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Sample records for password-authenticated key exchange

  1. Password Authenticated Key Exchange and Protected Password Change Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yi Chang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose new password authenticated key exchange (PAKE and protected password change (PPC protocols without any symmetric or public-key cryptosystems. The security of the proposed protocols is based on the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model. The proposed scheme can resist both forgery server and denial of service attacks.

  2. A Security Solution for IEEE 802.11's Ad-hoc Mode:Password-Authentication and Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, Bresson; Olivier, Chevassut; David, Pointcheval

    2005-10-01

    The IEEE 802 standards ease the deployment of networkinginfrastructures and enable employers to accesscorporate networks whiletraveling. These standards provide two modes of communication calledinfrastructure and ad-hoc modes. A security solution for the IEEE802.11's infrastructure mode took several years to reach maturity andfirmware are still been upgraded, yet a solution for the ad-hoc modeneeds to be specified. The present paper is a first attempt in thisdirection. It leverages the latest developments in the area ofpassword-based authentication and (group) Diffie-Hellman key exchange todevelop a provably-secure key-exchange protocol for IEEE 802.11's ad-hocmode. The protocol allows users to securely join and leave the wirelessgroup at time, accommodates either a single-shared password orpairwise-shared passwords among the group members, or at least with acentral server; achieves security against dictionary attacks in theideal-hash model (i.e. random-oracles). This is, to the best of ourknowledge, the first such protocol to appear in the cryptographicliterature.

  3. Improved chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement using smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Elaborating on the security of password-based authenticated key agreement, in this paper, the author cryptanalyzes a chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement proposed by Guo and Chang recently. Specifically, their protocol could not achieve strong user anonymity due to a fixed parameter and a malicious adversary is able to derive the shared session key by manipulating the property of Chebyshev chaotic maps. Additionally, the author also presents an improved scheme to eliminate the above weaknesses and still maintain the efficiency.

  4. Chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement using smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2013-06-01

    Password-based authenticated key agreement using smart cards has been widely and intensively researched. Inspired by the semi-group property of Chebyshev maps and key agreement protocols based on chaotic maps, we proposed a novel chaotic maps-based password-authenticated key agreement protocol with smart cards. In our protocol, we avoid modular exponential computing or scalar multiplication on elliptic curve used in traditional authenticated key agreement protocols using smart cards. Our analysis shows that our protocol has comprehensive characteristics and can withstand attacks, including the insider attack, replay attack, and others, satisfying essential security requirements. Performance analysis shows that our protocol can refrain from consuming modular exponential computing and scalar multiplication on an elliptic curve. The computational cost of our protocol compared with related protocols is acceptable.

  5. Password Authentication Based on Fractal Coding Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Password authentication is a mechanism used to authenticate user identity over insecure communication channel. In this paper, a new method to improve the security of password authentication is proposed. It is based on the compression capability of the fractal image coding to provide an authorized user a secure access to registration and login process. In the proposed scheme, a hashed password string is generated and encrypted to be captured together with the user identity using text to image mechanisms. The advantage of fractal image coding is to be used to securely send the compressed image data through a nonsecured communication channel to the server. The verification of client information with the database system is achieved in the server to authenticate the legal user. The encrypted hashed password in the decoded fractal image is recognized using optical character recognition. The authentication process is performed after a successful verification of the client identity by comparing the decrypted hashed password with those which was stored in the database system. The system is analyzed and discussed from the attacker’s viewpoint. A security comparison is performed to show that the proposed scheme provides an essential security requirement, while their efficiency makes it easier to be applied alone or in hybrid with other security methods. Computer simulation and statistical analysis are presented.

  6. A secure chaotic maps and smart cards based password authentication and key agreement scheme with user anonymity for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Weng, Chi-Yao

    2014-09-01

    Telecare medicine information system (TMIS) is widely used for providing a convenient and efficient communicating platform between patients at home and physicians at medical centers or home health care (HHC) organizations. To ensure patient privacy, in 2013, Hao et al. proposed a chaotic map based authentication scheme with user anonymity for TMIS. Later, Lee showed that Hao et al.'s scheme is in no provision for providing fairness in session key establishment and gave an efficient user authentication and key agreement scheme using smart cards, in which only few hashing and Chebyshev chaotic map operations are required. In addition, Jiang et al. discussed that Hao et al.'s scheme can not resist stolen smart card attack and they further presented an improved scheme which attempts to repair the security pitfalls found in Hao et al.'s scheme. In this paper, we found that both Lee's and Jiang et al.'s authentication schemes have a serious security problem in that a registered user's secret parameters may be intentionally exposed to many non-registered users and this problem causing the service misuse attack. Therefore, we propose a slight modification on Lee's scheme to prevent the shortcomings. Compared with previous schemes, our improved scheme not only inherits the advantages of Lee's and Jiang et al.'s authentication schemes for TMIS but also remedies the serious security weakness of not being able to withstand service misuse attack.

  7. Password Authentication Scheme with Secured Login Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKINWALE A. Taofiki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel solution to the age long problem of password security at input level. In our solution, each of the various characters from which a password could be composed is encoded with a random single digit integer and presented to the user via an input interface form. A legitimate user entering his password only needs to carefully study the sequence of code that describe his password, and then enter these code in place of his actual password characters. This approach does not require the input code to be hidden from anyone or converted to placeholder characters for security reasons. Our solution engine regenerates new code for each character each time the carriage return key is struck, producing a hardened password that is convincingly more secure than conventional password entry system against both online and offline attackers. Using empirical data and a prototype implementation of our scheme, we give evidence that our approach is viable in practice, in terms of ease of use, improved security, and performance.

  8. An Improvement of Robust and Efficient Biometrics Based Password Authentication Scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems Using Extended Chaotic Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Choi, Younsung; Kim, Jiye; Won, Dongho

    2016-03-01

    Recently, numerous extended chaotic map-based password authentication schemes that employ smart card technology were proposed for Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMISs). In 2015, Lu et al. used Li et al.'s scheme as a basis to propose a password authentication scheme for TMISs that is based on biometrics and smart card technology and employs extended chaotic maps. Lu et al. demonstrated that Li et al.'s scheme comprises some weaknesses such as those regarding a violation of the session-key security, a vulnerability to the user impersonation attack, and a lack of local verification. In this paper, however, we show that Lu et al.'s scheme is still insecure with respect to issues such as a violation of the session-key security, and that it is vulnerable to both the outsider attack and the impersonation attack. To overcome these drawbacks, we retain the useful properties of Lu et al.'s scheme to propose a new password authentication scheme that is based on smart card technology and requires the use of chaotic maps. Then, we show that our proposed scheme is more secure and efficient and supports security properties.

  9. Password-based authenticated key exchange scheme using smart card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhong, Shaojun

    2013-03-01

    A protocol that allows any two entities to negotiate a shared session key is commonly called a key exchange protocol. If the protocol provides a function to authenticate each other, we call the protocol authenticated key exchange protocol (AKE). Password authentication key exchange (PAKE) is the AKE protocol in which the two entities share a humanmemorable password. Most of current PAKE relies on the existence of a public key infrastructure, which sometime is impossible for a certain environments such as low computational device due to the computation overhead. In this paper, we propose password-based authenticated key exchange using smart card. Compared to previous PAKE, our protocol is more efficient because our protocol is based on ECC. Thereby, the proposed protocol can be well applied to low computation device.

  10. An Improved Timestamp-Based Password Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    OpenAIRE

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan; Hong, Choong Seon

    2007-01-01

    With the recent proliferation of distributed systems and networking, remote authentication has become a crucial task in many networking applications. Various schemes have been proposed so far for the two-party remote authentication; however, some of them have been proved to be insecure. In this paper, we propose an efficient timestamp-based password authentication scheme using smart cards. We show various types of forgery attacks against a previously proposed timestamp-based password authenti...

  11. Robust and efficient biometrics based password authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems using extended chaotic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Xie, Dong; Yang, Yixian

    2015-06-01

    The Telecare Medicine Information Systems (TMISs) provide an efficient communicating platform supporting the patients access health-care delivery services via internet or mobile networks. Authentication becomes an essential need when a remote patient logins into the telecare server. Recently, many extended chaotic maps based authentication schemes using smart cards for TMISs have been proposed. Li et al. proposed a secure smart cards based authentication scheme for TMISs using extended chaotic maps based on Lee's and Jiang et al.'s scheme. In this study, we show that Li et al.'s scheme has still some weaknesses such as violation the session key security, vulnerability to user impersonation attack and lack of local verification. To conquer these flaws, we propose a chaotic maps and smart cards based password authentication scheme by applying biometrics technique and hash function operations. Through the informal and formal security analyses, we demonstrate that our scheme is resilient possible known attacks including the attacks found in Li et al.'s scheme. As compared with the previous authentication schemes, the proposed scheme is more secure and efficient and hence more practical for telemedical environments.

  12. J-PAKE: Authenticated Key Exchange without PKI

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    Hao, Feng; Ryan, Peter

    Password Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE) is one of the important topics in cryptography. It aims to address a practical security problem: how to establish secure communication between two parties solely based on a shared password without requiring a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). After more than a decade of extensive research in this field, there have been several PAKE protocols available. The EKE and SPEKE schemes are perhaps the two most notable examples. Both techniques are however patented. In this paper, we review these techniques in detail and summarize various theoretical and practical weaknesses. In addition, we present a new PAKE solution called J-PAKE. Our strategy is to depend on well-established primitives such as the Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP). So far, almost all of the past solutions have avoided using ZKP for the concern on efficiency. We demonstrate how to effectively integrate the ZKP into the protocol design and meanwhile achieve good efficiency. Our protocol has comparable computational efficiency to the EKE and SPEKE schemes with clear advantages on security.

  13. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Qi; Hu Bin; Chen Ke-Fei; Liu Wen-Hao; Tan Xiao

    2015-01-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. (paper)

  14. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Wen-Hao; Tan, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LZ12F02005), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834205), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61070153).

  15. An enhanced password authentication scheme for session initiation protocol with perfect forward secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuming; Xu, Guoai; Ahmad, Haseeb; Guo, Yanhui

    2018-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an extensive and esteemed communication protocol employed to regulate signaling as well as for controlling multimedia communication sessions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed an improved smart card based authentication scheme for SIP based on Farash's scheme. Farash claimed that his protocol is resistant against various known attacks. But, we observe some accountable flaws in Farash's protocol. We point out that Farash's protocol is prone to key-compromise impersonation attack and is unable to provide pre-verification in the smart card, efficient password change and perfect forward secrecy. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we present an enhanced authentication mechanism based on Kumari et al.'s scheme. We prove that the proposed protocol not only overcomes the issues in Farash's scheme, but it can also resist against all known attacks. We also provide the security analysis of the proposed scheme with the help of widespread AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) software. At last, comparing with the earlier proposals in terms of security and efficiency, we conclude that the proposed protocol is efficient and more secure.

  16. Using a Personal Device to Strengthen Password Authentication from an Untrusted Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Mohammad; van Oorschot, P. C.

    Keylogging and phishing attacks can extract user identity and sensitive account information for unauthorized access to users' financial accounts. Most existing or proposed solutions are vulnerable to session hijacking attacks. We propose a simple approach to counter these attacks, which cryptographically separates a user's long-term secret input from (typically untrusted) client PCs; a client PC performs most computations but has access only to temporary secrets. The user's long-term secret (typically short and low-entropy) is input through an independent personal trusted device such as a cellphone. The personal device provides a user's long-term secrets to a client PC only after encrypting the secrets using a pre-installed, "correct" public key of a remote service (the intended recipient of the secrets). The proposed protocol (MP-Auth) realizes such an approach, and is intended to safeguard passwords from keyloggers, other malware (including rootkits), phishing attacks and pharming, as well as to provide transaction security to foil session hijacking. We report on a prototype implementation of MP-Auth, and provide a comparison of web authentication techniques that use an additional factor of authentication (e.g. a cellphone, PDA or hardware token).

  17. An enhanced password authentication scheme for session initiation protocol with perfect forward secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an extensive and esteemed communication protocol employed to regulate signaling as well as for controlling multimedia communication sessions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed an improved smart card based authentication scheme for SIP based on Farash’s scheme. Farash claimed that his protocol is resistant against various known attacks. But, we observe some accountable flaws in Farash’s protocol. We point out that Farash’s protocol is prone to key-compromise impersonation attack and is unable to provide pre-verification in the smart card, efficient password change and perfect forward secrecy. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we present an enhanced authentication mechanism based on Kumari et al.’s scheme. We prove that the proposed protocol not only overcomes the issues in Farash’s scheme, but it can also resist against all known attacks. We also provide the security analysis of the proposed scheme with the help of widespread AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) software. At last, comparing with the earlier proposals in terms of security and efficiency, we conclude that the proposed protocol is efficient and more secure. PMID:29547619

  18. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

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    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  19. Key Exchange Trust Evaluation in Peer-to-Peer Sensor Networks With Unconditionally Secure Key Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B.

    2016-03-01

    As the utilization of sensor networks continue to increase, the importance of security becomes more profound. Many industries depend on sensor networks for critical tasks, and a malicious entity can potentially cause catastrophic damage. We propose a new key exchange trust evaluation for peer-to-peer sensor networks, where part of the network has unconditionally secure key exchange. For a given sensor, the higher the portion of channels with unconditionally secure key exchange the higher the trust value. We give a brief introduction to unconditionally secured key exchange concepts and mention current trust measures in sensor networks. We demonstrate the new key exchange trust measure on a hypothetical sensor network using both wired and wireless communication channels.

  20. Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange through Steganographied Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Khaldi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – In a private key system, the major problem is the exchange of the key between the two parties. Diffie and Hellman have set up a way to share the key. However, this technique is not protected against a man-in-the-middle attack as the settings are not authenticated. The Diffie-Hellman key exchange requires the use of digital signature or creating a secure channel for data exchanging to avoid the man-in-the-middle attack. Methodology/approach/design – We present a Diffie-Hellman key exchange implementation using steganographied images. Using steganography made invisible the data exchange to a potential attacker. So, we will not need a digital signature or creating a secure channel to do our key exchange since only the two concerned parts are aware of this exchange. Findings – We generate a symmetric 128-bit key between two users without use of digital signature or secure channel. However, it works only on bitmap images, heavy images and sensitive to compression.

  1. Guidelines for ethical nudging in password authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud, Karen; Zimmermann, Verena

    2018-01-01

    Nudging has been adopted by many disciplines in the last decade in order to achieve behavioural change. Information security is no exception. A number of attempts have been made to nudge end-users towards stronger passwords. Here we report on our deployment of an enriched nudge displayed to participants on the system enrolment page, when a password has to be chosen. The enriched nudge was successful in that participants chose significantly longer and stronger passwords. One thing that struck ...

  2. Deep Random based Key Exchange protocol resisting unlimited MITM

    OpenAIRE

    de Valroger, Thibault

    2018-01-01

    We present a protocol enabling two legitimate partners sharing an initial secret to mutually authenticate and to exchange an encryption session key. The opponent is an active Man In The Middle (MITM) with unlimited computation and storage capacities. The resistance to unlimited MITM is obtained through the combined use of Deep Random secrecy, formerly introduced and proved as unconditionally secure against passive opponent for key exchange, and universal hashing techniques. We prove the resis...

  3. Authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange: theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevassut, Olivier [Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2002-10-01

    Authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals A and B, communicating over a public network, and each holding a pair of matching public/private keys to agree on a session key. Protocols designed to deal with this problem ensure A (B resp.)that no other principals aside from B (A resp.) can learn any information about this value. These protocols additionally often ensure A and B that their respective partner has actually computed the shared secret value. A natural extension to the above cryptographic protocol problem is to consider a pool of principals agreeing on a session key. Over the years several papers have extended the two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange to the multi-party setting but no formal treatments were carried out till recently. In light of recent developments in the formalization of the authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange we have in this thesis laid out the authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange on firmer foundations.

  4. Enhanced diffie-hellman algorithm for reliable key exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan; Kumar, Chaithanya; Vincent, P. M. Durai Raj

    2017-11-01

    The Diffie -Hellman is one of the first public-key procedure and is a certain way of exchanging the cryptographic keys securely. This concept was introduced by Ralph Markel and it is named after Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. Sender and Receiver make a common secret key in Diffie-Hellman algorithm and then they start communicating with each other over the public channel which is known to everyone. A number of internet services are secured by Diffie -Hellman. In Public key cryptosystem, the sender has to trust while receiving the public key of the receiver and vice-versa and this is the challenge of public key cryptosystem. Man-in-the-Middle attack is very much possible on the existing Diffie-Hellman algorithm. In man-in-the-middle attack, the attacker exists in the public channel, the attacker receives the public key of both sender and receiver and sends public keys to sender and receiver which is generated by his own. This is how man-in-the-middle attack is possible on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. Denial of service attack is another attack which is found common on Diffie-Hellman. In this attack, the attacker tries to stop the communication happening between sender and receiver and attacker can do this by deleting messages or by confusing the parties with miscommunication. Some more attacks like Insider attack, Outsider attack, etc are possible on Diffie-Hellman. To reduce the possibility of attacks on Diffie-Hellman algorithm, we have enhanced the Diffie-Hellman algorithm to a next level. In this paper, we are extending the Diffie -Hellman algorithm by using the concept of the Diffie -Hellman algorithm to get a stronger secret key and that secret key is further exchanged between the sender and the receiver so that for each message, a new secret shared key would be generated. The second secret key will be generated by taking primitive root of the first secret key.

  5. GENERALIZED MATRIXES OF GALOIS PROTOCOLS EXCHANGE ENCRYPTION KEYS

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    Anatoly Beletsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of construction of matrix formation the secret protocols legalized subscribers of public communications networks encryption keys. Based key exchange protocols laid asymmetric cryptography algorithms. The solution involves the calculation of one-way functions and is based on the use of generalized Galois arrays of isomorphism relationship with forming elements, and depending on the selected irreducible polynomial generating matrix. A simple method for constructing generalized Galois matrix by the method of filling the diagonal. In order to eliminate the isomorphism of Galois arrays and their constituent elements, limiting the possibility of building one-way functions, Galois matrix subjected to similarity transformation carried out by means of permutation matrices. The variant of the organization of the algebraic attacks on encryption keys sharing protocols and discusses options for easing the consequences of an attack.

  6. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-01-01

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model

  7. Backup key generation model for one-time password security protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanthi, N.; Kundu, Sourav

    2017-11-01

    The use of one-time password (OTP) has ushered new life into the existing authentication protocols used by the software industry. It introduced a second layer of security to the traditional username-password authentication, thus coining the term, two-factor authentication. One of the drawbacks of this protocol is the unreliability of the hardware token at the time of authentication. This paper proposes a simple backup key model that can be associated with the real world applications’user database, which would allow a user to circumvent the second authentication stage, in the event of unavailability of the hardware token.

  8. On the Security of a Simple Three-Party Key Exchange Protocol without Server’s Public Keys

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    Junghyun Nam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010: (1 the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2 the protocol cannot protect clients’ passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3 the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol.

  9. Provably-Secure Authenticated Group Diffie-Hellman KeyExchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2007-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols allow two participantsA and B, communicating over a public network and each holding anauthentication means, to exchange a shared secret value. Methods designedto deal with this cryptographic problem ensure A (resp. B) that no otherparticipants aside from B (resp. A) can learn any information about theagreed value, and often also ensure A and B that their respective partnerhas actually computed this value. A natural extension to thiscryptographic method is to consider a pool of participants exchanging ashared secret value and to provide a formal treatment for it. Startingfrom the famous 2-party Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange protocol, andfrom its authenticated variants, security experts have extended it to themulti-party setting for over a decade and completed a formal analysis inthe framework of modern cryptography in the past few years. The presentpaper synthesizes this body of work on the provably-secure authenticatedgroup DH key exchange.

  10. Comparative study of key exchange and authentication methods in application, transport and network level security mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathirad, Iraj; Devlin, John; Jiang, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The key-exchange and authentication are two crucial elements of any network security mechanism. IPsec, SSL/TLS, PGP and S/MIME are well-known security approaches in providing security service to network, transport and application layers; these protocols use different methods (based on their requirements) to establish keying materials and authenticates key-negotiation and participated parties. This paper studies and compares the authenticated key negotiation methods in mentioned protocols.

  11. Key exchange using biometric identity based encryption for sharing encrypted data in cloud environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waleed K.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2017-05-01

    The main problem associated with using symmetric/ asymmetric keys is how to securely store and exchange the keys between the parties over open networks particularly in the open environment such as cloud computing. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) have been providing a practical solution for session key exchange for loads of web services. The key limitation of PKI solution is not only the need for a trusted third partly (e.g. certificate authority) but also the absent link between data owner and the encryption keys. The latter is arguably more important where accessing data needs to be linked with identify of the owner. Currently available key exchange protocols depend on using trusted couriers or secure channels, which can be subject to man-in-the-middle attack and various other attacks. This paper proposes a new protocol for Key Exchange using Biometric Identity Based Encryption (KE-BIBE) that enables parties to securely exchange cryptographic keys even an adversary is monitoring the communication channel between the parties. The proposed protocol combines biometrics with IBE in order to provide a secure way to access symmetric keys based on the identity of the users in unsecure environment. In the KE-BIOBE protocol, the message is first encrypted by the data owner using a traditional symmetric key before migrating it to a cloud storage. The symmetric key is then encrypted using public biometrics of the users selected by data owner to decrypt the message based on Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. Only the selected users will be able to decrypt the message by providing a fresh sample of their biometric data. The paper argues that the proposed solution eliminates the needs for a key distribution centre in traditional cryptography. It will also give data owner the power of finegrained sharing of encrypted data by control who can access their data.

  12. End-to-End Key Exchange through Disjoint Paths in P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daouda Ahmat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their inherent features, P2P networks have proven to be effective in the exchange of data between autonomous peers. Unfortunately, these networks are subject to various security threats that cannot be addressed readily since traditional security infrastructures, which are centralized, cannot be applied to them. Furthermore, communication reliability across the Internet is threatened by various attacks, including usurpation of identity, eavesdropping or traffic modification. Thus, in order to overcome these security issues and allow peers to securely exchange data, we propose a new key management scheme over P2P networks. Our approach introduces a new method that enables a secret key exchange through disjoint paths in the absence of a trusted central coordination point which would be required in traditional centralized security systems.

  13. Heisenberg Groups as Platform for the AAG key-exchange protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Kahrobaei, Delaram; Lam, Ha T.

    2014-01-01

    Garber, Kahrobaei, and Lam studied polycyclic groups generated by number field as platform for the AAG key-exchange protocol. In this paper, we discuss the use of a different kind of polycyclic groups, Heisenberg groups, as a platform group for AAG by submitting Heisenberg groups to one of AAG's major attacks, the length-based attack.

  14. Cryptanalysis of Wang et al.’s lattice-based key exchange protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya Sagar Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wang et al. proposed a new hard problem on lattices which is an extension of the small integer solution (SIS on lattices. This new generated hard problem is named to be bilateral in-homogeneous small integer solution (Bi-ISIS. Using the hardness of Bi-ISIS, Wang et al. proposed a new key exchange protocol, which is based on the lattice-based cryptography. In this paper, we signalize that Wang et al.’s lattice-based key exchange protocol is vulnerable to an attack, namely, man-in-the-middle (MITM attack. Through this attack, Eavesdropper can intercept the authenticated messages and communicate the unauthentic messages among the communicating parties.

  15. Two-Factor User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A password authentication scheme using smart card is called two-factor authentication scheme. Two-factor authentication scheme is the most accepted and commonly used mechanism that provides the authorized users a secure and efficient method for accessing resources over insecure communication channel. Up to now, various two-factor user authentication schemes have been proposed. However, most of them are vulnerable to smart card loss attack, offline password guessing attack, impersonation attack, and so on. In this paper, we design a password remote user authentication with key agreement scheme using elliptic curve cryptosystem. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme has high level of security. Moreover, the proposed scheme is more practical and secure in contrast to some related schemes.

  16. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange with provable security in the standard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Kim, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Jinsoo; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the three-party setting allow two clients registered with the same authentication server to derive a common secret key from their individual password shared with the server. Existing three-party PAKE protocols were proven secure under the assumption of the existence of random oracles or in a model that does not consider insider attacks. Therefore, these protocols may turn out to be insecure when the random oracle is instantiated with a particular hash function or an insider attack is mounted against the partner client. The contribution of this paper is to present the first three-party PAKE protocol whose security is proven without any idealized assumptions in a model that captures insider attacks. The proof model we use is a variant of the indistinguishability-based model of Bellare, Pointcheval, and Rogaway (2000), which is one of the most widely accepted models for security analysis of password-based key exchange protocols. We demonstrated that our protocol achieves not only the typical indistinguishability-based security of session keys but also the password security against undetectable online dictionary attacks.

  17. Password-Only Authenticated Three-Party Key Exchange with Provable Security in the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE in the three-party setting allow two clients registered with the same authentication server to derive a common secret key from their individual password shared with the server. Existing three-party PAKE protocols were proven secure under the assumption of the existence of random oracles or in a model that does not consider insider attacks. Therefore, these protocols may turn out to be insecure when the random oracle is instantiated with a particular hash function or an insider attack is mounted against the partner client. The contribution of this paper is to present the first three-party PAKE protocol whose security is proven without any idealized assumptions in a model that captures insider attacks. The proof model we use is a variant of the indistinguishability-based model of Bellare, Pointcheval, and Rogaway (2000, which is one of the most widely accepted models for security analysis of password-based key exchange protocols. We demonstrated that our protocol achieves not only the typical indistinguishability-based security of session keys but also the password security against undetectable online dictionary attacks.

  18. Energy-Efficient Implementation of ECDH Key Exchange for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Christian; Mader, Roland; Koschuch, Manuel; Großschädl, Johann; Szekely, Alexander; Tillich, Stefan

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are playing a vital role in an ever-growing number of applications ranging from environmental surveillance over medical monitoring to home automation. Since WSNs are often deployed in unattended or even hostile environments, they can be subject to various malicious attacks, including the manipulation and capture of nodes. The establishment of a shared secret key between two or more individual nodes is one of the most important security services needed to guarantee the proper functioning of a sensor network. Despite some recent advances in this field, the efficient implementation of cryptographic key establishment for WSNs remains a challenge due to the resource constraints of small sensor nodes such as the MICAz mote. In this paper we present a lightweight implementation of the elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange for ZigBee-compliant sensor nodes equipped with an ATmega128 processor running the TinyOS operating system. Our implementation uses a 192-bit prime field specified by the NIST as underlying algebraic structure and requires only 5.20 ·106 clock cycles to compute a scalar multiplication if the base point is fixed and known a priori. A scalar multiplication using a random base point takes about 12.33 ·106 cycles. Our results show that a full ECDH key exchange between two MICAz motes consumes an energy of 57.33 mJ (including radio communication), which is significantly better than most previously reported ECDH implementations on comparable platforms.

  19. Patients’ Data Management System Protected by Identity-Based Authentication and Key Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rivero-García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A secure and distributed framework for the management of patients’ information in emergency and hospitalization services is proposed here in order to seek improvements in efficiency and security in this important area. In particular, confidentiality protection, mutual authentication, and automatic identification of patients are provided. The proposed system is based on two types of devices: Near Field Communication (NFC wristbands assigned to patients, and mobile devices assigned to medical staff. Two other main elements of the system are an intermediate server to manage the involved data, and a second server with a private key generator to define the information required to protect communications. An identity-based authentication and key exchange scheme is essential to provide confidential communication and mutual authentication between the medical staff and the private key generator through an intermediate server. The identification of patients is carried out through a keyed-hash message authentication code. Thanks to the combination of the aforementioned tools, a secure alternative mobile health (mHealth scheme for managing patients’ data is defined for emergency and hospitalization services. Different parts of the proposed system have been implemented, including mobile application, intermediate server, private key generator and communication channels. Apart from that, several simulations have been performed, and, compared with the current system, significant improvements in efficiency have been observed.

  20. Patients' Data Management System Protected by Identity-Based Authentication and Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-García, Alexandra; Santos-González, Iván; Hernández-Goya, Candelaria; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Yung, Moti

    2017-03-31

    A secure and distributed framework for the management of patients' information in emergency and hospitalization services is proposed here in order to seek improvements in efficiency and security in this important area. In particular, confidentiality protection, mutual authentication, and automatic identification of patients are provided. The proposed system is based on two types of devices: Near Field Communication (NFC) wristbands assigned to patients, and mobile devices assigned to medical staff. Two other main elements of the system are an intermediate server to manage the involved data, and a second server with a private key generator to define the information required to protect communications. An identity-based authentication and key exchange scheme is essential to provide confidential communication and mutual authentication between the medical staff and the private key generator through an intermediate server. The identification of patients is carried out through a keyed-hash message authentication code. Thanks to the combination of the aforementioned tools, a secure alternative mobile health (mHealth) scheme for managing patients' data is defined for emergency and hospitalization services. Different parts of the proposed system have been implemented, including mobile application, intermediate server, private key generator and communication channels. Apart from that, several simulations have been performed, and, compared with the current system, significant improvements in efficiency have been observed.

  1. Patients’ Data Management System Protected by Identity-Based Authentication and Key Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-García, Alexandra; Santos-González, Iván; Hernández-Goya, Candelaria; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Yung, Moti

    2017-01-01

    A secure and distributed framework for the management of patients’ information in emergency and hospitalization services is proposed here in order to seek improvements in efficiency and security in this important area. In particular, confidentiality protection, mutual authentication, and automatic identification of patients are provided. The proposed system is based on two types of devices: Near Field Communication (NFC) wristbands assigned to patients, and mobile devices assigned to medical staff. Two other main elements of the system are an intermediate server to manage the involved data, and a second server with a private key generator to define the information required to protect communications. An identity-based authentication and key exchange scheme is essential to provide confidential communication and mutual authentication between the medical staff and the private key generator through an intermediate server. The identification of patients is carried out through a keyed-hash message authentication code. Thanks to the combination of the aforementioned tools, a secure alternative mobile health (mHealth) scheme for managing patients’ data is defined for emergency and hospitalization services. Different parts of the proposed system have been implemented, including mobile application, intermediate server, private key generator and communication channels. Apart from that, several simulations have been performed, and, compared with the current system, significant improvements in efficiency have been observed. PMID:28362328

  2. Two-Round Password-Only Authenticated Key Exchange in the Three-Party Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first provably-secure three-party password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE protocol that can run in only two communication rounds. Our protocol is generic in the sense that it can be constructed from any two-party PAKE protocol. The protocol is proven secure in a variant of the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000 without any idealized assumptions on the cryptographic primitives used. We also investigate the security of the two-round, three-party PAKE protocol of Wang, Hu and Li (2010 and demonstrate that this protocol cannot achieve implicit key authentication in the presence of an active adversary.

  3. Random-Resistor-Random-Temperature Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (RRRT-KLJN Key Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kish Laszlo B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce two new Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN secure key distribution schemes which are generalizations of the original KLJN scheme. The first of these, the Random-Resistor (RR- KLJN scheme, uses random resistors with values chosen from a quasi-continuum set. It is well-known since the creation of the KLJN concept that such a system could work in cryptography, because Alice and Bob can calculate the unknown resistance value from measurements, but the RR-KLJN system has not been addressed in prior publications since it was considered impractical. The reason for discussing it now is the second scheme, the Random Resistor Random Temperature (RRRT- KLJN key exchange, inspired by a recent paper of Vadai, Mingesz and Gingl, wherein security was shown to be maintained at non-zero power flow. In the RRRT-KLJN secure key exchange scheme, both the resistances and their temperatures are continuum random variables. We prove that the security of the RRRT-KLJN scheme can prevail at a non-zero power flow, and thus the physical law guaranteeing security is not the Second Law of Thermodynamics but the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem. Alice and Bob know their own resistances and temperatures and can calculate the resistance and temperature values at the other end of the communication channel from measured voltage, current and power-flow data in the wire. However, Eve cannot determine these values because, for her, there are four unknown quantities while she can set up only three equations. The RRRT-KLJN scheme has several advantages and makes all former attacks on the KLJN scheme invalid or incomplete.

  4. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange proven secure against insider dictionary attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol.

  5. Notes on recent approaches concerning the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise-based secure key exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Horvath, Tamas

    2009-08-01

    We critically analyze the results and claims in [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901]. We show that the strong security leak appeared in the simulations is only an artifact and not caused by “multiple reflections”. Since no wave modes exist at cable length of 5% of the shortest wavelength of the signal, no wave is present to reflect it. In the high wave impedance limit, the conditions used in the simulations are heavily unphysical (requiring cable diameters up to 28000 times greater than the measured size of the known universe) and the results are modeling artifacts due to the unphysical values. At the low cable impedance limit, the observed artifacts are due to violating the recommended (and tested) conditions by neglecting the cable capacitance restrictions and using about 100 times longer cable than recommended without cable capacitance compensation arrangement. We implement and analyze the general circuitry of Liu's circulator [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901] and confirm that they are conceptually secure against passive attacks. We introduce an asymmetric, more robust version without feedback loop. Then we crack all these systems by an active attack: a circulator-based man-in-the middle attack. Finally, we analyze the proposed method to increase security by dropping only high-risk bits. We point out the differences between different types of high-risk bits and show the shortage of this strategy for some simple key exchange protocols.

  6. Notes on recent approaches concerning the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise-based secure key exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Horvath, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    We critically analyze the results and claims in [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901]. We show that the strong security leak appeared in the simulations is only an artifact and not caused by 'multiple reflections'. Since no wave modes exist at cable length of 5% of the shortest wavelength of the signal, no wave is present to reflect it. In the high wave impedance limit, the conditions used in the simulations are heavily unphysical (requiring cable diameters up to 28000 times greater than the measured size of the known universe) and the results are modeling artifacts due to the unphysical values. At the low cable impedance limit, the observed artifacts are due to violating the recommended (and tested) conditions by neglecting the cable capacitance restrictions and using about 100 times longer cable than recommended without cable capacitance compensation arrangement. We implement and analyze the general circuitry of Liu's circulator [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901] and confirm that they are conceptually secure against passive attacks. We introduce an asymmetric, more robust version without feedback loop. Then we crack all these systems by an active attack: a circulator-based man-in-the middle attack. Finally, we analyze the proposed method to increase security by dropping only high-risk bits. We point out the differences between different types of high-risk bits and show the shortage of this strategy for some simple key exchange protocols.

  7. Notes on recent approaches concerning the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise-based secure key exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Laszlo B., E-mail: Laszlo.Kish@ece.tamu.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3128 (United States); Horvath, Tamas, E-mail: tamas.horvath@iais.fraunhofer.d [Department of Computer Science, University of Bonn (Germany); Fraunhofer IAIS, Schloss Birlinghoven, D-53754 Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    2009-08-03

    We critically analyze the results and claims in [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901]. We show that the strong security leak appeared in the simulations is only an artifact and not caused by 'multiple reflections'. Since no wave modes exist at cable length of 5% of the shortest wavelength of the signal, no wave is present to reflect it. In the high wave impedance limit, the conditions used in the simulations are heavily unphysical (requiring cable diameters up to 28000 times greater than the measured size of the known universe) and the results are modeling artifacts due to the unphysical values. At the low cable impedance limit, the observed artifacts are due to violating the recommended (and tested) conditions by neglecting the cable capacitance restrictions and using about 100 times longer cable than recommended without cable capacitance compensation arrangement. We implement and analyze the general circuitry of Liu's circulator [P.-L. Liu, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 901] and confirm that they are conceptually secure against passive attacks. We introduce an asymmetric, more robust version without feedback loop. Then we crack all these systems by an active attack: a circulator-based man-in-the middle attack. Finally, we analyze the proposed method to increase security by dropping only high-risk bits. We point out the differences between different types of high-risk bits and show the shortage of this strategy for some simple key exchange protocols.

  8. Simple group password-based authenticated key agreements for the integrated EPR information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    The security and privacy are important issues for electronic patient records (EPRs). The goal of EPRs is sharing the patients' medical histories such as the diagnosis records, reports and diagnosis image files among hospitals by the Internet. So the security issue for the integrated EPR information system is essential. That is, to ensure the information during transmission through by the Internet is secure and private. The group password-based authenticated key agreement (GPAKE) allows a group of users like doctors, nurses and patients to establish a common session key by using password authentication. Then the group of users can securely communicate by using this session key. Many approaches about GAPKE employ the public key infrastructure (PKI) in order to have higher security. However, it not only increases users' overheads and requires keeping an extra equipment for storing long-term secret keys, but also requires maintaining the public key system. This investigation presents a simple group password-based authenticated key agreement (SGPAKE) protocol for the integrated EPR information system. The proposed SGPAKE protocol does not require using the server or users' public keys. Each user only remembers his weak password shared with a trusted server, and then can obtain a common session key. Then all users can securely communicate by using this session key. The proposed SGPAKE protocol not only provides users with convince, but also has higher security.

  9. Delay and cost performance analysis of the diffie-hellman key exchange protocol in opportunistic mobile networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelistijanto, B.; Muliadi, V.

    2018-03-01

    Diffie-Hellman (DH) provides an efficient key exchange system by reducing the number of cryptographic keys distributed in the network. In this method, a node broadcasts a single public key to all nodes in the network, and in turn each peer uses this key to establish a shared secret key which then can be utilized to encrypt and decrypt traffic between the peer and the given node. In this paper, we evaluate the key transfer delay and cost performance of DH in opportunistic mobile networks, a specific scenario of MANETs where complete end-to-end paths rarely exist between sources and destinations; consequently, the end-to-end delays in these networks are much greater than typical MANETs. Simulation results, driven by a random node movement model and real human mobility traces, showed that DH outperforms a typical key distribution scheme based on the RSA algorithm in terms of key transfer delay, measured by average key convergence time; however, DH performs as well as the benchmark in terms of key transfer cost, evaluated by total key (copies) forwards.

  10. Enhanced Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Using Dynamic Identities in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Pin; Lee, Tian-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Liu, Chuan-Ming

    2015-11-30

    Key agreements that use only password authentication are convenient in communication networks, but these key agreement schemes often fail to resist possible attacks, and therefore provide poor security compared with some other authentication schemes. To increase security, many authentication and key agreement schemes use smartcard authentication in addition to passwords. Thus, two-factor authentication and key agreement schemes using smartcards and passwords are widely adopted in many applications. Vaidya et al. recently presented a two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Kim et al. observed that the Vaidya et al. scheme fails to resist gateway node bypassing and user impersonation attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme for WSNs. This study analyzes the weaknesses of the two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme of Kim et al., which include vulnerability to impersonation attacks, lost smartcard attacks and man-in-the-middle attacks, violation of session key security, and failure to protect user privacy. An efficient and secure authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs based on the scheme of Kim et al. is then proposed. The proposed scheme not only solves the weaknesses of previous approaches, but also increases security requirements while maintaining low computational cost.

  11. Key characteristics of knowledge transfer and exchange in healthcare: integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentland, Duncan; Forsyth, Kirsty; Maciver, Donald; Walsh, Mike; Murray, Richard; Irvine, Linda; Sikora, Simon

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a review of literature relating to knowledge transfer and exchange in healthcare. Treatment, planning and policy decisions in contemporary nursing and healthcare should be based on sound evidence wherever possible, but research knowledge remains generally underused. Knowledge transfer and exchange initiatives aim to facilitate the accessibility, application and production of evidence and may provide solutions to this challenge. This review was conducted to help inform the design and implementation of knowledge transfer and exchange activities for a large healthcare organization. Databases: ASSIA, Business Source Premier, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. An integrative literature review was carried out including an extensive literature search. English language systematic reviews, literature reviews, primary quantitative and qualitative papers and grey literature of high relevance evaluating, describing or discussing knowledge transfer or exchange activities in healthcare were included for review (January 1990-September 2009). Thirty-three papers were reviewed (four systematic reviews, nine literature reviews, one environmental scan, nine empirical studies and ten case studies). Robust research into knowledge transfer and exchange in healthcare is limited. Analysis of a wide range of evidence indicates a number of commonly featured characteristics but further evaluation of these activities would benefit their application in facilitating evidence-based practice in nursing. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Rehabilitation of heat exchange equipment a key to power plant life extension and performance improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taveau, F.; Huiban, A.M. [Alstom Power Heat Exchange, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)

    2001-07-01

    With the current evolutions of the energy market and the life extension of the power plants, all the equipment initially supplied need one day or another partial or total rehabilitation. For heat exchange equipment, this includes the condensers, feed water heaters and various heat exchangers. Modernization is in particular necessary when in-service monitoring and periodic inspections show significant deteriorations of the tubes and cooling water leakages leading to forced outages or when tube and tube plate materials are no longer suited to cooling water characteristics or to updated specifications of the secondary system. Feedwater heaters and heat exchangers damaged by erosion/corrosion, vibrations, etc. can be re-designed, manufactured and replaced easily. The operation is more complex on condensers and requires technical surveys, study of alternative solutions and has a more direct impact on the global output of the power plant. That is why our conference will focus on the condenser refurbishment. (author)

  13. Rehabilitation of heat exchange equipment a key to power plant life extension and performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taveau, F.; Huiban, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With the current evolutions of the energy market and the life extension of the power plants, all the equipment initially supplied need one day or another partial or total rehabilitation. For heat exchange equipment, this includes the condensers, feed water heaters and various heat exchangers. Modernization is in particular necessary when in-service monitoring and periodic inspections show significant deteriorations of the tubes and cooling water leakages leading to forced outages or when tube and tube plate materials are no longer suited to cooling water characteristics or to updated specifications of the secondary system. Feedwater heaters and heat exchangers damaged by erosion/corrosion, vibrations, etc. can be re-designed, manufactured and replaced easily. The operation is more complex on condensers and requires technical surveys, study of alternative solutions and has a more direct impact on the global output of the power plant. That is why our conference will focus on the condenser refurbishment. (author)

  14. Local antiferromagnetic exchange and collaborative Fermi surface as key ingredients of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangping; Ding, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Cuprates, ferropnictides and ferrochalcogenides are three classes of unconventional high temperature superconductors, who share similar phase diagrams in which superconductivity develops after a magnetic order is suppressed, suggesting a strong interplay between superconductivity and magnetism, although the exact picture of this interplay remains elusive. Here we show that there is a direct bridge connecting antiferromagnetic exchange interactions determined in the parent compounds of these materials to the superconducting gap functions observed in the corresponding superconducting materials: in all high temperature superconductors, the Fermi surface topology matches the form factor of the pairing symmetry favored by local magnetic exchange interactions. We suggest that this match offers a principle guide to search for new high temperature superconductors. PMID:22536479

  15. High Pressure ZZ-Exchange NMR Reveals Key Features of Protein Folding Transition States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Kitazawa, Soichiro; Peran, Ivan; Stenzoski, Natalie; McCallum, Scott A; Raleigh, Daniel P; Royer, Catherine A

    2016-11-23

    Understanding protein folding mechanisms and their sequence dependence requires the determination of residue-specific apparent kinetic rate constants for the folding and unfolding reactions. Conventional two-dimensional NMR, such as HSQC experiments, can provide residue-specific information for proteins. However, folding is generally too fast for such experiments. ZZ-exchange NMR spectroscopy allows determination of folding and unfolding rates on much faster time scales, yet even this regime is not fast enough for many protein folding reactions. The application of high hydrostatic pressure slows folding by orders of magnitude due to positive activation volumes for the folding reaction. We combined high pressure perturbation with ZZ-exchange spectroscopy on two autonomously folding protein domains derived from the ribosomal protein, L9. We obtained residue-specific apparent rates at 2500 bar for the N-terminal domain of L9 (NTL9), and rates at atmospheric pressure for a mutant of the C-terminal domain (CTL9) from pressure dependent ZZ-exchange measurements. Our results revealed that NTL9 folding is almost perfectly two-state, while small deviations from two-state behavior were observed for CTL9. Both domains exhibited large positive activation volumes for folding. The volumetric properties of these domains reveal that their transition states contain most of the internal solvent excluded voids that are found in the hydrophobic cores of the respective native states. These results demonstrate that by coupling it with high pressure, ZZ-exchange can be extended to investigate a large number of protein conformational transitions.

  16. Implementation of diffie-Hellman key exchange on wireless sensor using elliptic curve cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajuria, Samant; Tange, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a low-cost public key cryptography (PKC) based solution for security services such as authentication as required for wireless sensor networks. We have implemented a software approach using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) over GF (2m) in order to obtain stronger cryptography...

  17. Effect of Power Exchange of India: An Overview and Key Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Chauhan, D. S.; Upadhdhyay, K. G.

    2013-09-01

    There stands no guarantee that if potential market participants are simply provided with the opportunity for trading electricity, there shall be an efficient wholesale electricity market. India, as well as various other developed countries, relies on voluntary agreements as far as electricity trading is concerned. Self, private initiatives to standardize and commodities contracts play an important role in increasing the trading volume to improve efficiency, in developed countries. In accordance with their experiences, this paper suggested a specific strategy to promote bilateral/OTC trading; hence, India needed to develop a master agreement for electricity contracts. This paper discusses that the creating power exchange for short-term trading in the spot market materializing the contract for the convenience of market participants stands particularly important and henceforth is a necessary factor to make sure that spot market is workable and competitive prior to developing a financial contract for electricity trading.

  18. Eloquence is The Key – the Impact of Monetary Policy Speeches on Exchange Rate Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cantemir Călin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last years the monetary policy initiatives of the main central banks have been profoundly influenced by quantitative easing (QE. Blessing, curse, effective instruments or a simple fad, these unconventional measures have occupied the center stage of academic and public attention. In this context, this paper focuses on a wide set of public speeches delivered by officials belonging to the most relevant central banks. These statements cover a large pallet of topics including areas such as QE, tapering, financial stability, unemployment or interest rates. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact that these speeches have on the volatility of exchange rates. For this purpose, the methodology relies on an econometric event study that incorporates three volatility models and intraday five-minute frequencies. The results indicate the fact that public statements have a clear, evident, significant and robust impact on the observed assets.

  19. Hypoxia and hypercarbia in endophagous insects: Larval position in the plant gas exchange network is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Casas, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Gas composition is an important component of any micro-environment. Insects, as the vast majority of living organisms, depend on O2 and CO2 concentrations in the air they breathe. Low O2 (hypoxia), and high CO2 (hypercarbia) levels can have a dramatic effect. For phytophagous insects that live within plant tissues (endophagous lifestyle), gas is exchanged between ambient air and the atmosphere within the insect habitat. The insect larva contributes to the modification of this environment by expiring CO2. Yet, knowledge on the gas exchange network in endophagous insects remains sparse. Our study identified mechanisms that modulate gas composition in the habitat of endophagous insects. Our aim was to show that the mere position of the insect larva within plant tissues could be used as a proxy for estimating risk of occurrence of hypoxia and hypercarbia, despite the widely diverse life history traits of these organisms. We developed a conceptual framework for a gas diffusion network determining gas composition in endophagous insect habitats. We applied this framework to mines, galls and insect tunnels (borers) by integrating the numerous obstacles along O2 and CO2 pathways. The nature and the direction of gas transfers depended on the physical structure of the insect habitat, the photosynthesis activity as well as stomatal behavior in plant tissues. We identified the insect larva position within the gas diffusion network as a predictor of risk exposure to hypoxia and hypercarbia. We ranked endophagous insect habitats in terms of risk of exposure to hypoxia and/or hypercarbia, from the more to the less risky as cambium mines>borer tunnels≫galls>bark mines>mines in aquatic plants>upper and lower surface mines. Furthermore, we showed that the photosynthetically active tissues likely assimilate larval CO2 produced. In addition, temperature of the microhabitat and atmospheric CO2 alter gas composition in the insect habitat. We predict that (i) hypoxia indirectly favors

  20. Password Authentication from a Human Factors Perspective: Results of a Survey Among End-Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoonakker, Peter; Bornoe, Nis; Carayon, Pascale

    2009-01-01

    Considering that many organizations today are extremely dependent on information technology, computer and information security (CIS) has become a critical concern from a business viewpoint. CIS is concerned with protecting the confidentiality, integrity, accessible information, when using computer...... systems. Much research has been conducted on CIS in the past years. However, the attention has been primarily focused on technical problems and solutions. Only recently, the role of human factors in CIS has been recognized. End-user behavior can increase the vulnerability of computer and information...

  1. On the security flaws in ID-based password authentication schemes for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheerendra

    2015-01-01

    Telecare medical information systems (TMIS) enable healthcare delivery services. However, access of these services via public channel raises security and privacy issues. In recent years, several smart card based authentication schemes have been introduced to ensure secure and authorized communication between remote entities over the public channel for the (TMIS). We analyze the security of some of the recently proposed authentication schemes of Lin, Xie et al., Cao and Zhai, and Wu and Xu's for TMIS. Unfortunately, we identify that these schemes failed to satisfy desirable security attributes. In this article we briefly discuss four dynamic ID-based authentication schemes and demonstrate their failure to satisfy desirable security attributes. The study is aimed to demonstrate how inefficient password change phase can lead to denial of server scenario for an authorized user, and how an inefficient login phase causes the communication and computational overhead and decrease the performance of the system. Moreover, we show the vulnerability of Cao and Zhai's scheme to known session specific temporary information attack, vulnerability of Wu and Xu's scheme to off-line password guessing attack, and vulnerability of Xie et al.'s scheme to untraceable on-line password guessing attack.

  2. Exploring Effect of Location Number on Map-Based Graphical Password Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Lee, Wang; Au, Man Ho

    2017-01-01

    select their secrets (geographical points) on a world map. In particular, PassMap allows users to select two locations on a map, while GeoPass reduces the number of locations to only one. At first glance, selecting one location is more vulnerable to attacks, while increasing the location number may add...

  3. Healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI) and non-profit organization (NPO): essentials for healthcare data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiko; Teratani, Tadamasa; Qiyan, Zhang; Kusuoka, Hideo; Matsuoka, Masami

    2004-01-01

    To share healthcare information and to promote cooperation among healthcare providers and customers (patients) under computerized network environment, a non-profit organization (NPO), named as OCHIS, was established at Osaka, Japan in 2003. Since security and confidentiality issues on the Internet have been major concerns in the OCHIS, the system has been based on healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI), and found that there remained problems to be solved technically and operationally. An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the central and the local function in terms of a registration authority and a time stamp authority by contracting with the Ministry of Economics and Trading Industries in 2003. This paper describes the experimental design with NPO and the results of the study concerning message security and HPKI. The developed system has been operated practically in Osaka urban area.

  4. Recent Progress on the Key Materials and Components for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells in Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells are the most clean and efficient power source for vehicles. In particular, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are the most promising candidate for automobile applications due to their rapid start-up and low-temperature operation. Through extensive global research efforts in the latest decade, the performance of PEMFCs, including energy efficiency, volumetric and mass power density, and low temperature startup ability, have achieved significant breakthroughs. In 2014, fuel cell powered vehicles were introduced into the market by several prominent vehicle companies. However, the low durability and high cost of PEMFC systems are still the main obstacles for large-scale industrialization of this technology. The key materials and components used in PEMFCs greatly affect their durability and cost. In this review, the technical progress of key materials and components for PEMFCs has been summarized and critically discussed, including topics such as the membrane, catalyst layer, gas diffusion layer, and bipolar plate. The development of high-durability processing technologies is also introduced. Finally, this review is concluded with personal perspectives on the future research directions of this area.

  5. A no-key-exchange secure image sharing scheme based on Shamir's three-pass cryptography protocol and the multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jun

    2012-01-30

    In this paper, we propose a novel secure image sharing scheme based on Shamir's three-pass protocol and the multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (MPFRFT), which can safely exchange information with no advance distribution of either secret keys or public keys between users. The image is encrypted directly by the MPFRFT spectrum without the use of phase keys, and information can be shared by transmitting the encrypted image (or message) three times between users. Numerical simulation results are given to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  6. The origins of enhanced activity in factor VIIa analogs and the interplay between key allosteric sites revealed by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Andersen, Mette D; Olsen, Ole H

    2008-01-01

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to invest......Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry...... to investigate the conformational effects of site-directed mutagenesis at key positions in FVIIa and the origins of enhanced intrinsic activity of FVIIa analogs. The differences in hydrogen exchange of two highly active variants, FVIIa(DVQ) and FVIIa(VEAY), imply that enhanced catalytic efficiency was attained...

  7. An Excel tool for deriving key photosynthetic parameters from combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra; Beerling, David J; Griffiths, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Combined photosynthetic gas exchange and modulated fluorometres are widely used to evaluate physiological characteristics associated with phenotypic and genotypic variation, whether in response to genetic manipulation or resource limitation in natural vegetation or crops. After describing relatively simple experimental procedures, we present the theoretical background to the derivation of photosynthetic parameters, and provide a freely available Excel-based fitting tool (EFT) that will be of use to specialists and non-specialists alike. We use data acquired in concurrent variable fluorescence-gas exchange experiments, where A/Ci and light-response curves have been measured under ambient and low oxygen. From these data, the EFT derives light respiration, initial PSII (photosystem II) photochemical yield, initial quantum yield for CO2 fixation, fraction of incident light harvested by PSII, initial quantum yield for electron transport, electron transport rate, rate of photorespiration, stomatal limitation, Rubisco (ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) rate of carboxylation and oxygenation, Rubisco specificity factor, mesophyll conductance to CO2 diffusion, light and CO2 compensation point, Rubisco apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, and Rubisco CO2 -saturated carboxylation rate. As an example, a complete analysis of gas exchange data on tobacco plants is provided. We also discuss potential measurement problems and pitfalls, and suggest how such empirical data could subsequently be used to parameterize predictive photosynthetic models. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Comparative Evaluation of Algorithms in the Implementation of an Ultra-Secure Router-to-Router Key Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishaal J. Parmar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative evaluation of possible encryption algorithms for use in a self-contained, ultra-secure router-to-router communication system, first proposed by El Rifai and Verma. The original proposal utilizes a discrete logarithm-based encryption solution, which will be compared in this paper to RSA, AES, and ECC encryption algorithms. RSA certificates are widely used within the industry but require a trusted key generation and distribution architecture. AES and ECC provide advantages in key length, processing requirements, and storage space, also maintaining an arbitrarily high level of security. This paper modifies each of the four algorithms for use within the self-contained router-to-router environment system and then compares them in terms of features offered, storage space and data transmission needed, encryption/decryption efficiency, and key generation requirements.

  9. Improving policy and practice to promote equity and social justice - a qualitative comparative analysis building on key learnings from a twinning exchange between England and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Narle, Ginder; Gibbs, Martin; Ruddock, Charmaine; Grady, Michael; Brookes, Chris; Hopkins, Trevor; Norwood, Jayne

    2013-12-01

    Community health promotion interventions, targeted at marginalised populations and focusing on addressing the social determinants of health (SDH) to reduce health inequalities and addressing the processes of exclusion, are an important strategy to prevent and control non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and promote the health of underprivileged and under-resourced groups. This article builds on key lessons learnt from a learning exchange between Communities for Health in England and the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health across the US (REACH US) communities that are tackling health inequities. It presents a qualitative analysis further capturing information about specific community interventions involved in the exchange and identifying lessons learnt. This exchange was led by a partnership between the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the International Union for Health Promotion and Education, the Department of Health of England, Health Action Partnership International, and Learning for Public Health West Midlands. These efforts provide interesting insights for further research, priority areas of action for policy and practice to address the SDH and to promote and sustain equity and social justice globally. The article highlights some key lessons about the use of data, assets-based community interventions and the importance of good leadership in times of crisis and adversity. Whilst complex and time-consuming to arrange, such programmes have the potential to offer other countries including the global south new insights and perspectives that will in turn contribute to the SDH field and provide concrete strategies and actions that effectively reduce inequities and promote the health of our societies. The key learnings have the potential to contribute to the global community and growing documentation on evidence of effective efforts in the reduction of health inequities.

  10. Standardized Elemental Basis for Gas-Turbine Engine Heat Exchangers is the Key Factor for Their Cost Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soudarev A.V; Soudarev B.V; Kondratiev V.V; Lazarev M.V

    2001-01-01

    The competitiveness of the small gas turbine units (GTUs) (Ne<300 kW) in the world power market is dependent on both the maintenance expenses and the capital costs of production. Reduction in the maintenance expenditures could be achieved by increasing the plant efficiency. This task could be solved by some methods: increasing the cycle inlet temperature TIT, getting the cycle more complex (use of heat regeneration and compressed air intermediate cooling), cutting the power consumption on heat-stressed parts cooling. Putting the above into effect is linked with introduction of novel structural materials, a sharp increase in the mass-size values and the plant manufacture expenditures, in particular, at provision of its self-regulation.In connection with the above, the development of the combined metal-ceramic airheaters and standardization of the elemental basis of the metal gas-gas heat exchangers will promote reduction in the expenditures of the maintenance and the manufacture of the small-size independent power GTEs.

  11. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of "A Secure Password Authentication Mechanism for Seamless Handover in Proxy Mobile IPv6 Networks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mojtaba; Zamani, Mazdak; Baharun, Sabariah; Abdul Manaf, Azizah; Sakurai, Kouichi; Anada, Hiroki; Keshavarz, Hassan; Ashraf Chaudhry, Shehzad; Khurram Khan, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 is a network-based localized mobility management protocol that supports mobility without mobile nodes’ participation in mobility signaling. The details of user authentication procedure are not specified in this standard, hence, many authentication schemes have been proposed for this standard. In 2013, Chuang et al., proposed an authentication method for PMIPv6, called SPAM. However, Chuang et al.’s Scheme protects the network against some security attacks, but it is still vulnerable to impersonation and password guessing attacks. In addition, we discuss other security drawbacks such as lack of revocation procedure in case of loss or stolen device, and anonymity issues of the Chuang et al.’s scheme. We further propose an enhanced authentication method to mitigate the security issues of SPAM method and evaluate our scheme using BAN logic. PMID:26580963

  12. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of "A Secure Password Authentication Mechanism for Seamless Handover in Proxy Mobile IPv6 Networks".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mojtaba; Zamani, Mazdak; Baharun, Sabariah; Abdul Manaf, Azizah; Sakurai, Kouichi; Anada, Hiroaki; Anada, Hiroki; Keshavarz, Hassan; Ashraf Chaudhry, Shehzad; Khurram Khan, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 is a network-based localized mobility management protocol that supports mobility without mobile nodes' participation in mobility signaling. The details of user authentication procedure are not specified in this standard, hence, many authentication schemes have been proposed for this standard. In 2013, Chuang et al., proposed an authentication method for PMIPv6, called SPAM. However, Chuang et al.'s Scheme protects the network against some security attacks, but it is still vulnerable to impersonation and password guessing attacks. In addition, we discuss other security drawbacks such as lack of revocation procedure in case of loss or stolen device, and anonymity issues of the Chuang et al.'s scheme. We further propose an enhanced authentication method to mitigate the security issues of SPAM method and evaluate our scheme using BAN logic.

  13. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of "A Secure Password Authentication Mechanism for Seamless Handover in Proxy Mobile IPv6 Networks".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Alizadeh

    Full Text Available Proxy Mobile IPv6 is a network-based localized mobility management protocol that supports mobility without mobile nodes' participation in mobility signaling. The details of user authentication procedure are not specified in this standard, hence, many authentication schemes have been proposed for this standard. In 2013, Chuang et al., proposed an authentication method for PMIPv6, called SPAM. However, Chuang et al.'s Scheme protects the network against some security attacks, but it is still vulnerable to impersonation and password guessing attacks. In addition, we discuss other security drawbacks such as lack of revocation procedure in case of loss or stolen device, and anonymity issues of the Chuang et al.'s scheme. We further propose an enhanced authentication method to mitigate the security issues of SPAM method and evaluate our scheme using BAN logic.

  14. Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Vadai, Gergely; Smulko, Janusz; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2015-12-01

    A recent paper by Gunn-Allison-Abbott (GAA) [L. J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA's arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA's asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA's scheme via an elementary current-comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

  15. Drought-induced defoliation and long periods of near-zero gas exchange play a key role in accentuating metabolic decline of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Aguadé, David; Galiano, Lucía; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2013-10-01

    Drought-induced defoliation has recently been associated with the depletion of carbon reserves and increased mortality risk in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We hypothesize that defoliated individuals are more sensitive to drought, implying that potentially higher gas exchange (per unit of leaf area) during wet periods may not compensate for their reduced photosynthetic area. We measured sap flow, needle water potentials and whole-tree hydraulic conductance to analyse the drought responses of co-occurring defoliated and nondefoliated Scots pines in northeast Spain during typical (2010) and extreme (2011) drought conditions. Defoliated Scots pines showed higher sap flow per unit leaf area during spring, but were more sensitive to summer drought, relative to nondefoliated pines. This pattern was associated with a steeper decline in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance with drought and an enhanced sensitivity of canopy conductance to soil water availability. Near-homeostasis in midday water potentials was observed across years and defoliation classes, with minimum values of -2.5 MPa. Enhanced sensitivity to drought and prolonged periods of near-zero gas exchange were consistent with low levels of carbohydrate reserves in defoliated trees. Our results support the critical links between defoliation, water and carbon availability, and their key roles in determining tree survival and recovery under drought. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Partitioning of the net CO2 exchange using an automated chamber system reveals plant phenology as key control of production and respiration fluxes in a boreal peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järveoja, Järvi; Nilsson, Mats B; Gažovič, Michal; Crill, Patrick M; Peichl, Matthias

    2018-04-30

    The net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE) drives the carbon (C) sink-source strength of northern peatlands. Since NEE represents a balance between various production and respiration fluxes, accurate predictions of its response to global changes require an in depth understanding of these underlying processes. Currently, however, detailed information of the temporal dynamics as well as the separate biotic and abiotic controls of the NEE component fluxes is lacking in peatland ecosystems. In this study, we address this knowledge gap by using an automated chamber system established across natural and trenching-/vegetation removal plots to partition NEE into its production (i.e. gross and net primary production; GPP and NPP) and respiration (i.e. ecosystem, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration; ER, Rh and Ra) fluxes in a boreal peatland in northern Sweden. Our results showed that daily NEE patterns were driven by GPP while variations in ER were governed by Ra rather than Rh. Moreover, we observed pronounced seasonal shifts in the Ra/Rh and above-/belowground NPP ratios throughout the main phenological phases. Generalized linear model analysis revealed that the greenness index derived from digital images (as a proxy for plant phenology) was the strongest control of NEE, GPP and NPP while explaining considerable fractions also in the variations of ER and Ra. In addition, our data exposed greater temperature sensitivity of NPP compared to Rh resulting in enhanced C sequestration with increasing temperature. Overall, our study suggests that the temporal patterns in NEE and its component fluxes are tightly coupled to vegetation dynamics in boreal peatlands and thus challenges previous studies that commonly identify abiotic factors as key drivers. These findings further emphasize the need for integrating detailed information on plant phenology into process-based models to improve predictions of global change impacts on the peatland C cycle. This article is protected by

  17. A pilot study using scripted ventilation conditions to identify key factors affecting indoor pollutant concentration and air exchange rate in a residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ted; Myers, Jeffrey; Kelly, Thomas; Wisbith, Anthony; Ollison, Will

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted using an occupied, single-family test house in Columbus, OH, to determine whether a script-based protocol could be used to obtain data useful in identifying the key factors affecting air-exchange rate (AER) and the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of selected traffic-related air pollutants. The test script called for hourly changes to elements of the test house considered likely to influence air flow and AER, including the position (open or closed) of each window and door and the operation (on/off) of the furnace, air conditioner, and ceiling fans. The script was implemented over a 3-day period (January 30-February 1, 2002) during which technicians collected hourly-average data for AER, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations for six pollutants (benzene, formaldehyde (HCHO), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x))), and selected meteorological variables. Consistent with expectations, AER tended to increase with the number of open exterior windows and doors. The 39 AER values measured during the study when all exterior doors and windows were closed varied from 0.36 to 2.29 h(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.77 h(-1) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.435. The 27 AER values measured when at least one exterior door or window was opened varied from 0.50 to 15.8 h(-1) with a GM of 1.98 h(-1) and a GSD of 1.902. AER was also affected by temperature and wind speed, most noticeably when exterior windows and doors were closed. Results of a series of stepwise linear regression analyses suggest that (1) outdoor pollutant concentration and (2) indoor pollutant concentration during the preceding hour were the "variables of choice" for predicting indoor pollutant concentration in the test house under the conditions of this study. Depending on the pollutant and ventilation conditions, one or more of the following variables produced a small, but

  18. Ion-exchange-resin-catalyzed adamantylation of phenol derivatives with adamantanols: Developing a clean process for synthesis of 2-(1-adamantyl-4-bromophenol, a key intermediate of adapalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A clean process has been developed for the synthesis of 2-adamantylphenol derivatives through adamantylation of substituted phenols with adamantanols catalyzed by commercially available and recyclable ion-exchange sulfonic acid resin in acetic acid. The sole byproduct of the adamantylation reaction, namely water, could be converted into the solvent acetic acid by addition of a slight excess of acetic anhydride during the work-up procedure, making the process waste-free except for regeneration of the ion-exchange resin, and facilitating the recycling of the resin catalyst. The ion-exchange sulfonic acid resin catalyst could be readily recycled by filtration and directly reused at least ten times without a significant loss of activity. The key intermediate of adapalene, 2-(1-adamantyl-4-bromophenol, could be produced by means of this waste-free process.

  19. Effective international information exchange as a key element of modern tax systems: promises and pitfalls of the OECD’s common reporting standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Gadzo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s global economic environment is characterized by the high mobility of capital and labour across national borders. Against the backdrop of a legal framework governing taxation of cross-border income, this may lead to double taxation on the one hand, as well as provide opportunities for tax evasion and tax avoidance on the other. It is well-established that a prerequisite for effective taxation of foreign-sourced income earned by “domestic taxpayers” (i.e. tax residents is the system of administrative co-operation across national boundaries, mainly in the form of exchange of tax-relevant information between tax authorities. Since the lack of information-exchange mechanisms is linked with tax havens and the proliferation of “harmful tax practices”, the OECD put the issue high on the global political agenda as early as 1998. Further developments strengthened the importance of the exchange of information, leading to the so-called “big bang” of 2009, i.e. to a significant increase in the number of concluded tax information exchange agreements, caused by the growing concern about international tax evasion and avoidance in the post-crisis period.Nowadays the so-called automatic exchange of information (AEOI between tax authorities has emerged as a new global standard. This is mostly due to the development of specific national and international models, aimed at enhancing intergovernmental cooperation in fighting offshore tax evasion. In this regard special attention should be drawn to the 2014 release of the OECD’s Common Reporting Standard (CRS, which is based on the idea that banks and other financial institutions should play a crucial role in providing information on taxpayer’s income and assets to tax authorities around the globe.The aim of this paper is to explore some of the most important implications of the adoption of the CRS as a global AEOI model. While there are marked advantages of the new standard - mainly related

  20. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  1. A bacterial cytotoxin identifies the RhoA exchange factor Net1 as a key effector in the response to DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Guerra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure of adherent cells to DNA damaging agents, such as the bacterial cytolethal distending toxin (CDT or ionizing radiations (IR, activates the small GTPase RhoA, which promotes the formation of actin stress fibers and delays cell death. The signalling intermediates that regulate RhoA activation and promote cell survival are unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that the nuclear RhoA-specific Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF Net1 becomes dephosphorylated at a critical inhibitory site in cells exposed to CDT or IR. Expression of a dominant negative Net1 or Net1 knock down by iRNA prevented RhoA activation, inhibited the formation of stress fibers, and enhanced cell death, indicating that Net1 activation is required for this RhoA-mediated responses to genotoxic stress. The Net1 and RhoA-dependent signals involved activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 and its downstream target MAPK-activated protein kinase 2. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight the importance of Net1 in controlling RhoA and p38 MAPK mediated cell survival in cells exposed to DNA damaging agents and illustrate a molecular pathway whereby chronic exposure to a bacterial toxin may promote genomic instability.

  2. Quantum cryptography to satellites for global secure key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarity, John G.; Gorman, Philip M.; Knight, Paul; Wallace, Kotska; Tapster, Paul R.

    2017-11-01

    We have designed and built a free space secure key exchange system using weak laser pulses with polarisation modulation by acousto-optic switching. We have used this system to exchange keys over a 1.2km ground range with absolute security. Building from this initial result we analyse the feasibility of exchanging keys to a low earth orbit satellite.

  3. Key Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Y Rieger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A few months ago, while I was participating in a conference about open access infrastructures, a delegate from a governmental agency asked, “Why does each library need to maintain a repository for their own scientists?” He was rightfully wondering if a broad collaboration in building a network of archives will provide a durable and extensible technology and service framework for ever-increasing digital scholarly content. The ensuing discussion did not offer a plausible response but accentuated that we do not have in place a plan for building an expandable infrastructure to facilitate communication and exchange of information among rapidly proliferating distinct instances of institutional and subject repositories.

  4. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  5. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  6. An Encryption Key for Secure Authentication: The Dynamic Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubayr Khalid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern day technology, the Information Society is at risk. Passwords are a multi-user computer systems usual first line of defence against intrusion. A password may be textual with any combination of alphanumeric characters or biometric or 3-D. But no authentication protocol is fully secured against todays hackers as all of them are Static in type. Dynamic authentication protocol is still a theoretical concept. In this paper, we are focusing on a concept of authentication technique which is actually dynamic in genre, i.e. the password here will change in t time (where t is as small as possible. This technique comprises of both hardware and software part. In this paper, we have covered the idea of generating an efficient algorithm that can work as the final in the Dynamic Password Authentication system. We have used standard deviation within statistics to generalize the possible password which is further secured by Feistel Block Cipher and Advanced Encryption Standard technique (AES, leading and following the said mathematics respectively. In order to allow the system to create variable password in the least time interval possible, we must make sure our process is not much complex.

  7. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  8. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  9. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  10. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  11. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  12. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  13. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  14. Exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Bev

    2003-09-01

    IN MAY this year, I was lucky enough to go to Larissa in northern Greece as part of Hope Exchange 2003, an annual study tour organised by the European Union's hospital committee and administered by the Institute of Healthcare Management (IHM).

  15. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  16. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  17. A re-examination of the exchange rate overshooting hypothesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review ... This finding is inconsistent with the monetary model of exchange rate determination, which asserts that there is a long-run relationship between the exchange rate ... Key words: Exchange rates, monetary model, autoregressive distributed lag, cointegration, exchange rate overshooting ...

  18. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  19. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  20. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  1. Exchanging information

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christine

    1991-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  2. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  3. Theory of oxygen isotope exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, M.W.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Transients for oxygen molecular mass numbers 32, 34 and 36 are derived which can be used for the interpretation of oxygen isotope exchange data based on measurement of concentrations of 16O2, 16O18O and 18O2 in the gas phase. Key parameters in the theory are the rate at which oxygen molecules are

  4. Matchmaker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Nara L M; Arachchi, Harindra; Buske, Orion J; Chong, Jessica X; Hutton, Ben; Foreman, Julia; Schiettecatte, François; Groza, Tudor; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Haendel, Melissa A; Boycott, Kym M; Hamosh, Ada; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-18

    In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems. To facilitate such communication and improve the search for patients or model organisms with similar phenotypes and variants in specific candidate genes, we have developed the Matchmaker Exchange (MME). MME was created to establish a federated network connecting databases of genomic and phenotypic data using a common application programming interface (API). To date, seven databases can exchange data using the API (GeneMatcher, PhenomeCentral, DECIPHER, MyGene2, matchbox, Australian Genomics Health Alliance Patient Archive, and Monarch Initiative; the latter included for model organism matching). This article guides usage of the MME for rare disease gene discovery. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  5. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, F; Yanagida, T; Fujie, K; Futawatari, H

    1975-04-30

    The purpose of this construction is the improvement of heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers, and therefore the improvement of its efficiency or its output per unit volume. This is achieved by preventing the formation of flow boundary layers in gaseous fluid. This effect always occurs on flow of smooth adjacent laminae, and especially if these have pipes carrying liquid passing through them; it worsens the heat transfer of such a boundary layer considerably compared to that in the turbulent range. The fins, which have several rows of heat exchange tubes passing through them, are fixed at a small spacing on theses tubes. The fins have slots cut in them by pressing or punching, where the pressed-out material remains as a web, which runs parallel to the level of the fin and at a small distance from it. These webs and slots are arranged radially around every tube hole, e.g. 6 in number. For a suitable small tube spacing, two adjacent tubes opposite each other have one common slot. Many variants of such slot arrangements are illustrated.

  6. Quantum key distribution with finite resources: Secret key rates via Renyi entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bruss, Dagmar [Institute for Theoretical Physics III, Heinrich-Heine-universitaet Duesseldorf, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    A realistic quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol necessarily deals with finite resources, such as the number of signals exchanged by the two parties. We derive a bound on the secret key rate which is expressed as an optimization problem over Renyi entropies. Under the assumption of collective attacks by an eavesdropper, a computable estimate of our bound for the six-state protocol is provided. This bound leads to improved key rates in comparison to previous results.

  7. Quantum key distribution with finite resources: Secret key rates via Renyi entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bruss, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    A realistic quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol necessarily deals with finite resources, such as the number of signals exchanged by the two parties. We derive a bound on the secret key rate which is expressed as an optimization problem over Renyi entropies. Under the assumption of collective attacks by an eavesdropper, a computable estimate of our bound for the six-state protocol is provided. This bound leads to improved key rates in comparison to previous results.

  8. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  9. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2011-11-08

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables-cultural, social, and economic-that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology--kinship, bridewealth, and filiation--we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.

  10. SeaQuaKE: Sea-optimized Quantum Key Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    spatial modes (e.g. orbital angular momentum), on the other hand, will not be considered here, due to the challenges that harsh atmospheric propagation...three smaller subsystems, including the pump source, time-bin multiplexer , polarization entanglement & pair generation elements. Also shown are some...quality f Time-bin/ polariz. analysis Hyper- entangled source Tx aperture ALICE Laser pump f f ff f f PBSf f MZI SPDs MZI PBS Time-Bin Entanglement

  11. Extensible router for a quantum key distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Mo Xiaofan; Han Zhengfu; Guo Guangcan

    2008-01-01

    Building a quantum key distribution network is crucial for practical quantum cryptography. We present a scheme to build a star topology quantum key distribution network based on wavelength division multiplexing which, with current technology, can connect at least a hundred users. With the scheme, a 4-user demonstration network was built up and key exchanges were performed

  12. City of Fresno peer exchange on bus rapid transit : a TPCB peer exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), held on May 21 and May 22, 2013, in Fresno, California. This event was sponsored by the Transportation Planning Capacity Buildin...

  13. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  14. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  15. Biometry, the safe key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fraile-Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometry is the next step in authentication, why do not we take this stepforward in our communication security systems? Keys are the main disadvantage in the cryptography, what if we were our own key?

  16. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  17. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  18. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  19. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  20. VOLATILITY OF EXCHANGE RATE IN THE CONTEXT OF FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg STRATULAT

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Moderate fluctuation of the exchange rate, basically in its floating regime is considered normality. Meanwhile,excessive volatility of the exchange rate is an issue for many countries. Its elimination is directed to foreign trade, which, through essential exports, followed by significant currency inflows, contribute to the stability of exchange rates. Unfortunately, Moldova’s foreign trade has become a key factor in maintaining the stability of foreign exchange.

  1. Social power in exchange theories: Homans's and Blau's considerations of the relationship between the power and the exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Mentus, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Since social exchange is one of the key concepts in the social life, the exchange theory can be one of the most important within sociology. Also, another crucial concept to the social reality and social sciences is social power. The theory of social exchange has provided a significant contribution to the study of power, however, this contribution of theorists who belong to exchange paradigm is completely neglected within scientific literature. Therefore, the subject of this paper is social po...

  2. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  3. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  4. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  5. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  6. Coherent one-way quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Damien; Fasel, Sylvain; Gisin, Nicolas; Thoma, Yann; Zbinden, Hugo

    2007-05-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) consists in the exchange of a secrete key between two distant points [1]. Even if quantum key distribution systems exist and commercial systems are reaching the market [2], there are still improvements to be made: simplify the construction of the system; increase the secret key rate. To this end, we present a new protocol for QKD tailored to work with weak coherent pulses and at high bit rates [3]. The advantages of this system are that the setup is experimentally simple and it is tolerant to reduced interference visibility and to photon number splitting attacks, thus resulting in a high efficiency in terms of distilled secret bits per qubit. After having successfully tested the feasibility of the system [3], we are currently developing a fully integrated and automated prototype within the SECOQC project [4]. We present the latest results using the prototype. We also discuss the issue of the photon detection, which still remains the bottleneck for QKD.

  7. Key improvements to XTR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Verheul, E.R.; Okamoto, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes improved methods for XTR key representation and parameter generation (cf. [4]). If the field characteristic is properly chosen, the size of the XTR public key for signature applications can be reduced by a factor of three at the cost of a small one time computation for the

  8. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. NCHRP peer exchange 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Peer exchanges for state department of transportation (DOT) research programs originated with : the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). That federal legislation : required the states to conduct periodic peer exchanges to...

  10. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  11. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  12. Preliminary thermal sizing of intermediate heat exchanger for NHDD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Hong, Sung Deok; Kim, Yong Wan; Chang, Jongh Wa

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) system is a Very High Temperature gascooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled with hydrogen production systems. Intermediate heat exchanger transfers heat from the nuclear reactor to the hydrogen production system. This study presented the sensitivity analysis on a preliminary thermal sizing of the intermediate heat exchanger. Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) was selected for the thermal sizing because the printed circuit heat exchanger has the largest compactness among the heat exchanger types. The analysis was performed to estimate the effect of key parameters including the operating condition of the intermediate system, the geometrical factors of the PCHE, and the working fluid of the intermediate system.

  13. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts About Tularemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This fact ... and Prevention (CDC) Tularemia Web site . What is Tularemia? Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs ...

  14. Key technologies book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this book can be found all the useful information on the French industry key technologies of the years 2000-2005. 136 technologies at the junction of the science advances and of the markets expectations are divided into 9 sectors. Among them, only 4 are interesting here: the environment, the transports, the materials and the energy. In 1995, the secretary's office of State for industry has published a first synthesis book on these key technologies. This 1997 new key technologies book extends and completes the initial study. For each key technology, an encyclopedic sheet is given. Each sheet combines thus some exact and practical information on: advance state of the technology, market characteristics, development forecasts, occupation and involved sectors, technology acquisition cost, research programs but also contacts of the main concerned efficiency poles. (O.M.)

  15. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  16. Exchange rate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plačkov Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small oscillations of exchange rate certainly affect the loss of confidence in the currency (Serbian dinar, CSD and because of the shallow market even the smallest change in the supply and demand leads to a shift in exchange rate and brings uncertainty. Some economists suggest that the course should be linked to inflation and thus ensure predictable and stable exchange rates. Real exchange rate or slightly depressed exchange rate will encourage the competitiveness of exporters and perhaps ensure the development of new production lines which, in terms of overvalued exchange rate, had no economic justification. Fixed exchange rate will bring lower interest rates, lower risk and lower business uncertainty (uncertainty avoidance, but Serbia will also reduce foreign exchange reserves by following this trend. On the other hand, a completely free exchange rate, would lead to a (real fall of Serbian currency, which in a certain period would lead to a significant increase in exports, but the consequences for businessmen and citizens with loans pegged to the euro exchange rate, would be disastrous. We will pay special attention to the depreciation of the exchange rate, as it is generally favorable to the export competitiveness of Serbia and, on the other hand, it leads to an increase in debt servicing costs of the government as well as of the private sector. Oscillations of the dinar exchange rate, appreciation and depreciation, sometimes have disastrous consequences on the economy, investors, imports and exports. In subsequent work, we will observe the movement of the dinar exchange rate in Serbia, in the time interval 2009-2012, in order to strike a balance and maintain economic equilibrium. A movement of foreign currencies against the local currency is controlled in the foreign exchange market, so in case economic interests require, The National Bank of Serbia (NBS, on the basis of arbitrary criteria, can intervene in the market.

  17. 78 FR 23969 - Ewan 1, INC. n/k/a AccessKey IP, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Ewan 1, INC. n/k/a AccessKey IP, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading April 19, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that... AccessKey IP, Inc. (``AccessKey'') because it has not filed a periodic report since it filed its...

  18. Exchange Rate Expectations, Currency Crises, and the Pricing of American Depositary Receipts

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    I.1 Motivation Exchange rates are a key issue in international economics and politics. While the determinants of exchange rates have been extensively studied in previous works, this dissertation contributes to the literature by deriving exchange rate expectations from stock market (ADR) data and analyzing their determinants. This exercise is done for three cases where one has to resort to exchange rate expectations since the national exchange rate is either manipulated by the central bank...

  19. Comparison is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mark H; Stenner, A Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Several concepts from Georg Rasch's last papers are discussed. The key one is comparison because Rasch considered the method of comparison fundamental to science. From the role of comparison stems scientific inference made operational by a properly developed frame of reference producing specific objectivity. The exact specifications Rasch outlined for making comparisons are explicated from quotes, and the role of causality derived from making comparisons is also examined. Understanding causality has implications for what can and cannot be produced via Rasch measurement. His simple examples were instructive, but the implications are far reaching upon first establishing the key role of comparison.

  20. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  1. Incentives and Information Exchange in International Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The exchange of taxpayer-specific information between national tax authorities has recently emerged as a key and controversial topic in international tax policy discussions, most notably with the OECD s harmful tax practices project and the EU s savings tax initiative.This paper analyses the effects

  2. Automated exchange transfusion and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, M; Shimada, S; Tamai, H; Taki, H; Yoshioka, Y

    1989-10-01

    An automated blood exchange transfusion (BET) with a two-site technique has been devised by Goldmann et al and by us, using an infusion pump. With this method, we successfully performed exchange transfusions 189 times in the past four years on 110 infants with birth weights ranging from 530 g to 4,000 g. The exchange rate by the automated method was compared with the rate by Diamond's method. Serum bilirubin (SB) levels before and after BET and the maximal SB rebound within 24 hours after BET were: 21.6 +/- 2.4, 11.5 +/- 2.2, and 15.0 +/- 1.5 mg/dl in the automated method, and 22.0 +/- 2.9, 11.2 +/- 2.5, and 17.7 +/- 3.2 mg/dl in Diamond's method, respectively. The result showed that the maximal rebound of the SB level within 24 hours after BET was significantly lower in the automated method than in Diamond's method (p less than 0.01), though SB levels before and after BET were not significantly different between the two methods. The exchange rate was also measured by means of staining the fetal red cells (F cells) both in the automated method and in Diamond's method, and comparing them. The exchange rate of F cells in Diamond's method went down along the theoretical exchange curve proposed by Diamond, while the rate in the automated method was significantly better than in Diamond's, especially in the early stage of BET (p less than 0.01). We believe that the use of this automated method may give better results than Diamond's method in the rate of exchange, because this method is performed with a two-site technique using a peripheral artery and vein.

  3. North Carolina DOT peer exchange on performance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on Transportation Asset Management Plans (TAMP), held on February 5 and 6, 2014, in Columbia, South Carolina. This event was sponsored by the Transportation...

  4. Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes : a TPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes Peer Exchange held on September 9-10, 2015 in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. This event was sponsored ...

  5. Establishing and integrating performance measures : a TPCB peer exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Establishing and Integrating Performance Measures Peer Exchange held on April 27-28, 2015 in Dimondale, Michigan and via video teleconference. This event was spon...

  6. Cross-modal project prioritization : a TPCB peer exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on Cross-Modal Project Prioritization, held on December 16 and 17, 2014, in Raleigh, North Carolina. This event was sponsored by the Transportation Planning...

  7. Rethinking I-94: Minnesota DOT: A TPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Rethinking I-94: MnDOT Peer Exchange held on August 15-16, 2017 in St. Paul, Minnesota. This event was sponsored by the Transportation Planning Capacity Building ...

  8. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  9. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  10. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  11. Key numbers: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The key numbers of energy give statistical data related to production, consumption, and to foreign trade of each energy in the World and in France. A chapter is dedicated to environment and brings quantitative elements on pollutant emissions connected to energy uses

  12. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  13. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  14. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  15. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  16. Outlook for ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunin, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the history and theory of ion exchange technology and discusses the usefulness of ion exchange resins which found broad applications in chemical operations. It is demonstrated that the theory of ion exchange technology seems to be moving away from the physical chemist back to the polymer chemist where it started originally. This but confronted the polymer chemists with some knotty problems. It is pointed out that one has still to learn how to use ion exchange materials as efficiently as possible in terms of the waste load that is being pumped into the environment. It is interesting to note that, whereas ion exchange is used for abating pollution, it is also a polluter. One must learn how to use ion exchange as an antipollution device, and at the same time minimize its polluting properties

  17. MANAGED FLOAT EXCHANGE RATE SYSTEM: THE SINGAPORE EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    HOE EE KHOR; JASON LEE; EDWARD ROBINSON; SAKTIANDI SUPAAT

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the key characteristics of Singapore's exchange rate-centered monetary policy; in particular, its managed float regime which incorporates key features of the basket, band and crawl system popularized by Williamson (1998, 1999). We assess how the flexibility accorded by this framework has been advantageous in facilitating adjustment to various shocks to the economy. A characterization of the countercyclical nature of Singapore's exchange rate policy is also offered, with re...

  18. Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Two Borehole Heat Exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi Pagola, Maria; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines key results from a comparative study of two different pipe borehole heat exchanger (BHE) configurations. The work was carried out by VIA University College and in collaboration with GM Plast A/S.......This report outlines key results from a comparative study of two different pipe borehole heat exchanger (BHE) configurations. The work was carried out by VIA University College and in collaboration with GM Plast A/S....

  19. North Central Texas Council of Governments peer exchange on bicycle and pedestrian count programs : a TPCB peer exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on bicycle and pedestrian count programs, held on May 29 and May 30, 2013 in Arlington, Texas. The North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG) reque...

  20. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  1. Reactor fuel exchanging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shin-ichi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable operation of an emergency manual operating mechanism for a fuel exchanger with all operatorless trucks and remote operation of a manipulator even if the exchanger fails during the fuel exchanging operation. Constitution: When a fuel exchanging system fails while connected to a pressure tube of a nuclear reactor during a fuel exchanging operation, a stand-by self-travelling truck automatically runs along a guide line to the position corresponding to the stopping position at that time of the fuel exchanger based on a command from a central control chamber. At this time the truck is switched to manual operation, and approaches the exchanger while being monitored through a television camera and then stops. Then, a manipurator is connected to the emergency manual operating mechanism of the exchanger, and is operated through necessary emergency steps by driving the snout, the magazine, the grab or the like in the exchanger in response to the problem, and necessary operations for the emergency treatment are thus performed. (Sekiya, K.)

  2. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  3. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  4. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  5. Proton channels and exchangers in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Sonveaux, Pierre; Stock, Christian; Perez-Sayans, Mario; De Milito, Angelo; Avnet, Sofia; Garcìa, Abel Garcìa; Harguindey, Salvador; Fais, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Although cancer is characterized by an intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, a totally deranged pH control is a common feature of most cancer histotypes. Major determinants of aberrant pH gradient in cancer are proton exchangers and transporters, including V-ATPase, Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Thanks to the activity of these proton transporters and exchangers, cancer becomes isolated and/or protected not only from the body reaction against the growing tumor, but also from the vast majority of drugs that when protonated into the acidic tumor microenvironment do not enter into cancer cells. Proton transporters and exchangers represent a key feature tumor cells use to survive in the very hostile microenvironmental conditions that they create and maintain. Detoxifying mechanisms may thus represent both a key survival option and a selection outcome for cells that behave as unicellular microorganisms rather than belonging to an organ, compartment or body. It is, in fact, typical of malignant tumors that, after a clinically measurable yet transient initial response to a therapy, resistant tumor clones emerge and proliferate, thus bursting a more malignant behavior and rapid tumor progression. This review critically presents the background of a novel and efficient approach that aims to fight cancer through blocking or inhibiting well characterized proton exchangers and transporters active in human cancer cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Key Management Strategies for Safeguards Authentication and Encryption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coram, M.; Hymel, R.; McDaniel, M.; Brotz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Management of cryptographic keys for the authentication and encryption of safeguards data can be the critical weak link in the practical implementation of information security. Within the safeguards community, there is the need to validate that data has not been modified at any point since generation and that it was generated by the monitoring node and not an imposter. In addition, there is the need for that data to be transmitted securely between the monitoring node and the monitoring party such that it cannot be intercepted and read while in transit. Encryption and digital signatures support the required confidentiality and authenticity but challenges exist in managing the cryptographic keys they require. Technologies developed at Sandia National Laboratories have evolved in their use of an associated key management strategy. The first generation system utilized a shared secret key for digital signatures. While fast and efficient, it required that a list of keys be maintained and protected. If control of the key was lost, fraudulent data could be made to look authentic. The second generation changed to support public key / private key cryptography. The key pair is generated by the system, the public key shared, and the private key held internally. This approach eliminated the need to maintain the list of keys. It also allows the public key to be provided to anyone needing to authenticate the data without allowing them to spoof data. A third generation system, currently under development, improves upon the public key / private key approach to address a potential man-in-the-middle attack related to the sharing of the public key. In a planned fourth generation system, secure key exchange protocols will distribute session keys for encryption, eliminating another fixed set of keys utilized by the technology and allowing for periodic renegotiation of keys for enhanced security. (author)

  7. Key-data of energy (June 2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The energy actors and the economical context of energy are changing: the world exchanges and the deregulation of markets impose to dispose of reliable and relevant indicators to understand the French energy choices and stakes and to compare them with the European and worldwide data. This 2001 edition of the key energy data of France aims at shading light on the French energy policy which is based on: an imperative of supply security, an abatement of CO 2 emissions and a respect of environment, a growth of the economic competitiveness, a maintenance of the public utility missions, and on employment. Graphs, curves, charts and appendixes illustrate and complete this document. (J.S.)

  8. Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK) ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ... No Abstract. Keywords: MANET; key management scheme; simulation environment ...

  9. GRUNDTVIG in transnational exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg.......Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg....

  10. Building Relationships through Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  11. Exotic baryonium exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolescu, B.

    1978-05-01

    The prominent effects supposed to be associated with the exchange of exotic baryonium Regge trajectories are reviewed. The experimental presence of all expected effects leads to suggest that the baryonium exchange mechanism is a correct phenomenological picture and that mesons with isospin 2 or 3/2 or with strangeness 2, strongly coupled to the baryon-antibaryon channels, must be observed

  12. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics (pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger design.

  13. Standardizing exchange formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An international network of co-operating data centres is described who maintain identical data bases which are simultaneously updated by an agreed data exchange procedure. The agreement covers ''data exchange formats'' which are compatible to the centres' internal data storage and retrieval systems which remain different, optimized at each centre to the available computer facilities and to the needs of the data users. Essential condition for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data compilation, including critical data analysis and validation. The systems described (''EXFOR'', ''ENDF'', ''CINDA'') are used for ''nuclear reaction data'', but the principles used for data compilation and exchange should be valid also for other data types. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  14. State Politics and the Creation of Health Insurance Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Health insurance exchanges are a key component of the Affordable Care Act. Each exchange faces the challenge of minimizing friction with existing policies, coordinating churn between programs, and maximizing take-up. State-run exchanges would likely be better positioned to address these issues than a federally run exchange, yet only one third of states chose this path. Policymakers must ensure that their exchange—whether state or federally run—succeeds. Whether this happens will greatly depend on the political dynamics in each state. PMID:23763405

  15. Physician capability to electronically exchange clinical information, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaishali; Swain, Matthew J; King, Jennifer; Furukawa, Michael F

    2013-10-01

    To provide national estimates of physician capability to electronically share clinical information with other providers and to describe variation in exchange capability across states and electronic health record (EHR) vendors using the 2011 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey Electronic Medical Record Supplement. Survey of a nationally representative sample of nonfederal office-based physicians who provide direct patient care. The survey was administered by mail with telephone follow-up and had a 61% weighted response rate. The overall sample consisted of 4326 respondents. We calculated estimates of electronic exchange capability at the national and state levels, and applied multivariate analyses to examine the association between the capability to exchange different types of clinical information and physician and practice characteristics. In 2011, 55% of physicians had computerized capability to send prescriptions electronically; 67% had the capability to view lab results electronically; 42% were able to incorporate lab results into their EHR; 35% were able to send lab orders electronically; and, 31% exchanged patient clinical summaries with other providers. The strongest predictor of exchange capability is adoption of an EHR. However, substantial variation exists across geography and EHR vendors in exchange capability, especially electronic exchange of clinical summaries. In 2011, a majority of office-based physicians could exchange lab and medication data, and approximately one-third could exchange clinical summaries with patients or other providers. EHRs serve as a key mechanism by which physicians can exchange clinical data, though physicians' capability to exchange varies by vendor and by state.

  16. SHAMROCK: A Synthesizable High Assurance Cryptography and Key Management Coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    cryptographic functions such as Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) [5] to produce keywraps to orchestrate key exchanges between groups of devices. These...Storage (MPMS). This is done for two reasons: first, the mission package is encrypted using AES keywrap mode with the CEK [7], which is a special version...Zone 1) denoting ephemeral secrets such as dynamic keys. AES encryption is employed as a one-way function leading from the ephemeral Zone 1 to the

  17. Ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and uni-divalent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    KEY WORDS: Duolite A-102 D ion exchange resin, Equilibrium constant, Endothermic ion exchange reaction,. Enthalpy, Thermodynamic study. INTRODUCTION. For proper selection of ion exchange resin in a particular technical application, it is essential to have adequate knowledge regarding their physical and chemical ...

  18. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  19. Key figures. Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2006. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  20. Key figures. Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2005. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  1. 76 FR 25774 - Determination of Foreign Exchange Swaps and Foreign Exchange Forwards Under the Commodity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ..., and facilitate more stable, liquid markets for derivative instruments. In general, the payment... Oversight Unlike the derivatives markets, banks are the key players in the foreign exchange swaps and... rules of a designated contract market or a swap execution facility, or that is cleared by a derivatives...

  2. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  3. Calculation of key reduction for B92 QKD protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Miralem; Partila, Pavol; Tovarek, Jaromir; Voznak, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) can be used with the highest level of security for distribution of the secret key, which is further used for symmetrical encryption. B92 is one of the oldest QKD protocols. It uses only two non-orthogonal states, each one coding for one bit-value. It is much faster and simpler when compared to its predecessors, but with the idealized maximum efficiencies of 25% over the quantum channel. B92 consists of several phases in which initial key is significantly reduced: secret key exchange, extraction of the raw key (sifting), error rate estimation, key reconciliation and privacy amplification. QKD communication is performed over two channels: the quantum channel and the classical public channel. In order to prevent a man-in-the-middle attack and modification of messages on the public channel, authentication of exchanged values must be performed. We used Wegman-Carter authentication because it describes an upper bound for needed symmetric authentication key. We explained the reduction of the initial key in each of QKD phases.

  4. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  5. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  6. Research peer exchange, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The WSDOT Research Peer Exchange was held in Olympia, Washington on May 13 and 14, 2014 and addressed Research Program and Project Management as described in the following paragraphs: Program Management There are numerous funding programs, standing c...

  7. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  8. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  9. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  10. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  11. Smooth Phase Interpolated Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.

    2007-01-01

    Smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) is an improved method of computing smooth phase-modulation waveforms for radio communication systems that convey digital information. SPIK is applicable to a variety of phase-shift-keying (PSK) modulation schemes, including quaternary PSK (QPSK), octonary PSK (8PSK), and 16PSK. In comparison with a related prior method, SPIK offers advantages of better performance and less complexity of implementation. In a PSK scheme, the underlying information waveform that one seeks to convey consists of discrete rectangular steps, but the spectral width of such a waveform is excessive for practical radio communication. Therefore, the problem is to smooth the step phase waveform in such a manner as to maintain power and bandwidth efficiency without incurring an unacceptably large error rate and without introducing undesired variations in the amplitude of the affected radio signal. Although the ideal constellation of PSK phasor points does not cause amplitude variations, filtering of the modulation waveform (in which, typically, a rectangular pulse is converted to a square-root raised cosine pulse) causes amplitude fluctuations. If a power-efficient nonlinear amplifier is used in the radio communication system, the fluctuating-amplitude signal can undergo significant spectral regrowth, thus compromising the bandwidth efficiency of the system. In the related prior method, one seeks to solve the problem in a procedure that comprises two major steps: phase-value generation and phase interpolation. SPIK follows the two-step approach of the related prior method, but the details of the steps are different. In the phase-value-generation step, the phase values of symbols in the PSK constellation are determined by a phase function that is said to be maximally smooth and that is chosen to minimize the spectral spread of the modulated signal. In this step, the constellation is divided into two groups by assigning, to information symbols, phase values

  12. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  13. Heat exchange apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.C.; McDaniels, J.D.; Gertsch, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention relates to heat exchangers used for transferring heat from the gas cooled core of a nuclear reactor to a secondary medium during standby and emergency conditions. The construction of the heat exchanger described is such that there is a minimum of welds exposed to the reactor coolant, the parasitic heat loss during normal operation of the reactor is minimized and the welds and heat transfer tubes are easily inspectable. (UK)

  14. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  15. Real exchange rate misalignments

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.; Valladares, Frederico Estrella Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterizes episodes of real appreciations and depreciations for a sample of 85 countries, approximately from 1960 to 1998. First, the equilibrium real exchange rate series are constructed for each country using Goldfajn and Valdes (1999) methodology (cointegration with fundamentals). Then, departures from equilibrium real exchange rate (misalignments) are obtained, and a Markov Switching Model is used to characterize the misalignments series as stochastic autor...

  16. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  17. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  18. Radial flow heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  19. An Exponential Increase in Regional Health Information Exchange With Collaborative Policies and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, N Lance; Lane, Steven; Eisenberg, Mathew; Sharp, Christopher; Palma, Jonathan; Longhurst, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the ability to securely exchange health information between organization has been limited by technical interoperability, patient identity matching, and variable institutional policies. Here, we examine the regional experience in a national health information exchange network by examining clinical data sharing between eleven Northern California organizations using the same health information exchange (HIE) platform between 2013-2014. We identify key policies and technologies that have led to a dramatic increase in health information exchange.

  20. The relationship between the forward– and the realized spot exchange rate in South Africa / Petrus Marthinus Stephanus van Heerden

    OpenAIRE

    Van Heerden, Petrus Marthinus Stephanus

    2010-01-01

    The inability to effectively hedge against unfavourable exchange rate movements, using the current forward exchange rate as the only guideline, is a key inhibiting factor of international trade. Market participants use the current forward exchange rate quoted in the market to make decisions regarding future exchange rate changes. However, the current forward exchange rate is not solely determined by the interaction of demand and supply, but is also a mechanistic estimation, whi...

  1. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key dimensions. ... to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently ... A postal survey was conducted among South African apparel and footwear ...

  2. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute ... on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). ... nature of flows is clearly understood with the help of advanced instrumentation.

  3. Tensor exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor (A 2 ) exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange (CEX) are constructed from the K +- N CEX data supplemented by information on the vector (rho) exchange amplitudes from πN sca tering. We observed new features in the t-structure of A 2 exchange amplitudes which contradict the t-de pendence anticipated by most of the Regge models. The results also provide evidence for violation of weak exchange degeneracy

  4. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  5. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Building on focusing and

  6. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and

  7. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein

  8. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein

  9. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized

  10. Effective Exchange Rates in Central and Eastern European Countries: Cyclicality and Relationship with Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavárek Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.

  11. Update heat exchanger designing principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipets, A.U.; Yampol'skij, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Update heat exchanger design principles are analysed. Different coolant pattern in a heat exchanger are considered. It is suggested to rationally organize flow rates irregularity in it. Applying on heat exchanger designing measures on using really existing temperature and flow rate irregularities will permit to improve heat exchanger efficiency. It is expedient in some cases to artificially produce irregularities. In this connection some heat exchanger design principles must be reviewed now

  12. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and framing research we predict that defection is omnipresent in exchange dilemmas, which is corroborated in to very different experiments. Our results suggest that the fundamental problem of cooperation in...

  13. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  14. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1994-04-01

    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  15. Tubular heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Owen; Willby, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a heat exchanger of which the tubes, placed in a long casing, cross the casing cover in a sealed manner. These tubes are fixed to the tube plate forming this cover or to the branch tubes it comprises by means of compression joints. These joints make it possible to do away with welds that are sources of defects and to improve the operational safety of the apparatus. An advantageous form of the heat exchanger under the invention includes a manifold for each thermal exchange fluid, and one end of each tube is connected to this manifold by a pipe that is itself connected to the tube by a threaded connection. The latter provides for easy disconnection of the pipe in order to introduce a probe for inspecting the state of the tubes [fr

  16. EFECT OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE FLUCTUATIONS ON NIGERIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Olisaemeka UFOEZE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on Nigerian economy. The fixed and floating exchange eras were compared to know the exchange rate system in which the economy has fairly better. The time period covered was 1970 to 2012. The study employed the ordinary least square (OLS multiple regression technique for the analysis. The coefficient of determination (R2, F-test, t-test, beta and Durbin-Watson were used in the interpretation of the results. The resulted revealed that about 85% of the changes in macroeconomic indicators are explained in the fixed exchange era. In the floating exchange era, 99% was explained while the whole periods has 73% explanatory power, hence the floating exchange era (1986 to date is more effective in explaining economic trend in Nigeria. Also, exchange rate has significant positive effect on GDP during the fixed exchange rate era and negative effect the eras floating and all-time; inflation has insignificant negative effect on GDP during the fixed exchange era; significant effect in floating era and significant negative effect in the all-time period; money supply has insignificant negative effect GDP in fixed exchange era; and significant positive effect during the floating and all-time period; and oil revenue has significant positive effect on the GDP in all the exchange rate regimes (floating, fixed and all-time in Nigeria.  The study thus conclude that exchange rate movement is a good indicator for monitoring Nigerian economic growth. So far exchange rate has always been a key economic indicator for Nigeria. The floating exchange period has outperformed the fixed exchange rate in terms of contribution inflation, money supply and oil revenue to economic growth. This indicate that the floating exchange rate has been a better economic regime for sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. From the findings, it is evident that oil revenue has positive effect in Nigeria and has remained the mainstay

  17. Classification of exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    After expansion of the vector and axial vector currents in powers of (v/c), a heretofore unremarked regularity results. Meson exchange currents can be classified into types I and II, according to the way they satisfy the constraints of special relativity. The archetypes of these two categories are the impulse approximation to the vector and axial vector currents. After a brief discussion of these constraints, the (rhoπγ) and (ωsigmaγ) exchange currents are constructed and classified, and used to illustrate a number of important points which are often overlooked

  18. Alert Exchange Process Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA), and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), acknowledging that NASA, ESA and JAXA have a mutual interest in exchanging Alerts and Alert Status Lists to enhance the information base for each system participant while fortifying the general level of cooperation between the policy agreement subscribers, and each Party will exchange Alert listings on regular basis and detailed Alert information on a need to know basis to the extent permitted by law.

  19. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  20. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  1. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  2. Innovative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Scholl, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This accessible book presents unconventional technologies in heat exchanger design that have the capacity to provide solutions to major concerns within the process and power-generating industries. Demonstrating the advantages and limits of these innovative heat exchangers, it also discusses micro- and nanostructure surfaces and micro-scale equipment, and introduces pillow-plate, helical and expanded metal baffle concepts. It offers step-by-step worked examples, which provide instructions for developing an initial configuration and are supported by clear, detailed drawings and pictures. Various types of heat exchangers are available, and they are widely used in all fields of industry for cooling or heating purposes, including in combustion engines. The market in 2012 was estimated to be U$ 42.7 billion and the global demand for heat exchangers is experiencing an annual growth of about 7.8 %. The market value is expected to reach U$ 57.9 billion in 2016, and approach U$ 78.16 billion in 2020. Providing a valua...

  3. Organizing Equity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Torsten

    In the last years equity exchanges have diversified their operations into business areas such as derivatives trading, post-trading services, and software sales. Securities trading and post-trading are subject to economies of scale and scope. The integration of these functions into one institution ensures efficiency by economizing on transactions costs.

  4. Resonance charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, E.L.; Evseev, A.V.; Eletskij, A.V.; Radtsig, A.A.; Smirnov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation results for the resonance charge exchange cross sections for positive and negative atomic and molecular ions are given. The calculations are performed on the basis of the asymptotic theory. The factors affecting the calculation accuracy are analysed. The calculation data for 28 systems are compared with the experiment

  5. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  6. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  7. Method for exchanging data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for exchanging data between at least two servers with use of a gateway. Preferably the method is applied to healthcare systems. Each server holds a unique federated identifier, which identifier identifies a single patient (P). Thus, it is possible for the

  8. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  9. Exchangers man the pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2008-01-01

    Tonoplast-localised proton-coupled Ca2+ transporters encoded by cation/H+ exchanger (CAX) genes play a critical role in sequestering Ca2+ into the vacuole. These transporters may function in coordination with Ca2+ release channels, to shape stimulus-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevations. Recent analysis of Arabidopsis CAX knockout mutants, particularly cax1 and cax3, identified a variety of phenotypes including sensitivity to abiotic stresses, which indicated that these transporters might play a role in mediating the plant's stress response. A common feature of these mutants was the perturbation of H+-ATPase activity at both the tonoplast and the plasma membrane, suggesting a tight interplay between the Ca2+/H+ exchangers and H+ pumps. We speculate that indirect regulation of proton flux by the exchangers may be as important as the direct regulation of Ca2+ flux. These results suggest cautious interpretation of mutant Ca2+/H+ exchanger phenotypes that may be due to either perturbed Ca2+ or H+ transport. PMID:19841670

  10. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  11. Heat exchanger vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration

  12. Application of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markhol, M.

    1985-01-01

    Existing methods of multi-element separation for radiochemical analysis are considered. The majority of existing methods is noted to be based on application of organic and inorganic ion exchangers. Distillation, coprecipitation, extraction as well as combination of the above methods are also used. Concrete flowsheets of multi-element separation are presented

  13. Fuel exchanger control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurabayashi, Masaharu.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the stability and the operationability of the fuel exchanging work by checking the validity of the data before the initiation of the work. Constitution: A floppy disc stores the initial charging state data showing the arrangement of fuel assemblies in the reactor core pool, data showing the working procedures for the fuel exchange and a final charged state data upon completion of the work. The initial data and the procedure data are read from the disk and stored once into a memory. Then, the initial data are sequentially performed on the memory in accordance with the procedure data and, thereafter, they were compared with the final data read from the disk. After confirming that there are no errors in the working data, the procedure data are orderly instructed to the fuel exchanger for performing fuel replacement. Accordingly, since the data are checked before the initiation of the work, the fuel exchange can be performed automatically thereby improving the operationability thereof. (Yoshino, Y.)

  14. Upright heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoch, J.; Kugler, V.; Krizek, V.; Strmiska, F.

    1988-01-01

    The claimed heat exchanger is characteristic by the condensate level being maintained directly in the exchanger while preserving the so-called ''dry'' tube plate. This makes it unnecessary to build another pressure vessel into the circuit. The design of the heat exchanger allows access to both tube plates, which facilitates any repair. Another advantage is the possibility of accelerating the indication of leakage from the space of the second operating medium which is given by opening the drainage pipes of the lower bundle into the collar space and from there through to the indication pipe. The exchanger is especially suitable for deployment in the circuits of nuclear power plants where the second operating medium will be hot water of considerably lower purity than is that of the condensate. A rapid display of leakage can prevent any long-term penetration of this water into the condensate, which would result in worsening water quality in the entire secondary circuit of the nuclear power plant. (J.B.). 1 fig

  15. Heat exchanger vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1977-12-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.

  16. Microscopic theory of cation exchange in CdSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Florian D; Spiegel, Leo L; Norris, David J; Erwin, Steven C

    2014-10-10

    Although poorly understood, cation-exchange reactions are increasingly used to dope or transform colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots). We use density-functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to develop a microscopic theory that explains structural, optical, and electronic changes observed experimentally in Ag-cation-exchanged CdSe nanocrystals. We find that Coulomb interactions, both between ionized impurities and with the polarized nanocrystal surface, play a key role in cation exchange. Our theory also resolves several experimental puzzles related to photoluminescence and electrical behavior in CdSe nanocrystals doped with Ag.

  17. ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNPRECEDENTED RUBLE EXCHANGE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Egor Nikolaevich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an analysis of real effective exchange rate dynamics in Russia throughout the last decade. Authors analysed the causes and consequences of real effective exchange growth and assessed how Russian ruble real effective exchange rate comply with its equilibrium level. Authors present results of empiric analysis of relationship between real effective exchange rate and labour productivity in industry of 20 european, asian countries and Russia. The result of this writing was the formulation of key copyright conclusions, namely: 1. The price level in the country (and the level of the real exchange rate of the national currency is a key factor of competitiveness. Accordingly, the real exchange rate of the national currency - is one of the most important policy tools. 2. The ruble today seriously overvalued. Overvaluation of the national currency relative to the equilibrium level is extremely harmful to the economy. Less recognized, but also widespread YaV it possible to the idea that an undervalued currency is a prerequisite for rapid economic growth. 3. A direct consequence of the growth of the real exchange rate in the past 12 years has been the growth of the external debt of the private sector. 4. Restraining the growth rate of the national currency - is also a common practice for countries who are concerned about the level of competitiveness. But Russia is this day-the only country of the G-20, which is impossible to control the REER.

  18. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  19. Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safetys Roadway Safety Professional Capacity Building Program on June 17, 2014. This virtual peer exchange was the f...

  20. Research on Digital Product Modeling Key Technologies of Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guoping; ZHOU Zude; HU Yefa; ZHAO Liang

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization and diversification of the market and the rapid development of Information Technology (IT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), the digital revolution of manufacturing is coming. One of the key technologies in digital manufacturing is product digital modeling. This paper firstly analyzes the information and features of the product digital model during each stage in the product whole lifecycle, then researches on the three critical technologies of digital modeling in digital manufacturing-product modeling, standard for the exchange of product model data and digital product data management. And the potential signification of the product digital model during the process of digital manufacturing is concluded-product digital model integrates primary features of each stage during the product whole lifecycle based on graphic features, applies STEP as data exchange mechanism, and establishes PDM system to manage the large amount, complicated and dynamic product data to implement the product digital model data exchange, sharing and integration.

  1. The Metaphysics of Economic Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massin Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What are economic exchanges? The received view has it that exchanges are mutual transfers of goods motivated by inverse valuations thereof. As a corollary, the standard approach treats exchanges of services as a subspecies of exchanges of goods. We raise two objections against this standard approach. First, it is incomplete, as it fails to take into account, among other things, the offers and acceptances that lie at the core of even the simplest cases of exchanges. Second, it ultimately fails to generalize to exchanges of services, in which neither inverse preferences nor mutual transfers hold true. We propose an alternative definition of exchanges, which treats exchanges of goods as a special case of exchanges of services and which builds in offers and acceptances. According to this theory: (i The valuations motivating exchanges are propositional and convergent rather than objectual and inverse; (ii All exchanges of goods involve exchanges of services/actions, but not the reverse; (iii Offers and acceptances, together with the contractual obligations and claims they bring about, lie at the heart of all cases of exchange.

  2. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  3. Security for Key Management Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kremer , Steve; Steel , Graham; Warinschi , Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We propose a much-needed formal definition of security for cryptographic key management APIs. The advantages of our definition are that it is general, intuitive, and applicable to security proofs in both symbolic and computational models of cryptography. Our definition relies on an idealized API which allows only the most essential functions for generating, exporting and importing keys, and takes into account dynamic corruption of keys. Based on this we can define the ...

  4. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  5. Automatic fuel exchanging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to designate the identification number of a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel thereby surely exchanging the designated assembly within a short time. Constitution: Identification number (or letter) pressed on a grip of a fuel assembly is to be detected by a two-dimensional ultrasonic probe of a pull-up mechanism. When the detected number corresponds with the designated number, a control signal is outputted, whereby the pull-up drive control mechanism or pull-up mechanism responds to pull-up and exchange the fuel assembly of the identified number. With such a constitution, the fuel assembly can rapidly and surely be recognized even if pressed letters deviate to the left or right of the probe, and further, the hinge portion and the signal processing portion can be simplified. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Manufacture of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.E.; Tombs, R.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

  7. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  8. Exchange currents in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truglik, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Adler's low-energy theorem for the soft pion production amplitudes the predictions of the meson exchange currents theory for the nuclear physics are discussed. The results are reformulated in terms of phenomenological lagrangians. This method allows one to pass naturally to the more realistic case of hard mesons. The predictions are critically compared with the existing experimental data. The main processes in which vector isovector exchange currents, vector isoscalar exchange currents and axial exchange currents take place are pointed out

  9. Harnessing Private-Sector Innovation to Improve Health Insurance Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Hoch, Emily; Eibner, Christine; Rudin, Robert S; Mattke, Soeren

    2016-05-09

    Overhauling the individual health insurance market-including through the creation of health insurance exchanges-was a key component of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's multidimensional approach to addressing the long-standing problem of the uninsured in the United States. Despite succeeding in enrolling millions of Americans, the exchanges still face several challenges, including poor consumer experience, high operational and development costs, and incomplete market penetration. In light of these challenges, analysts considered a different model for the exchanges-privately facilitated exchanges-which could address these challenges and deepen the Affordable Care Act's impact. In this model, the government retains control over sovereign exchange functions but allows the private sector to assume responsibility for more-peripheral exchange functions, such as developing and sustaining exchange websites. Although private-sector entities have already undertaken exchange-related functions on a limited basis, privately facilitated exchanges could conceivably relieve the government of its responsibility for front-end website operations and consumer decision-support functions entirely. A shift to privately facilitated exchanges could improve the consumer experience, increase enrollment, and lower costs for state and federal governments. A move to such a model requires, nonetheless, managing its risks, such as reduced consumer protection, increased consumer confusion, and the possible lack of a viable revenue base for privately facilitated exchanges, especially in less populous states. On net, the benefits are large enough and the risks sufficiently manageable to seriously consider such a shift. This paper provides background information and more detail on the analysts' assessment.

  10. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  11. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  12. Model of key success factors for Business Intelligence implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mesaros

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available New progressive technologies recorded growth in every area. Information-communication technologies facilitate the exchange of information and it facilitates management of everyday activities in enterprises. Specific modules (such as Business Intelligence facilitate decision-making. Several studies have demonstrated the positive impact of Business Intelligence to decision-making. The first step is to put in place the enterprise. The implementation process is influenced by many factors. This article discusses the issue of key success factors affecting to successful implementation of Business Intelligence. The article describes the key success factors for successful implementation and use of Business Intelligence based on multiple studies. The main objective of this study is to verify the effects and dependence of selected factors and proposes a model of key success factors for successful implementation of Business Intelligence. Key success factors and the proposed model are studied in Slovak enterprises.

  13. A New Three Dimensional Based Key Generation Technique in AVK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subhasish; Dutta, Manash Pratim; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak

    2017-08-01

    In modern era, ensuring high order security becomes one and only objective of computer networks. From the last few decades, many researchers have given their contributions to achieve the secrecy over the communication channel. In achieving perfect security, Shannon had done the pioneer work on perfect secret theorem and illustrated that secrecy of the shared information can be maintained if the key becomes variable in nature instead of static one. In this regard, a key generation technique has been proposed where the key can be changed every time whenever a new block of data needs to be exchanged. In our scheme, the keys not only vary in bit sequences but also in size. The experimental study is also included in this article to prove the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed technique.

  14. European key issues concerning natural gas: Dependence and vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymond, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Due to the high demand for natural gas from emerging countries and because natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource is electricity production, natural gas demand should increase. This paper re-examines the geopolitical key issues related to natural gas as well as the uneven distribution of natural gas resources on a worldwide scale. This paper proposes to define the significance of liquefied natural gas in gas exchanges and it analyses the problem of European gas vulnerability using several indicators

  15. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  16. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  17. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  18. An application of different dioids in public key cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durcheva, Mariana I., E-mail: mdurcheva66@gmail.com [Technical University of Sofia, Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, 8 Kliment Ohridski St., Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria)

    2014-11-18

    Dioids provide a natural framework for analyzing a broad class of discrete event dynamical systems such as the design and analysis of bus and railway timetables, scheduling of high-throughput industrial processes, solution of combinatorial optimization problems, the analysis and improvement of flow systems in communication networks. They have appeared in several branches of mathematics such as functional analysis, optimization, stochastic systems and dynamic programming, tropical geometry, fuzzy logic. In this paper we show how to involve dioids in public key cryptography. The main goal is to create keyexchange protocols based on dioids. Additionally the digital signature scheme is presented.

  19. An application of different dioids in public key cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durcheva, Mariana I.

    2014-01-01

    Dioids provide a natural framework for analyzing a broad class of discrete event dynamical systems such as the design and analysis of bus and railway timetables, scheduling of high-throughput industrial processes, solution of combinatorial optimization problems, the analysis and improvement of flow systems in communication networks. They have appeared in several branches of mathematics such as functional analysis, optimization, stochastic systems and dynamic programming, tropical geometry, fuzzy logic. In this paper we show how to involve dioids in public key cryptography. The main goal is to create keyexchange protocols based on dioids. Additionally the digital signature scheme is presented

  20. Lower and Upper Bounds for Deniable Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendlin, Rikke; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Nordholt, Peter Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    the parties to change their internal state to make it look like a given ciphertext decrypts to a message different from what it really decrypts to. Deniable encryption was in this way introduced to allow to deny a message exchange and hence combat coercion. Depending on which parties can be coerced...... that it is impossible to construct a non-interactive bi-deniable public-key encryption scheme with better than polynomial security. Specifically, we give an explicit bound relating the security of the scheme to how efficient the scheme is in terms of key size. Our impossibility result establishes a lower bound...

  1. Applying secret sharing for HIS backup exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Eizen; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Hiramatsu, Haruhiko; Kume, Naoto; Sato, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    To secure business continuity is indispensable for hospitals to fulfill its social responsibility under disasters. Although to back up the data of the hospital information system (HIS) at multiple remote sites is a key strategy of business continuity plan (BCP), the requirements to treat privacy sensitive data jack up the cost for the backup. The secret sharing is a method to split an original secret message up so that each individual piece is meaningless, but putting sufficient number of pieces together to reveal the original message. The secret sharing method eases us to exchange HIS backups between multiple hospitals. This paper evaluated the feasibility of the commercial secret sharing solution for HIS backup through several simulations. The result shows that the commercial solution is feasible to realize reasonable HIS backup exchange platform when template of contract between participating hospitals is ready.

  2. Social exchange: Relations and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network research. The paper provides an accessible entry into the literature on social exchange.

  3. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  4. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  5. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  6. Breaking chaotic shift key communication via adaptive key identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Haipeng; Han Chongzhao; Liu Ding

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive parameter identification method for breaking chaotic shift key communication from the transmitted signal in public channel. The sensitive dependence property of chaos on parameter mismatch is used for chaos adaptive synchronization and parameter identification. An index function about the synchronization error is defined and conjugate gradient method is used to minimize the index function and to search the transmitter's parameter (key). By using proposed method, secure key is recovered from transmitted signal generated by low dimensional chaos and hyper chaos switching communication. Multi-parameters can also be identified from the transmitted signal with noise

  7. A Distributed Shared Key Generation Procedure Using Fractional Keys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poovendran, Radha; Corson, M. S; Baras, J. S

    1998-01-01

    We present a new class of distributed key generation and recovery algorithms suitable for group communication systems where the group membership is either static or slowly time-varying, and must be tightly controlled...

  8. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    McBee, Jim

    2010-01-01

    A top-selling guide to Exchange Server-now fully updated for Exchange Server 2010. Keep your Microsoft messaging system up to date and protected with the very newest version, Exchange Server 2010, and this comprehensive guide. Whether you're upgrading from Exchange Server 2007 SP1 or earlier, installing for the first time, or migrating from another system, this step-by-step guide provides the hands-on instruction, practical application, and real-world advice you need.: Explains Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, the latest release of Microsoft's messaging system that protects against spam and vir

  9. Key parameters controlling radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)

  10. Progress in liquid ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Genkichi

    1974-01-01

    Review is made on the extraction with anion exchangers and the extraction with liquid cation exchangers. On the former, explanation is made on the extraction of acids, the relation between anion exchange and the extraction of metals, the composition of the metallic complexes that are extracted, and the application of the extraction with anion exchangers to analytical chemistry. On the latter, explanation is made on the extraction of metals and its application to analytical chemistry. The extraction with liquid ion exchangers is suitable for the operation in chromatography, because the distribution of extracting agents into aqueous phase is small, and extraction equilibrium is quickly reached, usually within 1 to several minutes. The separation by means of anion exchangers is usually made from hydrochloric acid solution. For example, Brinkman et al. determined Rf values for more than 50 elements by thin layer chromatography. Tables are given for showing the structure of the liquid ion exchangers and the polymerized state of various amines. (Mori, K.)

  11. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  12. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  13. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    count rate of Bob’s detectors. In this detector-limited regime , it is advantageous to increase M to encode as much information as possible in each...High- rate field demonstration of large-alphabet quantum key distribution Catherine Lee,1, 2 Darius Bunandar,1 Zheshen Zhang,1 Gregory R. Steinbrecher...October 12, 2016) 2 Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables secure symmetric key exchange for information-theoretically secure com- munication via one-time

  14. Anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varcoe, J.R.; Atanassov, P.; Dekel, D.R.; Herring, A.M.; Hickner, M.A.; Kohl, P.A.; Kucernak, A. R.; Mustain, W.E.; Nijmeijer, K.; Scott, Keith; Xu, Tongwen; Zhuang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an up-to-date perspective on the use of anion-exchange membranes in fuel cells, electrolysers, redox flow batteries, reverse electrodialysis cells, and bioelectrochemical systems (e.g. microbial fuel cells). The aim is to highlight key concepts, misconceptions, the current

  15. Assessing the identifiability in isotope exchange depth profiling measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciucci, Francesco; Panagakos, Grigorios; Chen, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Accurate identification of the physical parameters describing the surface exchange kinetic coefficient k and oxygen diffusion coefficient D is key in solid state ionics, because the performance of many ionic devices is connected to such quantities. In this work we extend and generalize the concept...

  16. Imade-imide cross-linked PEEK proton exchange membrane.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane is a key component of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). It plays an important role, conducts protons and separates the fuel from oxidant in PEMFC. DuPont’s Nafion is a perfluorinated sulfonic acid polymer...

  17. Structure design of primary heat-exchanger for the MHWRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanshui; Cao Zhibin

    1999-01-01

    Primary heat-exchanger is one of the key equipment in the Multi-application Heavy Water Research Reactor (MHWRR). Its structure design ought to meet as much possible as the demands for safety, feasibility and economy. To reduce the liquid resistance, the locating structure between inner tube and outer tube is distributed spirally. The edge of outer tube is processed in the shape of hexahedron and then splice-welded into honeycomb structure thereby the heat-exchanger has the smallest outer diameter compared with that with the same heat-exchanging area according to 'Normal Design', 'Anabasis Design' is applied to the design for parts with Safety Class I, to ensure safety of the heat-exchanger

  18. Exchange functional by a range-separated exchange hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2011-01-01

    An approximation to the exchange-hole density is proposed for the evaluation of the exact exchange energy in electronic structure calculations within the density-functional theory and the Kohn-Sham scheme. Based on the localized nature of density matrix, the exchange hole is divided into the short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) parts by using an adequate filter function, where the LR part is deduced by matching of moments with the exactly calculated SR counterpart, ensuring the correct asymptotic -1/r behavior of the exchange potential. With this division, the time-consuming integration is truncated at a certain interaction range, largely reducing the computation cost. The total energies, exchange energies, exchange potentials, and eigenvalues of the highest-occupied orbitals are calculated for the noble-gas atoms. The close agreement of the results with the exact values suggests the validity of the approximation.

  19. The Effect of RMB Exchange Rate Volatility on Import and Export Trade in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wanhui Jiang

    2014-01-01

    The exchange rate volatility always plays a key role in import and export trade. This paper investigates the effect of nominal RMB exchange rate volatility on economic growth in China from 1981 to 2012. Through the ADF stationary test, the co-integration test, and the associated econometric model and the empirical analysis, the paper concludes that in the long run, exchange rate change has a positive impact on import and export trade. Therefore, it is necessary to take relevant policies and m...

  20. Enhanced Key Management Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojiang Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development and extensive use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, it is urgent to enhance the security for WSNs, in which key management is an effective way to protect WSNs from various attacks. However, different types of messages exchanged in WSNs typically have different security requirements which cannot be satisfied by a single keying mechanism. In this study, a basic key management protocol is described for WSNs based on four kinds of keys, which can be derived from an initial master key, and an enhanced protocol is proposed based on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. The proposed scheme restricts the adverse security impact of a captured node to the rest of WSNs and meets the requirement of energy efficiency by supporting in-network processing. The master key protection, key revocation mechanism, and the authentication mechanism based on one-way hash function are, respectively, discussed. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed from the aspects of computational efficiency, storage requirement and communication cost, and its antiattack capability in protecting WSNs is discussed under various attack models. In this paper, promising research directions are also discussed.

  1. The University of Canberra quantum key distribution testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshkumar, G.; Edwards, P.J.; Cheung, W.N.; Barbopoulos, L.O.; Pham, H.; Hazel, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We describe the design, operation and preliminary results obtained from a quantum key distribution (QKD) testbed constructed at the University of Canberra. Quantum cryptographic systems use shared secret keys exchanged in the form of sequences of polarisation coded or phase encoded single photons transmitted over an optical communications channel. Secrecy of this quantum key rests upon fundamental laws of quantum physics: measurements of linear or circular photon polarisation states introduce noise into the conjugate variable and so reveal eavesdropping. In its initial realisation reported here, pulsed light from a 650nm laser diode is attenuated by a factor of 10 6 , plane-polarised and then transmitted through a birefringent liquid crystal modulator (LCM) to a polarisation sensitive single photon receiver. This transmitted key sequence consists of a 1 kHz train of weak coherent 100ns wide light pulses, polarisation coded according to the BB84 protocol. Each pulse is randomly assigned one of four polarisation states (two orthogonal linear and two orthogonal circular) by computer PCA operated by the sender ('Alice'). This quaternary polarisation shift keyed photon stream is detected by the receiver ('Bob') whose computer (PCB) randomly chooses either a linear or a circular polarisation basis. Computer PCB is also used for final key selection, authentication, privacy amplification and eavesdropping. We briefly discuss the realisation of a mesoscopic single photon QKD source and the use of the testbed to simulate a global quantum key distribution system using earth satellites. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  2. Exchange and fellowship programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    By February 1959, the IAEA had received and considered nearly 300 nominations from 31 countries for nuclear science fellowships. More than 200 of the candidates - from 29 countries - had been selected for placement in centres of training in 21 countries. The programme covers three types of training: 1. General techniques training: to develop skills in the use of some fundamental techniques in the field of nuclear energy; 2. Specialist training: to prepare specialists in the theoretical and experimental aspects of the science and technology of nuclear energy; 3. Research training: to provide advanced training, including active participation in research work; this is for persons potentially qualified to develop and carry out research programmes in the basic sciences and engineering. The duration of training varies from some weeks to five or six years. The long-duration training is given at universities or educational establishments of university level, and is of special interest to Member States lacking personnel with the requisite university education. Under its 1959 exchange and fellowship programme, the Agency will be in a position to award over 400 fellowships. Some of these will be paid out of the Agency's operating fund, while 130 fellowships have been offered directly to IAEA by Member States for training at their universities or institutes. There are two new features in the Agency's 1959 programme. One provides for fellowships for scientific research work, the other is the exchange of specialists

  3. Fuel exchanging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko; Sato, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a centripetal device, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of a telescope mast, on a mast fixing device mounted on a body of fuel exchanging apparatus so that the telescope mast may be secured quickly returning to a predetermined initial position. Structure: When the body of fuel exchanging apparatus is stopped at a predetermined position, a tension spring, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of the telescope mast, causes a lug to be forced by means of a push rod to position a sliding base plate to its original position. At the same time, a device of similar structure causes an operating arm to be positioned to the original position, and a lock pin urged by a cylinder is inserted into a through hole in the sliding base plate and operating arm so that the telescope mast may be fixed and retained. (Hanada, M.)

  4. The Social Act of Exchange in Power Relations: The study of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Corruption, Nichekeleko, Power relations, Social act of Exchange, Practice. ..... also sampled 18 policemen and Anti-corruption commission officers who ... based upon their availability and knowledge of the activities of Nichekeleko.

  5. Secret key rates in quantum key distribution using Renyi entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bratzik, Sylvia; Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The secret key rate r of a quantum key distribution protocol depends on the involved number of signals and the accepted ''failure probability''. We reconsider a method to calculate r focusing on the analysis of the privacy amplification given by R. Renner and R. Koenig (2005). This approach involves an optimization problem with an objective function depending on the Renyi entropy of the density operator describing the classical outcomes and the eavesdropper system. This problem is analyzed for a generic class of QKD protocols and the current research status is presented.

  6. Three state quantum key distribution for small keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuwantudawe, J.; Boileau, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols allow two parties, Alice and Bob, to establish secure keys. The most well-known protocol is BB84, using four distinct states. Recently, Phoenix et al. proposed a three state protocol. We explain the protocol and discuss its security proof. The three state protocol also has an interesting structure that allows for errors estimation from the inconclusive results (i.e.. where Alice and Bob choose different bases). This eliminates the need for sampling, potentially useful when qubits are limited. We discuss the effectiveness of this approach compared to BB84 for the case where a good error estimate is required. (author)

  7. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team

  8. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  9. Wastes - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusler, Laurence; Moro-Goubely, Anne-Gaelle; Berthoin, Guillaume; Mathery, Christian; Galio, Pierre; Heyberger-Paroisse, Agnes

    2014-06-01

    This publication proposes numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding wastes. It addresses waste prevention and production in France (concerned materials, waste production, waste origins, actions and measures for waste prevention, re-use), waste collection (for domestic, industrial wastes, cross-border exchanges, nuclear reactors), waste processing (of dangerous and non dangerous wastes), valorisation processes (sorting, recycling, composting, methanization), waste-based energy production, economy and costs of the waste management activity, and environmental impacts (atmospheric emissions, impact of recycling)

  10. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  11. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  12. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  13. Can Exchange Rates Be Predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwutiset, Trin

    2007-01-01

    Foreign exchange rates produce significant impacts on both the macroeconomic and microeconomic scale. Countries� government and multinational companies have been seeking ways to stabilize the exchange rates for a few decades. However, there is no perfect consensus on methods to control and stabilize the exchange rates. In fact, there are several occasions in history where turbulence movements caused crisis in the economies. There are several factors that are identified by economis...

  14. Towards automatic exchange of information

    OpenAIRE

    Oberson, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the various steps that led towards automatic exchange of information as the global standard and the issues that remain to be solved. First, the various competing models of exchange information, such as Double Tax Treaty (DTT), TIEA's, FATCA or UE Directives are described with a view to show how they interact between themselves. Second, the so-called Rubik Strategy is summarized and compared with an automatic exchange of information (AEOI). The third part then describes ...

  15. Exchange rate smoothing in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Karádi, Péter

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a structural empirical model capable of examining exchange rate smoothing in the small, open economy of Hungary. The framework assumes the existence of an unobserved and changing implicit exchange rate target. The central bank is assumed to use interest rate policy to obtain this preferred rate in the medium term, while market participants are assumed to form rational expectations about this target and influence exchange rates accordingly. The paper applies unobserved varia...

  16. Quantum key distribution over multicore fiber based on silicon photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Bacco, Davide; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    on quantum physics. In order to exchange secure information between users, quantum key distribution (QKD), a branch of Quantum Communications (QCs), provides good prospects for ultimate security based on the laws of quantum mechanics [2–7]. Most of QKD systems are implemented in a point-to-point link using...... generations, to HD-entanglement distribution. Furthermore, MCFs are expected as a good candidate for overcoming the capacity limit of a current optical communication system, as example the record capacity of 661 Tbits/s was obtained last year with a 30-cores fiber [8]. Proof of concept experiment has already...... requirements in terms of key generation are needed. A solution may be represented by new technologies applied to quantum world. In particular multicore fiber (MCF) open a new scenario for quantum communications, from high-dimensional (HD) spatial entanglement generation, to HD QKD and multi-user key...

  17. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  18. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  19. Exchange bias theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwi, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    Research on the exchange bias (EB) phenomenon has witnessed a flurry of activity during recent years, which stems from its use in magnetic sensors and as stabilizers in magnetic reading heads. EB was discovered in 1956 but it attracted only limited attention until these applications, closely related to giant magnetoresistance, were developed during the last decade. In this review, I initially give a short introduction, listing the most salient experimental results and what is required from an EB theory. Next, I indicate some of the obstacles in the road towards a satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon. The main body of the text reviews and critically discusses the activity that has flourished, mainly during the last 5 years, in the theoretical front. Finally, an evaluation of the progress made, and a critical assessment as to where we stand nowadays along the road to a satisfactory theory, is presented

  20. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  1. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed dose estimations for

  2. Catalysed hydrogen isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A method is described for enhancing the rate of exchange of hydrogen atoms in organic compounds or moieties with deuterium or tritium atoms. It comprises reacting the organic compound or moiety and a compound which is the source of deuterium or tritium in the presence of a catalyst consisting of a non-metallic, metallic or organometallic halide of Lewis acid character and which is reactive towards water, hydrogen halides or similar protonic acids. The catalyst is a halide or organometallic halide of: (i) zinc or another element of Group IIb; (ii) boron, aluminium or another element of Group III; (iii) tin, lead, antimony or another element of Groups IV to VI; or (iv) a transition metal, lanthanide or stable actinide; or a halohalide. (author)

  3. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  4. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  5. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  6. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  7. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  8. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  9. Risk and the evolution of human exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Hillard S; Schniter, Eric; Smith, Vernon L; Wilson, Bart J

    2012-08-07

    Compared with other species, exchange among non-kin is a hallmark of human sociality in both the breadth of individuals and total resources involved. One hypothesis is that extensive exchange evolved to buffer the risks associated with hominid dietary specialization on calorie dense, large packages, especially from hunting. 'Lucky' individuals share food with 'unlucky' individuals with the expectation of reciprocity when roles are reversed. Cross-cultural data provide prima facie evidence of pair-wise reciprocity and an almost universal association of high-variance (HV) resources with greater exchange. However, such evidence is not definitive; an alternative hypothesis is that food sharing is really 'tolerated theft', in which individuals possessing more food allow others to steal from them, owing to the threat of violence from hungry individuals. Pair-wise correlations may reflect proximity providing greater opportunities for mutual theft of food. We report a laboratory experiment of foraging and food consumption in a virtual world, designed to test the risk-reduction hypothesis by determining whether people form reciprocal relationships in response to variance of resource acquisition, even when there is no external enforcement of any transfer agreements that might emerge. Individuals can forage in a high-mean, HV patch or a low-mean, low-variance (LV) patch. The key feature of the experimental design is that individuals can transfer resources to others. We find that sharing hardly occurs after LV foraging, but among HV foragers sharing increases dramatically over time. The results provide strong support for the hypothesis that people are pre-disposed to evaluate gains from exchange and respond to unsynchronized variance in resource availability through endogenous reciprocal trading relationships.

  10. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that dif...... that different structural problems can be reproduced successfully....

  11. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  12. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  13. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  14. [Key informers. When and How?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín González, R

    2009-03-01

    When information obtained through duly designed and developed studies is not available, the solution to certain problems that affect the population or that respond to certain questions may be approached by using the information and experience provided by the so-called key informer. The key informer is defined as a person who is in contact with the community or with the problem to be studied, who is considered to have good knowledge of the situation and therefore who is considered an expert. The search for consensus is the basis to obtain information through the key informers. The techniques used have different characteristics based on whether the experts chosen meet together or not, whether they are guided or not, whether they interact with each other or not. These techniques include the survey, the Delphi technique, the nominal group technique, brainwriting, brainstorming, the Phillips 66 technique, the 6-3-5 technique, the community forum and the community impressions technique. Information provided by key informers through the search for consensus is relevant when this is not available or cannot be obtained by other methods. It has permitted the analysis of the existing neurological care model, elaboration of recommendations on visit times for the out-patient neurological care, and the elaboration of guidelines and recommendations for the management of prevalent neurological problems.

  15. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  16. Educational Exchanges in Public Diplomacy: Russian and International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Dolinkiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education exchanges are a key element of public diplomacy for most countries that considered effective in that domain of foreign policy activities. Education exchanges are attributed an important role in the post-war peace settlement between Germany and France and in determining the outcome of the Cold war. Relevant aspects of public diplomacy remain key elements of foreign policy instruments of the US, Germany and many other countries. Russia has been increasingly active in public diplomacy in the past decade and the role of education exchanges has been increasing which is also demonstrated by a growing number of expert publications on the subject. However the strategy, the quality of organization and the use of modern technologies remain at a relatively low level which leads to an inefficient use of resources. Priority issues that can be a core of Russia's public diplomacy (and foreign policy in general. Moreover, systemic work would be required to evaluate efficiency of current and complete projects which would allow determine effectiveness of programs and appropriateness of resources used. Education exchanges need to be targeted at both bringing international students to Russia and assisting Russian students to study internationally and professors to teach abroad. Finally, international best practices show that there is a need to maintain connections with international exchanges alumni and assist them to maintain connections with each other including with the use of modern technologies.

  17. New type fuel exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, Toshio; Maita, Yasushi; Hirota, Koichi; Kamishima, Yoshio.

    1988-01-01

    When the reduction of the construction cost of FBRs is considered from the standpoint of the machinery and equipment, to make the size small and to heighten the efficiency are the assigned mission. In order to make a reactor vessel small, it is indispensable to decrease the size of the equipment for fuel exchange installed on the upper part of a core. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a new type fuel exchange system. As for the fuel exchange system for FBRs, it is necessary to change the mode of fuel exchange from that of LWRs, such as handling in the presence of chemically active sodium and inert argon atmosphere covering it and handling under heavy shielding against high radiation. The fuel exchange system for FBRs is composed of a fuel exchanger which inserts, pulls out and transfers fuel and rotary plugs. The mechanism adopted for the new type fuel exchange system that Mitsubishi is developing is explained. The feasibility of the mechanism on the upper part of a core was investigated by water flow test, vibration test and buckling test. The design of the mechanism on the upper part of the core of a demonstration FBR was examined, and the new type fuel exchange system was sufficiently applicable. (Kako, I.)

  18. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  19. Social exchange : Relations and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network

  20. Ion exchange : principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, Nader; Majumdar, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a brief state-of-the-art review of the basic principles underlying the unit operation of ion exchange and its numerous and diverse commercial applications. A selective bibliography is provided for the benefit of the reader interested in pursuing any specific aspect of ion exchange. (author)

  1. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  2. ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNPRECEDENTED RUBLE EXCHANGE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Егор Николаевич Поляков

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide an analysis of real effective exchange rate dynamics in Russia throughout the last decade. Authors analysed the causes and consequences of real effective exchange growth and assessed how Russian ruble real effective exchange rate comply with its equilibrium level. Authors present results of empiric analysis of relationship between real effective exchange rate and labour productivity in industry of 20 european, asian countries and Russia.The result of this writing was the formulation of key copyright conclusions, namely:1. The price level in the country (and the level of the real exchange rate of the national currency is a key factor of competitiveness. Accordingly, the real exchange rate of the national currency - is one of the most important policy tools.2. The ruble today seriously overvalued. Overvaluation of the national currency relative to the equilibrium level is extremely harmful to the economy. Less recognized, but also widespread YaV it possible to the idea that an undervalued currency is a prerequisite for rapid economic growth.3. A direct consequence of the growth of the real exchange rate in the past 12 years has been the growth of the external debt of the private sector.4. Restraining the growth rate of the national currency - is also a common practice for countries who are concerned about the level of competitiveness. But Russia is this day-the only country of the G-20, which is impossible to control the REER.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-4

  3. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  4. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  5. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin

    2013-01-01

    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  6. Heat exchanger performance monitoring guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, N.; Closser, W. Jr.; Mollerus, F.J.

    1991-12-01

    Fouling can occur in many heat exchanger applications in a way that impedes heat transfer and fluid flow and reduces the heat transfer or performance capability of the heat exchanger. Fouling may be significant for heat exchanger surfaces and flow paths in contact with plant service water. This report presents guidelines for performance monitoring of heat exchangers subject to fouling. Guidelines include selection of heat exchangers to monitor based on system function, safety function and system configuration. Five monitoring methods are discussed: the heat transfer, temperature monitoring, temperature effectiveness, delta P and periodic maintenance methods. Guidelines are included for selecting the appropriate monitoring methods and for implementing the selected methods. The report also includes a bibliography, example calculations, and technical notes applicable to the heat transfer method

  7. Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 design, deploy and deliver an enterprise messaging solution

    CERN Document Server

    Winters, Nathan; Blank, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Successfully deploy a top-quality Exchange messaging service Rolling out a major messaging service with Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 requires that you not only understand the functionality of this exciting new release, but that you fully grasp all aspects of the larger Exchange server ecosystem as well. This practical book is your best field guide to it all. Written for administrators and consultants in the trenches, this innovative new guide begins with key concepts of Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 and then moves through the recommended practices and processes that are neces

  8. Effects of Monetary Shocks on Exchange Rate: Empirical Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Chandan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of monetary policy shocks on exchange rate in a Multiple Indicator Approach (MIA framework. This study has employed a monetary policy index of key monetary policy instruments in India (Bank rate, Cash Reserve Ratio, Repo and Reverse Repo rates. The study finds the empirical evidence for puzzling behavior of price level and exchange rate. Both price and exchange rate increase initially in response to a contractionary policy shock. Policy shocks affect output, inflation and exchange rate to an appreciable extent over a forecasting horizon of one year.

  9. Exchange rate volatility effects on export competitiveness. Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GHERMAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we determine and analyze the impact of the exchange rate variation over the international trade of Romania. We highlighted the sense of the relationship between exchange rate and exports or imports, but the intensity between the variables and the lags that characterize the interdependency between them. In the context of actual great imbalances in the global economy and other risks (financial, political or social that drive to the decrease in aggregate demand on global level, we consider that external competitivity became one of the key variable for the economic growth in Romania like an integrated process in the European economy.

  10. A spin exchange model for singlet fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yago, Tomoaki; Wakasa, Masanobu

    2018-03-01

    Singlet fission has been analyzed with the Dexter model in which electron exchange occurs between chromophores, conserving the spin for each electron. In the present study, we propose a spin exchange model for singlet fission. In the spin exchange model, spins are exchanged by the exchange interaction between two electrons. Our analysis with simple spin functions demonstrates that singlet fission is possible by spin exchange. A necessary condition for spin exchange is a variation in exchange interactions. We also adapt the spin exchange model to triplet fusion and triplet energy transfer, which often occur after singlet fission in organic solids.

  11. Exchange Processes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Serafin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of heat, momentum, and mass in the atmosphere over mountainous terrain is controlled by synoptic-scale dynamics, thermally driven mesoscale circulations, and turbulence. This article reviews the key challenges relevant to the understanding of exchange processes in the mountain boundary layer and outlines possible research priorities for the future. The review describes the limitations of the experimental study of turbulent exchange over complex terrain, the impact of slope and valley breezes on the structure of the convective boundary layer, and the role of intermittent mixing and wave–turbulence interaction in the stable boundary layer. The interplay between exchange processes at different spatial scales is discussed in depth, emphasizing the role of elevated and ground-based stable layers in controlling multi-scale interactions in the atmosphere over and near mountains. Implications of the current understanding of exchange processes over mountains towards the improvement of numerical weather prediction and climate models are discussed, considering in particular the representation of surface boundary conditions, the parameterization of sub-grid-scale exchange, and the development of stochastic perturbation schemes.

  12. Efficient Fair Exchange from Identity-Based Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Dae Hyun; Lee, Pil Joong

    A fair exchange scheme is a protocol by which two parties Alice and Bob exchange items or services without allowing either party to gain advantages by quitting prematurely or otherwise misbehaving. To this end, modern cryptographic solutions use a semi-trusted arbitrator who involves only in cases where one party attempts to cheat or simply crashes. We call such a fair exchange scheme optimistic. When no registration is required between the signer and the arbitrator, we say that the fair exchange scheme is setup free. To date, the setup-free optimist fair exchange scheme under the standard RSA assumption was only possible from the generic construction of [12], which uses ring signatures. In this paper, we introduce a new setup-free optimistic fair exchange scheme under the standard RSA assumption. Our scheme uses the GQ identity-based signature and is more efficient than [12]. The construction can also be generalized by using various identity-based signature schemes. Our main technique is to allow each user to choose his (or her) own “random” public key in the identitybased signature scheme.

  13. Isotopic Exchange in Porous and Dense Magnesium Borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorotynska, Olena; Deledda, Stefano; Li, Guanqiao; Matsuo, Motoaki; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Hauback, Bjørn C

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium borohydride (Mg(BH4)2) is one of the most promising complex hydrides presently studied for energy-related applications. Many of its properties depend on the stability of the BH4(-) anion. The BH4(-) stability was investigated with respect to H→D exchange. In situ Raman measurements on high-surface-area porous Mg(BH4 )2 in 0.3 MPa D2 have shown that the isotopic exchange at appreciable rates occurs already at 373 K. This is the lowest exchange temperature observed in stable borohydrides. Gas-solid isotopic exchange follows the BH4(-) +D˙ →BH3D(-) +H˙ mechanism at least at the initial reaction steps. Ex situ deuteration of porous Mg(BH4)2 and its dense-phase polymorph indicates that the intrinsic porosity of the hydride is the key behind the high isotopic exchange rates. It implies that the solid-state H(D) diffusion is considerably slower than the gas-solid H→D exchange reaction at the surface and it is a rate-limiting steps for hydrogen desorption and absorption in Mg(BH4)2. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Oxo-exchange of gas-phase uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl with water and methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Ana F; Odoh, Samuel O; Zhao, Jing; Marçalo, Joaquim; Schreckenbach, Georg; Gibson, John K

    2014-02-17

    A challenge in actinide chemistry is activation of the strong bonds in the actinyl ions, AnO2(+) and AnO2(2+), where An = U, Np, or Pu. Actinyl activation in oxo-exchange with water in solution is well established, but the exchange mechanisms are unknown. Gas-phase actinyl oxo-exchange is a means to probe these processes in detail for simple systems, which are amenable to computational modeling. Gas-phase exchange reactions of UO2(+), NpO2(+), PuO2(+), and UO2(2+) with water and methanol were studied by experiment and density functional theory (DFT); reported for the first time are experimental results for UO2(2+) and for methanol exchange, as well as exchange rate constants. Key findings are faster exchange of UO2(2+) versus UO2(+) and faster exchange with methanol versus water; faster exchange of UO2(+) versus PuO2(+) was quantified. Computed potential energy profiles (PEPs) are in accord with the observed kinetics, validating the utility of DFT to model these exchange processes. The seemingly enigmatic result of faster exchange for uranyl, which has the strongest oxo-bonds, may reflect reduced covalency in uranyl as compared with plutonyl.

  15. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  16. Humanitarianism and Unequal Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Swamy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between humanitarian aid and ecologically unequal exchange in the context of post-disaster reconstruction. I assess the manner in which humanitarian aid became a central part of the reconstruction process in India's Tamil Nadu state following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. This article focuses on how the humanitarian “gift” of housing became a central plank of the state's efforts to push fishers inland while opening up coastal lands for various economic development projects such as ports, infrastructure, industries, and tourism. As part of the state and multilateral agency financed reconstruction process, the humanitarian aid regime provided “free” houses as gifts to recipients while expecting in return the formal abandonment of all claims to the coast. The humanitarian “gift” therefore helped depoliticize critical issues of land and resources, location and livelihood, which prior to the tsunami were subjects of long-standing political conflicts between local fisher populations and the state. The gift economy in effect played into an ongoing conflict over land and resources and effectively sought to ease the alienation of fishers from their coastal commons and near shore marine resource base. I argue that humanitarian aid, despite its associations with benevolence and generosity, presents a troubling and disempowering set of options for political struggles over land, resources, and social entitlements such as housing, thereby intensifying existing ecological and economic inequalities.

  17. Heat exchanger design

    OpenAIRE

    Vítek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce řeší návrh výměníku tepla pro teplovodní kotel se zplyňovací komorou pro předehřev spalovacího vzduchu odpadním teplem spalin. Hodnoty pro výpočet byly experimentálně naměřeny. Práce obsahuje stručný popis trubkového výměníku tepla, stechiometrický vypočet spalování, návrh geometrických rozměrů výměníku, výpočet tlakových ztrát a výpočet výkonu. Její součástí je také výkresová dokumentace navrženého výměníku. This bachelor thesis solves design of a heat exchanger for ...

  18. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  19. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  20. Effects of Externalities on Patterns of Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    Many real−life examples of exchanges with externalities exist. Externalities of exchange are defined as direct consequences of exchanges for the payoff of actors who are not involved in the exchange. This paper focuses on how externalities influence the partner choice in exchange networks. In an

  1. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  2. Key issues for passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ''review paper'' as such and only record the highlights. (author)

  3. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  4. Key issues for passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayns, M R [AEA Technology, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom). European Institutions; Hicken, E F [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ``review paper`` as such and only record the highlights. (author).

  5. Low carbon development. Key issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Frauke; Nordensvaard, Johan (eds.)

    2013-03-07

    This comprehensive textbook addresses the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context. The first part explores the concept of low carbon development and explains the need for low carbon development in a carbon constrained world. The book then discusses the key issues of socio-economic, political and technological nature for low carbon development, exploring topics such as the political economy, social justice, financing and carbon markets, and technologies and innovation for low carbon development. This is followed by key issues for low carbon development in policy and practice, which is presented based on cross-cutting issues such as low carbon energy, forestry, agriculture and transportation. Afterwards, practical case studies are discussed from low carbon development in low income countries in Africa, middle income countries in Asia and Latin America and high income countries in Europe and North America.

  6. Detector decoy quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  7. Key Concepts in Microbial Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Achilles, K.; Walker, G.; Weersing, K.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institution Science and Technology Center, established by the National Science Foundation in 2006. C-MORE's research mission is to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the diverse assemblages of microorganisms in the sea, ranging from the genetic basis of marine microbial biogeochemistry including the metabolic regulation and environmental controls of gene expression, to the processes that underpin the fluxes of carbon, related bioelements, and energy in the marine environment. The C-MORE education and outreach program is focused on increasing scientific literacy in microbial oceanography among students, educators, and the general public. A first step toward this goal is defining the key concepts that constitute microbial oceanography. After lengthy discussions with scientists and educators, both within and outside C-MORE, we have arrived at six key concepts: 1) Marine microbes are very small and have been around for a long time; 2) Life on Earth could not exist without microbes; 3) Most marine microbes are beneficial; 4) Microbes are everywhere: they are extremely abundant and diverse; 5) Microbes significantly impact our global climate; and 6) There are new discoveries every day in the field of microbial oceanography. A C-MORE-produced brochure on these six key concepts will be distributed at the meeting. Advanced copies may be requested by email or downloaded from the C-MORE web site(http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/downloads/MO_key_concepts_hi-res.pdf). This brochure also includes information on career pathways in microbial oceanography, with the aim of broadening participation in the field. C-MORE is eager to work in partnership to incorporate these key concepts into other science literacy publications, particularly those involving ocean and climate literacy. We thank the following contributors and reviewers: P Chisholm, A Dolberry, and A Thompson (MIT); N Lawrence

  8. Derivation of the tunnelling exchange time for the model of trap-assisted tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racko, J.; Ballo, P.; Benko, P.; Harmatha, L.; Grmanova, A.; Breza, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present derivation of the tunnelling exchange times that play the key role in the model of trap assisted tunnelling (TAT) considering the electron and hole exchange processes between the trapping centre lying in the forbidden band of the semiconductor and the conduction band, valence band or a metal. All exchange processes are quantitatively described by respective exchange times. The reciprocal values of these exchange times represent the frequency with which the exchange processes contribute to the probability of occupation of the trap by free charge carriers. The crucial problem in any model of TAT is the calculation of the occupation probability. In our approach this probability is expressed in terms of only thermal and tunnelling exchange times. The concept of tunnelling exchange times presents a dominant contribution to our model of TAT. The new approach allows to simply calculate the probability of occupation of the trapping centre by a free charge carrier and subsequently to get the thermal and tunnelling generation-recombination rates occurring in the continuity equations. This is why the TAT model based on thermal and tunnelling exchange times is suitable for simulating the electrical properties of semiconductor nanostructures in which quantum mechanical phenomena play a key role. (authors)

  9. Frodo: Take off the ring! Practical, quantum-secure key exchange from LWE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bos; C.J. Costello (Craig); L. Ducas (Léo); Mironov (I); Naehrig (Michael); Nikolaendo (Valieria); Ragghunathan (Ananth); Stebila (Douglas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractLattice-based cryptography offers some of the most attractive primitives believed to be resistant to quantum computers. Following increasing interest from both companies and government agencies in building quantum computers, a number of works have proposed instantiations of practical

  10. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  11. Relational and XML Data Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Arenas, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Data exchange is the problem of finding an instance of a target schema, given an instance of a source schema and a specification of the relationship between the source and the target. Such a target instance should correctly represent information from the source instance under the constraints imposed by the target schema, and it should allow one to evaluate queries on the target instance in a way that is semantically consistent with the source data. Data exchange is an old problem that re-emerged as an active research topic recently, due to the increased need for exchange of data in various for

  12. Corrosion protected reversing heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawierucha, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reversing heat exchanger of the plate and fin type having multiple aluminum parting sheets in a stacked arrangement with corrugated fins separating the sheets to form multiple flow paths, means for closing the ends of the sheets, an input manifold arrangement of headers for the warm end of of the exchanger and an output manifold arrangement for the cold end of the exchanger with the input air feed stream header and the waste gas exhaust header having an alloy of zinc and aluminum coated on the inside surface for providing corrosion protection to the stack

  13. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  14. Organic decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study has successfully identified ion exchanger media suitable for decontaminating the 5500-gallon organic layer in Tank 241-C-103. Decontamination of radionuclides is necessary to meet shipping, incinerator site storage, and incineration feed requirements. The exchanger media were identified through a literature search and experiments at the Russian Institute for Physical Chemistry. The principal radionuclides addressed are Cs-137 and Sr-90. Recommendations for an experimental program plan conclude the discussion. The experimental program would provide the data necessary for plant design specifications for a column and for ion exchange media to be used in decontaminating the organic layer

  15. Speeding-up exchange-mediated saturation transfer experiments by Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Marta G.; Reddy, Jithender G.; Griesinger, Christian; Lee, Donghan

    2015-01-01

    Protein motions over various time scales are crucial for protein function. NMR relaxation dispersion experiments play a key role in explaining these motions. However, the study of slow conformational changes with lowly populated states remained elusive. The recently developed exchange-mediated saturation transfer experiments allow the detection and characterization of such motions, but require extensive measurement time. Here we show that, by making use of Fourier transform, the total acquisition time required to measure an exchange-mediated saturation transfer profile can be reduced by twofold in case that one applies linear prediction. In addition, we demonstrate that the analytical solution for R 1 ρ experiments can be used for fitting the exchange-mediated saturation transfer profile. Furthermore, we show that simultaneous analysis of exchange-mediated saturation transfer profiles with two different radio-frequency field strengths is required for accurate and precise characterization of the exchange process and the exchanging states

  16. Financial Performance of Health Insurers: State-Run Versus Federal-Run Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A; McCue, Michael J; Palazzolo, Jennifer R

    2018-06-01

    Many insurers incurred financial losses in individual markets for health insurance during 2014, the first year of Affordable Care Act mandated changes. This analysis looks at key financial ratios of insurers to compare profitability in 2014 and 2013, identify factors driving financial performance, and contrast the financial performance of health insurers operating in state-run exchanges versus the federal exchange. Overall, the median loss of sampled insurers was -3.9%, no greater than their loss in 2013. Reduced administrative costs offset increases in medical losses. Insurers performed better in states with state-run exchanges than insurers in states using the federal exchange in 2014. Medical loss ratios are the underlying driver more than administrative costs in the difference in performance between states with federal versus state-run exchanges. Policy makers looking to improve the financial performance of the individual market should focus on features that differentiate the markets associated with state-run versus federal exchanges.

  17. Speeding-up exchange-mediated saturation transfer experiments by Fourier transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Marta G.; Reddy, Jithender G.; Griesinger, Christian; Lee, Donghan, E-mail: dole@nmr.mpibpc.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institute for Biophysical chemistry, Department of NMR-based Structural Biology (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Protein motions over various time scales are crucial for protein function. NMR relaxation dispersion experiments play a key role in explaining these motions. However, the study of slow conformational changes with lowly populated states remained elusive. The recently developed exchange-mediated saturation transfer experiments allow the detection and characterization of such motions, but require extensive measurement time. Here we show that, by making use of Fourier transform, the total acquisition time required to measure an exchange-mediated saturation transfer profile can be reduced by twofold in case that one applies linear prediction. In addition, we demonstrate that the analytical solution for R{sub 1}ρ experiments can be used for fitting the exchange-mediated saturation transfer profile. Furthermore, we show that simultaneous analysis of exchange-mediated saturation transfer profiles with two different radio-frequency field strengths is required for accurate and precise characterization of the exchange process and the exchanging states.

  18. Theory and design of heat exchanger : Double pipe and heat exchanger in abnormal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ui Dong

    1996-02-01

    This book introduces theory and design of heat exchanger, which includes HTRI program, multiple tube heat exchanger external heating, theory of heat transfer, basis of design of heat exchanger, two-phase flow, condensation, boiling, material of heat exchanger, double pipe heat exchanger like hand calculation, heat exchanger in abnormal condition such as Jackets Vessel, and Coiled Vessel, design and summary of steam tracing.

  19. Boxing Clever: Using Shoeboxes to Support Home-School Knowledge Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhough, Pamela; Scanlan, Mary; Feiler, Anthony; Johnson, David; Yee, Wan Ching; Andrews, Jane; Price, Alison; Smithson, Maggie; Hughes, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A key tenet of the Home-School Knowledge Exchange Project is that children's learning will be enhanced if the knowledge and experience that are to be found both at home and in school can be brought together. In this paper we explore ways of connecting home and school to support literacy learning at Key Stage 1, focusing on the home-to-school…

  20. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  1. Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.

  2. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...... contributed by Scientific Officer Edgar Thielmann, DG TREN, Head of Department Hans Larsen, RisøNational Laboratory, Senior Asset Manager Aksel Hauge Pedersen, DONG VE, Consultant Timon Wehnert, IZT-Berlin, and Senior Scientist Martine Uyterlinde, ECN...

  3. Key concepts in social pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Lotte Junker

    2011-01-01

    and activities around key social pedagogical concepts, such as the Common Third, the 3 P’s, the Zone of Proximal Development and the Learning Zone model. In the article we explore how a joint activity, for example playing soccer, can be seen as a pedagogical activity and with what intentions it is undertaken......“Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions...

  4. Exchange of Information in Tax Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present issues related to exchange of tax information. The author focuses on models of exchange of information and boundaries of obligations in reference to above-mentioned problems. Automatic exchange of information, spontaneous exchange of information and exchange of information on request are analysed in this work on the base of OECD Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, Council Directive 2011/16 and OECD Model Agreement on Exchange...

  5. Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.

    1995-09-25

    Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.

  6. The use of fibrous ion exchangers in gold hydrometallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzmann, R. M.; Sampaio, C. H.; Cortina, J. L.; Soldatov, V.; Shunkevich, A.

    2002-10-01

    This article examines a family of ion-exchange fibers, FIBAN, containing primary and secondary amine groups. These ion exchangers have a fiber diameter of 20 40 Μm, high osmotic and mechanic stability, a high rate of adsorption and regeneration, and excellent dynamic characteristics as filtering media. Inparticular, this article discusses the use of FIBAN fibrous ion exchangers in the recovery of gold cyanide andbase-metal cyanides (copper and mercury) from mineral-leaching solutions. The influence of polymer structure and water content on their extraction ability is described, along with key parameters of gold hydrometallurgy such as extraction efficiency, selectivity, pH dependence, gold cyanide loading, kinetics, and stripping.

  7. Standardized structure of electronic records for information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galabova, Sevdalina; Trencheva, Tereza; Trenchev, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    In the paper is presented the structure of the electronic record whose form is standardized in ISO 2709:2008. This International Standard describes a generalized structure, a framework designed specially for communications between data processing systems and not for use as a processing format within systems.Basic terms are defined as follows: character, data field, directory, directory map, field, field separator etc. It’s presented the general structure of a record. The application analysis of this structure shows the effective information exchange in the widest range.The purpose of this research is to find out advantages and structure of the information exchange format standardized in ISO 2709:2008. Key words: Standardized structure, electronic records, exchange formats, data field, directory, directory map, indicators, identifiers

  8. Key Management Scheme Based on Route Planning of Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighbor areas (TSPN in dynamic clustering for data exchange is proposed, and the selection probability is used in MS route planning. The proposed scheme extends static key management to dynamic key management by considering the dynamic clustering and mobility of MSs, which can effectively balance the total energy consumption during the activities. Considering the different resources available to the member nodes and sink node, the session key between cluster head and MS is established by modified an ECC encryption with Diffie-Hellman key exchange (ECDH algorithm and the session key between member node and cluster head is built with a binary symmetric polynomial. By analyzing the security of data storage, data transfer and the mechanism of dynamic key management, the proposed scheme has more advantages to help improve the resilience of the key management system of the network on the premise of satisfying higher connectivity and storage efficiency.

  9. Key Management Scheme Based on Route Planning of Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Jixing; Zheng, Bingxin; Jiang, Shengming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-29

    In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS) should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighbor areas (TSPN) in dynamic clustering for data exchange is proposed, and the selection probability is used in MS route planning. The proposed scheme extends static key management to dynamic key management by considering the dynamic clustering and mobility of MSs, which can effectively balance the total energy consumption during the activities. Considering the different resources available to the member nodes and sink node, the session key between cluster head and MS is established by modified an ECC encryption with Diffie-Hellman key exchange (ECDH) algorithm and the session key between member node and cluster head is built with a binary symmetric polynomial. By analyzing the security of data storage, data transfer and the mechanism of dynamic key management, the proposed scheme has more advantages to help improve the resilience of the key management system of the network on the premise of satisfying higher connectivity and storage efficiency.

  10. Apparatus and process for deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergenc, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deuterium exchange plant is combined with an absorption refrigeration plant in order to improve the exchange process and to produce refrigeration. The refrigeration plant has a throttling means for expanding and cooling a portion of the liquid exchange medium separated in the exchange plant as well as an evaporator, in which the said liquid exchange medium is brought into heat exchange with a cold consumer device, absorption means for forming a solution of the used exchange medium and fresh water and a pump for pumping the solution into the exchange plant

  11. Three key affordances for serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serendipity is an interesting phenomenon to study in information science as it plays a fundamental – but perhaps underestimated – role in how we discover, explore, and learn in all fields of life. The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the concept of serendipity by providing termi...... terminological “building blocks” for understanding connections between environmental and personal factors in serendipitous encounters. Understanding these connections is essential when designing affordances in physical and digital environments that can facilitate serendipity. Design....../methodology/approach In this paper, serendipity is defined as what happens when we, in unplanned ways, encounter resources (information, things, people, etc.) that we find interesting. In the outlined framework, serendipity is understood as an affordance, i.e., a usage potential when environmental and personal factors correspond...... the three key affordances and three key personal serendipity factors: curiosity, mobility, and sensitivity. Ten sub-affordances for serendipity and ten coupled personal sub-factors are also briefly outlined. Related research is compared with and mapped into the framework aiming at a theoretical validation...

  12. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  13. VLER Health Exchange by Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — “Connect Your Docs” through the Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health Exchange program. This program gives VA and community health care providers secure...

  14. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  15. Mechanical calculation of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osweiller, Francis.

    1977-01-01

    Many heat exchangers are still being dimensioned at the present time by means of the American TEMA code (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association). The basic formula of this code often gives rise to significant tubular plate thicknesses which, apart from the cost of materials, involve significant machining. Some constructors have brought into use calculation methods that are more analytic so as to take into better consideration the mechanical phenomena which come into play in a heat exchanger. After a brief analysis of these methods it is shown, how the original TEMA formulations have changed to reach the present version and how this code has incorporated Gardner's results for treating exchangers with two fixed heads. A formal and numerical comparison is then made of the analytical and TEMA methods by attempting to highlight a code based on these methods or a computer calculation programme in relation to the TEMA code [fr

  16. Microplate Heat Exchanger, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  17. Global Concept of Financial Institutional Transformation of Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmaka Mykola

    2017-12-01

    powerful stock holdings able to meet the needs of a wide range of traders and investors with diversified investment strategies. Have been identified key factors of world stock exchange restructurization under the influence informatization, networking and technologizing processes. Have been revealed motivation, mechanisms, and consequences of stock markets in European Union, the USA and Asian region at the modern stage of development.

  18. Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomamichel, Marco; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Gisin, Nicolas; Renner, Renato

    2012-01-17

    Despite enormous theoretical and experimental progress in quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not rigorously established. One significant problem is that the security of the final key strongly depends on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. Yet, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically, for unrealistically large values of M. Another challenge is that most security proofs are very sensitive to small differences between the physical devices used by the protocol and the theoretical model used to describe them. Here we show that these gaps between theory and experiment can be simultaneously overcome by using a recently developed proof technique based on the uncertainty relation for smooth entropies.

  19. Symmetric Blind Information Reconciliation for Quantum Key Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiktenko, Evgeniy O.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a quantum-proof key-exchange scheme which is fast approaching the communication industry. An essential component in QKD is the information reconciliation step, which is used for correcting the quantum-channel noise errors. The recently suggested blind-reconciliation technique, based on low-density parity-check codes, offers remarkable prospectives for efficient information reconciliation without an a priori quantum bit error rate estimation. We suggest an improvement of the blind-information-reconciliation protocol promoting a significant increase in the efficiency of the procedure and reducing its interactivity. Finally, the proposed technique is based on introducing symmetry in operations of parties, and the consideration of results of unsuccessful belief-propagation decodings.

  20. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  1. Exchange Rate and Inflation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Eatzaz Ahmad; Saima Ahmed Ali

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies simultaneous determination of nominal exchange rate and domestic price level in Pakistan. The estimated model contains sufficient built-in dynamics to trace the pattern and speed of adjustment in the two variables in response to temporary or permanent shocks. The two domestic shocks considered in the paper are monetary and real shocks, while the three external shocks considered are import price, export price and foreign exchange reserves shocks. The study finds that the imp...

  2. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. The Matchmaker Exchange API: automating patient matching through the exchange of structured phenotypic and genotypic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Orion J; Schiettecatte, François; Hutton, Benjamin; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Misyura, Andriy; Huang, Lijia; Hartley, Taila; Girdea, Marta; Sobreira, Nara; Mungall, Chris; Brudno, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of clinical sequencing, the difficulty of identifying additional affected families is a key obstacle to solving many rare diseases. There may only be a handful of similar patients worldwide, and their data may be stored in diverse clinical and research databases. Computational methods are necessary to enable finding similar patients across the growing number of patient repositories and registries. We present the Matchmaker Exchange Application Programming Interface (MME API), a protocol and data format for exchanging phenotype and genotype profiles to enable matchmaking among patient databases, facilitate the identification of additional cohorts, and increase the rate with which rare diseases can be researched and diagnosed. We designed the API to be straightforward and flexible in order to simplify its adoption on a large number of data types and workflows. We also provide a public test data set, curated from the literature, to facilitate implementation of the API and development of new matching algorithms. The initial version of the API has been successfully implemented by three members of the Matchmaker Exchange and was immediately able to reproduce previously identified matches and generate several new leads currently being validated. The API is available at https://github.com/ga4gh/mme-apis. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. A case study for the KE Basin on the Hanford Site was conducted based on the results of the development testing. Engineering design baseline parameters for film deposition, film regeneration, cesium loading, and cesium elution were used for developing a conceptual system. Order of magnitude cost estimates were developed to compare with conventional ion exchange. This case study demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal secondary waste and reduced associated disposal costs, as well as lower capital and labor expenditures

  5. Analysis of the Chinese Exchange Rate Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngrok Cheng

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Asian Financial Crisis now is moving to a relatively stable phase, and at this time, whether Chinese RMB will depreciate is raising the concern of the outside world. If we simply consider economic factors, we will find REER (Real Effective Exchange Rate increased around 10%, where depreciation factors are lurking. However, after Vice Premier Zhu Rongji took the responsibility of economic operation and fixed the fundamental key of developing stably, many foreign departments present good impetus of development. After that, Foreign Exchange Rate Reservation increases and major focus is put on long-term operation for debt structure. On the contrary, If Chinese RMB depreciates dramatically, there will be some uneasiness towards domestic economy and also the burden of paying debt should be increased, people may suffer the loss quite a lot. Especially even we consider the responsibility as the central country in this region and the political & economical factors causing the harmonious atmosphere of Sino-American relationship, it can be predicted that Chinese RMB cannot depreciate dramatically within 1-2 years.

  6. Key to Language Learning Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavian Mantiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the important elements of language learning and teaching i.e. the role of teachers as well as the attitude and motivation of learners. Teachers undoubtedly play crucial roles in students’ language learning outcome which could ignite or diminish students’ motivation. Positive attitudes and motivation – instrumental or integrative and intrinsic or extrinsic – are key to successful learning. Therefore it is paramount for language teachers as well as learners to know these roles and nurture the best possible ways where language teaching and learning will thrive. This paper also suggested that both stake-holders should be open to holistic approach of language learning and that other factors such as the environment could play an important part in language teaching and learning success.

  7. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  8. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  9. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  10. The Theory of Exploitation as the Unequal Exchange of Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziani, Roberto; Yoshihara, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the normative and positive foundations of the theory of exploitation as the unequal exchange of labour (UEL). The key intuitions behind all of the main approaches to UEL exploitation are explicitly analysed as a series of formal claims in a general economic environment. It is then argued that these intuitions can be captured by one fundamental axiom - called Labour Exploitation - which defines the basic domain of all UEL exploitation forms and identifies the formal and the...

  11. The theory of exploitation as the unequal exchange of labour

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziani, Roberto; Yoshihara, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the normative and positive foundations of the theory of exploitation as the unequal exchange of labour (UEL). The key intuitions behind all of the main approaches to UEL exploitation are explicitly analysed as a series of formal claims in a general economic environment. It is then argued that these intuitions can be captured by one fundamental axiom - called Labour Exploitation - which defines the basic domain of all UEL exploitation forms and identifies the formal and the...

  12. On one pion exchange potential with quark exchange in the resonating group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuer, K.; Faessler, A.; Fernandez, F.; Shimizu, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of quark exchange between different nucleons on the one pion exchange potential is studied in the framework of the resonating group method. The calculated phase shifts including the one pion exchange potential with quark exchange in addition to the one gluon plus sigma meson exchange are shown to be consistent with experiments. Especially the p-wave phase shifts are improved by taking into account the quark exchange on the one pion exchange potential. (orig.)

  13. A continuous exchange factor method for radiative exchange in enclosures with participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.H.N.; Chung, B.T.F.; Litkouhi, B.

    1987-01-01

    A continuous exchange factor method for analysis of radiative exchange in enclosures is developed. In this method two types of exchange functions are defined, direct exchange function and total exchange function. Certain integral equations relating total exchange functions to direct exchange functions are developed. These integral equations are solved using Gaussian quadrature integration method. The results obtained based on the present approach are found to be more accurate than those of the zonal method

  14. Experimental test of exchange degeneracy in hypercharge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1978-10-01

    Two pairs of line-reversed reactions π + P → K + Σ + , K - p → π - Σ + and π + p → K + Y* + (1385), K - p → π - Y* + (1385) provide an experimental test of exchange degeneracy in hypercharge exchange reactions. From their study it is concluded that in contrast to the lower energy data, the 11.5 results for the two pairs of reactions are consistent with exchange degeneracy predictions for both helicity-flip and nonflip amplitudes. The Y(1385) decay angular distributions indicate that the quark model and Stodolsky--Sakurai predictions are in agreement with the main features of the data. However, small violations are observed at small momentum transfer. While the Y(1385) vertex is helicity-flip dominated, the nonvanishing of T/sub 3/2 - 1/2/ and T/sub -3/2 1/2/ suggests some finite helicity nonflip contribution in the forward direction. 23 references

  15. Estimating Exchange Market Pressure and the Degree of Exchange Market Intervention for Finland during the Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Pösö, Mika; Spolander, Mikko

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we use a fairly simple monetary macro model to calculate the quarterly measures of exchange market pressure and the degree of the Bank of Finland's intervention during the time the markka was floated. Exchange market pressure measures the size of the exchange rate change that would have occurred if the central bank had unexpectedly refrained from intervening in the foreign exchange market. Intervention activity of the central bank is measured as the proportion of exchange marke...

  16. 25 CFR 502.14 - Key employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Key employee. 502.14 Section 502.14 Indians NATIONAL....14 Key employee. Key employee means: (a) A person who performs one or more of the following functions... gaming operation. (d) Any other person designated by the tribe as a key employee. [57 FR 12392, Apr. 9...

  17. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symeonidou, Danai; Prado, Luis Antonio Galarraga Del; Pernelle, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs...

  18. Security of public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Pei Wenjiang; Zou Liuhua; Cheung Yiuming; He Zhenya

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems has been proposed [B. Ranjan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 098702]. This scheme employs m-chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. Security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP) m , where N, P are the size of the key and the computational complexity of the linear functions respectively. In this Letter, the fundamental weakness of the cryptosystem is pointed out and a successful attack is described. Given the public keys and the initial vector, one can calculate the secret key based on Parseval's theorem. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the attacker can access to the secret key without difficulty. The lack of security discourages the use of such algorithm for practical applications

  19. Conflict and Fairness in Social Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.; Collett, Jessica L.; Schaefer, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Inherent to all social exchange relations are elements of both cooperation and competition. We develop and test a theoretical model which proposes that the relative salience of the competitive, conflictual elements of exchange mediate and explain the negative effects of negotiated exchange, as compared with reciprocal exchange, on actors'…

  20. Freight planning and regional cooperation in the Piedmont Atlantic megaregion : a regional models of cooperation peer exchange summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This report highlights key themes identified at the Freight Planning and Regional Cooperation in the Piedmont Atlantic Megaregion Peer Exchange held on January 31, 2017 and February 1, 2017 in Atlanta, Georgia. The Regional Models of Cooperatio...

  1. 76 FR 39963 - Order Pursuant to Section 36 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Granting Temporary Exemptions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 64017, supra note 9. \\16\\ The Commission stresses that the functions highlighted... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-64796; File No. S7-28-11] Order Pursuant to...- counter (``OTC'') market are centrally cleared.\\4\\ One of the key ways in which the Dodd-Frank Act seeks...

  2. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  3. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  4. Tokamak rotation and charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref

  5. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  6. Heat exchanger. [Nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, C; Brisseaux, A

    1976-01-19

    This invention concerns a heat exchanger between a fluid flowing through a tube and a gas. Such an exchanger can be used, inter alia, for removing calories that cannot be used for generating electricity in a thermal or nuclear power station. This exchanger can withstand any pressure surges in the system and even the use of a high vapour pressure coolant such as ammonia, since the fluid flows in a round tube with low pressure drops (both with respect to the fluid to be cooled and the cooling air). It is rigid enough to stand up to being moved and handled as well as to gusts of wind. It is formed of units that can be handled without difficulty and that are easily dismantable and interchangeable, even in service, and it is easily maintained. The exchange area is high for a minimum frontal area and this enables the size of the supporting frame to be reduced and makes it easy to hide it behind a screen of trees should this prove necessary. Finally, it is composed of a small number of standard units thus reducing the industrial production cost. These units are rectangular plates, each one being a flat tubular coil fitted between two flat parallel sheet metal plates having on their outer sides flat top raised bosses. These units are assembled together by the tops of the bosses so as to form an exchanger bank, each bank comprising two collectors to which the bank coils are tightly connected.

  7. Uranium isotope separation using styrene cation exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahovec, J.

    1980-01-01

    The separation of 235 U and 238 U isotopes is carried out either by simple isotope exchange in the system uranium-cation exchanger (sulphonated styrene divinylbenzene resin), or by combination of isotope exchange in a uranium-cation exchanger (Dowex 50, Amberlite IR-120) system and a chemical reaction. A review is presented of elution agents used, the degree of cation exchanger cross-linking, columns length, and 235 U enrichment. The results are described of the isotope effect study in a U(IV)-U(VI)-cation exchanger system conducted by Japanese and Romanian authors (isotope exchange kinetics, frontal analysis, reverse (indirect) frontal analysis). (H.S.)

  8. Quantum key distribution and cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleaume, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Originally proposed by classical cryptographers, the ideas behind Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) have attracted considerable interest among the quantum optics community, which has significantly helped bring these ideas to reality. Experimental realizations have quickly evolved from early lab demonstrations to QKD systems that are now deployed in real conditions and targeting commercial applications. Although QKD can be theoretically proven to rely on 'unconditional security proofs' and should thus be able to provide security levels unachievable through computationally-based cryptographic techniques, the debate on the cryptographic applications of QKD remains somehow controversial. It seems that a consensus on that matter cannot be reached without a careful analysis of assumptions and definitions related to security models used in classical or in quantum cryptography. In this talk, we will try to present a comprehensive synthesis on this topic. We have initiated this work as a contribution to the European IP SECOQC project, confronting views and knowledge among experimental and theoretical quantum physicists, as well as classical cryptographers. (author)

  9. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  10. Spot Markets Indices as Benchmarks of Formation of Future Price Trends in the Power Exchanges of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polikevych Nataliya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with a theoretical generalization of the use of indices for electric power at the European spot exchanges and elaborating proposals on establishment of a similar spot index for the Ukrainian power exchange. 16 indices that are published daily by the power exchanges BSP Regional Energy Exchange, Power Exchange Central Europe, Polish Power Exchange and Opcom have been analyzed. It has been indicated that these indices are used for electricity price forecasting and monitoring the situation in the power market. The article examines the way spot indices are calculated by power exchanges, based on the value of the arithmetic average of market prices «day ahead». Imperfection of such way of calculation for price index values has been substantiated. The key characteristics of the future price index for Ukrainian spot market as benchmarks within the introduction of futures contracts for electricity have been identified.

  11. Second-order schedules of token reinforcement with pigeons: effects of fixed- and variable-ratio exchange schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T A; Hackenberg, T D; Vaidya, M

    2001-09-01

    Pigeons' key pecks produced food under second-order schedules of token reinforcement, with light-emitting diodes serving as token reinforcers. In Experiment 1, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and were exchanged for food according to either fixed-ratio or variable-ratio exchange schedules, with schedule type varied across conditions. In Experiment 2, schedule type was varied within sessions using a multiple schedule. In one component, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a variable-ratio schedule. In the other component, tokens were earned according to a variable-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a fixed-ratio schedule. In both experiments, the number of responses per exchange was varied parametrically across conditions, ranging from 50 to 400 responses. Response rates decreased systematically with increases in the fixed-ratio exchange schedules, but were much less affected by changes in the variable-ratio exchange schedules. Response rates were consistently higher under variable-ratio exchange schedules than tinder comparable fixed-ratio exchange schedules, especially at higher exchange ratios. These response-rate differences were due both to greater pre-ratio pausing and to lower local rates tinder the fixed-ratio exchange schedules. Local response rates increased with proximity to food under the higher fixed-ratio exchange schedules, indicative of discriminative control by the tokens.

  12. Exchange effects in Relativistic Schroedinger Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigg, T.; Sorg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Relativistic Schroedinger Theory predicts the occurrence of exchange and overlap effects in many-particle systems. For a 2-particle system, the interaction energy of the two particles consists of two contributions: Coulomb energy and exchange energy, where the first one is revealed to be the same as in standard quantum theory. However the exchange energy is mediated by an exchange potential, contrary to the kinematical origin of the exchange term in the standard theory

  13. Exchange Rate Policy in Philippine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Romeo M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the conduct of exchange rate policy in the Philippines since the early 1980s, paying particular attention to the influence of exchange rate adjustments on relative production incentives. While primary interest is in the exchange rate regime and its incentive effects, the role of trade policy has to be simultaneously analyzed in view of its influence on the conduct of exchange rate policy as well as its direct effect on the real exchange rate. Moreover, there are analytical...

  14. Effective Exchange Rate Classifications and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Justin M. Dubas; Byung-Joo Lee; Nelson C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    We propose an econometric procedure for obtaining de facto exchange rate regime classifications which we apply to study the relationship between exchange rate regimes and economic growth. Our classification method models the de jure regimes as outcomes of a multinomial logit choice problem conditional on the volatility of a country's effective exchange rate, a bilateral exchange rate and international reserves. An `effective' de facto exchange rate regime classification is then obtained by as...

  15. Value Appropriation in Business Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J.; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    value creation. Originality/value – To the authors’ knowledge, this paper represents the first attempt at reviewing the management literature on value appropriation in business exchange. The authors provide overview, details, comparisons, and frame a research agenda as a first step towards establishing......Purpose – Value appropriation is a central, yet neglected aspect in business exchange research. The purpose of the paper is to generate an overview of research on active value appropriation in business exchange and provide the foundation for further research into value appropriation, as well...... as some initial guidance for managers. Design/methodology/approach – Literatures investigating value appropriation were identified by the means of a systematic review of the overall management literature. Findings – The authors provide an overview and comparison of the literatures and find that they apply...

  16. Knowledge Exchange and Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben

    2018-01-01

    for ‘interesting’ discoveries has a potential to lift off papers with a high level of scientific rigor as well as a high level of relevance for practice. Originality: An outcome focus on the relationship between knowledge exchange activities and management research is to our knowledge new in the debate about......Purpose: The growing involvement of management researchers in knowledge exchange activities and collaborative research does not seem to be reflected in a growing academic output. The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers for academic output from these activities as well as the potential...... derived from knowledge exchange activities and Mode 2 research into academic papers such as low priority of case study research in leading management journals, a growing practice orientation in the research funding systems, methodological challenges due to limited researcher control, and disincentives...

  17. Inflationary trispectrum from graviton exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seery, David; Sloth, Martin Snoager; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields a contrib......We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields...... where the momentum of the graviton which is exchanged becomes much smaller than the external momenta. We conclude that the total non-linearity parameter generated by single-field models of slow-roll inflation is at maximum tauNL ~ r....

  18. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  19. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  20. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations.

  1. EXTERNALITIES IN EXCHANGE NETWORKS AN ADAPTATION OF EXISTING THEORIES OF EXCHANGE NETWORKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The present paper extends the focus of network exchange research to externalities in exchange networks. Externalities of exchange are defined as direct effects on an actor's utility, of an exchange in which this actor is not involved. Existing theories in the field of network exchange do not inform

  2. Statistical thermodynamics and energy exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudet, X.

    1987-01-01

    The probability of finding the energy of a particle in the vicinity of a given energy is determined, taking into account of the conservation of energy during the exchanges of energy. As a result the exchanges which determine the different probabilities also introduce a dependence between them, allowing a full calculation. The solution has the main properties of the distribution of Fermi-Dirac, with the mean energy per particle as variable in place of temperature. It allows to propose a localized model for the conduction electrons [fr

  3. The Picture Exchange Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A; Frost, L

    2001-10-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication system that was developed to teach functional communication to children with limited speech. The approach is unique in that it teaches children to initiate communicative interactions within a social framework. This article describes the advantages to implementing PECS over traditional approaches. The PECS training protocol is described wherein children are taught to exchange a single picture for a desired item and eventually to construct picture-based sentences and use a variety of attributes in their requests. The relationship of PECS's implementation to the development of speech in previously nonvocal students is reviewed.

  4. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  5. CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  6. Estimating Exchange Rate Exposure over Various Return Horizons: Focusing on Major Countries in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Wook Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the exchange rate exposure, indicating the effect of exchange rate movements on firm values, for a sample of 1,400 firms in seven East Asian countries. The exposure estimates based on various exchange rate variables, return horizons and a control variable are compared. A key result from our analysis is that the long term effect of exchange rate movements on firm values is greater than the short term effect. And we find very similar results from using other exchange rate variables such as the U.S. dollar exchange rate, etc. Second, we add exchange rate volatility as a control variable and find that the extent of exposure is not much changed. Third, we examine the changes in exposure to exchange rate volatility with an increase in return horizon. Consequently the ratio of firms with significant exposures increases with the return horizons. Interestingly, the increase of exposure with the return horizons is faster for exposure to volatility than for exposure to exchange rate itself. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that the so-called "exposure puzzle" may be a matter of the methodology used to measure exposure.

  7. GEC Plasma Data Exchange Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, L. C.

    2013-08-01

    Phelps in December 2012. Art was a key person on the GEC Plasma Data Exchange Project and a major contributor to the LXCat site, having made available his compilations of electron and ion scattering cross sections as well as many of his unpublished notes and documents on related issues. Throughout his long and remarkably productive career, Art Phelps held the bar high for the entire GEC community. We can only aspire to his example. We dedicate this cluster issue to him with the knowledge that he could have improved on these papers but with the hope that he would have been satisfied with their final versions.

  8. Key Distribution and Changing Key Cryptosystem Based on Phase Retrieval Algorithm and RSA Public-Key Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieyu Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical image encryption has attracted more and more researchers’ attention, and the various encryption schemes have been proposed. In existing optical cryptosystem, the phase functions or images are usually used as the encryption keys, and it is difficult that the traditional public-key algorithm (such as RSA, ECC, etc. is used to complete large numerical key transfer. In this paper, we propose a key distribution scheme based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the RSA public-key algorithm, which solves the problem for the key distribution in optical image encryption system. Furthermore, we also propose a novel image encryption system based on the key distribution principle. In the system, the different keys can be used in every encryption process, which greatly improves the security of the system.

  9. A Study on User Authentication Methodology Using Numeric Password and Fingerprint Biometric Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-hwan Ju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of computers and the development of the Internet made us able to easily access information. As people are concerned about user information security, the interest of the user authentication method is growing. The most common computer authentication method is the use of alphanumerical usernames and passwords. The password authentication systems currently used are easy, but only if you know the password, as the user authentication is vulnerable. User authentication using fingerprints, only the user with the information that is specific to the authentication security is strong. But there are disadvantage such as the user cannot change the authentication key. In this study, we proposed authentication methodology that combines numeric-based password and biometric-based fingerprint authentication system. Use the information in the user's fingerprint, authentication keys to obtain security. Also, using numeric-based password can to easily change the password; the authentication keys were designed to provide flexibility.

  10. A study on user authentication methodology using numeric password and fingerprint biometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seung-hwan; Seo, Hee-suk; Han, Sung-hyu; Ryou, Jae-cheol; Kwak, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of computers and the development of the Internet made us able to easily access information. As people are concerned about user information security, the interest of the user authentication method is growing. The most common computer authentication method is the use of alphanumerical usernames and passwords. The password authentication systems currently used are easy, but only if you know the password, as the user authentication is vulnerable. User authentication using fingerprints, only the user with the information that is specific to the authentication security is strong. But there are disadvantage such as the user cannot change the authentication key. In this study, we proposed authentication methodology that combines numeric-based password and biometric-based fingerprint authentication system. Use the information in the user's fingerprint, authentication keys to obtain security. Also, using numeric-based password can to easily change the password; the authentication keys were designed to provide flexibility.

  11. A Study on User Authentication Methodology Using Numeric Password and Fingerprint Biometric Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seung-hwan; Seo, Hee-suk; Han, Sung-hyu; Ryou, Jae-cheol

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of computers and the development of the Internet made us able to easily access information. As people are concerned about user information security, the interest of the user authentication method is growing. The most common computer authentication method is the use of alphanumerical usernames and passwords. The password authentication systems currently used are easy, but only if you know the password, as the user authentication is vulnerable. User authentication using fingerprints, only the user with the information that is specific to the authentication security is strong. But there are disadvantage such as the user cannot change the authentication key. In this study, we proposed authentication methodology that combines numeric-based password and biometric-based fingerprint authentication system. Use the information in the user's fingerprint, authentication keys to obtain security. Also, using numeric-based password can to easily change the password; the authentication keys were designed to provide flexibility. PMID:24151601

  12. Compact heat exchanger for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, L.

    2001-01-01

    Vahterus Oy, located at Kalanti, has manufactured heat exchangers since the beginning of 1990s. About 90% of the equipment produced are exported. In the PSHE (Plate and Shell) solution of the Vahterus heat exchanger the heat is transferred by round plated welded to form a compact package, which is assembled into a cylindrical steel casing. The heat exchanger contains no gaskets or soldered joints, which eliminates the leak risks. Traditional heat exchanges are usually operated at higher temperatures and pressures, but the heat transfer capacities of them are lower. Plate heat exchangers, on the other hand, are efficient, but the application range of them is narrow. Additionally, the rubber gasket of the heat exchange plates, sealing the joints of the heat exchanging plates, does not stand high pressures or temperatures, or corroding fluids. The new welded plate heat exchanger combine the pressure and temperature resistance of tube heat exchangers and the high heat exchange capacity of plate heat exchangers. The new corrosion resisting heat exchanger can be applied for especially hard conditions. The operating temperature range of the PSHE heat exchanger is - 200 - 900 deg C. The pressure resistance is as high as 100 bar. The space requirement of PSHE is only one tenth of the space requirement of traditional tube heat exchangers. Adjusting the number of heat exchanging plates can change the capacity of the heat exchanger. Power range of the heat exchanger can be as high as 80 MW. Due to the corrosion preventive construction and the small dimension the PSHE heat exchanger can be applied for refrigerators using ammonia as refrigerant. These kinds of new Vahterus heat exchangers are in use in 60 countries in more than 2000 refrigerators

  13. Foreign Exchange Reserves and the Reserve Bank’s Balance Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Vallence

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank of Australia holds and manages the nation’s foreign exchange reserve assets in order to meet its policy objectives. While Australia’s foreign exchange reserves are relatively modest by international standards, they nonetheless constitute a sizeable portion of the Bank’s balance sheet, and variations in the Australian dollar value of these reserves are usually the most volatile component of the Bank’s profit and loss statement. This article discusses some of the key decisions ...

  14. Multiple Reserve Requirements, Exchange Rates, Sudden Stops and Equilibrium Dynamics in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Hernandez-Verme; Wen-Yao Wang

    2009-01-01

    We model a typical Asian-crisis-economy using dynamic general equilibrium tech-niques. Exchange rates obtain from nontrivial fiat-currencies demands. Sudden stops/bank-panics are possible, and key for evaluating the merits of alternative ex-change rate regimes. Strategic complementarities contribute to the severe indetermi-nacy of the continuum of equilibria. The scope for existence and indeterminacy of equilibria and dynamic properties are associated with the underlying policy regime. Bindin...

  15. Ultrafast dynamics of hydrogen bond exchange in aqueous ionic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungnam; Odelius, Michael; Gaffney, Kelly J

    2009-06-04

    The structural and dynamical properties of aqueous ionic solutions influence a wide range of natural and biological processes. In these solutions, water has the opportunity to form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules and anions. Knowing the time scale with which these configurations interconvert represents a key factor to understanding the influence of molecular scale heterogeneity on chemical events in aqueous ionic solutions. We have used ultrafast IR spectroscopy and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations to investigate the hydrogen bond (H-bond) structural dynamics in aqueous 6 M sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) solution. We have measured the H-bond exchange dynamics between spectrally distinct water-water and water-anion H-bond configurations with 2DIR spectroscopy and the orientational relaxation dynamics of water molecules in different H-bond configurations with polarization-selective IR pump-probe experiments. The experimental H-bond exchange time correlates strongly with the experimental orientational relaxation time of water molecules. This agrees with prior observations in water and aqueous halide solutions, and has been interpreted within the context of an orientational jump model for the H-bond exchange. The CPMD simulations performed on aqueous 6 M NaClO4 solution clearly demonstrate that water molecules organize into two radially and angularly distinct structural subshells within the first solvation shell of the perchlorate anion, with one subshell possessing the majority of the water molecules that donate H-bonds to perchlorate anions and the other subshell possessing predominantly water molecules that donate two H-bonds to other water molecules. Due to the high ionic concentration used in the simulations, essentially all water molecules reside in the first ionic solvation shells. The CPMD simulations also demonstrate that the molecular exchange between these two structurally distinct subshells proceeds more slowly than the H

  16. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  18. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  19. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  20. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  1. SPEEDUPtrademark ion exchange column model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    2000-01-01

    A transient model to describe the process of loading a solute onto the granular fixed bed in an ion exchange (IX) column has been developed using the SpeedUptrademark software package. SpeedUp offers the advantage of smooth integration into other existing SpeedUp flowsheet models. The mathematical algorithm of a porous particle diffusion model was adopted to account for convection, axial dispersion, film mass transfer, and pore diffusion. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was employed to solve the governing transport equations. The model allows the use of a non-linear Langmuir isotherm based on an effective binary ionic exchange process. The SpeedUp column model was tested by comparing to the analytical solutions of three transport problems from the ion exchange literature. In addition, a sample calculation of a train of three crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IX columns in series was made using both the SpeedUp model and Purdue University's VERSE-LC code. All test cases showed excellent agreement between the SpeedUp model results and the test data. The model can be readily used for SuperLigtrademark ion exchange resins, once the experimental data are complete

  2. Dual temperature isotope exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Improvements in the method for isotope concentration by dual temperature exchange between feed and auxiliary fluids in a multistage system are described. In a preferred embodiment the first is a vaporizable liquid and the auxiliary fluid a gas, comprising steps for improving the heating and/or cooling and/or humidifying and/or dehumidifying operations

  3. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  4. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  5. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    and the value of the quota are examined through the concrete exchange of fishing rights, and it is explained why quota trade can give rise to speculation and monopolies. In the final part of the chapter, it is argued that the value of transferable fishing quotas rely on a social relation between owners...

  6. Primer on nuclear exchange models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafemeister, David [Physics Department, Cal Poly University, San Luis Obispo, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Basic physics is applied to nuclear force exchange models between two nations. Ultimately, this scenario approach can be used to try and answer the age old question of 'how much is enough?' This work is based on Chapter 2 of Physics of Societal Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007 and 2014)

  7. Fragmentary model of exchange interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kotov, V M

    2000-01-01

    This article makes attempt to refusal from using neutrino for explanation continuous distribution of beta particle energy by conversion to characteristic exchange interaction particles in nucleolus. It is taking formulation for nuclear position with many different fragments. It is computing half-value period of spontaneous fission of heavy nucleolus. (author)

  8. Common Knowledge in Email Exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  9. Common knowledge in email exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  10. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  11. Exchange interactions in barium hexaferrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Rusz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 18 (2005), 184433/1-184433/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hexaferrites * exchange interaction * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  12. Commodity exchanges - Function and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the potential impacts that a futures market may have on the international trade of uranium. The discussion first centers around the New York Mercantile Exchange. The following market aspects are discussed: long-term contracting; spot market; commoditization and pricing; and advantages, disadvantages, risks, and provisions of futures market contracts

  13. Characterization of the exchange of PBDEs in a subtropical paddy field of China: A significant inputs of PBDEs via air–foliage exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Shaorui; Xu, Yue; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Rice and the distinctive cultivation practices employed in rice growth can significantly influence the environmental fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a paddy field. We studied variations in PBDE concentrations in multiple compartments of a paddy field in the suburban area of Guangzhou, South China, including air, soil, water, and rice tissues. The input/output fluxes of air–surface and air–foliage exchange, atmospheric deposition and water input during different rice growth stages were measured simultaneously. Air–foliage and air–water diffusion exchanges were the key processes controlling inputs and outputs of PBDEs in paddy fields, respectively, whereas atmospheric deposition dominated inputs of higher brominated PBDEs. The high input of PBDEs via air–foliage exchange suggested that vegetation can significantly increase the air-to-field transport of PBDEs in ecosystems. The annual input of PBDEs in all paddy fields in Guangdong Province was estimated to be 22.1 kg. - Highlights: • PBDE concentrations in multiple compartments of a suburban paddy field were measured. • Air–water exchange was the key process controlling PBDE output in paddy fields. • Air–foliage exchange dominated the inputs of PBDEs in paddy fields. • Annual PBDE input in paddy fields in Guangdong Province was calculated to be 22 kg. - Air–foliage exchange is the most dominant inputs of PBDEs in the subtropical paddy fields

  14. Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation: Department of Defense Public Key Infrastructure and Key Management Infrastructure Token Protection Profile (Medium Robustness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-22

    may be derived from detailed inspection of the IC itself or from illicit appropriation of design information. Counterfeit smart cards can be mass...Infrastructure (PKI) as the Internet to securely and privately exchange data and money through the use of a public and a private cryptographic key pair...interference devices (SQDIS), electrical testing, and electron beam testing. • Other attacks, such as UV or X-rays or high temperatures, could cause erasure

  15. Charge exchange in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; de Plaa, Jelle; Raassen, A. J. J.; Shah, Chintan; Kaastra, Jelle S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Though theoretically expected, the charge exchange emission from galaxy clusters has never been confidently detected. Accumulating hints were reported recently, including a rather marginal detection with the Hitomi data of the Perseus cluster. As previously suggested, a detection of charge exchange line emission from galaxy clusters would not only impact the interpretation of the newly discovered 3.5 keV line, but also open up a new research topic on the interaction between hot and cold matter in clusters. Aim. We aim to perform the most systematic search for the O VIII charge exchange line in cluster spectra using the RGS on board XMM-Newton. Methods: We introduce a sample of 21 clusters observed with the RGS. In order to search for O VIII charge exchange, the sample selection criterion is a >35σ detection of the O VIII Lyα line in the archival RGS spectra. The dominating thermal plasma emission is modeled and subtracted with a two-temperature thermal component, and the residuals are stacked for the line search. The systematic uncertainties in the fits are quantified by refitting the spectra with a varying continuum and line broadening. Results: By the residual stacking, we do find a hint of a line-like feature at 14.82 Å, the characteristic wavelength expected for oxygen charge exchange. This feature has a marginal significance of 2.8σ, and the average equivalent width is 2.5 × 10-4 keV. We further demonstrate that the putative feature can be barely affected by the systematic errors from continuum modeling and instrumental effects, or the atomic uncertainties of the neighboring thermal lines. Conclusions: Assuming a realistic temperature and abundance pattern, the physical model implied by the possible oxygen line agrees well with the theoretical model proposed previously to explain the reported 3.5 keV line. If the charge exchange source indeed exists, we expect that the oxygen abundance could have been overestimated by 8-22% in previous X

  16. Results of exchange transfusions in newborns without blood group incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Yel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem ofneonatal period that has high morbidity and mortality.Blood exchange is the most effective and urgent treatmentmodality for very high bilirubin levels that can lead toneurotoxicity called as kernicterus. The aim of this studywas to compare 90 minutes exchange transfusion withthat of 120 minutes.Methods: This study was performed at Dicle UniversityMedical Faculty, Neonatal Unit between July 2007 andJune 2008. A total of 36 term newborn (38 - 42 gestationalweek without blood group incompatibility and withtotal serum bilirubin levels over 25 mg/dl were included.Newborns were randomly assigned in two groups eachof them comprise 18 babies as Group 1 underwent 90minute-exchange and Group 2 120 minute. Effectivenessand complications of exchange transfusion were recorded.Newborns with Rh, ABO or subgroup incompatibilities,prematurity or small for gestational age, septicemia,hypothyroidism, G6PD enzyme deficiency, intrauterineinfections, diabetic mother’s baby, hemolytic disease ormetabolic diseases were excluded.Results: There were no significant differences in thebody weight, gestational age, postnatal age, age of mother,total bilirubin and albumin levels, the number of bloodexchange, hospital stay days and complications betweentwo groups (p>0.05. However, mean phototherapy durationwas significantly shorter in 120 minutes transfusiongroup compared with 90 minutes group (p<0.001.Conclusion: Our results indicated that 90 minutes wassufficient for an effective exchange transfusion in severehyperbilirubinemic newborn infants. However longer exchangetransfusion durations may shorten the duration ofphototherapy.Key words: Indirect hyperbilirubinemia, exchange transfusion,newborns, outcome

  17. Quantum key distribution network for multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, A.; Kondoh, T.; Ochi, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Yoshino, K.; Iizuka, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Tomita, A.; Shimamura, E.; Asami, S.; Sasaki, M.

    2017-09-01

    The fundamental architecture and functions of secure key management in a quantum key distribution (QKD) network with enhanced universal interfaces for smooth key sharing between arbitrary two nodes and enabling multiple secure communication applications are proposed. The proposed architecture consists of three layers: a quantum layer, key management layer and key supply layer. We explain the functions of each layer, the key formats in each layer and the key lifecycle for enabling a practical QKD network. A quantum key distribution-advanced encryption standard (QKD-AES) hybrid system and an encrypted smartphone system were developed as secure communication applications on our QKD network. The validity and usefulness of these systems were demonstrated on the Tokyo QKD Network testbed.

  18. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  19. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  20. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  1. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  2. Quantum key distribution via quantum encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Yong Sheng Zhang; Guang Can Guo

    2001-01-01

    A quantum key distribution protocol based on quantum encryption is presented in this Brief Report. In this protocol, the previously shared Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs act as the quantum key to encode and decode the classical cryptography key. The quantum key is reusable and the eavesdropper cannot elicit any information from the particle Alice sends to Bob. The concept of quantum encryption is also discussed. (21 refs).

  3. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  4. Improved Anonymity for Key-trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.; Beye, M.

    2013-01-01

    Randomized hash-lock protocols for Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags offer forward untraceability, but incur heavy search on the server. Key trees have been proposed as a way to reduce search times, but because partial keys in such trees are shared, key compromise affects several tags.

  5. Harry Potter and the Dichotomous Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, David T.

    2003-01-01

    In this lesson, students use Bertie Bott's Every Flavor Beans--a "wild" candy written about in the Harry Potter books and now available in stores--to learn about classification and dichotomous keys. In these activities, students sort jelly beans according to a key and then construct a key for a "new" flavor of beans. Students then build on their…

  6. The impact of economic and noneconomic exchange on physicians' organizational attitudes: The moderating effects of the Chief Medical Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Annemans, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Hospital-physician relationships are critical to hospitals' organizational success. A distinction can be drawn between economic and noneconomic physician-hospital exchange. Physician senior leadership could be an important component of managerial strategies aimed at optimizing hospital-physician relationships. The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of the quality of exchange with the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) in the relationship between economic and noneconomic exchange and physicians' key organizational attitudes. Self-employed physicians practicing at six Belgian hospitals were surveyed. Economic exchange was conceptualized by the concepts of distributive and procedural justice, whereas noneconomic exchange was conceptualized by the concepts of administrative and professional psychological contract. Our outcomes comprise three key organizational attitudes identified in the literature (job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, and intention to leave). The moderating role of leader-member exchange with the CMO in these relationships was assessed. Our results showed a relationship between both psychological contract breach and organizational justice and physicians' organizational attitudes. The quality of exchange with the CMO buffered the negative effect of psychological contract breach and reinforced the positive effects of organizational justice with respect to physicians' organizational attitudes. Our results demonstrate that both economic and noneconomic aspects are important when considering physicians' key organizational attitudes. The reciprocity dynamic between physician and hospital can be enhanced by high-quality exchange with the CMO.

  7. Exchange Reactions. Proceedings of the Symposium on Exchange Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The mechanisms and kinetics of chemical reactions are of great interest to chemists. The study of exchange reactions in particular helps to shed light on the dynamics of chemical change, providing an insight into the structures and the reactivities of the chemical species involved. The main theme of this meeting was the subject of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the net result is the transfer of one or more electrons between the different oxidation states of the same element. Other studies reported included the transfer of protons, atoms, complex ligands or organic radicals between molecules. Heterogeneous exchange, which is of importance in many cases of catalytic action, was also considered. For a long time isotopic tracers have formed the most convenient means of studying exchange reactions and today a considerable amount of work continues to be done with their aid. Consequently, several papers presented at this Symposium reported on work carried out by purely radiochemical tracer methods. In recognition, however, of the important role which nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance play in this field, in particular in the study of fast reactions, a number of reports on investigations in which these techniques had been used was included in the programme. By kind invitation of the United States Government the Symposium on Exchange Reactions was held from 31 May to 4 June at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, N.Y., USA. It was attended by 46 participants from nine countries and one inter-governmental organization. The publication of these Proceedings makes the contents of the papers and the discussion available to a wider audience

  8. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Symeonidou , Danai; Galárraga , Luis; Pernelle , Nathalie; Saïs , Fatiha; Suchanek , Fabian

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs of millions of facts. We also show that the conditional keys we mine can improve the quality of entity linking by up to 47 percentage points.

  9. Impact of Inflation Accounting Application on Key Financial Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın KARAPINAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of inflation accounting on key financal ratios. To this end, the financial statements of 132 companies listed in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE are studied. An analyis of paired samples t test has been conducted on the financial ratios of the companies. The results show that a significant difference between adjusted cost based financial ratios and historical cost based financial ratios occurs only for current, ratios, equity ratios and noncurrent turnover ratios. The study does not cover companies operating in the financial sector. The companies reporting in accordance with IFRS for the studied periods that spans 2001-2004 are not included in the study either. The study offers valuable information as to analysing companies operating in hiper inflation economies.

  10. Effective exchange potentials for electronically inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, D.W.; Staszewska, G.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose new methods for solving the electron scattering close coupling equations employing equivalent local exchange potentials in place of the continuum-multiconfiguration-Hartree--Fock-type exchange kernels. The local exchange potentials are Hermitian. They have the correct symmetry for any symmetries of excited electronic states included in the close coupling expansion, and they have the same limit at very high energy as previously employed exchange potentials. Comparison of numerical calculations employing the new exchange potentials with the results obtained with the standard nonlocal exchange kernels shows that the new exchange potentials are more accurate than the local exchange approximations previously available for electronically inelastic scattering. We anticipate that the new approximations will be most useful for intermediate-energy electronically inelastic electron--molecule scattering

  11. The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations. ... African Journal of Finance and Management ... We also find that keiretsu multinationals are more exposed to exchange rate risk that non-keiretsu firms.

  12. Fiscal deficits, exchange rate crises and inflation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1991-01-01

    This article extends earlier work on unsustainable monetary policies by endogenizing the regime switch that ultimately restores sustainability. Within this framework we analyze exchange rate based stabilization programs and shows how constraints on Central Bank borrowing during an exchange crisis

  13. Long distance free-space quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the presented experiment was to investigate the feasibility of satellite-based global quantum key distribution. In this context, a free-space quantum key distribution experiment over a real distance of 144 km was performed. The transmitter and the receiver were situated in 2500 m altitude on the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, respectively. The small and compact transmitter unit generated attenuated laser pulses, that were sent to the receiver via a 15-cm optical telescope. The receiver unit for polarisation analysis and detection of the sent pulses was integrated into an existing mirror telescope designed for classical optical satellite communications. To ensure the required stability and efficiency of the optical link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, the two telescopes were equipped with a bi-directional automatic tracking system. Still, due to stray light and high optical attenuation, secure key exchange would not be possible using attenuated pulses in connection with the standard BB84 protocol. The photon number statistics of attenuated pulses follows a Poissonian distribution. Hence, by removing a photon from all pulses containing two or more photons, an eavesdropper could measure its polarisation without disturbing the polarisation state of the remaining pulse. In this way, he can gain information about the key without introducing detectable errors. To protect against such attacks, the presented experiment employed the recently developed method of using additional ''decoy'' states, i.e., the the intensity of the pulses created by the transmitter were varied in a random manner. By analysing the detection probabilities of the different pulses individually, a photon-number-splitting attack can be detected. Thanks to the decoy-state analysis, the secrecy of the resulting quantum key could be ensured despite the Poissonian nature of the emitted pulses. For a channel attenuation as high as 35 dB, a secret key rate of up to 250 bit

  14. Long distance free-space quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

    2007-10-16

    The aim of the presented experiment was to investigate the feasibility of satellite-based global quantum key distribution. In this context, a free-space quantum key distribution experiment over a real distance of 144 km was performed. The transmitter and the receiver were situated in 2500 m altitude on the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, respectively. The small and compact transmitter unit generated attenuated laser pulses, that were sent to the receiver via a 15-cm optical telescope. The receiver unit for polarisation analysis and detection of the sent pulses was integrated into an existing mirror telescope designed for classical optical satellite communications. To ensure the required stability and efficiency of the optical link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, the two telescopes were equipped with a bi-directional automatic tracking system. Still, due to stray light and high optical attenuation, secure key exchange would not be possible using attenuated pulses in connection with the standard BB84 protocol. The photon number statistics of attenuated pulses follows a Poissonian distribution. Hence, by removing a photon from all pulses containing two or more photons, an eavesdropper could measure its polarisation without disturbing the polarisation state of the remaining pulse. In this way, he can gain information about the key without introducing detectable errors. To protect against such attacks, the presented experiment employed the recently developed method of using additional 'decoy' states, i.e., the the intensity of the pulses created by the transmitter were varied in a random manner. By analysing the detection probabilities of the different pulses individually, a photon-number-splitting attack can be detected. Thanks to the decoy-state analysis, the secrecy of the resulting quantum key could be ensured despite the Poissonian nature of the emitted pulses. For a channel attenuation as high as 35 dB, a secret key rate of up to 250

  15. Scale indicators of social exchange relationships: a comparison of relative content validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jason A; Baer, Michael D; Long, David M; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2014-07-01

    Although social exchange theory has become one of the most oft-evoked theories in industrial and organizational psychology, there remains no consensus about how to measure its key mechanism: social exchange relationships (Blau, 1964). Drawing on Cropanzano and Byrne's (2000) review of contemporary social exchange theorizing, we examined the content validity of perceived support, exchange quality, affective commitment, trust, and psychological contract fulfillment as indicators of social exchange relationships. We used Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) quantitative approach to content validation, which asks participants to rate the correspondence between scale items and definitions of intended (and unintended) constructs. Our results revealed that some of the most frequently utilized indicators of social exchange relationships--perceived support and exchange quality--were significantly less content valid than rarely used options like affect-based trust. Our results also revealed that 2 direct measures--Bernerth, Armenakis, Feild, Giles, and Walker's (2007) scale and a scale created for this study--were content valid. We discuss the implications of these results for future applications of social exchange theory.

  16. An Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Based on Cyclic Automorphism Subgroups of Random Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Group-based cryptography is viewed as a modern cryptographic candidate solution to blocking quantum computer attacks, and key exchange protocols on the Internet are one of the primitives to ensure the security of communication. In 2016 Habeeb et al proposed a “textbook” key exchange protocol based on the semidirect product of two groups, which is insecure for use in real-world applications. In this paper, after discarding the unnecessary disguising notion of semidirect product in the protocol, we establish a simplified yet enhanced authenticated key agreement scheme based on cyclic automorphism subgroups of random orders by making hybrid use of certificates and symmetric-key encryption as challenge-and-responses in the public-key setting. Its passive security is formally analyzed, which is relative to the cryptographic hardness assumption of a computational number-theoretic problem. Cryptanalysis of this scheme shows that it is secure against the intruder-in-the-middle attack even in the worst case of compromising the signatures, and provides explicit key confirmation to both parties.

  17. Exchange Rate Regimes – A periodical overview and a critical analysis of exchange rate regimes in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamur Bunjaku

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate regimes and the monetary policy are the key instruments governments use to achieve their economic and financial objectives. Moreover, due to global financial crisis the latter instruments get more importance. Empirical evidences show that exchange rate regimes in Kosovo and its monetary policy throughout their development were mainly influenced by different political and historical developments. In regard of Euroisation of monetary system in Kosovo it was found that this action generated macro - financial stability in terms of inflation and price fluctuation. However, in terms of microeconomic aspects, the unilateral adaptation of Euro as the official currency of Kosovo failed to provide microeconomic advantages such as to export stimulation, and so forth. The main exchange rate regime systems were discussed focusing in their advantages and disadvantages, and it was concluded that there is no commonly accepted theory regarding the optimality of exchange rate regimes. In addition, the global financial crisis impact in the financial system of Kosovo is also discussed and it was found that negative impacts of global financial crisis were moderate and indirect.

  18. Information exchange - DOE oversight programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubbs, D.C.; Field, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Oversight programs are conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to review activities carried out by field and contractor organizations. Two of these oversight programs focus on safeguards and security and on safety and health activities. These two programs are independent, but share many common objectives and review techniques. The mutual potential benefit was recognized from an exchange of information on review techniques. The first step in this exchange was the participation by an Office of Security Evaluations (OSE) staff member with the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) during their planning, conduct and reporting of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA). This paper briefly describes the OSE and ONS programs. It also identifies and analyzes the similarities and differences of the two programs. The purpose of this paper is to provide perspectives on the approach taken, the techniques used and the differences between two oversight programs conducted by the Department of Energy

  19. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  20. Communication as Sociocultural Meaning Exchange:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyabode Omolara Akewo Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication is expected to result in meaning exchange. However, when definite meanings could not be established in a communication exchange, an odd situation usually results. Such situations are observed to actually go beyond syntactic and logical misnomer in the communication process. This paper thus examines the semantic oddities in Richard Wright’s Black Boy. It made use of the linkage points of such linguistic approaches like pragmatics, semiotics, presupposition and truth-condition semantics to do a semantic analysis of the novel. It found that sociological factors have a great deal of influence on the odd way of interpreting utterances/communication signals in the text. The paper therefore advocates that there is the need to incorporate co-text sociological elements as being of relevance to meaning analysis.

  1. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle

  2. ABC's of pion charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kaufmann, W.B.; Siegel, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of pion single charge exchange using the PWIA and DWIA are presented. Emphasis is given to the effects of absorbtion and blocking. A microscopic calculation of the 0 0 excitation and low energy angular distribution is in excellent agreement with the data. A fixed nucleon multiple scattering calculation of the pion double charge exchange reaction is presented. Various valence neutron wave functions are used, and the contributions of different spatial orientations of the last two neutrons to the reaction are examined. The DCX cross section is found to be very sensitive to the inclusion of correlations in the two-neutron wave function. Satisfactory agreement with DCX data on 14 C can be obtained using a nucleonic picture of the nucleus

  3. What are sister chromatid exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of new staining techniques to visualise sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in cells exposed to mutagens has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of such exchanges. SCE are induced by a wide variety of different physical and chemical agents and their incidence provides a sensitive indicator of DNA damage in proliferating mammalian cells. It is shown that lesions which affect one or both strands of the DNA can result in the development of SCE, but only when damaged DNA undergoes replication. The nature of the lesions, the frequency and distribution of SEC in mammalian cells; the sensitivity of the cells to their induction by X-radiation, ultraviolet radiation and chemical mutagens, are discussed and possible mechanisms involved in the formation of SCE during replication considered. (Auth.)

  4. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction

  5. Measuring the costs of exchange rate volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Bergin

    2004-01-01

    Many countries go to great lengths to manage their exchange rates. Probably the most prominent recent example is the European Monetary Union, where all the members abandoned their national currencies and adopted the euro. A number of developing countries maintain other kinds of regimes of managed exchange rates, even though they face potent market pressures to let their exchange rates float. One of the main motives for these arrangements stems from the extreme volatility of exchange rates. Th...

  6. Latin American foreign exchange intervention - Updated

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Sergio; Nunes, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    We examine Latin American foreign exchange intervention in a framework where the exchange rate regime is endogenous and there exists an inefficient, equilibrium foreign exchange intervention bias. The model suggests that greater central bank independence is associated with lesser intervention in the foreign exchange market, and also with leaning-against-the-wind intervention. Both results are confirmed by data from 13 Latin American countries.

  7. Essays on Stock Exchange Competition and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Atso

    2005-01-01

    This study deals with the industrial structure, the nature of competition and the pricing of stock exchange trading services in Europe. Specific for the study is that exchanges are considered to be profit-maximizing institutions that face competition. A conventional analysis of concentration ratios shows that the concentration of European stock exchanges is low. When the nature of competition is measured in more detail, regression results indicate that exchanges operate in monopolistic o...

  8. Rethinking exchange market models as optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquini, Evandro; Omar, Nizam

    2018-02-01

    The exchange market model has mainly been used to study the inequality problem. Although the human society inequality problem is very important, the exchange market models dynamics until stationary state and its capability of ranking individuals is interesting in itself. This study considers the hypothesis that the exchange market model could be understood as an optimization procedure. We present herein the implications for algorithmic optimization and also the possibility of a new family of exchange market models

  9. Bargaining over Tax Information Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    May Elsayyad

    2012-01-01

    This paper empirically studies recent treaty signings between tax havens and OECD countries as the outcome of a bargaining process over treaty form. Havens can decide not to sign an agreement, to sign a tax information exchange agreement or to sign a double taxation convention. We use a highly stylized bargaining model to develop testable hypotheses with regards to the type of agreement signed. We show that the main determinants of treaty signing are a haven's bargaining power and good govern...

  10. Radiative heat exchange between surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yener, Y.; Yuncu, H.

    1987-01-01

    The geometrical features of radiative heat exchange between surfaces are discussed first by developing various radiation shape factor relations. The governing equations for enclosures with diffusely emitting and diffusely reflecting surfaces, as well as the equations for enclosures with gray surfaces having specular component of reflectivity are introduced next. Finally, a simplified model for enclosures with isothermal surfaces under the assumption of uniform radiosity over the surfaces is discussed, and various working relations for different conditions are presented

  11. The magic of knowledge exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas”. (George Bernard Shaw). The CERN Global Network is a new, ideal place for past and present members of the CERN community to share ideas and create new links.   On 29 April, CERN’s Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group launched the CERN Global Network, a tool whose aim is to facilitate knowledge exchanges inside and outside CERN. "Among the greatest ambassadors of knowledge are people who have been trained and educated at CERN and also at other institutes: here is where the Global Network comes into play", says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General. “During the first phase, the Network will be open to current and former members of the CERN personnel, that is, staff, fellows, apprentices, associates, students a...

  12. Student experiences with an international public health exchange project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Kim A; Richardson, Eileen; Aarts, Clara; Campbell, Barbara; Hemmingway, Ann; Koskinen, Liisa; Mitchell, Maureen P; Nordstrom, Pam

    2009-01-01

    With growing interconnectivity of healthcare systems worldwide and increased immigration, inappropriate cultural and role assumptions are often seen when cultures clash within a country or when there is practice across country boundaries in times of disaster and during international travel. To increase students' multicultural awareness and work experiences abroad, the authors describe a 7-school, 5-country international student exchange project. The authors also share the students' evaluations of their experiences as they are challenged to erase boundaries and embrace nursing across countries. Participating faculty describe the process, challenges, and keys to success found in creating and living this international project. Students involved in the exchange process evaluate the learning opportunities and challenges and the joy of coming together as newfound colleagues and friends.

  13. Do Exchange Rates Really Help Forecasting Commodity Prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Kaltwasser, Pablo Rovira; Sercu, Piet

    Chen et al. (2010) report that for ‘commodity currencies’, the exchange rate predicts the country’s commodity index but not vice versa. The commodity currency hypothesis is consistent with the Engle and West (2005) exchange rate model if the fundamental is chosen to be the country’s key export...... expectations, one should mostly observe contemporaneous correlations, not one-directional cross-predictability from one variable toward the other. Using three different data sets and various econometric techniques, we do find the contemporaneous correlations as predicted by the financial asset view......-averaged prices in the commodity index data that they use (price averaging induces spurious autocorrelation and predictability) and to features in their test procedures....

  14. Molecular digital pathology: progress and potential of exchanging molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somak; Pfeifer, John D; LaFramboise, William A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-09-01

    Many of the demands to perform next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical laboratory can be resolved using the principles of telepathology. Molecular telepathology can allow facilities to outsource all or a portion of their NGS operation such as cloud computing, bioinformatics pipelines, variant data management, and knowledge curation. Clinical pathology laboratories can electronically share diverse types of molecular data with reference laboratories, technology service providers, and/or regulatory agencies. Exchange of electronic molecular data allows laboratories to perform validation of rare diseases using foreign data, check the accuracy of their test results against benchmarks, and leverage in silico proficiency testing. This review covers the emerging subject of molecular telepathology, describes clinical use cases for the appropriate exchange of molecular data, and highlights key issues such as data integrity, interoperable formats for massive genomic datasets, security, malpractice and emerging regulations involved with this novel practice.

  15. Test procedure for anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium from stored nitrate solutions will be sorbed onto anion exchange resins and converted to storable plutonium dioxide. Useful information will be simultaneously gained on the thermal stability and ion exchange capacity of four commercially available anion exchange resins over several years and under severe degradative conditions. This information will prove useful in predicting the safe and efficient lifetimes of these resins

  16. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  17. 47 CFR 90.675 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 90.675 Section 90.675... exchange. (a) Prior coordination. Public safety/CII licensees may notify an ESMR or part 22 Cellular... cell is activated. (c) Public safety information exchange. (1) Upon request by an ESMR or part 22...

  18. Trust and Transitions in Modes of Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Coye; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Cook, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between uncertainty and trust in exogenous shifts in modes of social exchange (i.e., those that are not initiated by the individuals in a given exchange system). We explore how transitions from a high uncertainty environment (reciprocal exchange) to lower-uncertainty environments (nonbinding or…

  19. 47 CFR 90.555 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 90.555 Section 90.555...-805 MHz Bands § 90.555 Information exchange. (a) Prior notification. Public safety licensees... Safety Information Exchange. (1) Upon request by a 746-757, 758-763, 776-787, or 788-793 MHz band...

  20. 225-B ion exchange piping design documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, M.C.

    1996-02-01

    This document describes the interface between the planned permanent ion exchange piping system and the planned portable ion exchange system. This is part of the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). In order to decouple this WESF from B-Plant and to improve recovery from a capsule leak, contaminated pool cell water will be recirculated through a portable ion exchange resin system