50 and 100 p.......p.m ammonia, respectively, and compared to a non-exposed control, group of 20 pigs. Following aerosol inoculation with M. hyopneumoniae at day 9, ail pigs were aerosol-inoculated with toxigenic P. multocida type A at days 28, 42 and 56. Ac day 63 they were euthanized. Clinical signs including coughing...... with inoculations with M. hyopneumoniae and toxigenic P. multocida had no significant effect on disease development, but may have enhanced colonization by toxigenic P. multocida on the nasal turbinates....

  3. Immediate placement and restoration of implants in the aesthetic zone with a trimodal approach: soft tissue alterations and its relation to gingival biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Gustavo; Rioboo, María; Fábrega, Javier G

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the soft tissue changes around implants in the aesthetic zone, placed under a trimodal approach (immediate post-extraction placement, flapless, and immediate provisional restoration) and its relationship to gingival/periodontal biotype of the patient. The sample consisted of 14 patients from two private practices that were in need of a tooth extraction in the anterior maxillary region (cuspid to cuspid) and were candidates to a replacement with a dental implant. An initial measurement (baseline) of the position or the mesial and distal papillae and gingival zenith was made at this time, with a rigid dental-supported stent and an electronic precision caliper, able to the second tenth of a millimeter; after careful tooth extraction, the periodontal thickness, at a point 5 mm apical to de gingival buccal margin, with an analogical thickness gauge, able to one tenth of a millimeter. Once the implant was inserted an immediate provisional restoration was delivered. To evaluate the soft tissue changes measurements were repeated at 3, 6, and 12 months. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the changes in the gingival margin around the implant restorations and to identify a possible correlation to patient's periodontal thickness. All 14 patients received Straumann (®) implants (9 Tissue Level [TL] Regular Neck [RN], 2 TL Narrow Neck [NN], 2 Bone Level [BL] Narrow Crossfit [NC], and 1 BL Regular Crossfit [RC]). All implants integrated and none had any biological complications. Three provisional restorations presented screw loosening and retightened once and one loss retention and was recemented once. In one patient, with a severe bruxing habit, the final restoration suffered screw loosening and was retightened. Of the final restorations, 12 were screw-retained and 2 cemented on custom-made Zirconia abutments. A mean recession of the buccal margin of 0.45 mm was recorded at 12 months ( ± 0.25 mm). An acceptable

  4. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendramim, Jose D.; Souza, Antonio P. de; Ongarelli, Maria das G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  5. Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Kocuria, Gordonia, Tsukamurella, and Listeria Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Fen; Du, Shin-Hei; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Sheng, Wang-Hui; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether the Bruker Biotyper matrix-associated laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system provides accurate species-level identifications of 147 isolates of aerobically growing Gram-positive rods (GPRs). The bacterial isolates included Nocardia (n = 74), Listeria (n = 39), Kocuria (n = 15), Rhodococcus (n = 10), Gordonia (n = 7), and Tsukamurella (n = 2) species, which had all been identified by conventional methods, molecular methods, or both. In total, 89.7% of Listeria monocytogenes, 80% of Rhodococcus species, 26.7% of Kocuria species, and 14.9% of Nocardia species (n = 11, all N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum) were correctly identified to the species level (score values, ≥2.0). A clustering analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper identified six clusters of Nocardia species, i.e., cluster 1 (N. cyriacigeorgica), cluster 2 (N. brasiliensis), cluster 3 (N. farcinica), cluster 4 (N. puris), cluster 5 (N. asiatica), and cluster 6 (N. beijingensis), based on the six peaks generated by ClinProTools with the genetic algorithm, i.e., m/z 2,774.477 (cluster 1), m/z 5,389.792 (cluster 2), m/z 6,505.720 (cluster 3), m/z 5,428.795 (cluster 4), m/z 6,525.326 (cluster 5), and m/z 16,085.216 (cluster 6). Two clusters of L. monocytogenes spectra were also found according to the five peaks, i.e., m/z 5,594.85, m/z 6,184.39, and m/z 11,187.31, for cluster 1 (serotype 1/2a) and m/z 5,601.21 and m/z 11,199.33 for cluster 2 (serotypes 1/2b and 4b). The Bruker Biotyper system was unable to accurately identify Nocardia (except for N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum), Tsukamurella, or Gordonia species. Continuous expansion of the MALDI-TOF MS databases to include more GPRs is necessary. PMID:24759706

  6. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Rabbits in Brazil

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    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

  7. Serological evidence of avian encephalomyelitis virus and Pasteurella multocida infections in free-range indigenous chickens in Southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunde, Paula; Timbe, Palmira; Lucas, Ana Felicidade; Tchamo, Cesaltina; Chilundo, Abel; Dos Anjos, Filomena; Costa, Rosa; Bila, Custodio Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    A total of 398 serum samples from free-range indigenous chickens originating from four villages in Southern Mozambique were tested for the presence of avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) and Pasteurella multocida (PM) antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. AEV and PM antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed. The proportion of positive samples was very high: 59.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 51.7-67.7%) for AEV and 71.5% (95% CI 67.7-77.3%) for PM. Our findings revealed that these pathogens are widespread among free-range indigenous chickens in the studied villages and may represent a threat in the transmission of AEV and PM to wild, broiler or layer chickens in the region. Further research is warranted on epidemiology of circulating strains and impact of infection on the poultry industry.

  8. Multiple-strand displacement and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms as markers of genotypic variation of Pasteuria penetrans biotypes infecting root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Guang; Chow, Virginia; Schmidt, Liesbeth M; Dickson, Don W; Preston, James F

    2007-08-01

    Pasteuria species are endospore-forming obligate bacterial parasites of soil-inhabiting nematodes and water-inhabiting cladocerans, e.g. water fleas, and are closely related to Bacillus spp. by 16S rRNA gene sequence. As naturally occurring bacteria, biotypes of Pasteuria penetrans are attractive candidates for the biocontrol of various Meloidogyne spp. (root-knot nematodes). Failure to culture these bacteria outside their hosts has prevented isolation of genomic DNA in quantities sufficient for identification of genes associated with host recognition and virulence. We have applied multiple-strand displacement amplification (MDA) to generate DNA for comparative genomics of biotypes exhibiting different host preferences. Using the genome of Bacillus subtilis as a paradigm, MDA allowed quantitative detection and sequencing of 12 marker genes from 2000 cells. Meloidogyne spp. infected with P. penetrans P20 or B4 contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the spoIIAB gene that did not change the amino acid sequence, or that substituted amino acids with similar chemical properties. Individual nematodes infected with P. penetrans P20 or B4 contained SNPs in the spoIIAB gene sequenced in MDA-generated products. Detection of SNPs in the spoIIAB gene in a nematode indicates infection by more than one genotype, supporting the need to sequence genomes of Pasteuria spp. derived from single spore isolates.

  9. Biotipagem e resistotipagem para o traçado epidemiológico da origem fecal de Klebsiella pneumoniae em infecções urinárias Biotyping and resistotyping for epidemiological tracing of the fecal origin of Klebsiella pneumoniae in urinary infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Adler Pereira

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 24 (82,7% de 29 pacientes com infecção urinária por Klebsiella pneumoniae isolamos a mesma espécie a partir de amostras fecais. Estudamos 24 cepas urinárias e 219 cepas fecais encontrando 50 biótipos distintos (em média quatro biótipos por amostra fecal. Em dez (34,4% dos 29 pacientes o biótipo de uma ou mais cepas fecais corresponderam ao biotipo da cepa urinária - sem encontrarmos associação entre a simultaneidade e a prévia cateterização vesical (p>0,05. Na resistotipagem - utilizando quatro substâncias químicas previamente escolhidas entre 34 produtos testados (verde brilhante, verde malaquita, telurito de potássio e cloreto mercúrico encontramos 16 resistotipos distintos. Em 14 (58,3%, dos 24 casos houve detecção do mesmo resistotipo em cepa(s fecal(is e urinária do mesmo paciente, entretanto, só em cinco (20,9% dos casos houve concordância com a biotipagem na indicação de simultaneidade. A concordância de resultados quanto à ausência ou presença de biotipos ou resistotipos simultâneos, na urina e nas fezes, foi de somente 54,2%. A presença de resistência aos íons telurito e mercúrio, entre cepas fecais e cepas urinárias, no mesmo paciente, estava significativamente associada (pTwenty-four (82.7% out of 29 patients suffering from hospital acquired urinary infections by Klebsiella pneumoniae had the same species in their faeces. Biotyping of 24 urinary and 219 fecal strains of K. pneumoniae resulted in 50 different biotypes - an average of four biotypes per fecal sample. Ten patients (34.4% had the same biotype in urine and faeces without any correlation with previous vesical catheterization (p>0.05. Using resistotyping to four chemical compounds selected among 34 tested substances (brilliant green, malachite green, potassium tellurite and mercuric chloride 16 different resistotypes were found. Fourteen patients (58.3% presented the same resistotype in urine and faeces but only in five patients was

  10. Biotype characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products of private production in the western regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Kukhtyn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of foodborne diseases is a priority for the world health system. In the process of manufacturing milk and dairy products, the most important factor compromising their safety is seeding with a conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microflora. Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria and other microorganisms that reproduce in dairy products without changing their organoleptic properties are a particular danger. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic, conditionally pathogenic microorganism that often contaminates raw milk and dairy products. The aim of the research presented in this article was to determine the dissemination of S. aureus in milk and milk products of household production in the western regions of Ukraine, to identify the biotypes of S. aureus, production of enterotoxins and the presence of methicillin-resistant strains. S. aureus was isolated on BD Baird-Parker Agar. The biotypes of S. aureus were determined according to Meer. The determination of MRSA was carried out on the chromogenic Agar chromID MRSA ("Biomerioux", Russia. The mecA gene was determined using the LightCycler MRSA Advanced Test with LightCycler 2.0 primer (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Germany. To determine staphylococcal enterotoxins, the test system RIDASCREENSET A, B, C, D, E (R-Biopharm AG, Darmstadt, Germany was used. We isolated saprophyte staphylococci from milk of raw and dairy products in western regions of Ukraine in 82.7–97.4% of samples. S. aureus is much more rarely isolated from these dairy products, so it was isolated from sour cream at 62.8 ± 0.9%, from milk at 35.5 ± 1.3% and cottage cheese at 23.0 ± 1.6%. Of the most well known biotypes of S. aureus present in milk of raw and dairy products of domestic production, two ecological types were distinguished: human and cattle. In this case S. aureus var. hominis was isolated more often than in S. aureus var. bovis. This gives grounds to believe that the main source of

  11. Competitividade de biótipos de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac Competitiveness of echinochloa biotypes resistant and susceptible to quinclorac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a competitividade de dois biótipos de capim-arroz, resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac, coletados em regiões orizícolas do Estado de Santa Catarina. O experimento foi instalado em ambiente protegido, e os tratamentos constaram de diferentes densidades de plantas dos biótipos de capim-arroz comprovadamente resistente (ITJ-13 e suscetível (ITJ-17 ao quinclorac, oriundos da região arrozeira de Itajaí/SC. No centro da unidade experimental, foram semeadas três sementes do biótipo de capim-arroz, considerado como o tratamento da unidade experimental. Na periferia foram semeadas dez sementes do biótipo oposto ao do tratamento (central. Dez dias após a germinação foi efetuado o desbaste, deixando-se apenas uma planta no centro da unidade experimental e um número variável de plantas do biótipo oposto, de acordo com o tratamento (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas por vaso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Aos 40 dias após a emergência, foram avaliados altura de plantas, número de afilhos e de folhas, área foliar, massa fresca e seca e conteúdo de água de colmos e folhas. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste F, sendo efetuado teste de Duncan para comparar o efeito de densidade de plantas e teste da Diferença Mínima Significativa (DMS para avaliar diferenças entre os biótipos resistente e suscetível, além de correlação linear simples entre as variáveis avaliadas. Nas análises, utilizou-se o nível de 5% de probabilidade. Os biótipos estudados de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac são similares quando sob alta intensidade de competição, com vantagem em algumas variáveis para o biótipo suscetível sob baixa ou moderada intensidade competitiva.The objective of this research was to evaluate the competitive potential of two Echinochloa sp. biotypes, resistant and susceptible to

  12. Capsular Polysaccharide Interferes with Biofilm Formation by Pasteurella multocida Serogroup A

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    Briana Petruzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is an important multihost animal and zoonotic pathogen that is capable of causing respiratory and multisystemic diseases, bacteremia, and bite wound infections. The glycosaminoglycan capsule of P. multocida is an essential virulence factor that protects the bacterium from host defenses. However, chronic infections (such as swine atrophic rhinitis and the carrier state in birds and other animals may be associated with biofilm formation, which has not been characterized in P. multocida. Biofilm formation by clinical isolates was inversely related to capsule production and was confirmed with capsule-deficient mutants of highly encapsulated strains. Capsule-deficient mutants formed biofilms with a larger biomass that was thicker and smoother than the biofilm of encapsulated strains. Passage of a highly encapsulated, poor-biofilm-forming strain under conditions that favored biofilm formation resulted in the production of less capsular polysaccharide and a more robust biofilm, as did addition of hyaluronidase to the growth medium of all of the strains tested. The matrix material of the biofilm was composed predominately of a glycogen exopolysaccharide (EPS, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and enzymatic digestion. However, a putative glycogen synthesis locus was not differentially regulated when the bacteria were grown as a biofilm or planktonically, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Therefore, the negatively charged capsule may interfere with biofilm formation by blocking adherence to a surface or by preventing the EPS matrix from encasing large numbers of bacterial cells. This is the first detailed description of biofilm formation and a glycogen EPS by P. multocida.

  13. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2008-04-01

    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0289 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0289 ref|ZP_05988476.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia hae...molytica serotype A2 str. BOVINE] ref|ZP_05990926.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica ...serotype A2 str. OVINE] gb|EEY11140.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 st...r. OVINE] gb|EEY13570.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 str. BOVINE] ZP_05988476.1 0.15 25% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0034 ref|ZP_05988476.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia hae...molytica serotype A2 str. BOVINE] ref|ZP_05990926.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica ...serotype A2 str. OVINE] gb|EEY11140.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 st...r. OVINE] gb|EEY13570.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 str. BOVINE] ZP_05988476.1 0.63 23% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0143 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0143 ref|ZP_05988476.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia hae...molytica serotype A2 str. BOVINE] ref|ZP_05990926.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica ...serotype A2 str. OVINE] gb|EEY11140.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 st...r. OVINE] gb|EEY13570.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 str. BOVINE] ZP_05988476.1 0.089 25% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0119 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0119 ref|ZP_05988476.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia hae...molytica serotype A2 str. BOVINE] ref|ZP_05990926.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica ...serotype A2 str. OVINE] gb|EEY11140.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 st...r. OVINE] gb|EEY13570.1| putative competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 str. BOVINE] ZP_05988476.1 0.22 25% ...

  18. Variability of Pasteurella multocida isolated from Icelandic sheep and detection of the toxA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Thorbjorg; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Sigurdardottir, Olof G; Jorundsson, Einar; Fridriksdottir, Vala; Thorarinsdottir, Gudridur E; Hjartardottir, Sigridur

    2016-09-01

    Pasteurella multocida can be part of the upper respiratory flora of animals, but under conditions of stress or immunocompromisation, the bacteria can cause severe respiratory symptoms. In this study, we compared 10 P. multocida isolates from Icelandic sheep with respiratory symptoms and 19 isolates from apparently healthy abattoir sheep. We examined capsule type, genetic variability and the presence of the toxA gene in the two groups. Surprisingly, we found that all ovine P. multocida isolates examined in this study carried the toxA gene, which markedly differs from what has been published from other studies. Interestingly, all isolates from abattoir animals were capsule type D, whilst bacteria isolated from animals with clinical respiratory symptoms had capsule type A, D or F. Examination of seven housekeeping genes indicated that the clinical respiratory isolates were significantly more heterogeneous than the abattoir isolates (P<0.05, two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test). The results suggest that there may be at least two groups of P. multocida in sheep - a genetically homogeneous group that resides in the respiratory tract and a genetically heterogeneous group that is the predominant cause of disease.

  19. Efficacy of a Blend of Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli Biotype I on Inoculated Prerigor Beef Surface Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Bullard, Britteny R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Bred; Belk, Keith E

    2017-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a sulfuric acid-sodium sulfate blend (SSS) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli biotype I on prerigor beef surface tissue. The suitability of using the nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate for in-plant validation studies was also determined by comparing the data obtained for the nonpathogenic inoculum with those for the pathogenic inocula. Prerigor beef tissue samples (10 by 10 cm) were inoculated (ca. 6 log CFU/cm 2 ) on the adipose side in a laboratory-scale spray cabinet with multistrain mixtures of E. coli O157:H7 (5 strains), non-O157 STEC (12 strains), Salmonella (6 strains), or E. coli biotype I (5 strains). Treatment parameters evaluated were two SSS pH values (1.5 and 1.0) and two spray application pressures (13 and 22 lb/in 2 ). Untreated inoculated beef tissue samples served as controls for initial bacterial populations. Overall, the SSS treatments lowered inoculated (6.1 to 6.4 log CFU/cm 2 ) bacterial populations by 0.6 to 1.5 log CFU/cm 2 (P SSS was applied to samples inoculated with any of the tested E. coli inocula; however, solution pH did have a significant effect (P SSS was applied to samples inoculated with Salmonella. Results indicated that the response of the nonpathogenic E. coli inoculum to the SSS treatments was similar (P ≥ 0.05) to that of the pathogenic inocula tested, making the E. coli biotype I strains viable surrogate organisms for in-plant validation of SSS efficacy on beef. The application of SSS at the tested parameters to prerigor beef surface tissue may be an effective intervention for controlling pathogens in a commercial beef harvest process.

  20. Why your housecat's trite little bite could cause you quite a fright: a study of domestic felines on the occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, A

    2008-10-01

    Approximately four to five million animal bite wounds are reported in the USA each year. Domestic companion animals inflict the majority of these wounds. Although canine bites far outnumber feline bites, unlike the dog, the cat's bite is worse than its bark; 20-80% of all cat bites will become infected, compared with only 3-18% of dog bite wounds. Pasteurella multocida is the most commonly cultured bacterium from infected cat bite wounds. Anyone seeking medical attention for a cat-inflicted bite wound is given prophylactic/empiric penicillin or a derivative to prevent Pasteurella infection (provided they are not allergic to penicillins). In an effort to establish a carriage rate of P. multocida in the domestic feline, bacterial samples from the gingival margins of domestic northern Ohio cats (n=409) were cultured. Isolates were tested for antibiotic sensitivity as prophylactic/empiric use of penicillin and its derivatives could potentially give rise to antibiotic resistance in P. multocida. The high carriage rate (approximately 90%) of P. multocida observed was found to be independent of physiological and behavioural variables including age, breed, food type, gingival scale, lifestyle and sex. High antibiotic susceptibility percentages were observed for benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, and azithromycin (100%, 100%, 98.37% and 94.02%, respectively) in P. multocida isolates. The high prevalence of P. multocida in the feline oral cavity indicates that prophylactic/empiric antibiotic therapy is still an appropriate response to cat bite wounds. Additionally, the susceptibility of P. multocida to penicillin and its derivatives indicates that they remain reliable choices for preventing and treating P. multocida infections.

  1. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C.; Lourencao, Andre L.; Piedade, Sonia M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  2. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica]. E-mail: esnunes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; mlcvieir@esalq.usp.br; Brown, Judith K. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences]. E-mail: jbrown@Ag.arizona.edu; Moreira, Adriana G.; Rezende, Jorge A.M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mails: agmoreir@esalq.usp.br; amrezen@esalq.usp.br; Watson, Gillian [California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: gwatson@cdfa.ca.gov; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br; Piedade, Sonia M.S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: jsoniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2008-11-15

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  3. Adding to Yersinia enterocolitica Gene Pool Diversity: Two Cryptic Plasmids from a Biotype 1A Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lepka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequence of two novel cryptic plasmids (4357 and 14 662 base pairs carried by a Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strain isolated from pork. As distinguished from most biotype 1A strains, this isolate, designated 07-04449, exhibited adherence to eukaryotic cells. The smaller plasmid pYe4449-1 carries five attributable open reading frames (ORFs encoding the first CcdA/CcdB-like antitoxin/toxin system described for a Yersinia plasmid, a RepA-like replication initiation protein, and mobilizing factors MobA and MobC. The deduced amino acid sequences showed highest similarity to proteins described in Salmonella (CcdA/B, Klebsiella (RepA, and Plesiomonas (MobA/C indicating genomic fluidity among members of the Enterobacteriaceae. One additional ORF with unknown function, termed ORF5, was identified with an ancestry distinct from the rest of the plasmid. While the C+G content of ORF5 is 38.3%, the rest of pYe4449-1 shows a C+G content of 55.7%. The C+G content of the larger plasmid pYe4449-2 (54.9% was similar to that of pYe4449-1 (53.7% and differed from that of the Y. enterocolitica genome (47.3%. Of the 14 ORFs identified on pYe4449-2, only six ORFs showed significant similarity to database entries. For three of these ORFs likely functions could be ascribed: a TnpR-like resolvase and a phage replication protein, localized each on a low C+G island, and DNA primase TraC. Two ORFs of pYe4449-2, ORF3 and ORF7, seem to encode secretable proteins. Epitope-tagging of ORF3 revealed protein expression at 4°C but not at or above 27°C suggesting adaptation to a habitat outside swine. The hypothetical protein encoded by ORF7 is the member of a novel repeat protein family sharing the DxxGN(xnDxxGN motif. Our findings illustrate the exceptional gene pool diversity within the species Y. enterocolitica driven by horizontal gene transfer events.

  4. Mucoadhesive and pH-sensitive thiolated Eudragit microspheres for oral delivery of Pasteurella multocida antigens containing dermonecrotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Quan, Ji-Shan; Arote, Rohidas B; Kang, Mi-Lan; Yoo, Han-Sang; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2011-05-01

    In this study, cysteine was conjugated to the Eudragit to have mucoadhesive and pH-sensitive properties. Pasteurella multocida dermonecrotoxin (PMT) is a major virulence factor as a causative agent of atrophic rhinitis (AR) in swine and, therefore, inactivated P. multocida was used as a candidate vaccine in the current study. PMT-loaded thiolated Eudragit microspheres (TEMS) prepared using W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method were characterized to assess their efficacy in oral vaccination. PMT-loaded TEMS were observed as spherical shapes with smooth surfaces and average particle sizes were 5.2 +/- 0.55 microm. The loading efficiency of PMT in the TEMS was about 75.3%. A significantly higher percentage of PMT from PMT-loaded TEMS was released at pH 7.4 than at pH 1.5. Murine macrophage stimulated with PMT-loaded TEMS facilitated a gradual secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide as immune stimulatory mediators in a time dependent manner, suggesting that the released PMT from PMT-loaded TEMS had immune stimulating activity of AR vaccine in vitro.

  5. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI)-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry- and MALDI Biotyper-Based Identification of Cultured Biphenyl-Metabolizing Bacteria from Contaminated Horseradish Rhizosphere Soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlík, Ondřej; Strejček, M.; Junková, P.; Šanda, Miloslav; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Macková, Martina; Macek, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 19 (2011), s. 6858-6866 ISSN 0099-2240 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME09024; GA ČR(CZ) GA525/09/1058; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06156 Program:GA; 2B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : MALDI-TOF MS * bioremediation * MALDI Biotyper * bacterial identification Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.829, year: 2011

  6. Efficacy of a novel Pasteurella multocida vaccine against progressive atrophic rhinitis of swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Liao, Chih-Ming; Huang, Chienjin; Winton, James R.; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Chiou, Chwei-Jang; Yeh, Kuang-Sheng; Chien, Maw-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel vaccine composed of three short recombinant subunit Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) proteins in combination with a bi-valent P. multocida whole-cell bacterin (rsPMT–PM) was evaluated in field studies for prevention and control of progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) of swine at 15 conventional farrow-to-finish farms. Experimental piglets that were immunized twice with the rsPMT–PM vaccine developed detectable titers of neutralizing antibodies (greater than 1:8) that prevented the growth retardation and pathological lesions typically observed following challenge with authentic PMT. A total of 542 sows were vaccinated once or twice prior to parturition and serum neutralizing antibody titers were evaluated. Both single and double vaccination protocols induced neutralizing antibody titers of 1:16 or higher in 62% and 74% of sows, respectively. Notably, neither sows nor piglets at a farm experiencing a severe outbreak of PAR at the time of the vaccination trial had detectable antibody titers, but antibody titers increased significantly to 1:16 or higher in 40% of sows following double vaccination. During the year after vaccination, clinical signs of PAR decreased in fattening pigs and growth performance improved sufficiently to reduce the rearing period until marketing by 2 weeks. Collectively, these results indicate that the rsPMT–PM vaccine could be used to provide protective immunity for controlling the prevalence and severity of PAR among farm-raised swine.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2 WATERBORNE CHALLENGE MODEL FOR FUTURE ERM VACCINE TESTING IN RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Aalbæk, Bent; Otani, Maki

    Yersinia ruckeri (Y.r.) O1 biotype (bt) 2 causes outbreaks of Enteric Redmouth disease (ERM) in vaccinated, farmed rainbow trout around the world. Y.r. O1 bt 1 has been known since first described from the Hagerman Valley in Idaho in the 1950’s and outbreaks have now been controlled by vaccination...... for more than 35 years. Recent years have shown ERM outbreaks caused by Y.r. O1 bt 2 reported from ERM vaccinated farmed rainbow trout stocks in both Europe and the USA. It has been suggested that Y.r. O1 bt 2 is more virulent than bt 1. In order to test this hypothesis we have collected Y.r. O1 isolates...

  8. Associations between water quality, Pasteurella multocida, and avian cholera at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, M.A.; Botzler, R.G.; Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied patterns in avian cholera mortality, the presence of Pasteurella multocida in the water or sediment, and water chemistry characteristics in 10 wetlands at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex (California, USA), an area of recurrent avian cholera epizootics, during the winters of 1997 and 1998. Avian cholera outbreaks (a?Y50 dead birds) occurred on two wetlands during the winter of 1997, but no P. multocida were recovered from 390 water and 390 sediment samples from any of the 10 wetlands. No mortality events were observed on study wetlands during the winter of 1998; however, P. multocida was recovered from water and sediment samples in six of the 10 study wetlands. The pH levels were higher for wetlands experiencing outbreaks during the winter of 1997 than for nonoutbreak wetlands, and aluminum concentrations were higher in wetlands from which P. multocida were recovered during the winter of 1998. Water chemistry parameters (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and dissolved protein) previously linked with P. multocida and avian cholera mortality were not associated with the occurrence of avian cholera outbreaks or the presence of P. multocida in our study wetlands. Overall, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that wetland characteristics facilitate the presence of P. multocida and, thereby, allow some wetlands to serve as long-term sources (reservoirs) for P. multocida.

  9. Bivalent vaccination against pneumonic pasteurellosis in domestic sheep and goats with modified-live in-frame lktA deletion mutants of Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Robert E; Hauglund, Melissa J; Maheswaran, Samuel K; Tatum, Fred M

    2013-11-01

    A temperature-sensitive shuttle vector, pBB80C, was utilized to generate in-frame deletion mutants of the leukotoxin structural gene (lktA) of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12. Culture supernatants from the mutants contained a truncated protein with an approximate molecular weight of 66 kDa which was reactive to anti-leukotoxin monoclonal antibody. No protein reactive to anti-LktA monoclonal antibody was detected at the molecular weight 100-105 kDa of native LktA. Sheep and goats vaccinated intramuscularly with a mixture of serotypes 5 and 6 mutants were resistant to virulent challenge with a mixture of the wild-type parent strains. These vaccinates responded serologically to both vaccine serotypes and exhibited markedly-reduced lung lesion volume and pulmonary infectious load compared to control animals. Control animals yielded a mixture of serotypes from lung lobes, but the proportion even within an individual animal varied widely from 95% serotype 5-95% serotype 6. Cultures recovered from liver were homogeneous, but two animals yielded serotype 5 and the other two yielded serotype 6 in pure culture. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Multiorgan Failure and Refractory Lactic Acidosis due to Pasteurella multocida Septicemia in a Patient with No Animal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Pena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pasteurella multocida is a gram-negative coccobacillus pathogenic to animals. It can cause infection in humans by a bite, scratch, or lick from a cat or dog. P. multocida can cause a variety of infections in humans, including cellulitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, and septic shock. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old male presented to our hospital with a 2-day history of fever, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. He denied exposure to cats, dogs or other pets. He had severe respiratory distress requiring ventilator support, profound septic shock requiring multiple vasopressors, severe lactic acidosis, and renal failure requiring emergent hemodialysis. Blood cultures confirmed the presence of P. multocida. The patient subsequently died of cardiopulmonary arrest due to multiorgan failure with refractory shock. Conclusion. P. multocida septicemia can lead to septic shock. Early identification of this organism may decrease mortality. Although our patient had no known cat or dog exposure, physicians should enquire about a history of animal exposure when a patient presents with an infection with no obvious cause.

  11. EPSPS variability, gene expression, and enzymatic activity in glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Digitaria insularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, E; Barroso, A A M; Vasconcelos, T S; López-Rubio, A; Albrecht, A J P; Victoria Filho, R; Carrer, H

    2016-08-12

    Weed resistance to herbicides is a natural phenomenon that exerts selection on individuals in a population. In Brazil, glyphosate resistance was recently detected in Digitaria insularis. The objective of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of weed resistance in this plant, including genetic variability, allelism, amino acid substitutions, gene expression, and enzymatic activity levels. Most of these have not previously been studied in this species. D. insularis DNA sequences were used to analyze genetic variability. cDNA from resistant and susceptible plants was used to identify mutations, alleles, and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) expression, using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, EPSPS activity was measured. We found a decrease in genetic variability between populations related to glyphosate application. Substitutions from proline to threonine and tyrosine to cysteine led to a decrease in EPSPS affinity for the glyphosate. In addition, the EPSPS enzymatic activity was slightly higher in resistant plants, whereas EPSPS gene expression was almost identical in both biotypes, suggesting feedback regulation at different levels. To conclude, our results suggest new molecular mechanisms used by D. insularis to increase glyphosate resistance.

  12. Ocorrência de genes tad associados à formação de biofilme em isolados de Pasteurella multocida de pulmões de suínos com pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Danny Franciele da S.D.; Brandão, Laila Natasha S.; Pitchenin, Leticia C.; O. Filho, João Xavier; Morés, Nelson; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria

    2014-01-01

    Os atuais sistemas de criação intensiva de suínos aumentam a pressão de seleção microbiana propiciando a disseminação de doenças respiratórias. A bactéria Pasteurella multocida é associada a diversas patologias respiratórias em animais submetidos a esse tipo de criação, causando grandes perdas econômicas. A formação de biofilme foi descrita in vitro em P. multocida e fatores analisados indicaram a facilitação na colonização dos tecidos, aumentando a resistência às defesas do hospedeiro e aos ...

  13. Distinguishing suitable biotypes of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) for biological control of Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Zimmermann, H G; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C

    2009-12-01

    Cylindropuntia fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Cff) (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) is native to Mexico and Arizona and was introduced into South Africa for ornamental purposes. It subsequently became highly invasive, necessitating control. The cochineal insect, Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae), was selected as a potential biological control agent based on its restricted host range among Cylindropuntia species and previous success in controlling C. imbricata (DC.) F. Knuth (Ci). Eight D. tomentosus provenances (Cholla, Cholla E, Fulgida, Mamillata, Imbricata, Tunicata U, Tunicata V and Rosea) from Cylindropuntia species in their native ranges were reared on Cff, whilst Cholla and Imbricata were also reared on Ci. Large differences were found in the development and survival of crawlers, and in the reproductive capacity of females. Three subjective categories of provenance interaction with host plants were identified based on a fitness index (FI) calculated from data relating to crawler survival, female development time and fecundity: (i) thriving (FI > or = 1) - insects had shorter developmental times, high crawler survival and highly fecund females (Cholla); (ii) surviving (FI0) - insects had extended development times, low crawler survival and low fecundity (Imbricata, Fulgida and Mamillata); and (iii) dying (FI = 0) - insects died before or at the second instar (Rosea, Tunicata U and Tunicata V). Cholla, therefore, is highly suitable for biological control of Cff in South Africa. In addition, Cholla thrived on Cff but only survived on Ci whilst, in contrast, Imbricata thrived on Ci but only survived on Cff. This differential ability of provenances to thrive or survive on different host plants demonstrated that host adapted biotypes of D. tomentosus exist; therefore, biotypes should be taken into account when considering this species as a biological control agent of cactus weeds.

  14. Wild Birds as biological indicators of environmental pollution: biotyping and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from Audouin's gulls (Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Mallia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available E. Coli biotyping and antimicrobial succeptibility tests were performed on fortyeight cloacal swabs collected from a popoulation of Audouin's gulls ((Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Lecce, Italy. The aim was to assess the pathogenic potential of the strains the gulls carry and shed into the environment and to gain a better understanding of the microbial pollution of the aera they live in.

  15. Wild Birds as biological indicators of environmental pollution: biotyping and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from Audouin's gulls (Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Italy

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    Antonio Camarda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available E. Coli biotyping and antimicrobial succeptibility tests were performed on fortyeight cloacal swabs collected from a popoulation of Audouin's gulls ((Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Lecce, Italy. The aim was to assess the pathogenic potential of the strains the gulls carry and shed into the environment and to gain a better understanding of the microbial pollution of the aera they live in.

  16. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author)

  17. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis from Ontario swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K.; Pearl, David L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; McEwen, Beverly; Slavic, Durda; Fairles, Jim; McEwen, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility results for Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis isolated from swine clinical samples were obtained from January 1998 to October 2010 from the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, and used to describe variation in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to 4 drugs of importance in the Ontario swine industry: ampicillin, tetracycline, tiamulin, and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. Four temporal data-analysis options were used: visualization of trends in 12-month rolling averages, logistic-regression modeling, temporal-scan statistics, and a scan with the “What’s strange about recent events?” (WSARE) algorithm. The AMR trends varied among the antimicrobial drugs for a single pathogen and between pathogens for a single antimicrobial, suggesting that pathogen-specific AMR surveillance may be preferable to indicator data. The 4 methods provided complementary and, at times, redundant results. The most appropriate combination of analysis methods for surveillance using these data included temporal-scan statistics with a visualization method (rolling-average or predicted-probability plots following logistic-regression models). The WSARE algorithm provided interesting results for quality control and has the potential to detect new resistance patterns; however, missing data created problems for displaying the results in a way that would be meaningful to all surveillance stakeholders. PMID:25355992

  18. Habilidade competitiva de plantas de arroz com biótipos de capim-arroz resistente ou suscetível ao quinclorac Competitive ability of rice plants with barnyardgrass biotypes resistant or susceptible to quinclorac

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    S.P. Tironi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a habilidade competitiva de plantas de arroz cultivar BRS Pelota com biótipos de capim-arroz resistente ou suscetível ao herbicida quinclorac. Para isso, foi instalado experimento em casa de vegetação, em delineamento completamente casualizado com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 6. As unidades experimentais constaram de vasos plásticos contendo 10 dm³ de solo, cujo pH e nível de nutrientes foram previamente corrigidos. Os tratamentos consistiram na competição entre uma planta de arroz, cultivar BRS Pelota, com populações (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas por vaso dos biótipos de capim-arroz resistente (ECH-13 ou suscetível (ECH-12 ao herbicida quinclorac. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 40 dias após emergência, sendo avaliados; massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, taxa de crescimento (TC, área foliar específica (AFE, razão de massa foliar (RMF, razão de área foliar (RAF e índice de área foliar (IAF. A interferência no desenvolvimento do cultivar de arroz BRS Pelota foi proporcionalmente maior com o aumento da população de ambos os biótipos de capim-arroz. Os biótipos apresentaram, em geral, habilidade competitiva similar.The objective of this study was to evaluate the competitive ability of the rice cultivar BRS Pelota with biotypes resistant or susceptible to the herbicide Quinclorac. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized design with four replications, with the treatments arranged in a 2 x 6 factorial. The experimental units consisted of plastic pots containing 10 dm³ of soil, with pH and nutrient level being previously corrected. The treatments consisted of a competition between a rice plant, BRS Pelota cultivar, with populations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 plants per pot of the barnyardgrass biotypes resistant (ECH-13 or susceptible (ECH -12 to the herbicide Quinclorac. The evaluations were performed

  19. Comparison of gene expression of Toll-like receptors and cytokines between Piau and Commercial line (Landrace×Large White crossbred) pigs vaccinated against Pasteurella multocida type D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Katiene Régia Silva; Ribeiro, André Mauric Frossard; Dantas, Waleska de Melo Ferreira; Oliveira, Leandro Licursi de; Gasparino, Eliane; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to compare Toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytokines expression in local Piau breed and a Commercial line (Landrace×Large White crossbred) pigs in response to vaccination against Pasteurella multocida type D. Seronegative gilts for Pasteurella multocida type D and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were used, from which peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected in four time points (T0, T1, T2 and T3; before and after each vaccination dose). For bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells (BALF), we set groups of vaccinated and unvaccinated animals for both genetic groups. Gene expression was evaluated on PBMC and BALF. In PBMC, when we analyzed time points within breeds, significant differences in expression for TLRs and cytokines, except TGFβ, were observed for Commercial animals. For the Piau pigs, only TGFβ showed differential expression. Comparing the expression among genetic groups, the Commercial pigs showed higher expression for TLRs after first vaccination dose, while for IL2, IL6, IL12 and IL13, higher expression was also observed in T3 and IL8 and IL10, in T1 and T3. Still comparing the breeds, the crossbred animals showed higher expression for TNFα in T1 and T2, while for TGFβ only in T2. For gene expression in BALF, vaccinated Commercial pigs showed higher expression of TLR6, TLR10, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα and TGFβ genes than vaccinated Piau pigs. The Commercial line pigs showed higher sensitivity to vaccination, while in local Piau breed lower responsiveness, which may partly explain genetic variability in immune response and will let us better understand the tolerance/susceptibility for pasteurellosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cholera outbreak caused by drug resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 biotype ElTor serotype Ogawa in Nepal; a cross-sectional study

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    Pappu Kumar Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped countries including Nepal. Recently drug resistance in Vibrio cholerae has become a serious problem mainly in developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to investigate the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in stool samples from patients with watery diarrhea and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of V. cholerae isolates. Methods A total of 116 stool samples from patients suffering from watery diarrhea during July to December 2012 were obtained from outbreak areas from all over Nepal. Alkaline peptone water and thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (TCBS were used to isolate the Vibrio cholerae. The isolates were identified with the help of colony morphology, Gram’s staining, conventional biochemical testing, serotyping and biotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by agar dilution method. Results Vibrio cholerae was isolated from 26.72 % of total samples. All isolated Vibrio cholerae were confirmed to be Vibrio cholerae serogoup O1 biotype El Tor and serotype Ogawa. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Twenty nine isolates were resistant toward two different classes of antibiotics, one strain was resistant to three different classes of antibiotics and one strain was resistant to four different classes of antibiotics. According to the definition of the multidrug resistant bacteria; 6.45 % of the strains of Vibrio cholerae were found to be multidrug resistant. Conclusions Cholera due to multidrug resistant Vibrio cholerae is also possible in Nepal. According to the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae in our study we recommend to use any antibiotics among tetracycline, doxycycline, levofloxacin, azithromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin for preliminary treatment of cholera in Nepal.

  1. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Anatomopathological pneumonic aspects associated with highly pathogenic Pasteurella multocida in finishing pigs

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    Eliana S. Paladino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The bacterium Pasteurella multocida is a frequent cause of porcine respiratory disease complex in finishing pigs. Historically, the bacterium is recognized as an opportunistic agent, causing secondary bacterial pneumonia in pigs. Several Brazilian reports have suggested the ability of P. multocida to cause primary pulmonary infection that leads to the death of finishing pigs prior to slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate anatomopathological pulmonary findings associated with P. multocida infection that were obtained from animals with clinical respiratory disease and from animals at slaughter. Twenty-five lung samples from 14 herds of finishing pigs with acute clinical respiratory disease and 19 lungs collected at slaughter from a different set of 14 herds were studied. In all lung samples, bacterial isolation was performed, and only samples with pure P. multocida growth were included in the study. Gross and histopathological lesions were evaluated, as well as Influenza A, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae co-infections. Pleuritis and pericarditis were more often observed in clinical samples (P<0.05. Moreover, there was a numerical trend indicating that pericarditis, lymphadenomegaly and cavity exudates were more often present in clinical samples. Thirteen lung samples were negative to M. hyopneumoniae, Influenza A and PCV2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC, with only P. multocida identified. In these cases, gross lesions such as pleuritis, pericarditis and lymphadenomegaly were always present, and no histologic lesions indicative of other agents such as Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Actinobacillus suis or Haemophilus parasuis were observed. These findings suggest the ability of some P. multocida isolates to cause primary respiratory and systemic infection. However, in this study, it was not possible to determine specific virulence markers to explain these findings.

  3. Sustained Local Diversity of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotypes in a Previously Cholera-Free Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Yan

    2016-05-03

    Although the current cholera pandemic can trace its origin to a specific time and place, many variants of Vibrio cholerae have caused this disease over the last 50 years. The relative clinical importance and geographical distribution of these variants have changed with time, but most remain in circulation. Some countries, such as Mexico and Haiti, had escaped the current pandemic, until large epidemics struck them in 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cholera has been endemic in these countries ever since. A recent retrospective study in mBio presents the results of more than 3 decades of V. cholerae monitoring from environmental and clinical sources in Mexico (S. Y. Choi et al., mBio 7:e02160-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02160-15). It reveals that multiple V. cholerae variants, including classical strains from the previous pandemic, as well as completely novel biotypes, have been circulating in Mexico. This discovery has important implications for the epidemiology and evolution of V. cholerae. Copyright © 2016 Boucher.

  4. Sustained Local Diversity of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotypes in a Previously Cholera-Free Country

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    Yan Boucher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the current cholera pandemic can trace its origin to a specific time and place, many variants of Vibrio cholerae have caused this disease over the last 50 years. The relative clinical importance and geographical distribution of these variants have changed with time, but most remain in circulation. Some countries, such as Mexico and Haiti, had escaped the current pandemic, until large epidemics struck them in 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cholera has been endemic in these countries ever since. A recent retrospective study in mBio presents the results of more than 3 decades of V. cholerae monitoring from environmental and clinical sources in Mexico (S. Y. Choi et al., mBio 7:e02160-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02160-15. It reveals that multiple V. cholerae variants, including classical strains from the previous pandemic, as well as completely novel biotypes, have been circulating in Mexico. This discovery has important implications for the epidemiology and evolution of V. cholerae.

  5. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide. [Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus mirabilis; Pasteurella pneumotropica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO/sub 2/ on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO/sub 2/ levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO/sub 2/ exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO/sub 2/-induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with /sup 32/P-labeled staphylococci.

  6. Herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis resistentes ao glyphosate Alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis

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    M.S. Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Após sucessivos anos, aplicações do herbicida glyphosate em pomares de citros no Estado de São Paulo selecionaram biótipos resistentes de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis. Na ocorrência de plantas daninhas resistentes em uma área agrícola, tornam-se necessárias mudanças nas práticas de manejo para obtenção de adequado controle das populações resistentes, bem como para a redução da pressão de seleção sobre outras espécies. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza spp. resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com aplicações em diferentes estádios fenológicos da planta daninha. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, em pomares de citros em formação, sobre plantas de buva em estádio fenológico de dez folhas e no pré-florescimento. Para plantas no estádio de dez folhas, controle satisfatório foi obtido com aplicações de glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1.440 + 1.200 + 1.200 g ha-1, glyphosate + atrazina (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1 e glyphosate + diuron (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1. Quando em estádio de pré-florescimento de Conyza spp., a aplicação do herbicida amônio-glufosinato, na dose de 400 g ha-1, isolado ou associado a MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone e paraquat, foi a alternativa viável para controle dos biótipos resistentes ao glyphosate.After successive years, glyphosate applications on São Paulo-Brazil citrus orchards selected resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes at some agricultural area makes it necessary to change the management practices to reach effective control of the selected resistant populations, as well as to reduce selection pressure on the other species. Thus, this work aimed to identify the alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza spp., with applications at different weed phenological

  7. Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain--La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia-Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona-Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Cruz; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Jiménez-Corona, María Eugenia; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo

    2014-06-27

    On September 2 and 6, 2013, Mexico's National System of Epidemiological Surveillance identified two cases of cholera in Mexico City. Rectal swab cultures from both patients were confirmed as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and virulence gene amplification (ctxA, ctxB, zot, and ace) demonstrated that the strains were identical to one another but different from strains circulating in Mexico previously. The strains were indistinguishable from the strain that has caused outbreaks in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba. The strain was susceptible to doxycycline, had intermediate susceptibility to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, was less than fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and was resistant to furazolidone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. An investigation failed to identify a common source of infection, additional cases, or any epidemiologic link between the cases. Both patients were treated with a single, 300-mg dose of doxycycline, and their symptoms resolved.

  8. Cellular defense of the avian respiratory system: effects of Pasteurella multocida on respiratory burst activity of avian respiratory tract phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, D L; Toth, T E; Pyle, R H; Siegel, P B

    1988-12-01

    The respiratory tract of healthy chickens contain few free-residing phagocytic cells. Intratracheal inoculation with Pasteurella multocida stimulated a significant (P less than 0.05) migration of cells to the lungs and air sacs of White Rock chickens within 2 hours after inoculation. We found the maximal number of avian respiratory tract phagocytes (22.9 +/- 14.0 x 10(6] at 8 hours after inoculation. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells revealed 2 populations on the basis of cell-size and cellular granularity. One of these was similar in size and granularity to those of blood heterophils. Only this population was capable of generating oxidative metabolites in response to phorbol myristate acetate. The ability of the heterophils to produce hydrogen peroxide, measured as the oxidation of intracellularly loaded 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, decreased with time after inoculation. These results suggest that the migration of heterophils, which are capable of high levels of oxidative metabolism, to the lungs and air sacs may be an important defense mechanism of poultry against bacterial infections of the respiratory tract.

  9. Isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in laboratory settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudratullah; Muhammad, G; Saqib, M; Bilal, M Qamar

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbits and mice. Isolates of P. multocida, S. aureus and Str. agalactiae recovered from field cases of Hemorragic septicemia and mastitis were scrutinized for virulence/pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Mouse LD 50 of P. multocida showed that P. multocida isolate No.1 was more virulent than isolates No. 2 and 3. Virulence of isolate No.1S. aureus and Str. agalactiae revealed that 100, 80% rabbits died within 18h of inoculation. Seven-digit numerical profiles of these 4 isolates with API ® Staph test strips isolates, No.1 (6736153) showed good identification (S. aureus id=90.3%). Indirect ELISA-based serum antibody titers to P. multocida isolate No.1, S. aureus No.1, Str. agalactiae, isolate No.1 elicited high antibody titers 1.9, 1.23, 1.12 respectively. All the pathogens of Isolate No. 1 (P. multocida, S. aureus Str. agalactiae), were high antibody than others isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A

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    Paula Esquinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n=2; healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n=2; healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n=2; diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n=3. The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide.

  11. Field study of pneumonia in vaccinated cattle associated with incorrect vaccination and Pasteurella multocida infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, W M; Caldow, G L

    2015-04-25

    This field study used data on the vaccine courses against bovine respiratory disease sold by one pharmaceutical company in conjunction with pharmacovigilance data to explore reported suspected lack of expected efficacy and the reasons for this. The study ran from May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2010, and covered vaccines sold in Scotland and part of Northumberland. In total, 83 groups of cattle reported suspected lack of expected efficacy, representing 1.6 per cent of the 804,618 vaccine courses sold. It was possible to investigate 45 of these outbreaks in depth using a standard questionnaire and diagnostic protocol. Vaccine usage outwith the specific product characteristics (SPC) occurred in 47 per cent of cases (21/45). The proportion of vaccination courses used where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected in the diseased cattle and vaccine use was consistent with the SPC was estimated at 0.12 per cent of the courses sold. Pasteurella multocida was the most common pathogen detected and was found in 21 of the outbreaks. For outbreaks where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected, P. multocida was found at a significantly greater frequency (P=0.03) where vaccine use was compliant with the SPC (five of six outbreaks) compared with outbreaks where vaccine use had not been compliant with the SPC (one of seven outbreaks). The limitations of the study, including the diagnostic tests employed and definition of vaccination outwith the SPC, are discussed. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Estudo clínico e laboratorial da pneumonia de bezerros induzida pela inoculação intrabronquial de Mannheimia haemolytica

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    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 14 bezerros da raça Holandesa entre 15 e 30 dias de idade, sete inoculados com 5ml de solução salina fosfato-tamponada Dulbecco (DPBS e sete inoculados com 5x10(9 UFC de Mannheimia haemolytica/5 ml de DPBS, via intrabronquial. O exame clínico e as colheitas de sangue e de lavado broncoalveolar foram realizados antes e 4, 6, 12 e 24 horas após a inoculação. O exame histopatológico dos pulmões revelou lesões de pneumonia fibrinosa hemorrágica. Os sinais clínicos surgiram quatro horas após a inoculação das bactérias. Os sete bezerros enfermos apresentavam apatia, respiração abdominal, alteração dos ruídos respiratórios, hipertermia, elevação das freqüências cardíaca e respiratória e arritmia cardíaca. Os exames de laboratório mostraram aumento na contagem de hemácias e do volume globular, indicando hemoconcentração. A diminuição de PO2 e a elevação de PCO2 sugerem inadequada ventilação pulmonar. Observaram-se neutrofilia e alto número de neutrófilos e monócitos no fluido broncoalveolar. O pH do sangue e as concentrações plasmáticas de HCO3, Na e K não apresentaram alterações significativas.

  13. Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) and climate change: the effect of CO2 concentration, temperature, and water deficit on growth and reproduction of two biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will have a considerable impact upon the processes that moderate weed invasion, in particular to that of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). This study evaluated the performance of two Australian biotypes of parthenium weed under a range of environmental conditions including soil moisture (100 and 50% of field capacity), atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration (390 and 550 ppm), and temperature (35/20 and 30/15 °C/day/night). Measurements were taken upon growth, reproductive output, seed biology (fill, viability and dormancy) and soil seed longevity. Parthenium weed growth and seed output were significantly increased under the elevated CO 2 concentration (550 ppm) and in the cooler (30/15 °C) and wetter (field capacity) conditions. However, elevated CO 2 concentration could not promote growth or seed output when the plants were grown under the warmer (35/20 °C) and wetter conditions. Warm temperatures accelerated the growth of parthenium weed, producing plants with greater height biomass but with a shorter life span. Warm temperatures also affected the reproductive output by promoting both seed production and fill, and promoting seed longevity. Dryer soil conditions (50% of field capacity) also promoted the reproductive output, but did not retain high seed fill or promote seed longevity. Therefore, the rising temperatures, the increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration and the longer periods of drought predicted under climate change scenarios are likely to substantially enhance the growth and reproductive output of these two Australian parthenium weed biotypes. This may facilitate the further invasion of this noxious weed in tropical and sub-tropical natural and agro-ecosystems.

  14. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Larissa C. de; Campos, Alcebiades R.

    2008-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  15. Identificação de transcritos diferencialmente expressos por Pasteurella multocida em condições de privação de ferro

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    Mayara I.V. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Ferro (Fe é um elemento essencial e a capacidade de adquiri-lo in vivo têm sido descrita em diversos agentes patogênicos através de fatores de virulência. Análises de transcritos durante a privação de Fe tem sido descritos através da técnica de "microarray", entretanto a técnica de RNA-seq recentemente tem demonstrado resultados superiores. Neste trabalho, o isolado de Pasteurella multocida (Pm 16759 altamente patogênico em suínos foi cultivado em duas condições com diferentes concentrações de Fe (controle e privação com o objetivo de analisar transcritos diferencialmente expressos. O RNA total das duas condições foi extraído e sequenciado através da plataforma de nova geração Ion Torrent. Os dados foram analisados no Software Ion Reporter(tm e processados no programa Rockhopper. Foram obtidas 1.341.615 leituras com tamanho médio de 81pb, com 96% de alinhamento com o genoma de Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida 3480 e 98,8% de acurácia. No mapeamento das leituras das duas condições, observou-se 2,652 transcritos e destes, 177 (6,7% foram diferencialmente expressos, sendo 93 na condição controle (Fe+ e 84 na condição de privação (Fe-. Na condição de privação de Fe, o perfil de transcritos foram associados a função de transporte celular (fbp ABC, permease de alta afinidade com Fe2+/Pb2+ e proteína periplasmática de alta afinidade com Fe2+ , reguladores transcricionais e proteínas hipotéticas. O perfil na condição controle (Fe+ apresentou transcritos diferencialmente expressos associados ao RNAs anti-sense (asRNA e genes do metabolismo energético (fructose-1,6-bisfosfatase. O estudo comprovou que a restrição de Fe aumenta a expressão de genes envolvidos no transporte celular, reguladores transcricionais, proteínas hipotéticas e desconhecidas e permitiu ainda a identificação de novos genes como a permease de alta afinidade com Fe2+/Pb2+ e proteina periplasmática de alta afinidade

  16. Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2004-12-01

    geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas pós-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estádio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o biótipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto.Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is a common weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1 plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate

  17. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes; Aspectos biologicos de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em seis genotipos de feijoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriani, Maria A. de G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva; Vendramin, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Brunherotto, Rogerio [Fundacao Municipal de Ensino Superior de Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  18. Mutant prevention concentration and PK-PD relationships of enrofloxacin for Pasteurella multocida in buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaje, R M; Sidhu, P K; Kaur, G; Rampal, S

    2013-12-01

    This study validated the use of mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach for optimization of dose regimen of enrofloxacin to contain the emergence of Pasteurella multocida resistance. The PK and PD characteristics of enrofloxacin were investigated in buffalo calves after intramuscular administration at a dose rate of 12 mg/kg. The concentration of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum peak concentration (Cmax), terminal half-life (t1/2K10), volume of distribution (Vd(area)/F) and mean residence time (MRT) of enrofloxacin were 1.89 ± 0.35 μg/ml, 5.14 ± 0.66 h, 5.59 ± 0.99 l/kg/h and 8.52 ± 1.29 h, respectively. The percent metabolite conversion ratio of ciprofloxacin to enrofloxacin was 79. The binding of enrofloxacin to plasma proteins was 11%. The MIC, MBC and MPC for enrofloxacin against P. multocida were 0.05, 0.06 μg/ml and 1.50 μg/ml.In vitro and ex-vivo bactericidal activity of enrofloxacin was concentration dependent. Modeling of ex-vivo growth inhibition data to the sigmoid Emax equation provided AUC24h/MIC values to produce bacteriostatic (19 h), bactericidal (43 h) and bacterial eradication (64 h). PK-PD data in conjunction with MPC and MIC90 data predicted dosage schedules for enrofloxacin that may achieve optimum efficacy in respect of bacteriological and clinical cure and minimize the risk of emergence of resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0143 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0143 ref|ZP_04977425.1| possible competence protein EC [Mannheimia hae...molytica PHL213] gb|EDN73821.1| possible competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica PHL213] ZP_04977425.1 0.089 25% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0119 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0119 ref|ZP_04977425.1| possible competence protein EC [Mannheimia hae...molytica PHL213] gb|EDN73821.1| possible competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica PHL213] ZP_04977425.1 0.22 25% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0289 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0289 ref|ZP_04977425.1| possible competence protein EC [Mannheimia hae...molytica PHL213] gb|EDN73821.1| possible competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica PHL213] ZP_04977425.1 0.15 25% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0034 ref|ZP_04977425.1| possible competence protein EC [Mannheimia hae...molytica PHL213] gb|EDN73821.1| possible competence protein EC [Mannheimia haemolytica PHL213] ZP_04977425.1 0.63 23% ...

  3. Isolation and Antibiogram of Aerobic Nasal Bacterial Flora of Apparently Healthy West African Dwarf Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Emikpe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Goats are important in the livestock economy by their adaptability to adverse environmental conditions as they are good sources of protein and income for the rural poor. Studies conducted on the bacterial flora of the respiratory tract in goats focused on the pneumonic lungs, with fewer studies on the apparently normal nasal passage and antibiogram of isolated organisms. This study was carried out on 60 apparently healthy West African Dwarf goats. The nasal swab from each goat was analyzed using standard methods. The disc diffusion technique was used for the antibiotic sensitivity test. Three hundred and twenty-eight isolates were obtained. The most frequently isolated species was Streptococcus spp., while Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the second dominant bacteria. Other species were isolated at relatively lower rates. The isolation of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy goats in this study reflects their possible role in most common respiratory diseases encountered in small ruminants. Most of the bacteria were found to be susceptible to streptomycin, quinolones (perfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and gentamicin, while they were resistant to tetracycline, augmentin and erythromycin. This study shows the relationship between misuse or unrestricted use of antibiotics and drug resistance. Therefore, there is a need for practitioners and researchers to be informed of the appropriate antibiotics to be used in respiratory infections and during control programs.

  4. Pasteurella pneumotropica evades the human complement system by acquisition of the complement regulators factor H and C4BP.

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    Alfredo Sahagún-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Pasteurella pneumotropica is an opportunist Gram negative bacterium responsible for rodent pasteurellosis that affects upper respiratory, reproductive and digestive tracts of mammals. In animal care facilities the presence of P. pneumotropica causes severe to lethal infection in immunodeficient mice, being also a potential source for human contamination. Indeed, occupational exposure is one of the main causes of human infection by P. pneumotropica. The clinical presentation of the disease includes subcutaneous abscesses, respiratory tract colonization and systemic infections. Given the ability of P. pneumotropica to fully disseminate in the organism, it is quite relevant to study the role of the complement system to control the infection as well as the possible evasion mechanisms involved in bacterial survival. Here, we show for the first time that P. pneumotropica is able to survive the bactericidal activity of the human complement system. We observed that host regulatory complement C4BP and Factor H bind to the surface of P. pneumotropica, controlling the activation pathways regulating the formation and maintenance of C3-convertases. These results show that P. pneumotropica has evolved mechanisms to evade the human complement system that may increase the efficiency by which this pathogen is able to gain access to and colonize inner tissues where it may cause severe infections.

  5. Interactions of tillage and cover crop on water, sediment, and pre-emergence herbicide loss in glyphosate-resistant cotton: implications for the control of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutz, L Jason; Locke, Martin A; Steinriede, R Wade

    2009-01-01

    The need to control glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine]-resistant weed biotypes with tillage and preemergence herbicides in glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) is causing a reduction in no-tillage hectarage thereby threatening the advances made in water quality over the past decade. Consequently, if environmental gains afforded by GRCs are to be maintained, then an in-field best management practice (BMP) compatible with tillage is required for hectarage infested with glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes. Thus, 1 d after a preemergent application of fluometuron [N,N-dimethyl-N'-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)urea] (1.02 kg ha(-1)) and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] (1.18 kg ha(-1)) to a Dundee silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, active, thermic Typic Endoaqualf), simulated rainfall (60 mm h(-1)) was applied to 0.0002-ha microplots for approximately 1.25 h to elucidate tillage (no tillage [NT] and reduced tillage [RT])and cover crop (no cover [NC] and rye cover [RC]) effects on water, sediment, and herbicide loss in surface runoff. Regardless of tillage, RC delayed time-to-runoff 1.3-fold, reduced cumulative runoff volume 1.4-fold, and decreased cumulative sediment loss 4.7-fold. Cumulative fluometuron loss was not affected by tillage or cover crop. Conversely, total metolachlor loss was 1.3-fold lower in NT than RT and 1.4-fold lower in RC than NC. These data indicate that RC can be established in hectarage requiring tillage and potentially curtail water, sediment, and preemergence herbicide losses in the spring to levels equivalent to or better than that of NT, thereby protecting environmental gains provided by GRCs.

  6. Auranofin Inhibits the Enzyme Activity of Pasteurella multocida Toxin PMT in Human Cells and Protects Cells from Intoxication

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    Stefan Carle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The AB-type protein toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT contains a functionally important disulfide bond within its catalytic domain, which must be cleaved in the host cell cytosol to render the catalytic domain of PMT into its active conformation. Here, we found that the reductive potential of the cytosol of target cells, and more specifically, the activity of the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR is crucial for this process. This was demonstrated by the strong inhibitory effect of the pharmacological TrxR inhibitor auranofin, which inhibited the intoxication of target cells with PMT, as determined by analyzing the PMT-catalyzed deamidation of GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins in the cytosol of cells. The amount of endogenous substrate levels modified by PMT in cells pretreated with auranofin was reduced compared to cells treated with PMT alone. Auranofin had no inhibitory effect on the activity of the catalytic domain of constitutively active PMT in vitro, demonstrating that auranofin did not directly inhibit PMT activity, but interferes with the mode of action of PMT in cells. In conclusion, the results show that TrxR is crucial for the mode of action of PMT in mammalian cells, and that the drug auranofin can serve as an efficient inhibitor, which might be a starting point for novel therapeutic options against toxin-associated diseases.

  7. Genotyping of Pasteurella multocida ovine and bovine isolates from Iran based on PCR-RFLP of ompH gene

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    A. Ghanizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida, A Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacterium, is a causative animal pathogen in porcine atrophic rhinitis and avian fowl cholera. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains of many different protein in very high copy numbers. One of the major outer membrane, the H proteins have functional as high immunogenicity and antigenicity. In this study to increase information about epidemiology of ovine and bovine P. multocida, the 24 isolates from sheep and nine isolates from cattle were investigated by PCR-RFLP analysis of the ompH gene. In all 33 isolates, digestion of the amplified fragment of ompH gene by using EcoRI, cfoI and HindIII produced 3, 5 and 3 different restriction patterns respectively. Sixteen RFLP patterns were found among 33 investigated P.multocida isolates. This study showed that, the PCR RFLP based on ompH gene is potentially a useful method for typing of P. multocida isolates from sheep and cattle. The RFLP patterns of this gene exhibited extensive restriction site heterogeneity, which may be particularly suitable for fingerprinting of P. multocida isolates.Considering ompH protein as a protective immunogenic moiety of P.ultocida, the results of this study showed a heterogenic bacteria and this means the possibility to produce a multivalent vaccine to be protective against diseases caused by this organism in sheep and cattle in Iran.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility, serotypes and genotypes of Pasteurella multocida isolates associated with swine pneumonia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jih-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Chou, Chi-Chung; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2017-09-21

    Pasteurella multocida (PM) can cause progressive atrophic rhinitis and suppurative bronchopneumonia in pigs. The present study performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotype and genotype identification on the 62 PM strains isolated from the lungs of diseased pigs with respiratory symptoms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing examined 13 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin, cefazolin, doxycycline, flumequine, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, kanamycin, lincomycin, Linco-Spectin (lincomycin and spectinomycin), erythromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and tiamulin). Antimicrobial resistance ratios were over 40% in all of the antimicrobial agents except for cefazolin. The highest levels of resistance (100%) were found for kanamycin, erythromycin and tylosin. The majority of isolated strains was serotype D:L6 (n=35) followed by A:L3 (n=17). Comparison of the antimicrobial resistance levels between the two serotypes showed that the antimicrobial resistance rates were higher in D:L6 than in A:L3 for all the tested antimicrobials except for tylosin and tilmicosin. For PM with erm (B), erm (T) or erm (42), the results showed no significant difference compared with non-resistance gene strains in phenotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping using Apa I restriction digestion of the genomic DNA demonstrated that there were 17 distinct clusters with a similarity of 85% or more, and the genotyping result was similar to that of serotyping. The results of the present study demonstrated that the PM isolated from diseased pigs in Taiwan was resistant to multiple antimicrobials, and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance was associated with pulsotype and serotype. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. The capsule is a virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida M1404 (B:2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J D; Adler, B

    2000-06-01

    Capsules from a range of pathogenic bacteria are key virulence determinants, and the capsule has been implicated in virulence in Pasteurella multocida. We have previously identified and determined the nucleotide sequence of the P. multocida M1404 (B:2) capsule biosynthetic locus (J. D. Boyce, J. Y. Chung, and B. Adler, Vet. Microbiol. 72:121-134, 2000). The cap locus consists of 15 genes, which can be grouped into three functional regions. Regions 1 and 3 contain genes proposed to encode proteins involved in capsule export, and region 2 contains genes proposed to encode proteins involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. In order to construct a mutant impaired in capsule export, the final gene of region 1, cexA, was disrupted by insertion of a tetracycline resistance cassette by allelic replacement. The genotype of the tet(M) OmegacexA mutant was confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The acapsular phenotype was confirmed by immunofluorescence, and the strain could be complemented and returned to capsule production by the presence of a cloned uninterrupted copy of cexA. Wild-type, mutant, and complemented strains were tested for virulence by intraperitoneal challenge of mice; the presence of the capsule was shown to be a crucial virulence determinant. Following intraperitoneal challenge of mice, the acapsular bacteria were removed efficiently from the blood, spleen, and liver, while wild-type bacteria multiplied rapidly. Acapsular bacteria were readily taken up by murine peritoneal macrophages, but wild-type bacteria were significantly resistant to phagocytosis. Both wild-type and acapsular bacteria were resistant to complement in bovine and murine serum.

  10. Comparison of the identification results of Candida species obtained by BD Phoenix™ and Maldi-TOF (Bruker Microflex LT Biotyper 3.1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucco, Andrea P; Minervini, Patricia; Snitman, Gabriela V; Sorge, Adriana; Guelfand, Liliana I; Moral, Laura López

    2018-02-05

    In patients with invasive fungal infections, the accurate and rapid identification of the genus Candida is of utmost importance since antimycotic sensitivity is closely related to the species. The aim of the present study was to compare the identification results of species of the genus Candida obtained by BD Phoenix™ (Becton Dickinson [BD]) and Maldi-TOF MS (Bruker Microflex LT Biotyper 3.1). A total of 192 isolates from the strain collection belonging to the Mycology Network of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Argentina, were analyzed. The observed concordance was 95%. Only 10 strains (5%) were not correctly identified by the BD Phoenix™ system. The average identification time with the Yeast ID panels was 8h 22min. The BD Phoenix™ system proved to be a simple, reliable and effective method for identifying the main species of the genus Candida. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Resistência de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla l. Aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS utilizados na cultura de soja Resistance of Euphorbia heterophylla l. Biotypes to ALS enzyme inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

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    GERSON AUGUSTO GELMINI

    2001-01-01

    induce selection of resistant biotypes, such as occurred to Euphorbia heterophylla L. in relation to ALS enzyme inhibitors, in areas of the Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul States, in Brazil. In order to verify possible new cases of resistant populations and to test alternative herbicide treatments to manage this population, seeds of E. heterophylla were collected in the Assis region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in areas where plants of this species had survived to continuous herbicides application. The trial was carried out in glasshouse conditions where biotypes with a history of suspected resistance were compared with a known susceptible biotype. The study used several post-emergence herbicides sprayed at zero, one, two, four and eight times the recommended field application rates of these products. Twenty days after application, the plants were harvested and the percentage of control and the fresh weight were determined to establish the dose-response curves, to get the resistance factor using data of DL50 and GR50 and to verify if there was a multiple resistance. The resistant biotype showed different resistance levels to chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, showing cross-resistance to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups. Nevertheless, this biotype was efficiently controlled by fomesafen (250 g.ha-1, lactofen (120 g.ha-1, flumiclorac-pentil (40 g.ha-1, ammonium-gluphosinate (150 g.ha-1 and glyphosate (360 g.ha-1.

  12. The importance of subcutaneous abscess infection by Pasteurella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits

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    A. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous abscesses are lesions frequently reported in commercial rabbits. Both at farm and slaughterhouse level, these lesions are responsible for economic losses and a potential decrease in meat quality. The present study was devised to identify the main causes of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits and assess the importance of abscess lesions in this domain. For these purposes, 281423 rabbits were evaluated during meat inspection at the slaughterhouse. The results achieved showed that subcutaneous abscesses were the major cause of condemnation, being responsible for the rejection of 1355 (0.48% rabbit carcasses. The main affected area was the hind limbs (31.37%, followed by the cervical area (23.10%. Microbiological analyses of 27 abscess samples indicated Pasteurella spp. as the bacteria mostly isolated (59.3%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%. These results enable us to advise the industry on the significance of abscesses as an important cause of economic losses, due to meat condemnation during post mortem inspection, and highlight the importance of implementing monitoring plans as a way to control this pathological problem.

  13. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of oxytetracycline for the porcine pneumonia pathogens Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, L; Pelligand, L; Cheng, Z; Lees, P

    2017-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules of oxytetracycline for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were determined in broth and porcine serum. PK/PD integration established ratios of average concentration over 48 h (C av0-48 h )/MIC of 5.87 and 0.27 μg/mL (P. multocida) and 0.70 and 0.85 μg/mL (A. pleuropneumoniae) for broth and serum MICs, respectively. PK/PD modelling of in vitro time-kill curves established broth and serum breakpoint values for area under curve (AUC 0-24 h )/MIC for three levels of inhibition of growth, bacteriostasis and 3 and 4 log 10 reductions in bacterial count. Doses were then predicted for each pathogen, based on Monte Carlo simulations, for: (i) bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels of kill; (ii) 50% and 90% target attainment rates (TAR); and (iii) single dosing and daily dosing at steady-state. For 90% TAR, predicted daily doses at steady-state for bactericidal actions were 1123 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 43 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae) based on serum MICs. Lower TARs were predicted from broth MIC data; corresponding dose estimates were 95 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 34 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae). © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Pasteurella multocida: a case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnorat, Estelle; Seng, Piseth; Savini, Hélène; Pinelli, Pierre-Olivier; Simon, Fabrice; Stein, Andreas

    2016-08-20

    Pasteurella multocida is a well-recognized zoonotic agent following dog or cat bites or scratches. Nevertheless, prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida are rarely reported. We report here a series of six cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida managed at a referral centre for the treatment of bone and joint infection in southern France. We also reviewed the 26 cases reported in literature. The mean age of our cases was 74 years [±8.2, range 63-85]. In majority of our cases (5 cases) were associated with knee prostheses and one case with a hip prosthesis. Most of cases occurred after cat or dog scratches or licks or contact. Diagnoses of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida were made by positive cultures of surgical biopsies or needle aspiration. Mean time delay between prosthetic joint implantation and infection onset was 7.6 years (±5.12 years, range 2-17). Local inflammation, which occurred in all six cases, was the most frequent clinical symptom, followed by pain in five cases, fever and swollen joints in four cases, and a fistula with purulent discharge inside the wound in two cases. The mean time of antibiotic therapy was 8 months. Surgical treatment with prosthesis removal was performed in three cases. Six of our cases were in remission without apparent relapse at 3 years after end of treatment. Prosthetic joint infections caused by P. multocida usually occur after animal scratches or bites, but can occasionally occur after a short animal lick. These infections are usually resulting from a contiguous infection and localized in the knee. An early antibiotic therapy after surgical debridement could avoid prosthetic withdrawal, notably in elderly patients. Patients with prosthetic joints should be warned that animals are potential sources of serious infection and urgent medical advice should be sought if they are bitten or scratched.

  15. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of marbofloxacin as a single injection for Pasteurellaceae respiratory infections in cattle using population pharmacokinetics and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, A; Schneider, M; Dron, F; Woehrle, F

    2018-02-01

    Population pharmacokinetic of marbofloxacin was investigated with 52 plasma concentration-time profiles obtained after intramuscular administration of Forcyl® in cattle. Animal's status, pre-ruminant, ruminant, or dairy cow, was retained as a relevant covariate for clearance. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a stratification by status, and 1000 virtual disposition curves were generated in each bovine subpopulation for the recommended dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg as a single injection. The probability of target attainment (PTA) of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and prevention of resistance was determined in each simulated subpopulation. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) of animals achieving a PK/PD ratio predictive of positive clinical outcome was then calculated for the simulated dosage regimen, taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Histophilus somni. When considering a ratio of AUC 0-24 hr /MIC (area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration) greater than 125 hr, CFRs ranging from 85% to 100% against the three Pasteurellaceae in each bovine subpopulation were achieved. The PTA of the PK/PD threshold reflecting the prevention of resistances was greater than 90% up to MPC (mutant prevention concentration) values of 1 μg/ml in pre-ruminants and ruminants and 0.5 μg/ml in dairy cows. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Crescimento de raízes de biótipos de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac em competição Root growth of Echinochloa biotypes resistant and susceptible to quinclorac under competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O.B. Schuch

    2008-01-01

    center of the experimental unit one plant was established and considered as the treatment; at the periphery, the number of plants of the opposite biotype was established according to the treatment (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 plants. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks in a factorial scheme 2 x 6, with four replications. Forty days after emergence, root length, volume, fresh and dry mass and water content were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the F-test at 5% probability, using the DMRT test at 5% probability for the effect of increasing density, and DMS test at 5% probability between biotypes. A correlation matrix was built between the evaluated variables. Root competition in the soil could affect more seriously the resistant biotype than the susceptible one, being this characteristic essential for biotype survival, mainly under low nutrient levels.

  17. Ducks as a potential reservoir for Pasteurella multocida infection detected using a new rOmpH-based ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Cuiteng; Cheng, Longfei; Lu, Ronghui; Fu, Guanghua; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Lin, Jiansheng; Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-28

    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen of numerous domestic poultry and wild animals and is associated with a variety of diseases including fowl cholera. The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant outer-membrane protein H (rOmpH) for detection of anti-P. multocida antibodies in serum to determine their prevalence in Chinese ducks. The P. multocida ompH gene was cloned into pET32a, and rOmpH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blotting revealed that purified rOmpH was recognized by duck antisera against P. multocida, and an indirect ELISA was established. During analysis of serum samples (n=115) from ducks, the rOmpH ELISA showed 95.0% specificity, 100% sensitivity and a 92.0% κ coefficient (95% confidence interval 0.844-0.997) as compared with a microtiter agglutination test. Among 165 randomly selected serum samples, which were collected in 2015 and originated from six duck farms across Fujian Province, China, anti-P. multocida antibodies were detected in 22.42% of apparently healthy ducks, including 25 of 90 sheldrakes (27.8%), eight of 50 Peking ducks (16.0%) and four of 25 Muscovy ducks (16%). Overall, the data suggest that rOmpH is a suitable candidate antigen for the development of an indirect ELISA for detection of P. multocida in ducks; moreover, our results showed that ducks could serve as a potential reservoir for P. multocida infection.

  18. Arf6-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Pasteurella multocida Toxin and pH-Dependent Translocation from Late Endosomes

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    Tracy P. M. Chong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH4Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn and cholera toxin (CT, the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity.

  19. Occurrence Of Virulence Factors And Antimicrobial Resistance In Pasteurella Multocida Strains Isolated From Slaughter Cattle In Iran

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    Faham eKhamesipour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 30 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from 333 pneumonic and apparently health slaughter cattle were examined for capsule biosynthesis genes and 23 virulence associated genes by polymerase chain reaction. The disc diffusion technique was used to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles among the isolates. Of the isolates, 23 belonged to capsular type A, 5 to capsular type D and two isolates were untypeable. The distribution of the capsular types in pneumonic lungs and in apparently health lungs was statistically similar. All virulence genes tested were detected among the isolates derived from pneumonic lungs; whereas isolates derived from apparently health lungs carried 16 of the 23 genes. The frequently detected genes among isolates from pneumonic lungs were exbD, hgbA, hgbB, ompA, ompH, oma87 and sodC; whereas tadD, toxA and pmHAS genes occurred less frequently. Most of the adhesins and superoxide dismutases; and all of the iron acquisition and protectin proteins occurred at significantly (p≤0.05 higher frequencies in isolates from pneumonic lungs. Isolates from apparently healthy lungs didn’t carry the following genes; hsf-1, hsf-2, tadD, toxA, nanB, nanH and pmHAS. One adhesion (hsf-1 and two iron acquisition (exbD and tonB genes occurred at significantly (p≤0.05 higher frequencies among capA isolates. All the P. multocida isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and tetracyclines. Different proportions of the isolates were however resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, penicillin, rifampin, streptomycin and florfenicol. Our results reveal presence of virulence factors in P. multocida strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic bovids. A higher frequency of the factors among isolates from symptomatic study animals may suggest their role in pathogenesis of P. multocida-associated bovine respiratory disease. The results further

  20. The Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae Mitogenome Has Evolved Novel Gene Boundaries and Tandem Repeats That Distinguish Its Biotypes.

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    Isha Atray

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Diptera; Cecidomyiidae was sequenced, annotated and analysed in the present study. The circular genome is 15,286 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a 578 bp non-coding control region. All protein coding genes used conventional start codons and terminated with a complete stop codon. The genome presented many unusual features: (1 rearrangement in the order of tRNAs as well as protein coding genes; (2 truncation and unusual secondary structures of tRNAs; (3 presence of two different repeat elements in separate non-coding regions; (4 presence of one pseudo-tRNA gene; (5 inversion of the rRNA genes; (6 higher percentage of non-coding regions when compared with other insect mitogenomes. Rearrangements of the tRNAs and protein coding genes are explained on the basis of tandem duplication and random loss model and why intramitochondrial recombination is a better model for explaining rearrangements in the O. oryzae mitochondrial genome is discussed. Furthermore, we evaluated the number of iterations of the tandem repeat elements found in the mitogenome. This led to the identification of genetic markers capable of differentiating rice gall midge biotypes and the two Orseolia species investigated.

  1. Sequence diversity, cytotoxicity and antigenic similarities of the leukotoxin of isolates of Mannheimia species from mastitis in domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Barber, Stuart R; Allen, Joanne L; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Markham, Philip F

    2014-11-07

    Species within the genus Mannheimia are among the most important causes of ovine mastitis. Isolates of these species can express leukotoxin A (LktA), a primary virulence factor of these bacteria. To examine the significance of variation in the LktA, the sequences of the lktA genes in a panel of isolates from cases of ovine mastitis were compared. The cross-neutralising capacities of rat antisera raised against LktA of one Mannheimia glucosida, one haemolytic Mannheimia ruminalis, and two Mannheimia haemolytica isolates were also examined to assess the effect that variation in the lktA gene can have on protective immunity against leukotoxins with differing sequences. The lktA nucleotide distance between the M. haemolytica isolates was greater than between the M. glucosida isolates, with the M. haemolytica isolates divisible into two groups based on their lktA sequences. Comparison of the topology of phylogenetic trees of 16S rDNA and lktA sequences revealed differences in the relationships between some isolates, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Cross neutralisation data obtained with monospecific anti-LktA rat sera were used to derive antigenic similarity coefficients for LktA from the four Mannheimia species isolates. Similarity coefficients indicated that LktA of the two M. haemolytica isolates were least similar, while LktA from M. glucosida was most similar to those for one of the M. haemolytica isolates and the haemolytic M. ruminalis isolate. The results suggested that vaccination with the M. glucosida leukotoxin would generate the greatest cross-protection against ovine mastitis caused by Mannheimia species with these alleles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of European Yersinia enterocolitica 1A strains using restriction fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murros, A; Säde, E; Johansson, P; Korkeala, H; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Björkroth, J

    2016-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is currently divided into two subspecies: subsp. enterocolitica including highly pathogenic strains of biotype 1B and subsp. palearctica including nonpathogenic strains of biotype 1A and moderately pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-5. In this work, we characterized 162 Y. enterocolitica strains of biotype 1A and 50 strains of biotypes 2-4 isolated from human, animal and food samples by restriction fragment length polymorphism using the HindIII restriction enzyme. Phylogenetic relatedness of 20 representative Y. enterocolitica strains including 15 biotype 1A strains was further studied by the multilocus sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes (glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60). In all the analyses, biotype 1A strains formed a separate genomic group, which differed from Y. enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica and from the strains of biotypes 2-4 of Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica. Based on these results, biotype 1A strains considered nonpathogenic should not be included in subspecies palearctica containing pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-5. Yersinia enterocolitica strains are currently divided into six biotypes and two subspecies. Strains of biotype 1A, which are phenotypically and genotypically very heterogeneous, are classified as subspecies palearctica. In this study, European Y. enterocolitica 1A strains isolated from both human and nonhuman sources were characterized using restriction fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis. The European biotype 1A strains formed a separate group, which differed from strains belonging to subspecies enterocolitica and palearctica. This may indicate that the current division between the two subspecies is not sufficient considering the strain diversity within Y. enterocolitica. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Bronchoalveolar lavage is an ideal tool in evaluation of local immune response of pigs vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine

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    Shiney George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL technique in evaluating the local immune response of pig immunized with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine. Materials and Methods: Weaned piglets were immunized with formalin-inactivated P52 strain of P. multocida bacterin and evaluated for pulmonary immune response in BAL fluid. BAL was performed before vaccination and at different post vaccination days. The BAL fluid was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the development of P. multocida specific antibody isotypes and also evaluated for different cell populations using standard protocol. Results: The average recovery percentage of BAL fluid varies from 58.33 to 61.33 in vaccinated and control group of piglets. The BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs showed increase in antibody titer up to 60th days post vaccination (8.98±0.33, IgG being the predominant isotype reached maximum titer of 6.12±0.20 on 45th days post vaccination, followed by IgM and a meager concentration of IgA could be detected. An increased concentration of the lymphocyte population and induction of plasma cells was detected in the BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs. Conclusion: Though intranasal vaccination with P. multocida plain bacterin vaccine could not provoke a strong immune response, but is promising as lymphocyte population was increased and plasma cells were detected. BAL can be performed repeatedly up to 3/4 months of age in pigs to study pulmonary immune response without affecting their health.

  4. Utilización de lectinas en la inhibición de la adhesión de Pasteurella multocida

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    Magda Patricia Carrillo Lamus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El primer paso de la infección es la adhesión de los organismos patógenos a las células blanco. Esta característica les permite no solo penetrar y desplegar las estrategias ofensivas para iniciar la colonización, sino contribuir a la protección y el resguardo de estos a los mecanismos de defensa tanto inmunológicos como mecánicos del hospedero. Este proceso se lleva a cabo en gran medida por la interacción de lectinas, que son proteínas de origen no inmune con la capacidad de reconocer y aglutinar carbohidratos. Este mecanismo ha sido reportado para muchos microorganismos como virus y bacterias. En el caso particular de la Pasteurella multocida, que es una bacteria gramnegativa, patógena oportunista, que inicia la infección en el epitelio respiratorio de muchos animales, se han descrito sobre su superficie sustancias lectinas como la fimbria tipo IV y carbohidratos como el lipopolisacárido o la cápsula que reconocen carbohidratos y lectinas, respectivamente, sobre la superficie de las células epiteliales del tubo respiratorio, circunstancia que le permite adherirse y resguardarse del efecto mucociliar. Debido a que para la gran mayoría de estos microorganismos —incluida P. multocida— es evidente la disminución de la susceptibilidad a los antibacterianos y a la efectividad de las vacunas, se han buscado nuevas tácticas terapéuticas y profilácticas con el fin de interrumpir la infección de los patógenos por medio del bloqueo por competencia de la unión carbohidratos-lectina, donde se ve disminuida la unión del microorganismo al tejido y, por consiguiente, la infección.

  5. Competição entre plantas de arroz e biótipos de capim-arroz (Echinochloa spp. resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac Competition between rice plants and Echinochloa spp. biotypes resistant or susceptible to quinclorac

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    L. Galon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a competitividade interespecífica de biótipos de capim-arroz resistente (R e suscetível (S ao herbicida quinclorac com a cultura do arroz irrigado. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação e os tratamentos consistiram em manter uma planta de arroz cv. BRS Pelota no centro da unidade experimental, variando-se na periferia as densidades de capim-arroz em: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas do biótipo R (ITJ-13 ou S (ITJ-17 oriundos da região de Itajaí-SC. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6 com quatro repetições. Aos 40 dias após a emergência, foram avaliados as massas fresca e seca e o conteúdo de água de folhas, colmos e total da parte aérea do arroz e do capim-arroz. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos para todas as variáveis estudadas quando a cultura do arroz foi cultivada na presença de biótipos de capim-arroz R ou S. Esse efeito foi aditivo na proporção de 1 planta m-2. Entretanto, a capacidade competitiva dos biótipos de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac, com as plantas de arroz, apresentou comportamento similar quando se variou a densidade de plantas por área.This work aimed to evaluate the interspecific competitiveness of Echinochloa spp. biotypes resistant or susceptible to the herbicide quinclorac. The trial was installed under greenhouse conditions, with the biotypes resistant (ITJ-13 and susceptible (ITJ-17 to quinclorac under competition with the rice plants. The treatments consisted of maintaining one rice plant at the center of the experimental unit, surrounded by 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 Echinochloa plants, according to the treatment. The trial was arranged in a completely randomized blocks design and factorial scheme 2 x 6, with four replications. Forty days after emergence, fresh dry weights and water content of the shoots were evaluated. There was a significant effect for all the variables

  6. Molecular cloning of interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and comparison with those of other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Caroline N; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-11-15

    The susceptibility to, and pathology induced by, Mannheimia haemolytica infection in bighorn sheep (BHS) and domestic sheep (DS) are distinctly different. Bighorn sheep are particularly susceptible to pneumonia caused by M. haemolytica, and the pneumonic lesions in infected BHS are more severe than those in DS. The molecular basis for this disparity has not been elucidated. Proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple lung diseases of humans and animals. It is possible that the enhanced pathology observed in the pneumonic lungs of M. haemolytica-infected BHS, in comparison to that of DS, is due to comparatively higher levels of proinflammatory cytokine expression in BHS. As the first step towards elucidating this concept, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding the cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of BHS. The cDNA of BHS IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α consists of 801, 306, and 705 base pairs encoding 266, 101, and 234 amino acids, respectively. The availability of cDNA encoding IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α of BHS should facilitate the elucidation of the role of these cytokines in the differential pathology induced by M. haemolytica infection in BHS and DS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pool of resistance mechanisms to glyphosate in Digitaria insularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco; Alves, Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar; González-Torralva, Fidel; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo Enrique; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia María; De Prado, Rafael; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; de Castro, María Dolores Luque

    2012-01-18

    Digitaria insularis biotypes resistant to glyphosate have been detected in Brazil. Studies were carried out in controlled conditions to determine the role of absorption, translocation, metabolism, and gene mutation as mechanisms of glyphosate resistance in D. insularis. The susceptible biotype absorbed at least 12% more (14)C-glyphosate up to 48 h after treatment (HAT) than resistant biotypes. High differential (14)C-glyphosate translocation was observed at 12 HAT, so that >70% of the absorbed herbicide remained in the treated leaf in resistant biotypes, whereas 42% remained in the susceptible biotype at 96 HAT. Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), glyoxylate, and sarcosine by >90% in resistant biotypes, whereas a small amount of herbicide (up to 11%) was degraded by the susceptible biotype up to 168 HAT. Two amino acid changes were found at positions 182 and 310 in EPSPS, consisting of a proline to threonine and a tyrosine to cysteine substitution, respectively, in resistant biotypes. Therefore, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and gene mutation play an important role in the D. insularis glyphosate resistance.

  8. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of florfenicol for the pig pneumonia pathogens Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida.

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    Lucy Dorey

    Full Text Available Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules for florfenicol for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Pharmacokinetic data were pooled for two bioequivalent products, pioneer and generic formulations, administered intramuscularly to pigs at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg. Antibacterial potency was determined in vitro as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and Mutant Prevention Concentration in broth and pig serum, for six isolates of each organism. For both organisms and for both serum and broth MICs, average concentration:MIC ratios over 48 h were similar and exceeded 2.5:1 and times greater than MIC exceeded 35 h. From in vitro time-kill curves, PK/PD modelling established serum breakpoint values for the index AUC24h/MIC for three levels of inhibition of growth, bacteriostasis and 3 and 4log10 reductions in bacterial count; means were 25.7, 40.2 and 47.0 h, respectively, for P. multocida and 24.6, 43.8 and 58.6 h for A. pleuropneumoniae. Using these PK and PD data, together with literature MIC distributions, doses for each pathogen were predicted for: (1 bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels of kill; (2 for 50 and 90% target attainment rates (TAR; and (3 for single dosing and daily dosing at steady state. Monte Carlo simulations for 90% TAR predicted single doses to achieve bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions over 48 h of 14.4 and 22.2 mg/kg (P. multocida and 44.7 and 86.6 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae. For daily doses at steady state, and 90% TAR bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions, dosages of 6.2 and 9.6 mg/kg (P. multocida and 18.2 and 35.2 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae were required. PK/PD integration and modelling approaches to dose determination indicate the possibility of tailoring dose to a range of end-points.

  9. Pasteurella multocida isolated from wild birds of North America: a serotype and DNA fingerprint study of isolates from 1978 to 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.A.; Duncan, R.M.; Nordholm, G.E.; Berlowski, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Serotype and DNA fingerprint methods were used to study Pasteurella multocida isolated from 320 wild birds of North America. Isolates were collected during 1978-93. The HhaI profiles of 314 isolates matched the HhaI profile of somatic reference type 1, strain X-73; somatic type 1 antigen was expressed by 310 isolates, and the serotype of four isolates was undetected. Differentiation of the 314 isolates was observed by digestion of DNA with HpaII. None of the HpaII profiles matched the HpaII profile of X-73 (designated HhaI 001/HpaII 001). Three HpaII profiles were recognized among the somatic type 1 isolates: HpaII 002 (n = 18), HpaII 003 (n = 122), and HpaII 004 (n = 174). Profile HpaII 002 was found among isolates collected during 1979-83. Profile HpaII 003 was identified from isolates collected during 1979-89, with the exception of two isolates in 1992. The HpaII 004 profile was identified from isolates collected during 1983-93. Of the six remaining isolates, four expressed somatic type 4 and had HhaI profiles identical to the somatic type 4 reference strain P-1662 profile (designated HhaI 004); these isolates were differentiated by digestion of DNA with HpaII. One isolate was identified as serotype F:11, and another was serotype A:3,4. In the present study, 314 of 316 (99.4%) isolates from wild birds in the Central, Mississippi, and Pacific flyways during 1978-93, were P. multocida somatic type 1.

  10. Exhaust Air Dust Monitoring is Superior to Soiled Bedding Sentinels for the Detection of Pasteurella pneumotropica in Individually Ventilated Cage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Manuel; Ritter, Brbel; Zorn, Julia; Brielmeier, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Reliable detection of unwanted organisms is essential for meaningful health monitoring in experimental animal facilities. Currently, most rodents are housed in IVC systems, which prevent the aerogenic transmission of pathogens between cages. Typically soiled-bedding sentinels (SBS) exposed to soiled bedding collected from a population of animals within an IVC rack are tested as representatives, but infectious agents often go undetected due to inefficient transmission. Pasteurellaceae are among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated from experimental mice, and the failure of SBS to detect these bacteria is well established. In this study, we investigated whether analysis of exhaust air dust (EAD) samples by using a sensitive and specific real-time PCR assay is superior to conventional SBS monitoring for the detection of Pasteurella pneumotropica (Pp) infections. In a rack with a known prevalence of Pp-positive mice, weekly EAD sampling was compared with the classic SBS method over 3 mo. In 6 rounds of testing, with a prevalence of 5 infected mice in each of 7 cages in a rack of 63 cages, EAD PCR detected Pp at every weekly time point; SBS failed to detect Pp in all cases. The minimal prevalence of Pp-infected mice required to obtain a reliable positive result by EAD PCR testing was determined to be 1 in 63 cages. Reliable detection of Pp was achieved after only 1 wk of exposure. Analysis of EAD samples by real-time PCR assay provides a sensitive, simple, and reliable approach for Pp identification in laboratory mice.

  11. Biophysicochemical evaluation of wild hilly biotypes of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production and micropropagation study of elite plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, K C; Verma, S K

    2015-01-01

    Depleting reserves of fossil fuel and increasing effects of environmental pollution from petrochemicals demands eco-friendly alternative fuel sources. Jatropha curcas oil, an inedible vegetable oil, can be a substitute feedstock for traditional food crops in the production of environment-friendly and renewable fuel. Jatropha oil is looked up in terms of availability and cost and also has several applications and enormous economic benefits. The seed oils of various jatropha biotypes from hilly regions were screened out and evaluated for their physiochemical parameters, viz, seed index(520-600 g), oil content (15-42 %), biodiesel yield (71-98 %), moisture content (2.3-6.5 %), ash content (3.2-5.6 %), acid value (4.2-26), density (0.9172-0.9317 g/cm(3)), viscosity (5-37 mm(2)/s), saponification value (195.8-204.2 mg/g), iodine value (106.6-113.6 mg/g), flash point (162-235 °C), cetane value (46.70-50.06 °C), free fatty acid value (2.5-10.2 %), and refractive index (1.4600-1.4710). Fatty acid profiling of jatropha resembles as edible oilseeds. NAA with BAP was found to be superior for callus induction (up to 87 %), as well as for shoot regeneration (up to12 shoots). Root induction (90-100 %) was successfully obtained in MS medium with or without phytoregulators. Grown plantlets were successfully transferred from lab to field with a survival rate of 80 %.

  12. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halloy, David J.; Gustin, Pascal G.; Bouhet, Sandrine; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2005-01-01

    Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB 1 /kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-γ mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-α. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB 1 contaminated food or feed

  13. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halloy, David J [Department of Functional Sciences, Unit of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege (Belgium); Gustin, Pascal G [Department of Functional Sciences, Unit of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege (Belgium); Bouhet, Sandrine [INRA, UR66, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP3, 31931 Toulouse (France); Oswald, Isabelle P [INRA, UR66, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP3, 31931 Toulouse (France)

    2005-09-15

    Fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB{sub 1}/kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-{gamma} mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-{alpha}. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB{sub 1} contaminated food or feed.

  14. Isolation and molecular detection of Pasteurella multocida Type A from naturally infected chickens, and their histopathological evaluation in artificially infected chickens in Bangladesh

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    Sayedun Nahar Panna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida type A is the etiologic agent of fowl cholera, a highly contagious and fatal disease of chickens. The present research work was performed for the isolation, identification and molecular detection of P. multocida Type A from chickens. Liver, heart and spleen of suspected dead chicken (n=35 were collected from Gazipur and Pabna districts in Bangladesh. The targeted bacteria from the samples were isolated, identified and characterized based on their morphology, staining, cultural, biochemical characters, pathogenicity test, histopathological study and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The P. multocida organism was isolated from 11.42% (n=4/35 samples. The organisms were gram negative, non-spore forming rod, non-motile, occurring singly or pairs in Gram staining, whereas in Leishman's stain, bipolar shaped organisms were observed. All the isolates were found positive for oxidase and catalase tests, produced indole, and fermented glucose, mannitol and sucrose. Necrotic foci in liver and congestion with hemorrhages in heart were found on necropsy. After pathogenicity test, the pathological changes were reconfirmed by histopathology depicting congestion, hemorrhage and lymphocyte infiltration in heart, liver and spleen tissues. In type specific PCR reaction, the organisms were confirmed as P. multocida Type A. In conclusion, P. multocida type A is prevalent among poultry in the studied regions; thus, care must be taken to control of the disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 338-345

  15. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato; Comportamento de oviposicao da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotipo B em tomateiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramim, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br; Souza, Antonio P. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Morfofisiologia. Lab. de Anatomia Humana]. E-mail: apsouza@nin.ufms.br; Ongarelli, Maria das G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica Pos-Colheita]. E-mail: mgong@esalq.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  16. Genetic diversity of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. Populations in Brazil revealed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.C. Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Genn. was considered a secondary pest in Brazil until 1990, despite being an efficient geminivirus vector in beans and soybean. In 1991, a new biotype, known as B. tabaci B biotype (=B. argentifolii was detected attacking weed plants and causing phytotoxic problems in Cucurbitaceae. Nowadays, B. tabaci is considered one of the most damaging whitefly pests in agricultural systems worldwide that transmits more than 60 different plant viruses. Little is known about the genetic variability of these populations in Brazil. Knowledge of the genetic variation within whitefly populations is necessary for their efficient control and management. The objectives of the present study were to use RAPD markers (1 to estimate the genetic diversity of B. tabaci populations, (2 to study the genetic relationships among B. tabaci biotypes and two other whitefly species and (3 to discriminate between B. tabaci biotypes. A sample of 109 B. tabaci female individuals obtained from 12 populations in Brazil were analyzed and compared to the A biotype from Arizona (USA and B biotype from California (USA and Paraguay. Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Aleurodicus cocois samples were also included. A total of 72 markers were generated by five RAPD primers and used in the analysis. All primers produced RAPD patterns that clearly distinguished the Bemisia biotypes and the two other whitefly species. Results also showed that populations of the B biotype have considerable genetic variability. An average Jaccard similarity of 0.73 was observed among the B biotype individuals analyzed. Cluster analysis demonstrated that, in general, Brazilian biotype B individuals are scattered independently in the localities where samples were collected. Nevertheless, some clusters were evident, joining individuals according to the host plants. AMOVA showed that most of the total genetic variation is found within populations (56.70%, but a significant portion of the variation is found

  17. Virulence-associated gene pattern of porcine and human Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, M; Brodard, I; Overesch, G

    2015-04-02

    Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 is the most important human pathogenic bioserotype in Europe and the predominant pathogenic bioserotype in slaughter pigs. Although many studies on the virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains have showed a broad spectrum of detectable factors in pigs and humans, an analysis based on a strict comparative approach and serving to verify the virulence capability of porcine Y. enterocolitica as a source for human yersiniosis is lacking. Therefore, in the present study, strains of biotype (BT) 4 isolated from Swiss slaughter pig tonsils and feces and isolates from human clinical cases were compared in terms of their spectrum of virulence-associated genes (yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA, ystB and myfA). An analysis of the associated antimicrobial susceptibility pattern completed the characterization. All analyzed BT 4 strains showed a nearly similar pattern, comprising the known fundamental virulence-associated genes yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA and myfA. Only ystB was not detectable among all analyzed isolates. Importantly, neither the source of the isolates (porcine tonsils and feces, humans) nor the serotype (ST) had any influence on the gene pattern. From these findings, it can be concluded that the presence of the full complement of virulence genes necessary for human infection is common among porcine BT 4 strains. Swiss porcine BT 4 strains not only showed antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim but also showed 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. The human BT 4 strains revealed comparable results. However, in addition to 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, 2 strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Additionally, 1 of these strains was resistant to sulfamethoxazole. The results demonstrated that Y. enterocolitica BT 4

  18. Novos acessos de tomateiro resistentes à mosca-branca biótipo B New accessions of tomato resistant to whitefly biotype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa de Sena Fernandes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar novas fontes de resistência a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B, entre 34 acessos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, do Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da UFV. Avaliaram-se os números de adultos, ovos e ninfas por planta, além da densidade de tricomas. Detectaram-se diferenças entre os acessos nas variáveis avaliadas. Os acessos BGH-166, BGH-616, BGH-850, BGH-990, BGH-2102 e BGH-2125 apresentaram menor número de adultos, ovos e ninfas por planta e tiveram menor densidade de tricomas. A resistência dos acessos de tomate à mosca-branca foi associada a uma menor densidade de tricomas.The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance to Bemisia tabaci biotype B in 34 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum accessions from the Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças of UFV. The number of adults, eggs and nymphs per plant besides of trichome density were evaluated. Differences between accessions were found for the evaluated variables. Accessions BGH-166, BGH-616, BGH-850, BGH-990, BGH-2102 and BGH-2125 presented less infestation of adults, eggs and nymphs per plant and showed lower trichome density. The resistance of these tomato accessions to whitefly was associated to a lower trichome density.

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_002663 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002663 gi|15602008 >1p3dA 1 463 17 479 e-156 ... ref|NP_245080.1| MurC [Pasteurell...a multocida subsp. multocida str. Pm70] ... gb|AAK02227.1| MurC [Pasteurella multocida subsp. ...

  20. An epidemic outbreak of Vibrio Cholerae El Tor 01 serotype ogawa biotype in a Lalpur town, Jamnagar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H D Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On December 19, 2010, 57 cases of gastroenteritis were reported in the community health center of Lalpur town. A rapid response team was sent to investigate the outbreak on December 21, 2010. Aim: To identify the source, to institute control and prevention measures. Materials and Methods: The outbreak was confirmed using the previous Integrated Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP data. Detailed history was taken, line listing of patients and house-to-house investigations were done. Environmental investigation and laboratory investigation of stool samples were also done. As the study was conducted during emergency response to the outbreak and was designed to provide information to orient the public health response, ethical approval was not required. Remedial measures were implemented. Results: Three hundred and thirty cases were reported during December 19, 2010 to January 2, 2011 in Lalpur town of Jamnagar district. Nineteen patients were found to be positive for Vibrio Cholerae 01 serotype ogawa biotype out of 117 stool samples. The mean age of patients was 24.23΁19.01 years. The outbreak had 1.88% attack rate with no mortality and 59.1% cases had to be admitted. Investigations revealed that the epidemic was waterborne. Ten leakages were found in the pipelines of the affected areas of Lalpur town near two riverbanks. Conclusion: Among identified gaps, delays in the initiation of the investigation of the epidemic and repairing of leakages were most important. In India, waterborne epidemics are usual occurrences during the year. In this scenario, the village health and sanitation committee and water board should follow guidelines, and monitoring of water sources, proper sewage disposal and sanitation measures should be undertaken.

  1. Multicenter Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System for the Identification of Clinical Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates.

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    Matthew L Faron

    Full Text Available The prompt and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is fundamental to patient health and outcome. Recent advances in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS have revolutionized bacterial identification in the clinical laboratory, but uniform incorporation of this technology in the U.S. market has been delayed by a lack of FDA-cleared systems. In this study, we conducted a multicenter evaluation of the MALDI Biotyper CA (MBT-CA System (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Billerica, MA for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria as part of a 510(k submission to the FDA. A total of 2,263 aerobic gram negative bacterial isolates were tested representing 23 genera and 61 species. Isolates were collected from various clinical sources and results obtained from the MBT-CA System were compared to DNA sequencing and/or biochemical testing. Isolates that failed to report as a "high confidence species ID" [log(score ≥2.00] were re-tested using an extraction method. The MBT-CA System identified 96.8% and 3.1% of isolates with either a "high confidence" or a "low confidence" [log(score value between 1.70 and <2.00] species ID, respectively. Two isolates did not produce acceptable confidence scores after extraction. The MBT-CA System correctly identified 99.8% (2,258/2,263 to genus and 98.2% (2,222/2,263 to species level. These data demonstrate that the MBT-CA System provides accurate results for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria.

  2. Multicenter Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper CA System for the Identification of Clinical Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faron, Matthew L; Buchan, Blake W; Hyke, Josh; Madisen, Neil; Lillie, Jennifer L; Granato, Paul A; Wilson, Deborah A; Procop, Gary W; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Cumpio, Joven; Griego-Fullbright, Christen; Kindig, Sandra; Timm, Karen; Young, Stephen; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    The prompt and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is fundamental to patient health and outcome. Recent advances in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) have revolutionized bacterial identification in the clinical laboratory, but uniform incorporation of this technology in the U.S. market has been delayed by a lack of FDA-cleared systems. In this study, we conducted a multicenter evaluation of the MALDI Biotyper CA (MBT-CA) System (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Billerica, MA) for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria as part of a 510(k) submission to the FDA. A total of 2,263 aerobic gram negative bacterial isolates were tested representing 23 genera and 61 species. Isolates were collected from various clinical sources and results obtained from the MBT-CA System were compared to DNA sequencing and/or biochemical testing. Isolates that failed to report as a "high confidence species ID" [log(score) ≥2.00] were re-tested using an extraction method. The MBT-CA System identified 96.8% and 3.1% of isolates with either a "high confidence" or a "low confidence" [log(score) value between 1.70 and <2.00] species ID, respectively. Two isolates did not produce acceptable confidence scores after extraction. The MBT-CA System correctly identified 99.8% (2,258/2,263) to genus and 98.2% (2,222/2,263) to species level. These data demonstrate that the MBT-CA System provides accurate results for the identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria.

  3. 21 CFR 520.2218 - Sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, and sulfaquinoxaline powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) As an aid in the control of acute fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida susceptible to... days. If disease recurs, repeat treatment. (ii) Limitations. Make fresh solution daily. Do not treat... acute fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida susceptible to sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, and...

  4. What is the true in vitro potency of oxytetracycline for the pig pneumonia pathogens Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, L; Hobson, S; Lees, P

    2017-10-01

    The pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was determined for pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Indices of potency were determined for the following: (i) two matrices, broth and pig serum; (ii) five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions; and (iii) a high strength starting culture. For A. pleuropneumoniae, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was similar for the two matrices, but for P. multocida, differences were marked and significantly different. MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) serum: broth ratios for A. pleuropneumoniae were 0.83:1 and 1.22:1, respectively, and corresponding values for P. multocida were 22.0:1 and 7.34:1. For mutant prevention concentration (MPC) serum: broth ratios were 0.79:1 (A. pleuropneumoniae) and 20.9:1 (P. multocida). These ratios were corrected for serum protein binding to yield fraction unbound (fu) serum: broth MIC ratios of 0.24:1 (A. pleuropneumoniae) and 6.30:1 (P. multocida). Corresponding fu serum: broth ratios for MPC were almost identical, 0.23:1 and 6.08:1. These corrections for protein binding did not account for potency differences between serum and broth for either species; based on fu serum MICs, potency in serum was approximately fourfold greater than predicted for A. pleuropneumoniae and sixfold smaller than predicted for P. multocida. For both broth and serum and both bacterial species, MICs were also dependent on initial inoculum strength. The killing action of oxytetracycline had the characteristics of codependency for both A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida in both growth media. The in vitro potency of oxytetracycline in pig serum is likely to be closer to the in vivo plasma/serum concentration required for efficacy than potency estimated in broths. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Efecto del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de lolium perenne de distinta sensibilidad al herbicida Glyphosate effects on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two lolium perenn e biotypes with different herbicide sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yanniccari

    2012-03-01

    glyphosate on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two Lolium perenne biotypes of low and high glyphosate sensitivity. It was worked with clones of both types, in tillering, sprayed with 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate as treatments and without herbicide as controls. The glyphosate effects on the regrowth of leaves was studied until 50 hours post-application and on total free sugar, reducing free sugar and nonreducing free sugar from leaves to 1, 2, 3 and 5 days post-application were periodically evaluated. From 25 hours after glyphosate application, it caused on the susceptible biotype a growth decrease of 58% and an accumulation of free sugar above 90% compared to controls. In susceptible biotypes, growth inhibition does not depend on a reduced photoassimilate translocation from the overground part. Therefore, the free sugar accumulation in leaves could be explained by the fall in the rate of growth. These effects are limited in the low sensitivity biotype, where growth inhibition has not been detected.

  6. The leukocyte common antigen (CD45) on human pre-B leukemia cells: variant glycoprotein form expression during the cell exposure to phorbol ester is blocked by a nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraj, J.; Sedlak, J.; Chorvath, B.; Rauko, P.

    1997-01-01

    The human pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line REH6 was utilized for characterization of CD45 glycoprotein by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing four distinct CD45 antigen specificities, i.e. nonrestricted CD45, restricted, CD45RA, CD45RB and CD45R0. Immunoprecipitation revealed two antigen specificities on REH6 cells of m.w. 220 kDa and 190 kDa, both presenting wide range of isoelectric point pI∼6.0-7.5. Nonrestricted CD45 epitopes were not affected by the sialyl acid cleavage with sodium meta-periodate or neuraminidase, but were sensitive to both, tunicamycin, the N-glycosylation inhibitor and monensin, an inhibitor of protein transport through the Golgi compartment. O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase from Pasteurella haemolytica A1 partially cleaved CD45RA and CD45RB epitopes, while nonrestricted CD45 determinants were not affected by this enzyme. Limited proteolysis of this antigen resulted in the appearance of 160-180 kDa peptide domains which retained CD45 epitopes. Further, the treatment of cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced marked down-regulation of 220 and 190 kDa isoforms and the appearance of new 210, 180 and 170 kDa variant glycoprotein forms which were not found on parental cells. This PMA effect was not accompanied by the programmed cell death and was markedly blocked by a nonselective protein kinase (PK) inhibitor iso-quinoline sulfonamide H7. Modulation of CD45 by phorbol esters might serve as an in vitro model for an additional insight into the function of CD45 in hematopoietic cells. (author)

  7. Molecular diagnosis of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia - A Review

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    Ranjan Rajeev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is associated with hemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffaloes, pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep and goats, fowl cholera in poultry, atrophic rhinitis in pigs and snuffles in rabbits. Haemorrhagic septicaemia is caused by Pasteurella multocida type B:2, B:2,5 and B:5 in Asian countries and type E:2 in African countries. Pasteurella multocida have five types of capsular serotype i.e. type A, B, D, E and F. Diagnosis of the disease is mainly based on the clinical sign and symptom, post mortem findings. Confirmatory diagnosis is done by isolation and identification of causative agent. A variety of laboratory diagnostic techniques have been developed over the years for pasteurellosis and used routinely in the laboratory. Among these techniques molecular techniques of diagnosis is most important. This technique not only gives diagnosis but it also provides information regarding capsular type of Pasteurella multocida. Techniques which are used for molecular diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia are PCR based diagnosis, Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA, Ribotyping, Colony hybridization assay, Filled alternation gel electrophoresis (FAGE, Detection of Pasteurella multocida by Real Time PCR. Among these techniques real time PCR is most sensitive and specific. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 189-192

  8. A new biotype of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 emerged by a transposon-driven mutation of avirulence gene AVR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Sato, Akira; Akai, Kotaro; Teraoka, Tohru; Komatsu, Ken; Arie, Tsutomu

    2016-07-01

    Emergence of races in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) is caused by loss or mutation of at least one avirulence (AVR) gene. The product of AVR1 is a small protein (Avr1) secreted by Fol in tomato xylem sap during infection. This protein triggers Fol race 1 specific resistance (I) in tomato, indicating that AVR1 is an AVR gene. Deletion of AVR1 in race 1 resulted in the emergence of race 2, and an additional mutation in AVR2 generated race 3. Previously, we reported a new biotype of race 3, KoChi-1, in which AVR1 was truncated by a transposon Hormin, which suggested a new route to evolution of races in Fol However, to date no race 2 isolate carrying Hormin-truncated AVR1 has been reported. In this report, we describe such isolates, represented by Chiba-5, in which Hormin insertion occurred in AVR1 at a position different from that in KoChi-1. AVR1 truncation in both isolates resulted in production of defective Avr1 proteins. Chiba-5 and KoChi-1 belong to different phylogenetic clades, A1 and A2, respectively, suggesting that insertion of Hormin in AVR1 in Chiba-5 and KoChi-1 occurred as independent evolutionary events. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Molecular basis for resistance to ACCase-inhibiting fluazifop in Eleusine indica from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Thye San; Najihah, Mohamed Ghazani; Sahid, Ismail Bin; Chuah, Tse Seng

    2014-05-01

    Eleusine indica (goosegrass) populations resistant to fluazifop, an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase: EC6.4.1.2)-inhibiting herbicide, were found in several states in Malaysia. Dose-response assay indicated a resistance factor of 87.5, 62.5 and 150 for biotypes P2, P3 and P4, respectively. DNA sequencing and allele-specific PCR revealed that both biotypes P2 and P3 exhibit a single non-synonymous point mutation from TGG to TGC that leads to a well known Trp-2027-Cys mutation. Interestingly, the highly resistant biotype, P4, did not contain any of the known mutation except the newly discovered target point Asn-2097-Asp, which resulted from a nucleotide change in the codon AAT to GAT. ACCase gene expression was found differentially regulated in the susceptible biotype (P1) and highly resistant biotype P4 from 24 to 72h after treatment (HAT) when being treated with the recommended field rate (198gha(-1)) of fluazifop. However, the small and erratic differences of ACCase gene expression between biotype P1 and P4 does not support the 150-fold resistance in biotype P4. Therefore, the involvement of the target point Asn-2097-Asp and other non-target-site-based resistance mechanisms in the biotype P4 could not be ruled out. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Double mutation in eleusine indica alpha-tubulin increases the resistance of transgenic maize calli to dinitroaniline and phosphorothioamidate herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony; Hussey

    1999-06-01

    The repeated use of dinitroaniline herbicides on the cotton and soybean fields of the southern United States has resulted in the appearance of resistant biotypes of one of the world's worst weeds, Eleusine indica. Two biotypes have been characterized, a highly resistant (R) biotype and an intermediate resistant (I) biotype. In both cases the resistance has been attributed to a mutation in alpha-tubulin, a component of the alpha/beta tubulin dimer that is the major constituent of microtubules. We show here that the I-biotype mutation, like the R-biotype mutation shown in earlier work, can confer dinitroaniline resistance on transgenic maize calli. The level of resistance obtained is the same as that for E. indica I- or R-biotype seedlings. The combined I- and R-biotype mutations increase the herbicide tolerance of transgenic maize calli by a value close to the summation of the maximum herbicide tolerances of calli harbouring the single mutations. These data, taken together with the position of the two different mutations within the atomic structure of the alpha/beta tubulin dimer, imply that each mutation is likely to exert its effect by a different mechanism. These mechanisms may involve increasing the stability of microtubules against the depolymerizing effects of the herbicide or changing the conformation of the alpha/beta dimer so that herbicide binding is less effective, or a combination of both possibilities.

  11. [Phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains identified in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Zhang, Li; Li, Jie; Kan, Biao; Liang, Weili

    2014-05-01

    To understand the phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated from different provinces in China during the last 50 years. Traditional biotyping testings including susceptibility to polymyxin B, sensitivity to group IV phage, Voges-Proskauer test and haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes were conducted. Data from Biotype-specific phenotype analysis revealed that only 133 isolates carried the typical El Tor phenotypes while the other 251 isolates displayed atypical El Tor phenotypes. Combined with ctxB, rstR genotypes and phenotypic characteristics, 64 isolates were identified as typical El Tor biotype, 21 were El Tor variants that showing the typical El Tor biotype-specific phenotype but with ctxB(class). 280 isolates were defined as the hybrid groups with traits of both classical and El Tor biotypes that could be further classified into 45 groups, based on the combination of genotypes of ctxB, rstR and phenotypic characteristics. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains that isolated from different provinces in China displayed high phenotypic diversity. The traditional biotype traits could not be used to correctly distinguish the two different biotypes.

  12. Cholera between 1991 and 1997 in Mexico Was Associated with Infection by Classical, El Tor, and El Tor Variants of Vibrio cholerae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Munirul; Nusrin, Suraia; Islam, Atiqul; Bhuiyan, Nurul A.; Rahim, Niaz; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Gil, Ana I.; Watanabe, Haruo; Morita, Masatomo; Nair, G. Balakrish; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor (ET), the cause of the current 7th pandemic, has recently been replaced in Asia and Africa by an altered ET biotype possessing cholera toxin (CTX) of the classical (CL) biotype that originally caused the first six pandemics before becoming extinct in the 1980s. Until recently, the ET prototype was the biotype circulating in Peru; a detailed understanding of the evolutionary trend of V. cholerae causing endemic cholera in Latin America is lacking. The present ...

  13. A Dinitroaniline-Resistant Mutant of Eleusine indica Exhibits Cross-Resistance and Supersensitivity to Antimicrotubule Herbicides and Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, K C; Marks, M D; Weeks, D P

    1987-04-01

    A dinitroaniline-resistant (R) biotype of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner. (goosegrass) is demonstrated to be cross-resistant to a structurally non-related herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, and supersensitive to two other classes of compounds which disrupt mitosis. These characteristics of the R biotype were discovered in a comparative test of the effects of 24 different antimitotic compounds on the R biotype and susceptible (S) wild-type Eleusine. The compounds tested could be classified into three groups based upon their effects on mitosis in root tips of the susceptible (S) biotype. Class I compounds induced effects like the well known mitotic disrupter colchicine: absence of cortical and spindle microtubules, mitosis arrested at prometaphase, and the formation of polymorphic nuclei after arrested mitosis. The R biotype was resistant to treatment with some class I inhibitors (all dinitroaniline herbicides and amiprophosmethyl) but not all (e.g. colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and pronamide). Roots of the R biotype, when treated with either dinitroaniline herbicides or amiprophosmethyl, exhibited no or only small increases in the mitotic index nor were the spindle and cortical microtubules affected. Compounds of class II (carbamate herbicides and griseofulvin) cause misorientation of microtubules which results in multinucleated cells. Compounds of class III (caffeine and structually related alkaloids) cause imcomplete cell walls to form at telophase. Each of these last two classes of compounds affected the R biotype more than the S biotype (supersensitivity). The cross-resistance and high levels of resistance of the R biotype of Eleusine to the dinitroaniline herbicides and the structurally distinct herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, indicate that a mechanism of resistance based upon metabolic modification, translocation, or compartmentation of the herbicides is probably not operative.

  14. Resistance to quinclorac caused by the enhanced ability to detoxify cyanide and its molecular mechanism in Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Pan, Lang; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Teng; Dong, Liyao; Li, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Quinclorac, an auxin-type herbicide, is widely used to control barnyardgrass and some dicotyledon weeds. Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis, a variety of E. crus-galli (L.) Beauv., is widespread in China and some populations have resistance to quinclorac. E. crus-galli var. zelayensis seeds with varying sensitivity to quinclorac were used in the present study. The expression of the ADP/ATP carrier protein (ANT) gene, which plays an important role in the maintenance of cellular energy balance, dramatically rose in the S biotype after exposure to quinclorac, while no change was found in two R biotypes. The activity of β-cyanoalanine synthase (β-CAS), which is the key enzyme for cyanide degradation, was higher in two R biotypes than in the S biotype before and after treatment with quinclorac. One single-nucleotide difference was detected in the EcCAS gene of two R biotypes compared with the S biotype. The nucleotide change, which caused one amino acid substitution, replacing Methionine (Met)-295 with Lysine (Lys)-295 in the two R biotypes, which are same as the rice β-CAS gene at this position. In addition, EcCAS gene expression was higher in the two R biotypes than in the S biotype. In conclusion, β-CAS may play a crucial role in the resistance of E. crus-galli var. zelayensis to quinclorac. EcCAS gene mutation and higher gene expression may enhance the activity of β-CAS to avoid the accumulation of toxic cyanide in resistant populations, thus contributing to the resistance mechanism of E. crus-galli var. zelayensis. to quinclorac. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inheritance and mechanism of resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase in Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsalis, P; Powles, S B

    1995-07-01

    A biotype of Sonchus oleraceus L. (Compositae) has developed resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) following field selection with chlorsulfuron for 8 consecutive years. The aim of this study was to determine the inheritance and mechanism of resistance in this biotype. Determination of ALS activity and inhibition kinetics revealed that Km and Vmax did not vary greatly between the resistant and susceptible biotypes. ALS extracted from the resistant biotype was resistant to five ALS-inhibiting herbicides in an in vitro assay. ALS activity from the resistant biotype was 14 19, 2, 3 and 3 times more resistant to inhibition by chlorsulfuron, sulfometuron, imazethapyr, imazapyr and flumetsulam, respectively, than the susceptible biotype. Hybrids between the resistant and a susceptible biotype were produced, and inheritance was followed through the F1, F2 and F3 generations. F1 hybrids displayed a uniform intermediate level of resistance between resistant and susceptible parents. Three distinct phenotypes, resistant, intermediate and susceptible, were identified in the F2 generation following chlorsulfuron application. A segregation ratio of 1∶2∶1 was observed, indicative of the action of a single, nuclear, incompletely dominant gene. F3 families, derived from intermediate F2 individuals, segregated in a similar manner. Resistance to herbicides inhibiting ALS in this biotype of S. oleraceus is due to the effect of a single gene coding for a resistant form of the target enzyme, ALS.

  16. Glyphosate-resistant goosegrass. Identification of a mutation in the target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerson, Scott R; Rodriguez, Damian J; Tran, Minhtien; Feng, Yongmei; Biest, Nancy A; Dill, Gerald M

    2002-07-01

    The spontaneous occurrence of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in weed species has been an extremely infrequent event, despite over 20 years of extensive use. Recently, a glyphosate-resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) was identified in Malaysia exhibiting an LD(50) value approximately 2- to 4-fold greater than the sensitive biotype collected from the same region. A comparison of the inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity by glyphosate in extracts prepared from the resistant (R) and sensitive (S) biotypes revealed an approximately 5-fold higher IC(50)(glyphosate) for the (R) biotype. Sequence comparisons of the predicted EPSPS mature protein coding regions from both biotypes revealed four single-nucleotide differences, two of which result in amino acid changes. One of these changes, a proline to serine substitution at position 106 in the (R) biotype, corresponds to a substitution previously identified in a glyphosate-insensitive EPSPS enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium. Kinetic data generated for the recombinant enzymes suggests that the second substitution identified in the (R) EPSPS does not contribute significantly to its reduced glyphosate sensitivity. Escherichia coli aroA- (EPSPS deficient) strains expressing the mature EPSPS enzyme from the (R) biotype exhibited an approximately 3-fold increase in glyphosate tolerance relative to strains expressing the mature EPSPS from the (S) biotype. These results provide the first evidence for an altered EPSPS enzyme as an underlying component of evolved glyphosate resistance in any plant species.

  17. Species identification of Streptococcus bovis group isolates causing bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Charlotte N; Knudsen, Elisa; Dargis, Rimtas

    2017-01-01

    This study compared two MALDI-TOF MS systems (Biotyper and VITEK MS) on clinical Streptococcus bovis group isolates (n=66). The VITEK MS gave fewer misidentifications and a higher rate of correct identifications than the Biotyper. Only the identification of S. lutetiensis by the VITEK MS was reli......This study compared two MALDI-TOF MS systems (Biotyper and VITEK MS) on clinical Streptococcus bovis group isolates (n=66). The VITEK MS gave fewer misidentifications and a higher rate of correct identifications than the Biotyper. Only the identification of S. lutetiensis by the VITEK MS...

  18. Serological patterns of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis in pig herds affected by pleuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallgren, Per; Nörregård, Erik; Molander, Benedicta; Persson, Maria; Ehlorsson, Carl-Johan

    2016-10-04

    Respiratory illness is traditionally regarded as the disease of the growing pig, and has historically mainly been associated to bacterial infections with focus on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. These bacteria still are of great importance, but continuously increasing herd sizes have complicated the scenario and the influence of secondary invaders may have been increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae and M. hyopneumoniae, as well as that of the secondary invaders Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis by serology in four pig herds (A-D) using age segregated rearing systems with high incidences of pleuritic lesions at slaughter. Pleuritic lesions registered at slaughter ranged from 20.5 to 33.1 % in the four herds. In herd A, the levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae exceeded A 450  > 1.5, but not to any other microbe searched for. The seroconversion took place early during the fattening period. Similar levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae were also recorded in herd B, with a subsequent increase in levels of antibodies to P. multocida. Pigs seroconverted to both agents during the early phase of the fattening period. In herd C, pigs seroconverted to P. multocida during the early phase of the fattening period and thereafter to A. pleuropneumoniae. In herd D, the levels of antibodies to P. multocida exceeded A 450  > 1.0 in absence (A 450  hyopneumoniae and to S. suis remained below A 450  hyopneumoniae late during the rearing period (herd B-D), or not at all (herd A). Different serological patterns were found in the four herds with high levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida, either alone or in combination with each other. Seroconversion to M. hyopneumoniae late during the rearing period or not at all, confirmed the positive effect of age segregated rearing in preventing or delaying infections with M

  19. Cholera between 1991 and 1997 in Mexico Was Associated with Infection by Classical, El Tor, and El Tor Variants of Vibrio cholerae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Nusrin, Suraia; Islam, Atiqul; Bhuiyan, Nurul A.; Rahim, Niaz; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Gil, Ana I.; Watanabe, Haruo; Morita, Masatomo; Nair, G. Balakrish; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor (ET), the cause of the current 7th pandemic, has recently been replaced in Asia and Africa by an altered ET biotype possessing cholera toxin (CTX) of the classical (CL) biotype that originally caused the first six pandemics before becoming extinct in the 1980s. Until recently, the ET prototype was the biotype circulating in Peru; a detailed understanding of the evolutionary trend of V. cholerae causing endemic cholera in Latin America is lacking. The present retrospective microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic study of V. cholerae isolates recovered in Mexico (n = 91; 1983 to 1997) shows the existence of the pre-1991 CL biotype and the ET and CL biotypes together with the altered ET biotype in both epidemic and endemic cholera between 1991 and 1997. According to sero- and biotyping data, the altered ET, which has shown predominance in Mexico since 1991, emerged locally from ET and CL progenitors that were found coexisting until 1997. In Latin America, ET and CL variants shared a variable number of phenotypic markers, while the altered ET strains had genes encoding the CL CTX (CTXCL) prophage, ctxBCL and rstRCL, in addition to resident rstRET, as the underlying regional signature. The distinct regional fingerprints for ET in Mexico and Peru and their divergence from ET in Asia and Africa, as confirmed by subclustering patterns in a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NotI)-based dendrogram, suggest that the Mexico epidemic in 1991 may have been a local event and not an extension of the epidemics occurring in Asia and South America. Finally, the CL biotype reservoir in Mexico is unprecedented and must have contributed to the changing epidemiology of global cholera in ways that need to be understood. PMID:20668130

  20. Cholera between 1991 and 1997 in Mexico was associated with infection by classical, El Tor, and El Tor variants of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Nusrin, Suraia; Islam, Atiqul; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Rahim, Niaz; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Gil, Ana I; Watanabe, Haruo; Morita, Masatomo; Nair, G Balakrish; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2010-10-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor (ET), the cause of the current 7th pandemic, has recently been replaced in Asia and Africa by an altered ET biotype possessing cholera toxin (CTX) of the classical (CL) biotype that originally caused the first six pandemics before becoming extinct in the 1980s. Until recently, the ET prototype was the biotype circulating in Peru; a detailed understanding of the evolutionary trend of V. cholerae causing endemic cholera in Latin America is lacking. The present retrospective microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic study of V. cholerae isolates recovered in Mexico (n = 91; 1983 to 1997) shows the existence of the pre-1991 CL biotype and the ET and CL biotypes together with the altered ET biotype in both epidemic and endemic cholera between 1991 and 1997. According to sero- and biotyping data, the altered ET, which has shown predominance in Mexico since 1991, emerged locally from ET and CL progenitors that were found coexisting until 1997. In Latin America, ET and CL variants shared a variable number of phenotypic markers, while the altered ET strains had genes encoding the CL CTX (CTX(CL)) prophage, ctxB(CL) and rstR(CL), in addition to resident rstR(ET), as the underlying regional signature. The distinct regional fingerprints for ET in Mexico and Peru and their divergence from ET in Asia and Africa, as confirmed by subclustering patterns in a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NotI)-based dendrogram, suggest that the Mexico epidemic in 1991 may have been a local event and not an extension of the epidemics occurring in Asia and South America. Finally, the CL biotype reservoir in Mexico is unprecedented and must have contributed to the changing epidemiology of global cholera in ways that need to be understood.

  1. A Dinitroaniline-Resistant Mutant of Eleusine indica Exhibits Cross-Resistance and Supersensitivity to Antimicrotubule Herbicides and Drugs 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Kevin C.; Marks, M. David; Weeks, Donald P.

    1987-01-01

    A dinitroaniline-resistant (R) biotype of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner. (goosegrass) is demonstrated to be cross-resistant to a structurally non-related herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, and supersensitive to two other classes of compounds which disrupt mitosis. These characteristics of the R biotype were discovered in a comparative test of the effects of 24 different antimitotic compounds on the R biotype and susceptible (S) wild-type Eleusine. The compounds tested could be classified into three groups based upon their effects on mitosis in root tips of the susceptible (S) biotype. Class I compounds induced effects like the well known mitotic disrupter colchicine: absence of cortical and spindle microtubules, mitosis arrested at prometaphase, and the formation of polymorphic nuclei after arrested mitosis. The R biotype was resistant to treatment with some class I inhibitors (all dinitroaniline herbicides and amiprophosmethyl) but not all (e.g. colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and pronamide). Roots of the R biotype, when treated with either dinitroaniline herbicides or amiprophosmethyl, exhibited no or only small increases in the mitotic index nor were the spindle and cortical microtubules affected. Compounds of class II (carbamate herbicides and griseofulvin) cause misorientation of microtubules which results in multinucleated cells. Compounds of class III (caffeine and structually related alkaloids) cause imcomplete cell walls to form at telophase. Each of these last two classes of compounds affected the R biotype more than the S biotype (supersensitivity). The cross-resistance and high levels of resistance of the R biotype of Eleusine to the dinitroaniline herbicides and the structurally distinct herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, indicate that a mechanism of resistance based upon metabolic modification, translocation, or compartmentation of the herbicides is probably not operative. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665371

  2. Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter-aged pigs during a one-year survey, 2010-2011, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondrevez, M; Minvielle, B; Labbé, A; Houdayer, C; Rose, N; Esnault, E; Denis, M

    2014-03-17

    The prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in French slaughter-aged pigs was estimated by sampling 3120 pigs from 96 batches in 16 slaughterhouses from January 2010 to February 2011. Respectively, 36 batches (20 pigs/batch) and 60 batches (40 pigs/batch) were considered during the cold period and the warm period. Tonsils were swabbed before the chilling step. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was detected after enrichment in ITC and streaking on CIN and YeCM media. Typical isolates were confirmed as Y. enterocolitica and biotyped by biochemical tests as described in the ISO 10273:2003 method. Of the tested pigs, 13.7% (CI95% [10.1-17.3]) were found positive for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and 74.3% (CI95% [64.8-83.8]) of the pig batches contained at least one positive pig. The percentage of positive pigs per batch was generally low; 60.3% of positive batches contained fewer than 5 positive pigs. The prevalence of the pathogen at the batch level remained unchanged throughout this one-year study, but the prevalence in pigs was significantly higher during the warm period than during the cold period. Biotype 4 was the most prevalent biotype among the 827 isolated strains (91.9% of the isolates), followed by biotype 3 (7.25% of the isolates). Six isolates were of biotype 5 and one of biotype 2. Biotype 4 was found in all the 16 participating slaughterhouses, biotype 3 in ten slaughterhouses and biotype 5 in four. This study provides valuable recent figures for the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in French pigs. It also highlights the seasonal aspect of the carriage of this pathogen by pigs, a pattern which differs from those in other countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of the ompA-types among ruminant and swine pneumonic strains of Pasteurella multocida exhibiting various cap-locus and toxA patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vougidou, C; Sandalakis, V; Psaroulaki, A; Siarkou, V; Petridou, E; Ekateriniadou, L

    2015-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen in food-producing animals and numerous virulence genes have been identified in an attempt to elucidate the pathogenesis of pasteurellosis. Currently, some of these genes including the capsule biosynthesis genes, the toxA and the OMPs-encoding genes have been suggested as epidemiological markers. However, the number of studies concerning ruminant isolates is limited, while, no attempt has ever been made to investigate the existence of ompA sequence diversity among P. multocida isolates. The aim of the present study was the comparative analysis of 144 P. multocida pneumonic isolates obtained from sheep, goats, cattle and pigs by determining the distribution of the ompA-types in conjunction with the cap-locus and toxA patterns. The ompA genotypes of the isolates were determined using both a PCR-RFLP method and DNA sequence analysis. The most prevalent capsule biosynthesis gene among the isolates was capA (86.1%); a noticeable, however, rate of capD-positive isolates (38.6%) was found among the ovine isolates that had been associated primarily with the capsule type A in the past. Moreover, an unexpectedly high percentage of toxA-positive pneumonic isolates was noticed among small ruminants (93.2% and 85.7% in sheep and goats, respectively), indicating an important epidemiological role of toxigenic P. multocida for these species. Despite their great heterogeneity, certain ompA-genotypes were associated with specific host species, showing evidence of a host preference. The OmpA-based PCR-RFLP method developed proved to be a valuable tool in typing P. multocida strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Repelência e deterrência na oviposição de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pelo uso de extratos vegetais em Cucurbita pepo L Repellence and deterrence on oviposition of Bemisia tabaci biotype B by the use of vegetal extracts in Cucurbita pepo L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é um dos principais insetos-praga na cultura da abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L.. O manejo dessa mosca-branca tornou-se grande desafio aos agricultores, uma vez que esta apresenta rápida capacidade de desenvolver resistência a diferentes classes de inseticidas. Como alternativa vem sendo investigado o uso de extratos vegetais com atividades inseticida e/ou insetistática, os quais têm revelado resultados promissores no combate a inseto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os possíveis efeitos de sete extratos provenientes de cinco espécies vegetais, Ruta graveolens L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas + ramos, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos, T. pallida (folhas, A. indica (amêndoas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (inflorescências + ramos+ folhas e Mentha pulegium L. (folhas, sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abobrinha, por meio de testes de repelência e deterrência para oviposição. Em teste com chance de escolha, avaliou-se a atratividade e determinou-se o índice de repelência após 6, 24 e 48 horas da aplicação dos extratos. A oviposição foi verificada após a terceira contagem do número de adultos. O extrato à base de folhas de M. pulegium mostrou repelência e deterrência à oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa para o manejo do inseto.Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the main pests in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.. The management of this whitefly has become a major challenge to growers, since they have the ability to quickly develop resistance to different classes of insecticides. Alternatively, the use of plant extracts with insecticide and/or insectistatic activities has been investigated, showing promising results for the whitefly control. The present study evaluated the possible effects of seven extracts from five plant species, Ruta graveolens L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves + branches, Trichilia pallida Swartz (branches

  5. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, J.T.; Powles, S.B.; Liljegren, D.R.; Holtum, J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Lolium rigidum Gaud. biotype SLR31 is resistant to the herbicide diclofop-methyl and cross-resistant to several sulfonylurea herbicides. Wheat and the cross-resistant ryegrass exhibit similar patterns of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance may be similar. Cross-resistant ryegrass is also resistant to the wheat-selective imidazolinone herbicide imazamethabenz. The cross-resistant biotype SLR31 metabolized [phenyl-U- 14 C]chlorsulfuron at a faster rate than a biotype which is susceptible to both diclofop-methyl and chlorsulfuron. A third biotype which is resistant to diclofop-methyl but not to chlorsulfuron metabolized chlorsulfuron at the same rate as the susceptible biotype. The increased metabolism of chlorsulfuron observed in the cross-resistant biotype is, therefore, correlated with the patterns of resistance observed in these L. rigidum biotypes. During high performance liquid chromatography analysis the major metabolite of chlorsulfuron in both susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass coeluted with the major metabolite produced in wheat. The major product is clearly different from the major product in the tolerant dicot species, flax (Linium usitatissimum). The elution pattern of metabolites of chlorsulfuron was the same for both the susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass but the cross-resistant ryegrass metabolized chlorsulfuron more rapidly. The investigation of the dose response to sulfonylurea herbicides at the whole plant level and the study of the metabolism of chlorsulfuron provide two independent sets of data which both suggest that the resistance to chlorsulfuron in cross-resistant ryegrass biotype SLR31 involves a wheat-like detoxification system

  6. The Effect of Temperature and Host Plant Resistance on Population Growth of the Soybean Aphid Biotype 1 (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Ashley R; Nechols, James R; McCornack, Brian P; Margolies, David C; Sandercock, Brett K; Yan, Donglin; Murray, Leigh

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate direct and indirect effects of temperature on demographic traits and population growth of biotype 1 of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Our objectives were to better understand how temperature influences the expression of host plant resistance, quantify the individual and interactive effects of plant resistance and temperature on soybean aphid population growth, and generate thermal constants for predicting temperature-dependent development on both susceptible and resistant soybeans. To assess indirect (plant-mediated) effects, soybean aphids were reared under a range of temperatures (15-30 °C) on soybean seedlings from a line expressing a Rag1 gene for resistance, and life history traits were quantified and compared to those obtained for soybean aphids on a susceptible soybean line. Direct effects of temperature were obtained by comparing relative differences in the magnitude of life-history traits among temperatures on susceptible soybeans. We predicted that temperature and host plant resistance would have a combined, but asymmetrical, effect on soybean aphid fitness and population growth. Results showed that temperature and plant resistance influenced preimaginal development and survival, progeny produced, and adult longevity. There also appeared to be a complex interaction between temperature and plant resistance for survival and developmental rate. Evidence suggested that the level of plant resistance increased at higher, but not lower, temperature. Soybean aphids required about the same number of degree-days to develop on resistant and susceptible plants. Our results will be useful for making predictions of soybean aphid population growth on resistant plants under different seasonal temperatures. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Pro-106-Ser mutation and EPSPS overexpression acting together simultaneously in glyphosate-resistant goosegrass (Eleusine indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherekhloo, Javid; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Sánchez-González, Eduardo; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo E; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José A; De Prado, Rafael

    2017-07-27

    Glyphosate has been used for more than 15 years for weed management in citrus groves in the Gulf of Mexico, at up to 3-4 applications per year. Goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.) control has sometimes failed. In this research, the mechanisms governing three goosegrass biotypes (Ein-Or from an orange grove, and Ein-Pl1 and Ein-Pl2 from Persian lime groves) with suspected resistance to glyphosate were characterized and compared to a susceptible biotype (Ein-S). Dose-response and shikimate accumulation assays confirmed resistance of the resistant (R) biotypes. There were no differences in glyphosate absorption, but the R biotypes retained up to 62-78% of the herbicide in the treated leaf at 96 h after treatment (HAT), in comparison to the Ein-S biotype (36%). The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity in the Ein-Or and Ein-S biotypes was over 100-fold lower than the Ein-Pl1 and Ein-Pl2 ones. The latter showed a high EPSPS-basal activity, a mutation at Pro-106-Ser position in the EPSPS gene, and EPSPS overexpression. The EPSPS basal and EPSPS overexpression were positively correlated. The R goosegrass biotypes displayed poor glyphosate translocation. Furthermore, this grassweed showed, for the first time, two mechanisms at the target-site level (Pro-106-Ser mutation + EPSPS overexpression) acting together simultaneously against glyphosate.

  8. A capsule/lipopolysaccharide/MLST genotype D/L6/ST11 of Pasteurella multocida is likely to be strongly associated with swine respiratory disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhong; Wang, Haonan; Liang, Wan; Chen, Yibao; Tang, Xibiao; Chen, Huanchun; Wu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a leading cause of respiratory disease in pigs worldwide. In this study, we determined the genetic characteristics of 115 P. multocida isolates from the lungs of pigs with respiratory disease in China in 2015 using capsular typing, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) genotyping, and virulence genotyping based on the detection of virulence-associated genes. The results showed that the isolates belonged to three capsular types: A (49.6%), D (46.1%), and nontypable (4.3%); and two LPS genotypes: L3 (22.6%) and L6 (77.4%). When combining the capsular types with the LPS genotypes, a genotype group D: L6 (46.1%) was the most prevalent among the strains. Among the 23 virulence-associated genes detected in this study, a small number of them displayed a certain level of "genotype-preference". We found that pfhA, hgbA, and hgbB had a close association with P. multocida LPS genotypes, while tadD was more associated with P. multocida capsular types. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 40 P. multocida isolates identified four sequence types: ST3, ST10, ST11, and ST16, and the distribution of ST11 was significantly higher than the other MLST genotypes. Interestingly, all of the ST11 isolates detected in this study were genotype D: L6 strains and they were 100% positive for hgbB. Our data suggest that a capsule/LPS/MLST genotype D/L6/ST11 is likely to be strongly associated with respiratory clinical manifestation of the disease in pigs.

  9. Controle químico de ovos e ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: aleyrodidae Chemical control of Bemisia tabaci B biotype (Hemiptera: aleyrodidae eggs and nymphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Etore do Valle

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Moscas brancas são pragas de diversas culturas, causam redução na produção e na qualidade do produto. Inseticidas, com diferentes modos de ação vêm sendo utilizados, sem muito sucesso. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a eficiência de inseticidas sobre ovos de diferentes idades (1, 3 e 5 dias e de ninfas de 1° ínstar da mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. Os experimentos foram realizados em condições de laboratório, sob temperatura de 25 ± 2°C e fotofase de 12 horas. Piriproxifem (75 mg L-1 atuou como excelente ovicida, sendo altamente eficiente, 3 dias de idade. Cartape (500 mg L-1 não teve efeito satisfatório, mas a 1000 mg L-1 foi eficiente em ovos com até 5 dias de idade. Quanto à ação sobre ninfas de 1° ínstar, para pulverizações na face superior das folhas, piriproxifem, a 75 mg L-1, apresentou eficiência na supressão da emergência de adultos, caracterizando presença de ação translaminar; buprofezim, cartape, acefato e fempiroximate não apresentaram eficiência no controle de ninfas. Quando aplicado na face inferior das folhas, buprofezim (375 mg L-1 apresentou eficiência comparável à de piriproxifem, impedindo a emergência de adultos.Whiteflies are pests of many crops, cause severe yield losses and reduce crop quality. Insecticides of different modes of action have been used without success. In this work, the efficiency of five insecticides on Bemisia tabaci B biotype (= B. argentifolii eggs and nymphs was evaluated under laboratory conditions (T = 25 ± 2°C; 12 h photophase. In relation to the ovicidal effect, pyriproxyfen (75 mg L-1 caused egg hatching inhibition up to three day old eggs. Cartap showed efficiency only at the concentration of 1000 mg L-1, supressing the viability of eggs up to five days. Soybean leaves with first instar nymphs were treated in the upper surface with pyriproxyfen (75 mg L-1, buprofezin (375 mg L-1, cartap (1000 mg L-1, acephate (750 mg L-1 and fenpyroximate (100 mg L-1; in

  10. Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe, 2009-2012: VetPath results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Garch, Farid; de Jong, Anno; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Marion, Hervé; Haag-Diergarten, Silke; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Thomas, Valérie; Siegwart, Ed

    2016-10-15

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme that collects pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 996 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 10 countries during 2009-2012. Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MIC values of 16 or 17 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI standards. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. Cattle isolates were generally highly susceptible to most antibiotics, except to tetracycline (3.0-12.0% resistance). Low levels of resistance (0-4.0%) were observed for the macrolide antibiotics. Resistance to spectinomycin varied from 0 to 6.0%. In pig isolates similar observations were made. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tulathromycin, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <2%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance varied from 1.9 to 5.3%, but tetracycline resistance varied from 20.4% in P. multocida to 88.1% in S. suis. For most antibiotics and pathogens the percentage resistance remained unchanged or only increased numerically as compared to that of the period 2002-2006. In conclusion, absence or low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from livestock. Comparison of all antibiotics and organisms was hampered since for almost half of the antibiotics no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available. Copyright © 2016

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline-Free Acid in Clinically Healthy Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Sarah E; Korte, Scott W; Giguère, Steeve; Fales, William H; Davis, Jennifer L; Dixon, Lonny W

    2016-03-01

    Economical, injectable antibiotics are beneficial when clinical manifestations of an animal model prevent the use of oral antibiotics. Ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) is an injectable, sustained-release form of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin that is labeled for use in swine, cattle, and horses. Because CCFA is an economical, injectable antibiotic that could be of value for use in research dogs, the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of CCFA in apparently healthy dogs and to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for veterinary pathogens cultured during 2011 through 2014 from the respiratory system, integumentary system, and urinary system of dogs. The study population comprised of 5 dogs (age, 1 y; weight, 24.7 to 26.9 kg) that were deemed healthy after no abnormalities were found on physical exam, CBC analysis, and clinical chemistry panel. Each dog received CCFA at 5.0 mg/kg SC, and blood samples were collected before administration of CCFA and at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 h after injection. The maximal plasma concentration (mean ± 1 SD) of CCFA was 1.98 ± 0.40 μ g/mL, time to reach maximal concentration was 22.3 ± 8.9 h, half-life was 56.6 ± 16.9 h, and AUC0-last was 124.98 ± 18.45 μ g-h/mL. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur ranged from ≤ 0.25 to ≥ 8.0 μ g/mL; ceftiofur was most effective against Pasteurella spp., Proteus spp., and Escherichia coli haemolytica and least effective against Bordatella bronchiseptica, Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  12. Morphological variation of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae associated with different aphid hosts

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    Cinthya M. Villegas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation. The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis. Methods We examined Aphidius ervi, an important introduced biological control agent in Chile associated with a great number of aphid species, which are exploiting different plant hosts and habitats. Several combinations (biotypes of parasitoids with various aphid/host plant combinations were analyzed in order to obtain measures of forewing shape and size. To show the differences among defined biotypes, we chose 13 specific landmarks on each individual parasitoid wing. The analysis of allometric variation calculated in wing shape and size over centroid size (CS, revealed the allometric changes among biotypes collected from different hosts. To show all differences in shape of forewings, we made seven biotype pairs using an outline-based geometric morphometrics comparison. Results The biotype A. pis_pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum on pea was the extreme wing size in this study compared to the other analyzed biotypes. Aphid hosts have a significant influence in the morphological differentiation of the parasitoid forewing, splitting biotypes in two groups. The first group consisted of biotypes connected with Acyrthosiphon pisum on legumes, while the second group is composed of biotypes connected with aphids attacking cereals, with the exception of the R. pad_wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi on wheat biotype. There was no significant effect of plant

  13. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC of selected antimicrobials in bovine and swine Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates

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    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the values of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC values ​​of three antimicrobial agents for 72 bovine isolates of Pasteurella multocida, 80 swine isolates of P. multocida, 80 bovine isolates of Escherichia coli, 80 swine isolates of E. coli, and 80 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis. The ratio of MIC90​​/MPC90 which limited mutant selection window (MSW was ≤ 0.12/4 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 0.5/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in bovine P. multocida isolates, ≤ 0.12/2 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 0.5/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in swine P. multocida isolates, 1/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 8/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 8/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in bovine E. coli isolates, 0.5/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, ≥ 64/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 8/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in swine E. coli isolates, and 0.25/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 4/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in S. aureus isolates. These findings indicate that the dosage of antimicrobial agents to achieve serum concentration equal to or higher than MPC could reduce selection of resistant bacterial subpopulation.

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica: Mode of Transmission, Molecular Insights of Virulence, and Pathogenesis of Infection

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    Yeasmin Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Yersinia enterocolitica is usually transmitted through contaminated food and untreated water, occasional transmission such as human-to-human, animal-to-human and blood transfusion associated transmission have also identified in human disease. Of the six Y. enterocolitica biotypes, the virulence of the pathogenic biotypes, namely, 1B and 2–5 is attributed to the presence of a highly conserved 70-kb virulence plasmid, termed pYV/pCD and certain chromosomal genes. Some biotype 1A strains, despite lacking virulence plasmid (pYV and traditional chromosomal virulence genes, are isolated frequently from humans with gastrointestinal diseases similar to that produced by isolates belonging known pathogenic biotypes. Y. enterocolitica pathogenic biotypes have evolved two major properties: the ability to penetrate the intestinal wall, which is thought to be controlled by plasmid genes, and the production of heat-stable enterotoxin, which is controlled by chromosomal genes.

  15. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Wael A; Ahmed, Ahmed I; Ibrahim, Awad A; Ahmed, Mohamed S

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6%) and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%), 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05%) and 5 could not be typed (23.8%). Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%), and 3 were type D (14.3%). The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  16. Clinico-pathology, hematology and biochemistry responses in buffaloes towards Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 immunogen lypopolysaccharide via oral and intravenous routes of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd; Norsidin, Mohd Jefri

    2016-02-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia is a disease caused by Pasteurella multocida serotype B: 2 and E: 2. The organism causes acute, highly fatal septicaemic disease with high morbidity and mortality in cattle and more susceptible in buffaloes. Lipopolysaccharide can be found on the outer cell wall of the organism. Lipopolysaccharide is released during multiplication which leads to inflammatory reaction. It represents the endotoxin of P. multocida type B: 2 and responsible for toxicity in haemorrhagic septicaemia which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, blood parameters, gross post mortem lesions and histopathology changes caused by P. multocida type B:2 immunogen lipopolysaccharide infections initiated through intravenous and oral routes of infection. 9 buffalo heifers were divided equally into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline (PBS); Group 2 and 3 were inoculated with 10 ml of lipopolysaccharide broth intravenously and orally respectively. For the clinical signs, there were significant differences (p hematology and biochemistry findings, there were significant differences (p 0.05) in the MCHC, leukocytes, band neutrophils, basophils, thrombocytes, plasma protein, icterus index, total protein, globulin and A:G ratio between intravenous and oral group. For Group 2 buffaloes, there were gross lesions in the lung, trachea, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney. In contrast, lesions were only observed in the lung, trachea and liver of Group 3 buffaloes. There were significant differences (p 0.05) in edema lesion between groups. In conclusion, this study is a proof that oral route infection of P. multocida type B:2 immunogen lipopolysaccharide can be used to stimulate host cell responses where oral vaccine through feed could be developed in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Susceptibilidade de lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae a inseticidas com diferentes modos de ação Susceptibility of caterpillars of the biotypes corn and rice of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to insecticides with different action manners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossato Busato

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a susceptibilidade de lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de Spodoptera frugiperda, a inseticidas com diferentes modos de ação. Os insetos foram coletados em milho e em arroz irrigado no agroecossistema de várzea, município de Pelotas, região que produz milho e arroz irrigado (lado a lado. Os experimentos foram realizados, em condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 1°C, umidade relativa (70 ± 10% e fotofase (14 horas, utilizando-se folhas do híbrido de milho Pionner 30F33 (40 dias após a emergência. As folhas pulverizadas em torre de Potter calibrada para aplicação de um volume de calda de 1,7 ± 0,305mg cm-2, foram colocadas em recipientes de plásticos com tampa, sendo individualizadas 25 lagartas de 3° ínstar de cada biótipo de S. frugiperda. Os inseticidas e concentrações avaliados foram: clorpirifós [Lorsban 480 BR, 0,960g i.a. L-1 (Organofosforado], lambda-cialotrina [Karate Zeon 50 CE, 0,003g i.a. L-1 (Piretróide sintético], lufenuron [Match CE, 0,006g i.a. L-1 (Aciluréia], methoxifenozide [Intrepid 240 SC, 0,158g i.a. L-1 (Diacilhidrazina] e spinosad [Tracer, 0,960g i.a. L-1 (Naturalyte]. A avaliação da mortalidade foi realizada 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas após o tratamento. O biótipo milho de S. frugiperda foi menos suscetível aos inseticidas lambda-cialotrina, lufenuron e methoxifenozide. Os inseticidas clorpirifós e spinosad foram eficientes no controle das lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de S. frugiperda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of caterpillars of the biotypes corn and rice of Spodoptera frugiperda, to insecticides with different action manners. The insects were collected in corn and in irrigated rice in the lowland, county of Pelotas, area that produces corn and irrigated rice (side by side. The experiments were conducted, in controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 1°C, relative humidity (70 ± 10% and photophase (14

  18. Vector-virus mutualism accelerates population increase of an invasive whitefly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between plant viruses, their herbivore vectors and host plants can be beneficial, neutral, or antagonistic, depending on the species involved. This variation in relationships may affect the process of biological invasion and the displacement of indigenous species by invaders when the invasive and indigenous organisms occur with niche overlap but differ in the interactions. The notorious invasive B biotype of the whitefly complex Bemisia tabaci entered China in the late 1990s and is now the predominant or only biotype in many regions of the country. Tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV and Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV are two whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses that have become widespread recently in south China. We compared the performance of the invasive B and indigenous ZHJ1 whitefly biotypes on healthy, TbCSV-infected and TYLCCNV-infected tobacco plants. Compared to its performance on healthy plants, the invasive B biotype increased its fecundity and longevity by 12 and 6 fold when feeding on TbCSV-infected plants, and by 18 and 7 fold when feeding on TYLCCNV-infected plants. Population density of the B biotype on TbCSV- and TYLCCNV-infected plants reached 2 and 13 times that on healthy plants respectively in 56 days. In contrast, the indigenous ZHJ1 performed similarly on healthy and virus-infected plants. Virus-infection status of the whiteflies per se of both biotypes showed limited effects on performance of vectors on cotton, a nonhost plant of the viruses. The indirect mutualism between the B biotype whitefly and these viruses via their host plants, and the apparent lack of such mutualism for the indigenous whitefly, may contribute to the ability of the B whitefly biotype to invade, the displacement of indigenous whiteflies, and the disease pandemics of the viruses associated with this vector.

  19. [Molecular-biological characteristic of Yersinia enterocolitica circulating in various regions of Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, T V; Bogumil'chik, E A; Voskresenskaia, E A; Klimov, V T; Tseneva, G Ia; Chesnokova, M V; Ivanov, L I; Poutonen, T B; Vasil'eva, A V; Gromova, T V

    2012-01-01

    Complex characteristic by phenotype signs and main virulence genes of Yersinia enterocolitica strains circulating in various regions of Russian Federation. 46 strains of Y. enterocolitica of 2 - 4 biotypes and 401 strains of Y. enterocolitica IA biotype isolated in 15 administrative territories of Russian Federation (Siberian, Far Eastern, Northwestern, Urals Federal Districts) from infected people, rodents, agricultural animals, birds, the environment were studied. Phagotyping was performed in the reference laboratory of the Pasteur Institute (Paris). All the Y. enterocolitica cultures were studied for the presence of ail, ystB and ystA genes by PCR method. Presence of virulence plasmid pYVwas determined by gel electrophoresis by T. Kieser method. 447 strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A and 2 - 4 were studied. Most of the strains belonged to serotypes O:3; O:9; O: 5; O: 6,30; O:6,31; O:7,8. Phagotyping was performed for part of the strains. Phagotypes Xz and Xo were determined in biotype 1A strains. 2 - 4 biotype strains circulating in Siberia and the Far East were characterized by phagotype VIII, X3 that are present in other countries, and phagotype Xz that is spread only in Russia. Phagotypes IXa, IXb, II that are characteristic for strains from Canada, South Africa, Japan were not detected in Russian Federation. All the strains of 2 - 4 biotypes had ail and ystA genes. Most of the recently isolated strains had pYV. The only pathogenicity factor detected in 81.3% of biotype 1A strains including 14 strains from patients was ystB gene. These infections were accompanied by an expressed clinical symptomatology of enteritis and enterocolitis. Isolation of 1A biotype strains from patients necessitates execution of diagnostic studies of intestinal yersiniosis in patients with diagnosis "acute intestinal infection of undetermined etiology".

  20. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke, Cindy J M; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2013-10-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains to be identified. N. ribisnigri populations virulent on the Nr-based resistance in lettuce have emerged in several locations in Europe since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by the Nr gene in lettuce by detailed studies of aphid feeding behaviour and performance. Both avirulent (Nr:0) and virulent (Nr:1)biotypes of N. ribisnigri were studied on five resistant and two susceptible near isogenic lines (NILs). In addition, survival and colony development were quantified.Nr:0 aphids showed a strong decrease in sieve element ingestion and took longer to accept a sieve element on resistant NILs compared with susceptible NILs, and no aphids survived on the resistant NIL. Nr:1 aphids fed and performed equally well on the resistant and susceptible NILs. The resistance mechanism against Nr:0 aphids encoded by the Nr gene seems to be located in the phloem, although we also observed differences in feeding behaviour during the pathway phase to the phloem. Nr:1 aphids were highly virulent to the resistance conferred by the Nr gene. The consequences of the appearance of Nr:1 aphids for control of N. ribisnigri are discussed.

  1. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation; Novos biotipos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin com germinacao alterada de conidios, obtidos pela exposicao a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    1997-12-31

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author) 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. The effect of co-infestation by conspecific and heterospecific aphids on the feeding behaviour of Nasonovia ribisnigri on resistant and susceptible lettuce cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Broeke, ten, Cindy J.M.; Dicke, Marcel; Loon, van, Joop J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Aphid saliva can suppress the blocking of sieve elements, a reaction that plants employ to inhibit aphid feeding, but aphid saliva can also elicit plant defence responses. Such plant responses might affect interactions between different aphid species and intraspecifically, e.g. among different biotypes. The objectives of our study were to investigate if feeding behaviour and performance of two biotypes of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri are affected by (1) feeding by the other biotype ...

  3. Quinclorac resistance induced by the suppression of the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes in Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Jun; Pan, Xukun; Liu, Dingrong; Napier, Richard; Dong, Liyao

    2018-04-01

    We previously reported that the mechanism of quinclorac resistance in Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis may be closely related to ethylene biosynthesis and the detoxification of cyanide. Differences in EcCAS gene sequences and expression levels may result in higher capacity to detoxify cyanide in resistant biotypes, which may avoid cyanide accumulation and avoid more ethylene and cyanide production and then avoid damage. In the present study, we focused on the mechanism of resistance related to ethylene biosynthesis in E. crus-galli var. zelayensis. The fresh weight of susceptible and moderately resistant biotypes were significantly reduced after treatment with quinclorac. However, AOA, an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, reduced the impact of quinclorac. On pretreatment with AOA, ethylene production was significantly reduced in the three biotypes. The highly resistant biotype produced less ethylene compared to the other two biotypes. Three ACS and seven ACO genes, which are the key genes in ethylene biosynthesis, were obtained. The expression levels of EcACS-like, EcACS7, and EcACO1 varied in the three biotypes upon treatment with quinclorac, which could be manipulated by AOA. In summary, it is inferred that the expression of EcACS-like, EcACS7, and EcACO1 can be stimulated to varying extent after quinclorac treatment in three E. crus-galli var. zelayensis biotypes, which consequently results in varying levels of ethylene production. Lower expression of these three genes results in more resistance to quinclorac, which may also be related to quinclorac resistance in E. crus-galli var. zelayensis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moemen A. Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6% and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%, 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05% and 5 could not be typed (23.8%. Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%, and 3 were type D (14.3%. The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  5. Feeding of waste milk to Holstein calves affects antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida isolated from fecal and nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynou, G; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2017-04-01

    The use of milk containing antimicrobial residues in calf feeding programs has been shown to select for resistant fecal Escherichia coli in dairy calves. However, information is scarce about the effects of feeding calves waste milk (WM) on the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of fecal E. coli and nasal Pasteurella multocida isolates from calves fed either milk replacer (MR) or WM in 8 commercial dairy farms (4 farms per feeding program). Fecal and nasal swabs were collected from 20 ± 5 dairy calves at 42 ± 3.2 d of age, and from 10 of these at approximately 1 yr of age in each study farm to isolate the targeted bacteria. Furthermore, resistance of E. coli isolates from calf-environment and from 5 calves at birth and their dams was also evaluated in each study farm. Resistances were tested against the following antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, colistin, doxycycline (DO), enrofloxacin (ENR), erythromycin, florfenicol, imipenem, and streptomycin. A greater number of fecal E. coli resistant to ENR, florfenicol, and streptomycin and more multidrug-resistant E. coli phenotypes were isolated in feces of calves fed WM than in those fed MR. However, the prevalence of fecal-resistant E. coli was also influenced by calf age, as it increased from birth to 6 wk of age for ENR and DO and decreased from 6 wk to 1 yr of age for DO regardless of the feeding program. From nasal samples, an increase in the prevalence of colistin-resistant P. multocida was observed in calves fed WM compared with those fed MR. The resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from calves and their dams tended to differ, whereas similar resistance profiles among E. coli isolates from farm environment and calves were observed. The findings of this study suggest that feeding calves WM fosters the presence of resistant bacteria in the lower gut and respiratory tracts of dairy calves

  6. Occurrence in Mexico, 1998–2008, of Vibrio cholerae CTX+ El Tor carrying an additional truncated CTX prophage

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Munirul; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Mannan, Shahnewaj Bin; Islam, Tarequl; Lizarraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Hasan, Nur A.; Huq, Anwar; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita R.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae classical (CL) biotype was isolated, along with biotype El Tor (ET) and altered ET carrying the cholera toxin (CTX) gene of CL biotype, during the 1991 cholera epidemic in Mexico, subsequently becoming endemic until 1997. Microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses of V. cholerae isolated from both clinical and environmental samples during 1998–2008 confirm important genetic events, namely predominance of ET over CL and altered ET in Mexico. Although altered ET is pr...

  7. Biophysicochemical variability evaluation of jatropha curcas L. collections for biodiesel feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaura, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    The seed oils of six Jatropha curcas biotypes were evaluated for their oil quality parameters and showed: oil content (38-41 %), acid value (0.14-6.94 mg/g), free fatty acid (0.07-3.47 %), iodine value (115.48-163.37 mg/g) and viscosity (0.6320-0.7431). Significant differences among biotypes were observed in oil yield and biochemical parameters. The variability among the biotypes indicate a good scope of genetic gain through selection. (author)

  8. A SURVEY OF SIZES AND WEIGHTS OF BEMISIA TABACI(HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE)B BIOTYPE LIFE STAGES FROM FIELD GROWN COTTON AND CANTALOUPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-chiChu; JamesS.Buckner; KamilKarut; ThomasP.Freeman; DennisR.Nelson; ThomasJ.Henneberryl

    2003-01-01

    Size and weight measurements were made for all the life stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype from field grown cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) and cantaloupe ( Cucumis melo L., var. cantalupensis )in Phoenix, AZ and Fargo, ND, USA in 2000 and 2001. Nymphal volumes were derived from the measurements.The average nymphal volume increase for settled 1 st to the late 4th instar was exponential. The greatest increase in body volume occurred during development from the 3rd to early 4th instar. Nymphs on cotton leaves were wider,but not longer compared with those on cantaloupe. Ventral and dorsal depth ratios of nymphal bodies from 1st tolate 4th instars from cantaloupe leaves were significantly greater compared with those from cotton leaves. During nymphal development from 1st to 4th instar, the average (from the two host species) ventral body half volume in-creased by nearly 51 times compared with an increase of 28 times for the dorsal body half volume. Adult female and male average lengths, from heads to wing tips, were 1 126 μm and 953 μm, respectively. Average adult fe-male and male weights were 39 and 17 μg, respectively. Average widths, lengths, and weights of eggs from cottonand cantaloupe were, 99 μm, 197 μm, and 0.8 μg, respectively. Average widths, lengths, and weights for exu-viae of non-parasitized nymphs from both cotton and cantaloupe were 492 μm, 673 μm, and 1.20 μg, respective-ly; and widths, lengths, and weights of parasitized nymph exuviae were 452 μm, 665 μm, and 3.62 μg, respec-tively. Both exuviae from non-parasitized and parasitized nymphs from cotton leaves were wider, longer, and heavier than those from cantaloupe leaves.

  9. Occurrence of Campylobacter species in poultry forms in Lagos area of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboaba, O O; Smith, S I

    2005-06-01

    Samples of poultry droppings were collected from fifty poultry farms in Lagos area of Nigeria. Campylobacter species were isolated from serially diluted samples using Bolton selective enrichment medium under microaerophilic condition at 42 degrees C. Samples of water, both treated and untreated used in the farms were also analysed in the same manner. Fifteen Campylobacter strains were isolated from the droppings. All the strains were identified using biochemical characteristics differentiating Campylobacter species. They were identified as hippurate positive (C. jejuni) and negative species (C. coli). They were biotype' using the extended scheme described by Lior (1984). Campylobacter coli biotype 'I was the most prevalent (66.66%) followed by C. jejuni biotype 1 (20.00%). The biotype ii of the two species accounted for 6.67% each. The C. jejuni biotype III and IV were not isolated during the study. The preponderance of C. coli indicates that poultry can be a major reservoir for the spread of human campylobacteriosis. Poultry farmers, therefore, must ensure prompt and adequate means of disposal of waste materials as well as maintaining good sanitary conditions.

  10. Impact of non-target-site-resistance on herbicidal activity of imazamox on blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. in comparison to other ALS-graminicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievernich, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. resistance-monitoring conducted by BASF in 2010 - 2012 revealed a high number of accessions with resistance against imazamox. However, application of imazamoxbased products in a winter crop was limited to winter beans in France and United Kingdom only until the introduction of the Clearfield®-production system in autumn 2012 in winter oilseed rape. It is therefore assumed that the resistance mechanisms were probably selected by the frequent use of ACCase- and ALSinhibitors in winter crop rotations during the last 2 decades. Resistance level for each product-biotype combination was calculated according the “R”-classification system (S, R?, RR, RRR by directly comparing the product performance on a biotype versus untreated control. Majority of resistant biotypes did not show a target-site mutation at the known codon Pro197 or Trp574. In order to better evaluate the impact of Non-Target-Site-Resistance (NTSR on the activity of BEYOND (imazamox, ATLANTIS WG (mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron and ABAK (pyroxsulam, biotypes who have shown an ALS-target-site mutation were removed from further analysis. At the dose rate of 35 g ai/ha BEYOND provided good activity on susceptible biotypes of black-grass almost matching up with ATLANTIS WG and ABAK. However, activity of BEYOND declined stronger on biotypes classified as R? or RR for that product, while ATLANTIS WG and ABAK hardly showed any decline in control on this group of biotypes when applied at the recommended dose rate. It is assumed that the underlying NTSR-mechanism is not effective enough yet to confer resistance to ATLANTIS WG and ABAK, but on BEYOND. In contrast, biotypes classified as R? for ATLANTIS WG did show a stronger impact on the activity of BEYOND and ABAK then of ATLANTIS WG. These differences in control level probably do translate into differences in selection pressure as well.

  11. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida associated with ovine pneumonia using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence-associated gene profile analysis and comparison with porcine isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Andrés; Vela, Ana Isabel; San Martín, Elvira; Chaves, Fernando; Fernández-Garayzábal, José Francisco; Lucas, Domínguez; Cid, Dolores

    2017-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogen causing disease in a wide range of hosts including sheep and pigs. Isolates from ovine pneumonia were characterized by MLST (Multi-host and RIRDC databases) and virulence-associated gene (VAG) typing and compared with porcine isolates. Ovine and porcine isolates did not share any STs as determined by both schemes and exhibited different VAG profiles. With the Multi-host database, sixteen STs were identified among 43 sheep isolates with two STs (ST50 and ST19) comprising 53.5% of the isolates, and seven MLST genotypes (ST3, ST11 and ST62 included 75% of the isolates) among the 48 pig isolates. The most frequent VAG profile among sheep isolates was tbpA+/toxA+ (69.8% of isolates) and pfhA+ (62.5%) and hgbB+ (33.3%) among pig isolates. Representative ovine and porcine isolates of those STs identified by the Multi-host scheme were further typed using the RIRDC scheme. Seven STs were identified among the ovine isolates (ST95 RIRDC , ST131 RIRDC , ST203 RIRDC , ST320 RIRDC , ST324 RIRDC , ST321 RIRDC , and ST323 RIRDC ), with the latter four sequence types being new STs identified in this study, and six STs (ST9 RIRDC , ST13 RIRDC , ST27 RIRDC , ST50 RIRDC , and ST74 RIRDC and a new sequence type ST322 RIRDC ) among the porcine isolates. STs identified among ovine isolates have been detected exclusively in small ruminants, suggesting an adaptation to these hosts, while the genotypes identified among pig isolates have been previously identified in multiple hosts and therefore they are not restricted to pigs. The differences in genotypes and VAG profiles between ovine and pig isolates suggest they could represent different subpopulations of P. multocida. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline administered alone and in combination with carprofen in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2012-09-15

    The pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxytetracycline was investigated against a strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. In vitro measurements, comprising minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration and time-kill curves, were conducted in five matrices; Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB), cation-adjusted MHB (CAMHB) and calf serum, exudate and transudate. MICs were much higher in the biological fluids than in MHB and CAMHB. Ratios of MIC were, serum: CAMHB 19 : 1; exudate:CAMHB 16.1; transudate:CAMHB 14 : 1. Ex vivo data, generated in the tissue cage model of inflammation, demonstrated that oxytetracycline, administered to calves intramuscularly at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg, did not inhibit the growth of M haemolytica in serum, exudate and transudate, even at peak concentration. However, using in vitro susceptibility in CAMHB and in vivo-determined pharmacokinetic (PK) variables, average and minimum oxytetracycline concentrations relative to MIC (C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC) predicted achievement of efficacy for approximately 48 hours after dosing. Similar C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC data were obtained when oxytetracycline was administered in the presence of carprofen. PK-PD integration of data for oxytetracycline, based on MICs determined in the three biological fluids, suggests that it possesses, at most, limited direct killing activity against M haemolytica. These data raise questions concerning the mechanism(s) of action of oxytetracycline, when administered at clinically recommended dose rates.

  13. Rapid species specific identification and subtyping of Yersinia enterocolitica by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Roger; Cernela, Nicole; Ziegler, Dominik; Pflüger, Valentin; Tonolla, Mauro; Ravasi, Damiana; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Hächler, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica are Gram-negative pathogens and known as important causes of foodborne infections. Rapid and reliable identification of strains of the species Y. enterocolitica within the genus Yersinia and the differentiation of the pathogenic from the non-pathogenic biotypes has become increasingly important. We evaluated here the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid species identification and subtyping of Y. enterocolitica. To this end, we developed a reference MS database library including 19 Y. enterocolitica (non-pathogenic biotype 1A and pathogenic biotypes 2 and 4) as well as 24 non-Y. enterocolitica strains, belonging to eleven different other Yersinia spp. The strains provided reproducible and unique mass spectra profiles covering a wide molecular mass range (2000 to 30,000 Da). Species-specific and biotype-specific biomarker protein mass patterns were determined for Y. enterocolitica. The defined biomarker mass patterns (SARAMIS SuperSpectrum™) were validated using 117 strains from various Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes in a blind-test. All strains were correctly identified and for all strains the mass spectrometry-based identification scheme yielded identical results compared to a characterization by a combination of biotyping and serotyping. Our study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF-MS is a reliable and powerful tool for the rapid identification of Y. enterocolitica strains to the species level and allows subtyping of strains to the biotype level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical and microbiological features of Haemophilus influenzae vulvovaginitis in young girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R A; Slack, M P E

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To define the clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls whose genital swabs yielded Haemophilus influenzae. Methods: Laboratory based study and retrospective collection of clinical data from the requesting doctors. Results: Thirty eight isolates of non-capsulate Haemophilus influenzae and one of H parainfluenzae were isolated from 32 girls aged 18 months to 11 years. No other pathogens, such as β haemolytic streptococci or yeasts, were present with H influenzae. The most common biotype was biotype II, comprising 57% of the 26 isolates biotyped. Six children had more than one episode of vulvovaginitis caused by H influenzae and a total of 14 children had recurrent vaginal symptoms. Conclusion: Children who have H influenzae vulvovaginitis are at risk of recurrent symptoms. Biotype II is the one most commonly associated with this condition. PMID:12461068

  15. Rapid diagnosis of virulent Pasteurella multocida isolated from farm animals with clinical manifestation of pneumonia respiratory infection using 16S rDNA and KMT1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Mohamedin Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize intra-isolates variation between clinical isolates of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida isolated from sheep, cattle and buffalo at molecular level to check the distribution of pneumonia and hemorrhagic septicemia in some regions of Fayoum, Egypt. Methods: These isolates were obtained from various locations in the Fayoum Governorate, Egypt and they were identified by amplifying 16S rDNA and KMT1 genes using their DNA as a template in PCR reaction. Results: The results demonstrated that the five selective isolates of P. multocida had similar size of PCR products that generated one band of 16S rDNA having 1 471 bp and KMT1 gene having 460 bp. The phylogenetic tree and similarity of the five selective isolates of P. multocida which were collected from GenBank database were calculated and analyzed for the nucleotide sequence of 16S rDNA and KMT1 genes. The sequencing result of 16S rRNA gene product (1 471 bp for the five selective isolates of P. multocida showed that the isolates of sheep (FUP2 shared 94.08%, 88.10% homology with the buffalo isolate (FUP8 and cattle isolate (FUP9 respectively, whereas, the buffalo isolate (FUP5 shared 98.18% and 94.40% homology with the cattle isolates (FUP12 and FUP9. Conclusions: The results indicated the relationships of P. multocida isolated from buffalo and cattle rather than the close relationships between P. multocida isolated from cattle and sheep. Diagnosis of P. multocida by 16S rDNA and KMT1 gene sequences was important to determine the antigen that is responsible for protective cover within the same group of animals and to help for the production of new vaccines for the control of microbial infection for domestic animals.

  16. Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diez De Ulzurrun

    2012-09-01

    . multiflorum of Loberia (Buenos Aires, Argentina. Bioassays were conducted in Petri dishes and the GR50 was determined by the length of coleoptile. Curves dose-response were obtained using the log-logistic equation. The LmR biotype survived under multiple herbicides of three different modes of action, glyphosate, ALS and ACCase inhibitors. This test showed the appearance of a biotype of L. multiflorum with resistance to multiple active ingredients.

  17. Circulating strains of Brucella abortus in cattle in the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas - Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richar Ivan Rodríguez Hidalgo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, the Province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas represents the largest informal market of livestock due to its strategic position in the country; thus, given the high mobility of cattle in this region, the aim of this study was to determine the strain variation of Brucella sp.. Part of the study was the isolation, biotyping and genotyping of Brucella species isolated from milk and supra-mammary lymph nodes of sero-positive bovines. Protocols used for isolation, biotyping and genotyping of Brucella species were selective Farrell medium, biochemical assays and IS711-PCR, AMOS-PCR and HOOF-Prints techniques, respectively. In total, 656 animals from sero-positive dairy herds and from the slaughterhouse of the province were diagnosed by Rose Bengal and Wright’s Slow Agglutination test with EDTA. From these animals, 50 animals were found sero-positive for brucellosis. Twenty-five lymph nodes and 25 milk samples from each group of positive reactors were cultured and growth. Isolation was possible in 4 (16% and 9 (36%, respectively; and of these, 10 isolates were diagnosed as Brucella sp. All 4 isolates of lymphatic tissue corresponded to Brucella abortus biotype 1, confirmed as field strains by molecular analysis. Milk isolations, biochemically showed a more dispersed pattern in which B. abortus biotypes 1 and 4 were found; yet four samples gave a pattern similar to B. abortus biotype 2; however, only biotypes 1 and 4 were confirmed by molecular analysis. The concordance between biochemical and molecular diagnostic tests reached 76.9%.

  18. Characterization of Atypical Isolates of Yersinia intermedia and Definition of Two New Biotypes▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Liliane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Savin, Cyril; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The species Yersinia intermedia is a member of the genus Yersinia which belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is divided into eight biotypes, according to Brenner's biotyping scheme. This scheme relies on five tests (utilization of Simmons citrate and acid production from d-melibiose, d-raffinose, α-methyl-d-glucoside [αMG], and l-rhamnose). The collection of the French Yersinia Reference Laboratory (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France) contained 44 strains that were originally identified as Y. intermedia but whose characteristics did not fit into the biotyping scheme. These 44 strains were separated into two biochemical groups: variant 1 (positive for acid production from l-rhamnose and αMG and positive for Simmons citrate utlization) and variant 2 (positive for acid production from l-rhamnose and αMG). These atypical strains could correspond to new biotypes of Y. intermedia, to Y. frederiksenii strains having the atypical property of fermenting αMG, or to new Yersinia species. These strains did not exhibit growth or phenotypic properties different from those of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii and did not harbor any of the virulence traits usually found in pathogenic species. DNA-DNA hybridizations performed between one strain each of variants 1 and 2 and the Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii type strains demonstrated that these variants do belong to the Y. intermedia species. We thus propose that Brenner's biotyping scheme be updated by adding two new biotypes: 9 (for variant 1) and 10 (for variant 2) to the species Y. intermedia. PMID:19494062

  19. The limitations of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, B J; Robson, B; Lin, S; Hudson, J A; Weaver, L; Dufour, M; Strydom, H

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the analysis of 432 isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE had a high level of discrimination with biotype 1A isolates (Simpson's Diversity Index 0.997), but with the clinically important biotypes 2, 3 and 4, the discriminatory ability of PFGE was so low as to severely limit its usefulness (DI enterocolitica biotypes 2, 3 and 4, and inferences based on finding indistinguishable PFGE profiles among cases or between cases and sources need to be substantiated using alternative typing tools, or strong epidemiological evidence. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Phenotypic and molecular typing of Vibrio harveyi isolates and their pathogenicity to tiger shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Manoranjita, V; Vijayan, K K; Kalaimani, N; Santiago, T C

    2006-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify the biotype(s) and molecular type(s) of Vibrio harveyi associated with pathogenicity in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Five luminescent and four nonluminescent V. harveyi isolates were subjected to phenotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting, and pathogenicity testing to P. monodon mysis. Four isolates induced 34-41% mortality of P. monodon mysis when challenged at the rate of 10(6) CFU ml(-1) within 60 h. Sucrose-fermenting biotypes of V. harveyi appeared to be associated with pathogenicity to larval shrimp. Higher temperature and salinity appeared to play a role on the onset of vibriosis and mortality in the challenged larval shrimp. Pathogenic isolates of V. harveyi could be demarcated as revealed by their clustering in the dendrogram constructed based on the RAPD fingerprints. Nonluminescent V. harveyi also appear to be important aetiological agents of vibriosis of shrimp larvae. Sucrose-fermenting biotypes are likely to be pathogenic. High temperature may trigger onset of vibriosis. Biotyping of V. harveyi isolates and looking for traits, such as ability to ferment sucrose may be helpful in identifying the pathogenic forms, and such approach requires to be investigated further with larger number of isolates.

  1. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper; Fatores que afetam a oviposicao de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em pimentao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Larissa C. de; Campos, Alcebiades R. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade, Engenharia Rural e Solos]. E-mail: lclima@aluno.feis.unesp.br; campos@bio.feis.unesp.br

    2008-03-15

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  2. Clinical isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Biotype 1A represent two phylogenetic lineages with differing pathogenicity-related properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihvonen Leila M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Y. enterocolitica biotype (BT 1A strains are often isolated from human clinical samples but their contribution to disease has remained a controversial topic. Variation and the population structure among the clinical Y. enterocolitica BT 1A isolates have been poorly characterized. We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PCR for ystA and ystB, lipopolysaccharide analysis, phage typing, human serum complement killing assay and analysis of the symptoms of the patients to characterize 298 clinical Y. enterocolitica BT 1A isolates in order to evaluate their relatedness and pathogenic potential. Results A subset of 71 BT 1A strains, selected based on their varying LPS patterns, were subjected to detailed genetic analyses. The MLST on seven house-keeping genes (adk, argA, aroA, glnA, gyrB, thrA, trpE conducted on 43 of the strains discriminated them into 39 MLST-types. By Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS the strains clustered conclusively into two distinct lineages, i.e. Genetic groups 1 and 2. The strains of Genetic group 1 were more closely related (97% similarity to the pathogenic bio/serotype 4/O:3 strains than Genetic group 2 strains (95% similarity. Further comparison of the 16S rRNA genes of the BT 1A strains indicated that altogether 17 of the 71 strains belong to Genetic group 2. On the 16S rRNA analysis, these 17 strains were only 98% similar to the previously identified subspecies of Y. enterocolitica. The strains of Genetic group 2 were uniform in their pathogenecity-related properties: they lacked the ystB gene, belonged to the same LPS subtype or were of rough type, were all resistant to the five tested yersiniophages, were largely resistant to serum complement and did not ferment fucose. The 54 strains in Genetic group 1 showed much more variation in these properties. The most commonly detected LPS types were similar to the LPS types of reference strains with serotypes O

  3. Study of quantitative and qualitative variations in essential oils of Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Ruberto, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Cicero, Nicola; Gervasi, Teresa; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical characterisation of 10 Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L. biotypes essential oils is reported. The main goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between the essential oils yield and the geographical distribution of the species plants. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to cluster biotypes according to the essential oils chemical composition. The essential oil yield ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 (v/w). In total 82 compounds have been identified, these represent 96.7-99.9% of the essential oil. The most represented compounds in the essential oils were 1.8-cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, verbenone, α-pinene, limonene, bornyl acetate and terpinolene. The results show that the essential oil yield of the 10 biotypes is affected by the environmental characteristics of the sampling sites while the chemical composition is linked to the genetic characteristics of different biotypes.

  4. Tubulin-isotype analysis of two grass species-resistant to dinitroaniline herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldin, T R; Ellis, J R; Hussey, P J

    1992-09-01

    Trifluralin-resistant biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. (goosegrass) and Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (green foxtail) exhibit cross-resistance to other dinitroaniline herbicides. Since microtubules are considered the primary target site for dinitroaniline herbicides we investigated whether the differential sensitivity of resistant and susceptible biotypes of these species results from modified tubulin polypeptides. One-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with immunoblotting using well-characterised anti-tubulin monoclonal antibodies were used to display the family of tubulin isotypes in each species. Seedlings of E. indica exhibited four β-tubulin isotypes and one α-tubulin isotype, whereas those of S. viridis exhibited two β-tubulin and two α-tubulin isotypes. Comparison of the susceptible and resistant biotypes within each species revealed no differences in electrophoretic properties of the multiple tubulin isotypes. These results provide no evidence that resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides is associated with a modified tubulin polypeptide in these biotypes of E. indica or S. viridis.

  5. Antibiotico – resistenza in Campylobacter jejuni /coli in Italia nel corso del 2002: risultati di una indagine policentrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2002, inside Campyg Working Group Project, we examined from 8 italian laboratories the patterns of resistances of 205 strains of Campylobacter spp.These strains were: 88% C. jejuni (68% biotype 1, 31% biotype 2, 1% biotype 3, 11% C. coli (95.5% biotype 1 and 1% Clo’s.We observed these resistances: to erythromycin 3.5% (2.2% in C. jejuni, 13.6% in C. coli, to rokitamicin 2.5 % (1.1% and 13.6% respectively, to ciprofloxacin 49.5% (51.1% and 63.6%, to tetracycline 45.0% (43.3% and 59.1%, to minocycline 41.6% (40.0% and 54.5%, to gentamycin 0.5%, to chloramphenicole no ones. Some differences concerning frequency of resistances were observed among 8 laboratories, also between C. jejuni b. 1 and C. jejuni b. 2, but these were not significative. Some suggests are given for continuing this surveillance, from an epidemiological point of view too.

  6. Antimicrobial effect of probiotics on bacterial species from dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambori, Csilla; Morvay, Attila Alexandru; Sala, Claudia; Licker, Monica; Gurban, Camelia; Tanasie, Gabriela; Tirziu, Emil

    2016-03-31

    The antimicrobial role of probiotic Lactobacillus casei subspecies casei DG (L. casei DG) and of the mix culture of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 was tested on species of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera from supragingival sites from dogs with dental disease of different breed, age, sex, weight, and diet. The research was conducted on these four genera because of their importance in zoonotic infections after dog bites. Species from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera were isolated and identified. To test the antimicrobial efficacy of L. casei DG and the mixed culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 on the pathogenic species, the agar overlay method was used. L. casei DG had a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera after 24 hours of incubation. The mixed probiotic culture made up of L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 species had no bactericidal effect on the species of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera, which were resistant. However, it had a bacteriostatic effect on several species of Pasteurella and Neisseria genera. This work highlights the antimicrobial potential of probiotics in vitro, demonstrating that the probiotic L. casei DG has a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from dental plaque and that the mix culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 has only a bacteriostatic effect.

  7. Investigation of genetic diversity and epidemiological characteristics of Pasteurella multocida isolates from poultry in southwest China by population structure, multi-locus sequence typing and virulence-associated gene profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangcheng; Cheng, Fangjun; Lan, Shimei; Guo, Jianhua; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan; Luo, Zeli; Zhang, Manli; Wu, Juan; Shi, Yang

    2018-04-25

    Fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida has always been a disease of global importance for poultry production. The aim of this study was to obtain more information about the epidemiology of avian P. multocida infection in southwest China and the genetic characteristics of clinical isolates. P. multocida isolates were characterized by biochemical and molecular-biological methods. The distributions of the capsular serogroups, the phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) genotyping and the presence of 19 virulence genes were investigated in 45 isolates of P. multocida that were associated with clinical disease in poultry. The genetic diversity of P. multocida strains was performed by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analysis as well as multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The results showed that most (80.0%) of the P. multocida isolates in this study represented special P. multocida subspecies, and 71.1% of the isolates showed multiple-drug resistance. 45 isolates belonged to capsular types: A (100%) and two LPS genotypes: L1 (95.6%) and L3 (4.4%). MLST revealed two new alleles (pmi77 and gdh57) and one new sequence type (ST342). ST129 types dominated in 45 P. multocida isolates. Isolates belonging to ST129 were with the genes ompH+plpB+ptfA+tonB, whereas ST342 included isolates with fur+hgbA+tonB genes. Population genetic analysis and the MLST results revealed that at least one new ST genotype was present in the avian P. multocida in China. These findings provide novel insights into the epidemiological characteristics of avian P. multocida isolates in southwest China.

  8. An evaluation of the gingival biotype and the width of keratinized gingiva in the mandibular anterior region of individuals with different dental malocclusion groups and levels of crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yeşim; Alkan, Özer; Keskin, Sıddık

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship of gingival thickness (GT) and the width of keratinized gingiva (WKG) with different malocclusion groups and the level of crowding. A total of 187 periodontally healthy subjects (121 females and 66 males) who presented at the Faculty of Dentistry in Yüzüncü Yıl University for orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study. The individuals involved in the study were divided into three groups; Angle Class I malocclusion, Angle Class II malocclusion, and Angle Class III malocclusion. Each group was classified as mild, moderate, or severe according to the level of crowding. WKG was determined as the distance between the mucogingival junction and the free gingival margin. GT was determined by the transgingival probing technique. Factorial variance analysis and the Duncan multiple comparison test were employed to identify the extent to which a difference was apparent between the groups according to these parameters. It was determined that teeth in the mandibular anterior region display the thin gingival biotype. WKG and GT were observed as being higher at the mandibular incisor teeth in the severe crowding group and at the mandibular canine teeth in the mild crowding group. The GT of the mandibular right central and lateral incisors was found to be thinner in the Angle Class III group. Within the limits of this study, the results demonstrate that, there is no significant relationship of WKG and the mean GT in the mandibular anterior region according to the Angle classification.

  9. The intensity of non-target site mechanisms influences the level of resistance of sourgrass to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina da Costa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-target site mechanisms are involved in the resistance of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis to glyphosate. Studies on the 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation as well as the detection of glyphosate and its metabolites in sourgrass plants were carried out under controlled conditions to investigate if the differential response of resistant sourgrass biotypes (R1 and R2 is derived from the intensity of non-target site mechanisms involved in the resistance to glyphosate. Different pattern of absorption was observed between S (susceptible and R2 from 12 up to 48 hours after treatment with glyphosate (HAT, and between S and R1 just at 12 HAT. The initial difference in glyphosate absorption among the biotypes did not maintained at 96 HAT and afterwards. Smaller amount of herbicide left the treated leaf into the rest of shoot and roots in R2 (25% than in S (58% and R1 (52%. In addition, slight difference in glyphosate translocation was observed between S and R1. We found high percentage (81% of glyphosate in the S biotype up to 168 HAT, while just 44% and 2% of glyphosate was recovered from R1 and R2 plant tissues. In addition, high percentage of glyphosate metabolites was found in R2 (98% and R1 (56% biotypes, while a very low percentage (11% was found in the S biotype. As previous studies indicated resistant factors of 3.5 and 5.6 for R1 and R2, respectively, we conclude that the differential response of sourgrass biotypes is derived from the intensity of the non-target site mechanisms involved in the resistance to glyphosate.

  10. Influence of abutment material on peri-implant soft tissues in anterior areas with thin gingival biotype: a multicentric prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lops, Diego; Stellini, Edoardo; Sbricoli, Luca; Cea, Niccolò; Romeo, Eugenio; Bressan, Eriberto

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present clinical trial was to analyze, through spectrophotometric digital technology, the influence of the abutment material on the color of the peri-implant soft tissue in patients with thin gingival biotype. Thirty-seven patients received an endosseous dental implant in the anterior maxilla. At time of each definitive prosthesis delivery, an all-ceramic crown has been tried on gold, titanium and zirconia abutment. Peri-implant soft-tissue color has been measured through a spectrophotometer after the insertion of each single abutment. Also facial peri-implant soft-tissue thickness was measured at the level of the implant neck through a caliper. A specific software has been utilized to identify a standardized tissue area and to collect the data before the statistical analysis in Lab* color space. ΔE parameters of the selected abutments were tested for correlation with mucosal thickness. Pearson correlation test was used. Only 15 patients met the study inclusion criteria on peri-implant soft-tissue thickness. Peri-implant soft-tissue color was different from that around natural teeth, no matter which type of restorative material was selected. Measurements regarding all the abutments were above the critical threshold of ΔE 8.74 for intraoral color distinction by the naked eye. The ΔE mean values of gold and zirconium abutments were similar (11.43 and 11.37, respectively) and significantly lower (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively) than the titanium abutment (13.55). In patients with a facial soft-tissue thickness ≤2 mm, the ΔE mean value of gold and zirconia abutments was significantly lower than that of titanium abutments (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively) and much more close to the reference threshold of 8.74. For peri-implant soft tissue of ≤2 mm, gold or zirconia abutments could be selected in anterior areas treatment. Moreover, the thickness of the peri-implant soft tissue seemed to be a crucial factor in the abutment impact

  11. 77 FR 29216 - New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Sodium; Lincomycin Powder; Naracin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...) * * * (2) * * * (ii) Indications for use. For treatment of bovine respiratory disease (shipping fever... treatment of sheep respiratory disease (sheep pneumonia) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica and........... Environmental Health, A (narasin) Type increasing the assessment (EA)/ Division of Eli A medicated upper dose...

  12. Assessing respiratory pathogen communities in bighorn sheep populations: Sampling realities, challenges, and improvements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson J Butler

    Full Text Available Respiratory disease has been a persistent problem for the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, but has uncertain etiology. The disease has been attributed to several bacterial pathogens including Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurellaceae pathogens belonging to the Mannheimia, Bibersteinia, and Pasteurella genera. We estimated detection probability for these pathogens using protocols with diagnostic tests offered by a fee-for-service laboratory and not offered by a fee-for-service laboratory. We conducted 2861 diagnostic tests on swab samples collected from 476 bighorn sheep captured across Montana and Wyoming to gain inferences regarding detection probability, pathogen prevalence, and the power of different sampling methodologies to detect pathogens in bighorn sheep populations. Estimated detection probability using fee-for-service protocols was less than 0.50 for all Pasteurellaceae and 0.73 for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae. Non-fee-for-service Pasteurellaceae protocols had higher detection probabilities, but no single protocol increased detection probability of all Pasteurellaceae pathogens to greater than 0.50. At least one protocol resulted in an estimated detection probability of 0.80 for each pathogen except Mannheimia haemolytica, for which the highest detection probability was 0.45. In general, the power to detect Pasteurellaceae pathogens at low prevalence in populations was low unless many animals were sampled or replicate samples were collected per animal. Imperfect detection also resulted in low precision when estimating prevalence for any pathogen. Low and variable detection probabilities for respiratory pathogens using live-sampling protocols may lead to inaccurate conclusions regarding pathogen community dynamics and causes of bighorn sheep respiratory disease epizootics. We recommend that agencies collect multiples samples per animal for Pasteurellaceae detection, and one sample for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae detection from

  13. Comparison of diet selection by Raramuri criollo and Angus crossbreds in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raramuri Criollo (RC) is a cattle biotype that has undergone natural selection for the past 500 years in northern Mexico. No information exists on diet selection for this biotype. The objective of this study was to compare diet selection of RC and Angus x Hereford crossbreds (AH) typically found in ...

  14. INTRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solution (Hewitt, 1966). Experimental Design. Two separate experiments, one for each biotype, were set up. Each experiment consisted of a growing barley plant enclosed under a ventilated clear cylindrical isolation cage. The plant, at the 3- leaf stage, was infested with 10 apterous form of each RWA biotype. Ten replicates ...

  15. Alpha-tubulin missense mutations correlate with antimicrotubule drug resistance in Eleusine indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, E; Zeng, L; Baird, W V

    1998-02-01

    Dinitroaniline herbicides are antimicrotubule drugs that bind to tubulins and inhibit polymerization. As a result of repeated application of dinitroaniline herbicides, highly resistant and intermediately resistant biotypes of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) developed in previously wild-type populations. Three alpha-tubulin cDNA classes (designated TUA1, TUA2, and TUA3) were isolated from each biotype. Nucleotide differences between the susceptible and the resistant (R) alpha-tubulins were identified in TUA1 and TUA2. The most significant differences were missense mutations that occurred in TUA1 of the R and intermediately resistant (I) biotypes. Such mutations convert Thr-239 to Ile in the R biotype and Met-268 to Thr in the I biotype. These amino acid substitutions alter hydrophobicity; therefore, they may alter the dinitroaniline binding property of the protein. These mutations were correlated with the dinitroaniline response phenotypes (Drp). Plants homozygous for susceptibility possessed the wild-type TUA1 allele; plants homozygous for resistance possessed the mutant tua1 allele; and plants heterozygous for susceptibility possessed both wild-type and mutant alleles. Thus, we conclude that TUA1 is at the Drp locus. Using polymerase chain reaction primer-introduced restriction analysis, we demonstrated that goosegrass genomic DNA can be diagnosed for Drp alleles. Although not direct proof, these results suggest that a mutation in an alpha-tubulin gene confers resistance to dinitroanilines in goosegrass.

  16. Yersinia enterocolitica strains associated with human infections in Switzerland 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Cernela, N; Hächler, H; Stephan, R

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica infections are common in humans. However, very scarce data are available on the different biotypes and virulence factors of human strains, which has proved to be problematic to assess the clinical significance of the isolated strains. In this study, the presence of the ail gene and distribution of different bio- and serotypes among human Y. enterocolitica strains and their possible relation to the genotype and antimicrobial resistance were studied. In total, 128 Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from human clinical samples in Switzerland during 2001-2010 were characterised. Most (75 out of 128) of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotypes 2, 3 or 4 and carried the ail gene. One of the 51 strains that belonged to biotype 1A was also ail positive. Most of the ail-positive strains belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3 (47 out of 76) followed by 2/O:9 (22 out of 76). Strains of bioserotype 4/O:3 were dominant among patients between 20 and 40 years old and strains of biotype 1A dominate in patients over 40 years. Strains belonging to biotypes 2, 3 and 4, which all carried the ail gene, exhibited a high homogeneity with PFGE typing. Y. enterocolitica 2/O:5,27 and 2/O:9 strains showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefoxitin, but Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains did not.

  17. Identification and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from the milk and milk products in and around Jammu region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Umar; Kotwal, S. K.; Gupta, Sanjolly; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence, identification, and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from 215 samples of different milk and milk products in and around Jammu region. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 215 samples of milk, rasgulla, burfi, rasmalai, kalaari, paneer, ice cream, and pastry were collected and analyzed for the isolation of the B. cereus using PEMBA, and antibiogram pattern was observed for all the milk and milk products. Results: B. cereus was detected in 61/215 samples with an overall prevalence of 28.37%. Biotyping revealed predominantly 5, 7, and 2 biotypes in raw milk. Burfi and ice cream revealed 2, 3, 5, and 7 biotypes. Rasgulla had 2, 3, and 5 biotypes; paneer and rasmalai had biotypes 2 and 5, while kalaari revealed biotype 5. Antibiogram pattern revealed that isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), intermediate to ampicillin (40.98%), tetracycline (31.14%), erythromycin (29.50%), and amoxicillin (26.22%), and high resistance against penicillin G (100%). Adulteration of starch was detected in 16.66 % raw milk samples. All starch positive samples were positive for B. cereus. However, 12 starch negative samples also yielded B. cereus. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that highest prevalence of B. cereus was found in ice cream. Several isolates of B. cereus showed toxigenic activity, so the presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products may be of public health hazard. The antibiogram pattern of B. cereus isolates showed sensitivity to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and resistance to penicillin-G and cephalexin. The presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products showed a strong association besides establishing the fact that starch adulteration can be indicative of the presence of B. cereus. PMID:29657402

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antibiotic resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospital food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenic biotypes of the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains are considered to be one of the major cause of food-borne diseases in hospitals. The present investigation was done to study the pattern of antibiotic resistance and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes of different biotypes of the MRSA strains isolated from various types of hospital food samples. Methods Four-hundred and eighty-five raw and cooked hospital food samples were cultured and MRSA strains were identified using the oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion tests and mecA-based PCR amplification. Isolated strains were subjected to biotyping and their antibiotic resistance patterns were analyzed using the disk diffusion and PCR methods. Results Prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA were 9.69 and 7.62%, respectively. Meat and chicken barbecues had the highest prevalence of MRSA. Prevalence of bovine, ovine, poultry and human-based biotypes in the MRSA strains were 8.10, 8.10, 32.43 and 48.64%, respectively. All of the MRSA strains recovered from soup, salad and rice samples were related to human-based biotypes. MRSA strains harbored the highest prevalence of resistance against penicillin (100%, ceftaroline (100%, tetracycline (100%, erythromycin (89.18% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.78%. TetK (72.97%, ermA (72.97%, msrA (64.86% and aacA-D (62.16% were the most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes. Conclusions Pattern of antibiotic resistance and also distribution of antibiotic resistance genes were related to the biotype of MRSA strains. Presence of multi-drug resistance and also simultaneous presence of several antibiotic resistance genes in some MRSA isolates showed an important public health issue Further researches are required to found additional epidemiological aspects of the MRSA strains in hospital food samples.

  19. [The occurrence of campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella bacteria in some wild birds (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosef, O

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was carried out into the occurrence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella species in some wild birds. A total of 129 birds was examined, consisting of 71 pigeons, 54 seagulls, three crows and one raven. Campylobacter bacteria were isolated from 32 birds (24.8%), of which three were pigeons, 27 seagulls and two were crows. Of the 27 Campylobacter strains isolated from seagulls, four had the biochemical characteristics of the NARTC biotype described by Skirrow and Benjamin, seven were grouped as Campylobacter coli biotype and 16 as the biotype of Campylobacter jejuni. All the strains isolated from crows and pigeons had the biochemical characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni biotypes. Salmonella bacteria were isolated from the intestinal contents of two of the 54 seagulls (3.7%), and were identified serologically as Salmonella indiana and Salmonella typhimurium. One seagull was found to be a carrier of both Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella typhimurium. A correlation could not be demonstrated between the occurrence of Salmonella bacteria and Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

  20. Aspectos patológicos e microbiológicos das doenças respiratórias em suínos de terminação no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A.Z. Morés

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Para avaliação dos aspectos patológicos e microbiológicos de casos clínicos de doenças respiratórias em suínos de terminação foram analisados 75 suínos doentes oriundos de 36 lotes. Suínos que apresentavam sinais clínicos respiratórios evidentes foram necropsiados para avaliação macroscópica e colheita de amostras para análise histopatológica e microbiológica. Foram realizados testes de isolamento bacteriano para as principais bactérias do sistema respiratório dos suínos, PCR para Mycoplasma hyorhinis, imuno-histoquímica para Influenza A, Circovirus suíno tipo 2 e Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. A sensibilidade antimicrobiana de 24 amostras de Pasteurella multocida tipo A foi avaliada por testes de concentração inibitória mínima para os principais antimicrobianos utilizados em suinocultura. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e Pasteurella multocida tipo A foram os agentes infecciosos mais prevalentes. Broncopneumonia supurativa e pleurite foram as principais lesões respiratórias encontradas. Pasteurella multocida tipo A, quando presente, aumentou a extensão das lesões pulmonares. Todas as amostras de Pasteurella multocida testadas foram sensíveis aos antimicrobianos Doxiciclina, Enrofloxacina e Tilmicosina. Em 58% das amostras foi identificado mais de um agente infeccioso, evidenciando a alta prevalência da associação de agentes nas doenças respiratórias de suínos em terminação.

  1. caseous lymphadenitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... capsule (Fig. 5). Fig. 5. Capra ibex - Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from the lesion shown in Figure 3 (Gram staining). Both strains were attributed morphologically and by biochemical ... Liver, bone and brain: absence of pathogenic bacteria. ... pneumonia, characterized by the presence of nematode.

  2. Analysis of gene order data supports vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin operon and genome rearrangements in the 5' flanking region in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    subclades, thus reaffirming the hypothesis of vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin operon. The presence of individual 5' flanking regions in M. haemolytica + M. glucosida and M. granulomatis reflects later genome rearrangements within each subclade. The evolution of the novel 5' flanking region in M...

  3. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from personnel in a poultry hatchery and in broiler parent farms with those isolated from skeletal disease in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J D; McCullagh, J J; McNamee, P T; Smyth, J A; Ball, H J

    1999-09-15

    Personnel from one broiler hatchery, and workers on 18 separate broiler parent farms which supply the hatchery, were tested for hand and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. In both locations, nasal carriage of S. aureus was more common than hand carriage. A total of 63 S. aureus strains were characterised by biotyping, protein A analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Of these, 36 were recovered from broiler hatchery personnel, 14 from broiler parent farm personnel and 13 from cases of skeletal disease in commercial broilers. Biotyping and protein A analysis indicated that none of the strains recovered from hatchery personnel were of the poultry biotype, but that two strains recovered from the hands of two broiler parent farm personnel could be grouped together with 12/13 of strains recovered from skeletal disease in broilers, as poultry biotypes. PFGE-typing could not distinguish 9/13 strains recovered from skeletal disease in broilers and one of the strains from the broiler parent farm personnel from isolate 24 (I. 24), which is the predominant S. aureus strain type associated with clinical disease in N. Ireland broiler flocks. The present study found no evidence of nasal carriage of S. aureus strains of poultry biotype by humans. The finding of hand carriage by broiler parent farm personnel, suggests that handling by personnel may contribute to the dissemination of I. 24 or other S. aureus strains associated with skeletal disease in broilers.

  4. Bighorn sheep pneumonia: Sorting out the cause of a polymicrobial disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a dramatic disease of high morbidity and mortality first described more than 80 years ago. The etiology of the disease has been debated since its initial discovery, and at various times lungworms, Mannheimia haemolytica and other Pasteurellaceae, and M...

  5. Evidence for Vertical Inheritance and Loss of the Leukotoxin Operon in Genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Christensen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The Mannheimia subclades belong to the same bacterial genus but have taken divergent paths toward their distinct lifestyles. M. haemolytica + M. glucosida are potential pathogens of the respiratory tract in the mammalian suborder Ruminantia, whereas M. ruminalis, the supposed sister group, lives...... and reproductive isolation (speciation)....

  6. Mannheimia Species Associated with Ovine Mastitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Omaleki, Lida; Barber, Stuart R.; Allen, Joanne L.; Browning, Glenn F.

    2010-01-01

    Mannheimia glucosida, M. haemolytica, and M. ruminalis were isolated from cases of acute mastitis in ewes. M. glucosida was found to be a common cause of clinical mastitis in sheep. Selected phenotypic tests in addition to genotyping were needed to definitively identify Mannheimia species causing ovine mastitis.

  7. Etiologic Agents and Diseases Found Associated with Clinical Aspergillosis in Falcons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Tarello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe parasitological, microbiological, and pathological findings associated with the isolation of Aspergillus species in 94 clinically diseased captive falcons from Dubai. Concomitant agents and/or diseases were identified in 64 cases, causing either single (=36 or multiple coinfections (=28. Diagnoses found more often in association with aspergillosis were chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS (=29, Caryospora sp. (=16, Serratospiculum seurati infestation (=14, cestodiasis (=6, bumblefoot (=5, trematodosis due to Strigea falconispalumbi (=5, trichomoniasis (=4, Babesia shortti (=4, Mannheimia (Pastorella haemolytica (=4, interstitial hepatitis (=4, Escherichia coli (=3, and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia (=2. Compared with a control group of 2000 diseased falcons without evidence of aspergillosis, the prevalence of Babesia shortti, CFIDS, Mannheimia (Pastorella haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and falcon herpes virus infection was conspicuously higher in association with aspergillosis. These entities may be considered suitable candidates as predisposing factors for the mycosis.

  8. Development of fowl cholera vaccine: I. Protection of Pasteurella multocida local isolate vaccine against challenge of homologous and heterologous strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida locally isolated from chicken and ducks (BCC 299, BCC 2331, DY1, DY2, 12TG, 15TG andimported strains (BCC 1359, 1362; HEDDLESTON group 1 and 6 respectively had been tested for its pathogenicity in theprevious study. The aims of this experiment were to study the preparation of local isolate pasteurellosis vaccines and to determine the protective effect of that vaccines in chicken against the highly pathogenic local isolates of P. multocida. Killed monovalent, bivalent and polyvalent pasteurellosis vaccines were prepared and each was adjunvanted with aluminum hydroxide gel at a final concentration of 1.5% and the cell concentration was equal to the No 10 of MacFarland tube standard. Each of the vaccine prepared was used to vaccinated on a group of six week old of layer chicken (8 per group. Each chicken was subcutaneously injected with 0.2 ml of vaccine, four weeks later each was boostered with similar vaccine with the same dose. Two weeks after giving the boostered vaccine each group of chicken were challenged, half with life bacterium of P. Multocida BCC 2331 and other with DY2. Any chick which survive after challenge was designated as protected by vaccination. Before vaccination 1 ml of blood was drawn from each of chicken and then two weeks apart up to challenge. Serum from each sample was separated and kept in deep freeze until tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Chicken vaccinated with killed whole cell P. multocida vaccines of monovalent (BCC 2331 or DY2 and bivalent (BCC 2331 + DY2 were protected against challenge with live bacterium of either BCC 2331 or DY2 at rate 67-100%. There was no protection in chicken vaccinated with either BCC 299, DY1, 12TG, 15TG, BCC 1359, or 1362 killed vaccine. Similarly no protection of chicken vaccinated with either DY1 + BCC299, 12TG + 15TG or BCC 1359 + BCC 1362 bivalent vaccines. The protection rate of the polyvalent local isolate vaccine was at average 50-75%. All

  9. One-Step Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Capripoxvirus, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies (ssp.) capripneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settypalli, T.B.K.; Lamien, C.; Spergser, J.; Lelenta, M.; Wade, A.; Gelaye, E.; Loitsch, A.; Minoungou, G.; Thiaucourt, F.; Diallo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. In the present study, a one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV), Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Pasteurella multocida (PM) and Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumonia (Mccp) in pathological samples collected from small ruminants with respiratory disease symptoms. The test performed efficiently without any cross-amplification. The multiplex PCR efficiency was 98.31%, 95.48%, 102.77% and 91.46% whereas the singleplex efficiency was 93.43%, 98.82%, 102.55% and 92.0% for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99 for all the targets in both multiplex and singleplex. Based on cycle threshold values, intra and inter assay variability, ranged between the limits of 2%–4%, except for lower concentrations of Mccp. The detection limits at 95% confidence interval (CI) were 12, 163, 13 and 23 copies/reaction for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The multiplex assay was able to detect CaPVs from all genotypes, PPRV from the four lineages, PM and Mccp without amplifying the other subspecies of mycoplasmas. The discriminating power of the assay was proven by accurate detection of the targeted pathogen (s) by screening 58 viral and bacterial isolates representing all four targeted pathogens. Furthermore, by screening 81 pathological samples collected from small ruminants showing respiratory disease symptoms, CaPV was detected in

  10. One-Step Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for the Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Capripoxvirus, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies (ssp. capripneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Bharani Kumar Settypalli

    Full Text Available Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. In the present study, a one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV, Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV, Pasteurella multocida (PM and Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumonia (Mccp in pathological samples collected from small ruminants with respiratory disease symptoms. The test performed efficiently without any cross-amplification. The multiplex PCR efficiency was 98.31%, 95.48%, 102.77% and 91.46% whereas the singleplex efficiency was 93.43%, 98.82%, 102.55% and 92.0% for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99 for all the targets in both multiplex and singleplex. Based on cycle threshold values, intra and inter assay variability, ranged between the limits of 2%-4%, except for lower concentrations of Mccp. The detection limits at 95% confidence interval (CI were 12, 163, 13 and 23 copies/reaction for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The multiplex assay was able to detect CaPVs from all genotypes, PPRV from the four lineages, PM and Mccp without amplifying the other subspecies of mycoplasmas. The discriminating power of the assay was proven by accurate detection of the targeted pathogen (s by screening 58 viral and bacterial isolates representing all four targeted pathogens. Furthermore, by screening 81 pathological samples collected from small ruminants showing respiratory disease symptoms, CaPV was detected in

  11. Application of Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism for Comparison of Human and Animal Isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Catherine; On, Stephen L. W.; Kokotovic, Branko; Manning, Georgina; Cheasty, Tom; Newell, Diane G.

    2005-01-01

    An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method, developed to genotype Yersinia enterocolitica, has been used to investigate 70 representative strains isolated from humans, pigs, sheep, and cattle in the United Kingdom. AFLP primarily distinguished Y. enterocolitica strains according to their biotype, with strains dividing into two distinct clusters: cluster A, comprising largely the putatively pathogenic biotypes (BT2 to -4), and cluster B, comprising the putatively nonpathogenic biotype 1A strains and a single BT1B isolate. Within these two clusters, subclusters formed largely on the basis of serotype. However, AFLP profiles also allowed differentiation of strains within these serotype-related subclusters, indicating the high discriminatory power of the technique for Y. enterocolitica. Investigation of the relationship between strain AFLP profile and host confirmed that pigs are, and provides further proof that sheep may be, potential sources of human infection with putatively pathogenic strains. However, the results suggest that some strains causing human disease do not come from veterinary sources identifiable at this time. The distribution of some BT1A isolates within cluster A raises questions about the relationship between virulence potential and biotype. PMID:16151073

  12. Role of Bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza-3 virus in bighorn sheep pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Haldorson, Gary J; Foreyt, William J; Evermann, James F; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2013-02-22

    Pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS) have been found to be culture- and/or sero-positive for Bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3). The objective of this study was to determine whether these pathogens can cause fatal pneumonia in BHS. In the first study, two groups of four BHS each were intra-tracheally administered with leukotoxin-positive (Group I) or leukotoxin-negative (Group II) B. trehalosi. All four animals in Group I developed severe pneumonia, and two of them died within 3 days. The other two animals showed severe pneumonic lesions on euthanasia and necropsy. Animals in Group II neither died nor showed gross pneumonic lesions on necropsy, suggesting that leukotoxin-positive, but not leukotoxin-negative, B. trehalosi can cause fatal pneumonia in BHS. In the second study, two other groups of four BHS (Groups III and IV) were intra-nasally administered with a mixture of RSV and PI-3. Four days later, RSV/PI-3-inoculated Group IV and another group of four BHS (Group V, positive control) were intra-nasally administered with Mannheimia haemolytica, the pathogen that consistently causes fatal pneumonia in BHS. All four animals in group III developed pneumonia, but did not die during the study period. However all four animals in Group IV, and three animals in Group V developed severe pneumonia and died within two days of M. haemolytica inoculation. The fourth animal in Group V showed severe pneumonic lesions on euthanasia and necropsy. These findings suggest that RSV/PI-3 can cause non-fatal pneumonia, but are not necessary predisposing agents for M. haemolytica-caused pneumonia of BHS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Masked rat: an x-ray-induced mutant with chronic blepharitis, alopecia, and pasteurellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, R.L.; Lutzner, M.A.; Hansen, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    An autosomal recessive mutation had been previously x-ray-induced in the rat and named the masked rat (genotype mk/mk). This study describes the mutant's appearance, histology, and microflora. The rat's eyelids were swollen, often to the point of closure, and its face was partially covered by a brownish crust, giving the mutant a mask-like appearance. The chronic blepharitis was also accompanied by alopecia that appeared as bare patches across the mutant's back. Pasteurella pneumotropica was found in eyelids and on skin from all masked rats. The normal rat demonstrated a resistance to Pasteurella pneumotropica infection, or, conversely, the masked rat appeared to be genetically predisposed to pasteurellosis

  14. Pets and Pasteurella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present in some children, including an infection of the joints ( arthritis ), bones (osteomyelitis), and tendons (tenosynovitis). Less frequently, youngsters may have pneumonia , urinary tract ...

  15. Evaluation of rice mutant lines for resistance to brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens stall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono

    1985-01-01

    The most important and common insect in rice cultivation in South East Asia is brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens stall. Seven rice mutant lines produced by the National Atomic Energy Agency, Indonesia, were tested at IRRI, the Philippines for resistance to brown planthopper. Those mutant lines were Atomita 1, 627/10-3/PsJ, Atomita 2 and 627/4-E/PsJ originated from Pelita 1/1 which was irradiated with 0.2 kGy of gamma rays and A227/2/PsJ, A227/3/PsJ and A227/5/PsJ, originated from early maturing mutant A23/PsJ/72K from irradiated Pelita 1/1 which was irradiated with 0.1 kGy of gamma rays. Evaluation of resistance was carried out by seedling bulk screening, honeydew excretion, survival and population build up tests by using brown planthopper biotype 1, 2 and 3. Results of these tests showed that the seven tested mutant lines were resistant to biotype 1 but susceptible to biotype 2. Reaction to biotype 3 showed that six mutant lines tested were moderately resistant and only one mutant of 627/4-E/PsJ was susceptible. Reactions of the mutant lines to biotype 1, 2 and 3 were different from the resistant varieties, Mudgo or ASD-7. This indicated that mutant lines might have gene(s) for resistance which differed from those of resistant varieties. The results showed that resistance to brown planthopper is possible to be introduced in Indonesian rice varieties by means of mutations. (author)

  16. Direct bacterial identification in positive blood cultures by use of two commercial matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jonathan H K; Ho, Pak-Leung; Kwan, Grace S W; She, Kevin K K; Siu, Gilman K H; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Yam, Wing-Cheong

    2013-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of bacteria and fungi was recently introduced in microbiology laboratories. This technology could greatly improve the clinical management of patients and guidance for chemotherapy. In this study, we used a commercial MALDI Sepsityper extraction method to evaluate the performance of two commercial MALDI-TOF MS systems, the Vitek MS IVD (bioMérieux) and the Microflex LT Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics) for direct bacterial identification in positive blood cultures. In 181 monomicrobial cultures, both systems generated genus to species level identifications for >90% of the specimens (Biotyper, 177/181 [97.8%]; Vitek MS IVD, 167/181 [92.3%]). Overall, the Biotyper system generated significantly more accurate identifications than the Vitek MS IVD system (P = 0.016; 177 versus 167 out of 181 specimens). The Biotyper system identified the minority species among polymicrobial blood cultures. We also compared the performance of an in-house extraction method with that of the Sepsityper on both MALDI-TOF MS systems. The in-house method generated more correct identifications at the genus level than the Sepsityper (96.7% versus 93.5%) on the Biotyper system, whereas the two methods exhibited the same performance level (88.0% versus 88.0%) on the Vitek MS IVD system. Our study confirmed the practical advantages of MALDI-TOF MS, and our in-house extraction method reduced the reagent cost to $1 per specimen, with a shorter turnaround time of 3 h, which is highly cost-effective for a diagnostic microbiology service.

  17. 21 CFR 520.2261b - Sulfamethazine powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and bovine respiratory disease complex (shipping fever complex) (Pasteurella spp.), colibacillosis... (F. necrophorum), acute mastitis (Streptococcus spp.), and acute metritis (Streptococcus spp.) (iii...

  18. Uji ketahanan galur padi terhadap wereng coklat biotipe 3 melalui population build-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baehaki Suherlan Effendi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Screening of rice lines resistance to brown planthopper (BPH through mass screening, filtering line resistance and the population build-up are essential for the release of resistant rice varieties. In addition, the stages of the endurance are important in determining the stability of resistance, as well as the type of resistant. The research was carried out in the screen house at Indonesian Center for Rice Research in 2007. The BPH used in the research was the off spring of BPH biotype 3 that had been rearing on IR42 (bph2 variety since 1994. The result of this research showed that 22.2% of 18 lines/varieties were moderately resistant to BPH biotype 3ft namely BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B, BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B, BP2870-4e- Kn-22-2-1-5*B, and Pulut Lewok. On the population build-up test, the above lines/varieties were moderately resistant to BPH biotype 3pb. The low FPLI values were found in BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B and Pulut Lewok. The highest tolerance index was found on BP4130-1f- 13-3-2*B and Pulut Lewok followed by BP2870-4e-Kn-22-2-1-5*B and BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B. Pulut Lewok has the highest antibiosis index and is not significantly different to BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B, while BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B was lowest. Although Pulut Lewok has antibiosis defense mechanism, it is not tolerant to BPH biotype 3. The BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B line have both antibiosis and tolerant to BPH biotype 3. BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B line has tolerance character, but does not have character of antibiosis to BPH biotype 3.

  19. Tomato yellow vein streak virus: relationship with Bemisia tabaci biotype B and host range Tomato yellow vein streak virus: interação com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e gama de hospedeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Firmino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV is a putative species of begomovirus, which was prevalent on tomato crops in São Paulo State, Brazil, until 2005. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction between ToYVSV and its vector Bemisia tabaci biotype B and to identify alternative hosts for the virus. The minimum acquisition and inoculation access periods of ToYVSV by B. tabaci were 30 min and 10 min, respectively. Seventy five percent of tomato-test plants were infected when the acquisition and inoculation access periods were 24 h. The latent period of the virus in the insect was 16 h. The ToYVSV was retained by B. tabaci until 20 days after acquisition. First generation of adult whiteflies obtained from viruliferous females were virus free as shown by PCR analysis and did not transmit the virus to tomato plants. Out of 34 species of test-plants inoculated with ToYVSV only Capsicum annuum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Datura stramonium, Gomphrena globosa, Nicotiana clevelandii and N. tabacum cv. TNN were susceptible to infection. B. tabaci biotype B was able to acquire the virus from all these susceptible species, transmitting it to tomato plants.O Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV é uma espécie putativa de begomovirus que infecta o tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicon em diversas regiões do Brasil onde se cultiva essa solanácea, sendo a espécie prevalente no estado de São Paulo até 2005. Estudou-se a interação do ToYVSV com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e identificaram-se hospedeiras alternativas deste vírus. Os períodos de acesso mínimo de aquisição (PAA e de inoculação (PAI foram de 30 min e 10 min, respectivamente. A porcentagem de plantas infectadas chegou até cerca de 75% após um PAA e PAI de 24 h. O período de latência do vírus no vetor foi de 16 horas. O ToYVSV foi retido pela B. tabaci até 20 dias após a aquisição do vírus. Não foi detectada transmissão do vírus para prog

  20. 21 CFR 520.2170 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pneumonia and bovine respiratory disease complex (shipping fever complex) associated with Pasteurella spp.; acute metritis and acute mastitis caused by Streptococcus spp. (3) Limitations. Administer orally...

  1. Mechanism of sulfonylurea herbicide resistance in the broadleaf weed, Kochia scoparia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.L.; Cotterman, J.C.; Primiani, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    Selection of kochia (Kochia scoparia) biotypes resistant to the sulfonylurea herbicide chlorsulfuron has occurred through the continued use of this herbicide in monoculture cereal-growing areas in the United States. The apparent sulfonylurea resistance observed in kochia was confirmed in greenhouse tests. Fresh and dry weight accumulation in the resistance kochia was 2- to >350-fold higher in the presence of four sulfonylurea herbicides as compared to the susceptible biotype. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity isolated from sulfonylurea-resistant kochia was less sensitive to inhibition by three classes of ALS-inhibiting herbicides, sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, and sulfonanilides. The decrease in ALS sensitivity to inhibition (as measured by the ratio of resistant I 50 to susceptible I 50 ) was 5- to 28-fold, 2- to 6-fold, and 20-fold for sulfonylurea herbicides, imidazolinone herbicides, and a sulfonanilide herbicide, respectively. No differences were observed in the ALS-specific activities or the rates of [ 14 C]chlorsulfuron uptake, translocation, and metabolism between susceptible and resistant kochia biotypes. The K m values for pyruvate using ALS from susceptible and resistant kochia were 2.13 and 1.74 mM, respectively. Based on these results, the mechanism of sulfonylurea resistance in this kochia biotype is due solely to a less sulfonylurea-sensitive ALS enzyme

  2. Diphtheria in the Republic of Georgia: Use of Molecular Typing Techniques for Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Kekelidze, Merab; Gomelauri, Tsaro; Deng, Yingkang; Khetsuriani, Nino; Kobaidze, Ketino; De Zoysa, Aruni; Efstratiou, Androulla; Morris, J. Glenn; Imnadze, Paata

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-six Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains (62 of the gravis biotype and 4 of the mitis biotype) isolated during the Georgian diphtheria epidemic of 1993 to 1998 and 13 non-Georgian C. diphtheriae strains (10 Russian and 3 reference isolates) were characterized by (i) biotyping, (ii) toxigenicity testing with the Elek assay and PCR, (iii) the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and (iv) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifteen selected strains were ribotyped. Six RAPD types and 15 PFGE patterns were identified among all strains examined, and 12 ribotypes were found among the 15 strains that were ribotyped. The Georgian epidemic apparently was caused by one major clonal group of C. diphtheriae (PFGE type A, ribotype R1), which was identical to the predominant epidemic strain(s) isolated during the concurrent diphtheria epidemic in Russia. A dendrogram based on the PFGE patterns revealed profound differences between the minor (nonpredominant) epidemic strains found in Georgia and Russia. The methodologies for RAPD typing, ribotyping, and PFGE typing of C. diphtheriae strains were improved to enable rapid and convenient molecular typing of the strains. The RAPD technique was adequate for biotype differentiation; however, PFGE and ribotyping were better (and equal to each other) at discriminating between epidemiologically related and unrelated isolates. PMID:10488190

  3. Identification of Brucella by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Fast and reliable identification from agar plates and blood cultures.

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    Laura Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS is a reliable method for bacteria identification. Some databases used for this purpose lack reference profiles for Brucella species, which is still an important pathogen in wide areas around the world. We report the creation of profiles for MALDI-TOF Biotyper 2.0 database (Bruker Daltonics, Germany and their usefulness for identifying brucellae from culture plates and blood cultures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We created MALDI Biotyper 2.0 profiles for type strains belonging to B. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3; B. abortus biotypes 1, 2, 5 and 9; B. suis, B. canis, B ceti and B. pinnipedialis. Then, 131 clinical isolates grown on plate cultures were used in triplicate to check identification. Identification at genus level was always correct, although in most cases the three replicates reported different identification at species level. Simulated blood cultures were performed with type strains belonging to the main human pathogenic species (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis and B. canis, and studied by MALDI-TOF MS in triplicate. Identification at genus level was always correct. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MALDI-TOF MS is reliable for Brucella identification to the genus level from culture plates and directly from blood culture bottles.

  4. Bacteremia and Peritonitis in a Patient With Cirrhosis: A Life-Threatening Case From a Prick of a Cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi-Anne Wallace MD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old male with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis presents with right lower extremity cellulitis, abdominal tenderness, and severe sepsis after sustaining puncture injury from a cactus on a property with feral cats. Blood cultures and diagnostic paracentesis were consistent with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Pasteurella multocida , a gram-negative coccobacillus found in the respiratory tract of domestic animals. The patient received timely antibiotic coverage with resolution of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and sepsis after 14-day treatment. This case emphasizes the life-threatening nature of systemic Pasteurella multocida infection as well as an indirect way of acquiring a zoonotic infection in a patient with end-stage liver disease.

  5. Two-step processing for activation of the cytolysin/hemolysin of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor: nucleotide sequence of the structural gene (hlyA) and characterization of the processed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Ichinose, Y; Shinagawa, H; Makino, K; Nakata, A; Iwanaga, M; Honda, T; Miwatani, T

    1990-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor produces and secretes a 65-kDa cytolysin/hemolysin into the culture medium. We cloned the structural gene (hlyA) for the cytolysin from the total DNA of a V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain, N86. Nucleotide sequence analysis of hlyA revealed an open reading frame consisting of 2,223 bp which can code for a protein of 741 amino acids with a molecular weight of 81,961. Consistent with this, a 79-kDa protein was identified as the product of hlyA by maxicell analysis in Escherichia coli. N-terminal amino acids of this 79-kDa HlyA protein and those of a 65-kDa El Tor cytolysin purified from V. cholerae were Asn-26 and Asn-158, respectively. The 82- and 79-kDa precursors of the 65-kDa mature cytolysin were found in V. cholerae by pulse-chase labeling and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of hlyA products. Hemolytic activity of the 79-kDa HlyA protein from E. coli was less than 5% that for the 65-kDa cytolysin from V. cholerae. Our results suggest that in V. cholerae, the 82-kDa preprotoxin synthesized in the cytoplasm is secreted through the membranes into the culture medium as the 79-kDa inactive protoxin after cleavage of the signal peptide and is then further processed into the 65-kDa active cytolysin by release of the N-terminal 15-kDa fragment.

  6. Esthetic management of compromised ridge in the anterior maxilla, a modified prosthetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Lambodharan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacing a missing tooth with an implant, especially in the esthetic zone has been increasing demand for the patient. Placing dental implants in the esthetic zone, especially in the compromised ridge with thin gingival thin biotype is considered to be the ultimate challenge for many dentists. This case report illustrates the implant placement in the traumatic anterior maxilla with thin gingival biotype (Class IV and a modified approach in prosthetic placement.

  7. Use of nonpathogenic, green fluorescent protein-marked Escherichia coli Biotype I cultures to evaluate the self-cleansing capabilities of a commercial beef grinding system after a contamination event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, Jennifer A; Williams, Jennifer; Adams, Jacquelyn; George, Bruce; Oxford, Eric; Zelenka, Dan

    2014-11-01

    Inoculated beef trim containing a cocktail of green fluorescent protein-marked Escherichia coli biotype I cultures as surrogates for E. coli O157:H7 was introduced into two large, commercial grinding facilities capable of producing 180,000 kg of ground product in 1 day. Three repetitions were performed over 3 days. Sampling occurred at three different points within the process: postprimary grind, postsecondary grind-blender, and postpackaging. Resulting data show that, as the inoculated meat passes through the system, the presence of the marked surrogate quickly diminishes. The depletion rates are directly related to the amount of product in kilograms (represented by time) that has passed through the system, but these rates vary with each step of the process. The primary grinder appears to rid itself of the contaminant the most quickly; in all repetitions, the contaminant was not detected within 5 min of introduction of the contaminated combo bin into the system, which in all cases, was prior to the introduction of a second combo bin and within 1,800 kg of product. After the blending step and subsequent secondary grinding, the contaminant was detected in product produced from both the parent combo and the combo bin added directly after the parent combo bin; however, for those days on which three combo bins (approximately 2,700 kg) were available for sampling, the contaminant was not detected from product representing the third combo bin. Similarly, at the packaging step, the contaminant was detected in the product produced by both the parent and second combo bins; however, on those days when a third combo bin was available for sampling (repetitions 2 and 3), the contaminant was not detected from product produced from the third combo bin.

  8. Frequency-dependence of mating success in Poeciliopsis monacha (Pisces, Cyprinodontiformes reproductive complex, Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Neuza Rejane Wille

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A diversity of all-female fishes of the genus Poeciliopsis coexists with their sexual ancestor species in streams of western Mexico. All-females are hybrids that depend on the sperm of paternal species to reproduce. Rare-female advantage is one of several hypotheses that attempt to explain how the diversity of all-female biotypes is maintained within the Poeciliopsis reproductive complexes. According to this hypothesis, the uncommon all-female biotype has a mating advantage over the common ones and has been maintained by a dynamic equilibrium process. In the P. monacha reproductive complex at Arroyo de los Platanos the density of two all-female biotypes (P. 2monacha-lucida I and II varies across pools. The objective of this study was to analyse fecundity and mating success of females from this arroyo to test the hypothesis. Female mating success was inversely correlated to their density, supporting this hypothesis.

  9. Approaches for enhancing in situ detection of enterocin genes in thermized milk, and selective isolation of enterocin-producing Enterococcus faecium from Baird-Parker agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandera, Elpiniki; Tsirka, Georgia; Kakouri, Athanasia; Koukkou, Anna-Irini; Samelis, John

    2018-05-21

    Enterococci are naturally selected for growth in thermized ewes'/goats' milk mixtures used for traditional cooked hard cheese processing in Greece. A culture-independent PCR-based approach was applied to detect the presence of enterocin-encoding genes in naturally culture-enriched thermized milk (TM). Portions of TM (63 °C, 30 s) collected from a commercial cheese plant before addition of starters were fermented at 37 °C for 48 h to facilitate growth of indigenous enterococci. The multiple enterocin-producing (m-Ent+) Enterococcus faecium KE82 and the nisin A-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104 served as bacteriocin-positive inocula in separate TM treatments. The PCR results revealed a constant presence of the enterocin A, B and P genes in TM fermented naturally at 37 °C. Eleven out of 42 (26.2%) lactic isolates from the enriched TM cultures without inoculation were Ent+ E. faecium assigned to three biotypes. Biotype I (4 isolates) included single entA possessors, whereas biotype II (5 isolates) and biotype III (2 isolates) were m-Ent+ variants profiling entA-entB-entP and entA-entB genes, respectively. Biotype II displayed the strongest antilisterial activity in vitro. Surprisingly, 85.7% (6/7) of the m-Ent+ E. faecium were selectively isolated from Baird-Parker agar, reflecting their natural resistance to 0.01% tellurite contained in the egg yolk supplement. No cytolysin-positive E. faecalis or other Ent+ Enterococcus spp. were isolated. In conclusion, commercially thermized Greek milk is a natural pool or 'reservoir' of antagonistic Ent+ or m-Ent+ E. faecium strains that can be easily detected and recovered by applying this PCR-based approach to naturally fermented milks or cheese products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence.

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    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2. The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92% and 1607 (86% of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops.

  11. Yersinia spp. in Wild Rodents and Shrews in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsen, Suvi; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Henttonen, Heikki; Niemimaa, Jukka; Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R; Helle, Heikki; Korkeala, Hannu; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are important zoonotic bacteria causing human enteric yersiniosis commonly reported in Europe. All Y. pseudotuberculosis strains are considered pathogenic, while Y. enterocolitica include both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains which can be divided into six biotypes (1A, 1B, and 2-5) and about 30 serotypes. The most common types causing yersiniosis in Europe are Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. Strains belonging to biotype 1A are considered as nonpathogenic because they are missing important virulence genes like the attachment-invasion-locus (ail) gene in the chromosome and the virulence plasmid. The role of wild small mammals as a reservoir of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. is still obscure. In this study, the presence of Yersinia spp. was examined from 1840 wild small mammals, including voles, mice, and shrews, trapped in Finland during a 7-year period. We isolated seven Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica was the most common species, isolated from 8% of the animals; while most of these isolates represented nonpathogenic biotype 1A, human pathogenic bioserotype 2/O:9 was also isolated from a field vole. Y. pseudotuberculosis of bioserotype 1/O:2 was isolated from two shrews. The ail gene, which is typically only found in the isolates of biotypes 1B and 2-5 associated with yersiniosis, was frequently (23%) detected in the nonpathogenic isolates of biotype 1A and sporadically (6%) in Yersinia kristensenii isolates. Our results suggest that wild small mammals, especially voles, may serve as carriers for ail-positive Y. enterocolitica 1A and Y. kristensenii. We also demonstrate that voles and shrews sporadically excrete pYV-positive Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 and Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:2, respectively, in their feces and, thus, can serve as a contamination source for vegetables by contaminating the soil.

  12. A multiplex PCR method for rapid identification of Brachionus rotifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiadou, Kalliopi; Papakostas, Spiros; Triantafyllidis, Alexander; Kappas, Ilias; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2009-01-01

    Cryptic species are increasingly being recognized in many organisms. In Brachionus rotifers, many morphologically similar yet genetically distinct species/biotypes have been described. A number of Brachionus cryptic species have been recognized among hatchery strains. In this study, we present a simple, one-step genetic method to detect the presence of those Brachionus sp. rotifers that have been found in hatcheries. With the proposed technique, each of the B. plicatilis sensu stricto, B. ibericus, Brachionus sp. Nevada, Brachionus sp. Austria, Brachionus sp. Manjavacas, and Brachionus sp. Cayman species and/or biotypes can be identified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Based on 233 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences, we reviewed all the available cryptic Brachionus sp. genetic polymorphisms, and we designed six nested primers. With these primers, a specific amplicon of distinct size is produced for every one of the involved species/biotypes. Two highly sensitive protocols were developed for using the primers. Many of the primers can be combined in the same PCR. The proposed method has been found to be an effective and practical tool to investigate the presence of the above six cryptic species/biotypes in both individual and communal (bulk) rotifer deoxyribonucleic acid extractions from hatcheries. With this technique, hatchery managers could easily determine their rotifer composition at the level of cryptic species and monitor their cultures more efficiently.

  13. A Comparative Study of the Oral Microbiome Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... external factors such as oral hygiene practices,[6] types. Original Article ..... exclusive bacterial species; Porphyromonas gingivalis,. Pasteurella pneumotropica, Tannerella .... oral health and disease. Virulence 2014;5:424-32.

  14. Demonstration that Australian Pasteurella multocida isolates from sporadic outbreaks of porcine pneumonia are non-toxigenic (toxA-) and display heterogeneous DNA restriction endonuclease profiles compared with toxigenic isolates from herds with progressive atrophic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, S P; Eamens, G J; Ha, H; Walker, M J; Chin, J C

    1998-08-01

    Capsular types A and D of Pasteurella multocida cause economic losses in swine because of their association with progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) and enzootic pneumonia. There have been no studies comparing whole-cell DNA profiles of isolates associated with these two porcine respiratory diseases. Twenty-two isolates of P. multocida from diseased pigs in different geographic localities within Australia were characterised genotypically by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) with the enzyme CfoI. Seven of 12 P. multocida isolates from nasal swabs from pigs in herds where PAR was either present or suspected displayed a capsular type D phenotype. These were shown to possess the toxA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridisation, and further substantiated by production of cytotoxin in vitro. The CfoI profile of one of these seven isolates, which was from the initial outbreak of PAR in Australia (in Western Australia, WA), was identical with profiles of all six other toxigenic isolates from sporadic episodes in New South Wales (NSW). The evidence suggests that the strain involved in the initial outbreak was responsible for the spread of PAR to the eastern states of Australia. Another 10 isolates, representing both capsular types A and D, were isolated exclusively from porcine lung lesions after sporadic outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in NSW and WA. CfoI restriction endonuclease profiles of these isolates revealed considerable genomic heterogeneity. Furthermore, none of these possessed the toxA gene. This suggests that P. multocida strains with the toxA gene do not have a competitive survival advantage in the lower respiratory tract or that toxin production does not play a role in the pathology of pneumonic lesions, or both. REA with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining was found to be a practical and discriminatory tool for epidemiological tracing of P. multocida outbreaks associated with PAR or pneumonia in pigs.

  15. Efficiency of neem oil nanoformulations to Bemisia tabaci (GENN. Biotype B (Hemiptera: AleyrodidaeEficiência de nanoformulações a base de óleo de nim sobre Bemisia tabaci (GENN. Biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Salles Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology, through encapsulation of active ingredients, has showed an important way to avoid problems with quickly degradation of the pesticide molecules. Thus, neem (Azadirachta indica oil nanoformulations containing ?-ciclodextrin and poli-?-caprolactone (PCL were tested as to their control efficiency against eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B reared in soybean. The Lethal Concentration (LC50 was estimated using a commercial neem oil (Organic Neem® on first-instar nymphs to establish the adequate volume of the nanoformulations per treatment. After that, they were sprayed on eggs and first-instar nymphs in laboratory and greenhouse and on third-instar nymphs in greenhouse. The commercial neem oil and distilled water were used as controls. Egg viability was not affected by any treatment. Among six nanoformulations, only one was efficient against the first-instar nymphs in laboratory conditions. However, its effective period was not increased as expected. In greenhouse, first-instar nymphs were more affected by two nanoformulations which were significantly different of the commercial neem oil - the most effective one. No mortality differences among the formulations in the third-instar test were observed. The nanoformulations were less efficient to control the B. tabaci biotype B nymphs than the commercial neem oil. A nanotecnologia, através do encapsulamento de ingredientes ativos, tem-se revelado uma importante estratégia para evitar problemas com a rápida degradação de moléculas inseticidas. Assim, nanoformulações à base de óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica utilizando os polímeros ?-ciclodextrina e poli-?-caprolactona (PCL foram testadas quanto a sua eficiência de controle de ovos e ninfas de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B mantidas em soja. Foi estimada a CL50 utilizando uma formulação comecial de óleo de nim (Organic Neem® sobre ninfas em 1º ínstar da qual se estipulou o volume das nanoformula

  16. Leaf development of cultivated rice and weedy red rice under elevated temperature scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Streck,Nereu A.; Uhlmann,Lilian O.; Gabriel,Luana F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to simulate leaf development of cultivated rice genotypes and weedy red rice biotypes in climate change scenarios at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. A leaf appearance (LAR) model adapted for rice was used to simulate the accumulated leaf number, represented by the Haun Stage, from crop emergence to flag leaf appearance (EM-FL). Three cultivated rice genotypes and two weedy red rice biotypes in six emergence dates were used. The LAR model was run for each emergence dat...

  17. Immediate placement and provisionalization of maxillary anterior single implant with guided bone regeneration, connective tissue graft, and coronally positioned flap procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Tomonori; Kan, Joseph Y K

    2016-01-01

    Immediate implant placement and provisionalization in the esthetic zone have been documented with success. The benefit of immediate implant placement and provisionalization is the preservation of papillary mucosa. However, in cases with osseous defects presenting on the facial bony plate, immediate implant placement procedures have resulted in facial gingival recession. Subepithelial connective tissue grafts for immediate implant placement and provisionalization procedures have been reported with a good esthetic outcome. Biotype conversion around implants with subepithelial connective tissue grafts have been advocated, and the resulting tissues appear to be more resistant to recession. The dimensions of peri-implant mucosa in a thick biotype were significantly greater than in a thin biotype. Connective tissue graft with coronally positioned flap procedures on natural teeth has also been documented with success. This article describes a technique combining immediate implant placement, provisionalization, guided bone regeneration (GBR), connective tissue graft, and a coronally positioned flap in order to achieve more stable peri-implant tissue in facial osseous defect situations.

  18. Isolation of Yersinia from raw meat (pork and chicken) and precooked meat (porcine tongues and sausages) collected from commercial establishments in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, E I; Vázquez-Salinas, C; Rodas-Suárez, O R; Pedroche, F F

    2000-04-01

    A total of 160 meat product samples were collected from commercial outlets in Mexico City to investigate the presence of different species of Yersinia by the 4 degrees C enrichment method after 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation using alkaline treatment and isolating in cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin and MacConkey agars with Tween 80. Overall, Yersinia spp. were isolated from 27% of the samples analyzed, whereas 40% of the raw and only 13% of the precooked samples were contaminated. Although 2,970 colonies showed Yersinia characteristics, only 706 (24%) actually corresponded to this genus: 49% were Yersinia enterocolitica, 25% Yersinia kristensenii, 15% Yersinia intermedia, 9% Yersinia frederiksenii, and 2% Yersinia aldovae; 10% corresponded to biotype 2, 2% to biotype 3, and 4% to biotype 4. The presence of Yersinia in raw and cooked meat products represents a health risk for consumers in Mexico, where further clinical studies are needed to assess the epidemiological importance of this pathogen.

  19. Comparative resistance towards infection with Y. ruckeri in vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian

    2010-01-01

    bath challenged with LD50-doses of Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotype 1 and 2), after which fish mortality was recorded and individual fish were sampled for both Real-Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) as well as immunohistochemical analysis. Challenge with biotype 2 resulted in very low mortalities......-vaccinated and vaccinated fish sampled 3 and 7 days after challenge with biotype 1, shows results similar to the RT-qPCR results. Using polyclonal rabbit antibodies against Y. ruckeri, minor points of infection are seen in tissues of non-vaccinated fish after 3 days, and after 7 days massive infections are present...... in several tissues. Minor infections are found in the vaccinated fish after both 3 and 7 days, but to a smaller extend than the ones found in the non-vaccinated group. The results so far, thus indicate that that the survival of the vaccinated fish after bacterial challenge seems to be correlated...

  20. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae criada em três hospedeiros Biological aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae reared in three hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se alguns aspectos biológicos de adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criadas em folhas de pepino (Cucumis sativus var. caipira, couve (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala e na planta invasora leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla. Discos foliares dos hospedeiros contendo ninfas de terceiro e quarto estádios da mosca-branca foram acondicionados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1%. Em cada placa foi colocada uma larva de C. externa recém-eclodida, onde permaneceram até a emergência dos adultos. Foram avaliados o peso logo após a emergência, os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição, efetivo de oviposição, pós-oviposição, número total de ovos produzidos por fêmea e longevidade. Avaliaram-se, também, o período embrionário e a viabilidade dos ovos, coletando-se, uma vez por semana, uma amostra de 10% do total de ovos produzidos no dia, ao longo de todo o período reprodutivo. O peso de machos e fêmeas não diferiu significativamente em função do hospedeiro da presa, sendo em média de 4,7 mg. De maneira geral, adultos de C. externa oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro apresentaram performance inferior em relação àqueles oriundos do pepino e da couve. O período de oviposição foi, em média, de 49,5 dias para o pepino e a couve, e de 31,6 dias para o leiteiro. A produção de ovos foi reduzida em aproximadamente 50% em leiteiro, sendo de 293,8 ovos; no pepino e couve, a média foi de 591,3 ovos. Ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro causaram uma redução da viabilidade dos ovos de C. externa, que foi 62,8% e 57,7% inferior ao verificado para o pepino e a couve, respectivamente.The aim was to study some biological aspects of adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, from larvae fed on nymphs of third and fourth stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B

  1. Epizootic Pneumonia of Bighorn Sheep following Experimental Exposure to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; Lahmers, Kevin; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Foreyt, William J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, epidemiologically implicated in naturally occurring outbreaks, has received little experimental evaluation as a primary agent o...

  2. The diagnostic activity on wild animals through the description of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnostic activity on wild animals through the description of a model case report (caseous lymphadenitis by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis associated with Pasteurella spp and parasites infection in an alpine ibex – Capra ibex )

  3. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471 Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatoba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by

  4. Demonstration of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) with pneumonia and airsacculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welchman, D. de B.; Ainsworth, H. L.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2013-01-01

    type 2, avian coronavirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and other Mycoplasma species, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, other Pasteurellaceae and Syngamus trachea, suggesting synergism with other agents. Exposure to other intercurrent factors, including adverse weather...

  5. The Improvement of Atomita-4 Rice Variety Through Gamma Rays Irradiation of F1 Seeds from Atomita-4/Ir-64 Crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Harsanti; Mugiono

    2004-01-01

    Atom ita-4 rice variety was crossed with IR-64 variety in the greenhouse at the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation-Batan, Pasar jumat in the wet season of 1994/1995. F 1 Seeds derived from Atomita-4/IR-64 crossing were irradiated by gamma rays at of 0.2 kGy dose. F 1 seeds were grown to obtain F 2 M 2 seed, and then selection of pedigree were carried out at F 2 generation. Six mutants lines were obtained purified and screened on biotypes 1, 2 and 3 brown plant hopper and bacterial leaf blight resistance by IRRI standard screening methods. The six mutant lines were tested for their potential yield at Pusakanegara and then continued tested in yield multi location test at several locations in Indonesia. Results of the screening test to brown plant hopper showed that two mutant lines Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ were resistant to biotype 1, biotype 2 and medium resistant to biotype 3. Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ also showed resistance to bacterial leaf blight strain 3 and medium resistance to strain 4. Results in the yield multi location test showed that Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ have highest yielding potential compared to IR-64 and Memberamo varieties. Those two mutant lines were released as new varieties under the name Merauke and Kahayan in 2001 and 2003 respectively. (author)

  6. Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly Mutations in ACCase Gene, Endow Cross-resistance to APP, CHD, and PPZ in Phalaris minor from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cruz-Hipolito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides that inhibit acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase are commonly used in Mexico to control weedy grasses such as little seed canarygrass (Phalaris minor. These herbicides are classified into three major families (ariloxyphenoxypropionates (APP, cyclohexanodiones (CHD, and, recently, phenylpyrazolines (PPZ. In this work, the resistance to ACCase (APP, CHD, and PPZ inhibiting herbicides was studied in a biotype of Phalaris minor (P. minor from Mexico, by carrying out bioassays at the whole-plant level and investigating the mechanism behind this resistance. Dose-response and ACCase in vitro activity assays showed cross-resistance to all ACCase herbicides used. There was no difference in the absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the 14C-diclofop-methyl between the R and S biotypes. The PCR generated CT domain fragments of ACCase from the R biotype and an S reference were sequenced and compared. The Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly point mutations were identified. These mutations could explain the loss of affinity for ACCase by the ACCase-inhibing herbicides. This is the first report showing that this substitution confers resistance to APP, CHD, and PPZ herbicides in P. minor from Mexico. The mutations have been described previously only in a few cases; however, this is the first study reporting on a pattern of cross-resistance with these mutations in P. minor. The findings could be useful for better management of resistant biotypes carrying similar mutations.

  7. Sheep carrying pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 5/O:3 in the feces at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsen, Suvi; Eklund, Kirsi-Maria; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Stephan, Roger; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2016-12-25

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a heterogeneous species including non-pathogenic strains belonging to biotype 1A and pathogenic strains belonging to biotypes 1B and 2-5. Pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-4 carrying the ail virulence gene have frequently been isolated from domestic pigs at slaughter. In sheep, mostly non-pathogenic biotype 1A strains have been reported. In our study, the prevalence of ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was studied by PCR and culturing in 406 young sheep (enterocolitica belonging to bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 5/O:3, carrying both chromosomal and plasmid-borne virulence genes, were isolated from the fecal samples of 10 (2%) and 23 (4%) sheep, respectively. All isolates of bioserotypes 2/O:9 (19 isolates) and 5/O:3 (53 isolates) carried the chromosomal virulence genes ail, inv, ystA, and myfA, and almost all isolates (71/72) also carried the virulence genes virF and yadA located on the virulence plasmid. The isolates showed high susceptibility to tested antimicrobials and low genetic diversity by PFGE. Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 5/O:3 is a very rare bioserotype, and has earlier only sporadically been reported in European wildlife and in sheep in Australia and New Zealand. Bioserotype 2/O:9 is a common bioserotype found in humans with yersiniosis, and has sporadically been isolated in wild and domestic animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Indução de empiema em ratos através da inoculação pleural de bactérias Experimental empyema in rats through intrapleural injection of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fraga

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a indução experimental de empiema em ratos, através da inoculação intrapleural de duas bactérias (Pasteurella multocida e Staphylococcus aureus, utilizando técnica cirúrgica simples e de fácil execução. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 24 ratos albinos da raça Wistar, de ambos os sexos, pesando entre 250 e 300g, que, após a anestesia geral, foram submetidos à toracotomia anterior direita, afastamento da musculatura e inoculação de 0,2ml de solução, conforme descrição a seguir: grupo I (n=12, inoculação de Pasteurella multocida, 10(10 unidades formadoras de colônia/ml cultivados em caldo cérebro-coração; grupo II (n=8, inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus, 10(10 unidades formadoras de colônia/ml cultivados em caldo cérebro-coração; e grupo III (n=4, inoculação de caldo cérebro-coração estéril (controle. Os animais foram sacrificados em até 7 dias e a intensidade da reação pleural, analisada macroscopicamente conforme escala padronizada. Também foram avaliados a mortalidade, o volume de líquido na cavidade pleural e o exame bacteriológico (animais mortos e líquido pleural. RESULTADOS: no grupo I (Pasteurella multocida, sete ratos morreram nas primeiras 48 horas de experimento. Cinco ratos foram sacrificados no período programado, mas nenhum deles apresentava empiema. No grupo II (Staphylococcus aureus, somente um animal morreu nas primeiras 24 horas, os outros 7 (88% foram sacrificados e apresentavam empiema. No grupo III, considerados controles, todos os animais sobreviveram, não se observando nenhuma anormalidade torácica ao sacrifício. Analisando conjuntamente os grupos, a indução de empiema esteve associada de maneira significativa à inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus no espaço pleural (p OBJECTIVE: to evaluate empyema formation in rats through the injection of two bacteria (Pasteurella multocida and Staphylococcus aureus, using a simple, easy-to-use surgical technique

  9. Disease: H00306 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available found in the animal's oral cavity. Disseminated Pasteurella infections can lead to serious diseases including septic shock and menin...gitis mostly in infants and pregnant women. Many patients with P. multocida-related

  10. Experimental transmission of Zika virus by mosquitoes from central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Anna; Jansen, Stephanie; Lühken, Renke; Leggewie, Mayke; Badusche, Marlis; Pluskota, Björn; Becker, Norbert; Vapalahti, Olli; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Tannich, Egbert

    2017-01-12

    Mosquitoes collected in Germany in 2016, including Culex pipiens pipiens biotype pipiens, Culex torrentium and Aedes albopictus, as well as Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus (in colony since 2011) were experimentally infected with Zika virus (ZIKV) at 18 °C or 27 °C. None of the Culex taxa showed vector competence for ZIKV. In contrast, Aedes albopictus were susceptible for ZIKV but only at 27 °C, with transmission rates similar to an Aedes aegypti laboratory colony tested in parallel. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  11. 21 CFR 558.586 - Sulfaquinoxaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use. As an aid in the control of acute fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida susceptible to.... Treatment to be started after weaning. Feed continuously for 30 days or feed medicated feed for 2 days out...

  12. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tonsillitis, and bronchitis due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., E., coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus spp.; gastrointestinal infections due to...

  13. Concurrent resolution of chronic diarrhea likely due to Crohn's disease and infection with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoor Vir Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Examination of samples of stool from a 61 year old male patient, presenting with the clinical symptoms of Crohn’s disease (CD, revealed massive shedding of acid fast bacilli with the morphology of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP, the causative agent of Johne’s disease in cattle. MAP was cultured from the stool. Biotyping of the bacterium isolated from cultures of stool demonstrated it was the Indian Bison biotype of MAP, the dominant biotype infecting livestock and humans in India. Based on this finding and because the patient was unresponsive to standard therapy used in India to treat patients with gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, the patient was placed on a regimen of multi-antibiotic therapy, currently used to treat tuberculosis and CD. After one year of treatment, the patient’s health was restored, concurrent with cessation of shedding of MAP in his stool. This patient is the first case shown to shed MAP from the stool who was cured of infection with antibiotics and who was concurrently cured of clinical signs of CD.

  14. The isolation and antibiogram of aerobic nasal bacterial flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following microorganisms were identified from the normal flora of the grasscutters, they are; Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus cerus , E. coli, Serratia sp, Streptococcus sp, Pasteurella multocida, Streptacoccus, sp., Mannheimia heamolytica, Klebsiella sp., ...

  15. Tomographic anatomy of the vena cava and renal veins: features relevant to vena cava filter placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Melo do Espírito Santo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a growing demand for invasive procedures involving the inferior vena cava, in particular for placement of vena cava filters. It is not always easy to identify the more distal renal vein with cavography, for safe release of filters. OBJECTIVES: To determine parameters for the relationships between the renal veins and the infrarenal vena cava and their corresponding vertebral bodies, their relationships with biotype and the occurrence of anatomic variations, the relationships between vertebral bodies and the bifurcation of the common iliac veins and the distance from this bifurcation to the outflow of the more distal renal vein, with reference to placement of vena cava filters. METHODS: A total of 150 abdominal computed tomography scans conducted from October to November 2011 were analyzed and classified according to the biotype exhibited (using Charpy's angle. Scans were performed at MEDIMAGEM and analyzed at the Integrated Vascular Surgery Service, both part of Hospital da Beneficência Portuguesa in São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: In 127 of the 150 scans analyzed (84.66%, the more distal renal vein emerged between the first lumbar intervertebral space (L1-L2 and the body of L2, irrespective of patient biotype. Just 23 patients (15.33% exhibited a more distal renal vein with outflow below the body of L2, i.e. in the projection of the space between L2 and L3. CONCLUSIONS: The radiological correlation between the confluence of the more distal renal vein and vertebral bodies exhibits little variation, irrespective of the biotype of the patient.

  16. Pasteuria spp.: Systematics and Phylogeny of These Bacterial Parasites of Phytopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, J F; Dickson, D W; Maruniak, J E; Nong, G; Brito, J A; Schmidt, L M; Giblin-Davis, R M

    2003-06-01

    Pasteuria spp. include endospore-forming bacterial pathogens of cladoceran crustaceans and plant-parasitic nematodes. Propagation of these nematode pathogens requires attachment of soilborne endospores to nematode hosts, infection, growth, sporulation, and release of endospores to repeat the cycle of infection and propagation. The ability of these bacteria to suppress the levels of plant-parasitic nematodes in the field has made them particularly promising candidates for biocontrol of nematode diseases of plants. Genes encoding 16S ribosomal RNA have been sequenced for the cladoceran (water flea) parasite and type species, Pasteuria ramosa, and for Pasteuria spp. isolated from root-knot (Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and Meloidogyne sp.), soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines), and sting (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) nematodes. These have provided a phylogenetic basis for their designation to a distinct clade within the family Alicyclobacillaceae of the gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria. Two apparent biotypes of P. penetrans demonstrating a host preference for different Meloidogyne spp. showed identical 16S rDNA sequences, suggesting host-recognition evolves within a given species. The sequences of genes encoding sporulation transcription factors, sigE and sigF, from P. penetrans biotype P-20 show different phylogenetic relationships to other endospore-forming bacteria, supporting their application to further discriminate Pasteuria spp. and biotypes. Distribution of an adhesin-associated epitope on polypeptides from different Pasteuria isolates provides an immunochemical approach to differentiate species and biotypes with specific host preferences. Application of bioinformatics to genomic data, as well as further characterization of the biochemical basis for host recognition, will facilitate development of Pasteuria spp. as benign alternatives to chemical nematicides.

  17. The hydrolytic enzymes produced by fungi strains isolated from the sand and soil of recreational areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wójcik, Anna; Błaszkowska, Joanna; Góralska, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenicity of fungi depends on, inter alia, the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like fungi isolated from children’s recreation areas, and compare the results with literature data of strains obtained from patients with mycoses. The enzymatic activity of 96 strains was assessed using an API ZYM kit (bioMerieux, France) and their biotypes were established. The fungal species were found to produce from 16 to 19 hydrolases: the most active were: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), alkaline phosphatase (e1), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11), esterase – C4 (e2), β-galac - tosidase (e13) and β-glucosidase (e16). In addition, 13 biotypes characteristic of particular species of fungi were defined. Most strains could be categorized as biotypes C2 – 39.5% and A – 26%. The examined fungal strains isolated from recreational areas have selected biochemical characteristics i.e. production of hydrolases, which demonstrate their pathogenicity. They produce a number of enzymes which are also present in strains isolated from patients with mycoses, including: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11) and alkaline phosphatase (e1). The biotypes identified in the course of this study (A, B3, B4, C1, C6 and D3) have been also reported in cases of fungal infection. Therefore, the fungi present in the sand and soil of recreational have pathogenic properties and are possible factors of fungal infection among children.

  18. iMAR: An Interactive Web-Based Application for Mapping Herbicide Resistant Weeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Panozzo

    Full Text Available Herbicides are the major weed control tool in most cropping systems worldwide. However, the high reliance on herbicides has led to environmental issues as well as to the evolution of herbicide-resistant biotypes. Resistance is a major concern in modern agriculture and early detection of resistant biotypes is therefore crucial for its management and prevention. In this context, a timely update of resistance biotypes distribution is fundamental to devise and implement efficient resistance management strategies. Here we present an innovative web-based application called iMAR (interactive MApping of Resistance for the mapping of herbicide resistant biotypes. It is based on open source software tools and translates into maps the data reported in the GIRE (Italian herbicide resistance working group database of herbicide resistance at national level. iMAR allows an automatic, easy and cost-effective updating of the maps a nd provides two different systems, "static" and "dynamic". In the first one, the user choices are guided by a hierarchical tree menu, whereas the latter is more flexible and includes a multiple choice criteria (type of resistance, weed species, region, cropping systems that permits customized maps to be created. The generated information can be useful to various stakeholders who are involved in weed resistance management: farmers, advisors, national and local decision makers as well as the agrochemical industry. iMAR is freely available, and the system has the potential to handle large datasets and to be used for other purposes with geographical implications, such as the mapping of invasive plants or pests.

  19. Efforts Towards The Development Of Recombinant Vaccines Against

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by gram-negative bacterium of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) strains. Most of the current vaccines against P. multocida have shortcomings. Presently, there is increasing efforts towards construction of recombinant clone for vaccine development against P. multocida.

  20. Quantification and characterization of enzymatically produced hyaluronan with fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, F.K.; Muyuan Ma,; Beeftink, H.H.; Eggink, G.; Tramper, J.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a polysaccharide with high-potential medical applications, depending on the chain length and the chain length distribution. Special interest goes to homogeneous HA oligosaccharides, which can be enzymatically produced using Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase (PmHAS). We

  1. 21 CFR 558.630 - Tylosin and sulfamethazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... grams sulfamethazine. (2) Indications for use-(i) Maintaining weight gains and feed efficiency in the presence of atrophic rhinitis; lowering the incidence and severity of Bordetella bronchiseptica rhinitis... (Pasteurella multocida and/or Corynebacterium pyogenes); for reducing the incidence of cervical lymphadenitis...

  2. Horizontal stability of connective tissue grafts at the buccal aspect of single implants: a 1-year prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyckere, Thomas; Eghbali, Aryan; Younes, Faris; De Bruyn, Hugo; Cosyn, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To clinically evaluate the horizontal stability of a connective tissue graft (CTG) at the buccal aspect of single implants (1); to compare actual gingival thickness between thin and thick gingival biotype (2). Periodontally healthy non-smoking patients with a single implant in the anterior maxilla (15-25) were selected for a prospective case series. All demonstrated a horizontal alveolar defect and were in need of contour augmentation by means of CTG for aesthetic reasons. Patients were enrolled 3 months after implant surgery and had been provided with a provisional screw-retained crown. CTG was inserted in the buccal mucosa via the envelope technique using one intrasulcular incision. An ultrasonic device was used to evaluate mucosal thickness (MT) at the buccal aspect. MT was assessed at t0 (before CTG), t1 (immediately after CTG), t2 (2 weeks after CTG = suture removal), t3 (3 months after CTG = permanent crown installation) and t4 (1 year after implant placement). The gingival biotype was categorized as thin or thick based on the transparency of a periodontal probe through the soft tissues while probing the buccal sulcus of the contra-lateral tooth. Gingival thickness (GT) was measured at the contra-lateral tooth using the same ultrasonic device. Thirty-seven patients (19 men, 18 women; mean age 38) met the selection criteria and consented to the treatment. Mean soft tissue gain immediately after CTG was on average 1.07 mm (SD 0.49). What remained of this tissue gain after 1 year was on average 0.97 mm (SD 0.48; 90.5%). Hence, mean soft tissue loss amounted to 0.10 mm (SD 0.23; 9.5%; p = 0.015) with no significant difference between patients with a thin or thick biotype (p ≥ 0.290). Patients with a thin biotype had a mean GT of 1.02 mm (SD 0.21), whereas GT was on average 1.32 mm (SD 0.31) in subjects with a thick biotype (p = 0.004). Connective tissue graft substantially thickens the peri-implant mucosa with acceptable stability over a 1-year period. © 2015

  3. Genetic variability of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its secondary endosymbionts in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Ragab, Alaa I.

    2013-05-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci species complex has been well documented as one of the most economically important emergent plant virus vectors, through serious feeding damage to its broad range of plant hosts and transmission of plant viruses to important agricultural crops. It has been shown to have associations with endosymbionts which have significant effects on the insect fitness. The purpose of this study was to provide information for the biotype and secondary endosymbiont distribution for B. tabaci populations in the relatively unstudied Arabian peninsula. The geographical localization and variation in endosymbiont populations across the region were identified using a sequence-driven analysis of the population genetics of the secondary endosymbiont. Live field specimens were collected from 22 different locations in the region and preserved in 70% ethanol for genetic studies. Previously established procedures were used to extract and purify total insect DNA from 24-30 individual whiteflies for each location (Frohlich et al., 1999; Chiel et al., 2007). Specimens were subjected to PCR amplification using the respective 16S rDNAprimers for the Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Wolbachia to amplify endosymbiont DNA. PCR was run with primers for the highly conserved whitefly mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for biotyping. Samples were sequenced using the Sanger method and the data analyzed to correlate the presence, prevalence and geographical distribution of endosymbionts in B. tabaci. Phylogenies 5 were constructed to track evolutionary differences amongst the endosymbionts and insects and how they have influenced the evolution of the regional populations. Samples were characterized by differences in the genomes and endosymbionts of common whitefly ‘biotypes’ that have different host plant preferences, vector capacities and insecticide resistance characteristics. It was found that the B biotype is the predominant haplotype, with no evidence of

  4. The role of Bh4 in parallel evolution of hull colour in domesticated and weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigueira, C C; Li, W; Olsen, K M

    2013-08-01

    The two independent domestication events in the genus Oryza that led to African and Asian rice offer an extremely useful system for studying the genetic basis of parallel evolution. This system is also characterized by parallel de-domestication events, with two genetically distinct weedy rice biotypes in the US derived from the Asian domesticate. One important trait that has been altered by rice domestication and de-domestication is hull colour. The wild progenitors of the two cultivated rice species have predominantly black-coloured hulls, as does one of the two U.S. weed biotypes; both cultivated species and one of the US weedy biotypes are characterized by straw-coloured hulls. Using Black hull 4 (Bh4) as a hull colour candidate gene, we examined DNA sequence variation at this locus to study the parallel evolution of hull colour variation in the domesticated and weedy rice system. We find that independent Bh4-coding mutations have arisen in African and Asian rice that are correlated with the straw hull phenotype, suggesting that the same gene is responsible for parallel trait evolution. For the U.S. weeds, Bh4 haplotype sequences support current hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationship between the two biotypes and domesticated Asian rice; straw hull weeds are most similar to indica crops, and black hull weeds are most similar to aus crops. Tests for selection indicate that Asian crops and straw hull weeds deviate from neutrality at this gene, suggesting possible selection on Bh4 during both rice domestication and de-domestication. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Factors affecting population dynamics of maternally transmitted endosymbionts in Bemisia tabaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    Full Text Available While every individual of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae harbors the primary symbiont (P-symbiont Portiera, the infection frequencies of the six secondary symbionts (S-symbionts including Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Fritschea vary greatly among different populations. To characterize the factors influencing the infection dynamics of the six S-symbionts in B. tabaci, gene-specific PCR were conducted to screen for the presence of the P-symbiont Portiera and the six S-symbionts in 61 (17 B and 44 Q biotypes field populations collected from different plant species and locations in China. All individuals of the 61 populations hosted the P-symbiont Portiera, but none of them harbored Arsenophonus and Fritschea. The presence and infection rates of Hamiltonella, Cardinium, Rickettsia, Wolbachia and their co-infections Rickettsia + Hamiltonella (RH, Rickettsia + Cardinium (RC, Hamiltonella + Cardinium (HC and Rickettsia + Hamiltonella + Cardinium (RHC varied significantly among the 61 field populations; and the observed variations can be explained by biotypes, sexes, host plants and geographical locations of these field populations. Taken together, at least three factors including biotype, host plant and geographical location affect the infection dynamics of S-symbionts in B. tabaci.

  6. Efforts towards the development of recombinant Vaccines against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by gram-negative bacterium of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) strains. Most of the current vaccines against P. multocida have shortcomings. Presently, there is increasing efforts towards construction of recombinant clone for vaccine development against P. multocida. In this review an ...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2260b - Sulfamethazine sustained-release boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pneumonia caused or complicated by Pasteurella multocida; as an aid in the treatment of foot rot, mastitis... sulfamethazine-sensitive organisms as follows: bacterial pneumonia and bovine respiratory disease complex... mastitis and acute metritis caused by Streptococcus spp.)1 (iii) Limitations. After 72 hours, all animals...

  8. Fulminant infection by uncommon organisms in animal bite wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, J K

    1998-10-01

    In 1995 and 1996, 215 patients exposed to different species of animals were treated at the Amarnath Polyclinic, Balasore, in India. Among them were two children infected by uncommon organisms, i.e., Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida; the patients recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  9. Fulminant infection by uncommon organisms in animal bite wounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, J. K.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, 215 patients exposed to different species of animals were treated at the Amarnath Polyclinic, Balasore, in India. Among them were two children infected by uncommon organisms, i.e., Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida; the patients recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  10. Management of common animal bites in the emergency centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professor Engelbrecht's current fields of interest are bites, stings and poisonous plants. Correspondence to: ... Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in. Cape Town ... infections. Wound infection with Pasteurella multocida usually occurs early (within 12 ..... Dog bite prevention: an assessment of child knowledge. J Pediatr ...

  11. Oviposição e dispersão de ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em genótipos de tomateiro Oviposition and nymphal dispersion of Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fancelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversos métodos têm sido empregados para avaliar a resistência de plantas a moscas-brancas. Todavia, poucos trabalhos têm sido realizados visando determinar a dispersão de ninfas desses insetos sobre as plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B e a dispersão de suas ninfas em folíolos com e sem exsudatos de genótipos de tomateiro. Foram utilizados sete genótipos de tomateiro: LA716, LA1739, PI134417, LA462, LA1584, 'Santa Clara' e P25 (controle suscetível. A oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B foi avaliada em gaiolas plásticas (2,8 cm² fixadas na face abaxial dos folíolos, nas quais foram inseridos dez casais do inseto. Para avaliação da dispersão das ninfas, considerou-se o deslocamento dos insetos além do limite da área ocupada pelas gaiolas. As variáveis observadas foram: mortalidade de adultos 24 horas após a liberação, número de ovos, viabilidade da fase de ovo, período de incubação, número de ninfas e dispersão. Em folíolos com exsudato, LA716, LA1739 e PI134417 provocaram as maiores mortalidades. Adultos mortos nos folíolos desses genótipos ficaram aderidos aos tricomas glandulares, o que provocou redução na oviposição do inseto. Para dispersão, nos folíolos com exsudato, os máximos valores ocorreram nos genótipos LA716, LA462 e P25. Na condição sem exsudato, LA716 promoveu a menor dispersão das ninfas. A presença do exsudato influencia negativamente a sobrevivência e oviposição do inseto. A dispersão das ninfas também é afetada pelo exsudato, embora outros fatores possam ser importantes para o deslocamento do inseto.Several methods have been employed for evaluating plant resistance to whiteflies. Although, a few researches have been conducted aiming to determine the whitefly nymphal dispersion on crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the oviposition of B. tabaci biotype B and nymphal dispersion in leaflets with and without

  12. Caracterização morfofisiológica e agronômica de Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biótipo Virasoro e Festuca arundinacea Schreb: 2. Disponibilidade de forragem e valor nutritivo Morphophysiological and agronomic characterization of Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biotype Virasoro and Festuca arundinacea Schreb: 2. Forage availability and nutritive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Isabel da Costa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial forrageiro de Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biótipo Virasoro e Festuca arundinacea Schreb., exótica e hibernal na região sul do Brasil. Foi colhida mensalmente a parte aérea de plantas individuais, cultivadas no campo durante 12 meses e avaliadas quanto à disponibilidade de massa seca (DMS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra detergente neutro (FDN e fibra detergente ácido (FDA. O virasoro apresentou ciclo estacional, com a maior DMS na primavera/verão (98 g MS/planta, enquanto a festuca teve a maior DMS no inverno/primavera (100 g MS/planta. O virasoro mostrou teores mais elevados de PB nas folhas (19,09% em relação à festuca (17,8%, mas essa apresentou menor conteúdo de FDA (29% em relação ao virasoro (43%; para FDN nas folhas não houve diferença entre as espécies, com médias de 62%. No colmo, as diferenças foram apenas no outono (festuca=19,9%; virasoro=73,9%. O biótipo Virasoro não foi infectado por Claviceps paspali, que comumente ocorre em P. dilatatum, indicando resistência ao fungo. O biótipo Virasoro detém características desejáveis como planta forrageira, sendo uma boa opção para a estação quente.This work had the objective to evaluate the forage potential of Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biotype Virasoro and Festuca arundinacea Schreb., an exotic species in the southern regions of Brazil. The individual plant shoots were harvested for twelve months, cultivated in the field, and evaluated as for the dry matter availability (DMA, crude protein (CP and neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDF and ADF. The virasoro showed seasonal cicle, with the maximum DMA in the spring/summer period (98 g DM/plant, while tall fescue had the top DMD in the winter/spring period (100 g DM/plant. The virasoro showed higher CP in the leaves (19,09% in relation to tall fescue (17.8%, but the latter had the smallest values of ADF (29% in relation to the former (43%; the ADF in the leaves

  13. All projects related to | Page 27 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Kenya, Morocco, Canada. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 213,100.00. Supporting the production of quality livestock vaccines for enterotoxaemia, pasteurella and Rift Valley fever in Kenya. Project. It is estimated that Kenya has 18. Region: Kenya, Morocco, Canada. Program: Agriculture ...

  14. Forekomst af resistente bakterier og forbrug af antibiotika til hunde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene

    2007-01-01

    ), Pasteurella multocida (n=25), Bordetella bronchiseptica (n=14), Proteus spp. (n=29), og E. coli (n=449). I undersøgelsen anvendtes data fra VetStat databasen. Størstedelen af de antibiotika, der bruges til hunde er bredspektrede. Penicilliner med udvidet spektrum, cephalosporiner samt sulphonamider...

  15. 21 CFR 558.415 - Novobiocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... susceptible to novobiocin; treatment of acute outbreaks of fowl cholera caused by strains of Pasteurella... lb. body weight per day. (a) Indications for use. Aid in the treatment of breast blisters associated.... body weight per day. (a) Indications for use. Treatment of staphylococcal synovitis and generalized...

  16. In vitro screening of methanol plant extracts for their antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Arshad, M.; Khan, S.; Sattar, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the antibacterial activity of aqueous methanolic extracts of 10 plants against 2-gram negative bacteria (Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli) and 3-gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium bovis) by using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar well diffusion method and agar dilution method. All the bacteria were susceptible to different plant extracts. Lawsonia inermis, Embellia ribes and Santalum album showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. The extract of Santalum album showed maximum antibacterial activity of the 10 plant extracts used. Bacillus cereus and Pasteurella multocida were the most sensitive bacteria against most of the plant extracts. It is clear from the results of the present studies that the plant extracts have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against bacteria. However, there is a need of further research to isolate the active ingredients for further pharmacological evaluation. (author)

  17. Controle químico de biótipos de buva (Conyza canadensis e Conyza bonariensis resistentes ao glyphosate Chemical Control of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza Canadensis and hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Satomi Yamauti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro, SP para avaliar a resposta de biótipos de buva resistentes aos herbicidas glyphosate, bromacil + diuron, diuron e paraquat isolados e em mistura, e o efeito de uma aplicação seqüencial com glyphosate. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e sete tratamentos.. Os herbicidas foram aplicados com pulverizador costal, à pressão constante (mantido por CO2 comprimido, munido com barra com três bicos do tipo TT110015 com um consumo de calda equivalente a 150 L ha-1. O controle foi avaliado visualmente, através de escala percentual de notas. Para o controle geral das plantas daninhas os melhores resultados foram obtidos com diuron isolado e com glyphosate em mistura com bromacil + diuron, enquanto para o controle da buva não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. Depois da aplicação seqüencial, o melhor tratamento para o controle de buva foi com diuron e bromacil+diuron.Studies were conducted at Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro, SP to evaluate the response of glyphosate-resistant horseweed and hairy fleabane biotypes to herbicides glyphosate, bromacil + diuron, diuron e paraquat isolated and in mixture and effect of a sequential application of glyphosate. The experimental design was of complete randomized blocks with four replication and seven treatments. The herbicides were applied with costal sprayer, constant pressure with three nozzles TT110015, the equivalent spray volume was 150 L ha-1. The control was visually evaluated, trough percentile note scale. The best results were obtained to general control of weed with diuron isolated and glyphosate in mixture with bromacil + diuron while to glyphosate-resistant horseweed and hairy fleabane there was no difference between the treatments. After sequential application to Conyza sp control, the best treatment was obtained associated with diuron and bromacil+diuron.

  18. Phenotypic and antibiogram pattern of V. cholerae isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai during 2004-2013: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torane, V; Kuyare, S; Nataraj, G; Mehta, P; Dutta, S; Sarkar, B

    2016-11-25

    Cholera is a major gastroenteric disease with reports on fluctuation and resistance. Hence, the objective is to determine the trend in seasonality, resistance pattern, prevalent biotypes, serotypes and phage types between 2004 and 2013 among Vibrio cholerae isolates. A retrospective cross-sectional study. A single-centre study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in a metropolitan city (Mumbai) of a developing country (India). Records of stool specimen cultures of patients with suspected cholera from January 2004 to December 2013 were analysed. The organisms were identified as per standard protocol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as per Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Biotyping, serotyping and phage typing were carried out. From the confirmed cases of cholera, demographic and laboratory details were noted. Descriptive analysis was used and the data were presented in the form of percentages. Vibrio cholerae was predominant in males and was isolated from 9.41% (439/4664) of stool specimens. Variability was found in terms of the gross appearance of stool specimens, seasonal trend and antibiotic resistance pattern. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed a waxing and waning pattern for most of the antibiotics (ampicillin, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, tetracycline) tested, while for a few others the strains were either uniformly sensitive (gentamicin, norfloxacin) or resistant (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid). All isolates belonged to subgroup O1 and biotype El Tor. The most common serotype was Ogawa. The predominant phage type was T2 (old scheme) and T27 (new scheme). The predominant biotype, serotype and phage type were El Tor, Ogawa and T27 phage, respectively. The changing trends in antimicrobial resistance pattern over the years necessitate continued epidemiological and microbiological surveillance of the disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  19. Phenotypic and antibiogram pattern of V. cholerae isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai during 2004–2013: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torane, V; Kuyare, S; Nataraj, G; Mehta, P; Dutta, S; Sarkar, B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cholera is a major gastroenteric disease with reports on fluctuation and resistance. Hence, the objective is to determine the trend in seasonality, resistance pattern, prevalent biotypes, serotypes and phage types between 2004 and 2013 among Vibrio cholerae isolates. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Settings A single-centre study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in a metropolitan city (Mumbai) of a developing country (India). Methods Records of stool specimen cultures of patients with suspected cholera from January 2004 to December 2013 were analysed. The organisms were identified as per standard protocol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as per Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Biotyping, serotyping and phage typing were carried out. From the confirmed cases of cholera, demographic and laboratory details were noted. Descriptive analysis was used and the data were presented in the form of percentages. Results Vibrio cholerae was predominant in males and was isolated from 9.41% (439/4664) of stool specimens. Variability was found in terms of the gross appearance of stool specimens, seasonal trend and antibiotic resistance pattern. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed a waxing and waning pattern for most of the antibiotics (ampicillin, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, tetracycline) tested, while for a few others the strains were either uniformly sensitive (gentamicin, norfloxacin) or resistant (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid). All isolates belonged to subgroup O1 and biotype El Tor. The most common serotype was Ogawa. The predominant phage type was T2 (old scheme) and T27 (new scheme). Conclusions The predominant biotype, serotype and phage type were El Tor, Ogawa and T27 phage, respectively. The changing trends in antimicrobial resistance pattern over the years necessitate continued epidemiological and microbiological surveillance of the disease. PMID:27888174

  20. Resistência de Eleusine indica aos inibidores de ACCase Eleusine indica resistance to ACCase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade para diversos produtos do grupo dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas. Estudos de resposta à dose confirmaram que o biótipo era 18 vezes mais insensível ao sethoxydim do que biótipo suscetível nunca aspergido com herbicidas. Também se constatou resistência cruzada ao fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop e butroxydim. Não se observou resistência cruzada aos produtos fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop e clethodim.Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

  1. Global Population Structure of a Worldwide Pest and Virus Vector: Genetic Diversity and Population History of the Bemisia tabaci Sibling Species Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci sibling species (sibsp.) group comprises morphologically indiscernible lineages of well-known exemplars referred to as biotypes. It is distributed throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes and includes the contemporary invasive haplotypes, termed B and Q. Several well-studied B. tabaci biotypes exhibit ecological and biological diversity, however, most members are poorly studied or completely uncharacterized. Genetic studies have revealed substantial diversity within the group based on a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) sequence (haplotypes), with other tested markers being less useful for deep phylogenetic comparisons. The view of global relationships within the B. tabaci sibsp. group is largely derived from this single marker, making assessment of gene flow and genetic structure difficult at the population level. Here, the population structure was explored for B. tabaci in a global context using nuclear data from variable microsatellite markers. Worldwide collections were examined representing most of the available diversity, including known monophagous, polyphagous, invasive, and indigenous haplotypes. Well-characterized biotypes and other related geographic lineages discovered represented highly differentiated genetic clusters with little or no evidence of gene flow. The invasive B and Q biotypes exhibited moderate to high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting that they stemmed from large founding populations that have maintained ancestral variation, despite homogenizing effects, possibly due to human-mediated among-population gene flow. Results of the microsatellite analyses are in general agreement with published mtCOI phylogenies; however, notable conflicts exist between the nuclear and mitochondrial relationships, highlighting the need for a multifaceted approach to delineate the evolutionary history of the group. This study supports the hypothesis that the extant B. tabaci sibsp. group contains

  2. Comparison of the accuracy of two conventional phenotypic methods and two MALDI-TOF MS systems with that of DNA sequencing analysis for correctly identifying clinically encountered yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Qiao-Ting; Lee, Tai-Fen; Teng, Shih-Hua; Peng, Li-Yun; Chen, Ping-Hung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of species-level identification of two commercially available matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems (Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS) and two conventional phenotypic methods (Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID) with that of rDNA gene sequencing analysis among 200 clinical isolates of commonly encountered yeasts. The correct identification rates of the 200 yeast isolates to species or complex (Candida parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex and C. rugosa complex) levels by the Bruker Biotyper, Vitek MS (using in vitro devices [IVD] database), Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID (Sabouraud's dextrose agar) systems were 92.5%, 79.5%, 89%, and 74%, respectively. An additional 72 isolates of C. parapsilosis complex and 18 from the above 200 isolates (30 in each of C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis) were also evaluated separately. Bruker Biotyper system could accurately identify all C. parapsilosis complex to species level. Using Vitek 2 MS (IVD) system, all C. parapsilosis but none of C. metapsilosis, or C. orthopsilosis could be accurately identified. Among the 89 yeasts misidentified by the Vitek 2 MS (IVD) system, 39 (43.8%), including 27 C. orthopsilosis isolates, could be correctly identified Using the Vitek MS Plus SARAMIS database for research use only. This resulted in an increase in the rate of correct identification of all yeast isolates (87.5%) by Vitek 2 MS. The two species in C. guilliermondii complex (C. guilliermondii and C. fermentati) isolates were correctly identified by cluster analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper system. Based on the results obtained in the current study, MALDI-TOF MS systems present a promising alternative for the routine identification of yeast species, including clinically commonly and rarely encountered yeast species and several species belonging to C. parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex

  3. Molecular insights into the evolutionary pathway of Vibrio cholerae O1 atypical El Tor variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, Dokyung; Moon, Se Hoon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Ouk; Song, Manki; Das, Bhabatosh; Clemens, John D; Pape, Jean William; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

    2014-09-01

    Pandemic V. cholerae strains in the O1 serogroup have 2 biotypes: classical and El Tor. The classical biotype strains of the sixth pandemic, which encode the classical type cholera toxin (CT), have been replaced by El Tor biotype strains of the seventh pandemic. The prototype El Tor strains that produce biotype-specific cholera toxin are being replaced by atypical El Tor variants that harbor classical cholera toxin. Atypical El Tor strains are categorized into 2 groups, Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains, based on genomic variations and the CTX phage that they harbor. Whole-genome analysis of V. cholerae strains in the seventh cholera pandemic has demonstrated gradual changes in the genome of prototype and atypical El Tor strains, indicating that atypical strains arose from the prototype strains by replacing the CTX phages. We examined the molecular mechanisms that effected the emergence of El Tor strains with classical cholera toxin-carrying phage. We isolated an intermediary V. cholerae strain that carried two different CTX phages that encode El Tor and classical cholera toxin, respectively. We show here that the intermediary strain can be converted into various Wave 2 strains and can act as the source of the novel mosaic CTX phages. These results imply that the Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains may have been generated from such intermediary strains in nature. Prototype El Tor strains can become Wave 3 strains by excision of CTX-1 and re-equipping with the new CTX phages. Our data suggest that inter-chromosomal recombination between 2 types of CTX phages is possible when a host bacterial cell is infected by multiple CTX phages. Our study also provides molecular insights into population changes in V. cholerae in the absence of significant changes to the genome but by replacement of the CTX prophage that they harbor.

  4. Evaluation and selection of tandem repeat loci for a Brucella MLVA typing assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denoeud France

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classification of Brucella into species and biovars relies on phenotypic characteristics and sometimes raises difficulties in the interpretation of the results due to an absence of standardization of the typing reagents. In addition, the resolution of this biotyping is moderate and requires the manipulation of the living agent. More efficient DNA-based methods are needed, and this work explores the suitability of multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA for both typing and species identification. Results Eighty tandem repeat loci predicted to be polymorphic by genome sequence analysis of three available Brucella genome sequences were tested for polymorphism by genotyping 21 Brucella strains (18 reference strains representing the six 'classical' species and all biovars as well as 3 marine mammal strains currently recognized as members of two new species. The MLVA data efficiently cluster the strains as expected according to their species and biovar. For practical use, a subset of 15 loci preserving this clustering was selected and applied to the typing of 236 isolates. Using this MLVA-15 assay, the clusters generated correspond to the classical biotyping scheme of Brucella spp. The 15 markers have been divided into two groups, one comprising 8 user-friendly minisatellite markers with a good species identification capability (panel 1 and another complementary group of 7 microsatellite markers with higher discriminatory power (panel 2. Conclusion The MLVA-15 assay can be applied to large collections of Brucella strains with automated or manual procedures, and can be proposed as a complement, or even a substitute, of classical biotyping methods. This is facilitated by the fact that MLVA is based on non-infectious material (DNA whereas the biotyping procedure itself requires the manipulation of the living agent. The data produced can be queried on a dedicated MLVA web service site.

  5. The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: I. An in vitro agar assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, Lee; Gusman, Jean; McCoy, Lana; Carino, Edith; Heggers, John P

    2002-06-01

    Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) Citricidal has, in recent reports, been reported to be successful in combating a variety of common infectious agents. In our study, drops of concentrated grapefruit-seed extract were tested for antibacterial properties against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Sixty-seven (67) distinct biotypes were tested for their susceptibilities to the GSE as well as to 5 other topical antibacterials (Silvadene, Sulfamylon, Bactroban, Nitrofurazone, and Silvadene, Nystatin). Wells were punched into Mueller-Hinton agar plates, which were then inoculated with the organism to be tested; each well was then inoculated with one of the antibacterial agents. After an overnight incubation period, the plates were checked for zones of bacterial susceptibility around the individual wells, with a measured susceptibility zone diameter of 10 mm or more considered a positive result. The GSE was consistently antibacterial against all of the biotypes tested, with susceptibility zone diameters equal to or greater than 15 mm in each case. Our preliminary data thus suggest an antibacterial characteristic to GSE that is comparable to that of proven topical antibacterials. Although the GSE appeared to have a somewhat greater inhibitory effect on gram-positive organisms than on gram-negative organisms, its comparative effectiveness against a wide range of bacterial biotypes is significant.

  6. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in Retail Chicken Meat, Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadigeh Sirghani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of infection of Yersinia spp. for humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica in chicken meat by using culture method on selective medium and confirmation by PCR assay. Also, biochemical methods were used for biotyping. A total of 100 chicken thigh meat samples were collected randomly from retail outlets in Mashhad, Iran. Samples were enriched in Peptone-Sorbitol-Bile (PSB broth and then cultured on Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN agar containing antibiotics supplement. The DNA was extracted from suspected colonies of Yersinia spp. and then PCR test using specific primers for 16S rRNA gene of Yersinia enterocolitica was performed. In this study, 30% of chicken meat was contaminated with Yersinia spp. by culture method and 25% of chicken meat was contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica. Biotyping of isolated colonies showed that all of the isolates belonged to biotype 1A. Culture and detection of Yersinia spp. from food samples traditionally take 4 days. Due to high accuracy and speed of PCR assay, it is a good alternative method for microbiological techniques. In conclusion, poultry meat can act as a source of Y. enterocolitica and could be considered as a public health hazard.

  7. Microevolution of ALS inhibitor herbicide resistance in loose silky bentgrass (Apera spica-venti)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babineau, Marielle

    , the ALS resistant biotypes have a fitness advantage over the susceptible biotype in time to germination and time to flowering and seed production growth stages. This study increased the understanding of the spatial, phenotypic, genetic and ecological processes and consequences in ALS herbicide resistance......-neighborhood experiments were conducted with ALS resistant and susceptible populations with a randomized genetic background, vegetative and reproductive growth stages were compared. The results show a large variation in the response of neighboring populations to ALS herbicide. Multiple resistance is observed between ALS...... from known metabolic herbicide resistance pathways, such as cytochrome P450s, ABC-transporters, UDP-glycosyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase, are identified and quantified. Different gene families are up-regulated at different times after herbicide treatment. In low competition conditions...

  8. An Explosive Cholera Outbreak In A Rural Community of Gujarat State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta P.G

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : What are the epidemiological features of an el Tor biotype of V. cholerae outbreak? Objective : To describe the epidemiological features of a cholera outbreak. Design: Epidemic investigation. Setting : Rural area near Baroda city. Participants : Residents of the village hamlet. Results : The overall attack rate among 248 people was 13.3% and was highest (26.9% in the 0-4 years age group. All the patients, except one who died at home, had to be hospitalized for treatment . V. Cholerae biotype el Tor serotype Inaba and phage type IV could be isolated from 62.5% of the cases. Some pathogens could be isolated in pure culture from the open well water which was the only source of drinking water for the hamlet.

  9. MCPA (4-Chloro-2-ethylphenoxyacetate) resistance in hemp-nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Tsafrir; Stephenson, Gerald R; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher

    2006-11-29

    The physiological basis for MCPA resistance in a hemp-nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L.) biotype, obtained from a MCPA-resistant field population, was investigated. Dose-response studies revealed that the resistance factor for MCPA, based on GR50 comparisons of total dry weight of resistant (R) and susceptible (S) plants, was 3.3. Resistance factors for fluroxypyr, dicamba, 2,4-D, glyphosate, and chlorsulfuron were 8.2, 1.7, 1.6, 0.7, and 0.6, respectively. MCPA resistance was not due to differences in absorption, because both R and S biotypes absorbed 54% of applied [14C]MCPA 72 h after treatment. However, R plants exported less (45 vs 58% S) recovered 14C out of treated leaves to the apical meristem (6 vs 13% S) and root (32 vs 38% S). In both biotypes, approximately 20% of the 14C recovered in planta was detected as MCPA metabolites. However, less of the 14C recovered in the roots of R plants was MCPA. Therefore, two different mechanisms protect R hemp-nettle from MCPA phytotoxicity: a lower rate of MCPA translocation and a higher rate of MCPA metabolism in the roots. In support of these results, genetic studies indicated that the inheritance of MCPA resistance is governed by at least two nuclear genes with additive effects.

  10. Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Complemented with Selected 16S rRNA and gyrB Genes Sequencing to Practically Identify Clinical Important Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Menglan; Yang, Qiwen; Kudinha, Timothy; Zhang, Li; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Zhao, Yupei; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    There are challenges in viridans group streptococci (VGS) identification especially for the mitis group. Few studies have investigated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS system in VGS identification. Using 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene sequencing as a gold standard, the performance of two MALDI-TOF MS instruments in the identification of 181 VGS clinical isolates was studied. The Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS IVD systems correctly identified 88.4% and 98.9% of the 181 isolates, respectively. The Vitek MS RUO system was the least reliable, only correctly identifying 38.7% of the isolates to species level with several misidentifications and invalid results. The Bruker Biotyper system was very unreliable in the identification of species within the mitis group. Among 22 non-pneumococci isolates (S. mitis/S. oralis/S. pseudopneumoniae), Biotyper misidentified 21 of them as S. pneumoniae leading to a low sensitivity and low positive predictive value in these species. In contrast, the Vitek MS IVD demonstrated a better resolution for pneumococci and non-pneumococci despite the inability to distinguish between S. mitis/S. oralis. For more accurate species-level identification, further improvements in the VGS spectra databases are needed. Based on MALDI-TOF analysis and selected 16S rRNA gene plus gyrB genes sequencing, we designed a practical VGS identification algorithm.

  11. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  12. Mechanism of isoproturon resistance in Phalaris minor: in silico design, synthesis and testing of some novel herbicides for regaining sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Durg Vijay; Adeppa, Kuruba; Misra, Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Isoproturon, 3-p-cumenyl-1 dimethylurea was the only herbicide controlling Phalaris minor, a major weed growing in wheat fields till the early 1980s. Since it has acquired resistance against isoproturon, like other substituted urea herbicides, where the identified target site for isoproturon is in the photosynthetic apparatus at D1 protein of Photosystem-II (PS-II). Nucleotide sequence of susceptible and resistant psbA gene of P. minor has been reported to have four point mutations. During the present work D1 protein of both susceptible and resistant biotypes of P Minor has been modeled. Transmembrane segments of amino acids were predicted by comparing with the nearest homolog of bacterial D1 protein. Volume and area of active site of both susceptible and resistant biotypes has been simulated. Isoproturon was docked at the active site of both, susceptible and resistant D1 proteins. Modeling and simulation of resistance D1 protein indicates that the resistance is due to alteration in secondary structure near the binding site, resulting in loss in cavity area, volume and change in binding position, loss of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interaction and complete loss of hydrophobic sites. To regain sensitivity in resistant biotype new derivatives of isoproturon molecules have been proposed, synthesized and tested. Among the 17 derivatives we found that the N-methyl triazole substituted isoproturon is a potential substitute for isoproturon.

  13. Perceived self-efficacy, personality and bioethics before a heart rehabilitation programme in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madueño Caro, Antonio J; Mellado Fernández, Manuel Luis; Delgado Pacheco, Juana; Muñoz Ayllon, Marta; Pardos Lafarga, Manuel; Saez García, Laura

    There is a clear evidence of the benefit of cardiac rehabilitation after a cardiovascular event on patients' mood and perceived self-efficacy in terms of their own health care. Our aim is to define the correlation between mood-related variables, biotype and self-efficacy in this population. Descriptive study. The entire population of patients discharged from thecardiac rehabilitation unit over 12 months. Universal anthropometric and psychometric (general self-efficacy scale, Salamanca personality traits questionnaire, Hamilton anxiety scale and Beck depression inventory) variables are determined. Descriptive statistics and association between variables (correlation) is determined. This study involved 88 patients, response rate 92%. The average age was 53 years old, 80.23% were males. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations for the main dependent variable and associated variables is performed. Significant evidence is shown, self-efficacy is negatively correlated with anxiety (r=-0.4009) and depression (r=-0.4152), as well as dependent(r=-03 175) and impulsive (r=-0.4243) personality traits. Higher levels of anxiety positively correlate with endomorph biotype (r=0.3304), and depression-associated symptoms (r=0.2563). Age and gender do not correlate with self-perceived efficacy. Self-efficacy in the study population is correlated with personality traits, mood and body biotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The ability to manipulate plant glucosinolates and nutrients explains the better performance of Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 than Mediterranean on cabbage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongying; Guo, Litao; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2017-08-01

    The performance of herbivorous insects is greatly affected by host chemical defenses and nutritional quality. Some herbivores have developed the ability to manipulate plant defenses via signaling pathways. It is currently unclear, however, whether a