WorldWideScience

Sample records for pasteur institute mission

  1. Research and Collaboration Overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: A Bibliometric Approach toward Research Funding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN, which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.

  2. Research and collaboration overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: a bibliometric approach toward research funding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN), which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.

  3. Institut Pasteur v. United States: the AIDS patent dispute, the Contract Disputes Act and the international exchange of scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, H L

    1989-01-01

    In the case of Institut Pasteur v. United States, the Institut Pasteur (Pasteur) claimed that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) had breached express and implied contracts to share research on AIDS virus samples provided to NCI by Pasteur. NCI scientists allegedly used the samples to acquire information which allowed NCI to file patent applications for an AIDS blood test kit. The United States Claims Court dismissed the complaint by holding that the Institut Pasteur had not complied with certain administrative procedures required by the Contract Disputes Act before bringing its suit. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reversed the decision of the Claims Court by holding that the disputed contracts did not fit within the scope of the Contract Disputes Act. Soon after the Court of Appeals decision, President Reagan and Prime Minister Chirac announced a settlement agreement whereby the lawsuit was to be dropped, American and French scientists were to share credit for having discovered the AIDS virus, and both parties to the suit were to share the patent rights for the AIDS blood test kit. This settlement suggest that international legal disputes involving urgent scientific and medical matters may require dispute resolution techniques that serve as alternatives to national courts.

  4. Lições para a história das ciências no Brasil: Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo Lessons for the history of science in Brazil: São Paulo's Pasteur Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Rosa Ribeiro

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende mostrar a importância e o papel do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo (1903-16 no desenvolvimento da ciência microbiológica no Brasil e no surgimento da indústria farmacêutica de capital nacional.The article highlights the role played by São Paulo's Pasteur Institute (1903-16 in the development of microbiological science in Brazil and in the emergence of a pharmaceutical industry owned by Brazilian capital.

  5. Correção de dados sobre a Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo Rectification of data on the Helminthological Collection of the Pasteur Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dely Noronha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente nota se destina a corrigir informações anteriores a respeito da condição da Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Pasteur, que é, de fato, uma coleção institucional e que foi designada, erroneamente, como um acervo particular incorporado à Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Também, dados bibliográficos e históricos são retificados.This note is to correct previous information about the status of the Helminthological Collection of the Pasteur Institute, that is, in fact, an institutional collection, and that appeared erroneously as a private survey incorporated to the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute. Also, bibliographical and historical data are rectified.

  6. [Evolution of tinea capitis observed in mycology laboratory of institute Pasteur of Algeria from1995 to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamroune, Z; Mazouz, A; Benelmouffok, A-B; Kellou, D

    2016-12-01

    Tinea capitis are common in Algeria and are a frequent reason for consultation. This mycosis affects children and rarely adults. This is a retrospective study over a period of 20 years from 1995 to 2015 at the mycology laboratory of the Pasteur institute of Algeria. Observe the evolution of these tinea over the years, to study the epidemiological aspects and identify the responsible agents. This study concerned patients of all ages and sexes living in the region of Algiers and the environs, consultant for various scalp lesions. For each patient, a completed information sheet is developed in insisting on the presence of animals and people with similar lesions. For each sampling, direct examination and culture on Sabouraud medium and antibiotics are utilized. The cultures are put at T° 27 to 28°C and controlled regularly during 3 to 4 weeks. A total of 2664 samples were collected, 892 examinations were positive corresponding to a frequency of 33.48%. The age group 0-10 years is the most affected 710 cases (79.60%), with a slight predominance for male sex 502 cases (56.27%) and 390 cases (43.72%) for female sex. Eight hundred and fifty-five dermatophytes strains were isolated. Among the species found, Trichophyton violaceum is the most species isolated (59.41%), followed by Microsporum canis to 35.08%. In our series, the number of cases of tinea has increased slightly over the years, the rate of 26% in 2001 has progressed to 41.02% in 2015. From 1995 to 2011, T. violaceum was the predominant species, but from the year 2011 we see an increase of M. canis and decreased of T. violaceum. Tinea capitis remains frequent in Algeria and affects preferentially the children. T. violaceum and M. canis dominate the dermatophytic flora. Tinea trichophytic anthropophiles have progressively decreased in favor of tinea microsporic zoophiles who saw their number increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Between biomedical and psychological experiments: The unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institutes and the study of animal mind in the second quarter of twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This article explores the unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institute in French Guinea and the study of animal mind in early twentieth century France. At a time when the study of animal intelligence was thriving in France and elsewhere, apes were appealing research subjects both in psychological and biomedical studies. Drawing on two case studies (Guillaume/Meyerson and Urbain), and then, on someone responding negatively to those connections, Thétard, this article shows how the long reach of biomedicine (linked to the prestige of Bernard and Pasteur) impinged on French biology and played a role in the tortuous, if not unsuccessful fate of animal psychology in France in the second quarter of the twentieth century. It shows how attempts to use apes (and other zoo animals) to yield new insights on animal psychology faced heavy restrictions or experienced false starts, and examines the reasons why animal psychology could not properly thrive at that time in France. Beyond the supremacy of biomedical interests over psychological ones, this article additionally explains that some individuals used animal behaviour studies as steppingstones in careers in which they proceeded on to other topics. Finally, it illustrates the tension between non-academic and academic people at a time when animal psychology was trying to acquire scientific legitimacy, and also highlights the difficulties attached to the scientific study of animals in a multipurpose and hybrid environment such as the early twentieth century Parisian zoo and also the Pasteur Institute of French Guinea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond Research Productivity: Matching Productivity Measures to Institutional Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bartholomew

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a unified methodology inclusive of the three primary areas of faculty responsibility (teaching, research, and service to calculate departmental productivity that fills the gap in methodological bench-marking tools for overall faculty productivity. Background:\tA disproportionate number of departmental and faculty productivity indices in higher education rely solely on research. Productivity in other areas of faculty workload areas, like teaching and institutional and community service, are either measured separately or ignored all together – even when those activities are institutionally mandated. This does a disservice to those who work in those institutions and skews incentives. Methodology: This paper utilizes a unified methodology inclusive of the three primary areas of faculty responsibility (teaching, research, and service to calculate depart-mental productivity in five disparate departments (English, Biology, Mathematics, Sociology, and Computer Science common to two universities with differing missions (teaching and service. Findings: The results reveal the bias inherent in relying solely on research as a proxy for overall productivity in institutions that have differing missions. Recommendations for Practitioners: Utilizing better metrics informs higher education administrators, promotes better decision-making, and allows incentives to re-align with desired outcomes. Recommendation for Researchers: This paper recommends combing all aspects of faculty workload into a single benchmark index to better measure departmental productivity. Future Research: Further research into improving this simple index is warranted and would include how to account for quality and other facets of productivity.

  9. 7 CFR 58.144 - Pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization. 58.144 Section... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.144 Pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization. When pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization is intended or required, or when a product is designated “pasteurized” or...

  10. Translating Pasteur to the Maghreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Francisco Javier

    More than 125 years after its foundation (*), the Pasteur Institute is still one of the world’s largest, best known and most powerful biomedical research institutions. The original motherhouse was founded by Louis Pasteur in 1888 thanks to the funds and facilities generously provided by the Paris municipality and the French state and also to the donations of voluntary contributors from France and the most disparate corners of the globe. Before the great savant died seven years later, official branches had already been opened in Saigon, Lille, Tunis, Algiers, Sydney and Nha-Trang, not to speak about many others which had adopted the trademark without having a formal connection to the Parisian headquarters, such as those in Rio de Janeiro, New York, Chicago or Istanbul. During the first quarter of the 20th century, new official institutes were established in various French colonies and protectorates as well as in countries with significant economic, political or cultural links with France such as Brazil, Greece, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Iran. Today, the so-called Institut Pasteur International Network comprises 32 centers in the five continents .

  11. Institute of Nuclear Physics, mission and scientific research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoto, J.; Zaganjori, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) was established in 1971 as a scientific research institution with main goal basic scientific knowledge transmission and transfer the new methods and technologies of nuclear physics to the different economy fields. The organizational structure and main research areas of the Institute are described. The effects of the long transition period of the Albanian society and economy on the Institution activity are also presented

  12. How an Effective Leadership and Governance Supports to Achieve Institutional Vision, Mission, and Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2015-01-01

    Effective leadership by setting values and participative decision- making process is key not only to achieve the vision, mission and goals of the institution but also in building the organizational culture. The formal and informal arrangements in the institution to co-ordinate the academic and administrative planning and implementation reflects the institutions efforts in achieving its vision. This paper focus on the vision, mission and the objectives identified for a higher educa...

  13. Exomars 2018 Rover Pasteur Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Andre; Bacher, M.; Ball, A.; Barcos, O.; Bethge, B.; Gaubert, F.; Haldemann, A.; Lindner, R.; Pacros, A.; Trautner, R.; Vag, J.

    ars programme is a joint ESA-NASA program having exobiology as one of the key science objectives. It is divided into 2 missions: the first mission is ESA-led with an ESA orbiter and an ESA Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) demonstrator, launched in 2016 by NASA, and the second mission is NASA-led, launched in 2018 by NASA carrying an ESA rover and a NASA rover both deployed by a single NASA EDL system. For ESA, the ExoMars programme will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies in support of the European ambitions for future exploration missions, as outlined in the Aurora Declaration. While the ExoMars 2016 mission will accomplish a technological objective (Entry, Descent and Landing of a payload on the surface) and a Scientific objective (investigation of Martian atmospheric trace gases and their sources, focussing particularly on methane), the ExoMars 2018 ESA Rover will carry a comprehensive and coherent suite of analytical instruments dedicated to exobiology and geology research: the Pasteur Payload (PPL). This payload includes a selection of complementary instruments, having the following goals: to search for signs of past and present life on Mars and to investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface. The ExoMars Rover includes a drill for accessing underground materials, and a Sample Preparation and Distribution System. The Rover will travel several kilometres looking for sites warranting further investigation, where it will collect and analyse samples from within outcrops and from the subsurface for traces of complex organic molecules. In addition to further details on this Exomars 2018 rover mission, this presentation will focus on the scientific objectives and the instruments needed to achieve them, including details of how the Pasteur Payload as a whole addresses Mars research objectives.

  14. Limited Reach: The Role of Mission and Institutional Aid in Supporting Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Mary Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a mixed methods research design to explore the relationship between institutional financial aid practice and graduation rates at a subset of private, non-profit four-year colleges and universities and explores how institutions prioritize allocations to financial aid within the framework of institutional mission, culture, and…

  15. Are institutional missions aligned with journal-based or document-based disciplinary structures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, R.; Boyack, K.W.

    2016-07-01

    Missions represent the underlying purpose of an institution. These missions can be focused (finding a cure for cancer) or diverse (providing all health services to a local population). They might be aimed at basic research (finding new sub-atomic particles) or very applied (forecasting tomorrow’s weather). Missions can be extremely practical (building i-phones) or abstract (creating maps of scientific inquiry). Our primary focus is on those institutions that are also contributing to society’s knowledge about scientific and technical phenomena. The publications of these institutions are, to some degree, an implicit statement of their mission. Institutions focusing on a cure for cancer will publish articles associated with cancer, while hospitals will publish in a diverse set of medical specialties. Institutions focused on subatomic particles publish in specialized physics journals. While the publication profile of an institution is obviously not the same as an institution’s mission, it is typically consistent with its mission. In this study we analyze the publication profiles of over 4400 institutions using Scopus data to determine if their institutional missions are best explained using a journal-based classification system or a document-based classification system. The structure of this article is as follows. The background section places this work in the context of two streams of research – the accuracies of different document classification systems, and the effect of different national contexts (specifically wealth, health and democracy) on science systems and their impact. We then describe our data and methods before addressing two questions: Do the missions of certain types of institutions align with journal-based or article-based disciplines, and does this vary with national context (wealth, health and democracy). We conclude with a discussion of limitations and possible areas for further investigation. (Author)

  16. Pasteurization of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Barbosa Alzate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the time it takes milk, which is heated from 60°F to 150°F, to achieve pasteurization and compared this result with the standard pasteurization process of heating milk at a constant temperature of 150°F for 30 minutes. Instead of directly quantifying the bacterium population, we considered the bacteria to milk concentration ratio. To solve for the unknown time, we equated the final bacterium concentration ratio achieved through both varied temperature and constant temperature. After equating the final pasteurization concentrations we were unable to find an analytical solution, so we used numerical techniques to find the unknown heating time.

  17. The Impact of Institutional Mission on Student Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Susan Crawford; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Singleton, Royce A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined patterns and predictors of volunteering among students at a liberal arts college with an institutional culture that strongly promotes community service. Results showed that predictors varied across four different types of volunteering: community service, social action, religious service, and service to the college. Year in…

  18. [Mission statements of Dutch mental health institutions; the quality of communication with stakeholders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, D G H; de Kruif, J

    2013-01-01

    As a result of recent reforms in Dutch health care, healthcare providers are having to operate more and more like commercial organisations and adopt some of the rules prevailing in the profit sector. Because missions statements can be an efficient means of useful communication with internal and external stakeholders they can make a useful contribution to the way healthcare institutions are managed and to their status and reputation. Research shows that in view of this the quality of the messages conveyed via mission statements is important. To ascertain which stakeholders are mentioned in the mission statements of Dutch mental healthcare providers and to quantify the quality of the messages conveyed to them via mission statements. We examined the mission statements of 34 mental health providers to find out which stakeholders were included. The message conveyed to the stakeholders was quantified by means of a validated measuring instrument devised specifically for this purpose. Patients were referred to in all mission statements and the quality of the messages conveyed was of higher quality than the messages conveyed to other stakeholders. Other important stakeholders on whom the institutions depended were referred to much less frequently and the quality of sections of text referring to them was definitely inferior. Mission statements frequently serve as management tool for Dutch mental healthcare providers. The potential benefits that these statements could bestow on the providers are not being fully exploited because the standard of communication with several internal and external stakeholders is of poor quality.

  19. An Analysis of the Mission and Vision Statements on the Strategic Plans of Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdem, Guven

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the mission and vision statements on the strategic plans of higher education institutions. The sample of the study consisted of 72 public universities. Strategic plans of the universities were accessed over the internet, and the data collected were analyzed using content analysis. The findings show that statements on…

  20. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

  1. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

  2. 7 CFR 58.334 - Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization. 58.334 Section 58.334 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.334 Pasteurization. The milk or cream shall be pasteurized at the plant where the milk or... adequate pasteurization. Additional heat treatment above the minimum pasteurization requirement is...

  3. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  4. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  5. Framework for ethical decision-making based on mission, vision and values of the institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotalik, Jaro; Covino, Cathy; Doucette, Nadine; Henderson, Steve; Langlois, Michelle; McDaid, Karen; Pedri, Louisa M

    2014-06-01

    The authors led the development of a framework for ethical decision-making for an Academic Health Sciences Centre. They understood the existing mission, vision, and values statement (MVVs) of the centre as a foundational assertion that embodies an ethical commitment of the institution. Reflecting the Patient and Family Centred Model of Care the institution is living, the MVVs is a suitable base on which to construct an ethics framework. The resultant framework consists of a set of questions for each of the MVVs. Users of the framework are expected to identify two or more possible decisions to address the issue at hand and then, by applying the provided sequence of questions to each, examine these options and determine the overall ethically preferable decision. The construction of such a framework requires the creative involvement of the institution's staff. Thus the development of the framework can represent a training process in ethical decision-making as well as advance the ethical atmosphere of the institution. This novel approach has the advantage of placing the MVVs on active duty, at the centre of ethical decision-making, and lifts it from its otherwise relative obscurity in most institutions.

  6. Measuring Students' Perceptions of Institutional Identity: Validating the DePaul Mission and Values Inventory at a Franciscan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo, Elizabeth K.; Bottom, Todd L.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    The "DePaul Mission and Values Inventory" ("DMV") was validated based on the mission, identity, and values of a large, urban, Catholic, Vincentian institution. We examined the suitability of the "DMV" at a small, suburban, Catholic, Franciscan university. A sample of 275 undergraduates (218 women, 57 men:…

  7. Enhancement of Solar Water Pasteurization with Reflectors

    OpenAIRE

    Safapour, Negar; Metcalf, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and reliable method that could be used in developing countries to pasteurize milk and water with solar energy is described. A cardboard reflector directs sunshine onto a black jar, heating water to pasteurizing temperatures in several hours. A reusable water pasteurization indicator verifies that pasteurization temperatures have been reached.

  8. Enhancement of solar water pasteurization with reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safapour, N; Metcalf, R H

    1999-02-01

    A simple and reliable method that could be used in developing countries to pasteurize milk and water with solar energy is described. A cardboard reflector directs sunshine onto a black jar, heating water to pasteurizing temperatures in several hours. A reusable water pasteurization indicator verifies that pasteurization temperatures have been reached.

  9. Enhancement of Solar Water Pasteurization with Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safapour, Negar; Metcalf, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and reliable method that could be used in developing countries to pasteurize milk and water with solar energy is described. A cardboard reflector directs sunshine onto a black jar, heating water to pasteurizing temperatures in several hours. A reusable water pasteurization indicator verifies that pasteurization temperatures have been reached. PMID:9925631

  10. Embracing the Mission: Catholic and Non-Catholic Faculty and Staff Perceptions of Institutional Mission and School Sense of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph; Janulis, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the perceptions of the mission identity and mission-driven campus activities of faculty (n = 305) and staff (n = 584) at a large urban Catholic university. Moreover, it compared employees who were self identified as Catholic (n = 375), Christian (n = 204), other faiths (n = 161), or no religious preference (n = 159).…

  11. Instituting dispute resolution procedures in the Apostolic Faith Mission in Zimbabwe church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Chivasa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to institute dispute resolution procedures in the Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM in Zimbabwe church informs this study. Remarkably, one of the most critical problems facing the AFM in Zimbabwe church is intrachurch disputes, which manifest in diverse forms such as pastors’ transfers disputes, election disputes and pastors’ performance disputes. Such disputes have produced undesirable consequences not only for pastors but also for the wellbeing of the church in general. Intrachurch disputes require internal mechanisms to manage them so that constructive rather than destructive results are achieved. To do this, internal dispute resolution procedures become critical as they provide a framework for the constructive resolution of disputes. The lived experience of disputes in the AFM in Zimbabwe church confirms the appropriateness of systems theory, which states that social institutions are vulnerable to disharmony owing to differing interacting elements. To mitigate the negative impact associated with disputes, this study proposes the need to institute dispute resolution procedures in the AFM in Zimbabwe, because the church currently relies only on disciplinary procedures to address disputes. The study further emphasises that instituting dispute resolution procedures will help the church handle disputes from within its ranks without necessarily involving local courts, which may have negative financial and relationship implications. Finally, the study develops a model for dispute resolution procedures as an instrument that can assist local churches in AFM in Zimbabwe church to handle disputes as and when they arise.

  12. Pasteur en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Bárcenas lsaacs

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Simposio Internacional sobre Inmunización y Producción de Vacunas, Bogotá, 29 de Septiembre de 1985.

    La Sociedad Colombiana de Historia de la Medicina recibió del Comité Organizador de la reunión que hoy nos congrega, la solicitud de presentar el tema de la influencia de Luís Pasteur en la América Latina. La Sociedad mencionada tuvo a bien encargarme de tan honroso cometido; sin embargo, habida cuenta de la vastedad de nuestro continente, del largo tiempo que se requiere para consultar responsable y juiciosamente archivos y bibliotecas en los diferentes países, además de los viajes que hubiera sido necesario realizar, decliné tan atractiva y desafiante tarea, pero propuse, en cambio, que se me permitiera abordar el tema circunscribiéndolo a Colombia.

    Me doy cuenta cabal de que lo que diga pudiera parecer estrecho o parroquial a este distinguido concurso de personalidades provenientes de tan diversas latitudes. No obstante, me atrevo a creer que lo que aconteció en Colombia al advenimiento de las ideas y de los descubrimientos de Pasteur, no debe diferir demasiado de lo sucedido en otras naciones, a las cuales Bolívar agrupó en una sola cuando dijo “para nosotros la patria es América”.

    Con la salvedad expresada, trataré de cumplir con la generosa designación que he recibido de la Sociedad Colombiana de Historia de la Medicina, a la cual me complazco en pertenecer y a cuyo presidente y Junta Directiva agradezco la distinción que me hacen.

    En este año de 1985 se cumplen y se celebran cien de la primera aplicación humana de la vacuna antirrábica debida a Pasteur. Se conmemora también el centenario de la muerte de Víctor Hugo, uno de los más grandes escritores y poetas de la humanidad. Siempre he creído que estos dos hijos insignes de la Francia del Siglo XIX, se distinguieron por el respeto, el afecto y la admiración que les profesaron sus contemporáneos y entre

  13. Louis Pasteur: el hombre y el artista Louis pasteur: the man and the artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herta Vélez Arango

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El artista finlandés A. Edelfelt, autor del famoso retrato de Pasteur en el laboratorio en 1887, expresó el siguiente Juicio sobre Pasteur como pintor en una carta a uno de sus amigos: ";aparte de la ciencia, la pintura es una de las pocas cosas que le interesaban. Cuando tenía dieciséis años había intentado hacerse pintor y se entretenía haciendo retratos al pastel, de ciudadanos de Arbois; algunos de estos cuadros se encuentran en su casa o en el instituto; los he observado muy a menudo, son extremadamente buenos y superiores al trabajo habitual de los jóvenes que se dedican a la carrera artística. Hay algo del gran investigador en estos retratos: expresan la verdad absoluta y un poder de voluntad poco común. Estoy seguro de que si Pasteur hubiera elegido el arte en vez de la ciencia, Francia contaría hoy con uno de sus pintores más capaces";.

    The Finnish artist A. Edelfelt. author of the famous portrait of Pasteur in his laboratory (1887. expressed the following Judgement about Pasteur as a painter. in the letter addressed to one of his friends: ";besides science. painting is one of the few things that interested him. When he was sixteen he had attempted to become a painter and entertained himself making pastel portraits of citizens of Arbors; some of those portraits hang In his house or at the Institute; I have often observed them; they are extremely good and much better than the usual work of young people who devote themselves to artistic life. In those portraits there Is something of the great Investigator: they express absolute truth and a not-so-common will power. I am sure that had Pasteur opted for art Instead of science France would count him now among Its most gifted painters.";

  14. Science and the applications of science from Louis Pasteur to Jacques Monod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Maxime

    2015-06-01

    Jacques Monod's ideas on the applications of science came within the scope of a long tradition at the Institut Pasteur. Louis Pasteur, whose scientific career was characterized by a permanent come and go between science and its applications, long opposed the idea of getting any income from his research, until the financial needs of the Institut Pasteur made him change his mind. As for Jacques Monod, he remained a fervent supporter of basic science during his whole scientific career. However, once he became director of the Institut Pasteur, he realized that the applications of research had to be developed to support the institute from a financial point of view. Thus, he reorganized the valorization of research in the institute, through an incitation of scientists to develop projects with possible applications, and by creating a company, Institut Pasteur Production, for which he had a factory built, and which was in charge of producing and commercializing the vaccines and reagents stemming from the research at the Institut Pasteur. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Needs of radiation pasteurization of spice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masaichi

    2007-01-01

    The present situation on the pasteurization of spice and the advantage of radiation pasteurization are simply elucidated by showing the investigation results so far. It is thus clear that the radiation pasteurization of spice is required. Furthermore, the wholesomeness of irradiated spice has been reported so far. From these, the need of wholesome test for each sample is required. (M.H.)

  16. 7 CFR 58.809 - Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization. 58.809 Section 58.809 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.809 Pasteurization. (a) All fluid whey used in the manufacture of dry whey, dry whey products... drying operations for dry whey take place at the same plant, the pasteurization may be located at a...

  17. Preparing to Live the Institutional Mission: An Evaluation of a Pilot Program with Engaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperato, John R.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated how a select group of mission-engaged, upper division students (n = 7) compared to a random sample of junior- (n = 20) and senior- (n = 20) year students in their perception of an urban, Catholic, and religious-order-sponsored university's identity. Across two years, we assessed mission identity and mission-driven…

  18. Effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhisivam, B; Vishnu Bhat, B; Rao, Krishna; Kingsley, S M; Plakkal, Nishad; Palanivel, C

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk. This descriptive study was conducted in a Human Milk Bank of a tertiary care teaching institute in south India. Thirty random paired pooled donor human milk samples (before and after pasteurization) were analyzed for macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrates) using infrared spectroscopy. Similarly, immunoglobulin profile (IgA and IgG) before and after pasteurization was quantified using ELISA. The mean values of protein, fat, and carbohydrates in pooled donor milk pre-pasteurization were 1.6, 3.6, and 6.1 g/dl compared with post-pasteurization values 1.4, 2.7, and 5.9 g/dl, respectively. Pasteurization reduced protein, fat, and energy content of pooled donor milk by 12.5%, 25%, and 16%, respectively. However, carbohydrates were not significantly reduced. Pasteurization decreased IgA by 30% and IgG by 60%. Holder pasteurization of pooled donor human milk decreases protein, fat, and energy content and also reduces the levels of IgA and IgG.

  19. A cartography and GIS consultancy mission to the Agricultural Research Institute (ARI) in Mlingano, Tanzania, september 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Agricultural Research Institute (ARI) in Mlingano, Tanzania made a start with GIS activities at the end of 1998. After purchasing GIS hardware and software and basic training courses, Alterra was invited to carry out a consultancy mission to solvepractical problems with map projection, map

  20. Microbial and Chemical Shelf-Life of Vacuum Steam-Pasteurized Whole Flaxseed and Milled Flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manoj; Eklund, Bridget; Conde Lima, Luiz Gustavo; Bergholz, Teresa; Hall, Clifford

    2018-02-01

    Flaxseed is an oilseed with many health benefits. Flaxseed may be consumed raw or in processed form. In the raw form, there is a potential for microbial contamination. Several pasteurization methods have been used to reduce microbial contamination. However, such treatments may affect chemical properties of foods. In this study, vacuum steam-pasteurization was conducted on whole flaxseed and milled flaxseed using 4 different conditions (3 min at 75 °C, 3 min at 90 °C, 9 min at 90 °C, and 3 min at 105 °C). Microbial and chemical shelf-life was monitored for 28 wk (36 wk for aerobic plate counts). Significant reduction (P chemical indices measured. Only small changes were observed in the chemical indices after vacuum steam-pasteurization for both pasteurized whole flaxseed and milled flaxseed as compared to the unpasteurized flaxseed at most instances. Vacuum steam-pasteurization can be used as a safe alternative for the microbial reduction of low-moisture products, such as flaxseed, without significantly affecting chemical stability. Vacuum steam-pasteurization can be effectively used for the treatment of whole flaxseed and milled flaxseed to reduce spoilage microorganisms, such as total aerobes and yeasts and molds. In addition, this pasteurization method had minimal effects on several chemical shelf-life parameters with positive impact on SDG of the processed flaxseed. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Exomars 2018 Rover Pasteur Payload Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Andre; Bacher, M.; Ball, A.; Barcos, O.; Bethge, B.; Gaubert, F.; Haldemann, A.; Kminek, G.; Lindner, R.; Pacros, A.; Rohr, T.; Trautner, R.; Vago, J.

    The ExoMars programme is a joint ESA-NASA program having exobiology as one of the key science objectives. It is divided into 2 missions: the first mission is ESA-led with an ESA orbiter and an ESA Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) demonstrator, launched in 2016 by NASA, and the second mission is NASA-led, launched in 2018 by NASA including an ESA rover and a NASA rover both deployed by a single NASA EDL system. For ESA, the ExoMars programme will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies in support of the European ambitions for future exploration missions, as outlined in the Aurora Declaration. The ExoMars 2018 ESA Rover will carry a comprehensive and coherent suite of analytical instruments dedicated to exobiology and geology research: the Pasteur Payload (PPL). This payload includes a selection of complementary instruments, having the following goals: to search for signs of past and present life on Mars and to investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface. The ExoMars Rover will travel several kilometres searching for sites warranting further investigation. The Rover includes a drill and a Sample Preparation and Distribution System which will be used to collect and analyse samples from within outcrops and from the subsurface. The Rover systems and instruments, in particular those located inside the Analytical Laboratory Drawer must meet many stringent requirements to be compatible with exobiologic investigations: the samples must be maintained in a cold and uncontaminated environment, requiring sterile and ultraclean preparation of the instruments, to preserve volatile materials and to avoid false positive results. The value of the coordinated observations suggests that a significant return on investment is to be expected from this complex development. We will present the challenges facing the ExoMars PPL, and the plans for sending a robust exobiology laboratory to Mars in 2018.

  2. ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY: DEVELOPING AND INTEGRATING THE THIRD MISSION IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela, DIACONU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern unversity which activates in a highly competitive market and is mostly assisted and not financially supported by the state must find tools with which to be competitive and prestigious. It is necessary to identify the managerial and scientific opportunities with which to build the best resources in order to fulfill its mission. This study presents the role of the university in the economic and social environment supported by the mission undertaken by three components: teaching, scientific research and the social function and to what extent the third mission of the modern university is seen as a necessity in the context of current economic and social context by the universities of Romania. The method used was the content analysis of the mission of universities in Romania presented in the University Charter and its correlation with the analysis models on entrepreneurship and academic entrepreneurial management offered by the specialized literature. The conclusion is that more than 60% of universities in Romania formulated their mission by considering the three components and that understanding and building entrepreneurial culture is a condition of the successful fulfillment of the mission of the modern university.

  3. Louis Pasteur, language, and molecular chirality. I. Background and dissymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Louis Pasteur resolved sodium ammonium (±)-tartrate in 1848, thereby discovering molecular chirality. Although hindered by the primitive state of organic chemistry, he introduced new terminology and nomenclature for his new science of molecular and crystal chirality. He was well prepared for this task by his rigorous education and innate abilities, and his linguistic achievements eventually earned him membership in the supreme institution for the French language, the Académie française. Dissymmetry had been in use in French from the early 1820s for disruption or absence of symmetry or for dissimilarity or difference in appearance between two objects, and Pasteur initially used it in the latter connotation, without any reference to handedness or enantiomorphism. Soon, however, he adopted it in the meaning of chirality. Asymmetry had been in use in French since 1691 but Pasteur ignored it in favor of dissymmetry. The two terms are not synonymous but it is not clear whether Pasteur recognized this difference in choosing the former over the latter. However, much of the literature mistranslates his dissymmetry as asymmetry. Twenty years before Pasteur the British polymath John Herschel proposed that optical rotation in the noncrystalline state is due to the "unsymmetrical" [his term] nature of the molecules and later used dissymmetrical for handed. Chirality, coined by Lord Kelvin in 1894 and introduced into chemistry by Mislow in 1962, has nearly completely replaced dissymmetry in the meaning of handedness, but the use of dissymmetry continues today in other contexts for lack of symmetry, reduction of symmetry, or dissimilarity. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator. HTST pasteurization units shall be equipped with the proper controls and equipment to assure pasteurization. If the milk is held more than 2 hours between the time of pasteurization and setting, it shall be...

  5. El legado de Louis Pasteur The legacy of Lous Pasteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se destacan cualidades de Louis Pasteur como la precocidad de su aptitud artística, la capacidad de concentración y reflexión y la perseverancia en sus empeños para lograr lo deseado; luego se hace una síntesis de su vida a través de sus logros científicos: sentar las bases de la estereoquímica, demostrar que las fermentaciones se deben a la acción de organismos vivos, probar que no existe la generación espontánea, aclarar la etiología de varias enfermedades humanas y animales y proponer soluciones para ellas, incluyendo la producción de vacunas, que culminó con el éxito de la vacunación antirrábica. Pasteur había nacido en una época en que predominaba la insalubridad y se corría grave riesgo de fallecer de enfermedades infectocontagiosas; a su muerte había contribuido inmensamente a mejorar esa situación.

    Several qualities of Louis Pasteur are emphasized in this paper, namely: his artistic gift, his capacity for concentration and reflection and his perseverance in working to achieve his goals; a sinthesis of his life is presented through his scientific achievements: to establish the bases of stereochemistry, to prove that fermentations are due to the action of living organisms and that no spontaneous generation exists, to elucidate the etiology of several human and animal diseases and to propose solutions for them including the production of vaccines that culminated with the success of rabies vaccination. Pasteur had been born at a time of great unhealthiness and high risk of death due to infectious diseases; through his life-Iong research he considerably improved such situation.

  6. Rapid pasteurization of shell eggs using RF

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel method for rapidly pasteurizing eggs in the shell could enhance the safety of the United States’ food supply. Current federal regulations do not require eggs sold in stores to be pasteurized, yet these eggs are often consumed raw or undercooked and cause untold cases of salmonella illness ea...

  7. 9 CFR 109.3 - Pasteurizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurizers. 109.3 Section 109.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION AT...

  8. Green Pea and Garlic Puree Model Food Development for Thermal Pasteurization Process Quality Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Liu, Fang

    2017-07-01

    Development and selection of model foods is a critical part of microwave thermal process development, simulation validation, and optimization. Previously developed model foods for pasteurization process evaluation utilized Maillard reaction products as the time-temperature integrators, which resulted in similar temperature sensitivity among the models. The aim of this research was to develop additional model foods based on different time-temperature integrators, determine their dielectric properties and color change kinetics, and validate the optimal model food in hot water and microwave-assisted pasteurization processes. Color, quantified using a * value, was selected as the time-temperature indicator for green pea and garlic puree model foods. Results showed 915 MHz microwaves had a greater penetration depth into the green pea model food than the garlic. a * value reaction rates for the green pea model were approximately 4 times slower than in the garlic model food; slower reaction rates were preferred for the application of model food in this study, that is quality evaluation for a target process of 90 °C for 10 min at the cold spot. Pasteurization validation used the green pea model food and results showed that there were quantifiable differences between the color of the unheated control, hot water pasteurization, and microwave-assisted thermal pasteurization system. Both model foods developed in this research could be utilized for quality assessment and optimization of various thermal pasteurization processes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Fulfilling an Institutional and Public Good Mission: A Case Study of Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Renee F.

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education has been and remains a critical issue, yet research typically focuses on students and programs which may overlook the role of the faculty. Through an in-depth case study, the perspectives of tenured and tenure-track faculty at a predominately White, Midwestern land-grant, research institution are described as they relate…

  11. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization facilities: The facilities for pasteurization of egg products shall be adequate and of approved construction so...

  12. 7 CFR 58.919 - Pre-heat, pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-heat, pasteurization. 58.919 Section 58.919... Procedures § 58.919 Pre-heat, pasteurization. When pasteurization is intended or required by either the vat... requirements outlined in § 58.128. Pre-heat temperatures prior to ultra pasteurization will be those that have...

  13. Challenges in Radiofrequency Pasteurization of Shell Eggs: Coagulation Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Soon Kiat; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Jones, David; Negahban, Mehrdad; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2016-10-01

    A total of 50 different configurations of simple radiofrequency (RF) heating at 27.12 MHz of a shell egg were simulated using a finite element model with the purpose of pasteurizing the egg. Temperature-dependent thermal and dielectric properties of the yolk, albumen, and shell were measured, fitted, and introduced into the model. A regression equation that relates the top electrode voltage to the gap between the electrodes and vertical position of the egg was developed. Simulation and experimental results had good agreement in terms of temperature deviation (root mean squared error ranged from 0.35 °C to 0.48 °C) and both results demonstrated the development of a "coagulation ring" around the air cell. The focused heating near the air cell of the egg prevented pasteurization of the egg due to its impact on quality (coagulation). Analysis of the electric field patterns offered a perspective on how nonuniform RF heating could occur in heterogeneous food products. The results can be used to guide development of RF heating for heterogeneous food products and further development of RF pasteurization of eggs. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Pasteurization and radiation of fresh milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani

    1976-01-01

    In this investigation, treatments with pasteurization and irradiation with gamma rays on fresh milk were used. Pasteurization was done at temperatures of 62 deg C and 70 deg C. The irradiation doses used were 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 krad. The results of the investigation showed that the number of bacteria decreased after either pasteurization or irradiation. The higher the dose of irradiation the lower the total bacterial counts in milk became, but the latter increased during storage at 10 deg C. The number of bacteria in pasteurized milk did not show any significant difference from milk irradiated with the dose of 300-600 krad after 15 days of storage in the refrigerator. No enzymatic activity was detected in pasteurized milk, but after storage the coli bacteria acivity tested to become positive in the MPN test. On the countrary irradiation of fresh milk could stimulate the enzymatic activity, although the protein content was constant. Finally, heating as a pretreatment is better to be used before pasteurizing or sterilizing milk with ionizing radiation in order to preserve fresh milk for a longer period without any changes in the nutritional quality and taste. (author)

  15. Human milk pasteurization: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Deborah L; Ewaschuk, Julia B; Unger, Sharon

    2015-05-01

    Recent findings substantiate that the optimal method of nourishing preterm, very low birth weight infants (VLBW, born pasteurized donor milk. The availability of donor milk for VLBW infants during initial hospitalization continues to increase with the launch of new milk banks in North America. The majority of North American neonatal ICUs now have written policies governing the provision of donor milk. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent evidence regarding the risks and benefits of pasteurization of human milk and outcomes associated with its provision to VLBW preterm infants. Studies investigating the impact of collection, storage and pasteurization on the bacteriostatic, immunologic and nutritional aspects of human milk continue to be published, generally revealing a partial, but not complete reduction in bioactivity. Risk of contamination of pasteurized donor human milk with pathogenic agents is mitigated through pasteurization. New pasteurization methods aiming to maintain the safety of pooled human milk while better preserving bioactivity are under investigation. Provision of a human milk-derived diet to preterm VLBW infants is associated with improved outcomes.

  16. Hot-fill pasteurization of cucumber pickle spears: an alternative to tunnel pasteurizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    For commercial production of acidified vegetable products, thermal processes (71°C to 74°C for 10 min to 15 min) are typically done using a tunnel pasteurizer. To reduce energy costs and water usage, we developed a hot-fill method for pasteurization of cucumber pickle spears in 0.7 L (24 oz) jars. T...

  17. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)

  18. Development of Aa New Time Temperature Indicator for Enzymatic Validation of Pasteurization of Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a new smart time-temperature indicator (TTI) of pasteurization whose operating principle is based on the complexation reaction between starch and iodine, and the subsequent action of an amylase on this complex causing its discoloration at a rate dependent on time and temperature of the medium. Laboratory simulations and tests in a manufacturing plant evaluated different enzyme concentrations in the TTI prototypes when exposed to pasteurization conditions. The results showed that the color response of the indicators was visually interpreted as adaptive to measurement using appropriate equipment, with satisfactory reliability in all conditions studied. The TTI containing 6.5% amylase was one whose best results were suited for use in validating the cooking of hams. When attached to the primary packaging of the product, this TTI indicated the pasteurization process inexpensively, easily, accurately, and nondestructively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  20. Repetitively pulsed power for meat pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Kaye, R.J.; Neau, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic pasteurization of meat offers the potential for drastically reducing the incidence of food poisoning caused by biological pathogens accidentally introduced into meat products. Previous work has shown that γ-rays are an effective method of destroying E. coli 0157:H7, Salmonella, C. jejuni, L. monocytogenes, Listeria, and S. aureus bacteria types. The concern with the use of γ-rays is that radioactive material must be used in the pasteurization process that can lead to some market resistance and activist pressure on the meat industry. The use of accelerator generated high average power electron beams, at energies less than 10 MeV, or X-rays, with energies below 5 MeV, have been approved by the FDA for use in pasteurizing foods. Accelerator produced electronic pasteurization has the advantage that no radioactive material inventory is required. Electronic pasteurization has the additional benefit that it removes bacterial pathogens on the meat surface as well as within the volume of the meat product. High average power, repetitively-pulsed, broad-area electron beam sources being developed in the RHEPP program are suitable for large scale meat treatment in packing plant environments. RHEPP-II, which operates at 2.5 MeV and 25 kA at pulse repetition frequencies up to 120 Hz has adequate electron energy to penetrate hamburger patties which comprise about half of the beef consumption in the United States. Ground beef also has the highest potential for contamination since considerable processing is required in its production. A meat pasteurization facility using this size of accelerator source should be capable of treating 10 6 pounds of hamburger patties per hour to a dose of up to 3 kGy (300 kilorads). The RHEPP modular accelerator technology can easily be modified for other production rates and types of products

  1. USE OF SILVER IONS IN PASTEURIZED MILK PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mamaev; K. Leshukov; S. Stepanova

    2012-01-01

    The means of pasteurized milk shelf life prolongation by electro-chemical diffusion of silver ions has been introduced. Three samples of pasteurized milk were test subjects. In the course of study the following data have been examined: organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological parameters of check samples and pilot samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Its shelf life has been determined. It has been determined that the test results of raw and pasteurized milk samples processed by various c...

  2. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be added...

  3. 7 CFR 58.521 - Pasteurization and product flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization and product flow. 58.521 Section 58.521... Procedures § 58.521 Pasteurization and product flow. (a) The skim milk used for the manufacture of cottage.... If held more than two hours between pasteurization and time of setting, the skim milk shall be cooled...

  4. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization and heat treatment. 58.236 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and... is handled according to sanitary conditions approved by the Administrator. (a) Pasteurization. (1...

  5. 21 CFR 1210.15 - Pasteurization; equipment and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurization; equipment and methods. 1210.15... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.15 Pasteurization; equipment and methods... into the United States shall employ adequate pasteurization machinery of a type easily cleaned and of...

  6. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by the...

  7. A university system's approach to enhancing the educational mission of health science schools and institutions: the University of Texas Academy of Health Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Maximilian Buja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The academy movement developed in the United States as an important approach to enhance the educational mission and facilitate the recognition and work of educators at medical schools and health science institutions. Objectives: Academies initially formed at individual medical schools. Educators and leaders in The University of Texas System (the UT System, UTS recognized the academy movement as a means both to address special challenges and pursue opportunities for advancing the educational mission of academic health sciences institutions. Methods: The UTS academy process was started by the appointment of a Chancellor's Health Fellow for Education in 2004. Subsequently, the University of Texas Academy of Health Science Education (UTAHSE was formed by bringing together esteemed faculty educators from the six UTS health science institutions. Results: Currently, the UTAHSE has 132 voting members who were selected through a rigorous, system-wide peer review and who represent multiple professional backgrounds and all six campuses. With support from the UTS, the UTAHSE has developed and sustained an annual Innovations in Health Science Education conference, a small grants program and an Innovations in Health Science Education Award, among other UTS health science educational activities. The UTAHSE represents one university system's innovative approach to enhancing its educational mission through multi- and interdisciplinary as well as inter-institutional collaboration. Conclusions: The UTAHSE is presented as a model for the development of other consortia-type academies that could involve several components of a university system or coalitions of several institutions.

  8. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF INFRARED MILK PASTEURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the model representation of the process of pasteurization of milk infrared patterns of change in temperature of the product in the heating zone with the heat flows of different nature were obtained. The changes in the basic performance of the quartz oscillator during operation were also obtained.

  9. Present status of radiation-pasteurization apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Keigo

    2006-01-01

    Electron beams with the energy less than 10 MeV can be utilized to destroy directly DNA of microorganism or indirectly via OH radicals produced from water which may diffuse toward the DNA. The article summarizes the features of radiation pasteurization in general, using X-rays or electron beams, followed by stating the advantage claimed for electron beam treatment compared to X-ray treatment. The article explains various types of electron-beam accelerators now used for pasteurization and food preservation. For this purposes some specific apparatus are introduced with which food irradiation facilities should be equipped, for example beam scanning systems and sample transport systems with an automatic switch for door open-shut. The objects of each type of food to be irradiated and necessary dose range are tabulated. Finally, some recent problems regarding food irradiation are discussed: possible radioactivity induced by irradiation, use of methyl bromide instead of irradiation, etc. (S. Ohno)

  10. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  11. Monitoring Shelf Life of Pasteurized Whole Milk Under Refrigerated Storage Conditions: Predictive Models for Quality Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaina, Mohamed; Govindan, Byju N; Rasco, Barbara; Coffey, Todd; Sablani, Shyam S

    2018-02-01

    The shelf life of pasteurized milk is generally determined through microbiological analysis. The objective of this study was to correlate microbial quality parameters then to design predictive models for shelf life of pasteurized milk. We analyzed pasteurized milk (3.9% fat) for aerobic plate counts (APCs), psychrotrophic bacteria counts (PBCs), and Bacillus spp. counts at 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, and 19 (±1 °C) to the end of storage time. We also monitored titratable acidity, pH, and, lipase, and protease activity and correlated this with APC, which is the principal index defining shelf life. Results indicate that the shelf life of pasteurized milk was 24, 36, and 72 h at 19, 15, and 13 °C respectively, as determined by APC and acidity indicators. However, milk stored at lower temperatures of 5, 7, and 10 °C had longer shelf life of 30, 24, and 12 d, respectively. A sharp increase in titratable acidity, while decrease pH were observed when APCs reached 5.0 log 10 CFU/mL at all storage temperatures. Lipase and protease activities increased with storage temperature. At 5 and 7 °C, however, protease activity was very low. Therefore, we eliminated this parameter from our quality parameters as a potential spoilage indicator. Findings of this research are useful for monitoring the quality of commercial pasteurized milk, particularly in locations where environmental conditions make longer storage difficult. The study also provides valuable information for development of colorimetric shelf life indicators. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. We're on a Mission Here: Institution Building, Education Reform, and the Rise of a Charter Management Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Andrew Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the institution-building efforts of a leading charter school management organization, Achievement First. The study used a conceptual framework derived from institutional theory in sociology that offers two competing policy contexts in which charter schools and charter management organizations operate--a bureaucratic versus…

  13. Travel report on a preparatory mission to the Institute of Radiotherapy and Oncology Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, J.

    2001-07-01

    A preparatory mission to Skopje / Republic of Macedonia was carried out by a contract to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The intention of the mission was to find out the needs for a radium conditioning project required by Macedonia. Such a conditioning project is offered by the IAEA to member states in order to improve safety to spent radium sources. It was suspected by Macedonian authorities that radium sources formerly used in the state hospital in Skopje might be leaking, in this way creating a safety problem to persons working in that area. The finding of the mission yielded no immediate risk in this respect but following the IAEA safety program the conditioning of the radium sources should be carried out. A wall safe was used in the hospital for storing all sources. The inventory was not quite clear, but the position for the radium sources was known. It could be clarified that the radium sources are not leaking and that no contamination was present at the room accommodating the safe. Since only a few radium sources are present in this hospital and no further sources of that kind are to be known in Macedonia only one capsule would be necessary for their enclosure. A proper place within the hospital could be identified for interim storage of the conditioned sources placed in a 200 I drum with lead and concrete shielding. Agreement on how to move forward with radium conditioning project was reached. The objectives of the travel were fully met. (author)

  14. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese is... two or more varieties, except cream cheese, neufchatel cheese, cottage cheese, lowfat cottage cheese...

  15. Pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-FSIS estimates that pasteurization of all shell eggs in the U.S. would reduce the annual number of illnesses by more than 110,000, yet less than 1% of shell eggs are commercially pasteurized. One of the main reasons for this is that the current process, hot water immersion, requires approxi...

  16. USE OF SILVER IONS IN PASTEURIZED MILK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mamaev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The means of pasteurized milk shelf life prolongation by electro-chemical diffusion of silver ions has been introduced. Three samples of pasteurized milk were test subjects. In the course of study the following data have been examined: organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological parameters of check samples and pilot samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Its shelf life has been determined. It has been determined that the test results of raw and pasteurized milk samples processed by various concentration of silver ions showed minor difference in organoleptic, physic-chemical, microbiological parameters and shelf life span. In this connection it appears reasonable to use the smallest concentration of silver ions - 50 micrograms per liter for milk shelf life prolongation as it is considered the least harmful for person's organism. Infusion of silver ions in the concentration of 50 micrograms per liter allows to prolong raw and pasteurized milk shelf life by two days.

  17. Heat pump used in milk pasteurization: an energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozyurt, O.; Comakli, O.; Yilmaz, M. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Karsli, S. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Vocational School of Higher Education

    2004-07-01

    This study investigates the applicability of heat pumps to milk pasteurization for cheese production and to compare the results with classical pasteurization systems. The experiments are conducted in a liquid-to-liquid vapour compression heat pump system and a milk-to-milk plate heat exchanger is used as an economizer. The experiments are also conducted in a double jacket boiler system and a plate pasteurization system, which are classical milk pasteurization systems. The results for the three systems are compared and the advantages/disadvantages of using heat pump for milk pasteurization instead of classical systems are determined. It is found that the heat pump consumes less energy than the other two classical systems. (Author)

  18. Shelf life study of egg albumin in pasteurized and non-pasteurized eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve week shelf life study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to correlate the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior eg...

  19. Allergic reactions to raw, pasteurized, and homogenized/pasteurized cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Samuelsson, E G

    1988-01-01

    Five children aged 12-40 months with IgE-mediated adverse reactions to cow milk (immediate onset clinical pattern of cow milk allergy) were orally challenged double-blind in random order with three different milk preparations processed from the same batch of milk 1) raw untreated cow milk, 2......) pasteurized cow milk, 3) homogenized and pasteurized cow milk, and 4) Nutramigen (a commercial hypoallergenic infant formula based on hydrolysed casein) as placebo. Skin prick tests with the same preparations were also performed. On oral challenge the three different processed milk types provoked significant...... and similar allergic reactions in each child, and no adverse reactions followed the challenge with placebo (Nutramigen). Skin prick test with the same milk products were positive in all children and comparable to the results with an extract of purified raw cow milk protein (Soluprick), whereas Nutramigen did...

  20. Impact of pasteurization on the antibacterial properties of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gysel, Marjan; Cossey, Veerle; Fieuws, Steffen; Schuermans, Annette

    2012-08-01

    Growing evidence favours the use of human milk for the feeding of preterm newborns based on its many beneficial effects. Despite the many benefits, human milk has been associated as a possible vehicle of transmission for a number of infections. Although pasteurization of human milk can diminish the risk of neonatal infection, it also significantly reduces the concentrations of immunological components in human milk due to thermal damage. In order to evaluate the impact of pasteurization on the antibacterial properties of human milk, we aimed to compare the capacity of raw and pasteurized human milk to inhibit bacterial proliferation. Therefore, a single milk sample was collected from ten healthy lactating mothers. Each sample was divided into two aliquots; one aliquot was pasteurized, while the other was kept raw. Both aliquots were inoculated either with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus and incubated at 37 °C during 8 h. Viable colony counts from the inoculated samples were performed at regular time points to compare the bacterial growth in both forms of breast milk. Relative to the tryptic soy broth control sample, both raw and pasteurized milk samples exhibited an inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. Compared with the raw portion, growth inhibition was significantly lower in the pasteurized milk at every time point beyond T0 (after 2, 4 and 8 h of incubation) (p = 0.0003 for E. coli and p pasteurization adversely affects the antibacterial properties of human milk.

  1. Nutrient Profiles and Volatile Odorous Compounds of Raw Milk After Exposure to Electron Beam Pasteurizing Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lindsay R; Kerth, Chris R; Pillai, Suresh D

    2017-07-01

    Raw milk is known to contain relatively high numbers of microorganisms, some of which include microbial pathogens. Electron beam (eBeam) processing is a nonthermal pasteurization food processing technology. The underlying hypothesis was that eBeam processing will not negatively influence the composition, nutrient content, and aroma profile of raw milk. Raw milk samples were exposed to eBeam doses of 1 and 2 kGy, since our studies had shown that 2 kGy is suitable for raw milk pasteurization. The untreated and eBeam-treated raw milk samples were analyzed to detect changes in lactose, vitamin B 2 , vitamin B 12 , and calcium concentrations. The possible breakdown of casein and whey proteins and lipid oxidation were investigated along with the formation of volatile aroma compounds. Even though vitamin B 2 showed a 31.6% decrease in concentration, the B 2 content in eBeam-pasteurized raw milk met all USDA nutritional guidelines. Even though there were no indications of lipid oxidation after the 2.0-kGy eBeam treatment, there was lipid oxidation (58%) after 7 d of refrigerated storage. However, based on the GC-olfactory analysis, the lipid oxidation did not necessarily result in the development of a wide variety of off-odors. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  3. Antibiofilm Effects of Lactobacilli against Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains in Pasteurized Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Yeganeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Objective: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-induced urinary tract infections are the most common uropathogenic Escherichia coli etiological agent. In addition, most of biofilms created by these bacteria can be regarded as a serious problem in the food industry. Foodborne diseases have always been considered an emerging public health concern throughout the world. Many outbreaks have been found to be associated with biofilms. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the anti-adhesive effects of lactic acid bacteria against strains of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli using microbial techniques in pasteurized milk.Material and Methods: In this study, strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus were provided from Pasteur Institute of Iran. Twenty strains of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-Induced Urinary Tract Infections were isolated from patients with urinary tract infection in Shahid Labbafinejad hospital of Iran. Eight strains with ability of biofilm formation were selected for microbial tests. All of these eight strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Disk diffusion method was used to assess the susceptibility of all isolates to the ten common antibiotics. Eight samples of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli were inoculated in pasteurized milk. The microtitre plate 100 method was used to detect anti-adhesive activity of lactobacilli supernatant.Results and Conclusion: Results showed that the eight human isolates were resistant to antibiotics. Isolate of number 4 was the most susceptible strains to antibiofilm effects of lactobacilli in the pasteurized milk. The anti-adhesive effects of lactobacilli on Uropathogenic were confirmed in all microbial tests. In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum revealed the highest inhibitory activity against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli 4 strain with inhibition zones of 42 mm. This strain was reported as a proper probiotic

  4. Demonstrating the efficacy of the FoneAstra pasteurization monitor for human milk pasteurization in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Mageshree; Coutsoudis, Anna; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Chaudhri, Rohit; Perin, Noah; Mlisana, Koleka

    2015-03-01

    Human milk provides crucial nutrition and immunologic protection for infants. When a mother's own milk is unavailable, donated human milk, pasteurized to destroy bacteria and viruses, is a lifesaving replacement. Flash-heat pasteurization is a simple, low-cost, and commonly used method to make milk safe, but currently there is no system to monitor milk temperature, which challenges quality control. FoneAstra, a smartphone-based mobile pasteurization monitor, removes this barrier by guiding users through pasteurization and documenting consistent and safe practice. This study evaluated FoneAstra's efficacy as a quality control system, particularly in resource-limited settings, by comparing bacterial growth in donor milk flash-heated with and without the device at a neonatal intensive care unit in Durban, South Africa. For 100 samples of donor milk, one aliquot each of prepasteurized milk, milk flash-heated without FoneAstra, and milk pasteurized with FoneAstra was cultured on routine agar for bacterial growth. Isolated bacteria were identified and enumerated. In total, 300 samples (three from each donor sample) were analyzed. Bacterial growth was found in 86 of the 100 samples before any pasteurization and one of the 100 postpasteurized samples without FoneAstra. None of the samples pasteurized using FoneAstra showed bacterial growth. Both pasteurization methods were safe and effective. FoneAstra, however, provides the additional benefits of user-guided temperature monitoring and data tracking. By improving quality assurance and standardizing the pasteurization process, FoneAstra can support wide-scale implementation of human milk banks in resource-limited settings, increasing access and saving lives.

  5. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., malt sirup, and hydrolyzed lactose, in a quantity necessary for seasoning. (4) Water. (5) Salt. (6... propionate. (9) Pasteurized process cheese spread in consumer-sized packages may contain lecithin as an...

  6. Pulsed electric fields for pasteurization: defining processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology in food pasteurization has been extensively studied. Optimal PEF treatment conditions for maximum microbial inactivation depend on multiple factors including PEF processing conditions, production parameters and product properties. In order for...

  7. Surveillance of Bulk Raw and Commercially Pasteurized Cows' Milk from Approved Irish Liquid-Milk Pasteurization Plants To Determine the Incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Ciara E.; O'Connor, Lisa; Anderson, Wayne; Harvey, Peter; Grant, Irene R.; Donaghy, John; Rowe, Michael; O'Mahony, Pat

    2004-01-01

    Over the 13-month period from October 2000 to November 2001 (inclusive), the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) carried out surveillance of Irish bulk raw (n = 389) and commercially pasteurized (n = 357) liquid-milk supplies to determine the incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The pasteurization time-temperature conditions were recorded for all pasteurized samples. Overall, 56% of whole-milk pasteurized samples had been heat treated at or above a time-temperature combination of ...

  8. Fabrication and performances study of a solar milk pasteurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahira, R.; Akif, H.; Azam, M.; Haq, Z.U.

    2009-01-01

    Milk borne diseases in developing countries leads to millions of deaths and billions of illnesses annually. Milk disinfection is one of several interventions that can improve public health, especially if part of a broad program that considers all disease transmission routes and sustainable involves the community. A solar milk pasteurizer (SMP) was fabricated to investigate the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize naturally milk. The milk samples from different animals were collected and were used for the inactivation of microbes. This experimentation was done on temperature ranging from 65 degree C to 75 degree C. During present research the maximum ambient air temperature was 40 degree C .The base and inner space temperature were recorded and they were found to have values 85 degree C and 75 degree C respectively. The SMP was easily attained pasteurization temperature. This solar milk pasteurizer was also use for water pasteurization. It provides a practical, low-cost milk pasteurizer for the improvement of drinking milk quality in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  9. High temperature, short time pasteurization temperatures inversely affect bacterial numbers during refrigerated storage of pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, M L; Huck, J R; Sonnen, M; Barbano, D M; Boor, K J

    2009-10-01

    The grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance specifies minimum processing conditions of 72 degrees C for at least 15 s for high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurized milk products. Currently, many US milk-processing plants exceed these minimum requirements for fluid milk products. To test the effect of pasteurization temperatures on bacterial numbers in HTST pasteurized milk, 2% fat raw milk was heated to 60 degrees C, homogenized, and treated for 25 s at 1 of 4 different temperatures (72.9, 77.2, 79.9, or 85.2 degrees C) and then held at 6 degrees C for 21 d. Aerobic plate counts were monitored in pasteurized milk samples at d 1, 7, 14, and 21 postprocessing. Bacterial numbers in milk processed at 72.9 degrees C were lower than in milk processed at 85.2 degrees C on each sampling day, indicating that HTST fluid milk-processing temperatures significantly affected bacterial numbers in fluid milk. To assess the microbial ecology of the different milk samples during refrigerated storage, a total of 490 psychrotolerant endospore-forming bacteria were identified using DNA sequence-based subtyping methods. Regardless of processing temperature, >85% of the isolates characterized at d 0, 1, and 7 postprocessing were of the genus Bacillus, whereas more than 92% of isolates characterized at d 14 and 21 postprocessing were of the genus Paenibacillus, indicating that the predominant genera present in HTST-processed milk shifted from Bacillus spp. to Paenibacillus spp. during refrigerated storage. In summary, 1) HTST processing temperatures affected bacterial numbers in refrigerated milk, with higher bacterial numbers in milk processed at higher temperatures; 2) no significant association was observed between genus isolated and pasteurization temperature, suggesting that the genera were not differentially affected by the different processing temperatures; and 3) although typically present at low numbers in raw milk, Paenibacillus spp. are capable of growing to numbers that can

  10. Sludge pasteurization and upgrading by radiation. Bilateral research cooperation between OAEP and JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The research cooperation between office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Thailand (OAEP) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) on 'Sludge Pasteurization and Upgrading by Radiation' was carried out for 4 years starting from March 1990. This cooperation was performed through information exchange meetings (Steering Committee Meeting), held in Takasaki and Bangkok, and experiments and discussions by scientist exchange, Many useful results were obtained on radiation inactivation effect of pathogen and parasites, upgrading of irradiated sludges to fertilizer, animal feeds and biological pesticides. This report includes the main results of the research cooperation reported at the First to Fifth Steering Committee Meetings as the progress reports. (author)

  11. Reduction of pasteurization temperature leads to lower bacterial outgrowth in pasteurized fluid milk during refrigerated storage: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial numbers over refrigerated shelf-life were enumerated in high-temperature, short-time (HTST) commercially pasteurized fluid milk for 15 mo before and 15 mo after reducing pasteurization temperature from 79.4°C (175°F) [corrected] to 76.1°C (169°F). Total bacterial counts were measured in whole fat, 2% fat, and fat-free milk products on the day of processing as well as throughout refrigerated storage (6°C) at 7, 14, and 21 d postprocessing. Mean total bacterial counts were significantly lower immediately after processing as well as at 21 d postprocessing in samples pasteurized at 76.1°C versus samples pasteurized at 79.4°C. In addition to mean total bacterial counts, changes in bacterial numbers over time (i.e., bacterial growth) were analyzed and were lower during refrigerated storage of products pasteurized at the lower temperature. Lowering the pasteurization temperature for unflavored fluid milk processed in a commercial processing facility significantly reduced bacterial growth during refrigerated storage. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-01-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms. (author)

  13. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms.

  14. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cows' milk at pasteurization temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, I R; Ball, H J; Neill, S D; Rowe, M T

    1996-01-01

    The thermal inactivation of 11 strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis at pasteurization temperatures was investigated. Cows' milk inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at two levels (10(7) and 10(4) CFU/ml) was pasteurized in the laboratory by (i) a standard holder method (63.5 degrees C for 30 min) and (ii) a high-temperature, short-time (HTST) method (71.7 degrees C for 15 s). Additional heating times of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 40 min at 63.5 degrees C were included to enable the construction of a thermal death curve for the organism. Viability after pasteurization was assessed by culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium containing mycobactin J (HEYM) and in BACTEC Middlebrook 12B radiometric medium supplemented with mycobactin J and sterile egg yolk emulsion. Confirmation of acid-fast survivors of pasteurization as viable M. paratuberculosis cells was achieved by subculture on HEYM to indicate viability coupled with PCR using M. paratuberculosis-specific 1S900 primers. When milk was initially inoculated with 10(6) to 10(7) CFU of M. paratuberculosis per ml, M. paratuberculosis cells were isolated from 27 of 28 (96%) and 29 of 34 (85%) pasteurized milk samples heat treated by the holder and HTST methods, respectively. Correspondingly, when 10(3) to 10(4) CFU of M. paratuberculosis per ml of milk were present before heat treatment, M. paratuberculosis cells were isolated from 14 of 28 (50%) and 19 of 33 (58%) pasteurized milk samples heat treated by the holder and HTST methods, respectively. The thermal death curve for M. paratuberculosis was concave in shape, exhibiting a rapid initial death rate followed by significant "tailing." Results indicate that when large numbers of M. paratuberculosis cells are present in milk, the organism may not be completely inactivated by heat treatments simulating holder and HTST pasteurization under laboratory conditions. PMID:8593064

  15. Microwave Pasteurization of Cooked Pasta: Effect of Process Parameters on Texture and Quality for Heat-and-Eat and Ready-to-Eat Meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner Melito, Helen S; Jones, Kari E; Rasco, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    Pasta presents a challenge to microwave processing due to its unique cooking requirements. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of microwave processing on pasta physicochemical and mechanical properties. Fettuccine pasta was parboiled for selected times, then pasteurized using a Microwave Assisted Pasteurization System and stored under refrigeration for 1 wk. Samples were analyzed using microscopy, mechanical testing, and chemical analyses after storage. While no significant differences were observed for free amylose among fresh samples, samples parboiled for ≤6 min had significantly higher free amylose, suggesting reduced starch retrogradation. Increased heat treatment increased degree of protein polymerization, observed in microstructures as increased gluten strand thickness and network density. Firmness and extensibility increased with increased parboil time; however, extension data indicated an overall weakening of microwave-treated pasta regardless of total cooking time. Overall, microwave pasteurization was shown to be a viable cooking method for pasta. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Pasteurization of naturally contaminated water with solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochetti, D A; Metcalf, R H

    1984-02-01

    A solar box cooker (SBC) was constructed with a cooking area deep enough to hold several 3.7-liter jugs of water, and this was used to investigate the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize naturally contaminated water. When river water was heated either in the SBC or on a hot plate, coliform bacteria were inactivated at temperatures of 60 degrees C or greater. Heating water in an SBC to at least 65 degrees C ensures that the water will be above the milk pasteurization temperature of 62.8 degrees C for at least an hour, which appears sufficient to pasteurize contaminated water. On clear or partly cloudy days, with the SBC facing magnetic south in Sacramento, bottom water temperatures of at least 65 degrees C could be obtained in 11.1 liters of water during the 6 weeks on either side of the summer solstice, in 7.4 liters of water from mid-March through mid-September, and in 3.7 liters of water an additional 2 to 3 weeks at the beginning and end of the solar season. Periodic repositioning of the SBC towards the sun, adjusting the back reflective lid, and preheating water in a simple reflective device increased final water temperatures. Simultaneous cooking and heating water to pasteurizing temperatures was possible. Additional uses of the SBC to pasteurize soil and to decontaminate hospital materials before disposal in remote areas are suggested.

  17. Effects of different pasteurizers on the nutritional quality of raw milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) of local and exotic cow breeds (White Fulani, New Jersey and Mixture of the two breeds) were investigated before and after pasteurization of milk samples from the breeds in aluminium, stainless and galvanized steel pasteurizers that was ...

  18. Effective inactivation of a wide range of viruses by pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröner, Albrecht; Broumis, Connie; Fang, Randel; Nowak, Thomas; Popp, Birgit; Schäfer, Wolfram; Roth, Nathan J

    2018-01-01

    Careful selection and testing of plasma reduces the risk of blood-borne viruses in the starting material for plasma-derived products. Furthermore, effective measures such as pasteurization at 60°C for 10 hours have been implemented in the manufacturing process of therapeutic plasma proteins such as human albumin, coagulation factors, immunoglobulins, and enzyme inhibitors to inactivate blood-borne viruses of concern. A comprehensive compilation of the virus reduction capacity of pasteurization is presented including the effect of stabilizers used to protect the therapeutic protein from modifications during heat treatment. The virus inactivation kinetics of pasteurization for a broad range of viruses were evaluated in the relevant intermediates from more than 15 different plasma manufacturing processes. Studies were carried out under the routine manufacturing target variables, such as temperature and product-specific stabilizer composition. Additional studies were also performed under robustness conditions, that is, outside production specifications. The data demonstrate that pasteurization inactivates a wide range of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses of diverse physicochemical characteristics. After a maximum of 6 hours' incubation, no residual infectivity could be detected for the majority of enveloped viruses. Effective inactivation of a range of nonenveloped viruses, with the exception of nonhuman parvoviruses, was documented. Pasteurization is a very robust and reliable virus inactivation method with a broad effectiveness against known blood-borne pathogens and emerging or potentially emerging viruses. Pasteurization has proven itself to be a highly effective step, in combination with other complementary safety measures, toward assuring the virus safety of final product. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  19. Pasteurization of naturally contaminated water with solar energy.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciochetti, D A; Metcalf, R H

    1984-01-01

    A solar box cooker (SBC) was constructed with a cooking area deep enough to hold several 3.7-liter jugs of water, and this was used to investigate the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize naturally contaminated water. When river water was heated either in the SBC or on a hot plate, coliform bacteria were inactivated at temperatures of 60 degrees C or greater. Heating water in an SBC to at least 65 degrees C ensures that the water will be above the milk pasteurization temperature of 6...

  20. Destruction of Various Kinds of Mycobacteria in Milk by Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rube; Karlson, Alfred G.

    1965-01-01

    Various strains of unclassified mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (including H37Rv strains), M. bovis, M. avium, M. fortuitum, and bacille Calmette-Guerin, were exposed to the temperature and time of pasteurization in skim milk in test tubes. Of the 195 strains tested, there were a few surviving colonies among 6 of 33 skotochromogens, 1 of 26 photochromogens, 10 of 79 nonchromogens, and 1 of 9 rapid growers. Subcultures of the surviving colonies failed to resist the pasteurization tests on subsequent trials. PMID:14325295

  1. Pasteurization of goat milk using a low cost solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Judith; Saravia, Luis; Javi, Veronica; Caso, Ricardo; Fernandez, Carlos [INENCO - UNSa, Av. Bolivia 5150, 4400, Salta (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents the design of a system for pasteurizing goat milk as a part of a process for artisan elaboration of cheese. The system consists in a Fresnel type concentrator used for cooking large amounts of food with a vaporizer located in the focus. The steam bubbles into the isolated container where the milk is cooked by a double boiler. When the desired temperature is reached, the steam flow is closed and the milk remains in this condition for 30 min into the closed container. Pasteurizing of 10 l of milk is done in about 1 h. The project considers guidelines for achieving a successful process. (author)

  2. Effect of psychrotrophic post-pasteurization contamination of the keeping quality at 11 and 5 degrees C of HTST-pasteurized milk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, M J; Cousins, C M; McKinnon, C H

    1982-11-01

    The keeping quality of commercial HTST-pasteurized milk and laboratory pasteurized milk from a common bulk raw supply has been investigated for 5 dairies. Spoilage occurred at levels of total bacterial counts around 10(7) colony forming units/ml, but with a slightly higher off-flavour threshold for the commercial milks than the laboratory pasteurized milks. The predominant microflora at spoilage and the type of off-flavour produced differed between the 2 types of milk. Raising the storage temperature from 5 to 11 degrees C caused a slight shift in the spoilage microflora and led to an average reduction in the shelf life of the laboratory pasteurized milk from 28 to 6 d and of the commercial pasteurized milk from 13 to 5 d. Changes in the level of post-pasteurization contamination (PPC) were reflected in changes in keeping quality, particularly at 5 degrees C. However, the greatest improvements were found in the absence of PPC.

  3. An improved radiofrequency method to pasteurize salmonella in shell eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this study were to improve radio frequency (RF) shell egg pasteurization technology to make it more commercially feasible, to evaluate its efficacy in reducing Salmonella, and to determine its effect on the quality changes of the egg. The original RF technology inactivated 6.8 log of E....

  4. Microbiological quality and safety of raw and pasteurized milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This requires urgent attention by the appropriate authorities, because the poor microbiological quality of raw milk and pasteurized milk may expose consumers to health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated milk. Key words: Marketed milk, quality, acidity, total viable count, coliforms, enterobacteriaceae, ...

  5. 7 CFR 58.635 - Pasteurization of the mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of the mix. 58.635 Section 58.635 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  6. Diverse Gram-positive bacteria identified from raw and pasteurized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion practices associated with milking and storage equipment. ... materials, various ingredients added to dairy products and dairy farm work- ers. ... 7°E, respectively and 2200 meter above sea level, respectively. The an- ... storage facilities, and shelf life of the pasteurized milk. ... transferred into a sterile screw capped bottle.

  7. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  8. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author).

  9. The study of 226Ra concentration in Teheran's pasteurized milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Sekhavat, A.; Movahed Shari'atpanahi, J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of 226 88 Ra concentration in pasteurized milk distributed in Tehran during 1970-72 was accomplished. The Ash resulting from the milk was 4.5 to 5.5 gr., which might be due to poor nourishment of the animals. These results are compared with the Ra concentration in France and Puerto Rico

  10. Pasteurized intercalary autogenous bone graft: radiographic and scintigraphic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehara, Shigeru; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Nishida, Jun; Shiraishi, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Pasteurized autogenous bone graft sterilized at a low temperature (60 C) is one option for reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue tumors. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal radiographic and scintigraphic findings of pasteurized intercalary autogenous bone graft after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas.Design. This was a retrospective evaluation of the radiography and bone scintigraphy findings in patients after treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas using an intercalary pasteurized autogenous bone graft.Patients. Among 10 consecutive patients, eight had intercalary grafts, and they constitute the subjects of this study. All available radiography and bone scintigraphy findings were reviewed for the healing process and the possibility of complications.Results and conclusions. Healing and incorporation of the graft were observed in five patients during the follow-up, but the other three did not heal satisfactorily. Rapid incorporation of pasteurized autogenous bone graft can be demonstrated by means of radiography and bone scintigraphy. (orig.)

  11. Quality of jinchen orange juice treated with irradiation and pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yu; Cheng Wei; Wang Shaohua; Xiong Guangquan; Liao Li; Chen Xueling; Fan Gang; Pan Siyi

    2010-01-01

    Jinchen orange juice was treated by pasteurization and irradiation (1.4, 2.8 and 5.6 kGy) to study the effects of sterilization methods on quality of orange juice. The volatile compounds were analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction method combined with GC-MS. The juice color, pH and Vc content were determined, and sensory evaluation of the juice were evaluated. The results showed a total of 54, 47, 57, 55, 53 kinds of compounds were detected in fresh juice, pasteurized juice and 3 irradiated juices, respectively. The irradiated juices had bigger peak area of volatile compounds than pasteurized juice,and the biggest peak area was found in 2.8 kGy irradiation sample. β - myrcene, D - limonene and γ-terpinene, which were the characteristic aroma compounds in orange juice, were detected a higher level in irradiation sample than pasteurization. Vc content and aroma decreased after all treatments. The sample after 1.4 kGy treatment showed highest score in sensory evaluation. It was concluded that low dose irradiation could be used in sterilization processing of orange juice. (authors)

  12. Technology evaluation: HPV vaccine (quadrivalent), Aventis Pasteur MSD/CSL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinis, Milan

    2004-04-01

    CSL, licensee of UniQuest's HPV technology, and Aventis Pasteur MSD (a joint venture between Merck & Co and Aventis) are jointly developing a vaccine for the potential prophylaxis of genital warts and cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus infection. Enrollment for a phase III trial has been completed.

  13. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  14. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  15. Nondestructive pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell eggs are on the top of the list of the 10 riskiest foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and 352 outbreaks from 1990 to 2006 were linked to eggs. The goals of this study were to design and assemble an apparatus to apply RF energy to shell eggs and to develop a process for pasteur...

  16. Impact of School Sense of Community within a Faith-Based University: Administrative and Academic Staff Perceptions on Institutional Mission and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Cowman, Shaun E.; Milner, Lauren A.; Gutierrez, Robert E.; Drake, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Academic staff (n = 305) and administrative staff (n = 595) at a large urban, Catholic, and religious order teaching university completed on-line school sense of community, social desirability, and mission-identity plus mission-driven activity measures. Partial correlates (controlling for social desirability) indicated that for both faculty and…

  17. Exploring Frameworks to Integrate Globalization, Mission, and Higher Education: Case Study Inquiry at Two Higher Education Institutions in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the merits of three conceptual frameworks that emerged from a synthesis of literature related to globalization, mission, and higher education. The first framework, higher education and mission, included three frames: important, not important, and emergent. The second framework, globalization and higher…

  18. X-band ESR study on evaluation of radicals induced in pasteurized pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Ogawa, Satoko; Ukai, Mitsuko; Oowada, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    The radical properties of pasteurized pepper were investigated by means of X-band ESR spectroscopy. Pasteurization process was done by irradiation or steam. There were three radicals in the specimens before and after pasteurization. Upon irradiation a new radical was found. ESR peak intensity of specimen before and after parturition with steam was almost same level. Peak intensity of radiated pepper showed almost 4 times as compare with that of non treated pepper. Radical activity of the specimens after pasteurization showed almost same value. We concluded that radicals were induced by irradiation. But the radical activity was not changed before and after pasteurization. (author)

  19. Shelf life of pasteurized microfiltered milk containing 2% fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Barbano, D M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to produce homogenized milk containing 2% fat with a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d using minimum high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization in combination with other nonthermal processes. Raw skim milk was microfiltered (MF) using a Tetra Alcross MFS-7 pilot plant (Tetra Pak International SA, Pully, Switzerland) equipped with Membralox ceramic membranes (1.4 μm and surface area of 2.31 m(2); Pall Corp., East Hills, NY). The unpasteurized MF skim permeate and each of 3 different cream sources were blended together to achieve three 2% fat milks. Each milk was homogenized (first stage: 17 MPa, second stage: 3 MPa) and HTST pasteurized (73.8°C for 15s). The pasteurized MF skim permeate and the 3 pasteurized homogenized 2% fat milks (made from different fat sources) were stored at 1.7 and 5.7°C and the standard plate count for each milk was determined weekly over 90 d. When the standard plate count was >20,000 cfu/mL, it was considered the end of shelf life for the purpose of this study. Across 4 replicates, a 4.13 log reduction in bacteria was achieved by MF, and a further 0.53 log reduction was achieved by the combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), resulting in a 4.66 log reduction in bacteria for the combined process. No containers of MF skim milk that was pasteurized after MF exceeded 20,000 cfu/mL bacteria count during 90 d of storage at 5.7°C. The 3 different approaches used to reduce the initial bacteria and spore count of each cream source used to make the 2% fat milks did not produce any shelf-life advantage over using cold separated raw cream when starting with excellent quality raw whole milk (i.e., low bacteria count). The combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), combined with filling and packaging that was protected from microbial contamination, achieved a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d at both 1.7 and 5.7°C for 2% fat milks. Copyright © 2013 American

  20. Genetic heterogeneity of Escherichia coli isolated from pasteurized milk in State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Oltramari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination caused by enteric pathogens is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality and significant economic losses. Bacteria are important agents of foodborne diseases, particularly diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. The present study assessed the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from pasteurized milk processed in 21 dairies in northwestern State of Parana, Brazil. The 95 E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and assessed genotypically by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR. The highest rate of resistance was observed for cephalothin (55.78%. ERIC-PCR revealed high genetic diversity, clustering the 95 bacterial isolates into 90 different genotypic patterns. These results showed a heterogeneous population of E. coli in milk samples produced in the northwestern region of Paraná and the need for good manufacturing practices throughout the processing of pasteurized milk to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses.

  1. Short communication: Investigation into Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in pasteurized milk in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, A; Bonilauri, P; Giacometti, F; Ricchi, M; Cammi, G; Piva, S; Zambrini, V; Canever, A; Arrigoni, N

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in pasteurized milk produced by Italian industrial dairy plants to verify the prediction of a previously performed risk assessment. The study analyzed 160 one-liter bottles of pasteurized milk from 2 dairy plants located in 2 different regions. Traditional cultural protocols were applied to 500mL of pasteurized milk for each sample. The investigation focused also on the pasteurization parameters and data on the microbiological characteristics of raw milk (total bacterial count) and pasteurized milk (Enterobacteriaceae and Listeria monocytogenes). No sample was positive for MAP, the pasteurization parameters complied with European Union legislation, and the microbiological analysis of raw and pasteurized milk showed good microbiological quality. The results show that a 7-log (or >7) reduction could be a plausible value for commercial pasteurization. The combination of hygiene practices at farm level and commercial pasteurization yield very low or absent levels of MAP contamination in pasteurized milk, suggesting that pasteurized milk is not a significant source of human exposure to MAP in the dairies investigated. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical Contaminants in Raw and Pasteurized Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Cohen, Ronald S; Sakamoto, Pauline; Barr, Dana Boyd; Carmichael, Suzan L

    2018-05-01

    Environmental contaminants ranging from legacy chemicals like p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to emerging chemicals like phthalates are ubiquitous. Research aims/questions: This research aims to examine the presence and co-occurrence of contaminants in human milk and effects of pasteurization on human milk chemical contaminants. We analyzed human milk donated by 21 women to a milk bank for 23 chemicals, including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) isomers that are known to sequester in adipose tissue, along with the current-use and nonpersistent pesticides chlorpyrifos and permethrin, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA). Human milk was analyzed raw and pasteurized for these chemicals using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the POPs and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for non-POPs. Within the different chemical classes, PBDE47, PCB153, ppDDE, and MEHHP (phthalate metabolite) had the highest median concentrations and were observed in all samples. We also observed chlorpyrifos and BPA in all samples and permethrin in 90% of the samples tested. Only two chemicals, chlorpyrifos and permethrin, were susceptible to substantial degradation from pasteurization, a standard method for processing donated human milk. We detected 19 of 23 chemicals in all of our prepasteurized milk and 18 of 23 chemicals in all of our pasteurized milk. Pasteurization did not affect the presence of most of the chemicals. Future research should continue to explore human milk for potential chemical contamination and as a means to surveil exposures among women and children.

  3. Pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geveke, David J.; Bigley, Andrew B. W.; Brunkhorst, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    The USDA-FSIS estimates that pasteurization of all shell eggs in the U.S. would reduce the annual number of illnesses by more than 110,000. However, less than 3% of shell eggs are commercially pasteurized. One of the main reasons for this is that the commercial hot water process requires as much as 60 min to complete. In the present study, a radio frequency (RF) apparatus was constructed, and a two-step process was developed that uses RF energy and hot water, to pasteurize eggs in less than half the time. In order to select an appropriate RF generator, the impedance of shell eggs was measured in the frequency range of 10–70 MHz. The power density within the egg was modeled to prevent potential hotspots. Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218) was inoculated in the yolk to approximately 7.5 log CFU/ml. The combination process first heated the egg in 35.0 °C water for 3.5 min using 60 MHz RF energy. This resulted in the yolk being preferentially heated to 61 °C. Then, the egg was heated for an additional 20 min with 56.7 °C water. This two-step process reduced the population of E. coli by 6.5 log. The total time for the process was 23.5 min. By contrast, processing for 60 min was required to reduce the E. coli by 6.6 log using just hot water. The novel RF pasteurization process presented in this study was considerably faster than the existing commercial process. As a result, this should lead to an increase in the percentage of eggs being pasteurized, as well as a reduction of foodborne illnesses.

  4. Self-Heating Pasteurization of Substrates for Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms Cultivation in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Viviana; Sánchez, Jose E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a self-heating pasteurization technique in preparing substrates for mushroom production. Seven species were used: Agrocybe aegerita, Auricularia fuscosuccinea, Pleurotus djamor, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, and Ganoderma lucidum. They were cultivated on grass, corncob, wood shavings, and a mixture thereof. The self-heating technique allowed for pasteurization of 3 of the substrates (grass, corncob, and the mixture). The preheating chamber comprised a drawer placed under the pasteurization crate. With this chamber, it was possible to increase inlet air temperatures by 4--5°C. The evaluated mushroom species responded in different ways to the pasteurization process. P. ostreatus (control) and P. djamor produced basidiomes when cultivated in all pasteurization substrates. A. aegerita and P. eryngii fruited only on corncob and the mixture, whereas A. fuscosuccinea fruited only on the pasteurized corncob. G. lucidum and L. edodes did not fructify on the pasteurized substrates.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF FOULING DEPOSIT FORMATION DURING PASTEURIZATION OF CHILI SAUCE BY USING LAB-SCALE CONCENTRIC TUBE-PASTEURIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR ATIKA ALI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of fouling deposits obtained from chilli sauce pasteurization. A lab-scale concentric tube-pasteurizer was used to pasteurize the chilli sauce at 0.712 kg/min and 90±5°C. It was operated for 3 hours. Temperature changes were recorded during pasteurization and the data was used to plot the heat transfer profile and the fouling resistance profile. The thickness of the fouling deposit was also measured and the image was taken for every hour. The fouling deposit was collected at every hour to test its stickiness, hardness and flow behaviour. Proximate analysis was also performed and it shows that the fouling deposit from the chilli sauce is categorized as carbohydrate-based fouling deposits. Activation energy of chilli sauce is 7049.4 J.mole-1 which shows a greater effect of temperature on the viscosity. The hardness, stickiness of fouling deposit and the heat resistance increases as the chilli sauce continuously flows inside the heat exchanger.

  6. Academic Capitalism in the Pasteur's Quadrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Based on previous empirical studies, in this work the author presents an analysis of the role of context in academic capitalism. In particular, she argues that the literature on academic capitalism fails to properly acknowledge disciplinary and institutional differences, which results in an oversimplification of the effects of industry-academia…

  7. Effect of pasteurization on survival of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, A; Mutharia, L; Chen, S; Rahn, K; Odumeru, J

    2002-12-01

    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Mptb) is the causative agent of Johne's disease of ruminant animals including cattle, goats, and sheep. It has been suggested that this organism is associated with Crohn's disease in humans, and milk is a potential source of human exposure to this organism. A total of 18, including 7 regular batch and 11 high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization experiments, were conducted in this study. Raw milk or ultra-high temperature pasteurized milk samples were spiked at levels of 10(3), 10(5), and 10(7) cfu of Mptb/ml. Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains at 10(7) cfu/ml were used as controls. Pasteurization experiments were conducted using time and temperature standards specified in the Canadian National Dairy Code: regular batch pasteurization method: 63 degrees C for 30 min, and HTST method: 72 degrees C for 15 s. The death curve of this organism was assessed at 63 degrees C. No survivors were detected after 15 min. Each spiked sample was cultured in Middlebrook 7H9 culture broth and Middlebrook 7H11 agar slants. Samples selected from 15 experiments were also subjected to BACTEC culture procedure. Survival of Mptb was confirmed by IS900-based PCR of colonies recovered on slants. No survivors were detected from any of the slants or broths corresponding to the seven regular batch pasteurization trials. Mptb survivors were detected in two of the 11 HTST experiments. One was by both slant and broth culture for the sample spiked to 10(7) cfu/ml of Mptb, while the other was detected by BACTEC for the sample spiked to 10(5) cfu/ml. These results indicate that Mptb may survive HTST pasteurization when present at > or = 10(5) cfu/ml in milk. A total of 710 retail milk samples collected from retail store and dairy plants in southwest Ontario were tested by nested IS900 PCR for the presence of Mptb. Fifteen percent of these samples (n = 110) were positive. However, no survivors were isolated from the broth and agar cultures of

  8. Health-aware Model Predictive Control of Pasteurization Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Pour, Fatemeh; Puig, Vicenç; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize the trade-off between components life and energy consumption, the integration of a system health management and control modules is required. This paper proposes the integration of model predictive control (MPC) with a fatigue estimation approach that minimizes the damage of the components of a pasteurization plant. The fatigue estimation is assessed with the rainflow counting algorithm. Using data from this algorithm, a simplified model that characterizes the health of the system is developed and integrated with MPC. The MPC controller objective is modified by adding an extra criterion that takes into account the accumulated damage. But, a steady-state offset is created by adding this extra criterion. Finally, by including an integral action in the MPC controller, the steady-state error for regulation purpose is eliminated. The proposed control scheme is validated in simulation using a simulator of a utility-scale pasteurization plant.

  9. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to

  10. Can bone scintigraphy predict the final outcome of pasteurized autografts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, Ahmed Shawky; Jeon, Dae-Geun; Cho, Wan Hyeong

    2010-01-01

    As pasteurization is becoming more widely used in limb salvage reconstruction, more study is required to understand about host-graft junction healing, graft revascularization and incorporation, and the incidence and type of complications among pasteurized autografts. This was mainly achieved by follow-up radiography. We aimed to clarify whether Tc99m bone scanning can be considered a reliable method in determining these three parameters. Twenty-seven osteosarcoma patients with pasteurized autograft reconstructions were retrospectively reviewed using available scintigraphic and radiographic follow-up every 6 months postoperatively for 36 months. Follow-up of the unhealed cases was continued for the maximum follow-up period available for each case beyond the original study period, ranging from 1 to 15 months. Tc99m uptake was classified as cold, faint, moderate and high uptake. Junction healing was classified as none, partial and complete healing. Seventy percent of junctions united with a mean of 22 months. Ninety to 100% of junctions showed increased uptake (high or moderate) at one time of the study regardless of final outcome. 85% of the pasteurized grafts showed the characteristic ''tramline appearance''. Four grafts (15%) were complicated: pseudoarthrosis and implant failure (1), fractured plate (1), intramedullary nail (IMN) fracture (1), and prosthesis stem loosening in the host bone (1), with underlying unhealed junctions in all cases. Bone scanning can determine the stages of the graft's rim revascularization and incorporation; however, it cannot detect or predict junction healing or occurrence of complications. Supplementary treatment of unhealed junctions showing either decreased junctional uptake or graft quiescence may be warranted. Otherwise, detection of distant metastasis and early local recurrence remains the main application of Tc99m scanning in the management of bone sarcomas. (orig.)

  11. Chirality - The forthcoming 160th Anniversary of Pasteur's Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Molčanov, K.; Kojić-Prodić., B.

    2007-01-01

    The presented review on chirality is dedicated to the centennial birth anniversary of Nobel laureate Vladimir Prelog and 160 years of Pasteur's discovery of chirality on tartrates. Chirality has been recognized in nature by artists and architects, who have used it for decorations and basic constructions, as shown in the Introduction. The progress of science through history has enabled the gathering of knowledge on chirality and its many ways of application. The key historical discoveries abou...

  12. Can bone scintigraphy predict the final outcome of pasteurized autografts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eid, Ahmed Shawky [Ain Shams University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Jeon, Dae-Geun; Cho, Wan Hyeong [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    As pasteurization is becoming more widely used in limb salvage reconstruction, more study is required to understand about host-graft junction healing, graft revascularization and incorporation, and the incidence and type of complications among pasteurized autografts. This was mainly achieved by follow-up radiography. We aimed to clarify whether Tc99m bone scanning can be considered a reliable method in determining these three parameters. Twenty-seven osteosarcoma patients with pasteurized autograft reconstructions were retrospectively reviewed using available scintigraphic and radiographic follow-up every 6 months postoperatively for 36 months. Follow-up of the unhealed cases was continued for the maximum follow-up period available for each case beyond the original study period, ranging from 1 to 15 months. Tc99m uptake was classified as cold, faint, moderate and high uptake. Junction healing was classified as none, partial and complete healing. Seventy percent of junctions united with a mean of 22 months. Ninety to 100% of junctions showed increased uptake (high or moderate) at one time of the study regardless of final outcome. 85% of the pasteurized grafts showed the characteristic ''tramline appearance''. Four grafts (15%) were complicated: pseudoarthrosis and implant failure (1), fractured plate (1), intramedullary nail (IMN) fracture (1), and prosthesis stem loosening in the host bone (1), with underlying unhealed junctions in all cases. Bone scanning can determine the stages of the graft's rim revascularization and incorporation; however, it cannot detect or predict junction healing or occurrence of complications. Supplementary treatment of unhealed junctions showing either decreased junctional uptake or graft quiescence may be warranted. Otherwise, detection of distant metastasis and early local recurrence remains the main application of Tc99m scanning in the management of bone sarcomas. (orig.)

  13. Holder pasteurization affects S100B concentrations in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2018-02-01

    Donor milk (DM) represents an important nutrition source for high-risk newborns. Holder pasteurization (HoP) is the most recommended procedure for DM treatment, providing a good compromise between microbiological safety and biological quality. HoP was previously shown to affect DM cytokines, growth factors and hormones levels, whilst no data concerning the possible effects of HoP on neurobiomarkers (NB) are available. Therefore, our study investigated whether the concentration in DM of a well-known NB involved in brain development/damage, namely S100B, changes due to HoP. We conducted a pretest-test study in 11 mothers, whose DM samples were sub-divided into two parts: the first was immediately frozen (-80 °C); the second was pasteurized with Holder method before freezing. S100B DM levels were measured using a commercially available immunoluminometric assay. S100B protein was detected in all milk samples. Results showed significant differences between groups (p pasteurization stresses and the need to develop new storage techniques to preserve the biological quality of human milk.

  14. Short communication: Pasteurization as a means of inactivating staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, and C in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necidova, Lenka; Bogdanovicova, Katerina; Harustiakova, Danka; Bartova, Katerina

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of pasteurization temperature on inactivation of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE). Milk samples were inoculated with log 4.38 to 5.18cfu/mL of 40 different Staphylococcus aureus strains having the ability to produce types A, B, or C SE and incubated at 37°C for 24h to develop SE. This incubation was followed by heat treatment for 15 s at 72, 85, and 92°C. Samples were analyzed for Staph. aureus count by plate method and, specifically, for SE presence. An enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay on a MiniVIDAS analyzer (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France) was used to detect SE, which were determined semiquantitatively based on test values. The Staph. aureus count in milk before pasteurization did not affect the amount of SE. Before pasteurization, SEB was detected in the lowest amount compared with other SE types. Staphylococcal enterotoxins were markedly reduced with pasteurization and inactivated at pasteurization temperatures to an extent depending on the amount in the sample before pasteurization. After pasteurization at 72°C, SE were detected in 87.5% of samples (35/40), after pasteurization at 85°C in 52.5% of samples (21/40), and after pasteurization at 92°C in 45.0% of samples (18/40). We determined that SE may still persist in milk even when Staph. aureus bacteria are inactivated through pasteurization. Although pasteurization may partially inactivate SE in milk, a key measure in the prevention of staphylococcal enterotoxicosis linked to pasteurized milk consumption is to avoid any cold chain disruption during milk production and processing. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  16. Surveillance of bulk raw and commercially pasteurized cows' milk from approved Irish liquid-milk pasteurization plants to determine the incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Ciara E; O'Connor, Lisa; Anderson, Wayne; Harvey, Peter; Grant, Irene R; Donaghy, John; Rowe, Michael; O'Mahony, Pat

    2004-09-01

    Over the 13-month period from October 2000 to November 2001 (inclusive), the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) carried out surveillance of Irish bulk raw (n = 389) and commercially pasteurized (n = 357) liquid-milk supplies to determine the incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The pasteurization time-temperature conditions were recorded for all pasteurized samples. Overall, 56% of whole-milk pasteurized samples had been heat treated at or above a time-temperature combination of 75 degrees C for 25 s. All analyses were undertaken at the Department of Food Science (Food Microbiology) laboratory at Queen's University Belfast. Each milk sample was subjected to two tests for M. paratuberculosis: immunomagnetic separation-PCR (IMS-PCR; to detect the presence of M. paratuberculosis cells, live or dead) and chemical decontamination and culture (to confirm the presence of viable M. paratuberculosis). Overall, M. paratuberculosis DNA was detected by IMS-PCR in 50 (12.9%; 95% confidence interval, 9.9 to 16.5%) raw-milk samples and 35 (9.8%; 95% confidence interval, 7.1 to 13.3%) pasteurized-milk samples. Confirmed M. paratuberculosis was cultured from one raw-milk sample and no pasteurized-milk samples. It is concluded that M. paratuberculosis DNA is occasionally present at low levels in both raw and commercially pasteurized cows' milk. However, since no viable M. paratuberculosis was isolated from commercially pasteurized cows' milk on retail sale in the Republic of Ireland, current pasteurization procedures are considered to be effective.

  17. Freeze-drying behaviour of pasteurized whole egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melike Sakin; Merve Samli; Gizem Kor, A.; Figen Kaymak-Ertekin

    2009-01-01

    Because it provides full nutritional and certain desirable functional attributes, egg products are widely used as ingredients in many food products. Dried egg is especially valuable for being stable, easily mixable and having a long shelf life. It is necessary to know the effects of drying conditions onto the moisture removal behaviour and the functional properties of the powder product, to serve the egg powder as an alternative. An experimental study was conducted to achieve an understanding of the freeze-drying behaviour of pasteurized whole egg having 24% dry solids. In order to determine the moisture removal behaviour; the percent moisture loss (w/w), the average moisture content and the drying rates were obtained, the drying curves were developed and total drying times were determined, also the movement of the dry-wet boundary between the frozen layer and the dry porous layer formed by sublimation of ice crystals were investigated during a complete process. The physical properties of pasteurized whole egg such as; colour, water activity (a w ), the morphological structure (through SEM analysis) and functional properties (foam stability and dissolubility) were determined. The net colour change (ΔE) was about 22, independent of layer thickness. The water activity decreased to 0.22 at the end of drying. The SEM images of freeze-dried and slightly milled egg powder samples at magnification levels of 500 and 1000 showed the porous structure caused by sublimation of ice crystals generated within the egg structure during air blast freezing. The dissolubility and foaming capacity of powder egg were observed to be lower compared to those of pasteurized liquid egg. (author)

  18. Costs and hygienic necessity of sewage sludge pasteurization in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrist, W.

    1975-01-01

    Cost analyses of sludge pasteurization by heat treatment were made in six Swiss sewage treatment plants during 1973. Data indicate that specific cost figures will be between S.Fr.3.- and 14.- per cubic metre, depending mainly on capacity and actual output of the plant. The risk of infection for man and animals is a controversial question. Public health experts deny hazards from agricultural utilization of unpasteurized digested sludges, whereas veterinary hygienists stress the potential dangers for animals and man. A practicable pragmatic approach is suggested until sufficient evidence is available. Energy, ecological and economic aspects must be taken into consideration. (Author)

  19. Electron ray facilities for the pasteurization of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, D.; Hofmann, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    Growing industrialization and the simultaneous increase in population density demand broad preventive measures in the area of waste water and sewage sludges. Electron irradiation is becoming an important tool for disinfection in this field. The AEG-Telefunken sludge pasteurization process works in continuous operation with homogenized sludge at electron energies between 1,0 to 1,5 MeV and a radiation dosage of 4 kJ/kg. The system offers the capabilities for an effective and costadvantageous disinfection of waste sludges of differing consistencies and origins and their harmless reuse as fertilizer in agriculture. (orig.) [de

  20. [The mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Moreno, J; Blanch Mon, A

    2000-01-01

    After having made a historical review of the concept of mission statement, of evaluating its importance (See Part I), of describing the bases to create a mission statement from a strategic perspective and of analyzing the advantages of this concept, probably more important as a business policy (See Parts I and II), the authors proceed to analyze the mission statement in health organizations. Due to the fact that a mission statement is lacking in the majority of health organizations, the strategy of health organizations are not exactly favored; as a consequence, neither are its competitive advantage nor the development of its essential competencies. After presenting a series of mission statements corresponding to Anglo-Saxon health organizations, the authors highlight two mission statements corresponding to our social context. The article finishes by suggesting an adequate sequence for developing a mission statement in those health organizations having a strategic sense.

  1. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  2. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any...

  3. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  4. Effect of temperature and time of pasteurization on the milk quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effect of temperature and time of pasteurization on the milk quality during storage was carried out using fresh milk. The aim of the experiment was to asses the storage time of pasteurized milk for consumption without nutrient losses. A completely randomized factorial design, 2 x 8 was used, with pasteurization temperature (T, consisted of 2 levels, the low temperature long time (LTLT, i.e. fresh milk was warmed at 65oC for 30 minutes (T1 and the high temperature short time (HTST, i.e. fresh milk was warmed at 71oC for 15 seconds (T2; and storage time (S, consisted of 8 levels, i.e. 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 hours respectively, as the factors, with 3 replicates. Parameters measured were alcohol test, water, fat, and protein concentrations, and microbial population of pasteurized milk during storage. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and simple linear regression. The result showed that water and fat concentrations and microbial population was not significantly different (P>0.05 in pasteurization temperature treatment, but was significantly different (P<0.05 due to storage time treatment. Meanwhile, the protein concentration was significantly different (P<0.05 either in pasteurization temperature or storage time. It was concluded that pasteurized milk was still suitable for consumption at 15-21 hours storage, while protein concentration tended to be better when was pasteurized at 65oC.

  5. Essential elements, cadmium, and lead in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Collins, W.F.; Williams, H.L.

    1985-08-01

    Fifteen essential elements plus cadmium and lead were determined in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milks by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When results were compared on a wet weight basis, there were no significant differences between the raw and pasteurized milks except for cobalt, iron, and lead in goat milk. When copper in goat milk was expressed on a dry weight basis, there was a significant difference between raw and pasteurized milk. There were significantly higher amounts of cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, and phosphorus, wet weight basis, in pasteurized goat milk than in pasteurized cow milk. Significantly more nickel and sodium were in pasteurized cow milk. No difference in the content of chloride, calcium, potassium, and zinc was significant between the two milks. When dry weights of the two milks were compared, statistical differences were the same, except there was significantly more calcium and potassium in pasteurized cow milk than in pasteurized goat milk and there were no significant differences in the content of lead and phosphorus between the two milks. Percentages of the established and estimated recommended daily allowances show both cow and goat milk to be excellent sources of calcium, phosphorus, and potassium and fair sources of iron, magnesium, and sodium.

  6. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., vegetables, or meats. 133.174 Section 133.174 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or... fruits, vegetables, or meats is “Pasteurized process cheese food with ___”, the blank being filled in...

  7. Correlation of quality measurements to visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using ch...

  8. Chemometric correlation of shelf life, quality measurements, and visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using pr...

  9. Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to a pasteurized ice cream product served to hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietberg, K; Lloyd, J; Melius, B; Wyman, P; Treadwell, R; Olson, G; Kang, M-G; Duchin, J S

    2016-10-01

    Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products.

  10. Cost analysis of commercial pasteurization of orange juice by pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost of pulsed electric field (PEF) pasteurization of orange juice was estimated. The cost analysis was based on processing conditions that met the US FDA (5 log reduction) requirement for fruit juice pasteurization and that achieved a 2 month microbial shelf-life. PEF-treated samples processed ...

  11. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p Pasteurization effects on milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p pasteurization reduced adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed.

  12. Reconstruction of the mandible bone by treatment of resected bone with pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Masataka; Inokuchi, Tsugio; Sano, Kazuo; Sumita, Yoshinori; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Asahina, Izumi

    2012-11-01

    The results of long-term follow-up for reimplantation of the mandibular bone treated with pasteurization are reported. Mandibulectomy was performed for mandibular malignancy in 3 cases. The resected bones were subsequently reimplanted after treatment with pasteurization in 3 cases to eradicate tumor cells involved in the resected bone. Although postoperative infection was observed in 2 of 3 cases, reimplantation of the resected mandibular bone treated by pasteurization was finally successful. Ten to 22 years of follow-up was carried out. Pasteurization was able to devitalize tumor cells involved in the resected bone and to preserve bone-inductive activity. Reimplantation of pasteurization could be a useful strategy for reconstruction of the mandible in patients with mandibular malignancy.

  13. Yersinia enterocolitica infections associated with improperly pasteurized milk products: southwest Pennsylvania, March-August, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenberger, A H; Gronostaj, M P; Yee, G Y; Johnson, L M; Lando, J F; Voorhees, R E; Waller, K; Weltman, A C; Moll, M; Lyss, S B; Cadwell, B L; Gladney, L M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.

  14. Public Progress, Data Management and the Land Grant Mission: A Survey of Agriculture Researchers' Practices and Attitudes at Two Land-Grant Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Peter; Eaker, Christopher; Swauger, Shea; Davis, Miriam L. E. Steiner

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a survey about data management practices and attitudes sent to agriculture researchers and extension personnel at the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture (UTIA) and the College of Agricultural Sciences and Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University. Results confirm agriculture…

  15. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... pasteurization are provided for by regulation, such as in part 133 of this chapter for curing of certain cheese...

  16. Innovative milk pasteurizing plant fed by solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucentini, M.; Naso, V. [Univ. of Rome La Sapienza, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Italy); Rubini, L. [ISES ITALIA (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The possible use of solar-heat energy for industrial production has been evaluated, verifying the sector where this resource could be suitably applied. After a preliminary phase, the analysis has been focused on the agro-alimentary sector. As a matter of fact, in this case the range of temperatures coincides with the one typically carried out from solar collectors. Moreover, a deciding factor of choice has been the energy flow provided by solar radiation, close to the one typically needed to pasteurize milk. Taking into account production requirements, one comes to the conclusion of utilizing stored solar energy hot water - for washing operations of pasteurizing plant. These operations - really heavy from the point of view of heat energy consumption - are concentrated in the midday, just when solar energy storage is at its maximum level. This paper analyzes the technical and economical feasibility of an innovative plant, through the operational simulations of each machinery, related to different radiation conditions during the year. The economical analysis has shown that this solution is worth-while, especially taking advantage from the incentives offered by the national campaign of renewable energy diffusion. (au)

  17. Effects of Pasteurization at Different Temperature and Time on Marinated Shrimp in Green Curry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Salasiah Mohamed; Anuntagool, J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pasteurization on marinated shrimp in green curry paste at 5 conditions (T1) 65 degree Celsius for 32.5 minutes, (T2) 67 degree Celsius for 18.5 minutes, (T3) 68 degree Celsius for 17 minutes, (T4) 69 degree Celsius for 7 minutes, (T5) 70 degree Celsius for 7 minutes in comparison with the control (non pasteurized) sample was studied. TVC of pasteurized marinated shrimp (T1 to T5) was lower than 10 CFU/ g and Listeria spp. was not detected in 25 g sample, while the TVC for control was 3.67 log CFU/ g and Listeria spp. was 1.18 log CFU/ g. The pH value of pasteurized marinated shrimp (T1 to T5) was significantly lower than the non-pasteurized marinated shrimp. The shear force value for samples pasteurized at T3, T4 and T5 was not significantly different from control. Sensory evaluation result showed that the highest score for overall acceptability was 5.75 for the product pasteurized at 70 degree Celsius for 7 minutes (T5). Treatment 5 (70 degree Celsius for 7 minutes) was selected as optimum condition for pasteurized sample for shelf life study. From shelf life study, the pasteurized marinated shrimp in green curry paste was safe for consumption until the end of storage period for 15 days at 0-3 degree Celsius. There was no significant difference between pasteurized products stored at 0-3 degree Celsius with freshly prepared product up to 15 days for all attributes that were sensorial tested. (author)

  18. Impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bellanger, Amandine; Ménard, Olivia; Pladys, Patrick; Le Gouar, Yann; Dirson, Emelyne; Kroell, Florian; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie; Bourlieu, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Holder pasteurization has been reported to modify human milk composition and structure by inactivating bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) and partially denaturing some of its proteins, potentially affecting its subsequent digestion. We sought to determine the impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion (particularly for proteins and lipids) in preterm infants who were fed their mothers' own milk either raw or pasteurized. In a randomized controlled trial, 12 hospitalized tube-fed preterm infants were their own control group in comparing the gastric digestion of raw human milk (RHM) with pasteurized human milk (PHM). Over a 6-d sequence, gastric aspirates were collected 2 times/d before and after RHM or PHM ingestion. The impact of milk pasteurization digestive kinetics and disintegration was tested with the use of a general linear mixed model. Despite inactivating BSSL, instantaneous lipolysis was not affected by pasteurization (mean ± SD at 90 min: 12.6% ± 4.7%; P > 0.05). Lipolysis occurred in milk before digestion and was higher for PHM than for RHM (mean ± SD: 3.2% ± 0.6% and 2.2% ± 0.8%, respectively; P Pasteurization enhanced the proteolysis of lactoferrin (P Pasteurization did not affect gastric emptying (∼30-min half time) or pH (mean ± SD: 4.4 ± 0.8) at 90 min. Overall, pasteurization had no impact on the gastric digestion of lipids and some proteins from human milk but did affect lactoferrin and α-lactalbumin proteolysis and emulsion disintegration. Freeze-thawing and pasteurization increased the milk lipolysis before digestion but did not affect gastric lipolysis. Possible consequences on intestinal digestion and associated nutritional outcomes were not considered in this study. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02112331. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. [Myanmar mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandari, B; Persichetti, P; Pelissier, P; Martin, D; Baudet, J

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the accomplishment of humanitarian missions in plastic surgery performed by a small team in town practice in Yangon, about their 3 years experience in Myanmar with 300 consultations and 120 surgery cases. They underline the interest of this type of mission and provide us their reflexion about team training, the type of relation with the country where the mission is conducted and the type of right team.

  20. Air and Water Processes Do Not Produce the Same High-Quality Pasteurization of Donor Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin, Rachel; Pradat, Pierre; Trompette, Jocelyne; Ndiaye, Isabelle; Basson, Eliane; Jordan, Isabelle; Picaud, Jean-Charles

    2017-11-01

    Holder pasteurization is the most commonly used technique in milk banks worldwide, but higher temperatures and longer pasteurization time have been associated with damage to the immune components of human milk. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the detailed pattern of pasteurization temperature using two water pasteurizers (WP1 and WP2) and one air pasteurizer (AP). The milk temperature during each phase of the pasteurization cycle was recorded using 6 to 9 probes, depending on the number of bottles, in the pasteurizers. We used 90 to 200 ml bottles to assess the effect of volume on milk temperature. The time to heat the milk from room temperature to 58°C was 12.4, 12.9, and 64.5 min, respectively, for WP1, WP2, and the AP ( p pasteurizer in our study was exposed to higher temperatures and for longer periods of time than the water pasteurizers we employed. Regular qualification of pasteurizers is requested when evaluating the effect of pasteurization on milk components and for routine treatment of human milk in milk banks.

  1. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices.

  2. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Lim, Jong-Soo; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kang, Il-Byeong; Jeong, Dana; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk.

  3. Liquid egg white pasteurization using a centrifugal UV irradiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geveke, David J; Torres, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Studies are limited on UV nonthermal pasteurization of liquid egg white (LEW). The objective of this study was to inactivate Escherichia coli using a UV irradiator that centrifugally formed a thin film of LEW on the inside of a rotating cylinder. The LEW was inoculated with E. coli K12 to approximately 8 log cfu/ml and was processed at the following conditions: UV intensity 1.5 to 9.0 mW/cm²; cylinder rotational speed 450 to 750 RPM, cylinder inclination angle 15° to 45°, and flow rate 300 to 900 ml/min, and treatment time 1.1 to 3.2s. Appropriate dilutions of the samples were pourplated with tryptic soy agar (TSA). Sublethal injury was determined using TSA+4% NaCl. The regrowth of surviving E. coli during refrigerated storage for 28 days was investigated. The electrical energy of the UV process was also determined. The results demonstrated that UV processing of LEW at a dose of 29 mJ/cm² at 10°C reduced E. coli by 5 log cfu/ml. Inactivation significantly increased with increasing UV dose and decreasing flow rate. The results at cylinder inclination angles of 30° and 45° were similar and were significantly better than those at 15°. The cylinder rotational speed had no significant effect on inactivation. The occurrence of sublethal injury was detected. Storage of UV processed LEW at 4° and 10°C for 21 days further reduced the population of E. coli to approximately 1 log cfu/ml where it remained for an additional 7 days. The UV energy applied to the LEW to obtain a 5 log reduction of E. coli was 3.9 J/ml. These results suggest that LEW may be efficiently pasteurized, albeit at low flow rates, using a nonthermal UV device that centrifugally forms a thin film. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Flavor and flavor chemistry differences among milks processed by high-temperature, short-time pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Y; Benoist, D M; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2018-05-01

    Typical high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization encompasses a lower heat treatment and shorter refrigerated shelf life compared with ultra-pasteurization (UP) achieved by direct steam injection (DSI-UP) or indirect heat (IND-UP). A greater understanding of the effect of different heat treatments on flavor and flavor chemistry of milk is required to characterize, understand, and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the flavor and volatile compound profiles of milk subjected to HTST, DSI-UP, or IND-UP using sensory and instrumental techniques. Raw skim and raw standardized 2% fat milks (50 L each) were processed in triplicate and pasteurized at 78°C for 15 s (HTST) or 140°C for 2.3 s by DSI-UP or IND-UP. Milks were cooled and stored at 4°C, then analyzed at d 0, 3, 7, and 14. Sensory attributes were determined using a trained panel, and aroma active compounds were evaluated by solid-phase micro-extraction or stir bar sorptive extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-olfactometry, and gas chromatography-triple quad mass spectrometry. The UP milks had distinct cooked and sulfur flavors compared with HTST milks. The HTST milks had less diversity in aroma active compounds compared with UP milks. Flavor intensity of all milks decreased by d 14 of storage. Aroma active compound profiles were affected by heat treatment and storage time in both skim and 2% milk. High-impact aroma active compounds were hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and methional in DSI-UP and 2 and 3-methylbutanal, furfural, 2-heptanone, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-aminoacetophenone, benzaldehyde, and dimethyl sulfide in IND-UP. These results provide a foundation knowledge of the effect of heat treatments on flavor development and differences in sensory quality of UP milks. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in Pasteurized and Traditional Milk in Hamadan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Babolhavaegi

    2018-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the presence of AFM1 toxin contamination in traditional and pasteurized milks of Hamedan province. Further investigation and monitoring is needed in Hamedan province.

  6. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and pasteurizing value during thermal processing of intact egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnezhad, Behzad; Hamdami, Nasser; Monteau, Jean-Yves; Vatankhah, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Thermal Pasteurization of Eggs, as a widely used nutritive food, has been simulated. A three-dimensional numerical model, computational fluid dynamics codes of heat transfer equations using heat natural convection, and conduction mechanisms, based on finite element method, was developed to study the effect of air cell size and eggshell thickness. The model, confirmed by comparing experimental and numerical results, was able to predict the temperature profiles, the slowest heating zone, and the required heating time during pasteurization of intact eggs. The results showed that the air cell acted as a heat insulator. Increasing the air cell volume resulted in decreasing of the heat transfer rate, and the increasing the required time of pasteurization (up to 14%). The findings show that the effect on thermal pasteurization of the eggshell thickness was not considerable in comparison to the air cell volume.

  7. Stability of Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Breast Milk During Holder Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voorn, Bibian; de Waard, Marita; Dijkstra, Lisette R; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Rotteveel, Joost; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-12-01

    Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on the potential role of breast milk glucocorticoids for infant development. At this moment, it is unknown whether pasteurization affects milk glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, we assessed whether Holder pasteurization, the most frequently used method nowadays, reduces breast milk cortisol and cortisone levels, using breast milk samples from 30 women who delivered at term. We found tight correlations between pre- and postpasteurization levels of cortisol (R = 0.99) and cortisone (R = 0.98), and good agreement in Passing and Bablok regression analysis. In conclusion, cortisol and cortisone in human term breast milk are not significantly affected by Holder pasteurization.

  8. Methods for thermal inactivation of pathogens in mozzarella: a comparison between stretching and pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Raimundo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of stretching in the reduction of pathogens when compared to milk pasteurization, the official method to ensure safe cheese production. Whole buffalo milk was contaminated with Mycobacterium fortuitum, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Part of the milk was used in mozzarella production and the other part was submitted to holder pasteurization. Pathogens were quantified before and after thermal processing (mozzarella stretching and milk pasteurization. Pasteurization and stretching led to the following reductions in log cycles, respectively: 4.0 and 6.3 for Mycobacterium sp.; 6.0 and 8.4 for Listeria sp.; >6.8 and 4.5 for Staphylococcus sp.; and >8.2 and 7.5 for Salmonella sp.

  9. Microbiological aspects related to the feasibility of PEF technology for food pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, G; Álvarez, I; Condón, S; Raso, J

    2014-01-01

    Processing unit operations that seek to inactivate harmful microorganisms are of primary importance in ascertaining the safety of food. The capability of pulsed electric fields (PEF) to inactivate vegetative cells of microorganisms at temperatures below those used in thermal processing makes this technology very attractive as a nonthermal pasteurization process for the food industry. Commercial exploitation of this technology for food pasteurization requires the identification of the most PEF-resistant microorganisms that are of concern to public health. Then, the treatment conditions applicable at industrial scale that would reduce the population of these microorganisms to a level that guarantees food safety must be defined. The objective of this paper is to critically compile recent, relevant knowledge with the purpose of enhancing the feasibility of using PEF technology for food pasteurization and underlining the required research for designing PEF pasteurization processes.

  10. Milk pasteurization: efficiency of the HTST process according to its bacterial concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Ajzental

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of milk pasteurization (HTST related to its standard plate count (SPC values were assessed in 41 milk samples using a laboratory designed pasteurizing equipment. Based on results, it is demonstrated that efficiency of the process is affected by its bacterial concentration, where lower SPC values mean decrease in efficiency and that the performance of the process is not affected in presence of high SPC values in raw product.

  11. The effect of pasteurization on trace elements in donor breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Taufek, N; Cartwright, D; Davies, M; Hewavitharana, A K; Koorts, P; McConachy, H; Shaw, P N; Sumner, R; Whitfield, K

    2016-10-01

    Premature infants often receive pasteurized donor human milk when mothers are unable to provide their own milk. This study aims to establish the effect of the pasteurization process on a range of trace elements in donor milk. Breast milk was collected from 16 mothers donating to the milk bank at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. Samples were divided into pre- and post-pasteurization aliquots and were Holder pasteurized. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze the trace elements zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), iodine (I), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo) and bromine (Br). Differences in trace elements pre- and post-pasteurization were analyzed. No significant differences were found between the trace elements tested pre- and post-pasteurization, except for Fe (Ppasteurization aliquots were-Zn: 1639 (888-4508), 1743 (878-4143), Cu: 360 (258-571), 367 (253-531), Se: 12.34 (11.73-17.60), 12.62 (11.94-16.64), Mn: (1.48 (1.01-1.75), 1.49 (1.11-1.75), I (153 (94-189), 158 (93-183), Fe (211 (171-277), 194 (153-253), Mo (1.46 (0.37-2.99), 1.42 (0.29-3.73) and Br (1066 (834-1443), 989 (902-1396). Pasteurization had minimal effect on several trace elements in donor breast milk but high levels of inter-donor variability of trace elements were observed. The observed decrease in the iron content of pasteurized donor milk is, however, unlikely to be clinically relevant.

  12. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: A Canadian demonstration project — 1988-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Wilson, Bruce K.

    Nordion International Inc. and a Canadian city, in cooperation with the Federal & Provincial Ministries of the Environment, began a project in 1988 to construct and operate a commercial-scale sewage sludge pasteurization facility using gamma radiation technology. The facility is scheduled to begin operations in 1991. This paper discusses the objectives and scope of the project, the design of the irradiation system, and the plans to market the pasteurized sludge as a high-value, organic soil conditioner and fertilizer.

  13. Effect of Holder pasteurization and frozen storage on macronutrients and energy content of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Vieco, Diana Escuder; De la Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Lora-Pablos, David; Velasco, Noelia Ureta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Holder pasteurization and frozen storage at -20°C after pasteurization on fat, total nitrogen, lactose, and energy content of breast milk. Both procedures are routinely practiced in human milk banks. A total of 34 samples of frozen breast milk, donated by 28 women, were collected. Once thawed, an aliquot of each sample was analyzed before pasteurization; the remaining milk was pasteurized (Holder method) and split into 8 aliquots. One aliquot was analyzed after pasteurization and the remainder frozen at -20°C and analyzed 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days later. For every aliquot, fat, total nitrogen, lactose, and energy content were determined using the device human Milk Analyzer. We observed a significant reduction in fat (3.5%; -0.17 (-0.29; -0.04) g/dL) and energy content (2.8%; -2.03 (-3.60; -0.46) g/dL) after pasteurization. A significant decrease over time was observed for fat, lactose and energy content. No significant changes were observed for nitrogen content. Mean differences between day 0 postpasteurization and day 180 were -0.13 (-0.21; -0.06) g/dL for fat, -0.08 (-0.13; -0.03) g/dL for lactose, and -1.55 (-2.38; -0.71) kcal/dL for energy content. The relative decreases were 2.8%, 1.7%, and 2.2%, respectively. Overall (postpasteurization + frozen storage), a 6.2% and 5% decrease were observed for fat and energy, respectively. Holder pasteurization decreased fat and energy content of human milk. Frozen storage at -20°C of pasteurized milk significantly reduced fat, lactose, and energy content of human milk.

  14. Country programming mission. Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Government of Namibia conveyed in a letter dated 29 November 1990 IAEA provided a multi-disciplinary Programming Mission which visited Namibia from 15 - 19 July 1991. The terms of reference of the Mission were: 1. To assess the possibilities and benefits of nuclear energy applications in Namibia's development; 2. To advise on the infrastructure required for nuclear energy projects; 3. To assist in the formulation of project proposals which could be submitted for Agency assistance. This report is based on the findings of the Mission and falls into 3 sections with 8 appendices. The first section is a country profile providing background information, the second section deals with sectorial needs and institutional review of the sectors of agriculture including animal production, life sciences (nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and radiation protection. The third section includes possible future technical co-operation activities

  15. Effect of two pasteurization methods on the protein content of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baro, Cristina; Giribaldi, Marzia; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Dellavalle, Giuseppina; Conti, Amedeo; Tonetto, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Coscia, Alessandra; Fabris, Claudio; Moro, Guido Eugenio; Cavallarin, Laura; Bertino, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    The Holder method is the recommended pasteurization method for human milk banks, as it ensures the microbiological safety of human milk (HM). The loss of some biologically active milk components, due to the heat treatment, is a main limit to the diffusion of donor HM. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization may be an alternative to maintain the nutritional and immunological quality of HM. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of Holder and HTST pasteurization on the HM protein profile. The protein patterns of HTST-treated milk and raw milk were similar. The Holder method modified bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and components of the immune system. The HTST method preserved the integrity of bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and, to some extent, of IgAs. Holder pasteurization decreased the amount of bile salt-stimulated lipase and inactivated the remaining molecules, while the HTST method did not alter its activity. Pasteurization increased the bioavailable lysine quantity. HTST pasteurization seems to better retain the protein profile and some of the key active components of donor HM.

  16. Flow characteristics of a pilot-scale high temperature, short time pasteurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Kozempel, M F

    2004-09-01

    In this study, we present a method for determining the fastest moving particle (FMP) and residence time distribution (RTD) in a pilot-scale high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer to ensure that laboratory or pilot-scale HTST apparatus meets the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance standards for pasteurization of milk and can be used for obtaining thermal inactivation data. The overall dimensions of the plate in the pasteurizer were 75 x 115 mm, with a thickness of 0.5 mm and effective diameter of 3.0 mm. The pasteurizer was equipped with nominal 21.5- and 52.2-s hold tubes, and flow capacity was variable from 0 to 20 L/h. Tracer studies were used to determine FMP times and RTD data to establish flow characteristics. Using brine milk as tracer, the FMP time for the short holding section was 18.6 s and for the long holding section was 36 s at 72 degrees C, compared with the nominal times of 21.5 and 52.2 s, respectively. The RTD study indicates that the short hold section was 45% back mixed and 55% plug flow for whole milk at 72 degrees C. The long hold section was 91% plug and 9% back mixed for whole milk at 72 degrees C. This study demonstrates that continuous laboratory and pilot-scale pasteurizers may be used to study inactivation of microorganisms only if the flow conditions in the holding tube are established for comparison with commercial HTST systems.

  17. The Effect of Pasteurization Time on Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Two Apple Cultivars Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile LASLO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize two varieties of apple (Florina and Liberty grown in the North-West of Romania, with a focus on their volatile compounds, bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. The content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity was also tracked during pasteurization at different times (15, 20 and 25 minutes. Among bioactive compounds, the total phenol content was determined, as well as the total flavonoid and vitamin C content. The antioxidant capacity of fruits and pasteurized juice was evaluated by three different methods (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Of the 2 apple cultivars, Florina showed a remarkably higher content of total phenolic compounds (657.97 mg GAE/kg fw, flavonoids (122.07 mg QE/kg fw and vitamin C (94.62 mg/kg, compared to the Liberty cultivar. Following pasteurization, the vitamin C contents decreased significantly relative to pasteurization time. However, in the case of total phenols content, only insignificant decreases were registered, compared to unpasteurized juice. The content of total flavonoids increased significantly after 15 minutes of pasteurization in apple cultivars juices. The apple varieties investigated are rich in bioactive compounds, and pasteurization treatment does not lead to drastic decreases in these compounds and in the antioxidant capacity of apple juices.

  18. Bioactive peptides released from in vitro digestion of human milk with or without pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk (HM) serves as the best alternative for breast-feeding when availability of mother's milk is limited. Pasteurization is also applied to mother's own milk for very low birth weight infants, who are vulnerable to microbial infection. Whether pasteurization affects protein digestibility and therefore modulates the profile of bioactive peptides released from HM proteins by gastrointestinal digestion, has not been examined to date. HM with and without pasteurization (62.5 °C for 30 min) were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, followed by peptidomic analysis to compare the formation of bioactive peptides. Some of the bioactive peptides, such as caseinophosphopeptide homologues, a possible opioid peptide (or propeptide), and an antibacterial peptide, were present in undigested HM and showed resistance to in vitro digestion, suggesting that these peptides are likely to exert their bioactivities in the gastrointestinal lumen, or be stably transported to target organs. In vitro digestion of HM released a large variety of bioactive peptides such as angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory, antioxidative, and immunomodulatory peptides. Bioactive peptides were released largely in the same manner with and without pasteurization. Provision of pasteurized HM may be as beneficial as breast-feeding in terms of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides.

  19. Impact of pasteurization of human milk on preterm newborn in vitro digestion: Gastrointestinal disintegration, lipolysis and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; Bellanger, Amandine; Henry, Gwénaële; Rousseau, Florence; Dirson, Emelyne; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie

    2016-11-15

    Human milk feeding is an important recommendation for preterm newborns considering their vulnerability and digestive immaturity. Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30min) applied in milk banks modifies its biological quality and its microstructure. We investigated the impact of pasteurization of preterm human milk on its gastrointestinal kinetics of lipolysis, proteolysis and structural disintegration. An in vitro dynamic system was set up to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion of preterm newborns. A pool of preterm human milk was digested as raw or after Holder pasteurization. Pasteurization impacted the microstructure of undigested human milk, its gastrointestinal disintegration and tended to limit the intestinal lipolysis. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of some fatty acids was decreased by pasteurization, while the intestinal bioaccessibility of some amino acids was selectively modulated. The impact of pasteurization on the digestion of human milk may have nutritional relevance in vivo and potentially modulates preterm development and growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of electron beams for pasteurization of meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, K.R.; Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.; Neau, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Electron beam accelerators can be used for electronic pasteurization of meat products by: (1) using the electrons directly impacting the products, or (2) optimizing the conversion of electron energy to x-rays and treating the product with these x-rays. The choice of process depends on the configuration of the product when it is treated. For electron treatment, ten million electron volt (MeV) kinetic energy is the maximum allowed by international agreement. The depth of penetration of electrons with that energy into a product with density of meat is about five centimeters (cm). Two-sided treatment can be done on products up to 10 cm thick with a two-to-one ratio between minimum and maximum dose. Ground beef patties are about 1.25 cm (0.5 inch thick). Beams with 2.5 MeV electron energy could be used to treat these products. Our calculations show that maximum to minimum dose ratios less than 1.2 can be achieved with this energy if the transverse beam energy is small. If the product thickness is greater than 10 cm, x-rays can provide the needed dose uniformity. Uniform doses can be supplied for pallets with dimensions greater than 1.2 m on each side using x-rays from a 5 MeV electron beam. The efficiency of converting the electron beam to x-rays and configurations to achieve dose uniformity are discussed

  1. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Escuder-Vieco; Irene Espinosa-Martos; Juan M. Rodríguez; Nieves Corzo; Antonia Montilla; Pablo Siegfried; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Leónides Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an...

  2. Pasteurization of bone for tumour eradication prior to reimplantation – An in vitro & pre-clinical efficacy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kode, Jyoti; Taur, Prasad; Gulia, Ashish; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Agarwal, Manish; Puri, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: In current era of limb-salvage therapy, pasteurization of bone sarcomas is receiving growing attention as a potential extracorporeal treatment and cost-effective alternative to allografts and radiation before surgical reimplantation. Detailed in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical study to evaluate efficacy of pasteurization to eradicate malignant cells has not been reported yet. The present study was carried out to assess the efficacy of pasteurization to kill tumour cells both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Surgically resected specimens of osteosarcomas (n=4) were cut into equal halves and one section was pasteurized by heating at 60°C to 65°C for 40 min. Paired samples before and after pasteurization were studied in vitro for DNA ploidy, evaluation of histological change and elimination of mitotic activity. These tissues were transplanted in immune-deficient NOD-SCID mice to evaluate effect on tumour-generating ability, presence of human nuclei, osteopontin and cytokine/chemokines released in tumour-transplanted mice. Results: Non-pasteurized tumour samples had viable tumour cells which exhibited significant growth in culture, increased proliferative ability and clonogenic potential while respective pasteurized tumour tissues did not grow in culture and did not exhibit clonogenicity. Flow cytometry revealed that propidium iodide positive dead cells increased significantly (Ppasteurization. Seven of 12 non-pasteurized tumour transplanted mice demonstrated tumour-forming ability as against 0 of 12 in pasteurized tumour transplanted mice. Solid tumour xenografts exhibited strong expression of anti-human nuclei and osteopontin by immunohistochemistry as well as secretary human interluekin-6 (IL-6) while pasteurized mice failed to express these markers. Interpretation & conclusions: This study has provided a basis to establish pasteurization as being efficacious in ensuring tumour eradication from resected bone tumour specimens. Pasteurized

  3. Determination of the effectiveness of inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus by Pretoria pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, B S; Webber, L; Mokhondo, K R; Erasmus, D

    2001-12-01

    The risk of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breastfeeding is between 10 and 17 per cent. In resource-poor countries most HIV-infected women cannot afford to formula feed their infants and formula feeding is not desirable in areas of high infant mortality because of loss of the immunological benefits of breastmilk. A method has been devised by which HIV-infected women may express and pasteurize their breastmilk in a domestic setting using inexpensive apparatus and a simple technique. The method, Pretoria Pasteurization has been shown to be reliable under a wide range of conditions and maintains milk between 56 degrees and 62.5 degrees C for between 12 and 15 min. This study was devised to determine whether Pretoria Pasteurization effectively inactivates HIV in human milk. Samples of expressed breastmilk were obtained from a group of HIV-infected lactating women and a group of HIV-negative women. The samples of milk from the HIV-negative women were inoculated with high titres of cell-associated and cell-free HIV. Each sample was divided into a control portion and a study portion. The study portion underwent Pretoria Pasteurization. Control and pasteurized samples were inoculated into lymphocyte co-culture for a period of 35 days. All co-cultures were sampled weekly and analysed by serological and molecular methods for p24 antigen, cell-free HIV RNA and integrated DNA. Viral RNA was detected in the milk of 80 per cent amongst the known HIV-positive women. The mean serum viral load in the group of HIV positive women was 50728 copies/ml and the mean milk viral load was 422000 copies/ml. Evidence of viral replication was shown in 11 of the control specimens. There was no evidence of viral replication in any of the study specimens which had undergone Pretoria Pasteurization. It was concluded that Pretoria Pasteurization effectively inactivates HIV in human milk.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of a milk pasteurization process assisted by geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, Nurdan; Genc, Seda

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy system is an important concern for sustainable development of the World. Thermodynamic analysis, especially exergy analysis is an intense tool to assess sustainability of the systems. Food processing industry is one of the energy intensive sectors where dairy industry consumes substantial amount of energy among other food industry segments. Therefore, in this study, thermodynamic analysis of a milk pasteurization process assisted by geothermal energy was studied. In the system, a water–ammonia VAC (vapor absorption cycle), a cooling section, a pasteurizer and a regenerator were used for milk pasteurization. Exergetic efficiencies of each component and the whole system were separately calculated. A parametric study was undertaken. In this regard, firstly the effect of the geothermal resource temperature on (i) the total exergy destruction of the absorption cycle and the whole system, (ii) the efficiency of the VAC, the whole system and COP (coefficient of performance) of the VAC, (iii) the flow rate of the pasteurized milk were investigated. Then, the effect of the geothermal resource flow rate on the pasteurization load was analyzed. The exergetic efficiency of the whole system was calculated as 56.81% with total exergy destruction rate of 13.66 kW. The exergetic results were also illustrated through the Grassmann diagram. - Highlights: • Geothermal energy assisted milk pasteurization system was studied thermodynamically. • The first study on exergetic analysis of a milk pasteurization process with VAC. • The thermodynamic properties of water–ammonia mixture were calculated by using EES. • Energetic and exergetic efficiency calculated as 71.05 and 56.81%, respectively.

  5. Efficiency of a closed-coupled solar pasteurization system in treating roof harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, P H; Carstens, M; De Villiers, J; Cloete, T E; Khan, W

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have concluded that roof harvested rainwater is susceptible to chemical and microbial contamination. The aim of the study was thus to conduct a preliminary investigation into the efficiency of a closed-coupled solar pasteurization system in reducing the microbiological load in harvested rainwater and to determine the change in chemical components after pasteurization. The temperature of the pasteurized tank water samples collected ranged from 55 to 57°C, 64 to 66°C, 72 to 74°C, 78 to 81°C and 90 to 91°C. Cations analyzed were within drinking water guidelines, with the exception of iron [195.59 μg/L (55°C)-170.1 μg/L (91°C)], aluminum [130.98 μg/L (78°C)], lead [12.81 μg/L (55°C)-13.2 μg/L (91°C)] and nickel [46.43 μg/L (55°C)-32.82 μg/L (78°C)], which were detected at levels above the respective guidelines in the pasteurized tank water samples. Indicator bacteria including, heterotrophic bacteria, Escherichia coli and total coliforms were reduced to below the detection limit at pasteurization temperatures of 72°C and above. However, with the use of molecular techniques Yersinia spp., Legionella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in tank water samples pasteurized at temperatures greater than 72°C. The viability of the bacteria detected in this study at the higher temperature ranges should thus be assessed before pasteurized harvested rainwater is used as a potable water source. In addition, it is recommended that the storage tank of the pasteurization system be constructed from an alternative material, other than stainless steel, in order for a closed-coupled pasteurization system to be implemented and produce large quantities of potable water from roof harvested rainwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence, seasonality, and growth of enterococci in raw and pasteurized milk in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Catherine M; Britz, Margaret L; Gobius, Kari S; Craven, Heather M

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, seasonality, and species variety of enterococci present in raw milk factory silos and pasteurized milk in 3 dairying regions in Victoria, Australia, over a 1-yr period. Additionally, the growth ability of thermoduric enterococci isolated in this study (Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, and E. durans) was determined in milk at temperatures likely to occur during storage, transport, and distribution, and before domestic consumption (4 and 7°C). Enterococci were detected in 96% of 211 raw milk samples, with an average count of 2.48 log10 cfu/mL. Counts were significantly lower in winter than summer (average 1.84 log10 cfu/mL) and were different between factories but not regions. Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent species isolated from raw milk in every factory, comprising between 61.5 and 83.5% of enterococcal species across each season. Enterococci were detected in lower numbers in pasteurized milk than in raw milk and were below the limit of detection on spread plates (pasteurization. Residual viable cells were only detected following enrichment using 100-mL samples of milk, with 20.8% of the samples testing positive; this equated to a decrease in the average raw milk enterococci count of >4 log10 cfu/mL following pasteurization. Although E. faecalis predominated in raw milk and E. durans was found in only 2.9% of raw milk samples, E. durans was the most prevalent species detected in pasteurized milk. The detection of enterococci in the pasteurized milk did not correlate with higher enterococci counts in the raw milk. This suggested that the main enterococci populations in raw milk were heat-sensitive and that thermoduric enterococci survived pasteurization in a small numbers of instances. All of the thermoduric enterococci that were assessed for growth at likely refrigeration temperatures were able to grow at both 4 and 7°C in sterile milk, with generation times of 35 to 41h and 16 to 22h, respectively

  7. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodie Daniels

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA, lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL-8 and IL-10. Donor milk samples (N = 50 were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001, and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001 and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001. Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives.

  8. Improvement in irradiation pasteurization on sugarcane bagasse for its fungal bioconversion to animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duy Lam

    2002-01-01

    Goals of this study were to reduce radiation dose required for bagase pasteurization and to convert the pasteurized bagasse into animal feed by using fungal fermentation. Comparative study on the effectiveness of radiation decontamination on moisturized and dried bagasse showed different doses required for pasteurization. Radiation treatment on wetted substratum bags required 20 kGy, while dried bagasse needed only 10 kGy for pasteurization. In comparison with wetted bagasse substratum, the pasteurized dry bagasse has more dominant advantages because it can be kept for storage, transportation and distribution to household producers. Moisturizing substratum with tap water can be done just before inoculation with mycelial seed. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse to ruminant feed by using fungal fermentation was investigated. The in sacco digestibility of fermented substratum increased with incubation period and it was higher than that of paddy rice straw and comparable to Pangola grass after 35 days of fermentation. As the digestibility of mushroom-harvested residue was still higher than that of non-fermented bagasse, the fermentation by using Pleurotus spp. could simultaneously provide edible mushroom and animal feed as well. (Author)

  9. Characterization of four Paenibacillus species isolated from pasteurized, chilled ready-to-eat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmond, Mariette; Nierop Groot, Masja N; van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien

    2017-07-03

    Food spoilage is often caused by microorganisms. The predominant spoilage microorganisms of pasteurized, chilled ready-to-eat (RTE) mixed rice-vegetable meals stored at 7°C were isolated and determined as Paenibacillus species. These sporeforming psychrotrophic bacteria are well adapted to grow in the starch-rich environment of pasteurized and chilled meals. Growth of the Paenibacillus isolates appeared to be delayed by decreased (5.5%, corresponding with an a w meal on spore inactivation, heat-inactivation kinetics were determined and D-values were calculated. According to these kinetics, pasteurization up to 90°C, necessary for inactivation of vegetative spoilage microorganisms and pathogens, does not significantly contribute to the inactivation of Paenibacillus spores in the meals. Furthermore, outgrowth of pasteurized spores was determined in the mixed rice-vegetable meal at several temperatures; P. terrae FBR-61 and P. pabuli FBR-75 isolates did not substantially increase in numbers during storage at 2°C, but had a significant increase within a month of storage at 4°C or within several days at 22°C. Overall, this work shows the importance of Paenibacillus species as spoilage microorganisms of pasteurized, chilled RTE meals and that the meals' matrix, processing conditions, and storage temperature are important hurdles to control microbial meal spoilage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidative Activity of Colostrum and Human Milk: Effects of Pasteurization and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Vesna; Ranković-Janevski, Milica; Spasić, Snežana; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Lugonja, Nikoleta; Djurović, Dijana; Miletić, Srdjan; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Spasojević, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Milk banks collect, pasteurize, and freeze/store human milk. The processing may alter redox properties of milk, but the effects have not been fully examined. We collected 10 mature milk and 10 colostrum samples and applied a battery of biochemical assays and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to inspect changes that milk undergoes with pasteurization and 30 days storage at -20°C. Pasteurization and storage of raw milk did not affect total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, but specific components and features were altered. Urate radical and ascorbyl radical emerge as products of exposure of milk to hydroxyl radical-generating system. Processing shifted the load of antioxidative activity from ascorbate to urate and lowered the capacity of milk to diminish hydroxyl radical. Pasteurization caused a significant drop in the activity of 2 major antioxidative enzymes-superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, whereas freezing/storage of raw milk affected only superoxide dismutase. Colostrum showed drastically higher total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, and glutathione reductase activity compared with mature milk. Pasteurization and storage affect nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidative agents in human milk. It appears that nonenzymatic antioxidative systems in colostrum and milk are different. The effects of processing may be partially compensated by fortification/spiking with ascorbate before use.

  11. Decay of Mycobacterium bovis in whole milk submitted to pasteurization parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parameters for milk pasteurization were established a long time ago, considering the thermal resistance of Mycobacterium bovis, and the systematic adoption of this process has drastically reduced the incidence of human tuberculosis caused by this pathogen. However, more recently, molecular methods have allowed the identification of genetic variations in this bacterium that may lead to greater thermal resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variation leads to variation in the death pattern of this bacterium during the milk pasteurization process. Samples of UHT (ultra-high temperature-treated whole milk were artificially contaminated with four different Mycobacterium bovis spoligotypes and were subjected to pasteurization by low-temperature long-time (LTLT and high-temperature short-time (HTST treatments. The M. bovis spoligotypes were quantified (Colony Forming Unit per milliliter of milk before and during the thermal process. The decay of the pathogen was quantified by calculating the difference between the measurements at the beginning and at the end of the thermal treatment. The data demonstrated that the LTLT and HTST pasteurization processes considerably reduced the M. bovis load in the milk; however, the bacterium was not eliminated. There was no difference in the thermal resistance of the spoligotypes tested or in the efficiency of pasteurization processes (LTLT versus HTST. However, heating phase was more effective in reducing the M. bovis load than the target temperature maintenance phase.

  12. Continuous microwave pasteurization of a vegetable smoothie improves its physical quality and hinders detrimental enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmandi, Mitra; Otón, Mariano; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Gómez, Perla A; Aguayo, Encarna

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a pasteurization treatment at 90 ± 2 ℃ for 35 s provided by continuous microwave under different doses (low power/long time and high power/short time) or conventional pasteurization on the quality of orange-colored smoothies and their changes throughout 45 days of storage at 5 ℃ was investigated. A better color retention of the microwave pasteurization- treated smoothie using high power/short time than in conventionally processed sample was evidenced by the stability of the hue angle. The continuous microwave heating increased the viscosity of the smoothie more than the conventional pasteurization in comparison with non-treated samples. Lower residual enzyme activities from peroxidase, pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase were obtained under microwave heating, specifically due to the use of higher power/shorter time. For this kind of smoothie, polygalacturonase was the more thermo-resistant enzyme and could be used as an indicator of pasteurization efficiency. The use of a continuous semi-industrial microwave using higher power and shorter time, such as 1600 W/206 s and 3600 W/93 s, resulted in better quality smoothies and greater enzyme reduction than conventional thermal treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The human milk oligosaccharides are not affected by pasteurization and freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Won-Ho; Kim, Jaehan; Song, Seunghyun; Park, Suyeon; Kang, Nam Mi

    2017-11-06

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are known as important factors in neurologic and immunologic development of neonates. Moreover, freeze-drying seems to be a promising storage method to improve the processes of human milk banks. However, the effects of pasteurization and freeze-drying on HMOs were not evaluated yet. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the HMOs profiles of human milk collected before and after the pasteurization and freeze-drying. Totally nine fresh human milk samples were collected from three healthy mothers at the first, second, and third week after delivery. The samples were treated with Holder pasteurization and freeze-drying. HMOs profiles were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry and compared between samples collected before and after the treatments. Human milk samples showed significantly different HMO patterns between mothers. However, HMOs were not affected by lactation periods within 3 weeks after delivery (r 2  = 0.972-0.999, p pasteurization and freeze-drying were found not to affect HMO patterns in a correlation analysis (r 2  = 0.989-0.999, p pasteurization and freeze-drying of donor milks. We hope that introducing freeze-drying to the human milk banks would be encouraged by the present study. However, the storage length without composition changes of HMOs after freeze-drying needs to be evaluated in the further studies.

  14. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus in Human Milk Are Inactivated by Holder Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton Spence, Erin; Huff, Monica; Shattuck, Karen; Vickers, Amy; Yun, Nadezda; Paessler, Slobodan

    2017-05-01

    Potential donors of human milk are screened for Ebola virus (EBOV) using standard questions, but testing for EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV) is not part of routine serological testing performed by milk banks. Research aim: This study tested the hypothesis that EBOV would be inactivated in donor human milk (DHM) by standard pasteurization techniques (Holder) used in all North American nonprofit milk banks. Milk samples were obtained from a nonprofit milk bank. They were inoculated with EBOV (Zaire strain) and MARV (Angola strain) and processed by standard Holder pasteurization technique. Plaque assays for EBOV and MARV were performed to detect the presence of virus after pasteurization. Neither EBOV nor MARV was detectable by viral plaque assay in DHM or culture media samples, which were pasteurized by the Holder process. EBOV and MARV are safely inactivated in human milk by standard Holder pasteurization technique. Screening for EBOV or MARV beyond questionnaire and self-deferral is not needed to ensure safety of DHM for high-risk infants.

  15. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-02-22

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples ( N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student's t -test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity ( p pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants' lives.

  16. Are fat acids of human milk impacted by pasteurization and freezing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, Luiz Antônio; Coelho Araújo, Wilma Maria; Conceição, Maria Hosana; Sabioni Resck, Inês; Mendonça, Márcio Antonio

    2014-10-03

    The Human Milk Bank undergo human milk to pasteurization, followed by storage in a freezer at -18° C for up to six months to thus keep available the stocks of this product in maternal and infant hospitals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing on the lipid fraction of human milk. A sample of human milk was obtained from a donor and was subdivided into ten sub-samples that was subjected to the following treatments: LC = raw milk; T0 = milk after pasteurization; T30 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 30 days; T60 = milk after pasteurization and freeze for 60 days, and so on every 30 days until T240 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 240 days, with 3 repetitions for each treatment. Lipids were extracted, methylated and fatty acid profiles determined by gas chromatography. The fatty acids were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and functional groups were identified by infrared spectroscopy. There were variations in the concentration of fatty acids. For unsaturated fatty acids there was increasing trend in their concentrations. The IR and NMR analyze characterized and identified functional groups presents in fatty acids. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type B is heat-stable in milk and not inactivated by pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M

    2010-12-08

    Foodborne botulism is caused by the ingestion of foods containing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). To study the heat stability of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins, we needed to measure and compare the activity of botulinum neurotoxins, serotypes A and B, under various pasteurization conditions. Currently, the only accepted assay to detect active C. botulinum neurotoxin is an in vivo mouse bioassay, which raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. In this study, noninvasive methods were used to simultaneously detect and distinguish between active BoNT serotypes A and B in one reaction and sample. We developed an enzymatic activity assay employing internally quenched fluorogenic peptides corresponding to SNAP-25, for BoNT-A, and VAMP2, for BoNT-B, as an alternative method to the mouse bioassay. Because each peptide is labeled with different fluorophores, we were able to distinguish between these two toxins. We used this method to analyze the heat stability of BoNT-A and BoNT-B. This study reports that conventional milk pasteurization (63 °C, 30 min) inactivated BoNT serotype A; however, serotype B is heat-stable in milk and not inactivated by pasteurization. Using this activity assay, we also showed that the commonly used food processes such as acidity and pasteurization, which are known to inhibit C. botulinum growth and toxin production, are more effective in inactivating BoNT serotype A than serotype B when conventional pasteurization (63 °C, 30 min) is used.

  18. [Anaerobic bacteria 150 years after their discovery by Pasteur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Ángel; García-Merino, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In 2011 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the discovery of anaerobic bacteria by Louis Pasteur. The interest of the biomedical community on such bacteria is still maintained, and is particularly focused on Clostridium difficile. In the past few years important advances in taxonomy have been made due to the genetic, technological and computing developments. Thus, a significant number of new species related to human infections have been characterised, and some already known have been reclassified. At pathogenic level some specimens of anaerobic microflora, that had not been isolated from human infections, have been now isolated in some clinical conditions. There was emergence (or re-emergence) of some species and clinical conditions. Certain anaerobic bacteria have been associated with established infectious syndromes. The virulence of certain strains has increased, and some hypotheses on their participation in certain diseases have been given. In terms of diagnosis, the routine use of MALDI-TOF has led to a shortening of time and a cost reduction in the identification, with an improvement directly related to the improvement of data bases. The application of real-time PCR has been another major progress, and the sequencing of 16srRNA gene and others is currently a reality for several laboratories. Anaerobes have increased their resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the emergence of resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole, and multi-resistance is a current reality. In this situation, linezolid could be an effective alternative for Bacteroides. Fidaxomicin is the only anti-anaerobic agent introduced in the recent years, specifically for the diarrhoea caused by C.difficile. Moreover, some mathematical models have also been proposed in relation with this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Faith-Based Institutions, Institutional Mission, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jessica Rose; Gustafson, Jacqueline N.

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in historical foundations and demonstrated by continued government financial support, one purpose of higher education is to contribute to the "public good," or support and further social causes and human flourishing. This notion has received renewed attention in both the literature as well as in professional practice. Given the…

  20. Lactational Stage of Pasteurized Human Donor Milk Contributes to Nutrient Limitations for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Valentine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional sampling of milk was obtained from five donor milk banks located in Ohio, Michigan, Colorado, Texas-Ft Worth, and California. Milk samples were collected after Institutional Review Board (#07-0035 approval and informed consent. Fatty acid and amino acid contents were measured in milk from individual donors and donor pools (pooled per Human Milk Banking Association of North America guidelines. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal–Wallis, Spearman’s, or Multivariate Regression analyses with center as the fixed factor and lactational stage as co-variate. Results. Ten of the fourteen fatty acids and seventeen of the nineteen amino acids analyzed differed across Banks in the individual milk samples. Pooling minimized these differences in amino acid and fatty acid contents. Concentrations of lysine and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not different across Banks, but concentrations were low compared to recommended levels. Conclusions. Individual donor milk fatty acid and amino acid contents are highly variable. Standardized pooling practice reduces this variability. Lysine and DHA concentrations were consistently low across geographic regions in North America due to lactational stage of the milk, and thus not adequately addressed by pooling. Targeted supplementation is needed to optimize PDM, especially for the preterm or volume restricted infant.

  1. Executive Summary - Our mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    On September 1 st 2003, the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow joined the Polish Academy of Sciences. The Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), founded in 1952, is a state-sponsored scientific institution acting through an elected corporation of leading scholars, their research organizations and through numerous scientific establishments. PAN is a major national scientific advisory body acting via its scientific committees which represent all disciplines of science. There are currently 79 PAN research establishments (institutes and research centers, research stations, botanical gardens and other research units) and a number of auxiliary scientific units (such as archives, libraries, museums, and PAN stations abroad). Our Institute is currently one of the largest research institutions of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The research activity of the Academy is financed mainly from the State budget via the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology. The mission of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, IFJ is stated in its Charter. According to Paragraphs 5, 6, and 7 of the 2004 Charter, the Institute's duty is to carry out research activities in the following areas:1. High energy and elementary particle physics (including astrophysics), 2. Nuclear physics and physics of mechanisms of nuclear interaction, 3. Condensed matter physics, 4. Interdisciplinary research, and in particular: in radiation and environmental biology, environmental physics, medical physics, dosimetry, nuclear geophysics, radiochemistry and material engineering. The main tasks of the Institute are: 1. To perform research in the above disciplines, 2. To promote the development of scientists and of specialists qualified to carry out research in these disciplines, 3. To organize a Post-Doctoral Study Course, 4. To permit, through agreements with national and foreign research institutions, external scholars to train and gain academic qualifications in the Institute

  2. Cost and effectiveness comparisons of various types of sludge irradiation and sludge pasteurization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation from 137 Cs, a major constituent of nuclear fuel reprocessing waste, can be used to sterilize sewage sludge. This paper compares the effectiveness and cost of heat pasteurization, irradiation, and thermoradiation (simultaneous heating/irradiation), three competing methods of sludge disinfection. The cost of irradiation and thermoradiation is slightly higher than heat pasteurization costs for liquid sludges, although minor changes in oil availability or prices could change this. If the viral destruction could be done easily by other means, a 500-kilorad irradiation dose would be effective and less costly. For dry sewage sludges, irradiation is as effective and much less costly than any of the liquid sludge disinfection processes. Irradiation of compost appears to be cheaper and more practical than any heat pasteurization process for the dry sludge (the insulating property of the compost makes heating difficult). 6 tables, 2 fig

  3. Effect of high pressure pasteurization on bacterial load and bioactivity of Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Min; Hu, Chun; Raghubeer, Errol; Kitts, David D

    2010-09-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology was applied to organic Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea) roots and flowers to determine the feasibility of using this technology for cold herb pasteurization, to produce microbiologically safe and shelf-stable products for the natural health products (NHPs) industry. HHP significantly (P pasteurization process treatment to reduce microbial-contamination load while not adversely altering chemical and bioactive function of active constituents present in organic E. purpurea. Our study reports for the first time, the effectiveness of using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology pressure to pasteurize E. purpurea root and flower, and the comparative retention of bioactive phytochemicals. Therefore, this technique can be used in food and natural health product industries to produce high-quality, microbiologically safe, and shelf-stable products.

  4. PLC based automatic control of pasteurize mix in ice cream production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xudong; Liang, Kai

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the automatic control device of pasteurized mix in the ice cream production process.We design a scheme of control system using FBD program language and develop the programmer in the STEP 7-Micro/WIN software, check for any bugs before downloading into PLC .These developed devices will able to provide flexibility and accuracy to control the step of pasteurized mix. The operator just Input the duration and temperature of pasteurized mix through control panel. All the steps will finish automatically without any intervention in a preprogrammed sequence stored in programmable logic controller (PLC). With the help of this equipment we not only can control the quality of ice cream for various conditions, but also can simplify the production process. This control system is inexpensive and can be widely used in ice cream production industry.

  5. Stability of aspartame and neotame in pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anuradha; Choudhary, Sonika; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions were standardized along with the isolation procedure for separation of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk (pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk). The recovery of the method was approximately 98% for both aspartame and neotame. The proposed HPLC method can be successfully used for the routine determination of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk. Pasteurization (90 °C/20 min) resulted in approximately 40% loss of aspartame and only 8% of neotame was degraded. On storage (4-7°C/7 days) aspartame and neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame; however, 50.50% of neotame remained intact. During storage (30 °C/60 days) neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame in both pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization apllied to human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, F.G.; Rechtman, D.J.; Lee, M.L.; Hoeij, K. van; Berg, H.; Engelenberg, F.A.C. van; Wout, A.B. van 't

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, concerns over the transmission of infectious diseases have led to donor human milk generally being subjected to pasteurization prior to distribution and use. The standard method used by North American milk banks is Holder pasteurization (63°C for 30 minutes). The authors

  7. Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST) pasteurization applied to human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Fokke G.; Rechtman, David J.; Lee, M. J.; van Hoeij, Klaske; Berg, H.; Engelenburg, F. A. C.; van 't Wout, A. B.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, concerns over the transmission of infectious diseases have led to donor human milk generally being subjected to pasteurization prior to distribution and use. The standard method used by North American milk banks is Holder pasteurization (63 degrees C for 30 minutes). The

  8. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-03-01

    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Short communication: Influence of pasteurization on the active compounds in medicinal plants to be used in dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna Katharina; Saaby, Lasse; Kudsk, Dorte Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    Interest from the dairy industry in adding herbal drugs to milk and yogurt products raises the question of whether these plant materials can be pasteurized. Root material of Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Panax ginseng, all plants with adaptogenic activities, was pasteurized...

  10. Effect of Extraction, Pasteurization and Cold Storage on Flavonoids and other Secondary Metabolites in Fresh Orange Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have nutrients and phytonutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. To evaluate this, 'Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, r...

  11. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Duc Ninh Nguyen; de Waard, Marita

    2017-01-01

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants. Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward...

  12. Salmonella spp. isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg produce: thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by f...

  13. Comparative biomechanical study between fresh frozen bone and fresh frozen pasteurized bone process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdiansyah Abdurrahman

    1999-01-01

    To observe the biomechanical properties difference between fresh frozen bone and fresh frozen pasteurized bone process Thirty eight femurs bones taken from 6 years old primate.(macaca fascicularis) from Primate Nursery Center LIPI Bogor, 20 bones were 6 cm cut for bending test and 18 remains were 3 cm cut for compression test. All bones were frozen and then divided into two groups for each biomechanical study. First group (I 0 bones for bending test and 9 bones for compression test) were undergone fresh frozen procession only. The second group with the same amount was undergone fresh frozen and pasteurized on 60 degree C for three hours. Bending test was done until the bones were broken on control group and pasteurized group and the result was compared, the same procedure was done for compression test. The study was done in room temperature. The biomechanical test result was analyzed by two independent T tests. The bending test control group has ( mean 0.097 N / mm sup 2 (SD = 0.007) and the pasteurized group ( mean 0. I 0 1 N / mm sup 2 (SD = 0.0 1 3), there was no significant difference (p 0.399). The compression test control group has ( = mean 0.71 N / mm sup 2 (SD=0.128)where as the pasteurized group has(mean 0.50N/mm sup 2 (SD=0.111),there was significant difference (p =0.004) From the result biomechanical study on bending test, there was no significant difference of bone strength, whereas on compression test the fresh frozen with pasteurized bone group is 125% stronger than control group. The result of this study will be very useful for reconstruction bone allograft

  14. Measurement of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Cow Milk Samples by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afshin Nazari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazari A1, Noroozi H2, Movahedi M3, Khaksarian M1 1. Instructor, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Aflatoxin M1 is a hydroxylated form of aflatoxin B1 which is produced by Aspergillus flavus. This toxin is produced when cows or other ruminants eat foods contaminated with these mycotoxins and then excrete them in the milk. The toxin is a potent liver and kidney carcinogenetic agent. Materials and methods: Forty two raw cows milk samples from local sources of milk collection and forty samples of commercial pasteurized market milk from Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran were collected in summer and winter season of 2005. Twenty-one cow milk samples and 20 pasteurized milk samples in each season were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 by HPLC immunoaffinity columns. Results: Four of 21 raw milk samples in summer showed AFM1 levels between 0.017-0.046 ng/ml and all samples (100% in winter showed the presence of AFM1 levels between 0.003-0.041ng/ ml. AFM1 was detected in 55% of market pasteurized cow milk samples ranging from 0.017 to 0.533 ng/ml in summer and 100% ranging from 0.005-0.0054 ng/ml in winter.,Only one of all milk samples of pasteurized milk in summer had toxin level (0.533 ng/ml more than the maximum permissive limit (0.5 ng/ml. No significant difference was observed among mean contamination level of raw and pasteurized cow milk in two seasons. Key words: Aflatoxin M1, raw milk, pasteurized milk, Khoramabad, HPLC

  15. Proteolysis during ripening of Manchego cheese made from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk. Seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen; Nuñez, Manuel; Fernández-García, Estrella

    2005-08-01

    Changes in nitrogen compounds during ripening of 40 batches of Manchego cheese made from raw milk (24 batches) or pasteurized milk (16 batches) at five different dairies throughout the year were investigated. After ripening for six months, degradation of p-kappa- and beta-caseins was more intense in raw milk cheese and degradation of alpha(s2)-casein in pasteurized milk cheese. Milk pasteurization had no significant effect on breakdown of alpha(s1)-casein. Hydrophobic peptide content did not differ between raw and pasteurized milk cheese, whereas hydrophilic peptide content was higher in raw milk cheese. There were no significant differences between seasons for residual caseins, but hydrophobic peptides were at a higher level in cheese made in autumn and winter and hydrophilic peptides in cheese made in winter and spring. Raw milk cheese had a higher content of total free amino acids and of most individual free amino acids than pasteurized milk cheese. The relative percentages of the individual free amino acids were significantly different for raw milk and pasteurized milk cheeses. The relative percentages of Lys and lie increased, while those of Val, Leu and Phe decreased during ripening. There were also seasonal variations within the relative percentages of free amino acids. In raw milk cheeses, Asp and Cys were relatively more abundant in those made in autumn, Glu and Arg in cheeses made in winter, and Lys and Ile in cheeses made in spring and summer. Biogenic amines were detected only in raw milk cheese, with the highest levels of histamine, tryptamine and tyramine in cheeses made in spring, winter and spring, respectively.

  16. Substitution Of Chemical Preservatives in Pasteurization Juices by Some Natural Preservatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, H.A.; EI-Fouly, M.Z.; Zayed, M.N.; Harroun, B.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus showed high sensitivity to pasteurized temperature followed by Pseudomonas and then Debaryomyces. Thermal death time was 157.4 sec. for Staphylococcus, 208.0 sec. for pseudomonas and 224 see. for Debaryomyces at 90 GC. Combination between pasteurizing treatment (90 degree C for 30 sec) and nisin decreased nisin lethal dose of S. aureus from 250 μg/ml to 25 μg/ml while 200 μg/ml of nisin became sufficient to destroy Debaryomyces sp. and P. aeruginosa cells by combination. Combination of pasteurized temperature and different concentrations of citric acid decreased the lethal cone. of citric acid from 1 % to 0.1 % for S. aureus and from 2 % to 0.15 % for P.aeruginosa and from 4% to 3% for Debaryomyces sp. Also lactic acid when combined with pasteurized temperature decreased its lethal concentrations of from, 0.15%, 1.5% and 4.5% to 0.05%, 0.15% and 3% for S. aureus P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp respectively. The lethal concentration of cinnamon was reduced from 1.2, to 0.5 for S. aureus while 4%, and 2% of cinnamon were reduced to 0.6%( wt/v) for P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp., respectively when combined with pasteurized temperature. A concentration of d 200 μg/ml of Nisin when combined with pasteurized temperature (90 < lie for 60 sec.) and 2.0% of citric acid was effective to inhibit microbial growth for more than 90 days.

  17. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine

    OpenAIRE

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A.; O'Meara, Patrick F.; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M.; Deshusses, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65?75?C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets bui...

  18. Effects of environmental conditions on growth and survival of Salmonella in pasteurized whole egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Bisgaard, Magne; Hervé, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of three parameters (time, temperature and NaCl concentration) on survival and four parameters (temperature, NaCl and lysozyme concentrations and pH) on growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in pasteurized whole egg (PWE). Doehlert......Cl at a fixed heating time of 120s, while maximum growth rate was estimated at 25°C and 0% of NaCl. pH and lysozyme concentration were shown not to influence growth performance significantly in the range of values studied. Results inform industry of the optimal pasteurization and storage parameters for liquid...

  19. Output-Feedback Model Predictive Control of a Pasteurization Pilot Plant based on an LPV model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Pour, Fatemeh; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Puig, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a pasteurization pilot plant based on an LPV model. Since not all the states are measured, an observer is also designed, which allows implementing an output-feedback MPC scheme. However, the model of the plant is not completely observable when augmented with the disturbance models. In order to solve this problem, the following strategies are used: (i) the whole system is decoupled into two subsystems, (ii) an inner state-feedback controller is implemented into the MPC control scheme. A real-time example based on the pasteurization pilot plant is simulated as a case study for testing the behavior of the approaches.

  20. Barriers and promoters of home-based pasteurization of breastmilk among HIV-infected mothers in greater Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera; Leshabari, Sebalda; Arkfeld, Chaele; Singler, Jennifer; Dantzer, Emily; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Mashio, Clara; Maternowska, Catherine; Chantry, Caroline

    2013-06-01

    For the past decade, heat-treating breastmilk has been an infant feeding option recommended by the World Health Organization as a strategy to reduce vertical transmission. However, little is known about field experiences with it. Our primary objective was to explore the barriers and promoters of the implementation of breastmilk pasteurization, "flash-heating" (FH), in the real-world setting of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with participants in a home-based infant feeding counseling intervention in which FH was promoted after 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Additionally, three focus group discussions were conducted with peer counselors. Interviews were transcribed, translated, and coded independently using NVivo 8 software (QSR International). Data were analyzed using the socioecological framework. Information and support provided by peer counselors were the most important promoters of initiation and continuation of FH; this impacted individual-, interpersonal-, and institutional-level promoters of success. Other promoters included perceived successful breastmilk expression, infant health after initiation of FH, and the inability to pay for replacement milks. Stigma was the most important barrier and cut across all levels of the framework. Other barriers included doubt about the safety or importance of pasteurized breastmilk, difficulties with expressing milk (often attributed to poor diet), and competing responsibilities. The most common suggestion for improving the uptake and duration of FH was community education. Given the acknowledged role of breastmilk pasteurization in the prevention of vertical transmission, further implementation research is needed. A multilevel intervention addressing barriers to FH would likely improve uptake.

  1. Effect of high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization on milk containing low numbers of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, I R; Ball, H J; Rowe, M T

    1998-02-01

    The efficacy of high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization (72 degrees C/15 s) when low numbers (HTST pasteurization using laboratory pasteurizing units. Ten bovine strains of Myco. paratuberculosis were tested in triplicate. Culture in BACTEC Middlebrook 12B radiometric medium detected acid-fast survivors in 14.8% and 10% of HTST-pasteurized milk samples at the 10(3) and 10(2) cfu ml-1 inoculum levels, respectively, whereas conventional culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium containing mycobactin J detected acid-fast survivors in only 3.7% and 6.7% of the same milk samples. IS900-based PCR confirmed that these acid-fast survivors were Myco. paratuberculosis. No viable Myco. paratuberculosis were isolated from HTST-pasteurized milk initially containing either 10 cfu ml-1 or 10 cfu 50 ml-1.

  2. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  3. Can acceptable quality angel food cakes be made using pasteurized shell eggs? The effects of processing factors on functional properties of angel food cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to recent incidences of Salmonella contamination, the market for pasteurized shell eggs is rapidly growing. One objection to using pasteurized shell eggs is the belief that they will produce unacceptable baked product (e.g., angel food cakes). In the present study, shell eggs were pasteurized us...

  4. Mission Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The country's technological edge is receding, and the problem cannot be solved simply by flooding the workforce with more engineers and scientists. This comes as little surprise to administrators at the nation's community colleges. In 2007, the National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Science, and the Institute of Medicine responded to…

  5. Thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in milk using high-temperature, short-time pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Kozempel, M F; Konstance, R P; Gregg, D; Boettcher, S; Baxt, B; Rodriguez, L L

    2007-07-01

    Previous studies of laboratory simulation of high temperature, short time pasteurization (HTST) to eliminate foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in milk have shown that the virus is not completely inactivated at the legal pasteurization minimum (71.7 degrees C/15 s) but is inactivated in a flow apparatus at 148 degrees C with holding times of 2 to 3 s. It was the intent of this study to determine whether HTST pasteurization conducted in a continuous-flow pasteurizer that simulates commercial operation would enhance FMDV inactivation in milk. Cows were inoculated in the mammary gland with the field strain of FMDV (01/UK). Infected raw whole milk and 2% milk were then pasteurized using an Arm-field pilot-scale, continuous-flow HTST pasteurizer equipped with a plate-and-frame heat exchanger and a holding tube. The milk samples, containing FMDV at levels of up to 10(4) plaque-forming units/mL, were pasteurized at temperatures ranging from 72 to 95 degrees C at holding times of either 18.6 or 36 s. Pasteurization decreased virus infectivity by 4 log10 to undetectable levels in tissue culture. However, residual infectivity was still detectable for selected pasteurized milk samples, as shown by intramuscular and intradermal inoculation of milk into naïve steers. Although HTST pasteurization did not completely inactivate viral infectivity in whole and 2% milk, possibly because a fraction of the virus was protected by the milk fat and the casein proteins, it greatly reduced the risk of natural transmission of FMDV by milk.

  6. ACADEMIC MISSION - FROM AUTOCRACY TO BUREAUCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mission is generic expression of reason for the existence of an organization. Organizational mission ensure continuity of existence beyond the objectives and targets of activities. It is the expression of an organization's responsibilities towards the environment in which it belongs. As the organization grows and its activities or environmental conditions change, managers adapt their strategies, but stated mission will remain valid for a period of time or unchanged throughout the life of the organization. All managerial elements of the organization are aligned with stated mission, starting from the organization structure, management behavior or specific business processes. The focus of the mission of an higher education institution on a need or several integrated needs, on customers who manifest this need and on how they can be met, that really means defining of its strategic domanin, as a sphere of influence of the organization in their environment. In this sphere of influence, three components integrate on three levels of the mission: to establish needs; identify the customer type to which an organization adress and key competencies that differentiate it from the rest competitors. To that context identifies four specific forms of academic institutions starting from their mission and strategic area: autocratic academic institutions, meritocrate academic institutions, democratic academic institutions, bureaucrats academic institutions.

  7. The DEMETER Science Mission Centre

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lagoutte, D.; Brochot, J.; Y.; de Carvalho, D.; Elie, F.; Harivelo, F.; Hobara, Y.; Madrias, L.; Parrot, M.; Pincon, J. L.; Berthelier, J. J.; Peschard, D.; Seran, E.; Gangloff, M.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Lebreton, J. P.; Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Slominski, J.; Wronowski, R.; Barbier, S.; Bernard, P.; Gaboriaud, A.; Wallut, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2006), s. 428-440 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Mission Centre * Data processing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  8. The Spartan 1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruddace, Raymond G.; Fritz, G. G.; Shrewsberry, D. J.; Brandenstein, D. J.; Creighton, D. C.; Gutschewski, G.; Lucid, S. W.; Nagel, J. M.; Fabian, J. M.; Zimmerman, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first Spartan mission is documented. The Spartan program, an outgrowth of a joint Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) development effort, was instituted by NASA for launching autonomous, recoverable payloads from the space shuttle. These payloads have a precise pointing system and are intended to support a wide range of space-science observations and experiments. The first Spartan, carrying an NRL X-ray astronomy instrument, was launched by the orbiter Discovery (STS51G) on June 20, 1985 and recovered successfully 45 h later, on June 22. During this period, Spartan 1 conducted a preprogrammed series of observations of two X-ray sources: the Perseus cluster of galaxies and the center of our galaxy. The mission was successful from both on engineering and a scientific viewpoint. Only one problem was encountered, the attitude control system (ACS) shut down earlier than planned because of high attitude control system gas consumption. A preplanned emergency mode then placed Spartan 1 into a stable, safe condition and allowed a safe recovery. The events are described of the mission and presents X-ray maps of the two observed sources, which were produced from the flight data.

  9. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (2) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain...

  10. Microbial quality evaluation of pasteurized and sterilized marketing milks in Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Dobaradaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a valuable source of nutrients that microorganisms can grow in favorable conditions on it. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of pasteurized and sterilized marketing milks in Bushehr. Material and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the autumn and early winter 2011. In this study 11 brands including 6 pasteurized, 5 sterilized brands and in total 160 samples were elevauted. Microbial tests included heterotrophic bacteria (HPC, total coliform and Escherichia coli (E.coli were conducted according to standard methods. Results: results of this study showed that from 98 pasteurized samples, 35/7% and HPC and 15/2% of samples were contaminated by HPC and total coliform, respectively. There was no microbial contamination in all 62 sterilized samples. Mean heterotrophic bacteria in pasteurized milk was much more than Iranian national standard. Conclusion: In this research the relationship between heterotrophic and coliform bacterial growth with temperature and time variation between production date and sampling date (maintenance period were measured and the results showed that bacterial growth had direct and significant association with temperature but there was no statistically significant association with maintenance period.

  11. Effects of ultrasound energy density on the non-thermal pasteurization of chocolate milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sara H M C; Silva, Eric Keven; Alvarenga, Verônica O; Moraes, Jeremias; Freitas, Mônica Q; Silva, Márcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Meireles, M Angela A; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-04-01

    This study presents the emerging high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) processing as a non-thermal alternative to high-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST). Chocolate milk beverage (CMB) was subjected to different ultrasound energy densities (0.3-3.0 kJ/cm 3 ), as compared to HTST pasteurization (72 °C/15 s) aimed to verify the effect of the HIUS processing on the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of the beverage. The application of HIUS at an energy density of 3.0 kJ/cm 3 was able to reduce 3.56 ± 0.02 logarithmic cycles in the total aerobic counts. In addition, the ultrasound energy density affected the physical properties of the beverage as the size distribution of fat globule and rheological behavior, as well as the chemical properties such as antioxidant activity, ACE inhibitory activity, fatty acid profile, and volatile profile. In general, the different energetic densities used as a non-thermal method of pasteurization of CMB were more effective when compared to the conventional pasteurization by HTST, since they improved the microbiological and physicochemical quality, besides preserving the bioactive compounds and the nutritional quality of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of homogenization and pasteurization on the structure and thermal stability of whey protein in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a two-...

  13. Environmental assessment of alternative pasteurization technologies for fluid milk production using process simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluid milk processing (FMP) has significant environmental impact because of its high energy use. High temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization is the third most energy intensive operation comprising about 16% of total energy use, after clean-in-place operations and packaging. Nonthermal processe...

  14. Characterization of four Paenibacillus species isolated from pasteurized, chilled ready-to-eat meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, Mariette; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van Hermien

    2017-01-01

    Food spoilage is often caused by microorganisms. The predominant spoilage microorganisms of pasteurized, chilled ready-to-eat (RTE) mixed rice-vegetable meals stored at 7 °C were isolated and determined as Paenibacillus species. These sporeforming psychrotrophic bacteria are well adapted to grow

  15. Stability of color in Spanish-style green table olives pasteurized and stored in plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; López-López, Antonio; Beato, Víctor Manuel; de Castro, Antonio; Montaño, Alfredo

    2017-08-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of pasteurizable plastic packaging by the olive industry. In order to investigate the change from traditional glass or varnished can containers to plastic packaging, the proper plastic material that is compatible with fermented olives while maintaining color quality during pasteurization treatment and storage must be selected. This work is focused on color stability in two distinct pasteurizable plastic containers with different oxygen permeability. In PET + MDPE/EVOH (polyethylene terephthalate + medium-density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol) pouches, pasteurization provoked severe browning which drastically decreased their color shelf life ( 6.5 months). The plastic material had a significant effect on the retention of color of the pasteurized product. The use of AlOx-coated PET + MDPE pouches could be an alternative to traditional packaging for the pasteurization and storage of Spanish-style green olives from a color quality standpoint. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. 76 FR 49486 - Notification of Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for the Pasteur Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Health Regulations (2005) Implementation in Selected Countries in Sub- Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia...) surveillance. In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameroon has built a surveillance system and the Centre Pasteur of... preparedness and response in support of International Health Regulations (2005) implementation in Sub-Saharan...

  17. Legionella Persistence in Manufactured Water Systems: Pasteurization Potentially Selecting for Thermal Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Legionella is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen of increasing public health significance. Pasteurization, otherwise known as super-heat and flush (increasing water temperature to above 70°C and flushing all outlets, has been identified as an important mechanism for the disinfection of Legionella in manufactured water systems. However, several studies have reported that this procedure was ineffective at remediating water distribution systems as Legionella was able to maintain long term persistent contamination. Up to 25% of L. pneumophila cells survived heat treatment of 70°C, but all of these were in a viable but non-culturable state. This demonstrates the limitations of the culture method of Legionella detection currently used to evaluate disinfection protocols. In addition, it has been demonstrated that pasteurization and nutrient starvation can select for thermal tolerant strains, where L. pneumophila was consistently identified as having greater thermal tolerance compared to other Legionella species. This review demonstrates that further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of pasteurization as a disinfection method. In particular, it focuses on the potential for pasteurization to select for thermal tolerant L. pneumophila strains which, as the primary causative agent of Legionnaires disease, have greater public health significance compared to other Legionella species.

  18. Short communication: Recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from retail pasteurized whole milk in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, I A; Pietralonga, P A G; Schwarz, D G G; Faria, A C S; Moreira, M A S

    2012-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects all ruminants worldwide. Some researchers have indicated a possible role of MAP in Crohn's disease. Despite extensive research and large and important advances in the past few decades, the etiology of Crohn's disease remains indefinite. The most probable transmission route of MAP from animals to humans is milk and dairy products. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis has already been detected in milk samples worldwide, and some studies have reported that MAP is resistant to pasteurization. In Brazil, MAP has been reported in raw milk samples; however, Brazilian retail pasteurized milk has not yet been tested for viable MAP. The aim of this study was to investigate MAP in pasteurized milk in the region of Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Thirty-seven samples were collected and processed for culture of MAP. One colony similar to MAP was observed and confirmed by IS900-nested PCR and sequencing. Analysis revealed 97 to 99% identity with the MAP K-10 strain. This study is the first report of the presence of MAP in retail pasteurized whole milk in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of a pulsed electric field process to pasteurize strawberry puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive data acquisition method was developed to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during pulsed electric fields (PEF) processing. The novel validation method was evaluated in conjunction with developing a pasteurization PEF process for strawberry puree. Both buffered...

  20. Quality of Milk Pasteurized Produced By UD. Gading Mas During Storage in Refrigerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Eirry Sawitri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study pasteurized milk quality produced by UD. Gading Mas on pH, Acidity, alcohol test and TPC during 5 days storage in refrigerator. On first day showed that  weight mass 1,06 (w/w; fat content 2,00 (g/100g,  protein content 3,02  (g/100g, Zn 1,67 ppm, Cu<0,005 ppm, Pb 0,02 ppm,  As  0,0120 ppm, Hg< 0,0002 ppm, Sn 1,60 ppm dan Cd < 0,001 ppm and organoleptic test included color, flavor and taste were normal. Pasteurized milk characteristic during 5 days refrigeration for pH were 6,57;6,58;6,73;6,60 and 6,50 respectively. Acidity were 1,147 %, 0,145 %, 0,145%, 0,157 %, 0,156 % and 0,175  % respectively. TPC were 6,16 x 101, 1,2. 104; 3,15.104, 0,42.106 and 3,5.108 respectively. It concluded that pasteurized milk produced by UD Gading Mas fulfilled SNI quality standard based on weight mass, pH, acidity, fat, protein, heavy metal content, organoleptic test and TPC.   Keywords: pasteurized milk, quality, refrigerator

  1. 21 CFR 133.178 - Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods. 133.178 Section 133.178 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... karaya, gum tragacanth, carob bean gum, gelatin, algin (sodium alginate), propylene glycol alginate, guar...

  2. Effect of pasteurization on selected immune components of donated human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaschuk, J B; Unger, S; O'Connor, D L; Stone, D; Harvey, S; Clandinin, M T; Field, C J

    2011-09-01

    Pasteurized, donated milk is increasingly provided to preterm infants in the absence of mother's own milk. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pasteurization on the concentration of selected components in donated human breast milk. Donated milk from 34 mothers was pooled into 17 distinct batches (4 mothers per batch). Aliquots of each batch were then Holder pasteurized (62.5 °C for 30 min). Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IL-13 were measured in a multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), heparin-binding epidermal-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were measured by ELISA. Lipids were assessed by gas chromatography and gangliosides by the resorcinol-HCl reaction. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10 and HGF were significantly reduced by pasteurization (PPasteurization significantly reduced the concentration of several immunoactive compounds present in breast milk, but did not have an impact on others.

  3. Dielectric properties of almond shells in the development of radio frequency and microwave pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop pasteurization treatments based on radio frequency (RF) or microwave energy, dielectric properties of almond shells were determined using an open-ended coaxial-probe with an impedance analyzer over a frequency range of 10 to 1800 MHz. Both the dielectric constant and loss factor of almond...

  4. Effect of the processing steps on compositions of table olive since harvesting time to pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Nasim; Sahari, Mohammad A; Vanak, Zahra Piravi; Safafar, Hamed; Boland-nazar, Seyed A

    2013-08-01

    Weight, oil, fatty acids, tocopherol, polyphenol, and sterol properties of 5 olive cultivars (Zard, Fishomi, Ascolana, Amigdalolia, and Conservalia) during crude, lye treatment, washing, fermentation, and pasteurization steps were studied. Results showed: oil percent was higher and lower in Ascolana (crude step) and in Fishomi (pasteurization step), respectively; during processing steps, in all cultivars, oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids were higher; the highest changes in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were in fermentation step; the highest and the lowest ratios of ω3 / ω6 were in Ascolana (washing step) and in Zard (pasteurization step), respectively; the highest and the lowest tocopherol were in Amigdalolia and Fishomi, respectively, and major damage occurred in lye step; the highest and the lowest polyphenols were in Ascolana (crude step) and in Zard and Ascolana (pasteurization step), respectively; the major damage among cultivars occurred during lye step, in which the polyphenol reduced to 1/10 of first content; sterol did not undergo changes during steps. Reviewing of olive patents shows that many compositions of fruits such as oil quality, fatty acids, quantity and its fraction can be changed by alteration in cultivar and process.

  5. Effect of waste milk pasteurization on fecal shedding of Salmonella in pre-weaned calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if pasteurization of non-saleable waste milk influences fecal Salmonella concentrations, prevalence, or antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype of cultured isolates, 211 Holstein dairy calves were housed on a single commercial dairy in the southwestern United States and randomly allot...

  6. Stability of Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Breast Milk During Holder Pasteurization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voorn, Bibian; de Waard, Marita; Dijkstra, Lisette R.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Rotteveel, Joost; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Finken, Martijn J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on

  7. Rotating shell eggs immersed in hot water for the purpose of pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteurization of shell eggs for inactivation of Salmonella using hot water immersion can be used to improve their safety. The rotation of a shell egg immersed in hot water has previously been simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD); however, experimental data to verify the results do not ex...

  8. Hot water surface pasteurization for inactivating Salmonella on surfaces of mature green tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with the consumption of tomatoes contaminated with Salmonella. Commercial washing processes for tomatoes are limited in their ability to inactivate and/or remove this human pathogen. Our objective was to develop a hot water surface pasteurization pro...

  9. Inactivation of high-risk human papillomaviruses by Holder pasteurization: implications for donor human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Vallino, Marta; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico; Lembo, David

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported the detection of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) in human milk of a minority of lactating mothers. These findings raised safety concerns in the context of human donor milk banking given the potential risk of HPV transmission to recipient infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Holder pasteurization, a procedure currently in use in human donor milk banks for milk pasteurization, completely inactivates high-risk and low-risk HPV. HPV pseudoviruses (PsV) were generated, spiked into cell culture medium or donor human milk and subjected to thermal inactivation. HPV PsV infectivity and morphological integrity was analyzed by cell-based assay and by electron microscopy, respectively. The Holder pasteurization completely inactivated the infectivity of high-risk (types 16 and 18) and low-risk (type 6) HPV both in cell culture medium and in human milk causing PsV particle disassembly. The results presented here indicate that the Holder pasteurization is an efficient procedure to inactivate high-risk and low-risk HPV thus preventing the potential risk of their transmission through human donor milk.

  10. Quality evaluation of packaged acidified vegetables subjected to continuous microwave pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the use of 915 MHz continuous microwave processing with a rotation apparatus for pasteurization of acidified vegetable packages. Broccoli florets, and 1.2 cm cubes of broccoli stems, red bell pepper, and sweetpotato were pre-equilibrated to 1 g/100 g NaCl and 0.38 g/100 mL citric...

  11. The microbiological quality of pasteurized milk sold by automatic vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, A S; Tsiota, S; Pexara, A; Govaris, A

    2016-06-01

    The microbiological quality of pasteurized milk samples (n = 39) collected during 13 weekly intervals from three automatic vending machines (AVM) in Greece was investigated. Microbiological counts (total aerobic (TAC), total psychrotrophic (TPC), Enterobacteriaceae (EC), and psychrotrophic aerobic bacterial spore counts (PABSC)) were obtained at the time of sampling and at the end of shelf-life (3 days) after storage of the samples at 4 or 8°C. TAC were found to be below the 10(7 ) CFU ml(-1) limit of pasteurized milk spoilage both during sampling as well as when milk samples were stored at either storage temperature for 3 days. Enterobacteriaceae populations were below 1 CFU ml(-1) in 69·2% of the samples tested at the time of sampling, whereas the remaining samples contained low numbers, typically less than 10 CFU ml(-1) . All samples tested negative for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. Analogous microbiological data were also obtained by sampling and testing prepackaged, retail samples of pasteurized milk from two dairy companies in Greece (n = 26). From a microbiological standpoint, the data indicate that the AVM milk samples meet the quality standards of pasteurized milk. However, the prepackaged, retail milk samples yielded better results in terms of TAC, TPC and EC, compared to the AVM samples at the end of shelf-life. Recently, Greek dairy farmers organized in cooperatives launched the sale of pasteurized milk via AVM and this study reports on the microbiological quality of this product. The data show that AVM milk is sold at proper refrigeration temperatures and meets the quality standards of pasteurized milk throughout the manufacturer's specified shelf-life. However, based on the microbiological indicators tested, the keeping quality of the tested prepackaged, retail samples of pasteurized milk at the end of shelf-life upon storage under suboptimal refrigeration temperature (8°C) was better. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  12. Impact of high hydrostatic pressure and pasteurization on the structure and the extractability of bioactive compounds of persimmon “Rojo Brillante”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Carrión, M; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, J L; Hernando, I; Quiles, A

    2014-01-01

    Rojo Brillante is an astringent oriental persimmon variety with high levels of bioactive compounds such as soluble tannins, carotenoids, phenolic acids, and dietary fiber. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and pasteurization on the structure of the fruit and on the extractability of certain bioactive compounds. The microstructure was studied using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and certain physicochemical properties (carotenoid and total soluble tannin content, antioxidant activity, fiber content, color, and texture properties) were measured. The structural changes induced by HHP caused a rise in solute circulation in the tissues that could be responsible for the increased carotenoid level and the unchanged antioxidant activity in comparison with the untreated persimmon. In contrast, the changes that took place during pasteurization lowered the tannin content and antioxidant activity. Consequently, HHP treatment could improve the extraction of potentially bioactive compoundsxsts from persimmons. A high nutritional value ingredient to be used when formulating new functional foods could be obtained using HHP. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant coliform bacteria isolated from pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, S N; Martin, N H; Trmčić, A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2016-01-01

    The presence of coliform bacteria in pasteurized fluid milk typically indicates that product contamination occurred downstream of the pasteurizer, but it may also indicate pasteurization failure. Although coliform detection is frequently used as a hygiene indicator for dairy products, our understanding of the taxonomic and phenotypic coliform diversity associated with dairy products is surprisingly limited. Therefore, using Petrifilm Coliform Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), we isolated coliforms from high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk samples from 21 fluid milk processing plants in the northeast United States. Based on source information and initial characterization using partial 16S rDNA sequencing, 240 nonredundant isolates were obtained. The majority of these isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Enterobacter (42% of isolates), Hafnia (13%), Citrobacter (12%), Serratia (10%), and Raoultella (9%); additional isolates were classified into the genera Buttiauxella, Cedecea, Kluyvera, Leclercia, Pantoea, and Rahnella. A subset of 104 representative isolates was subsequently characterized phenotypically. Cold growth analysis in skim milk broth showed that all isolates displayed at least a 2-log increase over 10 d at 6°C; the majority of isolates (n=74) displayed more than a 5-log increase. In total, 43% of the representative isolates displayed lipolysis when incubated on spirit blue agar at 6°C for 14 d, whereas 71% of isolates displayed proteolysis when incubated on skim milk agar at 6°C for 14 d. Our data indicate that a considerable diversity of coliforms is found in HTST-pasteurized fluid milk and that a considerable proportion of these coliforms have phenotypic characteristics that will allow them to cause fluid milk spoilage. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ricotta Cheese Whey-Fruit-Based Beverages: Pasteurization Effects on Antioxidant Composition and Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rizzolo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to minimize the precipitate formation upon pasteurization for whey-fruit juice-based beverages, a novel type of functional beverage was prepared, in which whey was replaced with Ricotta-cheese whey (RCW. Aiming at evaluating the influence of fruit juice type (yellow: apple, pear; red: blueberry, strawberry and pasteurization conditions on color and antioxidants, four fruit-RCW-based beverages (juice/RCW ratio: 80/20, 14% soluble solids content were prepared and divided into two lots, and each lot was pasteurized according to different times/temperatures. After pasteurization, no formation of precipitate was observed in the bottles, even if some turbidity, ranging from 25 NTU (pear-RCW to 190 NTU (blueberry-RCW, was observed. The blending of juices with RCW caused color darkening in apple, pear, and strawberry blends, and brightening in the blueberry one. The pasteurization conditions had a greater impact on the color changes of ‘yellow’ beverages than those of the ‘red’ ones. With a lethal rate F 100 10 = 14 , there was a greater decrease in the total phenolic content (TPC in blueberry-, strawberry-, and apple-RCW beverages, and a greater decrease in the monomeric anthocyanin pigment (MAP and a smaller increase in the percent of polymeric color, in the blueberry-RCW beverage. Results on the antioxidant activity suggested that the Maillard reaction products formed in response to thermal treatment and/or the formation of anthocyanin polymers, likely compensate for the loss of antioxidant activity due to TPC and MAP degradations.

  15. Effect of High Intensity Ultrasound and Pasteurization on Anthocyanin Content in Strawberry Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dubrović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation is to study the influence of high intensity ultrasound and pasteurization on the stability of anthocyanins and their content in strawberry juice. Different ultrasound process parameters for the treatment of juices are compared to the classical thermal treatments. For ultrasound treatments, three parameters were varied according to the statistical experimental design. Central composite design was used to optimize and design experimental parameters: temperature (25, 40 and 55 °C, amplitude (60, 90 and 120 μm and time (3, 6, and 9 min. It was found that the anthocyanin content after pasteurization (85 °C for 2 min was reduced by 5.3 to 5.8 % compared to untreated juices. After treatment with ultrasound (20 °C for 3, 6 or 9 min or thermosonication (40 °C for 3, 6 or 9 min and 60 °C for 3 or 6 min, the degradation of anthocyanins was generally less intensive and was 0.7–4.4 % compared to the untreated juices. Only in the case of ultrasonic treatment at a temperature of 55 °C and treatment time of 9 min the total content of anthocyanins, compared to untreated juice, was reduced by 5.8 to 7.1 %, and their degradation was greater than that of pasteurized juices. From the results it can be concluded that total anthocyanin content was greater in more than 85 % of the selected ultrasound treatments compared to pasteurized juices. Ultrasound treatment can replace pasteurization in terms of preserving total anthocyanin content. The modelling approaches using response surface methodology (RSM developed in this study exploit data in order to identify the optimal processing parameters for lowering degradation of anthocyanins in strawberry juice during ultrasound processing.

  16. Effect of pasteurization on the decay of Mycobacterium bovis in milk cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia de Andrade Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk cream must be pasteurized in order to be sold in Brazil. However, there are no specific legal requirements for this product, and producers set their own pasteurization parameters using the ones approved for milk as a reference. Considering that fat protects bacteria from heat, that no thermal inactivation studies have been performed on Mycobacterium bovis present in cream, and that bovine tuberculosis is endemic in Brazil, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inactivation of M. bovis in milk cream subjected to commercial parameters of pasteurization. Milk cream samples were contaminated and pasteurized in a water bath at 75, 80, 85, and 90°C for 5 and 15 s. M. bovis cells were plated onto Stonebrink-Leslie medium, incubated at 36°C for 45 days, and quantified; the result was expressed in log CFU mL-1. The fat content of the samples ranged from 34% to 37% and the average initial load of M. bovis was 8.0 Log CFU mL-1. The average decay of the M. bovis populations was 4.0, 4.3, 4.9 and 6.7 log CFU mL-1 when the cream was incubated for 15 sec at 75, 80, 85 and 90°C, respectively, showing that the efficiency of the heat treatment was improved by increasing the temperature of the process. Given the lipophilic nature of M. bovis, the cream should be subjected to more intense parameters of pasteurization than those applied to milk.

  17. Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization applied to human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, Fokke G; Rechtman, David J; Lee, Martin L; Hoeij, Klaske Van; Berg, Hijlkeline; Van Engelenberg, Frank A C; Van't Wout, Angelica B

    2007-03-01

    In the United States, concerns over the transmission of infectious diseases have led to donor human milk generally being subjected to pasteurization prior to distribution and use. The standard method used by North American milk banks is Holder pasteurization (63 degrees C for 30 minutes). The authors undertook an experiment to validate the effects of a high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization process (72 degrees C for 16 seconds) on the bioburden of human milk. It was concluded that HTST is effective in the elimination of bacteria as well as of certain important pathogenic viruses.

  18. Influence of Different Light Sources, Illumination Intensities and Storage Times on the Vitamin C Content in Pasteurized Milk

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKMAKÇI, Songül; TURGUT, Tamer

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various light sources and illumination intensities on the destruction of vitamin C was determined during the storage of pasteurized milk. For this purpose, raw cow's milk was pasteurized at 72 oC for 15 s, and then stored in 2 different refrigerators (4 ± 1oC) illuminated by fluorescent and tungsten light (normal light) sources with intensities of 1100, 2400 and 5800 lux. As a control group, a pasteurized milk sample was stored at the same temperature under dark conditi...

  19. Multiple-pass high-pressure homogenization of milk for the development of pasteurization-like processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Espinosa, H; Amador-Espejo, G G; Barcenas-Pozos, M E; Angulo-Guerrero, J O; Garcia, H S; Welti-Chanes, J

    2013-02-01

    Multiple-pass ultrahigh pressure homogenization (UHPH) was used for reducing microbial population of both indigenous spoilage microflora in whole raw milk and a baroresistant pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) inoculated in whole sterile milk to define pasteurization-like processing conditions. Response surface methodology was followed and multiple response optimization of UHPH operating pressure (OP) (100, 175, 250 MPa) and number of passes (N) (1-5) was conducted through overlaid contour plot analysis. Increasing OP and N had a significant effect (P pasteurization. Multiple-pass UHPH optimized conditions might help in producing safe milk without the detrimental effects associated with thermal pasteurization. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. MISSION STATEMENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION: CONTEXT ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH AGENDA

    OpenAIRE

    Gordan Camelia; Pop Marius Dorel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the main issues that deal with higher education institutionsâ€(tm) mission statements, from a marketing perspective. It has long been argued in the literature that missions represent the foundation upon which institutions build their strategic plans, and that they should be the first step any institution takes before designing its strategy. Based on a review of the most recent literature in the field, the paper explains why missions appear as a relevant...

  1. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, V.; Samková, E.; Koubová, J.; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, J.; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 77-79 ISSN 1535-3141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-20684S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : stool specimens * consumption * risks * HACCP Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.120, year: 2016

  2. A review of the safety of cold pasteurization through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, L.M.; Ruff, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    of which have found that more radiolytic products are created when toasting bread or barbecuing steak than when applying low-dose irradiation.Several US government agencies have studied irradiation from an overall public safety standpoint - transport of materials and protection of plant workers. These tests and other independent research have concluded that workers and communities with food irradiation plants face no inherent risks of radioactive contamination either from the transport of materials or process of irradiation.An extensive review of science related to microbiological safety indicates that irradiation is an effective solution to the problem of microbial contamination. Under good manufacturing practices assuring proper handling of the product, irradiation eliminates harmful bacteria that can cause lethal food poisoning and food spoilage. Irradiation is endorsed as a food safety process by independent health organizations and regulatory agencies around the world.In spite of these conclusions, food irradiation is only being conducted on a commercial scale in a limited number of countries. However, there are more than 40 irradiation plants in operation today in the USA, all of which are dedicated to sterilization of certain industrial products and medical supplies like implants, intravenous fluids, instruments, gloves, bandages, gowns, sutures and drugs. There is only one commercial food irradiation plant operating in the USA.The slow growth of food irradiation processing in this country is attributable to several factors related to consumer perceptions. Studies and newspaper articles make note of the fact that many of the arguments used against food irradiation are very similar to those used against pasteurization when it was introduced as a milk processing method 100 years ago. Anti-irradiation groups today have been effective at generating negative publicity against producers and retailers who have considered producing or selling irradiated foods. To some

  3. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  4. Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide pasteurization on natural microbiota, texture, and microstructure of fresh-cut coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Balzan, Sara; Dorigato, Andrea; Pegoretti, Alessandro; Spilimbergo, Sara

    2012-05-01

    The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the effectiveness of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) as a nonthermal technology for the pasteurization of fresh-cut coconut, as an example of ready-to-eat and minimally processed food. First, the inactivation kinetics of microbiota on coconut were determined using SC-CO(2) treatments (pressures at 8 and 12 MPa, temperatures from 24 to 45 °C, treatment times from 5 to 60 min). Second, the effects of SC-CO(2) on the hardness and microstructure of fresh-cut coconut processed at the optimal conditions for microbial reduction were investigated. SC-CO(2) treatment of 15 min at 45 °C and 12 MPa induced 4 log CFU/g reductions of mesophilic microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria, total coliforms, and yeasts and molds. The hardness of coconut was not affected by the treatment but the samples developed an irregular and disorderly microstructure. Results suggested the potential of SC-CO(2) in preserving fresh-cut fruits and ready-to-eat products. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Effects of mineral and vitamin supplementation to pasteurized whole milk diets on growth and health of preruminant Holstein bull calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine whether supplementation of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM), formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements when added to pasteurized whole milk (PWM), increases challenge resolution and prevents intestinal macromolecular permeability after injection with bacterial lip...

  6. The effect of UV-C pasteurization on bacteriostatic properties and immunological proteins of donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2013-01-01

    Human milk possesses bacteriostatic properties, largely due to the presence of immunological proteins. Heat treatments such as Holder pasteurization reduce the concentration of immunological proteins in human milk and consequently increase the bacterial growth rate. This study investigated the bacterial growth rate and the immunological protein concentration of ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiated, Holder pasteurized and untreated human milk. Samples (n=10) of untreated, Holder pasteurized and UV-C irradiated human milk were inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus and the growth rate over 2 hours incubation time at 37°C was observed. Additionally, the concentration of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme of untreated and treated human milk was analyzed. The bacterial growth rate of untreated and UV-C irradiated human milk was not significantly different. The bacterial growth rate of Holder pasteurized human milk was double compared to untreated human milk (ppasteurization, resulting in bacteriostatic properties similar to those of untreated human milk.

  7. DEVELOPMENT A METHOD OF IR PASTEURIZATION OF MILK AND COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF THE RESULTING PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Babenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the question of the relevance of IR pasteurization, a method, and comprehensive assess-ment of the quality of the product in small food enterprises and dairy and cattle farms.

  8. Pasteurization: A reliable method for preservation of nutrient in seawater samples for inter-laboratory and field applications

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Anne; Kerouel, Roger; Aminot, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Following previous work, the production of reference material for nutrients in seawater, using pasteurization as a preservation method, was carried out seven times between 2006 and 2010 in the framework of inter-laboratory exercises. The preparation of samples from natural seawater allowed to become depleted in nutrients then spiked, bottled and pasteurized, is described. Five main nutrients are involved in this study: ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate. Bottles are in glass f...

  9. Colorado Water Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Water Institute Colorado State University header HomeMission StatementGRAD592NewslettersPublications/ReportsCSU Water ExpertsFunding OpportunitiesScholarshipsSubscribeEmploymentAdvisory BoardStaffContact UsCommentsLinks Water Center Logo Water Resources Archive Office of Engagement Ag Water

  10. Comparison of bioactive components in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices fortified with encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-06-01

    In this study, longan juice was subjected to a high pressure of 500 MPa for 30 min and compared with a juice pasteurized at 90°C/2 min. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 was fortified into both juices and the shelf life of these products was studied. Their bioactive components such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic compounds and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrythydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined by colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. It was found that the pressurized longan juice retained higher amounts of bioactive compounds than the pasteurized juice. In terms of storage stability, bioactive compounds in both processed juices decreased according to the increase in storage time. The survivability of probiotic L. casei 01 in both processed juices declined from 9 to 6 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage.

  11. Thermoluminescence analysis can identify irradiated ingredient in soy sauce before and after pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Akram, Kashif; Jo, Yunhee; Baek, Ji-Yeong; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was conducted to identify small quantities (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) of γ ray-or electron beam-irradiated garlic powder in a soy sauce after commercial pasteurization. The sauce samples with γ ray- and electron beam-irradiated (0, 1 or 10 kGy) garlic powder showed detectable TL glow curves, characterized by radiation-induced maximum in the temperature range of 180-225 °C. The successful identification of soy sauces with an irradiation history was dependent on both the mixing ratio of the irradiated ingredient and the irradiation dose. Post-irradiation pasteurization (85 °C, 30 min) caused no considerable changes in TL glow shape or intensity. Interlaboratory tests demonstrated that the shape and intensity of the first TL glow curve (TL1) could be a better detection marker than a TL ratio (TL1/TL2).

  12. Inhibition of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) in apple juices and its resistance to pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity of the bacterial toxin Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 strains. Studies with immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that Stx2 activity was restored when removed from the apple juice. SDS gel electrophoresis revealed no difference (P pasteurize apple juice, but lost all activity when exposed to 100 degrees C for 5 min. The results suggest that pasteurization of apple juice used to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 has no effect on Stx2, and that food-compatible and safe antitoxin compounds can be used to inhibit the biological activity of the Shiga toxin.

  13. Increasing the terms of storing of pasteurized meat cans by means of gamma-beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, N.; Jotov, I.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a study to establish the feasibility of storing canned meat at room temperature after combined treatment first with heat and then with low doses of gamma rays, are reported. It was found that the total counts of aerobic microorganisms in irradiated samples at any stage of the study did not exceed the levels allowed by the existing standards for pasteurized canned foods; the characteristics of the products corresponded to those of high-grade foods throughout the study period; the combined treatment by heat (F=0.26) and radiation (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 Mrad) enabled pasteurized canned products to be stored up to one year at room temperature; the most suitable dose, from organoleptic, microbiological, and physicochemical viewpoints, was 0.4 Mrad. (E.T.)

  14. Effect of pasteurization on the protein composition and oxidative stability of beer during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Hoff, Signe; Berner, Torben S; Lametsch, René; Andersen, Mogens L

    2012-12-19

    The impacts of pasteurization of a lager beer on protein composition and the oxidative stability were studied during storage at 22 °C for 426 days in the dark. Pasteurization clearly improved the oxidative stability of beer determined by ESR spectroscopy, whereas it had a minor negative effect on the volatile profile by increasing volatile compounds that is generally associated with heat treatment and a loss of fruity ester aroma. A faster rate of radical formation in unpasteurized beer was consistent with a faster consumption of sulfite. Beer proteins in the unpasteurized beer were more degraded, most likely due to proteolytic enzyme activity of yeast remnants and more precipitation of proteins was also observed. The differences in soluble protein content and composition are suggested to result in differences in the contents of prooxidative metals as a consequence of the proteins ability to bind metals. This also contributes to the differences in oxidative stabilities of the beers.

  15. An overview of water disinfection in developing countries and the potential for solar thermal water pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study originated within the Solar Buildings Program at the U.S. Department of Energy. Its goal is to assess the potential for solar thermal water disinfection in developing countries. In order to assess solar thermal potential, the alternatives must be clearly understood and compared. The objectives of the study are to: (a) characterize the developing world disinfection needs and market; (b) identify competing technologies, both traditional and emerging; (c) analyze and characterize solar thermal pasteurization; (d) compare technologies on cost-effectiveness and appropriateness; and (e) identify research opportunities. Natural consequences of the study beyond these objectives include a broad knowledge of water disinfection problems and technologies, introduction of solar thermal pasteurization technologies to a broad audience, and general identification of disinfection opportunities for renewable technologies.

  16. Executive Summary - Our mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej im. Henryka Niewodniczanskiego, IFJ PAN) is currently the largest research institution of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk). The research activity of the Academy is financed mainly from the State budget via the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The mission of IFJ PAN is stated in its Charter. According to Paragraphs 5, 6, and 7 of the 2004 Charter, the Institute's duty is to carry out research activities in the following areas: 1. High energy and elementary particle physics (including astrophysics), 2. Nuclear physics and strong interaction, 3. Condensed matter physics, 4. Interdisciplinary research, in particular: in radiation and environmental biology, environmental physics, medical physics, dosimetry, nuclear geophysics, radiochemistry and material engineering. The main tasks of the Institute are: 1. To perform research in the above disciplines, 2. To promote the development of scientists and of specialists qualified to carry out research in these disciplines, 3. To organize a Post-Graduate Study Course, 4. To permit, through agreements with national and foreign research institutions, external scholars to train and gain academic qualifications in the Institute's laboratories, 5. To collaborate with national and local authorities in providing them with expertise in the Institute's research topics, especially concerning radiation protection. These tasks are fulfilled by: 1. Performing individual and coordinated research through individual and collective research grant projects, 2. Initiating and maintaining cooperation with laboratories, organizations and institutions performing similar activities, in Poland and abroad, 3. Conferring scientific degrees and titles, 4. Distributing research results obtained, through peer-reviewed publications and other public media, 5. Organizing scientific meetings, conferences, symposia, training workshops, etc

  17. Development of High Temperature Short Time Vertebrate-Blood Pasteurization Equipment for Tsetse Fly Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moravek, I; Lach, J [Department of Manufacturing Systems, Slovak Technical University Namestie Slobody 17 812 31 Bratislava (Slovakia); Takac, P [Institute of Zoology, SAV, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    Tsetse flies feed only on vertebrate blood, but the collection and processing of blood is expensive, it must be stored at -20{sup o}C requiring costly storage rooms and reliable electricity, and it must be irradiated to reduce bacterial contamination. This is tolerable for small colonies, but as colony size increases to service large- scale programmes, the supply and processing of blood becomes critical. Blood is normally collected from cattle at slaughter. This process is necessarily not aseptic, and large-scale collection is only possible where the animals are suspended for bleeding. One alternative to blood decontamination is using the High Temperature Short time Pasteurization (HTST) method. The food processing industry uses pasteurization to reduce bacterial load in a wide range of products. Our previous results indicated that for the control of the blood pasteurization process, to reach satisfactory bacteriological purity and at the same time to prevent the blood from coagulating, it is important to study temperature and time and also some other parameters that could predict blood coagulation. Crucial for blood coagulation is to study blood viscosity. Classical heat exchangers are not suitable for blood pasteurization. In such equipment the blood coagulation depends on temperature and time. Besides the relatively low temperatures, blood is coagulating with cumulative time until total shutdown of blood flow. After a series of experiments we found a solution using microwave systems. To verify the microwave heating concept, we built an experimental workstation. First we verified the accuracy of the applicator design from the aspect of output adaptation to the power source. Also we installed measuring equipment. This system complies with the requirements of quick heating with sufficiently high heat accumulation. By utilizing standard components for the base of the microwave generator, it is possible to markedly reduce the final price of the equipment. (author)

  18. Rheological and sensory behaviors of parboiled pasta cooked using a microwave pasteurization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Helen S; Jones, Kari E; Rasco, Barbara A

    2017-10-01

    Pasta hydration and cooking requirements make in-package microwave pasteurization of pasta a processing challenge. The objective of this study was to assess instrumental and sensory attributes of microwave-treated pasta in comparison to conventionally cooked pasta. Fettuccine pasta was parboiled for 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 min, pasteurized by microwaves at 915 MHz, then stored under refrigeration for 1 week. Pastas were evaluated by a trained sensory panel and with rheometry. Total pasta heat treatment affected both rheological and sensory behaviors; these differences were attributed to ultrastructure differences. Significant nonlinear behavior and dominant fluid-like behavior was observed in all pastas at strains >1%. Sensory results suggested microwave pasteurization may intensify the attributes associated with the aging of pasta such as retrogradation. A clear trend between magnitude of heat treatment and attribute intensity was not observed for all sensory attributes tested. The microwave pasta with the longest parboil time showed rheological behavior most similar to conventionally cooked pasta. Principal component analysis revealed that no microwave-treated pasta was similar to the control pasta. However, pasta parboiled for 9 min before microwave treatment had the greatest number of similar sensory attributes, followed by pasta parboiled for 6 or 12 min. Further study is needed to determine overall consumer acceptance of microwave-treated pasta and whether the differences in sensory and rheological behavior would impact consumer liking. The results of this study may be applied to optimize microwave pasteurization processes for cooked pasta and similar products, such as rice. The measurement and analysis procedures can be used to evaluate processing effects on a variety of different foods to determine overall palatability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Utilization of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent for pasteurized palm sap (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naknean, Phisut; Jutasukosol, Keawta; Mankit, Theerarat

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential of chitosan for improvement the quality of pasteurized palm sap during storage. First, the effect of chitosan content on sensory attributes was investigated to select suitable concentration of chitosan for further study. Fresh palm sap was enriched with chitosan at various concentrations (0-2 g/L) and pasteurized at 80 °C for 10 min, consequently evaluated by consumers. It was found that samples added chitosan in the range of 0-1.00 g/L were considered acceptable. Thus, the addition chitosan in the concentration of 0-1.00 g/L was chosen for further study. The sample without chitosan addition was used as a control sample. Each selected sample was determined for their qualities during storage at 1 week interval. It was found that lightness and transmittance values of all samples tended to increase during storage. Lower PPO and invertase activity were observed in all chitosan-treated samples compared to control sample. Chitosan could minimize the loss of sucrose and the increase in glucose and fructose content during storage. In addition, an increase in chitosan concentration resulted in the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the addition of chitosan could retard the development of microorganism during storage as demonstrated by lower microbial loads compared to control sample. It can be concluded that a combination of pasteurization with chitosan addition (0.50 g/L) and low temperature storage could preserve palm sap for approximately 6 weeks. Thus, the incorporation of chitosan in palm sap could be used as an alternative way to extend shelf life of pasteurized palm sap.

  20. Microbiological quality of retail cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Rhoades, J R; Sagoo, S K; Harris, J; Greenwood, M; Mithani, V; Grant, K; McLauchlin, J

    2008-04-01

    Two studies of retail fresh, ripened and semi-hard cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk were undertaken in the UK during 2004 and 2005 to determine the microbiological quality of these products. Using microbiological criteria in European Commission Recommendations 2004/24/EC and 2005/175/EC, 2% of both raw, thermized (37/1819 samples) and pasteurized (51/2618 samples) milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to levels of Staphylococcus aureus at 10(4)cfu g(-1), Escherichia coli at 10(5)cfu g(-1), and/or Listeria monocytogenes at 10(2)cfu g(-1), whereas pasteurized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to S. aureus at 10(3)cfu g(-1) and/or E. coli at 10(3)cfu g(-1). Salmonella was not detected in any samples. Cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality more frequently when sampled from premises rated as having little or no confidence in management and control systems, and stored/displayed at above 8 degrees C. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were also more likely to be of unsatisfactory quality when they were unripened types, and pasteurized milk cheeses when they were: semi-hard types; from specialist cheese shops or delicatessens; cut to order. These results emphasize the need for applying and maintaining good hygiene practices throughout the food chain to prevent contamination and/or bacterial growth. Labelling of cheeses with clear information on whether the cheese was prepared from raw milk also requires improvement.

  1. [About two unpublished autographs of Louis Pasteur belonging to the Academie national de pharmacie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, J

    1997-01-01

    Two unpublished autographs of Louis Pasteur, dated respectively november 26th 1853 and december 22nd 1853 in Strasbourg, were found in unclassified archives of the Academie nationale de pharmacie - Paris. They are described in the paper. They are related to the prize of F 1500 given to him by the Societe de pharmacie, the previous name of the Academy. This award concerned his famous studies on the racemic or paratartric acid.

  2. Influence of Prolonged Storage Process, Pasteurization, and Heat Treatment on Biologically-active Human Milk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Chin Chang

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status.

  3. Influence of prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment on biologically-active human milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jih-Chin; Chen, Chao-Huei; Fang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Teh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive proteins in human milk may be influenced by prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these procedures. Three forms of human milk - freshly expressed, frozen at -20°C for a prolonged duration, and pasteurized milk - were collected from 14 healthy lactating mothers and a milk bank. The concentrations of major bioactive proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and leptin) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Changes in these proteins by heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C for 30 minutes were further evaluated. The mean concentrations of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A were significantly reduced by 66% and 25.9%, respectively, in pasteurized milk compared with those in freshly-expressed milk. Heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C did not cause significant changes in lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A, but there was an apparent increase in lysozyme (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in leptin level among these three forms of milk prior to (p = 0.153) or after heat treatment (p = 0.053). Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Iodine in raw and pasteurized milk of dairy cows fed different amounts of potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzian, M A

    2011-02-01

    Relation between iodine (I) intake by lactating Holstein cows and iodine concentrations in raw and pasteurized milk were investigated. Four treatment groups with eight cows assigned to each treatment were fed a basal diet containing 0.534 mg I/kg alone or supplemented with potassium iodide at 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg in 7-week period. Iodine concentrations in raw milk increased with each increase in dietary I from 162.2 ng/ml for basal diet to 534.5, 559.8 and 607.5 ng/ml when 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg was fed as potassium iodide (P HTST) pasteurization process reduced I concentration. The mean iodine content found in the milk prior to heating processing was 466.0 ± 205.0 ng/ml, whereas for the processed milk this level was 349.5 ± 172.8 ng/ml. It was concluded that iodine supplementation above of NRC recommendation (0.5 mg/kg diet DM) resulted in significant increases in iodine concentrations in milk, although the effect of heating in HTST pasteurization process on iodine concentration was not negligible.

  5. Thermoluminescence analysis can identify irradiated ingredient in soy sauce before and after pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Akram, Kashif; Jo, Yunhee; Baek, Ji-Yeong; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was conducted to identify small quantities (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) of γ ray-or electron beam-irradiated garlic powder in a soy sauce after commercial pasteurization. The sauce samples with γ ray- and electron beam-irradiated (0, 1 or 10 kGy) garlic powder showed detectable TL glow curves, characterized by radiation-induced maximum in the temperature range of 180–225 °C. The successful identification of soy sauces with an irradiation history was dependent on both the mixing ratio of the irradiated ingredient and the irradiation dose. Post-irradiation pasteurization (85 °C, 30 min) caused no considerable changes in TL glow shape or intensity. Interlaboratory tests demonstrated that the shape and intensity of the first TL glow curve (TL1) could be a better detection marker than a TL ratio (TL1/TL2). - Highlights: • Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics were studied to identify irradiated ingredient in soy sauce. • TL emission was found to be dependent on irradiation doses and blending ratios of the ingredients. • TL technique was found to be successful in detecting irradiation status even after pasteurization. • Inter-laboratory trial gave a clear verdict on irradiation detection potential of TL technique.

  6. [Microbiological and physicochemical evaluation of pasteurized beverages fortified with orange deodorized residues extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Alvarez, Mario José; Machado, Alexandra; Padrón, Arelis; García, David; Belén Camacho, Douglas Rafael

    2004-09-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical parameters of pasteurized beverages conditioned with aqueous extracts from orange deodorized residues were evaluated. The fruits used were selected according to following criterion: homogenous maturity, without physical damage and absence of apparent chlorophyll. Orange peels were dried and transformed to flour. The juice was evaluated by means of these parameters: pH 3.90, degrees Brix 10, titrable acidity 0.33 g of citric acid/100 mL and total carotenoids 0.0078 mg/mL. Volatil compounds of the flour that may to cause bitterness were separated by means of two methods of deodorization: distillation in current of vapor and in autoclave to 121 degrees C; then, the flour was extracted with water (relation 1:50 p/v). Pasteurized citric beverages (orange juice) were elaborated adding the deodorized extracts. pH, degrees Brix, titrable acidity and total carotenoids showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Microbiological results were according to pasteurized products. Sensorial analysis by untrained panel showed no signiificant differences. In conclusion, the deodorant processes were effectives and permitted the inclusion of aquasoluble compounds as flavonoids with antioxidant activity.

  7. Evolution of microbiological and physico-chemical quality of pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gonzaga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is defined, among other parameters, by a reduced number of spoilage microorganisms, low somatic cell count and the absence of pathogens and chemical waste. Several studies conducted in different regions of the country have emphasized the high percentage of samples not complying with the standard. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolution of microbiological and physicochemical quality of pasteurized milk produced in the State of Paraná over 7 years. A total of 457 samples of pasteurized milk were analyzed, 104 samples in 2008, 269 samples in 2011 and 84 samples in 2014. The samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis of cryoscopy and enzyme search for alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase. Regarding microbiological tests, coliform counts were performed at 30°C and 45°C and count plate pattern. In the laboratory, physicochemical analysis were performed according to the Normative 68 and microbiological as normative instruction 62, both of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The results showed that over the years the microbiological quality of milk decreased, with an increase of non-standard samples. For enzymes alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, the pasteurization temperature has been observed over time and the overheating of the milk was more frequent in 2011. Fraud by addition of water in milk has either decreased or become more sophisticated, making its detection difficult.

  8. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in raw and commercial pasteurized milk in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Hossein; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Moradi, Mehran

    2007-11-15

    During the years 2005 and 2006, samples of raw and of pasteurized milk (72 samples each) were collected randomly from various parts of Urmia city in Iran for the detection of aflatoxin M1. Aflatoxin M1 levels were assessed by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). There was a high incidence of AFM1 (100%), in both raw and pasteurized milk samples. The AFM1 levels in 6.25% of samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by European Union (50 ng L(-1)), while the observed mean ofAFM1 was lower than those proposed for European diets. Maximum level ofAFM1 in raw and pasteurized samples were 91.8 and 28.5 ng L(-1), while minimum levels were 4.3 and 5.1 ng L(-1), respectively. The levels ofAFM1 in total samples indicated that feeds for cows in this region were contaminated with AFB1 in such a level that appears to be a serious public health problem at the moment. Therefore, there is a need to limit exposure to aflatoxins by imposing regulatory limits.

  9. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling of Bacillus cereus distribution in pasteurized milk at the time of consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Valík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Modelling of Bacillus cereus distribution, using data from pasteurized milk produced in Slovakia, at the time of consumption was performed in this study. The Modular Process Risk Model (MPRM methodology was applied to over all the consecutive steps in the food chain. The main factors involved in the risk of being exposed to unacceptable levels of B. cereus (model output were the initial density of B. cereus after milk pasteurization, storage temperatures and times (model input. Monte Carlo simulations were used for probability calculation of B. cereus density. By applying the sensitivity analysis influence of the input factors and their threshold values on the final count of B. cereus were determined. The results of the general case exposure assessment indicated that almost 14 % of Tetra Brik cartons can contain > 104 cfu/ml of B. cereus at the temperature distribution taken into account and time of pasteurized milk consumption. doi:10.5219/264

  11. Isolation and serological identification of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pasteurized milk in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraide N da Silva

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of pasteurized milk commercialized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and determine serologically enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC strains in E. coli isolates obtained from milk samples. METHODS: Ninety samples of pasteurized milk -- types B and C -- of three different commercial brands, purchased in supermarkets and bakeries in Rio de Janeiro, were examined. The amount of total and fecal coliform bacteria was estimated using the Most Probable Number technique. Mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and thermoduric microorganism counts were determined by the Standard Plate Count technique. Isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using conventional physiological tests. Commercial antisera were used for serological characterization of EPEC. RESULTS: The three milk brands analyzed revealed bacterial counts above the regulated values of the Brazilian government. It was found that among 208 strains of E. coli isolated, 46 (22.1% were serologically classified as EPEC. The most common EPEC serogroup was O55 (15.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Though recent studies on virulence factors indicate that not all strains serologically classified as EPEC are able to attaching/effacing lesion, it is believed that the isolation of EPEC serogroups from pasteurized milk represent a potential risk for children, as well as an indicative of the presence of other enteropathogens.

  12. Viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of purple-rice drinks following ultrahigh pressure and pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worametrachanon, Srivilai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how pressure (500, 600 MPa/20 min) altered the viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of germinated and non-germinated purple-rice drinks in comparison with pasteurization. Accordingly, color parameters, storage and loss moduli, anthocyanin content, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic compounds and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylthydrazyl (DPPH) capacity of the processed drinks were determined. The finding showed that germinated and pressurized rice drink had lower Browning Index than the non-germinated and pasteurized rice drink. The plots of storage and loss moduli for processed rice drinks indicated that time of pressurization had greater impact on gel structural modification than the level of pressure used. The phytochemicals, including total phenolics, and DPPH capacity in pressurized rice drinks retained higher quantity than those in pasteurized drink, despite less treatment effects on anthocyanin. On the contrary, both γ-oryzanol and GABA were found in high amounts in germinated rice drink with little variation among processing effects.

  13. Influence of acidification, pasteurization, centrifugation and storage time and temperature on watermelon juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Aguayo, Encarna

    2013-12-01

    Watermelon juice has gained increasing popularity among consumers as a rich natural source of functional compounds such as lycopene and citrulline. However, the final quality of the juice depends significantly on its acidification, pasteurization, centrifugation and storage time and temperature. In this study, these characteristics were assessed in watermelon juice pasteurized at 87.7 °C for 20 s and stored for up to 30 days at 4 or 8 °C. The acidifier citric acid provided an adequate sensory quality, similar to natural watermelon juice. Centrifugation and pasteurization significantly reduced the red color, bioactive compounds (lycopene, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols) and sensory quality of the juice, particularly when the storage time was extended and a temperature of 8 °C was used (P ≤ 0.05). All treated juices were microbiologically safe for up to 30 days when stored at 4 or 8 °C. In terms of sensory acceptability, only non-centrifuged juices stored for up to 20 days at 4 °C remained above the commercial limit. The present results suggest that using a non-centrifugation process and a storage temperature of 4 °C yields a watermelon juice that better retains its sensory and functional qualities. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. EFFECT OF PASTEURIZATION TEMPERATURE AND ASEPTIC FILLING ON THE SHELF-LIFE OF MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues PETRUS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aseptic filling process can contribute to extend the shelf-life of pasteurized milk. However, this technology is not still commercially practiced in Brazil for this product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pasteurization temperature and aseptic filling on the stability of milk packaged in high density polyethylene bottle (HDPE. Three batches of one hundred bottles each were processed at 72, 83, and 94ºC/15s, followed by aseptic packaging and storage at 9ºC, simulating a deficient cold chain scenario as found in the Brazilian market. Microbiological stability evaluation was based on mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts. Sensory shelf-life was estimated according to the ratings assigned to the attributes appearance, aroma, flavor and overall appreciation of milk samples. The pasteurization temperature, in the range investigated, did not affect the shelf-life of milk, which lasted up to 11 days for the three processed batches. The aseptic filling, associated to the employed thermal treatments, did not extend the shelf-life of milk stored under the abuse condition of 9°C, considering that the commercial product shelf-life in Brazil is of about 10 days.

  15. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  16. Evaluation of the alpha-amylase activity as an indicator of pasteurization efficiency and microbiological quality of liquid whole eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Resende da; Menezes, Liliane Denize Miranda; Lanza, Isabela Pereira; Oliveira, Daniela Duarte de; Silva, Carla Aparecida; Klein, Roger Wilker Tavares; Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio de; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2017-09-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of the pasteurization process in liquid whole eggs, an UV/visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the assessment of alpha-amylase activity. Samples were collected from 30 lots of raw eggs (n = 30) and divided into three groups: one was reserved for analysis of the raw eggs, the second group was pasteurized at 61.1°C for 3.5 minutes (n = 30), and the third group was pasteurized at 64.4°C for 2.5 minutes (n = 30). In addition to assessing alpha-amylase activity, the microbiological quality of the samples was also evaluated by counting total and thermotolerant coliforms, mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, Staphylococcus spp., and Salmonella spp. The validated spectrophotometric method demonstrated linearity, with a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.99, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.48 mg kg-1 and 1.16 mg kg-1, respectively, and acceptable precision and accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of less than 10% and recovery rates between 98.81% and 105.40%. The results for alpha-amylase activity in the raw egg samples showed high enzyme activity due to near-complete hydrolysis of the starch, while in the eggs pasteurized at 61.1°C, partial inactivation of the enzyme was observed. In the samples of whole eggs pasteurized at 64.4°C, starch hydrolysis did not occur due to enzyme inactivation. The results of the microbiological analyses showed a decrease (P pasteurized egg samples according to the two binomials under investigation, compared to the raw egg samples, which showed high rates of contamination (P pasteurization, only one sample (3.33%) was positive for Salmonella spp., indicating failure in the pasteurization process, which was confirmed by the alpha-amylase test. It was concluded that the validated methodology for testing alpha-amylase activity is adequate for assessing the efficiency of the pasteurization process, and that the time

  17. Effect of homogenization and pasteurization on the structure and stability of whey protein in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Phoebe X; Ren, Daxi; Xiao, Yingping; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a 2-stage homogenizer at 35°C (6.9 MPa/10.3 MPa) and, along with skim milk, were subjected to HTST pasteurization (72°C for 15 s) or UHT processing (135°C for 2 s). Other whole milk samples were processed using homogenization followed by either HTST pasteurization or UHT processing. The processed skim and whole milk samples were centrifuged further to remove fat and then acidified to pH 4.6 to isolate the corresponding whey fractions, and centrifuged again. The whey fractions were then purified using dialysis and investigated using the circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared, and Trp intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Results demonstrated that homogenization combined with UHT processing of milk caused not only changes in protein composition but also significant secondary structural loss, particularly in the amounts of apparent antiparallel β-sheet and α-helix, as well as diminished tertiary structural contact. In both cases of homogenization alone and followed by HTST treatments, neither caused appreciable chemical changes, nor remarkable secondary structural reduction. But disruption was evident in the tertiary structural environment of the whey proteins due to homogenization of whole milk as shown by both the near-UV circular dichroism and Trp intrinsic fluorescence. In-depth structural stability analyses revealed that even though processing of milk imposed little impairment on the secondary structural stability, the tertiary structural stability of whey protein was altered significantly. The following order was derived based on these studies: raw whole>HTST, homogenized, homogenized and pasteurized>skimmed and pasteurized, and skimmed UHT

  18. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, Shahin, E-mail: shahinrafiee@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnevisan, Benyamin, E-mail: b_khoshnevisan@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Environmental Specialist Research Team (ESRTeam), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Musazadeh, Hossein [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Clark, Sean [Agriculture and Natural Resources Program, Berea College, Berea, KY (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000 kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457 kg CO{sub 2,eq}. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. - Highlights: • Environmental aspects of milk production in Iran were investigated using LCA. • Feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory were taken into account. • Feed production stage was

  19. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A; O'Meara, Patrick F; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M; Deshusses, Marc A

    2016-11-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65-75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent. ADPLs are simple systems, with no moving parts and relying on gravity-induced flows. Adoption at the two sites was successful, and residents reported that the systems had little to no odor or flies. ADPLs were monitored for biogas production and temperatures in the pasteurization system. ADPLs serving 17 and 35 residents produced on average 16 and 11 L biogas /person/day (maximum of 20 and 15 L biogas /p/d), respectively. The temperature in the sterilization system was greater than 65°C on 58% and 87% of sampling days during the most stable period of operation. Treated effluent was analyzed periodically for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), pH, and fecal coliform (FC). On average, the effluent at the two locations contained 4,540 and 6,450 mg COD/L (an 85% or 89% reduction of the estimated input), 2,050 and 3,970 mg BOD/L, and 2,420 and 4,760 mg NH 3 -N, respectively, and greater than 5 log reductions of FC (nondetectable) in the sterilization tank. Results from this field study show that anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal sludge can provide enough energy to pasteurize digester effluent and that the ADPL may be a suitable option for on-site fecal sludge treatment.

  20. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Musazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000 kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457 kg CO_2_,_e_q. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. - Highlights: • Environmental aspects of milk production in Iran were investigated using LCA. • Feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory were taken into account. • Feed production stage was the

  1. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A.; O'Meara, Patrick F.; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M.; Deshusses, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65–75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent. ADPLs are simple systems, with no moving parts and relying on gravity-induced flows. Adoption at the two sites was successful, and residents reported that the systems had little to no odor or flies. ADPLs were monitored for biogas production and temperatures in the pasteurization system. ADPLs serving 17 and 35 residents produced on average 16 and 11 Lbiogas/person/day (maximum of 20 and 15 Lbiogas/p/d), respectively. The temperature in the sterilization system was greater than 65°C on 58% and 87% of sampling days during the most stable period of operation. Treated effluent was analyzed periodically for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), pH, and fecal coliform (FC). On average, the effluent at the two locations contained 4,540 and 6,450 mg COD/L (an 85% or 89% reduction of the estimated input), 2,050 and 3,970 mg BOD/L, and 2,420 and 4,760 mg NH3-N, respectively, and greater than 5 log reductions of FC (nondetectable) in the sterilization tank. Results from this field study show that anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal sludge can provide enough energy to pasteurize digester effluent and that the ADPL may be a suitable option for on-site fecal sludge treatment. PMID:27924135

  2. [Study on the effects of HTST pasteurization temperatures on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in an industrial fluid milk-processing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igimi, Shizunobu; Iriguchi, Shoichi; Monden, Shuko; Okada, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Mori, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Johne disease is ruminant chronic granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The domestic animals infected with this pathogen present severe weight loss due to chronic diarrhea and a reduction in lactation yield. These result in enormous economic loss since the affected animals are subsequently subject to artificial selections and disinfection of the environment are absolutely necessary. Furthermore, MAP has been suspected to have pathological relationship to Crohn's disease, human chronic granulomatous enteritis. The bacterium grows slower on solid culture and its colony becomes visible after two months of culture. In Japan, there has been almost no investigation on pasteurization temperature of commercial milk using MAP. It comes from the fact that the growth rate of MAP is very slow and that MAP is a related species to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which pasteurization condition has been well defined. The studies on the pasteurization conditions of commercial milk have been mainly targeted to reduce the risk of infection to Coxiella and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, there has been a concern about the possibility that MAP is remained in pasteurized milk because MAPs form an aggregate and the bacterium at its center may not receive enough heat to get pasteurized. From these reasons, the present study aims to investigate validity of the current pasteurization conditions of commercial milk by implementing experimental pasteurization at various pasteurization temperatures using milk experimentally infected with MAP, and to clarify if MAP is eliminated at these temperatures in order to achieve smooth enforcement of the current ministry order. We conducted plant pasteurization experiment at four pasteurization conditions (high temperature, short time (HTST); 82, 77, 72 degrees C for 15 seconds and low temperature, long time (LTLT); 63 degrees C for 30 minutes) using two MAP strains, ATCC19698 and OKY-20. In conclusion

  3. Real-Time PCR Detection of Paenibacillus spp. in Raw Milk To Predict Shelf Life Performance of Pasteurized Fluid Milk Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ranieri, Matthew L.; Ivy, Reid A.; Mitchell, W. Robert; Call, Emma; Masiello, Stephanie N.; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect...

  4. Institutional Support : African Institute for Applied Economics (AIAE ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Institute for Applied Economics (AIAE), Nigeria, is an independent policy research organization created in 2000. The Institute's mission is to promote evidence-based decision-making in the area of economic and social development. AIAE's strength is research and advocacy in the area of business environment, ...

  5. Effect of pasteurization and lactic acid bacteria on physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of costeño cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Serpa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pasteurization and starter cultures on physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of costeño cheese was determined. A completely randomized design was conducted, three treatments (T and three replicates: Treatment 1 (T1: cheese manufactured with pasteurized milk without starter cultures, Treatment 2 (T2: cheese manufactured with pasteurized milk with Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus cremoris (1:1 and treatment 3 (T3: cheese manufactured with pasteurized milk with Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus cremoris and Streptococcus thermophillus (0.5:0.5:1. Treatments were compared to a control sample that was prepared with raw milk without starter cultures. Concentration of 1.5% (v/v of culture was used in relation to the amount of used milk in each treatment. Moisture content was higher in all treatments compared to the control and protein and fat content were significantly lower. Acidity was significantly higher in samples from T2 y T3 compared to T1 and control, due to the metabolism of starter cultures. Total coliforms, yeast and mold counts showed a significant reduction due to pasteurization process in all treatments. Regarding sensorial analysis, hedonic test showed a greater preference in cheese manufactured with T2 (P<0.05. There were no significant preferences between T1, T3 and control. Additionally, yield was significantly higher with T1 (22% and T3 (23% compared to control.

  6. Influence of pulsed electric field treatments on the volatile compounds of milk in comparison with pasteurized processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Yang, Ruijin; Zhao, Wei; Hua, Xiao; Zhang, Wenbin; Zhang, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatments on the volatile profiles of milk were studied and compared with pasteurized treatment of high temperature short time (HTST) (75 °C, 15 s). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). A total of 37 volatile compounds were determined by GC-MS, and 19 volatile compounds were considered to be major contributors to the characteristic flavor of milk samples. PEF treatment resulted in an increase in aldehydes. Milk treated with PEF at 30 kV/cm showed the highest content of pentanal, hexanal, and nonanal, while heptanal and decanal contents were lower than in pasteurized milk, but higher than in raw milk. All the methyl ketones detected in PEF milk were lower than in pasteurized milk. No significant differences in acids (acetic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and decanoic acid), lactones, and alcohols were observed between pasteurized and PEF-treated samples; however, 2(5H)-furanone was only detected in PEF-treated milk. Although GC-MS results showed that there were some volatile differences between pasteurized and PEF-treated milk, GC-O data showed no significant difference between the 2 samples.

  7. Thermal pasteurization of ready-to-eat foods and vegetables: Critical factors for process design and effects on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Tang, Juming; Barrett, Diane M; Sablani, Shyam S; Anderson, Nathan; Powers, Joseph R

    2017-09-22

    Increasing consumer desire for high quality ready-to-eat foods makes thermal pasteurization important to both food producers and researchers. To be in compliance with the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), food companies seek regulatory and scientific guidelines to ensure that their products are safe. Clearly understanding the regulations for chilled or frozen foods is of fundamental importance to the design of thermal pasteurization processes for vegetables that meet food safety requirements. This article provides an overview of the current regulations and guidelines for pasteurization in the U.S. and in Europe for control of bacterial pathogens. Poorly understood viral pathogens, in terms of their survival in thermal treatments, are an increasing concern for both food safety regulators and scientists. New data on heat resistance of viruses in different foods are summarized. Food quality attributes are sensitive to thermal degradation. A review of thermal kinetics of inactivation of quality-related enzymes in vegetables and the effects of thermal pasteurization on vegetable quality is presented. The review also discusses shelf-life of thermally pasteurized vegetables.

  8. Effective inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in minimally processed Makgeolli using low-pressure homogenization-based pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jin Seop

    2015-01-01

    In order to address the limitations associated with the inefficient pasteurization platform used to make Makgeolli, such as the presence of turbid colloidal dispersions in suspension, commercially available Makgeolli was minimally processed using a low-pressure homogenization-based pasteurization (LHBP) process. This continuous process demonstrates that promptly reducing the exposure time to excessive heat using either large molecules or insoluble particles can dramatically improve internal quality and decrease irreversible damage. Specifically, optimal homogenization increased concomitantly with physical parameters such as colloidal stability (65.0% of maximum and below 25-μm particles) following two repetitions at 25.0 MPa. However, biochemical parameters such as microbial population, acidity, and the presence of fermentable sugars rarely affected Makgeolli quality. Remarkably, there was a 4.5-log reduction in the number of Saccharomyces cerevisiae target cells at 53.5°C for 70 sec in optimally homogenized Makgeolli. This value was higher than the 37.7% measured from traditionally pasteurized Makgeolli. In contrast to the analytical similarity among homogenized Makgeollis, our objective quality evaluation demonstrated significant differences between pasteurized (or unpasteurized) Makgeolli and LHBP-treated Makgeolli. Low-pressure homogenization-based pasteurization, Makgeolli, minimal processing-preservation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suspension stability.

  9. Evaluation of biogenic amines and microbial counts throughout the ripening of goat cheeses from pasteurized and raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella-Rodríguez, Sonia; Veciana-Nogués, M Teresa; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Trujillo-Mesa, Antonio J; Vidal-Carou, M Carmen

    2004-05-01

    The effect of the hygienic quality of milk on changes in microbial counts and biogenic amine content was evaluated during ripening of goat cheeses manufactured from pasteurized and raw milks at 1, 14, 30, 60 and 90 d. The original milk, rennet, curd and whey were also included in the study. The pH, salt content and extent of proteolysis in the cheese were also evaluated. Spermidine and spermine were the main amines in raw milk, while they were minor amines in cheeses. Other amines increased markedly during ripening, tyramine being the main amine in cheese made from raw milk and cadaverine and putrescine in those produced from pasteurized milk. Enterobacteriaceae counts decreased during ripening whereas those of lactic acid bacteria increased, especially lactobacilli and enterococci. Cheese made from raw milk showed higher microbial counts during ripening than those made from pasteurized milk, especially for Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, counts being 2 or 3 log units higher. Raw milk cheese showed remarkably higher biogenic amines compared with pasteurized milk cheeses. Therefore, pasteurization of milk causes a decrease in final biogenic amine content of cheese as a result of the reduction of its microbial counts.

  10. Effect of medicinal plants, Heavy metals and antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria isolated from raw, Boiled and pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nazish Mazhar; Sarwar, Khadija; Mazhar, Syed Abdullah; Liaqat, Iram; Andleeb, Saiqa; Mazhar, Bushra; Kalim, Bushra

    2017-11-01

    Present study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the bacterial flora in raw, boiled and pasteurized milk. Agar disc diffusion method was used to determine their sensitivity using medicinal plants, antibiotics and heavy metals. Methylene blue reduction test was used to test the quality of milk samples. Total 10 pathogenic strains were isolated, five strains were isolated from raw milk, three from boiled milk and 2 two from pasteurized milk. To determine optimum conditions for growth, these pathogenic microorganisms were incubated at various temperatures and pH. Gram's staining and biochemical tests revealed that these pathogenic bacteria include Lactobacillus sp., E. coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus. Ribotyping revealed S2 as Pseudomonas fluorescens, S5 as Lactococcus lactis and S9 as Lactobacillus acidophilus. Prevalence of pathogenic organisms provided the evidence that contamination of milk arises during milking, transportation and storage of milk. Raw milk is more contaminated than other two types of milk because it contains highest percentage of pathogenic organisms and pasteurized milk was found to be of best quality among three types. So it is recommended to drink milk after proper boiling or pasteurization. Proper pasteurization and hygienic packing of milk is essential to minimize contamination in milk which can save human beings from many milk borne diseases. Our study suggests that antimicrobial use in animal husbandry should be minimized to reduce the hazard of antibiotic resistance. Plant extracts are better alternative against pathogenic bacteria in milk.

  11. Impact of human milk pasteurization on the kinetics of peptide release during in vitro dynamic term newborn digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglaire, Amélie; De Oliveira, Samira C; Jardin, Julien; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Emily, Mathieu; Ménard, Olivia; Bourlieu, Claire; Dupont, Didier

    2016-07-01

    Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30 min) ensures sanitary quality of donor's human milk but also denatures beneficial proteins. Understanding whether this further impacts the kinetics of peptide release during gastrointestinal digestion of human milk was the aim of the present paper. Mature raw (RHM) or pasteurized (PHM) human milk were digested (RHM, n = 2; PHM, n = 3) by an in vitro dynamic system (term stage). Label-free quantitative peptidomics was performed on milk and digesta (ten time points). Ascending hierarchical clustering was conducted on "Pasteurization × Digestion time" interaction coefficients. Preproteolysis occurred in human milk (159 unique peptides; RHM: 91, PHM: 151), mostly on β-casein (88% of the endogenous peptides). The predicted cleavage number increased with pasteurization, potentially through plasmin activation (plasmin cleavages: RHM, 53; PHM, 76). During digestion, eight clusters resumed 1054 peptides from RHM and PHM, originating for 49% of them from β-casein. For seven clusters (57% of peptides), the kinetics of peptide release differed between RHM and PHM. The parent protein was significantly linked to the clustering (p-value = 1.4 E-09), with β-casein and lactoferrin associated to clusters in an opposite manner. Pasteurization impacted selectively gastric and intestinal kinetics of peptide release in term newborns, which may have further nutritional consequences. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Nutrients and Biologically-Active Components in Donor Human Milk: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Moro, Guido E; Bertino, Enrico; Cavallarin, Laura; Giribaldi, Marzia; Giuliani, Francesca; Cresi, Francesco; Coscia, Alessandra

    2016-08-02

    When a mother's milk is unavailable, the best alternative is donor milk (DM). Milk delivered to Human Milk Banks should be pasteurized in order to inactivate the microbial agents that may be present. Currently, pasteurization, performed at 62.5 °C for 30 min (Holder Pasteurization, HoP), is recommended for this purpose in international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to investigate the effects of HoP on the properties of DM. The present paper has the aim of reviewing the published papers on this topic, and to provide a comparison of the reported variations of biologically-active DM components before and after HoP. This review was performed by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and Cochrane Library databases. Studies that clearly identified the HoP parameters and compared the same DM samples, before and after pasteurization, were focused on. A total of 44 articles satisfied the above criteria, and were therefore selected. The findings from the literature report variable results. A possible explanation for this may be the heterogeneity of the test protocols that were applied. Moreover, the present review spans more than five decades, and modern pasteurizers may be able to modify the degradation kinetics for heat-sensitive substances, compared to older ones. Overall, the data indicate that HoP affects several milk components, although it is difficult to quantify the degradation degree. However, clinical practices demonstrate that many beneficial properties of DM still persist after HoP.

  13. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  14. Critical Robotic Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.

  15. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouklik, I [NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future.

  16. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouklik, I.

    1996-01-01

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future

  17. Effect of pasteurization temperature on stability of an acidified sugarcane juice beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kunitake

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of fresh sugarcane juice is quite limited due to the high rates of microbiological and enzymatic reactions which take place after extraction. In order to evaluate the impact of pasteurization temperature on quality and stability of sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp, nine batches of sugarcane juice with 4g/100g passion fruit pulp were processed at 85, 90 and 95 °C for 30 s, in triplicate. The pasteurized beverage was aseptically packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and stored at 7 °C in the dark. The beverage was characterized by physicochemical tests. Activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD were determined before and after processing. Coliforms and Salmonella tests were carried out to assure the beverage´s microbiological safety. Color parameters were measured in the processed juice throughout the storage period. Fifty panelists evaluated the beverage's appearance, aroma, flavor, and overall impression using seven-point hedonic scale tests. Sensory stability was estimated by considering score averages above four and percentages of acceptance above 60%. The pH, soluble solids and titratable acidity of end product ranged from 3.96 to 4.19, 19.7 to 20.1 ºBrix, and 0.163 to 0.175 g/100g citric acid, respectively. The three processing binomials were effective for PPO inactivation; however, complete POD inactivation was reached at 95 °C/30 s only. The estimated sensory shelf-lives for sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp processed at 85, 90 and 95 °C/30 s were 30, 40 and 50 days, respectively. Thus, the increase of pasteurization temperature had a positive effect on product's stability.

  18. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El din, M D; Farag, H; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab.

  19. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El din, M. D.; Farag, H.; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill.

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab

  20. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Pasteurization on the Nutritive Composition of Commercially Available Animal Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Catherine D; Cassidy, Joseph P; Kelly, John P

    2008-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used to sterilize diets for specific pathogen-free (SPF) animals. Because a gamma-irradiated diet was linked to leukoencephalomyelopathy in SPF cats, we investigated the effects of ‘typical’ (28.9–34.3 kGy) and ‘high-end’ (38.4–48.7 kGy) doses of gamma irradiation and of pasteurization (at 107 °C for 15 min) on the amounts of fat; protein; carbohydrate (and taurine in cat diet); vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, and B12; and peroxide in commercially available dry cat, dog, and rodent diets. The only treatment-related changes occurred with vitamin A and peroxide. The typical and high-end doses of gamma irradiation reduced the vitamin A level of the cat diet to 42% and 30% of the untreated value, respectively—levels below recommended allowances for growth and reproduction. Only the higher irradiation dose reduced vitamin A in the rodent diet, and neither dose altered the canine diet. Pasteurization reduced the vitamin A content of the cat diet to 50% of its original level, which was within the recommended level for this species. Irradiation increased the peroxide content of all 3 animal diets: by approximately 11-fold with the typical dose and by 14- to 25-fold with the high-end dose. Therefore gamma irradiation can have profound, selective effects on the vitamin A and peroxide contents of dry diets, and caution is advised when feeding such diets long-term and exclusively to SPF animals, particularly cats. Furthermore, pasteurization (with its fewer deleterious effects) may represent an alternative method of decontaminating diets for rodents, dogs, and cats. PMID:19049256

  1. Space nuclear tug mission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, J.R.; Rauen, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    An initial assessment indicates that the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 bimodal reactor designs can be integrated into a reusable tug which is capable of supporting many missions including GSO delivery, GSO retrieval, lunar trajectory deliveries, interplanetary deliveries, and a variety of satellite servicing. The tug close-quote s nuclear thermal propulsion provides timely transport and payload delivery, with GSO deliveries on the order of 3 endash 7 days. In general, the tug may provide a number of potential benefits to users. The tug may, for example, extend the life of an existing on-orbit spacecraft, boost spacecraft which were not delivered to their operational orbit, offer increased payload capability, or possibly allow payloads to launch on smaller less expensive launch vehicles. Reusing the tug for 5 or 10 missions requires total reactor burn times of 50 and 100 hours, respectively. Shielding, boom structure, and radiator requirements were identified as key factors in the configuration layout. Economic feasibility is still under evaluation, but preliminary estimates indicate that average flight costs may range from $32 M to $34 M for a 10-mission vehicle and from $39 M to $42 M for a 5-mission vehicle. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Mission operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  3. Optimization of the anaerobic co-digestion of pasteurized slaughterhouse waste, pig slurry and glycerine

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Abalde, Ángela; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier; Fernández García, Belén

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of blends of two different animal by-products (pig manure and pasteurized slaughterhouse waste) and recovered glycerine was studied in mesophilic conditions. Experiments were performed in a lab-scale CSTR along 490 days, with a hydraulic retention time of 21–33 days and with a step-wise increased organic loading rate, by adding and/or changing the wastes ratio, from 0.8 to 3.2 kgCOD m-3 d-1. The best methane production rate (0.64 Nm3CH4 m-3 d-1) represented an ...

  4. Effect of Freezing, Thermal Pasteurization, and Hydrostatic Pressure on Fractionation and Folate Recovery in Egg Yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Nassim; Pouliot, Yves; House, James D; Doyen, Alain

    2017-09-06

    In this study, the impact of pasteurization and freezing of raw material, as performed at a commercial scale, on egg yolk fractionation and folate recovery was assessed. Freezing induced denaturation of the lipoproteins in egg yolk, which prevented further fractionation of the yolk. Thermal pasteurization of egg yolk at 61.1 °C for 3.5 min as well as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (400 MPa for 5 min) did not change (p < 0.05) the composition of egg yolk or yolk fractions after their recovery by centrifugation. Expressed as dry matter, folate in pasteurized yolk was measured to be 599 μg/100 g, while its concentration reached 1969.7 μg/100 g for pasteurized granule and 1902.5 μg/100 g for HHP-treated granule. Folate was not detected in plasma, emphasizing the complete separation of yolk folate into granule. Further, we studied the effect of HHP on different dilutions of egg yolk, which were then fractionated. Egg yolk was diluted with water at different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10, 25, and 50%), HHP-treated at 400 MPa for 5 min, and centrifuged. Characterization of the compositions of the separated granule and plasma followed. Folate was stable under the HHP conditions used. However, HHP caused separation of folate from the yolk structure into water-soluble plasma. After HHP processing, the amount of folate detected in the plasma fraction was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (1434.9 μg/100 g) in the 25% diluted samples but was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in HHP-treated granule samples. Native sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results showed that phosvitin, α-livetin, and apovitellenin VIa were the proteins most resistant to HHP. This study confirms that dilution of egg yolk before HHP treatment can significantly (p < 0.05) change the composition of granule and plasma fractions after centrifugal fractionation of egg yolk.

  5. Evaluation of radurizited and pasteurized fruits juices during 12 months of storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilska-Jeszka, J.; Skorupinska, A.

    1975-01-01

    Stability of radurized red and black currant, bilberry, plum and tomato juices, stored at a temperature of 20+-3 0 C, was investigated. With 60 Co as radiation source, doses of 0,5 to 1,5 Mrad were applied. In a 12-month period no significant changes in pH, total and volatile acidity were found. Anthocyanic pigment and ascorbic acid losses were greater in radurized than in pasteurized juices. No organoleptic changes occurred after irradiation with 1 Mrad in tomato juices, very little change in plum and bilberry juices and considerable unfavorable changes in currant juice

  6. Effect of ''pasteurizing'' doses of ionizing radiations on drug sensitivity of microbes isolated at pharmacentical factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, E.P.; Shcheglova, S.G.; Sedov, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiations on drug sensitivity of microorganisms has been investigated, particularly, the influence of pasteurizing'' doses of ionizing radia''ons on the drug sensitivity of microorganisms isolated at a Moscow pharmaceutical factory to a number of widely used antibiotics. 250 krad single irradiation of dry microbial culture resulted in a change of the antibiotic sensitivity in 0.5% of 686 strains studied. All changes were toward the appearance of sensitivity to one or several antibiotics. When cultures were irradiated 3 times, this value increased up to 9%. In no case the appearance of resistance to antibiotics was observed

  7. Pasteurization of citrus juices with ohmic heating to preserve the carotenoid profile

    OpenAIRE

    Achir , Nawel; Dhuique-Mayer , Claudie; Hadjal , Thiziri; Madani , Khodir; Pain , Jean-Pierre; Dornier , Manuel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This study was carried out to assess, for the first time, the effect of ohmic heating on the carotenoid profile of two citrus fruit juices: grapefruit and blood orange. Two heat treatments were designed to obtain pasteurization values of 50 and 150 min (Tref= 70°C and z-value=10°C) with ohmic heating as compared to conventional heating. The results showed that xanthophyll losses could reach 70% for epoxyxanthophylls (cis-violaxanthin and cis-antheraxanthin) and 40% for...

  8. Rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp at pasteurization temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp in the range of temperatures used for pasteurization (83 to 97 °C was studied. The results indicated that Brazilian Cherry pulp presented pseudoplastic behavior, and the Herschel-Bulkley model was considered more adequate to represent the rheological behavior of this pulp in the range of temperatures studied. The fluid behavior index (n varied in the range from 0.448 to 0.627. The effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity was described by an equation analogous to Arrhenius equation, and a decrease in apparent viscosity with an increase in temperature was observed.

  9. Inactivation of Zika virus in human breast milk by prolonged storage or pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaender, Stephanie; Vielle, Nathalie J; Ebert, Nadine; Steinmann, Eike; Alves, Marco P; Thiel, Volker

    2017-01-15

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy poses a serious risk for pregnant women as it can cause severe birth defects. Even though the virus is mainly transmitted via mosquitos, human-to-human transmission has been described. Infectious viral particles have been detected in breast milk of infected women which raised concerns regarding the safety of breastfeeding in areas of Zika virus transmission or in case of a suspected or confirmed Zika virus infection. In this study, we show that Zika virus is effectively inactivated in human breast milk after prolonged storage or upon pasteurization of milk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Solar thermal energy. Solar pasteurization of dairy products; Energia solar termica. Pasteurizacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, J.; Chemisana, D.

    2009-07-01

    Nicaragua is one of the south America countries with biggest cattle figures; however, it is at the bottom of the list of milk consumers. The cause which explains this is a twofold trouble. First of all, they have not the adequate milk treatment methods to guarantee a proper hygienic and conservation conditions. By the other side, production is distributed in small production centers to serve local consumers. this article proposal is to get a pasteurization treatment with thermal processes arranged by means of the solar energy. (Author) 3 refs.

  11. Market Potential of Pasteurized Coconut Water in the Philippine Beverage Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanilyn Aguilar Hidalgo

    2017-01-01

    Trends in health and well-being are taking the lead in the beverage consumption movement.  The waning attractiveness of carbonated beverage may be attributed to the negative impression of the sugar content linking it to health problems.  Studies show that coconut water is found to be as effective as a sports drink for rehydration.  However, while coconut water may be an old commodity which is usually consumed as fresh, pasteurized coconut water (PCW) becomes a new entrant in the Philippine be...

  12. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  13. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from five dairy farms in the Guangxi province of China. A sample of each milk was pasteurized, and both r...

  14. A Study To Assess the Numbers and Prevalence of Bacillus cereus and Its Toxins in Pasteurized Fluid Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh-Lakha, Saleema; Leon-Velarde, Carlos G; Chen, Shu; Lee, Susan; Shannon, Kelly; Fabri, Martha; Downing, Gavin; Keown, Bruce

    2017-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is a pathogenic adulterant of raw milk and can persist as spores and grow in pasteurized milk. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. cereus and its enterotoxins in pasteurized milk at its best-before date when stored at 4, 7, and 10°C. More than 5.5% of moderately temperature-abused products (stored at 7°C) were found to contain >10 5 CFU/mL B. cereus , and about 4% of them contained enterotoxins at a level that may result in foodborne illness; in addition, more than 31% of the products contained >10 5 CFU/mL B. cereus and associated enterotoxins when stored at 10°C. Results from a growth kinetic study demonstrated that enterotoxin production by B. cereus in pasteurized milk can occur in as short as 7 to 8 days of storage at 7°C. The higher B. cereus counts were associated with products containing higher butterfat content or with those produced using the conventional high-temperature, short-time pasteurization process. Traditional indicators, aerobic colony counts and psychrotrophic counts, were found to have no correlation with level of B. cereus in milk. The characterization of 17 representative B. cereus isolates from pasteurized milk revealed five toxigenic gene patterns, with all the strains carrying genes encoding for diarrheal toxins but not for an emetic toxin, and with one strain containing all four diarrheal enterotoxin genes (nheA, entFM, hblC, and cytK). The results of this study demonstrate the risks associated even with moderately temperature-abused pasteurized milk and the necessity of a controlled cold chain throughout the shelf life of fluid milk to enhance product safety and minimize foodborne illness.

  15. Practical and theoretical problems of pasteur's experiment on rabies in 1880 Problemas prácticos y teóricos del experimento sobre la rabia en los años 1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Raichvarg

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Ethical aspects of scientific experimentation on human beings and the technical problems of rabies vaccination at the end of the XIX century are analyzed. The importance of such preventive practice one century ago Is emphasized, since rabies virus was unknown and the bases of modern immunology had not been set. The Influence of these experiments on the creation of the Pasteur Institute Is highlighted.

    A la luz de una carta enviada por Louis Pasteur a Pedro II, Emperador del Brasil, y de una comunicación pronunciada por el científico ante la Academia de Ciencias de París en 1885, se analizan los aspectos éticos de la experimentación científica en humanos y se cuestionan los problemas técnicos de la vacunación antirrábica a finales del siglo XIX. Se resalta la importancia de la vacunación contra la rabia hace más de un siglo, cuando no se conocía el virus causante de la enfermedad ni se habían sentado las bases de la moderna Inmunología. Finalmente, se hace énfasis en el papel fundamental que tuvo esta práctica preventiva en la creación del InstitUto Pasteur, entidad líder en la Investigación y el avance científico actuales.

  16. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  17. Gamma ray irradiated goat milk: comparative sensorial analysis with pasteurized goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Maria Sylvia de C.C. do Amaral; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Marta H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Goat milk consumption has increased in the last years, due to its better digestibility and for constituting a good alternative to cow milk for intolerant people. Brazil has over 10 millions goats, mainly in the Northeast area. Considering that it is very important to increase the shelf-life for this product, this work was done to test the gamma-radiation as a preservation method, evaluating acceptability by sensorial analysis compared with pasteurized milk. The goat milk was bought in the Animal Production Department/ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, and irradiated with 3,5 kGy in the Food Irradiation Laboratory/CENA/USP, using a cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammabeam-650, from Nordion, Canada. After irradiation, the samples were maintained under refrigeration at 5 deg C and submitted to sensorial analysis at 1 st , 7 th and 15 th days by 30 untrained tasters. The results indicated, by Tukey test, a significant preference for the pasteurized milk in comparison to the irradiated one, because a hard caprine flavor was developed by the irradiation. (author)

  18. Optimization of the anaerobic co-digestion of pasteurized slaughterhouse waste, pig slurry and glycerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Abalde, Ángela; Flotats, Xavier; Fernández, Belén

    2017-03-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of blends of two different animal by-products (pig manure and pasteurized slaughterhouse waste) and recovered glycerine was studied in mesophilic conditions. Experiments were performed in a lab-scale CSTR along 490days, with a hydraulic retention time of 21-33days and with a step-wise increased organic loading rate, by adding and/or changing the wastes ratio, from 0.8 to 3.2kg COD m -3 d -1 . The best methane production rate (0.64Nm 3 CH4 m -3 d -1 ) represented an increment of 2.9-fold the initial one (0.22Nm 3 CH4 m -3 d -1 with pig manure solely). It was attained with a ternary mixture composed, in terms of inlet volatile solids, by 35% pig slurry, 47% pasteurized slaughterhouse waste and 18% glycerine. This blend was obtained through a stepwise C/N adjustment: this strategy led to a more balanced biodegradation due to unstressed bacterial populations through the performance, showed by the VFA-related indicators. Besides this, an improved methane yield (+153%) and an organic matter removal efficiency (+83%), regarding the digestion of solely pig slurry, were attained when the C/N ratio was adjusted to 10.3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aflatoxin M1 in Pasteurized Milk in Babol city, Mazandaran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefidgar, Saa; Mirzae, M; Assmar, M; Naddaf, Sr

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is the metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB(1)) and is found in milk when lactating animals are fed with contaminated feedstuff. The presence of AFM(1) in milk, pose a major risk for humans especially kids as it can have immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. The present study is aimed to investigate the occurrence of AFM(1) in subsidized pasteurized milk in Babol, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Some 72 pasteurized milk packages were collected from supermarkets in various districts of city during January to March 2006. Milk samples were centrifuged and amounts of 100 μl of skimmed milk were tested for AFM(1) contamination by competitive ELISA. All the samples (100%) exhibited contamination with AFM(1). The contamination levels means in January, February, and March were 227.85, 229.64, and 233.1ng/l, respectively. The amount of AFM(1) in all the samples were above 50ng/l, the threshold set by the European community regulations. Monitoring of AFM(1) level should be part of quality control procedures in dairy factories, particularly the ones providing infant's milk. Production of safer and healthier milk and other dairy products with minimum AFM(1) level can be achieved by adopting prophylactic measures including control of humidity and water content of feedstuff, which favors mould production.

  20. The microbial content of raw and pasteurized cow milk as determined by molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Lisa; McCarthy, Robert; O'Sullivan, Orla; Beresford, Tom P; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-08-01

    The microbial composition of raw and pasteurized milk is assessed on a daily basis. However, many such tests are culture-dependent, and, thus, bacteria that are present at subdominant levels, or that cannot be easily grown in the laboratory, may be overlooked. To address this potential bias, we have used several culture-independent techniques, including flow cytometry, real-time quantitative PCR, and high-throughput DNA sequencing, to assess the microbial population of milk from a selection of commercial milk producers, pre- and postpasteurization. The combination of techniques employed reveals the presence of a previously unrecognized and diverse bacterial population in unpasteurized cow milk. Most notably, the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing resulted in several bacterial genera being identified in milk samples for the first time. These included Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, and Catenibacterium. Our culture-independent analyses also indicate that the bacterial population of pasteurized milk is more diverse than previously appreciated, and that nonthermoduric bacteria within these populations are likely to be in a damaged, nonculturable form. It is thus apparent that the application of state-of-the-art approaches can provide a detailed insight into the bacterial composition of milk and could potentially be employed in the future to investigate the factors that influence the composition of these populations. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw and pasteurized milk produced in Sanandaj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafakheri, Sh.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the levels of aflatoxin M1 in raw and pasteurized milk samples during different seasons by Enzyme- Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay in Sanandaj, Iran. In 257 (94.49% out of 272 milk samples the presence of aflatoxin M1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.007 and 115.930 ng/l. AFM1 level in 12 (4.4% of positive samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by Iran and European Union countries. Statistical evaluations showed that the differences between raw and pasteurized samples were not significant (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between spring and summer but the differences between other seasons were statistically significant. Winter samples with 22.35 ng/l and summer samples with 5.14 ng/l had the highest and lowest concentration, respectively (p<0.05. Since contamination of milk with aflatoxin is a potential risk for human health, milk and milk products should be controlled periodically for Aflatoxin contamination.

  2. Hydrolysis and oxidation of covering oil in canned dried tomatoes as affected by pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caponio, Francesco

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pasteurization on the chemical quality of the extra-virgin olive oil used as a covering for canned dried tomatoes were studied during storage through conventional (acidity, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, spectrophotometric indexes and non conventional (polar compounds analytical determinations. All the performed analyses show that extra-virgin olive oil from pasteurized samples underwent hydrolytic degradation slightly more than unheated ones but resulted slightly less oxidized than oil from untreated vessels.Los efectos de la pasterización sobre la calidad química del aceite de oliva virgen extra de cobertura en tomates desecados enlatados han sido estudiados durante su almacenamiento a través de determinaciones analíticas convencionales (acidez, índice peróxidos, índice de p-anisidina, índices espectrofotométricos y no convencionales (compuestos polares. Todos los análisis realizados muestran que el aceite de oliva virgen extra de las muestras pasterizadas sufre una degradación hidrolítica ligeramente mayor que el de las no tratadas pero resulta menos oxidado que el aceite de las muestras no tratadas.

  3. Verification of radio frequency pasteurization treatment for controlling Aspergillus parasiticus on corn grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ajuan; Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-05-16

    Radio frequency (RF) heating has been proposed and tested to achieve a required anti-fungal efficacy on various food samples due to its advantage of deeper penetration depth and better heating uniformity. The purpose of this study was to validate applications of RF treatments for controlling Aspergillus parasiticus in corn while maintaining product quality. A pilot-scale, 27.12MHz, 6kW RF heating system together with hot air heating was used to rapidly pasteurize 3.0kg corn samples. Results showed that the pasteurizing effect of RF heating on Aspergillus parasiticus increased with increasing heating temperature and holding time, and RF heating at 70°C holding in hot air for at least 12min resulted in 5-6 log reduction of Aspergillus parasiticus in corn samples with the moisture content of 15.0% w.b. Furthermore, thermal resistance of Aspergillus parasiticus decreased with increasing moisture content (MC) of corn samples. Quality (MC, water activity - a w , protein, starch, ash, fat, fatty acid, color, electrical conductivity and germination rate) of RF treated corn met the required quality standard used in cereal industry. Therefore, RF treatments can provide an effective and rapid heating method to control Aspergillus parasiticus and maintain acceptable corn quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mathematical model of solid food pasteurization by ohmic heating: influence of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurization of a solid food undergoing ohmic heating has been analysed by means of a mathematical model, involving the simultaneous solution of Laplace's equation, which describes the distribution of electrical potential within a food, the heat transfer equation, using a source term involving the displacement of electrical potential, the kinetics of inactivation of microorganisms likely to be contaminating the product. In the model, thermophysical and electrical properties as function of temperature are used. Previous works have shown the occurrence of heat loss from food products to the external environment during ohmic heating. The current model predicts that, when temperature gradients are established in the proximity of the outer ohmic cell surface, more cold areas are present at junctions of electrodes with lateral sample surface. For these reasons, colder external shells are the critical areas to be monitored, instead of internal points (typically geometrical center) as in classical pure conductive heat transfer. Analysis is carried out in order to understand the influence of pasteurisation process parameters on this temperature distribution. A successful model helps to improve understanding of these processing phenomenon, which in turn will help to reduce the magnitude of the temperature differential within the product and ultimately provide a more uniformly pasteurized product.

  5. Effects of Holder pasteurization on the protein profile of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Cavaletto, Maria; Spertino, Stefano; Icardi, Sara; Tortone, Claudia; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2016-04-07

    The most widespread method for the treatment of donor milk is the Holder pasteurization (HoP). The available literature data show that HoP may cause degradation of some bioactive components. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HoP on the protein profile of human milk (HM) using a GeLC-MS method, a proteomic approach and a promising technique able to offer a qualitative HM protein profile. HM samples were collected by standardized methods from 20 mothers carrying both preterm and term newborns. A aliquot of each sample was immediately frozen at -80 °C, whilst another one was Holder pasteurized and then frozen. All samples were then analyzed by GeLC-MS. The protein bands of interest were excised from the gel, digested with trypsin and identified by nano-HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The protein profile before and after HoP showed qualitative differences only in 6 samples out of 20, while in the remaining 14 no detectable differences were found. The differences interested only colostrums and transitional milk samples and regarded the decrease of the electrophoretic bands corresponding to alpha and beta-casein, tenascin, lactoferrin and immunoglobulin. In the majority of samples, HoP did not cause any modification, thereby preserving the biological activity of HM proteins.

  6. Dielectric properties of almond kernels associated with radio frequency and microwave pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Shuang; Kou, Xiaoxi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-02-01

    To develop advanced pasteurization treatments based on radio frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of almond kernels were measured by using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer at frequencies between 10 and 3000 MHz, moisture contents between 4.2% to 19.6% w.b. and temperatures between 20 and 90 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant and loss factor of the almond kernels decreased sharply with increasing frequency over the RF range (10-300 MHz), but gradually over the measured MW range (300-3000 MHz). Both dielectric constant and loss factor of almond kernels increased with increasing temperature and moisture content, and largely enhanced at higher temperature and moisture levels. Quadratic polynomial equations were developed to best fit the relationship between dielectric constant or loss factor at 27, 40, 915 or 2450 MHz and sample temperature/moisture content with R2 greater than 0.967. Penetration depth of electromagnetic wave into samples decreased with increasing frequency (27-2450 MHz), moisture content (4.2-19.6% w.b.) and temperature (20-90 °C). The temperature profiles of RF heated almond kernels under three moisture levels were made using experiment and computer simulation based on measured dielectric properties. Based on the result of this study, RF treatment has potential to be practically used for pasteurization of almond kernels with acceptable heating uniformity.

  7. Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: A Novel Pasteurization Method for Donor Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2013-01-01

    Holder pasteurization (milk held at 62.5°C for 30 minutes) is the standard treatment method for donor human milk. Although this method of pasteurization is able to inactivate most bacteria, it also inactivates important bioactive components. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate ultraviolet irradiation as an alternative treatment method for donor human milk. Human milk samples were inoculated with five species of bacteria and then UV-C irradiated. Untreated and treated samples were analysed for bacterial content, bile salt stimulated lipase (BSSL) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and fatty acid profile. All five species of bacteria reacted similarly to UV-C irradiation, with higher dosages being required with increasing concentrations of total solids in the human milk sample. The decimal reduction dosage was 289±17 and 945±164 J/l for total solids of 107 and 146 g/l, respectively. No significant changes in the fatty acid profile, BSSL activity or ALP activity were observed up to the dosage required for a 5-log10 reduction of the five species of bacteria. UV-C irradiation is capable of reducing vegetative bacteria in human milk to the requirements of milk bank guidelines with no loss of BSSL and ALP activity and no change of FA.

  8. In natura açaí beverage: quality, pasteurization and acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Antonia Alves Cruz de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physical, physicochemical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of in natura açai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.beverageprocessed and commercialized in Rio Branco, Acre, submitting it to acidification and pasteurization treatments and evaluating their effects. Açaí fruits were processed to obtain the beverage as generally consumed. A 25 L sample was collected from a processing unit at a market in Rio Branco and transported to the Laboratory of Food Technology at the Federal University of Acre, for sampling of the experiments in a completely randomized design. Analyses of total solids, pH, total titrable acidity, proteins, lipids, moulds and yeasts, total and heat-tolerant coliforms at 45 ºC were performed in in natura beverage and after treatments. The results of the ANOVA showed, except for lipids, difference (p < 0.01 in the parameters. The in natura açaí beverage presented an elevated contamination by total and heat-tolerant coliforms at 45 ºC, moulds and yeasts, being in hygienic-sanitary conditions both unsatisfactory and unsafe for consumption. Pasteurization was efficient in reducing the beverage microbiota; it reduced contamination to an acceptable level according to the legislation, warranting food quality and safety. The acidified treatment partially reduced the microbiota. The beverage was classified as fine or type C.

  9. INFLUENCE OF MILK FAT IN THE RESISTANCE OF Mycobacterium fortuitum TO SLOW PASTEURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ramirez Starikoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ortuitum. Milk samples were divided into two portions, whole and skimmed, each part was inoculated with M. fortuitum and then distributed in tubes for quantification of the agent during pasteurization, in a water bath. As samples were diluted and plated on Lowenstein-Jensen (37 °C/5 days, the count results were expressed as log10 CFU/mL. The heat treatment reduced 4.4 log10 CFU/mL for goat whole milk (2.8% fat, 4.9 log10 CFU/mL for skim goat milk (0.3%, 3.9 log10 CFU/ml for whole bovine milk (5.9%, and 5.4 log10 CFU/mL for skim bovine milk (0.2%, without significant difference, possibly because of the low number of samples. Values of D65 °C were, respectively, 10.51 minutes, 8.61 minutes, 18.02 minutes, and 7.82 minutes and the low R2 value of the straight line equations indicated that other factors, in addition to the ones studied, influenced the heat death of the agent. The results suggest a trend of influence by fat milk, and by the animal species on the decay rate of M. fortuitum, and that pasteurization was less effective over M. fortuitum in whole bovine milk. Keywords: fat content;

  10. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  11. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.

    2013-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

  12. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  13. Mission Creep and Teaching at the Master's University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bruce B.

    2009-01-01

    The accusation of mission creep at master's institutions is not erroneous. It has been occurring for decades. The imitation of the research universities by other institutions is not good for the institutions, for their faculty members, or for the cause of college teaching. Research and scholarship need to be differentiated so that scholarliness,…

  14. The STEREO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.

  15. VEGA Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    VEGA (mission) is a combined spacecraft mission to VENUS and COMET HALLEY. It was launched in the USSR at the end of 1984. The mission consisted of two identical spacecraft VEGA 1 and VEGA 2. VEGA is an acronym built from the words `Venus' and `Halley' (`Galley' in Russian spelling). The basic design of the spacecraft was the same as has been used many times to deliver Soviet landers and orbiter...

  16. Comparison of the in vitro digestion of raw pasture milk and commercial HTST and UHT pasteurized milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of raw milk from pasture-fed cows, typically purchased at local farms, is steadily increasing in the US because many consumers believe that high-temperature short-time (HTST) or ultrahigh temperature (UHT) pasteurization affects the digestibility of milk proteins and thus the bioavailabi...

  17. Stability of functional compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and pasteurized orange passion fruit (Passiflora caerulea) during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; Facco, Elizete Maria Pesamosca; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to evaluate differences in the stability of physicochemical and color parameters, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids and antioxidant capacity in fresh and pasteurized juice of orange passion fruit, respectively cold stored (8 °C) during 0-4 or during 0-15 days. The results showed that in the physicochemical analysis, no significant differences were observed comparing pasteurized and fresh juice during storage. The pasteurized juice showed higher concentrations of color parameters, phenolic compounds (15% more of retention for days 0 and 4), epigallocatechin gallate (40% in day 0 and 27% in day 4), lycopene (142% for day 0 and 39% for day 4), total carotenoids (114% in day 0 and 8% in day 4) and antioxidant capacity (12% in day 0 and 7% in day 4).; already fresh juice retained more values of quercetin (79% in day 0 and 245% in day 4), α-carotene (57% in day 4), β-carotene and provitamin A (80% of retention in day 4). Therefore, the pasteurization processing was positive in orange passion fruit juice and improved the accessibility of most bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thymic size in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and fed with pasteurized human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, H; Ersbøll, A K

    2003-01-01

    /weight-ratio (Ti/w) at birth and at 4 mo of age in 12 healthy uninfected infants born to HlV-infected mothers. All infants were exclusively fed pasteurized donor milk. The results were compared with those obtained from a previous cohort of exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed and exclusively formula...

  19. Nonthermal pasteurization of beer by high pressure processing: modelling the inactivation of saccharomyces cerevisiae ascospores in different alcohol beers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Elham A.; Silva, Filipa V. M.

    2016-10-01

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. In this research, the nonthermal pasteurization of beer by high pressure processing (HPP) was carried out. First, the effect of alcohol content on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ascospore inactivation at 400 MPa was studied. The number of ascospores in 0.0%, 4.8%, and 7.0% alc/vol beers for 10 min processing time decreased by 3.1, 4.9, and ≥ 6.0 log, respectively. The Weibull model fitted the ascospore inactivation by HPP in 0.0%, 4.8%, and 7.0% alc/vol beers. At 400 MPa, 7.2 s could ensure the minimum pasteurization of beers and for 600 MPa 5 s were enough for ≥ 7 log reductions. The overall flavour of HPP vs. untreated beers was evaluated for a lager and an ale, with no significant differences between the untreated and HPP beers. Thus, nonthermal HPP is a feasible technology to pasteurize beer with different alcohol contents without heat.

  20. The challenge of improving boiling: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial of water pasteurization and safe storage in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, K; Rocha, C A; Quick, R E; Montano, S M; Tilley, D H; Mock, C N; Carrasco, A J; Cabrera, R M; Hawes, S E

    2016-07-01

    Boiling is the most common method of household water treatment in developing countries; however, it is not always effectively practised. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 210 households to assess the effectiveness of water pasteurization and safe-storage interventions in reducing Escherichia coli contamination of household drinking water in a water-boiling population in rural Peru. Households were randomized to receive either a safe-storage container or a safe-storage container plus water pasteurization indicator or to a control group. During a 13-week follow-up period, households that received a safe-storage container and water pasteurization indicator did not have a significantly different prevalence of stored drinking-water contamination relative to the control group [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·92-1·52]. Similarly, receipt of a safe-storage container alone had no effect on prevalence of contamination (PR 1·02, 95% CI 0·79-1·31). Although use of water pasteurization indicators and locally available storage containers did not increase the safety of household drinking water in this study, future research could illuminate factors that facilitate the effective use of these interventions to improve water quality and reduce the risk of waterborne disease in populations that boil drinking water.

  1. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  2. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  3. Is Middlesex County College Accomplishing Its Mission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabkins, Xenia P.

    Over the past few years, New Jersey's Middlesex County College (MCC) has placed an inordinate amount of attention and effort on the issue of student transfer to four-year institutions. Although attention to traditional academic goals is important, MCC's stated mission also addresses other important segments of the college's market. The college has…

  4. Probabilistic Model for Listeria monocytogenes Growth during Distribution, Retail Storage, and Domestic Storage of Pasteurized Milk ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos; Pavlis, Athanasios; Nychas, George-John E.; Xanthiakos, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    A survey on the time-temperature conditions of pasteurized milk in Greece during transportation to retail, retail storage, and domestic storage and handling was performed. The data derived from the survey were described with appropriate probability distributions and introduced into a growth model of Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk which was appropriately modified for taking into account strain variability. Based on the above components, a probabilistic model was applied to evaluate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the chill chain of pasteurized milk using a Monte Carlo simulation. The model predicted that, in 44.8% of the milk cartons released in the market, the pathogen will grow until the time of consumption. For these products the estimated mean total growth of L. monocytogenes during transportation, retail storage, and domestic storage was 0.93 log CFU, with 95th and 99th percentiles of 2.68 and 4.01 log CFU, respectively. Although based on EU regulation 2073/2005 pasteurized milk produced in Greece belongs to the category of products that do not allow the growth of L. monocytogenes due to a shelf life (defined by law) of 5 days, the above results show that this shelf life limit cannot prevent L. monocytogenes from growing under the current chill chain conditions. The predicted percentage of milk cartons—initially contaminated with 1 cell/1-liter carton—in which the pathogen exceeds the safety criterion of 100 cells/ml at the time of consumption was 0.14%. The probabilistic model was used for an importance analysis of the chill chain factors, using rank order correlation, while selected intervention and shelf life increase scenarios were evaluated. The results showed that simple interventions, such as excluding the door shelf from the domestic storage of pasteurized milk, can effectively reduce the growth of the pathogen. The door shelf was found to be the warmest position in domestic refrigerators, and it was most frequently used by the

  5. Aflatoxin M1 level in pasteurized and sterilized milk of Babol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi S J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are severe toxic secondary metabolites found in most plant products. When animals consume contaminated feed stuff to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the toxin is metabolized by liver and is excreted as Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 via milk. Aflatoxins are acute toxic compounds, immunosuppressive, mutagen, tratogen and carcinogen."nMethods: During the winter of 2006, pasteurized and sterilized (ultra high temperature (UHT milk packages were collected from supermarkets in Babol city. 78 pasteurized and 33 sterilized milk, totally 111 samples were tested for AFM1 by competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Solid phase in plastic micro wells coated whit anti-Aflatoxin M1 antibodies. We added 100 microliter skimmed milk and Aflatoxin M1 standard solutions in each well. In each plate, we appointed seven wells for standards. Plates were incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 45 min. Each well was washed four times by washing buffer 20X concentration. Then 100 micro liter conjugated solution (100X was added to each well, and the plate was incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 15 min. After that, the wells were washed. After adding the substrates to wells, we incubated the plate at 20-25 centigrade in a dark place for 15 min. The reaction was stopped by stop solution. After one hour, light absorption was read at 450 nm by ELISA reader."nResults: AFM1 were detected in 100% of all samples. 100% of samples were above of European community regulations (50ng/l. AFM1 contamination mean levels pasteurized and sterilized milk were 230.5 and 221.66 respectively. Therefore more than four fold levels European community. There is not a significant relationship between AFM1 contamina-tion level and different months of winter applying statistical test."nConclusion: The results showed the need for introducing safety limits for AFM1 levels in child milk under Food Legislative liable of Iran. Aflatoxin M1 contamination is a serious problem for public health

  6. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  7. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  8. A novel combined solar pasteurizer/TiO2 continuous-flow reactor for decontamination and disinfection of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, José María; Durán, Antonio; Martín, Israel San; Acevedo, Alba María

    2017-02-01

    A new combined solar plant including an annular continuous-flow compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactor and a pasteurization system was designed, built, and tested for simultaneous drinking water disinfection and chemical decontamination. The plant did not use pumps and had no electricity costs. First, water continuously flowed through the CPC reactor and then entered the pasteurizer. The temperature and water flow from the plant effluent were controlled by a thermostatic valve located at the pasteurizer outlet that opened at 80 °C. The pasteurization process was simulated by studying the effect of heat treatment on the death kinetic parameters (D and z values) of Escherichia coli K12 (CECT 4624). 99.1% bacteria photo-inactivation was reached in the TiO 2 -CPC system (0.60 mg cm -2 TiO 2 ), and chemical decontamination in terms of antipyrine degradation increased with increasing residence time in the TiO 2 -CPC system, reaching 70% degradation. The generation of hydroxyl radicals (between 100 and 400 nmol L -1 ) was a key factor in the CPC system efficiency. Total thermal bacteria inactivation was attained after pasteurization in all cases. Chemical degradation and bacterial photo-inactivation in the TiO 2 -CPC system were improved with the addition of 150 mg L -1 of H 2 O 2 , which generated approximately 2000-2300 nmol L -1 of HO ● radicals. Finally, chemical degradation and bacterial photo-inactivation kinetic modelling in the annular CPC photoreactor were evaluated. The effect of the superficial liquid velocity on the overall rate constant was also studied. Both antipyrine degradation and E. coli photo-inactivation were found to be controlled by the catalyst surface reaction rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence, Virulence Genes, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Genetic Diversity of Bacillus cereus Isolated From Pasteurized Milk in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a common and important food-borne pathogen that can be found in various food products. Due to low-temperature sterilization for a short period of time, pasteurization is not sufficient for complete elimination of B. cereus in milk, thereby cause severe economic loss and food safety problems. It is therefore of paramount importance to perform risk assessment of B. cereus in pasteurized milk. In this study, we isolated B. cereus from pasteurized milk samples in different regions of China, and evaluated the contamination situation, existence of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance profile and genetic polymorphism of B. cereus isolates. Intriguingly, 70 samples (27% were found to be contaminated by B. cereus and the average contamination level was 111 MPN/g. The distribution of virulence genes was assessed toward 10 enterotoxigenic genes (hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC, cytK, entFM, bceT, and hlyII and one emetic gene (cesB. Forty five percent strains harbored enterotoxigenic genes hblACD and 93% isolates contained nheABC gene cluster. The positive rate of cytK, entFM, bceT, hlyII, and cesB genes were 73, 96, 75, 54, and 5%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility assessment showed that most of the isolates were resistant to β-lactam antibiotics and rifampicin, but susceptible to other antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Total multidrug-resistant population was about 34%. In addition, B. cereus isolates in pasteurized milk showed a high genetic diversity. In conclusion, our findings provide the first reference on the prevalence, contamination level and characteristics of B. cereus isolated from pasteurized milk in China, suggesting a potential high risk of B. cereus to public health and dairy industry.

  10. Pasteurization of mother's own milk for preterm infants does not reduce the incidence of late-onset sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossey, Veerle; Vanhole, Chris; Eerdekens, An; Rayyan, Maissa; Fieuws, Steffen; Schuermans, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Feeding preterm infants human milk has a beneficial effect on the risk of late-onset sepsis (LOS). Due to lack of microbiological standards, practices such as pasteurization of mother's own milk differ widely among neonatal intensive care units worldwide. To investigate whether pasteurization of mother's own milk for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants influences the incidence and severity of infection-related outcomes. In this randomized controlled trial, preterm infants (gestational age pasteurized mother's own milk during the first 8 weeks of life. The primary outcome was the incidence of proven LOS. A dose-response relation was verified, i.e. the dependence of the risk of sepsis on the actual and cumulative quantities of mother's own milk. This study included 303 VLBW infants (mean birth weight: 1,276 g; mean gestational age: 29 weeks) whose baseline and nutritional characteristics were similar. The incidence of laboratory-confirmed sepsis was not statistically different in infants fed raw milk compared to infants who received pasteurized milk: 22/151 (0.15, CI: 0.08-0.20) and 31/152 (0.20, CI: 0.14-0.27), respectively (RR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.43-1.17). A significant dose-response relation was observed between the adjusted quantity of enteral feeding and the risk of LOS, regardless of the type of feeding. For preterm infants, pasteurization of mother's own milk shows a trend towards an increase in infectious morbidity, although no statistical significance was reached. Practices should focus on collection, storage and labeling procedures to ensure the safety and quality of expressed milk. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Short communication: Influence of labeling on Australian and Chinese consumers' liking of milk with short (pasteurized) and long (UHT) shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, D G; Bolhuis, D P; Hu, X; Keast, R S J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty percent of milk consumed in China has a long shelf life (UHT), presumably because milk with a short shelf life (pasteurized) is comparatively expensive. This in contrast to Australia, where 10% of consumed milk is UHT and the price between UHT and pasteurized milk is equivalent. Whether UHT is actually more liked than pasteurized milk by Chinese consumers is unknown. However, the potential positive halo around the expensive pasteurized milk might result in Chinese consumers liking milk more when it is labeled as "short shelf-life milk." To test these hypotheses, Chinese (n=48, 20 males, 28 females, 23 ± 7.2 yr) and Australian (n=93, 11 males, 82 females, 24 ± 5.6 yr) consumers tasted and rated (9-point hedonic scale), in a randomized order, 3 × 30-mL samples of UHT milk (labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk") and 3 × 30-mL samples of pasteurized milk (also labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk"). Australian participants' liking of milk was not influenced by labeling. Regardless of what the label stated, they always preferred the taste of pasteurized milk over the taste of UHT milk. This was different for Chinese participants, who preferred the taste of UHT milk over the taste of pasteurized milk, but in general had a higher liking for any milk that was labeled "short shelf-life milk." Both Australian and Chinese were more positive about pasteurized than UHT milk. In conclusion, Chinese, but not Australian, consumers' liking of milk was guided by the positive expectations of pasteurized milk and the negative expectations of UHT milk. Further research is needed to investigate if the present findings can be extrapolated to a larger and more varied group of Chinese and Australian consumers. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mission of Mercy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Some dentists prefer solo charity work, but there is much to be said for collaboration within the profession in reaching out to those who are dentally underserved. Mission of Mercy (MOM) programs are regularly organized across the country for this purpose. This article describes the structure, reach, and personal satisfaction to be gained from such missions.

  13. Household pasteurization of drinking-water: the chulli water-treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Fakhrul; Johnston, Richard B

    2006-09-01

    A simple flow-through system has been developed which makes use of wasted heat generated in traditional clay ovens (chullis) to pasteurize surface water. A hollow aluminium coil is built into the clay chulli, and water is passed through the coil during normal cooking events. By adjusting the flow rate, effluent temperature can be maintained at approximately 70 degrees C. Laboratory testing, along with over 400 field tests on chulli systems deployed in six pilot villages, showed that the treatment completely inactivated thermotolerant coliforms. The chulli system produces up to 90 litres per day of treated water at the household level, without any additional time or fuel requirement. The technology has been developed to provide a safe alternative source of drinking-water in arsenic-contaminated areas, but can also have wide application wherever people consume microbiologically-contaminated water.

  14. Ultrasonic sensor system to detect solids in a milk pasteurization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroeta Z., Carlos; Sanchez M., Fernando L.; Fernando R., G. Moreno; Montes P., Laura

    2002-11-01

    In the food industry, many products require a specific process. In the milk industry, the raw milk passes through several process stages before reaching the end user in a very qualitative and healthy way. One of the problems of the milk is that it can contain solids in suspension, result of contamination of the milk, or inherent to the pasteurization process itself. In order to control these solids, a solid detection system is being developed, which will detect the solids by the reflection and refraction of ultrasonic waves. The sensor must be set in the upper part of the milk containers, and with a grid array to allow the control system to prevent these solids from entering into the pipes of the processing plant. The sensing system may activate an acoustic alarm to indicate that a solid has been detected, and a visual one to indicate the affected part of the process. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  15. Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

  16. Institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....

  17. Mission, Multiculturalism, and the Liberal Arts College: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez; Salkever, Katya

    2003-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, explored how faculty, administrators, and students at a liberal arts college understand the mission of liberal education and its relationship to their institutional goals for multicultural community. Interview data suggest that the traditional liberal educational mission of this college thwarts the development of…

  18. Development and shelf-life determination of pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, A E C; Silva E Alves, A T; Gallina, D A; Trento, F K H S; Zacarchenco, P B; Van Dender, A G F; Moreno, I; Ormenese, R C S C; Spadoti, L M

    2014-09-01

    The segment of the world population showing permanent or temporary lactose intolerance is quite significant. Because milk is a widely consumed food with an high nutritional value, technological alternatives have been sought to overcome this dilemma. Microfiltration combined with pasteurization can not only extend the shelf life of milk but can also maintain the sensory, functional, and nutritional properties of the product. This studied developed a pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed (delactosed) skim milk (PMLHSM). Hydrolysis was performed using β-galactosidase at a concentration of 0.4mL/L and incubation for approximately 21h at 10±1°C. During these procedures, the degree of hydrolysis obtained (>90%) was accompanied by evaluation of freezing point depression, and the remaining quantity of lactose was confirmed by HPLC. Milk was processed using a microfiltration pilot unit equipped with uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) ceramic membranes with a mean pore size of 1.4 μm and UTP of 60 kPa. The product was submitted to physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluations, and its shelf life was estimated. Microfiltration reduced the aerobic mesophilic count by more than 4 log cycles. We were able to produce high-quality PMLHSM with a shelf life of 21 to 27d when stored at 5±1°C in terms of sensory analysis and proteolysis index and a shelf life of 50d in regard to total aerobic mesophile count and titratable acidity. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PCR detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw and pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, V L M; Vieira, F P; Rall, R; Vieitis, R L; Fernandes, A; Candeias, J M G; Cardoso, K F G; Araújo, J P

    2008-12-10

    Milk is considered a nutritious food because it contains several important nutrients including proteins and vitamins. Conversely, it can be a vehicle for several pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of genes encoding the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI and SEJ in S. aureus strains isolated from raw or pasteurized bovine milk. S. aureus was found in 38 (70.4%) out of 54 raw milk samples at concentrations of up to 8.9 x 10(5) CFU/ml. This microorganism was present in eight samples of pasteurized milk before the expiration date and in 11 samples analyzed on the expiration date. Of the 57 strains studied, 68.4% were positive for one or more genes encoding the enterotoxins, and 12 different genotypes were identified. The gene coding for enterotoxin A, sea, was the most frequent (16 strains, 41%), followed by sec (8 strains, 20.5%), sed (5 strains, 12.8%), seb (3 strains, 7.7%) and see (2 strains, 5.1%). Among the genes encoding the other enterotoxins, seg was the most frequently observed (11 strains, 28.2%), followed by sei (10 strains) and seh and sej (3 strains each). With the recent identification of new SEs, the perceived frequency of enterotoxigenic strains has increased, suggesting that the pathogenic potential of staphylococci may be higher than previously thought; however, further studies are required to assess the expression of these new SEs by S. aureus, and their impact in foodborne disease. The quality of Brazilian milk is still low, and efforts from the government and the entire productive chain are required to attain consumer safety.

  20. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  1. Monitoring of quality and storage time of unsealed pasteurized milk by voltammetric electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhenbo; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) was self-developed and applied to monitor the quality and storage time of unsealed pasteurized milk. The VE-tongue comprised four working electrodes: gold, silver, platinum, and palladium electrode. Two potential waveforms: Multi-frequency rectangle pulse voltammetry (MRPV) and multi-frequency staircase pulse voltammetry (MSPV) were applied to working electrodes in the study, and both of MRPV and MSPV consisted of three frequency segments: 1 Hz, 10 Hz, and 100 Hz. The total areas under the corresponding curves obtained by VE-tongue in the three frequencies were applied as characteristic data, which were evaluated by the principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). The results of PCA and CA indicate that the milk samples of different storage time could be successfully classified by the VE-tongue based on MRPV and MSPV, respectively. Combining the areas obtained by the VE-tongue based on MRPV and MSPV, the classification results of PCA and CA were improved evidently. The total bacterial count, acidity and viscosity of the milk samples were also measured during the storage, and those physicochemical characteristics showed regular configuration in PCA and CA plots. Furthermore, the total bacterial count and viscosity properties were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and the combination of the areas obtained by the VE-tongue based on the MRPV and MSPV were applied as the input data of PLSR and LS-SVM. Both the prediction techniques performed well in predicting viscosity and total bacterial count, and the prediction results of LS-SVM were better than that of PLSR. Those results demonstrate that the VE-tongue could be applied to monitor the quality storage time of unsealed pasteurized milk

  2. The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Activin A Levels in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2016-11-01

    There is evidence that mother's own milk is the best nutrient in terms of multiorgan protection and infection prevention. However, when maternal milk is scarce, the solution can be represented by donor milk (DM), which requires specific storage procedures such as Holder Pasteurization (HoP). HoP is not free from side effects since it is widely known that it causes qualitative/quantitative changes in milk composition, particularly in the protein content. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of HoP on Activin A, a neurobiomarker known to play an important role in the development and protection of the central nervous system. In 24 mothers who delivered preterm (n = 12) and term (n = 12) healthy newborns, we conducted a pretest/test study where the milk donors acted as their own controls. Each sample was divided into two parts: the first was frozen at -80°C (Group 1); the second was Holder-pasteurized before freezing at -80°C (Group 2). Activin A was quantified using an ELISA test. Activin A was detected in all samples. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two groups, also when the analysis was stratified for gestational age at delivery and milk maturation degree (p > 0.05, for both). The present findings on the absence of any side effects of HoP on the milk concentration of Activin A offer additional support to the efficacy of HoP in DM storage. Our data open up to further investigations on neurobiomarkers' assessment in human milk and their preanalytical stability according to storage procedures.

  3. Transportation Security Institute: recruiting next generation professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    "The Center for Transportation Training and Research (CTTR), as part of Texas Southern University (TSU), served as host for the 2012 Transportation Security Institute (TSI) in Houston and surrounding area. The 2012 Houston TSI focuses on the mission ...

  4. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  5. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves

  6. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  7. EUCLID mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Oswald; Ergenzinger, Klaus; Tuttle, Sean; Vaillon, L.; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    EUCLID, a medium-class mission candidate of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Program, currently in Definition Phase (Phase A/B1), shall map the geometry of the Dark Universe by investigating dark matter distributions, the distance-redshift relationship, and the evolution of cosmic structures. EUCLID consists of a 1.2 m telescope and two scientific instruments for ellipticity and redshift measurements in the visible and nearinfrared wavelength regime. We present a design concept of the EUCLID mission which is fully compliant with the mission requirements. Preliminary concepts of the spacecraft and of the payload including the scientific instruments are discussed.

  8. Effects of fat content, pasteurization method, homogenization pressure, and storage time on the mechanical and sensory properties of bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Joyner, H S; Carter, B G; Drake, M A

    2018-04-01

    Fluid milk may be pasteurized by high-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST) or ultrapasteurization (UP). Literature suggests that UP increases milk astringency, but definitive studies have not demonstrated this effect. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of pasteurization method, fat content, homogenization pressure, and storage time on milk sensory and mechanical behaviors. Raw skim (fat), 2%, and 5% fat milk was pasteurized in duplicate by indirect UP (140°C, 2.3 s) or by HTST pasteurization (78°C, 15 s), homogenized at 20.7 MPa, and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Additionally, 2% fat milk was processed by indirect UP and homogenized at 13.8, 20.7, and 27.6 MPa and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Sensory profiling, instrumental viscosity, and friction profiles of all milk were evaluated at 25°C after storage times of 1, 4, and 8 wk. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to determine protein structural changes in milk at these time points. Fresh HTST milk was processed at wk 7 for wk 8 evaluations. Ultrapasteurization increased milk sensory and instrumental viscosity compared with HTST pasteurization. Increased fat content increased sensory and instrumental viscosity, and decreased astringency and friction profiles. Astringency, mixed regimen friction profiles, and sensory viscosity also increased for UP versus HTST. Increased storage time showed no effect on sensory viscosity or mechanical viscosity. However, increased storage time generally resulted in increased friction profiles and astringency. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed increased denatured whey protein in UP milk compared with HTST milk. The aggregates or network formed by these proteins and casein micelles likely caused the increase in viscosity and friction profiles during storage. Homogenization pressure did not significantly affect friction behaviors, mechanical viscosity, or astringency; however

  9. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Escuder-Vieco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min. Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L. In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in

  10. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia; Siegfried, Pablo; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Fernández, Leónides

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination) processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L). In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in this HTST system

  11. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia; Siegfried, Pablo; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R.; Fernández, Leónides

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination) processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L). In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in this HTST system

  12. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice. Part I: Impact on overall quality attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Knol, J.J.; Quataert, M.C.J.; Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Matser, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mild heat pasteurization, high pressure processing (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of freshly squeezed orange juice were comparatively evaluated examining their impact on microbial load and quality parameters immediately after processing and during two months of storage. Microbial

  13. Analisis Faktor - Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Konsumen dalam Membeli Produk Susu Pasteurisasi Kabupaten Kudus (Analysis of Factors Influence Consumer’s Purchasing of Pasteurization of Milk at District Kudus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Hartono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was to investigate factors influence consumer decision making in purchasing pasteurized milks and to examine factors that influence consumer decision to buy its. The study was conducted at Kota subdistrict, Kudus district with consumer`s of milk pasteurization as respondents. This study was carried out in January 2010. One hundred buyers were chosen as respondent by accidental sampling method. Data were analyzed using canonical correlation. The results showed that respondents had in complex decision making and brand loyalty types. The result also indicated that factors such as demography consumer`s, motivation of needs and desired, culture, factor of group, factor of quality facility and promotion had influence the consumer`s purchasing of pasteurized milk. (Key word: Consumer purchase decision, Canonical correlation analysis, Milk pasteurization

  14. Effect of the pasteurization process on the contents of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna

    2012-04-11

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the pasteurization process on the content of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage. Pasteurization was run at a temperature of 80 °C for 5-30 min. Significant changes were only observed in contents of ascorbigen and 3,3'-diindolylmethane. The total content of the compounds analyzed in cabbage pasteurized for 10-30 min was found to be decreased by ca. 20%, and the losses were due to thermal degradation of the predominating ascorbigen. Pasteurization was found not to exert any considerable effect on contents of indole-3-acetonitrile and indole-3-carbinol in cabbage nor did it affect contents of the compounds analyzed in juice.

  15. Institute annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  16. Institute annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  17. PLA Missions Beyond Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Marc

    2008-01-01

    KEY INSIGHTS: *The PLA is being assigned and training for an increasing variety of missions, including nontraditional battlefields such as outer space and cyber space, as well as nontraditional functions...

  18. Mars MetNet Mission Pressure and Humidity Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Polkko, J.; Kemppinen, O.; Leinonen, J.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). MetBaro and MetHumi are part of the scientific payload of the MNL. Main scientific goal of both devices is to measure the meteorological phenomena (pressure and humidity) of the Martian atmosphere and complement the previous Mars mission atmospheric measurements (Viking and Phoenix) for better understanding of the Martian atmospheric conditions.

  19. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  20. Efficacy of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions in combination with homogenization on inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Irene R; Williams, Alan G; Rowe, Michael T; Muir, D Donald

    2005-06-01

    The effect of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions with and without homogenization on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was investigated using a pilot-scale commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurizer and raw milk spiked with 10(1) to 10(5) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells/ml. Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from 27 (3.3%) of 816 pasteurized milk samples overall, 5 on Herrold's egg yolk medium and 22 by BACTEC culture. Therefore, in 96.7% of samples, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis had been completely inactivated by HTST pasteurization, alone or in combination with homogenization. Heat treatments incorporating homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2, applied upstream (as a separate process) or in hold (at the start of a holding section), resulted in significantly fewer culture-positive samples than pasteurization treatments without homogenization (P HTST pasteurization with or without homogenization was estimated to be 4.0 to 5.2 log10. The impact of homogenization on clump size distribution in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis broth suspensions was subsequently assessed using a Mastersizer X spectrometer. These experiments demonstrated that large clumps of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were reduced to single-cell or "miniclump" status by homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2. Consequently, when HTST pasteurization was being applied to homogenized milk, the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells would have been present as predominantly declumped cells, which may possibly explain the greater inactivation achieved by the combination of pasteurization and homogenization.

  1. EMA-qPCR to monitor the efficiency of a closed-coupled solar pasteurization system in reducing Legionella contamination of roof-harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyneke, B; Dobrowsky, P H; Ndlovu, T; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2016-05-15

    Solar pasteurization is effective in reducing the level of indicator organisms in stored rainwater to within drinking water standards. However, Legionella spp. were detected at temperatures exceeding the recommended pasteurization temperatures using polymerase chain reaction assays. The aim of the current study was thus to apply EMA quantitative polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) to determine whether the Legionella spp. detected were intact cells and therefore possibly viable at pasteurization temperatures >70°C. The BacTiter-Glo™ Microbial Cell Viability Assay was also used to detect the presence of ATP in the tested samples, as ATP indicates the presence of metabolically active cells. Chemical analysis also indicated that all anions and cations were within the respective drinking water guidelines, with the exception of iron (mean: 186.76 μg/L) and aluminium (mean: 188.13 μg/L), which were detected in the pasteurized tank water samples at levels exceeding recommended guidelines. The BacTiter-Glo™ Microbial Cell Viability Assay indicated the presence of viable cells for all pasteurized temperatures tested, with the percentage of ATP (in the form of relative light units) decreasing with increasing temperature [70-79°C (96.7%); 80- 89°C (99.2%); 90-95°C (99.7%)]. EMA-qPCR then indicated that while solar pasteurization significantly reduced (p0.05) in the mean copy numbers was detected with an increase in the pasteurization temperature, with 6 × 10(3) genomic copies/mL DNA sample obtained at 95°C. As intact Legionella cells were detected in the pasteurized tank water samples, quantitative microbial risk assessment studies need to be conducted to determine the potential health risk associated with using the water for domestic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Renye, John A; Feng, Ling; Zeng, Qingkun; Tang, Yan; Huang, Li; Ren, Daxi; Yang, Pan

    2016-09-01

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High-quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from 3 dairy farms in the Guangxi province in southern China. Five liters of each milk sample were pasteurized (72°C; 15 s); and both raw and pasteurized milks were stored at refrigeration temperature (1-4°C) for various times with their microbial communities characterized using the Illumina Miseq platform (Novogene, Beijing, China). Results showed that both raw and pasteurized milks contained a diverse microbial population and that the populations changed over time during storage. In raw buffalo milk, Lactococcus and Streptococcus dominated the population within the first 24h; however, when stored for up to 72h the dominant bacteria were members of the Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera, totaling more than 60% of the community. In pasteurized buffalo milk, the microbial population shifted from a Lactococcus-dominated community (7d), to one containing more than 84% Paenibacillus by 21d of storage. To increase the shelf-life of buffalo milk and its products, raw milk needs to be refrigerated immediately after milking and throughout transport, and should be monitored for the presence of Paenibacillus. Results from this study suggest pasteurization should be performed within 24h of raw milk collection, when the number of psychrotrophic bacteria are low; however, as Paenibacillus spores are resistant to pasteurization, additional antimicrobial treatments may be required to extend shelf-life. The findings from this study are expected to aid in improving the quality and safety of raw and pasteurized buffalo milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacteriological study of raw and unexpired pasteurized cow's milk collected at the dairy farms and super markets in Sari city in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    VAHEDI, M.; NASROLAHEI, M.; SHARIF, M.; MIRABI, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction. The quality of milk is influenced by different bacteria present in milk. This study was undertaken to investigate the bacterial contamination of raw and pasteurized milk in Sari Township, Iran, 2011. Methods. In this investigation, 100 pasteurized milk samples were collected randomly from the super markets in the city and 100 raw milk samples from 4 dairy farms from suburb areas and evaluated for the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and List...

  4. Efficacy of Various Pasteurization Time-Temperature Conditions in Combination with Homogenization on Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Irene R.; Williams, Alan G.; Rowe, Michael T.; Muir, D. Donald

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions with and without homogenization on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was investigated using a pilot-scale commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurizer and raw milk spiked with 101 to 105 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells/ml. Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from 27 (3.3%) of 816 pasteurized milk samples overall, 5 on Herrold's egg yolk medium and 22 by BACTEC culture. Therefore, in 96.7% of samples, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis had been completely inactivated by HTST pasteurization, alone or in combination with homogenization. Heat treatments incorporating homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2, applied upstream (as a separate process) or in hold (at the start of a holding section), resulted in significantly fewer culture-positive samples than pasteurization treatments without homogenization (P pasteurization with or without homogenization was estimated to be 4.0 to 5.2 log10. The impact of homogenization on clump size distribution in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis broth suspensions was subsequently assessed using a Mastersizer X spectrometer. These experiments demonstrated that large clumps of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were reduced to single-cell or “miniclump” status by homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2. Consequently, when HTST pasteurization was being applied to homogenized milk, the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells would have been present as predominantly declumped cells, which may possibly explain the greater inactivation achieved by the combination of pasteurization and homogenization. PMID:15932977

  5. Human exploration mission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  6. Missions to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, D. V.; Baines, K. H.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Chassefiere, E.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Esposito, L. W.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Lellouch, E.; Moroz, V. I.; Nagy, A. F.; Owen, T. C.; Oyama, K.-I.; Russell, C. T.; Taylor, F. W.; Young, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    Venus has always been a fascinating objective for planetary studies. At the beginning of the space era Venus became one of the first targets for spacecraft missions. Our neighbour in the solar system and, in size, the twin sister of Earth, Venus was expected to be very similar to our planet. However, the first phase of Venus spacecraft exploration in 1962-1992 by the family of Soviet Venera and Vega spacecraft and US Mariner, Pioneer Venus, and Magellan missions discovered an entirely different, exotic world hidden behind a curtain of dense clouds. These studies gave us a basic knowledge of the conditions on the planet, but generated many more questions concerning the atmospheric composition, chemistry, structure, dynamics, surface-atmosphere interactions, atmospheric and geological evolution, and the plasma environment. Despite all of this exploration by more than 20 spacecraft, the "morning star" still remains a mysterious world. But for more than a decade Venus has been a "forgotten" planet with no new missions featuring in the plans of the world space agencies. Now we are witnessing the revival of interest in this planet: the Venus Orbiter mission is approved in Japan, Venus Express - a European orbiter mission - has successfully passed the selection procedure in ESA, and several Venus Discovery proposals are knocking at the doors of NASA. The paper presents an exciting story of Venus spacecraft exploration, summarizes open scientific problems, and builds a bridge to the future missions.

  7. The Ionospheric Connection Explorer Mission: Mission Goals and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, T. J.; England, S. L.; Mende, S. B.; Heelis, R. A.; Englert, C. R.; Edelstein, J.; Frey, H. U.; Korpela, E. J.; Taylor, E. R.; Craig, W. W.; Harris, S. E.; Bester, M.; Bust, G. S.; Crowley, G.; Forbes, J. M.; Gérard, J.-C.; Harlander, J. M.; Huba, J. D.; Hubert, B.; Kamalabadi, F.; Makela, J. J.; Maute, A. I.; Meier, R. R.; Raftery, C.; Rochus, P.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Stephan, A. W.; Swenson, G. R.; Frey, S.; Hysell, D. L.; Saito, A.; Rider, K. A.; Sirk, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    The Ionospheric Connection Explorer, or ICON, is a new NASA Explorer mission that will explore the boundary between Earth and space to understand the physical connection between our world and our space environment. This connection is made in the ionosphere, which has long been known to exhibit variability associated with the sun and solar wind. However, it has been recognized in the 21st century that equally significant changes in ionospheric conditions are apparently associated with energy and momentum propagating upward from our own atmosphere. ICON's goal is to weigh the competing impacts of these two drivers as they influence our space environment. Here we describe the specific science objectives that address this goal, as well as the means by which they will be achieved. The instruments selected, the overall performance requirements of the science payload and the operational requirements are also described. ICON's development began in 2013 and the mission is on track for launch in 2018. ICON is developed and managed by the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, with key contributions from several partner institutions.

  8. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  9. Cultural synergy in information institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Smiraglia, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Cultural forces govern a synergistic relationship among information institutions that shapes their roles collectively and individually. Cultural synergy is the combination of perception- and behavior-shaping knowledge within, between, and among groups. Our hyperlinked era makes information-sharing among institutions critically important for scholarship as well as for the advancement of humankind. Information institutions are those that have, or share in, the mission to preserve, conserve, and disseminate information objects and their informative content. A central idea is the notion of social

  10. Destruction of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk by a commercial on-farm high-temperature, short-time pasteurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabel, J R; Hurd, S; Calvente, L; Rosenbusch, R F

    2004-07-01

    The 2002 NAHM's Dairy Survey indicated that 87.2% of dairy farms in the United States feed waste milk to their neonatal calves. Although cost-effective, this practice can lead to increased calf morbidity and mortality due to ingestion of pathogenic agents. In an effort to reduce the risk of infection, dairy producers are implementing on-farm pasteurization of the waste milk as a control procedure before feeding the milk to calves. In the present study, the efficacy of a commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) on-farm pasteurizer unit to destroy Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella enterica spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk was evaluated. Replicate experiments were run for 3 isolates of M. paratuberculosis, 3 serovars of Salmonella (derby, dublin, typhimurium); and 4 species of Mycoplasma (bovis, californicum, canadense, serogroup 7) at 2 different levels of experimental inoculation. In addition, HTST pasteurization experiments were performed on colostrum experimentally inoculated with M. paratuberculosis. After culture of the pasteurized milk samples, no viable M. paratuberculosis, Salmonella, or Mycoplasma were recovered, regardless of species, strain, or isolate. Pasteurization of colostrum was also effective in the destruction of M. paratuberculosis but resulted in an average 25% reduction in colostral immunoglobulin. These results suggest that HTST pasteurization is effective in generating a safer product to feed to young calves.

  11. Pasteurization as a tool to control the bio-burden in solid herbal dosage forms: A pilot study of formulating Ashoka tablets with an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpalatha, Hulikal Basavarajaiah; Pramod, Kumar; Sundaram, Ramachandran; Shyam, Ramakrishnan

    2014-10-01

    Irradiation and use of preservatives are routine procedures to control bio-burden in solid herbal dosage forms. Use of steam or pasteurization is even though reported in the literature, not many studies are available with respect to its application in reducing the bio-burden in herbal drug formulations. Hence, we undertook a series of studies to explore the suitability of pasteurization as a method to reduce bio-burden during formulation and development of herbal dosage forms, which will pave the way for preparing preservative-free formulations. Optimized Ashoka (Saraca indica) tablets were formulated and developed. The optimized formula was then subjected to pasteurization during formulation, with an aim to keep the microbial count well within the limits of pharmacopoeial standards. Then, three variants of the optimized Ashoka formulation - with preservative, without preservative and formulation without preservative and subjected to pasteurization, were compared by routine in-process parameters and stability studies. The results obtained indicate that Ashoka tablets manufactured by inclusion of the pasteurization technique not only showed the bio-burden to be within the limits of pharmacopoeial standards, but also exhibited the compliance with other parameters, such as stability and quality. The outcome of this pilot study shows that pasteurization can be employed as a distinctive method for reducing bio-burden during the formulation and development of herbal dosage forms, such as tablets.

  12. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set-Effect of Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-02-26

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified.

  13. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set—Effect of Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified. PMID:26927169

  14. Survey Study of Lipid Effect on Nisin Nanoliposome Formation and Application in Pasteurized Milk as a Food Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Say-yed Hesameddin Tafreshi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bacteriocins, mainly nisin, is one of the most significant preservation technologies in food industries. Nisin encapsulation can improve stability and homogenous distribution in food matrices. In this study, liposomes of four various lipids (lipoid S 100, lipoid S PC-3, lipoid S PC and lipoid PC (DPPC were prepared by dehydration-rehydration method, compared for entrapment efficiency and lipid with the highest entrapment efficiency (DPPC was characterized. Inhibitory effects of encapsulated (DPPC nanoliposomes and free nisin on spoilage of pasteurized milk were also studied. Entrapment efficiency ranged from 14% (lipoid S 100 to 49% (DPPC. DPPC nanoliposomes were large unilamellar vesicles (LUV and had an asymmetric oval shape (elliptical with a mean diameter of 136 nm. Our study revealed that pasteurized milk spoilage was delayed by both of free and encapsulated nisin, but free nisin (with 38 days was significantly more efficient in comparison with encapsulated nisin (14 days.

  15. Collaboration of Art and Science in Albert Edelfelt's Portrait of Louis Pasteur: The Making of an Enduring Medical Icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Richard E; Hansen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Historians of medicine--and even Louis Pasteur's biographers--have paid little attention to his close relationship with the Finnish artist Albert Edelfelt. A new look at Edelfelt's letters to his mother, written in Swedish and never quoted at length in English, reveals important aspects of Pasteur's working habits and personality. By understanding the active collaboration through which this very famous portrait was made, we also discover unnoticed things in the painting itself, gain a new appreciation of its original impact on the French public's image of science, and better understand its enduring influence on the portrayal of medicine in the art and the popular culture of many countries even to the present day.

  16. Pilot-scale crossflow-microfiltration and pasteurization to remove spores of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Datta, N; Porto-Fett, A; Call, J E; Luchansky, J B; Renye, J; Tunick, M

    2011-09-01

    High-temperature, short-time pasteurization of milk is ineffective against spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis (BA), but is lethal to its vegetative cells. Crossflow microfiltration (MF) using ceramic membranes with a pore size of 1.4 μm has been shown to reject most microorganisms from skim milk; and, in combination with pasteurization, has been shown to extend its shelf life. The objectives of this study were to evaluate MF for its efficiency in removing spores of the attenuated Sterne strain of BA from milk; to evaluate the combined efficiency of MF using a 0.8-μm ceramic membrane, followed by pasteurization (72°C, 18.6s); and to monitor any residual BA in the permeates when stored at temperatures of 4, 10, and 25°C for up to 28 d. In each trial, 95 L of raw skim milk was inoculated with about 6.5 log(10) BA spores/mL of milk. It was then microfiltered in total recycle mode at 50°C using ceramic membranes with pore sizes of either 0.8 μm or 1.4 μm, at crossflow velocity of 6.2 m/s and transmembrane pressure of 127.6 kPa, conditions selected to exploit the selectivity of the membrane. Microfiltration using the 0.8-μm membrane removed 5.91±0.05 log(10) BA spores/mL of milk and the 1.4-μm membrane removed 4.50±0.35 log(10) BA spores/mL of milk. The 0.8-μm membrane showed efficient removal of the native microflora and both membranes showed near complete transmission of the casein proteins. Spore germination was evident in the permeates obtained at 10, 30, and 120 min of MF time (0.8-μm membrane) but when stored at 4 or 10°C, spore levels were decreased to below detection levels (≤0.3 log(10) spores/mL) by d 7 or 3 of storage, respectively. Permeates stored at 25°C showed coagulation and were not evaluated further. Pasteurization of the permeate samples immediately after MF resulted in additional spore germination that was related to the length of MF time. Pasteurized permeates obtained at 10 min of MF and stored at 4 or 10°C showed no

  17. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying; Conservacao de polpa de jucara (Euterpe edulis) submetida a radiacao gama, pasteurizacao, liofilizacao e atomizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-08-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to

  18. Analysis of the influence of pasteurization, freezing/thawing, and offer processes on human milk's macronutrient concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alan Araujo; Soares, Fernanda Valente Mendes; Pimenta, Hellen Porto; Abranches, Andrea Dunshee; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2011-08-01

    The macronutrient concentrations of human milk could be influenced by the various processes used in human milk bank. To determine the effect of various process (Holder pasteurization, freezing and thawing and feeding method) on the macronutrient concentration of human milk. The samples of donated fresh human milk were studied before and after each process (Holder pasteurization, freezing and thawing and feeding method) until their delivery to newborn infants. Fifty-seven raw human milk samples were analyzed in the first step (pasteurization) and 228 in the offer step. Repeated measurements of protein, fat and lactose amounts were made in samples of human milk using an Infrared analyzer. The influence of repeated processes on the mean concentration of macronutrients in donor human milk was analyzed by repeated measurements ANOVA, using R statistical package. The most variable macronutrient concentration in the analyzed samples was fat (reduction of 59%). There was a significant reduction of fat and protein mean concentrations following pasteurization (5.5 and 3.9%, respectively). The speed at which the milk was thawed didn't cause a significant variation in the macronutrients concentrations. However, the continuous infusion delivery significantly reduced the fat concentration. When the influence of repeated processes was analyzed, the fat and protein concentrations varied significantly (reduction of 56.6% and 10.1% respectively) (Pmilk is submitted before delivery to newborn infants cause a reduction in the fat and protein concentration. The magnitude of this decrease is higher on the fat concentration and it needs to be considered when this processed milk is used to feed preterm infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization

    OpenAIRE

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was c...

  20. Partial Failure of Milk Pasteurization as a Risk for the Transmission of Campylobacter From Cattle to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anand M; Balasegaram, Sooria; Willis, Caroline; Wimalarathna, Helen M L; Maiden, Martin C; McCarthy, Noel D

    2015-09-15

    Cattle are the second most common source of human campylobacteriosis. However, routes to account for this scale of transmission have not been identified. In contrast to chicken, red meat is not heavily contaminated at point of sale. Although effective pasteurization prevents milk-borne infection, apparently sporadic infections may include undetected outbreaks from raw or perhaps incompletely pasteurized milk. A rise in Campylobacter gastroenteritis in an isolated population was investigated using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), an epidemiological study, and environmental investigations. A single strain was identified in 20 cases, clearly distinguishable from other local strains and a reference population by WGS. A case-case analysis showed association of infection with the outbreak strain and milk from a single dairy (odds ratio, 8; Fisher exact test P value = .023). Despite temperature records indicating effective pasteurization, mechanical faults likely to lead to incomplete pasteurization of part of the milk were identified by further testing and examination of internal components of dairy equipment. Here, milk distribution concentrated on a small area, including school-aged children with low background incidence of campylobacteriosis, facilitated outbreak identification. Low-level contamination of widely distributed milk would not produce as detectable an outbreak signal. Such hidden outbreaks may contribute to the substantial burden of apparently sporadic Campylobacter from cattle where transmission routes are not certain. The effective discrimination of outbreak isolates from a reference population using WGS shows that integrating these data and approaches into surveillance could support the detection as well as investigation of such outbreaks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. ELECTROLYTE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF TERM DONOR HUMAN MILK BEFORE AND AFTER PASTEURIZATION AND OF RAW MILK OF PRETERM MOTHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codo, Carla Regina Bianchi; Caldas, Jamil Pedro de Siqueira; Peixoto, Rafaella Regina Alves; Sanches, Vitor Lacerda; Guiraldelo, Tamara Cristina; Cadore, Solange; Marba, Sérgio Tadeu Martins

    2018-02-22

    To determine and compare the concentrations of electrolytes and minerals in three different types of maternal milk samples: term donor milk before pasteurization, term donor milk after pasteurization and raw milk of mothers of preterm newborns at bedside. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Concentrations of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were measured in random samples of three human breast milk groups. Samples were analyzed using acid mineralization assisted by microwave radiation and further analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Concentrations were expressed in mg/L, described as mean and standard deviation. The one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-test were applied to determine the variability between the means of each group. Significance level was set at 5%. There was a significant reduction in the content of Ca (259.4±96.8 vs. 217.0±54.9; p=0.003), P (139.1±51.7 vs. 116.8±33.3; p=0.004) and K (580.8±177.1 vs. 470.9±109.4; ppasteurization. Samples of raw milk presented higher contents of Na than the donated milk (twice). The elements P and Ca would only reach the daily intake levels recommended by the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition if at least 60 mL of milk could be offered every 3 hours. Mg levels were not different between the three groups. There was a significant reduction in Ca, P and K levels in samples after pasteurization. The Na value in raw milk, collected at bedside, was higher than in the samples of donor's milk before pasteurization.

  2. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed: Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, C. A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Malo, R.; Wilson, J.

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P = 0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep the animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality.

  3. Proteomic profile of culture filtrate from the Brazilian vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau compared to M. bovis BCG Pasteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degrave Wim M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG is currently the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB and comprises a heterogeneous family of sub-strains with genotypic and phenotypic differences. The World Health Organization (WHO affirms that the characterization of BCG sub-strains, both on genomic and proteomic levels, is crucial for a better comprehension of the vaccine. In addition, these studies can contribute in the development of a more efficient vaccine against TB. Here, we combine two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE and mass spectrometry to analyse the proteomic profile of culture filtrate proteins (CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau, the Brazilian vaccine strain, comparing it to that of BCG Pasteur. CFPs are considered of great importance given their dominant immunogenicity and role in pathogenesis, being available for interaction with host cells since early infection. Results The 2DE proteomic map of M. bovis BCG Moreau CFPs in the pH range 3 - 8 allowed the identification of 158 spots corresponding to 101 different proteins, identified by MS/MS. Comparison to BCG Pasteur highlights the great similarity between these BCG strains. However, quantitative analysis shows a higher expression of immunogenic proteins such as Rv1860 (BCG1896, Apa, Rv1926c (BCG1965c, Mpb63 and Rv1886c (BCG1923c, Ag85B in BCG Moreau when compared to BCG Pasteur, while some heat shock proteins, such as Rv0440 (BCG0479, GroEL2 and Rv0350 (BCG0389, DnaK, show the opposite pattern. Conclusions Here we report the detailed 2DE profile of CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau and its comparison to BCG Pasteur, identifying differences that may provide relevant information on vaccine efficacy. These findings contribute to the detailed characterization of the Brazilian vaccine strain against TB, revealing aspects that may lead to a better understanding of the factors leading to BCG's variable protective efficacy against TB.

  4. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states....

  5. Gravity separation of fat, somatic cells, and bacteria in raw and pasteurized milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Melilli, C; Barbano, D M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to determine if the extent of gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells is influenced by the time and temperature of gravity separation or the level of contaminating bacteria present in the raw milk. The objective of experiment 2 was to determine if different temperatures of milk heat treatment affected the gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. In raw milk, fat, bacteria, and somatic cells rose to the top of columns during gravity separation. About 50 to 80% of the fat and bacteria were present in the top 8% of the milk after gravity separation of raw milk. Gravity separation for 7h at 12°C or for 22h at 4°C produced equivalent separation of fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. The completeness of gravity separation of fat was influenced by the level of bacteria in the milk before separation. Milk with a high bacterial count had less (about 50 to 55%) gravity separation of fat than milk with low bacteria count (about 80%) in 22h at 4°C. Gravity separation caused fat, bacteria, and somatic cells to rise to the top of columns for raw whole milk and high temperature, short-time pasteurized (72.6°C, 25s) whole milk. Pasteurization at ≥76.9°C for 25s prevented all 3 components from rising, possibly due to denaturation of native bovine immunoglobulins that normally associate with fat, bacteria, and somatic cells during gravity separation. Gravity separation can be used to produce reduced-fat milk with decreased bacterial and somatic cell counts, and may be a critical factor in the history of safe and unique traditional Italian hard cheeses produced from gravity-separated raw milk. A better understanding of the mechanism of this natural process could lead to the development of new nonthermal thermal technology (that does not involve heating the milk to high temperatures) to remove bacteria and spores from milk or other liquids. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  6. The effect of vitamin concentrates on the flavor of pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, E B; Schiano, A N; Jo, Y; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2017-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption in the United States continues to decline. As a result, the level of dietary vitamin D provided by fluid milk in the United States diet has also declined. Undesirable flavor(s)/off flavor(s) in fluid milk can negatively affect milk consumption and consumer product acceptability. The objectives of this study were to identify aroma-active compounds in vitamin concentrates used to fortify fluid milk, and to determine the influence of vitamin A and D fortification on the flavor of milk. The aroma profiles of 14 commercial vitamin concentrates (vitamins A and D), in both oil-soluble and water-dispersible forms, were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile compound analyses. Orthonasal thresholds were determined for 8 key aroma-active compounds in skim and whole milk. Six representative vitamin concentrates were selected to fortify skim and 2% fat pasteurized milks (vitamin A at 1,500-3,000 IU/qt, vitamin D at 200-1,200 IU/qt, vitamin A and D at 1,000/200-6,000/1,200 IU/qt). Pasteurized milks were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile compound analyses and by consumers. Fat content, vitamin content, and fat globule particle size were also determined. The entire experiment was done in duplicate. Water-dispersible vitamin concentrates had overall higher aroma intensities and more detected aroma-active compounds than oil-soluble vitamin concentrates. Trained panelists and consumers were able to detect flavor differences between skim milks fortified with water-dispersible vitamin A or vitamin A and D, and unfortified skim milks. Consumers were unable to detect flavor differences in oil-soluble fortified milks, but trained panelists documented a faint carrot flavor in oil-soluble fortified skim milks at higher vitamin A concentrations (3,000-6,000 IU). No differences were detected in skim milks fortified with vitamin D, and no differences were detected in any 2% milk. These results demonstrate that vitamin concentrates may contribute to

  7. Determining the source of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banykó, J; Vyletelová, M

    2009-03-01

    Strain-specific detection of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk, and yoghurt during processing. Randomly selected isolates of Bacillus spp. were subjected to PCR analysis, where single primer targeting to the repetitive sequence Box elements was used to fingerprint the species. The isolates were separated into six different fingerprint patterns. The results show that isolates clustered together at about the 57% similarity level with two main groups at the 82% and 83% similarity levels, respectively. Contamination with identical strains both of B. cereus and B. licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk was found as well as contaminated with different strains (in the case of raw milk and yoghurt/pasteurized milk and yoghurt). Several BOX types traced in processed milk samples were not discovered in the original raw milk. BOX-PCR fingerprinting is useful for characterizing Bacillus populations in a dairy environment. It can be used to confirm environmental contamination, eventually clonal transfer of Bacillus strains during the technological processing of milk. Despite the limited number of strains analysed, the two Bacillus species yielded adequately detectable banding profiles, permitting differentiation of bacteria at the strain level and showing their diversity throughout dairy processing.

  8. Determination of neomycin residues in pasteurized milks produced in some dairy processing establishments in East-Azarbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Movassagh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues in milk have a potential hazard for the consumer and may cause allergic reactions, interference in the intestinal flora that result in development of resistant populations of bacteria, thereby rendering antibiotic treatment ineffective. The aim of this study was to determine neomycin residues in pasteurized milk in East-Azarbaijan province. For this, a total of 200 samples of pasteurized milk produced by five dairy processing establishments of East Azarbaijan province was randomly collected. The samples were obtained over the spring and autumn (100 samples for each season of 2010. First, antibiotic residues were determined by Copan milk test. Afterwards, the competitive ELISA assay was used for the determination of neomycin concentration in positive samples. Of all samples, neomycin residues were observed in 9 and 13 samples and the mean neomycin residues amount were 43.20 ± 8.10 and 26.63±2.08 µg/L in spring and autumn, respectively. According to the limit of neomycin (1500 µg/l in cow raw milk in Iran, despite all the remaining drugs in pasteurized milk, in any of the samples exceeded level of neomycin was not observed.Based on the results, continuousmonitoringofantibiotic residues inmilk samples is recommended.

  9. A Study on the Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Produced in Rafsanjan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FaAkrami Mohajeri Akrami Mohajeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxins, known as causative factors of hepatic and extra-hepatic carcinogenesis within humans, are extremely teratogenic, mutagenic, toxic, and carcinogenic compounds. Materials & Methods: This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in 40 raw milk and 47 pasteurized milk samples collected during spring and winter. In order to analyze the samples, the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA procedure was used. The statistical methods used in this study were based on normal confidence intervals and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Aflatoxin M1 was detected in 97.5% of the raw milk ranging from 6.52 to 68.17 ng/l and 95.7% of the pasteurized milk, ranging from 0.8 to 58.13 ng/l. Toxin levels in 10% of the raw milk and 2.1% of the pasteurized milk samples exceeded the Iranian national standard limit i.e. 50 ng/l.  Due to seasonal variations, mean concentration of AFM1 in the samples collected in winter was significantly (P < 0.03 higher than those collected in the summer. Conclusion: Large amount of AFM1 in milk samples might be a potential hazard for the public health. Reducing the levels of AFB1 in animal feedstuffs can be regarded as the initial step to control the transfer of AFM1 to humans.

  10. Effect of Pasteurization on Flavonoids and Carotenoids in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. 'Cara Cara' and 'Bahia' Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasili, Elisa; Chaves, Daniela F Seixas; Xavier, Ana Augusta O; Mercadante, Adriana Z; Hassimotto, Neuza M A; Lajolo, Franco M

    2017-02-22

    Orange juice is considered an excellent dietary source of several bioactive compounds with beneficial properties for human health. Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. 'Cara Cara' is a bud mutation originated from 'Washington' navel orange, also known as 'Bahia' navel orange. The ascorbic acid, flavonoid, and carotenoid contents in pasteurized and nonpasteurized Bahia and Cara Cara juices using two LC-MS/MS platforms were investigated. Higher ascorbic acid content was observed in Bahia compared to Cara Cara in both pasteurized and nonpasteurized juices. Total flavanones content as well as hesperidin levels were higher in Cara Cara with respect to Bahia pasteurized juice. Cara Cara was also characterized by a significantly higher and diversified carotenoid content compared to Bahia juice with a mixture of (Z)-isomers of lycopene, all-E-β-carotene, phytoene, and phytofluene isomers accounting for the highest carotenoid proportion. The exceptionally high carotenoid content of Cara Cara may be particularly interesting for nutritional or functional studies of uncommon carotenes in a citrus food matrix.

  11. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately....../Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....

  12. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  13. Institutional Assessment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many approaches can and have helped research institutions in the developing .... There are many good texts on project and program evaluation, not to ...... has challenged managers and students of organizational development for decades.

  14. Mission operations technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsi, Giulio

    In the last decade, the operation of a spacecraft after launch has emerged as a major component of the total cost of the mission. This trend is sustained by the increasing complexity, flexibility, and data gathering capability of the space assets and by their greater reliability and consequent longevity. The trend can, however, be moderated by the progressive transfer of selected functions from the ground to the spacecraft and by application, on the ground, of new technology. Advances in ground operations derive from the introduction in the mission operations environment of advanced microprocessor-based workstations in the class of a few million instructions per second and from the selective application of artificial intelligence technology. In the last few years a number of these applications have been developed, tested in operational settings and successfully demonstrated to users. Some are now being integrated in mission operations facilities. An analysis of mission operations indicates that the key areas are: concurrent control of multiple missions; automated/interactive production of command sequences of high integrity at low cost; automated monitoring of spacecraft health and automated aides for fault diagnosis; automated allocation of resources; automated processing of science data; and high-fidelity, high-speed spacecraft simulation. Examples of major advances in selected areas are described.

  15. Marketing: Key to Institutional Survival and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The marketing concept holds that the primary task of an institution is to determine the needs, wants, and values of its target constituencies and to adapt itself to delivering desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than its competitors. Student orientation, marketing research, mission and goals, and institutional commitment are…

  16. Ethical Leadership: Successfully Communicating Institutional Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, John R.; Ebbs, Susan L.

    1993-01-01

    College leaders can be symbols of moral unity for their institutions. The leader must have a vision of the institution's ethical life, then be able to create and sustain it in the campus community. Strategic planning can help resolve conflicts constructively, based on values expressed in the mission statement. (MSE)

  17. Mission to the comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.

    1980-01-01

    The plans of space agencies in the United States and Europe for an exploratory comet mission including a one year rendezvous with comet Temple-2 and a fast fly-by of comet Halley are discussed. The mission provides an opportunity to make comparative measurements on the two different types of comets and also satisfies the three major scientific objectives of cometary missions namely: (1) To determine the chemical nature and the physical structure of cometary nuclei, and the changes that occur with time and orbital position. (2) To study the chemical and physical nature of the atmospheres and ionospheres of comets, the processes that occur in them, and their development with time and orbital position. (3) To determine the nature of the tails of comets and the processes by which they are formed, and to characterise the interaction of comets with solar wind. (UK)

  18. Kinetics of ascorbic acid degradation in un-pasteurized Iranian lemon juice during regular storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, A; Niakousari, M

    2008-05-15

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life stability of un-pasteurized lemon juice filled in clear or dark green glass bottles. Presence of light, time and temperature affect the ascorbic acid retention in citrus juices. Bottles were stored at room temperature (27 +/- 3 degrees C) and in the refrigerator (3 +/- 1 degrees C). Total soluble solids, total titrable acidity and pH value were measured every three weeks and analysis was carried out on ascorbic acid content by means of titration method in the presence of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The study was carried out for 12 weeks after which slight changes in color, taste and apparent texture in some samples were observed and ascorbic acid content reduced by 50%. Soluble solids content, pH value and total acidity were 5.5 degrees Brix, 2.73 and 5 g/100 mL, respectively which appeared not to be significantly influenced by storage time or conditions. Ascorbic acid content initially at 38.50 mg/100 mL was sharply reduced to about 22 mg/100 mL within the first three weeks of storage. The final ascorbic acid content of all samples was about 15 mg/100 mL. The deteriorative reaction of ascorbic acid in the juice at all conditions followed a first-order kinetic model with activation energy of 137 cal mol(-1).

  19. Identification of irradiated pasteurized egg products: a combined method to use in routine control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.; Grabowski, H.U. v.; Pfordt, J.; Mauermann, U.; Juelicher, S.; Bischoff, C.; Vater, N.; Heitmann, M.

    1993-01-01

    Pasteurized egg products (whole egg, egg yolk and egg white) were tested for irradiation treatment in the German food control laboratories in Oldenburg/Niedersachsen and Kassel/Hessen as well as in the food irradiation laboratory of the German federal health office. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric measurements on the fat components of egg-products showed clearly whether the product had been irradiated or not. While in unirradiated samples no traces of special hydrocarbons (according to the fatty acid composition of egg) and no traces of the irradiation-specific compound 2-Dodecyl-cyclobutanone were found, irradiated control samples as well as products of two belgian suppliers contained these substances. Additionally, regarding the rather high time consumption of gas chromatography, electron spin resonance (ESR)-measurements were carried out on the packaging material of egg products. Irradiated packaging material (cellulose) could be easily detected by the appearance of a signal pair in the ESR spectrum (cellulose radical). ESR measurements are very fast and easy to perform so that this method can be used for screening. Microbiological investigations showed remarkably reduced total numbers of microorganisms for some irradiated samples, but the microbiological status is influenced by other factors like storage-time and -temperature, so that microbiological tests can not be used successfully for screening on irradiation treatment [de

  20. β-Galactosidase activity of commercial lactase samples in raw and pasteurized milk at refrigerated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T W; Dunn, M L; Eggett, D L; Ogden, L V

    2011-07-01

    Many consumers are unable to enjoy the benefits of milk due to lactose intolerance. Lactose-free milk is available but at about 2 times the cost of regular milk or greater, it may be difficult for consumers to afford. The high cost of lactose-free milk is due in part to the added cost of the lactose hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis at refrigerated temperatures, possibly in the bulk tank or package, could increase the flexibility of the process and potentially reduce the cost. A rapid β-galactosidase assay was used to determine the relative activity of commercially available lactase samples at different temperatures. Four enzymes exhibited low-temperature activity and were added to refrigerated raw and pasteurized milk at various concentrations and allowed to react for various lengths of time. The degree of lactose hydrolysis by each of the enzymes as a function of time and enzyme concentration was determined by HPLC. The 2 most active enzymes, as determined by the β-galactosidase assay, hydrolyzed over 98% of the lactose in 24h at 2°C using the supplier's recommended dosage. The other 2 enzymes hydrolyzed over 95% of the lactose in 24h at twice the supplier's recommended dosage at 2°C. Results were consistent in all milk types tested. The results show that it is feasible to hydrolyze lactose during refrigerated storage of milk using currently available enzymes. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved growth of preterm infants receiving mother's own raw milk compared with pasteurized donor milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montjaux-Régis, N; Cristini, C; Arnaud, C; Glorieux, I; Vanpee, M; Casper, C

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether growth, feeding tolerance and infectious events of preterm infants is related to the proportion of intake of mother's own raw milk (maternal milk) versus pooled pasteurized banked breast milk (donor milk). This is a prospective observational study of 55 premature infants born less than 32 weeks of gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at the Children's Hospital of Toulouse during two 6-month periods from 2003 to 2005. Enrolled infants were exclusively on enteral feeds with maternal milk ± donor milk. Mean gestational age was 28.6 weeks (SD 1.5) and mean birth weight 1105 grams (SD 282). During the time of exclusively breast milk feeds, weight gain (g/kg/day) was correlated to the proportion of maternal milk consumed (p = 0.0048, r = 0.4). Necrotizing enterocolitis was inversely correlated to the amount of maternal milk. The amount of maternal milk did not impact on infectious events. Mother's own raw milk improves weight gain compared with donor milk in preterm infants. Lactation strategies should be sought that helps mothers to increase their milk production. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  2. The effect of temperature and Pasteurization time on Staphylococcus aureus isolates from dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniarti, Maria Nia; Amarantini, Charis; Budiarso, Tri Yahya

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a potential pathogenic bacterial cause of disease in humans and animals due to the ability of adhesion to epithelial tissue. Many cases of food poisoning are caused by S. aureus bacteria. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of temperature and time on the growth of S. aureus isolates from milk products. The samples are derived from previous research namely pasteurized milk, street vendor and café milk, milk powder, and sweetened condensed milk products. The treatment temperatures and times studied were temperature 60 °C, 65 °C, 70 °C, 75 °C, 80 °C, and 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 minutes. The results show that at temperatures of 60 °C and 65 °C, S. aureus isolates did not grow at 60 minutes. All isolates of S. aureus died when the temperatures were increased to 70 °C and 80 °C, at 50 and 20 minutes, respectively.

  3. Evaluation of pulsed electric fields technology for liquid whole egg pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, S; Gayán, E; Raso, J; Condón, S; Alvarez, I

    2010-10-01

    This investigation evaluated the lethal efficiency of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to pasteurize liquid whole egg (LWE). To achieve this aim, we describe the inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis and the heat resistant Salmonella Senftenberg 775 W in terms of treatment time and specific energy at electric field strengths ranging from 20 to 45 kV/cm. Based on our results, the target microorganism for this technology in LWE varied with intensity of the PEF treatment. For electric field strengths greater than 25 kV/cm, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most PEF-resistant strain. For this Salmonella serovar the level of inactivation depended only on the specific energy applied: i.e., 106, 272, and 472 kJ/kg for 1, 2, and 3 Log(10) reductions, respectively. The developed mathematical equations based on the Weibull distribution permit estimations of maximum inactivation level of 1.9 Log(10) cycles of the target Salmonella serovar in the best-case scenario: 250 kJ/kg and 25 kV/cm. This level of inactivation indicates that PEF technology by itself cannot guarantee the security of LWE based on USDA and European regulations. The occurrence of cell damage due to PEF in the Salmonella population opens the possibility of designing combined processes enabling increased microbial lethality in LWE. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Practical aspects of the pasteurization of sewage sludge by electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.; Hofmann, E.G.; Offermann, B.P.

    1975-01-01

    Recently the demand for disinfection of sewage sludge has increased. Investigations have shown that the radiation pasteurization of sludge is the most preferable treatment. Up to now most of these investigations have been made with 60 Co radiation sources. However, it is not easy to run an economic and safe process line for the irradiation of sewage sludge with such isotope sources. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. From the standpoint of the limited electron penetration into the material it is desirable to use high-energy electrons (up to 1.5 MeV) whereas from an economic standpoint it may be better to use electrons of lower energies (0.5 to 1 MeV) and to homogenize the sewage sludge to the required thickness. The following parameters must be considered for a commercial process line: effectivity of the electron radiation process; limited penetration of electrons into the material to be irradiated; beam power of electron accelerators required for sewage sludge treatment; safety aspects; economics of the process with regard to electron energy, power and homogenization of the material; and environmental aspects of the installations. The practical aspects of commercial process lines for electron irradiation of sewage sludge and the design of handling equipment are discussed in relation to these parameters. (author)

  5. Quality Attributes of Fresh-Cut Coconut after Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Ferrentino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2 process on the quality attributes of fresh-cut coconut has been investigated to establish the acceptability of SC-CO2 treated products by the consumers. Two process conditions, previously identified as optimal to reduce the microbial content of the product, were studied: 12 MPa, 40°C, 30 min and 12 MPa, 45°C, 15 min. The results highlighted that both conditions induced some effects on product attributes. After 30 min of treatment at 12 MPa and 40°C a decrease of lightness (8%, pH (13%, fat content (24%, total phenol content (29%, flavonoid compounds (49%, antioxidant capacity (30% and an increase of dry matter (11% and titratable acidity (51.1% were observed while polyphenol oxidase (PPO exhibited 35% and 98.5% inactivation. Peroxidase enzyme activity increased by 77.8% and 30.4% at 12 MPa, 40°C, 30 min and 12 MPa, 45°C, 15 min, respectively. Sensory evaluations revealed no significant differences in appearance, texture, taste, and aroma of treated fresh-cut coconut compared to the untreated. The study confirms the feasibility of SC-CO2 process for the pasteurization of fresh fruits with a firm structure and opens the door to the possibility of exploiting such a technology at industrial level.

  6. High pressure and thermal pasteurization effects on sweet cherry juice microbiological stability and physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Rui P.; Rainho, Daniel; Santos, Mauro D.; Fidalgo, Liliana G.; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated high pressure processing (P1 - 400 MPa/5 min; P2 - 550 MPa/2 min) and thermal pasteurization (TP - 70°C/30 s) effects on sweet cherry juice's microbiological and physicochemical parameters, during four weeks of refrigerated storage. All treatments reduced the microbiological load to undetectable levels not affecting total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The pH increased with all treatments, however, it decreased during storage. Phenols were differently affected: TP increased them by 6%, P1 had no effect while P2 decreased them by 11%. During storage, phenols in control and TP samples decreased by 26% and 20%, P1 samples decreased them by 11% whereas P2 showed no variation. TP had no effect on anthocyanins, while pressure treatments increased them by 8%. Anthocyanins decreased during storage, particularly in the control and P1 (decreasing 41%). All treatments had no effect on antioxidant activity until the 14th day, thereafter high pressure processing samples showed the highest antioxidant activity.

  7. Nonthermal pasteurization of fermented green table olives by means of high hydrostatic pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2014-01-01

    Green fermented olives cv. Halkidiki were subjected to different treatments of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing (400, 450, and 500 MPa for 15 or 30 min). Total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds, and the physicochemical characteristics of the product (pH, colour, and firmness) were monitored right after the treatment and after 7 days of storage at 20(°)C to allow for recovery of injured cells. The treatments at 400 MPa for 15 and 30 min, 450 MPa for 15 and 30 min, and 500 MPa for 15 min were found insufficient as a recovery of the microbiota was observed. The treatment at 500 MPa for 30 min was effective in reducing the olive microbiota below the detection limit of the enumeration method after the treatment and after 1 week of storage and was chosen as being more appropriate for storing olives for an extended time period (5 months). After 5 months of storage at 20(°)C, no microbiota was detected in treated samples, while significant changes for both HHP treated and untreated olives were observed for colour parameters only (minor degradation). In conclusion, HHP treatment may introduce a reliable nonthermal pasteurization method to extend the microbiological shelf-life of fermented table olives.

  8. [Microbiological and physicochemical evaluation of pasteurized nectar elaborated with tree tomato (Cyphomandra betaceae Sendth)pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Alvarez, Mario José; Girán, Nathaly; Serrano, Karla; García, David; Belén Camacho, Douglas R

    2003-09-01

    Tree tomato (Cyphomandra betaceae Sendth) is a species from high tropical regions. In Venezuela, it is cultivate at the Andean and Aragua state but its consumption is restricted as fruit-fresh, though it a nutritious and industrial potential due its provitamin A content. In this research four nectars were elaborated in proportion I L pulp/4 L of water (1:4) and addition of ascorbic acid (I: 0%; II: 0.5%; III: 1.0 y IV: 1.5%). The nectars were pasteurized (60 degrees C for 30 min), tuned into amber bottle, and stored under refrigeration conditions (7.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C). Weekly during 21 days the mesophilic bacteria, molds, yeasts, total coliforms (MPN/mL), pH, degree Brix, acidity, total carotenoids, vitamin C and total sugars were evaluated. The mesophilic bacteria content was 0.05) were founded on: pH. degree Brix and total sugars. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were founded in vitamin C and total carotenoids content. Sensorial analysis did not show significant differences between formulations for the smell and flavor attributes, when the color was discriminate during the evaluations. The formulation I (without acid ascorbic) had more preference due its color. In conclusion, the nectars showed useful life of 14-21 days under refrigeration condition storage due to the adequate physicochemical and microbiological quality of the product.

  9. The influence of ultra-pasteurization by indirect heating versus direct steam injection on skim and 2% fat milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Fluid milk is traditionally pasteurized by high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization, which requires heating to at least 72°C for 15 s. Ultra-pasteurization (UP) extends milk shelf life and is defined as heating to at least 138°C for 2 s. The UP process can be done by indirect heating (IND) or by direct steam injection (DSI). The influence of these 2 UP methods on milk flavor has not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of HTST, IND-UP, and DSI-UP on sensory perception of fluid milk. Raw skim and standardized 2% milks were pasteurized at 140°C for 2.3 s by IND or DSI or by HTST (78°C, 15 s) and homogenized at 20.7 MPa. The processed milks were stored in light-shielded opaque high-density polyethylene containers at 4°C and examined by descriptive analysis and microbial analysis on d 3, 7, and 14. Furosine and serum protein denaturation analyses were performed on d 0 and 14 as an indicator of heat treatment. Last, consumer acceptance testing was conducted at d 10, with adults (n = 250) and children (ages 8 to13 y, n = 100) who were self-reported consumers of skim or 2% milk; consumers only received samples for either skim or 2% milk. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Milks treated by HTST had lower cooked flavor than either UP milk. Milks heated by DSI-UP were characterized by sulfur or eggy and cooked flavors, whereas IND-UP milks had higher sweet aromatic and sweet taste compared with DSI-UP milk. Aromatic flavor intensities of all milks decreased across 14 d of storage. Furosine concentrations and serum protein denaturation were highest for the IND treatments, followed by DSI and HTST. Furosine content in both skim and 2% milk increased with time, but the increase was faster in IND-UP skim milk. Adult and child consumers preferred HTST milk over either UP milk, regardless of fat content. Ultra-pasteurization by IND or DSI did not affect consumer acceptance at 10 d postprocessing, but

  10. Safety and Mission Assurance Knowledge Management Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues surrounding the management of knowledge in regards to safety and mission assurance. The JSC workers who were hired in the 1960's are slated to retire in the next two to three years. The experiences and knowledge of these NASA workers must be identified, and disseminated. This paper reviews some of the strategies that the S&MA is developing to capture that valuable institutional knowledge.

  11. Embracing the Institutional Mission: Influences of Identity Processing Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Lauren A.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that different information processing styles influence how effectively students adapt to a college environment. During the college years, individuals shape and refine their values and principles while they also develop a life-long philosophy. The present study examined how student ego-identity development (n = 1,249) was…

  12. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  13. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  14. The OICETS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jono, Takashi; Arai, Katsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    The Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS) was successfully launched on 23th August 2005 and thrown into a circular orbit at the altitude of 610 km. The main mission is to demonstrate the free-space inter satellite laser communications with the cooperation of the Advanced Relay and Technology Mission (ARTEMIS) geostationary satellite developed by the European Space Agency. This paper presents the overview of the OICETS and laser terminal, a history of international cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and ESA and typical results of the inter-orbit laser communication experiment carried out with ARTEMIS.

  15. Curriculum Alignment with a Mission of Social Change in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yob, Iris M.; Danver, Steven L.; Kristensen, Sheryl; Schulz, William; Simmons, Kathy; Brashen, Henry M.; Sidler Krysiak, Rebecca; Kiltz, Linda; Gatlin, Linda; Wesson, Suzanne; Penland, Diane R.

    2016-01-01

    Institutions of higher education frequently acknowledge their role in contributing to the common good through their mission statements. The current literature suggests that in order to be effective mission statements must be clearly articulated and reflected in all the activities of the institution including its curriculum. Faculty members at…

  16. Using a Mixed Methods Content Analysis to Analyze Mission Statements from Colleges of Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    A mixed method design was used to conduct a content analysis of the mission statements of colleges of engineering to map inductively derived codes with the EC 2000 outcomes and to test if any of the codes were significantly associated with institutions with reasonably strong representation of women. Most institution's (25 of 48) mission statement…

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of pasteurization on milk vitamins, and evidence for raw milk consumption and other health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Lauren E; Brett, James; Kelton, David; Majowicz, Shannon E; Snedeker, Kate; Sargeant, Jan M

    2011-11-01

    Pasteurization of milk ensures safety for human consumption by reducing the number of viable pathogenic bacteria. Although the public health benefits of pasteurization are well established, pro-raw milk advocate organizations continue to promote raw milk as "nature's perfect food." Advocacy groups' claims include statements that pasteurization destroys important vitamins and that raw milk consumption can prevent and treat allergies, cancer, and lactose intolerance. A systematic review and meta-analysis was completed to summarize available evidence for these selected claims. Forty studies assessing the effects of pasteurization on vitamin levels were found. Qualitatively, vitamins B12 and E decreased following pasteurization, and vitamin A increased. Random effects meta-analysis revealed no significant effect of pasteurization on vitamin B6 concentrations (standardized mean difference [SMD], -2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.40, 0.8; P = 0.06) but a decrease in concentrations of vitamins B1 (SMD, -1.77; 95% CI, -2.57, -0.96; P pasteurization on milk's nutritive value was minimal because many of these vitamins are naturally found in relatively low levels. However, milk is an important dietary source of vitamin B2, and the impact of heat treatment should be further considered. Raw milk consumption may have a protective association with allergy development (six studies), although this relationship may be potentially confounded by other farming-related factors. Raw milk consumption was not associated with cancer (two studies) or lactose intolerance (one study). Overall, these findings should be interpreted with caution given the poor quality of reported methodology in many of the included studies.

  18. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  19. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  20. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  1. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  2. The Lobster Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  3. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...... on a shared mission aiming at value creation (in the broadest interpretation). One important aspect of choosing value as the cornerstone of the mission of universities is to stress that the outcome is measured by external stakeholders and by their standards. Most of the paper is devoted to discussing value...... it possible to lead through processes that engage and excite while creating transparency and accountability. The paper will be illustrated with examples from Denmark and the Helios initiative taken by the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV) under the headline “The value creating university – courage...

  4. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter.The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper (paper)

  6. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by

  7. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  8. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  9. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  10. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  11. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    institutions. Academic institutions represent a tremendous pool of expertise and creative talent - just what is need for a human planetary exp loration mission. Academia would likely view this ground test facility as a tremendous teaching tool for a variety of disciplines, including science, engineering, medicine, and management.

  12. B plant mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ''System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.'' The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline

  13. Louis Pasteur's three artist compatriots-Henner, Pointelin, and Perraud: A story of friendship, science, and art in the 1870s and 1880s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bert; Weisberg, Richard E

    2017-02-01

    Biographers have largely ignored Louis Pasteur's many and varied connections with art and artists. This article is the second in a series of the authors' studies of Pasteur's friendships with artists. This research project has uncovered data that enlarge the great medical chemist's biography, throwing new light on a variety of topics including his work habits, his social life, his artistic sensibilities, his efforts to lobby on behalf of his artist friends, his relationships to their patrons and to his own patrons, and his use of works of art to foster his reputation as a leader in French medical science. In a prior article, the authors examined his unique working relationship with the Finnish painter Albert Edelfelt and the creation of the famous portrait of Pasteur in his laboratory in the mid-1880s. The present study documents his especially warm friendship with three French artists who came from Pasteur's home region, the Jura, or from neighboring Alsace. A forthcoming study gives an account of his friendships with Max Claudet and Paul Dubois, both of whom made important images of Pasteur, and it offers further illustrations of his devotion to the fine arts.

  14. Inactivation of food spoilage microorganisms by hydrodynamic cavitation to achieve pasteurization and sterilization of fluid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P J; Toledo, R T; Harrison, M A; Armstead, D

    2007-11-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation is the formation of gas bubbles in a fluid due to pressure fluctuations induced by mechanical means. Various high-acid (pH hydrodynamic cavitation reactor to determine if commercial sterility can be achieved at reduced processing temperatures. Sporicidal properties of the process were also tested on a low-acid (pH > [corrected] 4.6) fluid food. Fluid foods were pumped under pressure into a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor and subjected to 2 rotor speeds and flow rates to achieve 2 designated exit temperatures. Thermal inactivation kinetics were used to determine heat-induced lethality for all organisms. Calcium-fortified apple juice processed at 3000 and 3600 rpm rotor speeds on the reactor went through a transient temperature change from 20 to 65.6 or 76.7 degrees C and the total process lethality exceeded 5-log reduction of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei cells, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii cells and ascospores. Tomato juice inoculated with Bacillus coagulans spores and processed at 3000 and 3600 rpm rotor speeds endured a transient temperature from 37.8 to 93.3 or 104.4 degrees C with viable CFU reductions of 0.88 and 3.10 log cycles, respectively. Skim milk inoculated with Clostridium sporogenes putrefactive anaerobe 3679 spores and processed at 3000 or 3600 rpm rotor speeds endured a transient temperature from 48.9 to 104.4 or 115.6 degrees C with CFU reductions of 0.69 and 2.84 log cycles, respectively. Utilizing hydrodynamic cavitation to obtain minimally processed pasteurized low-acid and commercially sterilized high-acid fluid foods is possible with appropriate process considerations for different products.

  15. Activity of bone morphogenetic protein-7 after treatment at various temperatures: freezing vs. pasteurization vs. allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Munetomo; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Nishida, Hideji; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Kimura, Hiroaki; Miwa, Shinji; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Insufficient bone union is the occasional complication of biomechanical reconstruction after malignant bone tumor resection using temperature treated tumor bearing bone; freezing, pasteurization, and autoclaving. Since bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) plays an important role in bone formation, we assessed the amount and activity of BMP preserved after several temperature treatments, including -196 and -73°C for 20 min, 60 and 100°C for 30 min, 60°C for 10h following -80°C for 12h as an allograft model, and 4°C as the control. The material extracted from the human femoral bone was treated, and the amount of BMP-7 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, the activity of recombinant human BMP-7 after the treatment was assessed using a bioassay with NIH3T3 cells and immunoblotting analysis to measure the amount of phospho-Smad, one of the signaling substrates that reflect the intracellular reaction of BMPs. Both experiments revealed that BMP-7 was significantly better preserved in the hypothermia groups. The percentages of the amount of BMP-7 in which the control group was set at 100% were 114%, 108%, 70%, 49%, and 53% in the -196, -73, 60, 100°C, and the allograft-model group, respectively. The percentages of the amount of phospho-Smad were 89%, 87%, 24%, 4.9%, and 14% in the -196, -73, 60, 100°C, and the allograft-model group, respectively. These results suggested that freezing possibly preserves osteoinductive ability than hyperthermia treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Institutional conflicts in Jungian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisold, K

    2001-04-01

    This paper explores how the institutional life of analytical psychology has been beset by its historical and continuing conflictual relationship with psychoanalysis. Stemming from a division in Jung's identity, that of the spiritual seeker and that of a mental health practitioner, the organizations of analytical psychology have repeatedly enacted that division, resulting in an unclear mission and considerable conflict. In England those conflicts have led to schisms; in America they have played out in internal conflicts within training institutes. Examples of areas of conflict are provided, along with suggestions for addressing these conflicts by recognizing them more openly.

  17. Spacelab 3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.

    1990-01-01

    Spacelab-3 (SL-3) was the first microgravity mission of extended duration involving crew interaction with animal experiments. This interaction involved sharing the Spacelab environmental system, changing animal food, and changing animal waste trays by the crew. Extensive microbial testing was conducted on the animal specimens and crew and on their ground and flight facilities during all phases of the mission to determine the potential for cross contamination. Macroparticulate sampling was attempted but was unsuccessful due to the unforseen particulate contamination occurring during the flight. Particulate debris of varying size (250 micron to several inches) and composition was recovered post flight from the Spacelab floor, end cones, overhead areas, avionics fan filter, cabin fan filters, tunnel adaptor, and from the crew module. These data are discussed along with solutions, which were implemented, for particulate and microbial containment for future flight facilities.

  18. The THEMIS Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, J. L

    2009-01-01

    The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.

  19. Institutional obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines

  20. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    leak paths”) and determine if firewalls and router access control lists are violating network policy. Visualization tools are provided to help analysts...with which a supply agent may not be familiar. In this environment, errors in requisition are easy to make, and they are costly : an incomplete cyber...establishing an email network and recommend a firewall and additional laptops. YMAL would also match mission details like the deployment location with

  1. A Somalia mission experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  2. The money mission matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Cuperus, Mirthe

    2017-01-01

    Social entrepreneurship is popular in current academics and other media. This thesis adds to this literature by discovering what the drivers are for sustainable social entrepreneurship. Several stakeholders were identified, creating profiles of the key players in social entrepreneurship. These stakeholders uncovered key factors that represent the drivers for sustainable social entrepreneurship. Key factors were then aligned along the two dimensions: Money and Mission. This crea...

  3. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  4. The Gaia mission

    OpenAIRE

    Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia wa...

  5. Nanosatellite missions - the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Kuschnig, R.; Wenger, M.; Romano, P.

    2017-09-01

    In the beginning, nanosatellite projects were focused on educational aspects. In the meantime, the technology matured and now allows to test, demonstrate and validate new systems, operational procedures and services in space at low cost and within much shorter timescales than traditional space endeavors. The number of spacecraft developed and launched has been increasing exponentially in the last years. The constellation of BRITE nanosatellites is demonstrating impressively that demanding scientific requirements can be met with small, low-cost satellites. Industry and space agencies are now embracing small satellite technology. Particularly in the USA, companies have been established to provide commercial services based on CubeSats. The approach is in general different from traditional space projects with their strict product/quality assurance and documentation requirements. The paper gives an overview of nanosatellite missions in different areas of application. Based on lessons learnt from the BRITE mission and recent developments at TU Graz (in particular the implementation of the OPS-SAT nanosatellite for ESA), enhanced technical possibilities for a future astronomy mission after BRITE will be discussed. Powerful on-board computers will allow on-board data pre-processing. A state-of-the-art telemetry system with high data rates would facilitate interference-free operations and increase science data return.

  6. Dawn Mission Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, M. V.; Russell, C. T.; Coradini, A.; Christensen, U.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Jaumann, R.; Keller, U.; Konopliv, A. S.; McCord, T. B.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Mottola, S.; Neukum, G.; Pieters, C. M.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Smith, D. E.; Williams, B. G.; Wise, J.; Zuber, M. T.

    2004-11-01

    Dawn, the ninth Discovery mission, will be the first spacecraft to rendezvous with two solar system bodies, the main belt asteroids Vesta and Ceres. This is made possible by utilizing ion propulsion to reach its targets and to maneuver into (and depart) orbits about these bodies. Vesta and Ceres are two terrestrial protoplanets that have survived since the earliest epoch of the solar system and will provide important insights into planet building processes and their evolution under very different circumstances, with and without water. Dawn carries a double framing camera, a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer, and a gamma ray and neutron detector. At Vesta our studies will include the volcanic emplacement of basalts, its differentiation, the possible exposure of its interior near the south pole. At Ceres our studies will include the role of water in its evolution, hydration processes on its surface, and the possible existence of a subsurface ocean. The mission has passed its critical design review and is scheduled to be launched in June 2006 with arrival at Vesta in 2011 and Ceres in 2015. Operation strategies will be presented. Groundbased observations of Vesta, Ceres, and Vesta family members over broad wavelengths, periods and phases will play an important role in detailed mission planning.

  7. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  8. Behavior of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus in ultrahigh-temperature, pasteurized, and raw cow's milk under different temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Serraino, Andrea; Pasquali, Frederique; De Cesare, Alessandra; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Rosmini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The growth and survival of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus in milk were investigated at different storage temperatures. Three strains of each Arcobacter species were inoculated into ultrahigh-temperature (UHT), pasteurized, and raw cow's milk and stored at 4, 10, and 20°C for 6 days. The survival of Arcobacter spp. during storage was evaluated by a culture method. Results clearly showed that A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus remained viable in milk when stored at 4°C and 10°C for a period of 6 days. When UHT and pasteurized milk were stored at 20°C, the A. butzleri count increased, with a longer lag-phase in pasteurized milk, whereas the A. cryaerophilus count increased in the first 48 h and then rapidly decreased to below the detection limit on the sixth storage day. When raw milk was stored at 20°C, the A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus counts decreased from the first day of storage and no viable bacteria were recovered on the last day of storage. Generally, A. butzleri displayed a significantly better growth and survival capacity than A. cryaerophilus in milk. The present study is the first to assess the survival and/or growth of A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus in milk. The evidence suggests that in case of primary contamination of milk or secondary contamination due to postprocessing contamination, milk can act as a potential source of Arcobacter infection in humans and could have public health implications, especially for raw milk consumption.

  9. Preparation of lactose-free pasteurized milk with a recombinant thermostable β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactose intolerance is a common health concern causing gastrointestinal symptoms and avoidance of dairy products by afflicted individuals. Since milk is a primary source of calcium and vitamin D, lactose intolerant individuals often obtain insufficient amounts of these nutrients which may lead to adverse health outcomes. Production of lactose-free milk can provide a solution to this problem, although it requires use of lactase from microbial sources and increases potential for contamination. Use of thermostable lactase enzymes can overcome this issue by functioning under pasteurization conditions. Results A thermostable β-glucosidase gene from Pyrococcus furiosus was cloned in frame with the Saccharomyces cerecisiae a-factor secretory signal and expressed in Pichia pastoris strain X-33. The recombinant enzyme was purified by a one-step method of weak anion exchange chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH for this β-glucosidase activity was 100°C and pH 6.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was not significantly inhibited by Ca2+. We tested the additive amount, hydrolysis time, and the influence of glucose on the enzyme during pasteurization and found that the enzyme possessed a high level of lactose hydrolysis in milk that was not obviously influenced by glucose. Conclusions The thermostablity of this recombinant β-glucosidase, combined with its neutral pH activity and favorable temperature activity optima, suggest that this enzyme is an ideal candidate for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk, and it would be suitable for application in low-lactose milk production during pasteurization. PMID:24053641

  10. SPICE for ESA Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M.

    2018-04-01

    The ESA SPICE Service leads the SPICE operations for ESA missions and is responsible for the generation of the SPICE Kernel Dataset for ESA missions. This contribution will describe the status of these datasets and outline the future developments.

  11. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  12. Las teorías de Pasteur y la Academia de Medicina de Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberio Alvarez Echeverri

    1996-01-01

    En este artículo se hace un recuento de cómo en la Academia de Medicina de Medellín se debatieron muy tempranamente (1888) los conceptos etiológicos propuestos por Pasteur y sus desarrollos prácticos como la antisepsia y la asepsia; se convirtió así la Academia, pese al aislamiento en que vivía la ciudad, en un foro científico de avanzada en el campo médico.

  13. Las teorías de Pasteur y la Academia de Medicina de Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Alvarez Echeverri

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se hace un recuento de cómo en la Academia de Medicina de Medellín se debatieron muy tempranamente (1888 los conceptos etiológicos propuestos por Pasteur y sus desarrollos prácticos como la antisepsia y la asepsia; se convirtió así la Academia, pese al aislamiento en que vivía la ciudad, en un foro científico de avanzada en el campo médico.

  14. Effect of γ-irradiation and pasteurization of sewage sludge to the microbiological properties and the mineralization in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.; Schurmann, G.; Suess, A.

    1977-01-01

    Hygienic aspects of sewage sludge application in agricultural practice are of increasing importance. Because parasites are extremely sensitive to γ-irradiation a dose of 300 krad is quivalent to pasteurization. The total bacteria count of the sewage sludge is reduced by this dosage by 90 to 99%. Enzymic activity is reduced after radiation at a rate of about 39%. Especially amylase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase are extremely sensitive to irradiation. Mineralization studies of sewage sludge with different pretreatments in different soil types indicated no significant differences. (orig.) [de

  15. Evaluation of Antibiotic Residues in Pasteurized and Raw Milk Distributed in the South of Khorasan-e Razavi Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Mortez Mohammadzadeh; Amiri, Mostafa; Riabi, Hamed Ramezani Awal; Riabi, Hamid Ramezani Awal

    2016-12-01

    The presence of antibiotic residues in milk and other products livestock is a health problem which can endanger public health. Antibiotics are used widely in animal husbandry to treat diseases related to bacterial infections. Antimicrobial drugs have been in use for decades in industry. They are commonly used in livestock facilities to treat mastitis. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk distributed in schools, in milk collection centers, and in milk production factories in Gonabad city. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 251 samples of commercial pasteurized milk packet distributed in schools (code A), raw milk collection centers in Gonabad city (code B), and pasteurized milk production factories (code C) in Gonabad city. The Copan test kit of Denmark Christian Hansen Company was used to monitor antibiotic residues in milk. The data were analysed employing Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant differences using SPSS software version 20. The significant level was considered at pmilk samples were collected out of which 143 (57%) were code A, 84 (33.5%) code B and 24 (9.6%) code C. Total number of 189 samples (75.2%) were negative and 62 (24.8%) were positive. From the three types of milk samples, 41 samples (28.7%) of the code A, 18 samples (21.4%) of the code B and 3 samples (12.5%) of the code C were positive. In general, from the milk samples most contaminated with antibiotics, 17 samples were positive in January and regarding code A, 13 samples were positive in the same month. There was not a significant difference among the three types of milk (p>0.05). The highest number of milk samples (n=7) contaminated with antibiotics were related to code B (38.5%). Most positive cases were related to code A in winter. Also, there was no significant difference among the three types of contaminated milk regarding the year and month (p=0.164 and p=0.917, respectively). Pasteurized milk

  16. Draft Strategic Laboratory Missions Plan. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This volume described in detail the Department's research and technology development activities and their funding at the Department's laboratories. It includes 166 Mission Activity Profiles, organized by major mission area, with each representing a discrete budget function called a Budget and Reporting (B ampersand R) Code. The activities profiled here encompass the total research and technology development funding of the laboratories from the Department. Each profile includes a description of the activity and shows how the funding for that activity is distributed among the DOE laboratories as well as universities and industry. The profiles also indicate the principal laboratories for each activity, as well as which other laboratories are involved. The information in this volume is at the core of the Strategic Laboratory Mission Plan. It enables a reader to follow funds from the Department's appropriation to a specific activity description and to specific R ampersand D performing institutions. This information will enable the Department, along with the Laboratory Operations Board and Congress, to review the distribution of R ampersand D performers chosen to execute the Department's missions

  17. Draft Strategic Laboratory Missions Plan. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume described in detail the Department`s research and technology development activities and their funding at the Department`s laboratories. It includes 166 Mission Activity Profiles, organized by major mission area, with each representing a discrete budget function called a Budget and Reporting (B & R) Code. The activities profiled here encompass the total research and technology development funding of the laboratories from the Department. Each profile includes a description of the activity and shows how the funding for that activity is distributed among the DOE laboratories as well as universities and industry. The profiles also indicate the principal laboratories for each activity, as well as which other laboratories are involved. The information in this volume is at the core of the Strategic Laboratory Mission Plan. It enables a reader to follow funds from the Department`s appropriation to a specific activity description and to specific R & D performing institutions. This information will enable the Department, along with the Laboratory Operations Board and Congress, to review the distribution of R & D performers chosen to execute the Department`s missions.

  18. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  19. A 2-step cooking method of searing and hot water pasteurization to maximize the safety of refrigerated, vacuum packaged, chicken breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, D K; Crandall, P G; O'Bryan, C A; Griffis, C L; Martin, E M

    2007-05-01

    Americans consume almost 40 kg per capita of chicken each year. Increasing consumption of chicken surpassed pork in 1982 and beef in 1992. The objectives of this study were to examine the effectiveness of a novel, 2-step cooking method of grilling, slicing, vacuum packaging, and hot water pasteurization to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken breast meat. Because this study required the use of pilot plant scale pasteurization equipment, Listeria innocua M1, a nonpathogen with slightly greater heat resistance than L. monocytogenes, was used as a surrogate. We first examined the lethal effects of grilling on a boneless skinless chicken breast to mimic cross-contaminated, surface-inoculated Listeria. Searing produced a mean reduction of 2.5 log CFU/g of Listeria and a moisture loss of only 7% (w/w). A 2nd experiment studied the lethal effect of pasteurization of the sliced seared chicken breast. L. innocua M1 inoculated between the slices mimicked contamination in deep muscle. Pasteurization in a 71 degrees C bath (final internal temperature of 66 degrees C) gave an additional 2.3 log CFU/g reduction. L. innocua M1 did not show significant regrowth during a wk of refrigerated storage. The combined 2-step cooking method of searing and pasteurization gave a combined 4.8 log reduction in LI M1. In parallel tests a non-Listeria indicator, Corynebacterium glutamicum, inoculated between sliced, seared chicken, showed a 3 log reduction after pasteurization for 10 min in a 71 degrees C bath compared to 2.3 log reduction of Listeria. Corynebacterium regrowth occurred much faster than did L. innocua M1.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of the alkaline phosphatase activity in industrial and traditional dairy products supplied in Ahvaz as an indicator of pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phosphatase is an indigenous milk enzyme and is probably, the most important indigenous milk enzyme from a dairy technology viewpoint which is used to determine the efficacy of the pasteurization process. The aim of this study was to assess the alkaline phosphatase activity of 200 samples of industrial and traditional yoghurt, ice cream and cheese, as well as raw and pasteurized milk samples. To achieve this purpose, p-nitrophenylphosphate was used as substrate and the amount of liberated p-nitrophenol was measured spectrophotometrically. The amount of liberated p-nitrophenol in all samples of raw milk was very high (6839±4070 µg/ml but in pasteurized milk samples, the amount was in the range of 0.75-52.96 µg/ml and 88% of the samples had less than 10 µg p-nitrophenol/ml, the maximum permissible limit of p-nitrophenol in pasteurized products. The amount of liberated p-nitrophenol was in the range of 5.68-1210 µg/ml and 2.61-18.22 µg/ml in traditional and industrial cheese samples, respectively and it was estimated at the range of 0.75-26.67 µg/ml and 0.71- 35.82 µg/ml for traditional and industrial ice cream samples, respectively. The lowest alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in both industrial and traditional yoghurt samples. Meanwhile, p-nitrophenol in 12% of industrial cheese, 44% of traditional cheese and 16% of both industrial and traditional ice cream samples was higher than 10 µg/ml which could be due to the inadequate pasteurization of the product or cross contamination with raw milk. The results of the present study showed a need for more strict attention in the pasteurization of milk and its products.