WorldWideScience

Sample records for passive weight support

  1. Piping reliability improvement through passive seismic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltus, R.; Rubbers, A.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear plants designed in the 1970's were equipped with large quantities of snubbers in auxiliary piping systems. The experience revealed a poor performance of snubbers during periodic inspection, while non-nuclear facility piping survived through strong earthquakes. Consequently, seismic design rules evolved towards more realistic criteria and passive dynamic supports were developed to reduce snubber quantities. These solutions improve the pipe reliability during normal operation while reducing the radiation exposure in a sample line is presented with the impact on pipe stresses compared to the results obtained with passive supports named Limit Stops. (author)

  2. On Weighted Support Vector Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...... shrinks the coefficient of each observation in the estimated functions; thus, it is widely used for minimizing influence of outliers. We propose to additionally add weights to the slack variables in the constraints (CF‐weights) and call the combination of weights the doubly weighted SVR. We illustrate...... the differences and similarities of the two types of weights by demonstrating the connection between the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and the SVR. We show that an SVR problem can be transformed to a LASSO problem plus a linear constraint and a box constraint. We demonstrate...

  3. Minimum weight passive insulation requirements for hypersonic cruise vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived for two representative cases of the transient heat conduction equation to determine the minimum weight requirements for passive insulation systems of hypersonic cruise vehicles. The cases discussed are the wet wall case with the interior wall temperature held to that of the boiling point of the fuel throughout the flight, and the dry wall case where the heat transferred through the insulation is absorbed by the interior structure whose temperature is allowed to rise.

  4. Bystanders' Supportive and Passive Responses to Cyberaggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machackova, Hana; Dedkova, Lenka; Sevcikova, Anna; Cerna, Alena

    2018-01-01

    Bystanders in cyberaggression can support the victim, join the aggressor, or remain passive. We examined how supportive and passive adolescent Czech cyberbystanders (N = 443, ages 12-18) differ in terms of individual characteristics, emotional responses, and contextual factors. The most substantial distinguishing factor between the two groups…

  5. Decision Support on Small size Passive Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Popukaylo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A construction technique of adequate mathematical models for small size passive samples, in conditions when classical probabilistic-statis\\-tical methods do not allow obtaining valid conclusions was developed.

  6. Treadmill walking with body weight support

    OpenAIRE

    Aaslund, Mona Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitating walking in patients post-stroke with safe, task-specific, intensive training of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) has been proposed as an effective method to meet these challenges and may therefore have benefits over training overground walking. However, walking characteristics should not be aggravated during BWSTT or require a long familiarisation time compared to overground walking. Objectives: To investi...

  7. Shifty: A Weight-Shifting Dynamic Passive Haptic Proxy to Enhance Object Perception in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, Andre; Kruger, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We define the concept of Dynamic Passive Haptic Feedback (DPHF) for virtual reality by introducing the weight-shifting physical DPHF proxy object Shifty. This concept combines actuators known from active haptics and physical proxies known from passive haptics to construct proxies that automatically adapt their passive haptic feedback. We describe the concept behind our ungrounded weight-shifting DPHF proxy Shifty and the implementation of our prototype. We then investigate how Shifty can, by automatically changing its internal weight distribution, enhance the user's perception of virtual objects interacted with in two experiments. In a first experiment, we show that Shifty can enhance the perception of virtual objects changing in shape, especially in length and thickness. Here, Shifty was shown to increase the user's fun and perceived realism significantly, compared to an equivalent passive haptic proxy. In a second experiment, Shifty is used to pick up virtual objects of different virtual weights. The results show that Shifty enhances the perception of weight and thus the perceived realism by adapting its kinesthetic feedback to the picked-up virtual object. In the same experiment, we additionally show that specific combinations of haptic, visual and auditory feedback during the pick-up interaction help to compensate for visual-haptic mismatch perceived during the shifting process.

  8. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hübner, Claudia; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Danielsdottir, Sigrun; Brähler, Elmar; Puhl, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513), public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Passive beam sprending systems and light-weight gentries for synchrotron based hadron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, A.

    1998-12-01

    Hadron therapy is a promising technique that uses beams of protons or light ions for the treatment of cancer. In order to open this technique to a wider application, dedicated hospital based treatment centers are now needed. The Proton-Ion Medical Machine Study (PIMMS) in CERN is concerned with the design of such a center that would use both protons and light ions. The dual species operation makes it preferable to base the center on a synchrotron. The present thesis is concerned with the beam delivery for the protons. After introducing the basic vocabulary of linear beam optics, the feasibility of a light-weight gantry with passive beam spreading fed by a synchrotron is investigated. The device is a non-linear magnetic structure, which can be described as a magnetic guide or as a proton pipe. Detailed studies show that while it is possible to design an optically stable 270 o section, which would be necessary for a gantry, the properties do not fulfil the requirements of a gantry for medical purposes. It was therefore concluded that a conventional isocentric gantry would be used for protons. The problem of passive beam-spreading is also investigated. A detailed knowledge of multiple scattering is necessary for the design of such a system. The basic principles of multiple scattering following Moliere's theory are mentioned. In addition, a Gaussian approximation of multiple scattering developed by Highland is described. A treatment of multiple scattering for thick and thin scatterers is then developed using the so-called Q-formalism that is frequently used in accelerator optics. This is then used to give a statistical description of the beam with scattering included using the Twiss formalism that is also used widely in accelerator physics. Excellent agreement is demonstrated with Monte-Carlo data. The Twiss-Scatterer relations obtained make it possible to include arbitrary, thick scatterers in accelerator codes. High intensities for protons are less readily available

  10. On complete manifolds supporting a weighted Sobolev type inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, Levi; Xia Changyu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study manifolds supporting a weighted Sobolev or log-Sobolev inequality. → We investigate manifolds of asymptotically non-negative Ricci curvature. → The constant in the weighted Sobolev inequality on complete manifolds is studied. - Abstract: This paper studies the geometric and topological properties of complete open Riemannian manifolds which support a weighted Sobolev or log-Sobolev inequality. We show that the constant in the weighted Sobolev inequality on a complete open Riemannian manifold should be bigger than or equal to the optimal one on the Euclidean space of the same dimension and that a complete open manifold of asymptotically non-negative Ricci curvature supporting a weighted Sobolev inequality must have large volume growth. We also show that a complete manifold of non-negative Ricci curvature on which the log-Sobolev inequality holds is not very far from the Euclidean space.

  11. Weighted K-means support vector machine for cancer prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SungHwan

    2016-01-01

    To date, the support vector machine (SVM) has been widely applied to diverse bio-medical fields to address disease subtype identification and pathogenicity of genetic variants. In this paper, I propose the weighted K-means support vector machine (wKM-SVM) and weighted support vector machine (wSVM), for which I allow the SVM to impose weights to the loss term. Besides, I demonstrate the numerical relations between the objective function of the SVM and weights. Motivated by general ensemble techniques, which are known to improve accuracy, I directly adopt the boosting algorithm to the newly proposed weighted KM-SVM (and wSVM). For predictive performance, a range of simulation studies demonstrate that the weighted KM-SVM (and wSVM) with boosting outperforms the standard KM-SVM (and SVM) including but not limited to many popular classification rules. I applied the proposed methods to simulated data and two large-scale real applications in the TCGA pan-cancer methylation data of breast and kidney cancer. In conclusion, the weighted KM-SVM (and wSVM) increases accuracy of the classification model, and will facilitate disease diagnosis and clinical treatment decisions to benefit patients. A software package (wSVM) is publicly available at the R-project webpage (https://www.r-project.org).

  12. Material properties of CorCap passive cardiac support device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsaz, Sam; Wenk, Jonathan F; Ge, Liang; Wisneski, Andrew; Mookhoek, Aart; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Guccione, Julius M; Tseng, Elaine E

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial function deteriorates during ventricular remodeling in patients with congestive heart failure (HF). Ventricular restraint therapy using a cardiac support device (CSD) is designed to reduce the amount of stress inside the dilated ventricles, which in turn halts remodeling. However, as an open mesh surrounding the heart, it is unknown what the mechanical properties of the CSD are in different fiber orientations. Composite specimens of CorCap (Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc, St. Paul, MN) CSD fabric and silicone were constructed in different fiber orientations and tested on a custom-built biaxial stretcher. Silicone controls were made and stretched to detect the parameters of the matrix. CSD coefficients were calculated using the composite and silicone matrix stress-strain data. Stiffness in different fiber orientations was determined. Silicone specimens exerted a linear behavior, with stiffness of 2.57 MPa. For the composites with 1 fiber set aligned with respect to the stretch axes, stiffness in the direction of the aligned fiber set was higher than that in the cross-fiber direction (14.39 MPa versus 5.66 MPa), indicating greater compliance in the cross-fiber direction. When the orientation of the fiber sets in the composite were matched to the expected clinical orientation of the implanted CorCap, the stiffness in the circumferential axis (with respect to the heart) was greater than in the longitudinal axis (10.55 MPa versus 9.70 MPa). The mechanical properties of the CorCap demonstrate directionality with greater stiffness circumferentially than longitudinally. Implantation of the CorCap clinically should take into account the directionality of the biomechanics to optimize ventricular restraint. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Passive lower back moment support in a wearable lifting aid : Counterweight versus springs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macke, Ralph J.L.; Keemink, Arvid Q.L.; Stienen, Arno H.A.; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Ibanez, Jaime; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.; van der Kooij, Herman; Pons, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Passive wearable lifting aids support workers by applying gravity force compensation at the arms. In this study we investigated the feasibility of a compensatory lower back moment, generated by a practically constant spring force (38.5 Nm), extending the lower back by pushing on the upper leg. This

  14. Intelligent Quality Prediction Using Weighted Least Square Support Vector Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yaojun

    A novel quality prediction method with mobile time window is proposed for small-batch producing process based on weighted least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR). The design steps and learning algorithm are also addressed. In the method, weighted LS-SVR is taken as the intelligent kernel, with which the small-batch learning is solved well and the nearer sample is set a larger weight, while the farther is set the smaller weight in the history data. A typical machining process of cutting bearing outer race is carried out and the real measured data are used to contrast experiment. The experimental results demonstrate that the prediction accuracy of the weighted LS-SVR based model is only 20%-30% that of the standard LS-SVR based one in the same condition. It provides a better candidate for quality prediction of small-batch producing process.

  15. European passive plant program preliminary safety analyses to support system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiu, Gianfranco; Barucca, Luciana; King, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, a group of European Utilities, together with Westinghouse and its Industrial Partner GENESI (an Italian consortium including ANSALDO and FIAT), initiated a program designated EPP (European Passive Plant) to evaluate Westinghouse Passive Nuclear Plant Technology for application in Europe. In the Phase 1 of the European Passive Plant Program which was completed in 1996, a 1000 MWe passive plant reference design (EP1000) was established which conforms to the European Utility Requirements (EUR) and is expected to meet the European Safety Authorities requirements. Phase 2 of the program was initiated in 1997 with the objective of developing the Nuclear Island design details and performing supporting analyses to start development of Safety Case Report (SCR) for submittal to European Licensing Authorities. The first part of Phase 2, 'Design Definition' phase (Phase 2A) was completed at the end of 1998, the main efforts being design definition of key systems and structures, development of the Nuclear Island layout, and performing preliminary safety analyses to support design efforts. Incorporation of the EUR has been a key design requirement for the EP1000 form the beginning of the program. Detailed design solutions to meet the EUR have been defined and the safety approach has also been developed based on the EUR guidelines. The present paper describes the EP1000 approach to safety analysis and, in particular, to the Design Extension Conditions that, according to the EUR, represent the preferred method for giving consideration to the Complex Sequences and Severe Accidents at the design stage without including them in the design bases conditions. Preliminary results of some DEC analyses and an overview of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) are also presented. (author)

  16. Relationship between birth order, birth weight, colostrum intake, acquisition of passive immunity and pre-weaning mortality of piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Le Dividich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between birth order (BO, birth weight (BW0, colostrum intake (CI, level of passive immunity and pre-weaning mortality of piglets. The animals used were 551 cross-bred piglets [Piétrain × (Large-White × Landrace] born from 40 sows. Colostrum immunoglobulins G (IgG determinations were made from 17 sows. Colostrum samples were obtained at birth of the first piglet then at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h later, and on the first-two and the last-two piglets born. Serum IgG determinations from 68 piglets were made at 2d of age and at weaning. Individual CI was estimated from body weight gain. Relative birth order (RBO and BW0 within-litter were weakly (R20.10 but increased by 26 ± 1.6 g per 100 g increase in BW0 (p0.10. It was concluded that despite last-born piglets obtained less passive immunity than first-born, they were not at higher risk of dying before weaning. Major causes of mortality were low birth weight and insufficient colostrum (energy intake.

  17. Design of a simple, lightweight, passive-elastic ankle exoskeleton supporting ankle joint stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung; Son, Youngsu; Choi, Sangkyu; Ham, Sangyong; Park, Cheolhoon

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a passive-elastic ankle exoskeleton (PEAX) with a one-way clutch mechanism was developed and then pilot-tested with vertical jumping to determine whether the PEAX is sufficiently lightweight and comfortable to be used in further biomechanical studies. The PEAX was designed to supplement the function of the Achilles tendon and ligaments as they passively support the ankle torque with their inherent stiffness. The main frame of the PEAX consists of upper and lower parts connected to each other by tension springs (N = 3) and lubricated hinge joints. The upper part has an offset angle of 5° with respect to the vertical line when the springs are in their resting state. Each spring has a slack length of 8 cm and connects the upper part to the tailrod of the lower part in the neutral position. The tailrod freely rotates with low friction but has a limited range of motion due to the stop pin working as a one-way clutch. Because of the one-way clutch system, the tension springs store the elastic energy only due to an ankle dorsiflexion when triggered by the stop pin. This clutch mechanism also has the advantage of preventing any inconvenience during ankle plantarflexion because it does not limit the ankle joint motion during the plantarflexion phase. In pilot jumping tests, all of the subjects reported that the PEAX was comfortable for jumping due to its lightweight (approximately 1 kg) and compact (firmly integrated with shoes) design, and subjects were able to nearly reach their maximum vertical jump heights while wearing the PEAX. During the countermovement jump, elastic energy was stored during dorsiflexion by spring extension and released during plantarflexion by spring restoration, indicating that the passive spring torque (i.e., supportive torque) generated by the ankle exoskeleton partially supported the ankle joint torque throughout the process.

  18. The effect of synchronized running activity with chronic stress on passive avoidance learning and body weight in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Radahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Results: Our results showed that: (1 Exercise under no stress provides beneficial effects on memory acquisition and retention time compared to Control group; especially retention time had significantly (P < 0.05 increased in exercised group. (2 Chronic stress with and without synchronized exercise significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively impaired acquisition and retention time. (3 Body weight differences were significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 lower than Control group in exercise, stress and synchronized exercise with stress groups, respectively. (4 Adverse effects of restraint stress (psychical stress were probably greater than physical activity effects on learning, memory and weight loss. Conclusions: The data confirmed that synchronized exercise with stress had not significantly protective role in improvement of passive avoidance acquisition and retention time; hence it did not significantly improve learning and memory deficit in stressed rats; whereas exercise alone could improve memory deficit in rats.

  19. Modulation of weight off-loading level over body-weight supported locomotion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Low, K H; Lim, Peter A C; McGregor, A H

    2011-01-01

    With the evolution of robotic systems to facilitate overground walking rehabilitation, it is important to understand the effect of robotic-aided body-weight supported loading on lower limb muscle activity, if we are to optimize neuromotor recovery. To achieve this objective, we have collected and studied electromyography (EMG) data from key muscles in the lower extremity from healthy subjects walking over a wide range of body-weight off-loading levels as provided by a bespoke gait robot. By examining the impact of body-weight off-loading, it was found that muscle activation patterns were sensitive to the level of off-loading. In addition, a large off-loading might introduce disturbance of muscle activation pattern, led to a wider range of motion in terms of dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. Therefore, any future overground training machine should be enhanced to exclude unnecessary effect of body off-loading in securing the sustaining upright posture and providing assist-as-needed BWS over gait rehabilitation. © 2011 IEEE

  20. Support for linguistic macrofamilies from weighted sequence alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Computational phylogenetics is in the process of revolutionizing historical linguistics. Recent applications have shed new light on controversial issues, such as the location and time depth of language families and the dynamics of their spread. So far, these approaches have been limited to single-language families because they rely on a large body of expert cognacy judgments or grammatical classifications, which is currently unavailable for most language families. The present study pursues a different approach. Starting from raw phonetic transcription of core vocabulary items from very diverse languages, it applies weighted string alignment to track both phonetic and lexical change. Applied to a collection of ∼1,000 Eurasian languages and dialects, this method, combined with phylogenetic inference, leads to a classification in excellent agreement with established findings of historical linguistics. Furthermore, it provides strong statistical support for several putative macrofamilies contested in current historical linguistics. In particular, there is a solid signal for the Nostratic/Eurasiatic macrofamily. PMID:26403857

  1. Influence of laser-welding and electroerosion on passive fit of implant-supported prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tatiana Bernardon; De Arruda Nobilo, Mauro Antonio; Pessanha Henriques, Guilherme Elias; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Guimaraes, Magali Beck

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of laser welding and electroerosion procedure on the passive fit of interim fixed implant-supported titanium frameworks. Twenty frameworks were made from a master model, with five parallel placed implants in the inter foramen region, and cast in commercially pure titanium. The frameworks were divided into 4 groups: 10 samples were tested before (G1) and after (G2) electroerosion application; and another 10 were sectioned into five pieces and laser welded before (G3) and after (G4) electroerosion application. The passive fit between the UCLA abutment of the framework and the implant was evaluated using an optical microscope Olympus STM (Olympus Optical Co., Tokyo, Japan) with 0.0005mm of accuracy. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between G1 and G2, G1 and G3, G1 and G4, G2 and G4. However, no statistical difference was observed when comparing G2 and G3. These results indicate that frameworks may show a more precise adaptation if they are sectioned and laser welded. In the same way, electroerosion improves the precision in the framework adaptation.

  2. Structural analysis of Wendelstein 7-X magnet weight supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Konstantin; Bykov, Victor; Schauer, Felix; van Eeten, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) optimized stellarator is presently under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Greifswald. The goal of W7-X is to verify that the advanced stellarator magnetic confinement concept is a viable option for a fusion reactor. The W7-X coil system consisting of 70 superconducting coils of seven different types is supported by a massive central support structure (CSS), and thermally protected by the cryostat. The magnet system's weight is borne by supports (cryo-legs) which are bolted to the cold CSS. They reach down through the cryostat wall to the warm machine base which means that a small thermal conductivity is important to keep thermal losses at an acceptable level. Therefore, the design of the cryo-legs incorporates glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) tubes which are shrink-fitted into stainless steel flanges at the ends. In order to ensure free thermal shrinkage of the magnet system and to reduce stresses in the cryo-legs, sliding and rotating bearings are used as interfaces to the machine base. Tie rods between the machine base and the warm ends of the cryo-legs prevent toroidal movements of the magnet system with respect to the torus axis. Nevertheless, significant deformation of the CSS during operation results in tilting of the cryo-legs in such a way that toroidal movements of the whole magnet system take place. The number of cryo-legs and their stiffness are chosen such that the toroidal movement is kept within an acceptable range. All these restrictions, as well as requirements concerning simplicity and ease of assembly, make the cryo-leg design and structural analysis quite a complex and challenging task. The paper presents an overview of structural analyses of the W7-X magnet system with cryo-legs, local analyses of a cryo-leg under design loads, and FE simulation of the cryo-leg mechanical test.

  3. Treadmill training and body weight support for walking after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Thomas, Simone; Elsner, Bernhard

    2017-08-17

    Treadmill training, with or without body weight support using a harness, is used in rehabilitation and might help to improve walking after stroke. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2003 and updated in 2005 and 2014. To determine if treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, improve walking ability, quality of life, activities of daily living, dependency or death, and institutionalisation or death, compared with other physiotherapy gait-training interventions after stroke. The secondary objective was to determine the safety and acceptability of this method of gait training. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 14 February 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Database of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (the Cochrane Library 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to 14 February 2017), Embase (1980 to 14 February 2017), CINAHL (1982 to 14 February 2017), AMED (1985 to 14 February 2017) and SPORTDiscus (1949 to 14 February 2017). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings and ongoing trials and research registers, screened reference lists, and contacted trialists to identify further trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled and cross-over trials of treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, for the treatment of walking after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias and methodological quality. The primary outcomes investigated were walking speed, endurance, and dependency. We included 56 trials with 3105 participants in this updated review. The average age of the participants was 60 years, and the studies were carried out in both inpatient and outpatient settings. All participants had at least some walking difficulties and many could not walk without assistance. Overall, the use of treadmill training did not increase the chances of walking

  4. Design of a minimally constraining, passively supported gait training exoskeleton: ALEX II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Kyle N; Stegall, Paul; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a new, minimally constraining, passively supported gait training exoskeleton known as ALEX II. This device builds on the success and extends the features of the ALEX I device developed at the University of Delaware. Both ALEX (Active Leg EXoskeleton) devices have been designed to supply a controllable torque to a subject's hip and knee joint. The current control strategy makes use of an assist-as-needed algorithm. Following a brief review of previous work motivating this redesign, we discuss the key mechanical features of the new ALEX device. A short investigation was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the control strategy and impact of the exoskeleton on the gait of six healthy subjects. This paper concludes with a comparison between the subjects' gait both in and out of the exoskeleton. © 2011 IEEE

  5. Body-weight-supported treadmill rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Pamela W; Sullivan, Katherine J; Behrman, Andrea L; Azen, Stanley P; Wu, Samuel S; Nadeau, Stephen E; Dobkin, Bruce H; Rose, Dorian K; Tilson, Julie K; Cen, Steven; Hayden, Sarah K

    2011-05-26

    Locomotor training, including the use of body-weight support in treadmill stepping, is a physical therapy intervention used to improve recovery of the ability to walk after stroke. The effectiveness and appropriate timing of this intervention have not been established. We stratified 408 participants who had had a stroke 2 months earlier according to the extent of walking impairment--moderate (able to walk 0.4 to stroke had occurred (early locomotor training), the second group received this training 6 months after the stroke had occurred (late locomotor training), and the third group participated in an exercise program at home managed by a physical therapist 2 months after the stroke (home-exercise program). Each intervention included 36 sessions of 90 minutes each for 12 to 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants in each group who had an improvement in functional walking ability 1 year after the stroke. At 1 year, 52.0% of all participants had increased functional walking ability. No significant differences in improvement were found between early locomotor training and home exercise (adjusted odds ratio for the primary outcome, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50 to 1.39) or between late locomotor training and home exercise (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.99). All groups had similar improvements in walking speed, motor recovery, balance, functional status, and quality of life. Neither the delay in initiating the late locomotor training nor the severity of the initial impairment affected the outcome at 1 year. Ten related serious adverse events were reported (occurring in 2.2% of participants undergoing early locomotor training, 3.5% of those undergoing late locomotor training, and 1.6% of those engaging in home exercise). As compared with the home-exercise group, each of the groups receiving locomotor training had a higher frequency of dizziness or faintness during treatment (P=0.008). Among patients with severe walking

  6. POTENTIAL ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: LINES OF INQUIRY SUPPORTING ENHANCED PASSIVE REMEDIATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; Tom Early, T; Michael Heitkamp, M; Brian02 Looney, B; David Major, D; Brian Riha, B; Jody Waugh, J; Gary Wein, G

    2004-06-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Passive Remediation (EPR) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management (EM) ''Alternative Project,'' focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EPR. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision-making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EPR Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, we are publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry (see listing). The following report - documenting our evaluation of the state of the science of the characterization and monitoring process and tools-- is one of those supplemental documents.

  7. Partial Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training in Spinocerebellar Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Laura Alice Santos; Martins, Camilla Polonini; Horsczaruk, Carlos Henrique Ramos; da Silva, Débora Cristina Lima; Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Meira Mainenti, Míriam Raquel; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    The motor impairments related to gait and balance have a huge impact on the life of individuals with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). Here, the aim was to assess the possibility of retraining gait, improving cardiopulmonary capacity, and challenging balance during gait in SCA using a partial body weight support (BWS) and a treadmill. Also, the effects of this training over functionality and quality of life were investigated. Eight SCA patients were engaged in the first stage of the study that focused on gait training and cardiovascular conditioning. From those, five took part in a second stage of the study centered on dynamic balance training during gait. The first and second stages lasted 8 and 10 weeks, respectively, both comprising sessions of 50 min (2 times per week). The results showed that gait training using partial BWS significantly increased gait performance, treadmill inclination, duration of exercise, and cardiopulmonary capacity in individuals with SCA. After the second stage, balance improvements were also found. Combining gait training and challenging tasks to the postural control system in SCA individuals is viable, well tolerated by patients with SCA, and resulted in changes in capacity for walking and balance.

  8. Failure to upregulate Agrp and Orexin in response to activity based anorexia in weight loss vulnerable rats characterized by passive stress coping and prenatal stress experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Liang, Nu-Chu; Lee, Richard S; Albertz, Jennifer D; Kastelein, Anneke; Moody, Laura A; Aryal, Shivani; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that anorexia nervosa (AN) poses a physiological stress. Therefore, the way an individual copes with stress may affect AN vulnerability. Since prenatal stress (PNS) exposure alters stress responsivity in offspring this may increase their risk of developing AN. We tested this hypothesis using the activity based anorexia (ABA) rat model in control and PNS rats that were characterized by either proactive or passive stress-coping behavior. We found that PNS passively coping rats ate less and lost more weight during the ABA paradigm. Exposure to ABA resulted in higher baseline corticosterone and lower insulin levels in all groups. However, leptin levels were only decreased in rats with a proactive stress-coping style. Similarly, ghrelin levels were increased only in proactively coping ABA rats. Neuropeptide Y (Npy) expression was increased and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) expression was decreased in all rats exposed to ABA. In contrast, agouti-related peptide (Agrp) and orexin (Hctr) expression were increased in all but the PNS passively coping ABA rats. Furthermore, DNA methylation of the orexin gene was increased after ABA in proactive coping rats and not in passive coping rats. Overall our study suggests that passive PNS rats have innate impairments in leptin and ghrelin in responses to starvation combined with prenatal stress associated impairments in Agrp and orexin expression in response to starvation. These impairments may underlie decreased food intake and associated heightened body weight loss during ABA in the passively coping PNS rats. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The effects of gait training with body weight support (BWS) with no body weight support (no-BWS) in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Muhammad Asad; Shafi, Hina; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Amjad, Imran

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the clinical outcomes for patients with stroke after gait training with body weight support (BWS) and with no body weight support (no-BWS).Experimental group was trained to walk by a BWS system with overhead harness (BWS group), and Control group was trained with full weight bearing walk on their lower extremities. Treatment session comprised of six weeks training. Treatment outcomes were assessed on the basis of Timed 10 Meter Walk Test, Timed Get Up and Go Test and Dynamic Gait Index. There was a significant (PTraining of gait in stroke patients while a percentage of their body weight supported by a harness, resulted in better walking abilities than the Training of gait while full weight was placed on patient's lower extremities.

  10. Investigation of the optimal elastic and weight properties of passive morphing skins for camber-morphing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previtali, Francesco; Arrieta, Andres F; Ermanni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of wing structures is directly related to their external geometry. The idea of seamless shape adaptation of the wing geometry (or morphing) has emerged to provide the capability of operating optimally in a wide range of conditions. Of particular importance to realize the potential of morphing is the ability of the wing skin to conform to the different geometrical contours. Several concepts for morphing skins have been presented to address this design challenge, each presenting peculiar strengths and weaknesses depending on the chosen combination of material and structural arrangement. This paper investigates the generic structural properties of a passive morphing skin design to allow for optimal shape adaptation through cambering. The properties of the morphing skin are included among the design variables to identify their optimal value; multi-objective optimizations are used to obtain parametric results. The results indicate the need for a high anisotropy, both between membrane and bending properties and between the skin’s principal directions. The impact of the skin weight on the wing design is also shown. (paper)

  11. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Adams, Rachel G.

    2014-01-01

    Passive sampling methods (PSMs) allow the quantification of the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) of an organic contaminant even in complex matrices such as sediments. Cfree is directly related to a contaminant's chemical activity, which drives spontaneous processes including diffusive upta...

  12. Random synaptic feedback weights support error backpropagation for deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillicrap, Timothy P.; Cownden, Daniel; Tweed, Douglas B.; Akerman, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    The brain processes information through multiple layers of neurons. This deep architecture is representationally powerful, but complicates learning because it is difficult to identify the responsible neurons when a mistake is made. In machine learning, the backpropagation algorithm assigns blame by multiplying error signals with all the synaptic weights on each neuron's axon and further downstream. However, this involves a precise, symmetric backward connectivity pattern, which is thought to be impossible in the brain. Here we demonstrate that this strong architectural constraint is not required for effective error propagation. We present a surprisingly simple mechanism that assigns blame by multiplying errors by even random synaptic weights. This mechanism can transmit teaching signals across multiple layers of neurons and performs as effectively as backpropagation on a variety of tasks. Our results help reopen questions about how the brain could use error signals and dispel long-held assumptions about algorithmic constraints on learning. PMID:27824044

  13. Passive Back Support Exoskeleton Improves Range of Motion Using Flexible Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias B. Näf

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the EU, lower back pain affects more than 40% of the working population. Mechanical loading of the lower back has been shown to be an important risk factor. Peak mechanical load can be reduced by ergonomic interventions, the use of cranes and, more recently, by the use of exoskeletons. Despite recent advances in the development of exoskeletons for industrial applications, they are not widely adopted by industry yet. Some of the challenges, which have to be overcome are a reduced range of motion, misalignment between the human anatomy and kinematics of the exoskeleton as well as discomfort. A body of research exists on how an exoskeleton can be designed to compensate for misalignment and thereby improve comfort. However, how to design an exoskeleton that achieves a similar range of motion as a human lumbar spine of up to 60° in the sagittal plane, has not been extensively investigated. We addressed this need by developing and testing a novel passive back support exoskeleton, including a mechanism comprised of flexible beams, which run in parallel to the spine, providing a large range of motion and lowering the peak torque requirements around the lumbo-sacral (L5/S1 joint. Furthermore, we ran a pilot study to test the biomechanical (N = 2 and functional (N = 3 impact on subjects while wearing the exoskeleton. The biomechanical testing was once performed with flexible beams as a back interface and once with a rigid structure. An increase of more than 25% range of motion of the trunk in the sagittal plane was observed by using the flexible beams. The pilot functional tests, which are compared to results from a previous study with the Laevo device, suggest, that the novel exoskeleton is perceived as less hindering in almost all tested tasks.

  14. Framing messages about weight discrimination: impact on public support for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Heuer, C; Sarda, V

    2011-06-01

    To assess the public support for potential legislation to prohibit weight-based discrimination against obese individuals in the United States, and to examine whether certain message frames about weight discrimination influence public support. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of the four paragraphs that framed the topic of weight discrimination in a distinct way (or a control condition with no paragraph). Participants were then asked to indicate their level of support for six antidiscrimination laws. A national sample of 1114 participants (48% women, 52% men), mean age 44.78 years (s.d. = 15.93). There was moderate support for several laws to prohibit weight-based discrimination, but gender differences were observed across experimental conditions indicating that some message frames may increase support for certain laws among women, but not men. However, message frames had no effect on support for laws with specific provisions to prohibit weight discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that public support for these particular legal measures is consistent and high (65% of men and 81% of women expressed support) regardless of how the issue of weight discrimination is framed to the public. The present findings provide evidence of current levels of public support for legislation to prohibit weight-based discrimination, and offer potential ways for policy makers and interest groups to communicate messages about weight discrimination in efforts to increase support.

  15. Development of body weight support gait training system using antagonistic bi-articular muscle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Shingo; Nobutomo, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a body weight support gait training system for stroke and spinal cord injury. This system consists of a powered orthosis, treadmill and equipment of body weight support. Attachment of the powered orthosis is able to fit subject who has difference of body size. This powered orthosis is driven by pneumatic McKibben actuator. Actuators are arranged as pair of antagonistic bi-articular muscle model and two pairs of antagonistic mono-articular muscle model like human musculoskeletal system. Part of the equipment of body weight support suspend subject by wire harness, and body weight of subject is supported continuously by counter weight. The powered orthosis is attached equipment of body weight support by parallel linkage, and movement of the powered orthosis is limited at sagittal plane. Weight of the powered orthosis is compensated by parallel linkage with gas-spring. In this study, we developed system that has orthosis powered by pneumatic McKibben actuators and equipment of body weight support. We report detail of our developed body weight support gait training system.

  16. Comparison of body weight-supported treadmill training versus body weight-supported overground training in people with incomplete tetraplegia: a pilot randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilvelkumar, Thangavelu; Magimairaj, Henry; Fletcher, Jebaraj; Tharion, George; George, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of body weight-supported treadmill training and body weight-supported overground training for improving gait and strength in people with traumatic incomplete tetraplegia. Assessor blinded randomized trial. Rehabilitation institute of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Sixteen participants with traumatic motor incomplete tetraplegia and within two years of injury. Participants were randomised to one of two groups: body weight-supported overground training on level ground and body weight-supported treadmill training. Both groups received 30 minutes of gait training per day, five days a week for eight weeks. In addition, both groups received regular rehabilitation which included flexibility, strength, balance, self care and functional training. The primary outcome measure was the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (/20 points) and the secondary outcome was the Lower Extremity Muscle Score (/50 points). There was no statistically significant between group differences in the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury [mean difference=0.3points; 95% CI (-4.8 to 5.4); p=0.748] or the Lower Extremity Muscle Score [mean difference=0.2 points; 95% CI (-3.8 to 5.1); p=0.749]. Gait training with body weight-supported overground training is comparable to treadmill training for improving locomotion in people with traumatic incomplete tetraplegia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05) than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05) in ELBW group. Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Mantle convective support, drainage patterns and sedimentary flux: Examples from the West Africa passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhia, B. H.; Roberts, G. G.; Fraser, A.; Goes, S. D. B.; Fishwick, S.; Jarvis, J.

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentary flux measurements, regional subsidence patterns, inversion of drainage patterns, tomographic models and simple isostatic calculations are combined to constrain the history of sub-plate support of North West Africa. Backstripping of 8 commercial wells and mapping of 53,000 line-km of 2D seismic reflection data show that rapid ( 0.03 mm a-1) Neogene-Recent subsidence occurred in a 500 x 500 km region offshore Mauritania. 0.4-0.8 km of water-loaded subsidence occurred in the center of the basin during the last 23 Ma. Salt withdrawal, thin-skinned tectonics, glacio-eustasy and flexure of the lithosphere due to the emplacement of Cape Verde cannot explain the timing or magnitude of this phase of subsidence. Instead, conversion of shear wave velocities into temperature and simple isostatic calculations indicate that asthenospheric temperatures determine bathymetry from Cape Verde to West Africa. Our results indicate that asthenospheric flow from Cape Verde to Mauritania generated a bathymetric gradient of 1/300 at a wavelength of 103 km during the last 23 Ma. We explore the relationship between uplift and erosion onshore and measured solid sedimentary flux offshore. First, the history of sedimentary flux to the margin was determined by depth-converting and decompacting biostratigraphically-dated isopachs. Compaction and velocity errors, determined using check-shot data, were propagated into calculated sedimentary flux history. Solid-sedimentary flux rates of 0.2-0.1+0.2 ×103 km3 /Ma between 23.8-5.6 Ma, and 1.9-1.4+2.0 ×103 km3 /Ma from 5.6-0 Ma are observed. Secondly, a calibrated stream power erosional model was used to invert 14700 river profiles for a history of regional uplift rate. Incision rates were integrated along best-fitting theoretical river profiles to predict sedimentary flux at mouths of the rivers draining NW Africa. Our predicted history of sedimentary flux increases in two stages towards the present-day, in agreement with our offshore

  19. Simulation to support passive and low energy cooling system design in the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Bartak, M.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the passive and low energy cooling technologies in the Czech Republic. The role of computer simulation in low energy building design and optimization is discussed. The work includes buildings and systems analysis as well as climate analysis in order to estimate the potential of

  20. Passive InP regenerator integrated on SOI for the support of broadband silicon modulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassaert, M.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Roelkens, G.; Raz, O.

    2012-01-01

    Passive signal regeneration based on the Membrane InP Switch (MIPS) is demonstrated. Because of the high confinement of light in the active region of the MIPS, the device acts as a saturable absorber with a highly non-linear response. Using this effect, the extinction ratio (ER) of low-ER signals

  1. Passive PE Sampling in Support of In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    biodegradation . As discussed in Fernandez et al. (2009b), target compounds like PCBs and PAHs diffuse through the surrounding environmental media... biodegradation . The PE passive sampling technique may also offer significant cost savings per site for sample collection and analysis cost. When compared with...water, detergent), Nitrile gloves, aluminum foil, plastic sheeting, rope, paper towels, garbage bags , bubble wrap, Ziplock bags , and ice. • Non

  2. Effects of velocity and weight support on ground reaction forces and metabolic power during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Alena M; Kram, Rodger

    2008-08-01

    The biomechanical and metabolic demands of human running are distinctly affected by velocity and body weight. As runners increase velocity, ground reaction forces (GRF) increase, which may increase the risk of an overuse injury, and more metabolic power is required to produce greater rates of muscular force generation. Running with weight support attenuates GRFs, but demands less metabolic power than normal weight running. We used a recently developed device (G-trainer) that uses positive air pressure around the lower body to support body weight during treadmill running. Our scientific goal was to quantify the separate and combined effects of running velocity and weight support on GRFs and metabolic power. After obtaining this basic data set, we identified velocity and weight support combinations that resulted in different peak GRFs, yet demanded the same metabolic power. Ideal combinations of velocity and weight could potentially reduce biomechanical risks by attenuating peak GRFs while maintaining aerobic and neuromuscular benefits. Indeed, we found many combinations that decreased peak vertical GRFs yet demanded the same metabolic power as running slower at normal weight. This approach of manipulating velocity and weight during running may prove effective as a training and/or rehabilitation strategy.

  3. Development and evaluation of a passive trunk support system for Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Mohammad Nauzef; Peeters, Laura H C; Paalman, Micha; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2018-03-14

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy gradually lose the ability to use different muscles of their body. Consequently, they lose the ability to stabilize their trunk against gravity. This hinders them to effectively perform different daily activities. In this paper, we describe the design, realization and evaluation of a trunk orthosis for these patients that should allow them to move their trunk and maintain stability. This study aimed to primarily assess the effectiveness of the trunk support system in terms of unloading of trunk muscles, so only healthy participants were recruited for this phase of the study. Measurements were done on 10 healthy participants (23.4±2.07 [M±SD] years old, average body weight 68.42±24.22 [M±SD] kg). The experiment comprised maintaining a constant trunk posture in three different device conditions (control without orthosis and two conditions with different configurations of the orthosis), at four different flexion angles (10°, 20°, 30°, 40°) for each device condition and for two load conditions (with and without stretching the arms). Electromyography (EMG) signals from the trunk muscles were measured to estimate activation levels of the trunk muscles (iliocostalis, longissimus, external oblique and rectus abdominis) and a motion capture system was used to record the movement of the participants during the experiment. Wearing the orthosis caused reductions in longissimus and iliocostalis activity. The average muscle activity level was 5%-10% of maximum voluntary contraction in the unsupported conditions for those particular muscles. This level was reduced to 3%-9% of maximal voluntary contraction for the supported conditions. No effect on external oblique and rectus abdominis activity was observed. Moreover, no pain or discomfort was reported by any of the participants during the experiment. The results from the current experiment also suggests the necessity of lumber stabilizing systems while using trunk orthosis. The

  4. Role of social support in lifestyle-focused weight management interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Bakx, J.C.; Weel, van C.; Koelen, M.A.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Social support is important to achieve beneficial changes in risk factors for disease, such as overweight and obesity. This paper presents the theoretical and practical framework for social support, and the mechanisms by which social support affects body weight. The theoretical and practical

  5. Role of social support in lifestyle-focused weight management interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Bakx, J.C.; Weel, C. van; Koelen, M.A.; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Social support is important to achieve beneficial changes in risk factors for disease, such as overweight and obesity. This paper presents the theoretical and practical framework for social support, and the mechanisms by which social support affects body weight. The theoretical and practical

  6. A novel WDM passive optical network architecture supporting two independent multicast data streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme to perform optical multicast overlay of two independent multicast data streams on a wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) passive optical network. By controlling a sinusoidal clock signal and shifting the wavelength at the optical line terminal (OLT), the delivery of the two multicast data, being carried by the generated optical tones, can be independently and flexibly controlled. Simultaneous transmission of 10-Gb/s unicast downstream and upstream data as well as two independent 10-Gb/s multicast data was successfully demonstrated.

  7. Passive and Active Fast-Neutron Imaging in Support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative Safeguards Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackston, Matthew A.; Hausladen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Results from safeguards-related passive and active coded-aperture fast-neutron imaging measurements of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) material configurations performed at Idaho National Laboratory s Zero Power Physics Reactor facility are presented. The imaging measurements indicate that it is feasible to use fast neutron imaging in a variety of safeguards-related tasks, such as monitoring storage, evaluating holdup deposits in situ, or identifying individual leached hulls still containing fuel. The present work also presents the first demonstration of imaging of differential die away fast neutrons.

  8. Passive safety features of low sodium void worth metal fueled cores in a bottom supported reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Wade, D.C.; Wigeland, R.A.; Kumaoka, Yoshio; Suzuki, Masao; Endo, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    A study has been performed on the passive safety features of low-sodium-void-worth metallic-fueled reactors with emphasis on using a bottom-supported reactor vessel design. The reactor core designs included self-sufficient types as well as actinide burners. The analyses covered the reactor response to the unprotected, i.e. unscrammed, transient overpower accident and the loss-of-flow accident. Results are given demonstrating the safety margins that were attained. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. MIT-Skywalker: considerations on the Design of a Body Weight Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rogério Sales; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2017-09-06

    To provide body weight support during walking and balance training, one can employ two distinct embodiments: support through a harness hanging from an overhead system or support through a saddle/seat type. This paper presents a comparison of these two approaches. Ultimately, this comparison determined our selection of the body weight support system employed in the MIT-Skywalker, a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation/habilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. Here we will summarize our results with eight healthy subjects walking on the treadmill without any support, with 30% unloading supported by a harness hanging from an overhead system, and with a saddle/seat-like support system. We compared the center of mass as well as vertical and mediolateral trunk displacements across different walking speeds and support. The bicycle/saddle system had the highest values for the mediolateral inclination, while the overhead harness body weight support showed the lowest values at all speeds. The differences were statistically significant. We selected the bicycle/saddle system for the MIT-Skywalker. It allows faster don-and-doff, better centers the patient to the split treadmill, and allows all forms of training. The overhead harness body weight support might be adequate for rhythmic walking training but limits any potential for balance training.

  10. Psoas muscle architectural design, in vivo sarcomere length range, and passive tensile properties support its role as a lumbar spine stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Gilad J; Kim, Choll W; Tomiya, Akihito; Lee, Yu Po; Ghofrani, Hossein; Garfin, Steven R; Lieber, Richard L; Ward, Samuel R

    2011-12-15

    Controlled laboratory and cross-sectional study designs. To determine psoas major (PM) muscle architectural properties, in vivo sarcomere-length operating range, and passive mechanical properties. PM is an important hip flexor but its role in lumbar spine function is not fully understood. Several investigators have detailed the gross anatomy of PM, but comprehensive architectural data and in vivo length-tension and passive mechanical behaviors have not been documented. PM was isolated in 13 cadaver specimens, permitting architectural measurements of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), normalized fiber length (Lf), and Lf:muscle length (Lm) ratio. Sarcomere lengths were measured in vivo from intraoperative biopsies taken with the hip joint in flexed and extended positions. Single-fiber and fiber bundle tensile properties and titin molecular weight were then measured from separate biopsies. Architecturally, average PCSA was 18.45 ± 1.32 cm2, average Lf was 12.70 ± 2 cm, and average Lf: Lm was 0.48 ± 0.06. Intraoperative sarcomere length measurements revealed that the muscle operates from 3.18 ± 0.20 μm with hip flexed at 10.7° ± 13.9° to 3.03 ± 0.22 μm with hip flexed at 55.9° ± 21.4°. Passive mechanical data demonstrated that the elastic modulus of the PM muscle fibers was 37.44 ± 9.11 kPa and of fiber bundles was 55.3 ± 11.8 kPa. Analysis of PM architecture demonstrates that its average Lf and passive biomechanical properties resemble those of the lumbar erector spinae muscles. In addition, PM sarcomere lengths were confined to the descending portion of the length-tension curve allowing the muscle to become stronger as the hip is flexed and the spine assumes a forward leaning posture. These findings suggest that the human PM has architectural and physiologic features that support its role as both a flexor of the hip and a dynamic stabilizer of the lumbar spine.

  11. Effects of obesity on weight-bearing versus weight-supported exercise testing in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatman, Robbert C; Spruit, Martijn A; van Melick, Paula P; Peeters, Jos P I; Rutten, Erica P A; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Wouters, Emiel F M; Franssen, Frits M E

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is associated with increased dyspnoea and reduced health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies on the effects of obesity on exercise capacity showed divergent results. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of obesity on weight-bearing versus weight-supported exercise tolerance in obese and normal weight patients, matched for age, gender and degree of airflow limitation. Retrospective analyses of data obtained during pre-pulmonary rehabilitation assessment in 108 obese COPD patients (OB) (age: 61.2 ± 5.3y, FEV1 : 43.2 ± 7.4%, BMI: 34.1 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) ,) and 108 age and FEV1 -matched normal weight COPD patients (NW) (age: 61.7 ± 3.6y, FEV1 : 41.5 ± 8.4%, BMI: 22.9 ± 1.2 kg/m(2) ,). Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and 6 min walk test (6MWT) were performed, Borg scores for dyspnoea and leg fatigue were recorded, before and after the tests. Six-minute walk distance differed between OB (398 ± 107 m) and NW patients (446 ± 109 m, P exercise load was comparable (OB: 75 ± 29 W, NW: 70 ± 25 W, ns). Dyspnoea (OB 3.2 ± 2.0 vs NW 3.1 ± 1.7, ns) and leg fatigue (OB 2.4 ± 2.3 vs NW 1.9 ± 1.7, ns) were not significantly different in OB compared with NW after 6MWT, or after CPET (dyspnoea: OB 5.1 ± 2.4 vs NW 5.4 ± 2.2, ns; leg fatigue: OB 4.0 ± 2.3 vs NW 4.0 ± 2.7, ns). In contrast to weight-supported exercise, obesity has a negative impact on weight-bearing exercise capacity, despite comparable exercise-related symptoms. The results of this study enhance the understanding of the impact of obesity on physical performance in COPD. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. Active and passive social support in families of greylag geese (Anser anser)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiber, IBR; Weiss, BM; Frigerio, D; Kotrschal, K

    2005-01-01

    In general, support by social allies may reduce stress, increase success in agonistic encounters and ease access to resources. Social support was mainly known from mammals, particularly primates, and has been studied in birds only recently. Basically two types are known: (i) 'active social support',

  13. A smartphone-supported weight loss program: design of the ENGAGED randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Christine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health challenge, demanding cost-effective and scalable weight management programs. Delivering key treatment components via mobile technology offers a potential way to reduce expensive in-person contact, thereby lowering the cost and burden of intensive weight loss programs. The ENGAGED study is a theory-guided, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the feasibility and efficacy of an abbreviated smartphone-supported weight loss program. Methods/design Ninety-six obese adults (BMI 30–39.9 kg/m2 will be randomized to one of three treatment conditions: (1 standard behavioral weight loss (STND, (2 technology-supported behavioral weight loss (TECH; or (3 self-guided behavioral weight loss (SELF. All groups will aim to achieve a 7% weight loss goal by reducing calorie and fat intake and progressively increasing moderate intensity physical activity to 175 minutes/week. STND and TECH will attend 8 group sessions and receive regular coaching calls during the first 6 months of the intervention; SELF will receive the Group Lifestyle Balance Program DVD’s and will not receive coaching calls. During months 1–6, TECH will use a specially designed smartphone application to monitor dietary intake, body weight, and objectively measured physical activity (obtained from a Blue-tooth enabled accelerometer. STND and SELF will self-monitor on paper diaries. Linear mixed modeling will be used to examine group differences on weight loss at months 3, 6, and 12. Self-monitoring adherence and diet and activity goal attainment will be tested as mediators. Discussion ENGAGED is an innovative weight loss intervention that integrates theory with emerging mobile technologies. We hypothesize that TECH, as compared to STND and SELF, will result in greater weight loss by virtue of improved behavioral adherence and goal achievement. Trial registration NCT01051713

  14. A novel device for studying weight supported, quadrupedal overground locomotion in spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Marvin; Traughber, Terence; Reinkensmeyer, David J; de Leon, Ray D

    2015-05-15

    Providing weight support facilitates locomotion in spinal cord injured animals. To control weight support, robotic systems have been developed for treadmill stepping and more recently for overground walking. We developed a novel device, the body weight supported ambulatory rodent trainer (i.e. BART). It has a small pneumatic cylinder that moves along a linear track above the rat. When air is supplied to the cylinder, the rats are lifted as they perform overground walking. We tested the BART device in rats that received a moderate spinal cord contusion injury and in normal rats. Locomotor training with the BART device was not performed. All of the rats learned to walk in the BART device. In the contused rats, significantly greater paw dragging and dorsal stepping occurred in the hindlimbs compared to normal. Providing weight support significantly raised hip position and significantly reduced locomotor deficits. Hindlimb stepping was tightly coupled to forelimb stepping but only when the contused rats stepped without weight support. Three weeks after the contused rats received a complete spinal cord transection, significantly fewer hindlimb steps were performed. Relative to rodent robotic systems, the BART device is a simpler system for studying overground locomotion. The BART device lacks sophisticated control and sensing capability, but it can be assembled relatively easily and cheaply. These findings suggest that the BART device is a useful tool for assessing quadrupedal, overground locomotion which is a more natural form of locomotion relative to treadmill locomotion. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Autonomy support and control in weight management: what important others do and say matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Johan Y Y; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2014-09-01

    Drawing from self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002, Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic-dialectical perspective. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3-33). Rochester, NY: The University of Rochester Press.), we examined how individuals' psychological needs, motivation, and behaviours (i.e., physical activity and eating) associated with weight management could be predicted by perceptions of their important others' supportive and controlling behaviours. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 235 participants (mean age = 27.39 years, SD = 8.96 years) completed an online questionnaire. Statistical analyses showed that when important others were perceived to be more supportive, participants reported higher levels of more optimal forms of motivation for weight management, which in turn predicted more physical activity and healthy eating behaviours. In contrast, when important others were perceived to be controlling, participants reported higher levels of less optimal forms of motivation, which in turn predicted less physical activity and healthy eating behaviours, as well as more unhealthy eating behaviours. Significant indirect effects were also found from perceived support and control from important others to physical activity and eating behaviours, all in the expected directions. The findings support the importance of important others providing support and refraining from controlling behaviours in order to facilitate motivation and behaviours conducive to successful weight management. What is already known on this subject? Autonomy support is related to basic need satisfaction and autonomous motivation in the context of weight management. In turn, these variables are related to adaptive outcomes for weight management. What does this study add? Measurement of perceived controlling behaviours by important others. Measurement of perceived need thwarting. Structural model on how important others affect

  16. Passive reach and grasp with functional electrical stimulation and robotic arm support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, Ard J.; Schouten, Alfred C.; Veltink, Peter H.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation of arm and hand function is crucial to increase functional independence of stroke subjects. Here, we investigate the technical feasibility of an integrated training system combining robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) to support reach and grasp during functional

  17. Treadmill Training with Partial Body-Weight Support in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler

    2009-01-01

    OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…

  18. Wire gauze and cordierite supported noble metal catalysts for passive autocatalytic recombiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanap, Kiran K.; Varma, S.; Waghmode, S.B.; Bharadwaj, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis by electroless deposition method and chemical reduction route. • Particle size of 0.1–0.5 μm & 3.5–5 nm for Pt–Pd/Wg & Pt–Pd/Cord catalysts. • Active for H_2 and O_2 reaction with initial H_2 concentration of 1.5 to 7% in air. • Active in presence of different contaminants like CO_2, CH_4, CO & relative humidity. • Enhanced resistance of Pt–Pd/Cord catalyst towards the poisoning of CO. - Abstract: Hydrogen released in nuclear reactor containment under severe accident scenario poses a threat to containment and hence needs to be regulated by catalytic recombination. Mixed noble metal catalysts with platinum–palladium supported on stainless steel wire gauze and cordierite support have been developed for this purpose. The developed catalysts have been found to be highly efficient for removal of hydrogen concentration in the range of 1.5 to 7.0% v/v in air. Though both the catalysts exhibit similar kinetics for lower hydrogen concentration, cordierite supported catalysts exhibits better kinetic rate at higher hydrogen concentration. The performances of these catalysts in presence of various probable catalytic poison like carbon monoxide and catalytic inhibitors like moisture, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbons provide data for use of these catalysts under the actual scenario. Compared to stainless steel wire gauze supported catalyst, the cordierite based catalyst are found to exhibit enhanced resistance towards carbon monoxide and limited temperature rise for safer application at higher hydrogen concentrations.

  19. Sensitivity of Support Vector Machine Predictions of Passive Microwave Brightness Temperature Over Snow-covered Terrain in High Mountain Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, J. A.; Forman, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    High Mountain Asia (HMA) serves as a water supply source for over 1.3 billion people, primarily in south-east Asia. Most of this water originates as snow (or ice) that melts during the summer months and contributes to the run-off downstream. In spite of its critical role, there is still considerable uncertainty regarding the total amount of snow in HMA and its spatial and temporal variation. In this study, the NASA Land Information Systems (LIS) is used to model the hydrologic cycle over the Indus basin. In addition, the ability of support vector machines (SVM), a machine learning technique, to predict passive microwave brightness temperatures at a specific frequency and polarization as a function of LIS-derived land surface model output is explored in a sensitivity analysis. Multi-frequency, multi-polarization passive microwave brightness temperatures as measured by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) over the Indus basin are used as training targets during the SVM training process. Normalized sensitivity coefficients (NSC) are then computed to assess the sensitivity of a well-trained SVM to each LIS-derived state variable. Preliminary results conform with the known first-order physics. For example, input states directly linked to physical temperature like snow temperature, air temperature, and vegetation temperature have positive NSC's whereas input states that increase volume scattering such as snow water equivalent or snow density yield negative NSC's. Air temperature exhibits the largest sensitivity coefficients due to its inherent, high-frequency variability. Adherence of this machine learning algorithm to the first-order physics bodes well for its potential use in LIS as the observation operator within a radiance data assimilation system aimed at improving regional- and continental-scale snow estimates.

  20. Wearable devices and mobile technologies for supporting behavioral weight loss among people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; McHugo, Gregory J; Marsch, Lisa A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-10-30

    Promoting physical activity is essential for addressing elevated cardiovascular risk and high obesity rates affecting people with serious mental illness. Numerous challenges interfere with exercise participation in this high-risk group including mental health symptoms, low motivation, and limited access to safe and affordable options for physical activity. Wearable devices and mobile health technologies may afford new opportunities for promoting physical activity and supporting behavioral weight loss efforts. This exploratory study examined whether daily step count measured using Fitbit wearable devices was associated with weight loss and improved fitness among individuals with serious mental illness enrolled in a 6-month lifestyle program. Participants (n=34) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (23.5%), major depression (50.0%), or bipolar disorder (26.5%), and wore Fitbits most of the days (M=86.2%; SD=18.4%) they were enrolled in the study. At 6-months, higher average daily step count was associated with greater weight loss (F=5.07; df=1,32; p=0.0314), but not improved fitness (F=1.92; df=1,31; p=0.176). These findings demonstrate that encouraging participants with serious mental illness enrolled in lifestyle interventions to collect more steps may contribute to greater weight loss. This suggests that wearable devices may offer a feasible and potentially effective strategy for supporting behavioral weight loss in community mental health settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Walking during body-weight-supported treadmill training and acute responses to varying walking speed and body-weight support in ambulatory patients post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaslund, Mona Kristin; Helbostad, Jorunn Lægdheim; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf

    2013-05-01

    Rehabilitating walking in ambulatory patients post-stroke, with training that is safe, task-specific, intensive, and of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Some challenges can be met by using body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT). However, it is not known to what degree walking characteristics are similar during BWSTT and overground walking. In addition, important questions regarding the training protocol of BWSTT remain unanswered, such as how proportion of body-weight support (BWS) and walking speed affect walking characteristics during training. The objective was therefore to investigate if and how kinematic walking characteristics are different between overground walking and treadmill walking with BWS in ambulatory patients post-stroke, and the acute response of altering walking speed and percent BWS during treadmill walking with BWS. A cross-sectional repeated-measures design was used. Ambulating patients post-stroke walked in slow, preferred, and fast walking speed overground and at comparable speeds on the treadmill with 20% and 40% BWS. Kinematic walking characteristics were obtained using a kinematic sensor attached over the lower back. Forty-four patients completed the protocol. Kinematic walking characteristics were similar during treadmill walking with BWS, compared to walking overground. During treadmill walking, choice of walking speed had greater impact on kinematic walking characteristics than proportion of BWS. Faster walking speeds tended to affect the kinematic walking characteristics positively. This implies that in order to train safely and with sufficient intensity and duration, therapists may choose to include BWSTT in walking rehabilitation also for ambulatory patients post-stroke without aggravating gait pattern during training.

  2. Social support for healthy behaviors: Scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen; Perri, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N=267; mean BMI 32.1±3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) “never” or “rarely” experienced support from friends or family. Using non-parametric classification methods, we identified two subscales—support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity—that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who “never” experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who “never” experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend versus family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661

  3. A novel approach to mechanical foot stimulation during human locomotion under body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, S; Ivanenko, Y P; Maccioni, G; Macellari, V; Poppele, R E; Lacquaniti, F

    2011-04-01

    Input from the foot plays an essential part in perceiving support surfaces and determining kinematic events in human walking. To simulate adequate tactile pressure inputs under body weight support (BWS) conditions that represent an effective form of locomotion training, we here developed a new method of phasic mechanical foot stimulation using light-weight pneumatic insoles placed inside the shoes (under the heel and metatarsus). To test the system, we asked healthy participants to walk on a treadmill with different levels of BWS. The pressure under the stimulated areas of the feet and subjective sensations were higher at high levels of BWS and when applied to the ball and toes rather than heels. Foot stimulation did not disturb significantly the normal motor pattern, and in all participants we evoked a reliable step-synchronized triggering of stimuli for each leg separately. This approach has been performed in a general framework looking for "afferent templates" of human locomotion that could be used for functional sensory stimulation. The proposed technique can be used to imitate or partially restore surrogate contact forces under body weight support conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and implementation of an interactive website to support long-term maintenance of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Victor J; Funk, Kristine L; Brantley, Phillip J; Erlinger, Thomas P; Myers, Valerie H; Champagne, Catherine M; Bauck, Alan; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Hollis, Jack F

    2008-01-25

    For most individuals, long-term maintenance of weight loss requires long-term, supportive intervention. Internet-based weight loss maintenance programs offer considerable potential for meeting this need. Careful design processes are required to maximize adherence and minimize attrition. This paper describes the development, implementation and use of a Web-based intervention program designed to help those who have recently lost weight sustain their weight loss over 1 year. The weight loss maintenance website was developed over a 1-year period by an interdisciplinary team of public health researchers, behavior change intervention experts, applications developers, and interface designers. Key interactive features of the final site include social support, self-monitoring, written guidelines for diet and physical activity, links to appropriate websites, supportive tools for behavior change, check-in accountability, tailored reinforcement messages, and problem solving and relapse prevention training. The weight loss maintenance program included a reminder system (automated email and telephone messages) that prompted participants to return to the website if they missed their check-in date. If there was no log-in response to the email and telephone automated prompts, a staff member called the participant. We tracked the proportion of participants with at least one log-in per month, and analyzed log-ins as a result of automated prompts. The mean age of the 348 participants enrolled in an ongoing randomized trial and assigned to use the website was 56 years; 63% were female, and 38% were African American. While weight loss data will not be available until mid-2008, website use remained high during the first year with over 80% of the participants still using the website during month 12. During the first 52 weeks, participants averaged 35 weeks with at least one log-in. Email and telephone prompts appear to be very effective at helping participants sustain ongoing website use

  5. COMPARATIVE KINEMATIC MEASURES OF TREADMILL RUNNING WITH OR WITHOUT BODY WEIGHT SUPPORT IN RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Millslagle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Treadmill walking and running using a supportive harness has been used as a training method to rehabilitate injured patients' walking or running gait. Comparison of full weight support (FWS and body weight support (BWS kinematic measures in competitive runners has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to compare selected FWS to BWS kinematic measures in healthy competitive runners. Ten male runners (age = 21.4 ± 1.5 years with a training regimen averaging 64 km per week at 3.8 m·s-1 participated. All participants ran three 3-minute trials. The randomized trial conditions were: FWS, 20% BWS, and 40% BWS. All conditions were videotaped with 2 cameras and a 21-point, 3-D model was generated for analysis. From the position-time data, cycle length (CL, cycle frequency (CF, time of contact (TC, hip-, knee-, ankle- range of motion in degrees (H-ROM, K-ROM, and A-ROM, respectively, and vertical displacement of the center of mass (COM were derived and compared. With increasing support conditions, cycle length increased. Cycle frequency, hip and ankle angle ranges, and COM vertical displacement decreased (p 0.05. BWS running produced significant changes in selected kinematic measures. These changes may provide insight into runners' behavior when using BWS in training or recovery from competition. Additional investigation of BWS training affect with competitive runners would be recommended

  6. sw-SVM: sensor weighting support vector machines for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jrad, N; Congedo, M; Phlypo, R; Rousseau, S; Flamary, R; Yger, F; Rakotomamonjy, A

    2011-10-01

    In many machine learning applications, like brain-computer interfaces (BCI), high-dimensional sensor array data are available. Sensor measurements are often highly correlated and signal-to-noise ratio is not homogeneously spread across sensors. Thus, collected data are highly variable and discrimination tasks are challenging. In this work, we focus on sensor weighting as an efficient tool to improve the classification procedure. We present an approach integrating sensor weighting in the classification framework. Sensor weights are considered as hyper-parameters to be learned by a support vector machine (SVM). The resulting sensor weighting SVM (sw-SVM) is designed to satisfy a margin criterion, that is, the generalization error. Experimental studies on two data sets are presented, a P300 data set and an error-related potential (ErrP) data set. For the P300 data set (BCI competition III), for which a large number of trials is available, the sw-SVM proves to perform equivalently with respect to the ensemble SVM strategy that won the competition. For the ErrP data set, for which a small number of trials are available, the sw-SVM shows superior performances as compared to three state-of-the art approaches. Results suggest that the sw-SVM promises to be useful in event-related potentials classification, even with a small number of training trials.

  7. Muscle activation and estimated relative joint force during running with weight support on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Cappelen, Katrine Louise

    2016-01-01

    Running on a lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmill allows effects of weight support on leg muscle activation to be assessed systematically, and has the potential to facilitate rehabilitation and prevent overloading. The aim was to study the effect of running with weight support on leg mus...

  8. Effects of training and weight support on muscle activation in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Martin Høyer; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity locomotor training on knee extensor and flexor muscle activation and adaptability to increased body-weight (BW) support during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and eight...... healthy participants were included. The PD patients completed an 8-week training program on a lower-body, positive-pressure treadmill. Knee extensor and flexor muscles activation during steady treadmill walking (3km/h) were measured before, at the mid-point, and after training. Increasing BW support...... decreased knee extensor muscle activation (normalization) and increased knee flexor muscle activation (abnormal) in PD patients when compared to healthy participants. Training improved flexor peak muscle activation adaptability to increased (BW) support during walking in PD patients. During walking without...

  9. Passive safety; Passive Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, J. [Skoda Auto a.s., Mlada Boleslav (Czech Republic). Interieurentwicklung und Versuche; Hau, M. [Skoda Auto a.s., Mlada Boleslav (Czech Republic). Koordination der Fahrzeugsicherung

    2004-05-01

    The specifications for passive safety are partly based on the legal requirements for all export markets combined with the strict internal standards of Volkswagen Group. The Euro NCAP tests and their precisely defined testing methods using the new point assessment are very important. (orig.)

  10. Effects of body-weight supported treadmill training on kinetic symmetry in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie A; Dugan, Eric L; Ozimek, Elicia N; Curtis, Amy B

    2012-11-01

    The purpose was to examine changes in kinetic symmetry in persons with chronic stroke immediately and 6-months after body-weight supported treadmill training. Fifteen participants at least six-months post stroke and able to ambulate between 0.4 and 0.8m/s and 20 participants without neurological conditions completed all phases of the study and were included in the analysis. The non-disabled group served as a comparison for describing changes in kinetic symmetry. The stroke group completed 24 sessions of body-weight supported treadmill training over 8-weeks with 20 minutes of total walking per session. Bilateral 3-dimensional motion analysis and gait speed were assessed 1-week before training (pre-test), 1-week after training (post-test) and 6-months after training (retention) in a repeated measures design. Relative propulsion of the paretic leg and relative positive work of the hip, knee and ankle joints of both legs were calculated to evaluate symmetry of kinetic forces. Statistically significant differences in relative propulsion and positive joint work within the paretic and non-paretic legs were not found over time. The stroke group significantly improved gait speed from pre- to post-test (p=.001) and pre-test to retention (p=.008). In comparison to the non-disabled group, forces produced by the stroke group were asymmetrical demonstrating compensatory adaptation. Although the participants with chronic stroke walked faster after body-weight supported treadmill training, the relative percentages of propulsion and positive work remained unchanged. These findings suggest that the increase in speed was likely due to strengthening existing compensatory strategies rather than through recovery of normal kinetic symmetry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Overground body-weight-supported gait training for children and youth with neuromuscular impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Max J; Stuberg, Wayne; Dejong, Stacey; Arpin, David J

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine if body-weight-supported (BWS) overground gait training has the potential to improve the walking abilities of children and youth with childhood onset motor impairments and intellectual disabilities. Eight participants (mean age of 16.3 years) completed 12 weeks of BWS overground gait training that was performed two times a week. BWS was provided during the training sessions by an overhead harness system that rolls overground. There was a significant improvement in the preferred walking speed after the training (p training may be an effective treatment strategy for improving the preferred walking speed of children and youth with motor impairments.

  12. Influence of aggressive nutritional support on growth and development of very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y M; Zhu, X P; Xiao, Z; Yu, L; Zhao, X

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the early postnatal aggressive nutritional support on the very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) during hospitalization. Surviving premature infants without obvious deformity, with gestational age more than 28 weeks and less than 32 weeks, birth weight 1,000 g to 1,500 g, admitted in NICU in Affiliated Children's Hospital of Suzhou University during 12 hours after birth and stay for two weeks or more from January 2008 to December 2011 were selected, including 44 cases (admitted from September 2010 to December 2011) in the observation group and 36 cases in the control group (admitted from January 2008 and September 2010). The infants in the observation group were treated by aggressive nutritional management, while traditional nutritional management for infants in the control group. The variations of nutritional intake, weight gain, jaundice index, blood biochemistry, serum electrolytes indexes, and complications were compared between the two groups. Compared to the control group, the average growth rate and the albumin (ALB) and prealbumin (PA) levels two week after birth and before leaving hospital of the infants in the observation group was significantly higher (p nutrition, liver function, blood lipid levels, blood glucose, blood PH, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and electrolytes of the first day and the seventh day after birth and the in- cidence of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between the two group had no difference (p > 0.05). The implementation of aggressive nutritional management on the with VLBWI was safe and effective.

  13. A decision support system for the promotion of Employee in Plaza Asia Method Using Weighted Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egi Badar Sambani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in a company is important because decisions taken by managers is the result of a final thought to be carried out by employees. Asia is the largest mall Plaza sepriangan east, where the assessment process includes the promotion employee attendance, productivity (work, integrity (nature, skill (ability and loyalty (faithfulness. Method Using Weighted Product (WP can help in decision-making to determine the promotion of employees in the company, as well as the appraisal process more efficient so the store manager can determine employee promotions quickly. By using decision support system that has a database, employee data can be stored in the database. So that in case of errors in inputting can be corrected without having to re-enter the data. With the Decision Support System will address the issues raised in the Plaza Asia, so the promotion process will be faster.

  14. IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT SUPPORTED BACKWARD TREADMILL TRAINING ON WALKING SPEED IN CHILDREN WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada El Sayed Abd Allah Ayoub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A lot of the ambulating children with spastic diplegia were able to walk with flexed hips, knees and ankles this gait pattern is known as crouch gait. The most needed functional achievement of diplegic children habilitation is to be able to walk appropriately. The development of an independent and efficient walking is one of the main objectives for children with cerebral palsy especially those with spastic diplegia. Method: Twenty children with spastic diplegia enrolled in this study, they were classified into two groups of equal number, eligibility to our study were ages ranged from seven to ten years, were able to ambulate, They had gait problems and abnormal gait kinematics. The control group (A received selected physical therapy program based on neurodevelopmental approach for such cases, while the study group (B received partial body weight supported backward treadmill training in addition to regular exercise program. Gait pattern was assessed using the Biodex Gait Trainer II for each group pre and post three months of the treatment program. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in walking speed in the study group (P<0.05 with significant difference when comparing post treatment results between groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings suggested that partial body weight supported backward treadmill training can be included as a supplementary therapeutic modality to improve walking speed and functional abilities of children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

  15. In vivo measurement of aerodynamic weight support in freely flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2014-11-01

    Birds dynamically change the shape of their wing during the stroke to support their body weight aerodynamically. The wing is partially folded during the upstroke, which suggests that the upstroke of birds might not actively contribute to aerodynamic force production. This hypothesis is supported by the significant mass difference between the large pectoralis muscle that powers the down-stroke and the much smaller supracoracoideus that drives the upstroke. Previous works used indirect or incomplete techniques to measure the total force generated by bird wings ranging from muscle force, airflow, wing surface pressure, to detailed kinematics measurements coupled with bird mass-distribution models to derive net force through second derivatives. We have validated a new method that measures aerodynamic force in vivo time-resolved directly in freely flying birds which can resolve this question. The validation of the method, using independent force measurements on a quadcopter with pulsating thrust, show the aerodynamic force and impulse are measured within 2% accuracy and time-resolved. We demonstrate results for quad-copters and birds of similar weight and size. The method is scalable and can be applied to both engineered and natural flyers across taxa. The first author invented the method, the second and third authors validated the method and present results for quadcopters and birds.

  16. Does technique matter; a pilot study exploring weighting techniques for a multi-criteria decision support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, Janine; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina; Lieferink, Marijke; Dolan, James; Goetghebeur, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to support regulatory and reimbursement decision making. The EVIDEM framework was developed to provide pragmatic multi-criteria decision support in health care, to estimate the value of healthcare interventions, and to aid in priority-setting. The objectives of this study were to test 1) the influence of different weighting techniques on the overall outcome of an MCDA exercise, 2) the discriminative power in weighting different criteria of such techniques, and 3) whether different techniques result in similar weights in weighting the criteria set proposed by the EVIDEM framework. A sample of 60 Dutch and Canadian students participated in the study. Each student used an online survey to provide weights for 14 criteria with two different techniques: a five-point rating scale and one of the following techniques selected randomly: ranking, point allocation, pairwise comparison and best worst scaling. The results of this study indicate that there is no effect of differences in weights on value estimates at the group level. On an individual level, considerable differences in criteria weights and rank order occur as a result of the weight elicitation method used, and the ability of different techniques to discriminate in criteria importance. Of the five techniques tested, the pair-wise comparison of criteria has the highest ability to discriminate in weights when fourteen criteria are compared. When weights are intended to support group decisions, the choice of elicitation technique has negligible impact on criteria weights and the overall value of an innovation. However, when weights are used to support individual decisions, the choice of elicitation technique influences outcome and studies that use dissimilar techniques cannot be easily compared. Weight elicitation through pairwise comparison of criteria is preferred when taking into account its superior ability to discriminate between

  17. Effects of competing news media frames of weight on antifat stigma, beliefs about weight and support for obesity-related public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, D A; Saguy, A C; Sandhu, G; Mann, T

    2016-03-01

    In the popular news media, public health officials routinely emphasize the health risks of obesity and portray weight as under personal control. These messages may increase support for policies designed to reduce rates of obesity, but can also increase antifat stigma. Less often, the media cover 'Health at Every Size' or 'Fat Rights' perspectives that may have the opposite effects. We investigated how exposure to different 'fat frames' shifts attitudes about weight and support for obesity policies. Across four experiments (n=2187), people read constructed news articles framing fatness as negative (unhealthy, controllable, acceptable to stigmatize) or positive (healthy, uncontrollable, unacceptable to stigmatize). Compared with people who read fat-positive frames, people who read fat-negative frames expressed more: belief in the health risks of being fat (d=0.95-1.22), belief weight is controllable (d=0.38-0.55), support for charging obese people more for health insurance (d=0.26-0.77), antifat prejudice (in three out of four experiments, d=0.28-0.39), willingness to discriminate against fat people (d=0.39-0.71) and less willingness to celebrate body size diversity (d=0.37-0.64). They were also less willing to say that women at the lower end of the obese range could be healthy at their weights. Effects on support for public policies, however, were generally small and/or nonsignificant. Compared with a control condition, exposure to fat-positive frames generally shifted attitudes more than fat-negative frames. In experiment 4, adding a message about the unacceptability of weight-based discrimination to unhealthy/controllable news articles only reduced antifat stigma on one of three measures compared with articles adding a discrimination-acceptable message. Exposure to different news frames of fat can shift beliefs about weight-related health risks and weight-based stigma. Shifting policy attitudes, however, is more challenging.

  18. Effects of training and weight support on muscle activation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Martin H; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jensen, Bente R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity locomotor training on knee extensor and flexor muscle activation and adaptability to increased body-weight (BW) support during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and eight healthy participants were included. The PD patients completed an 8-week training program on a lower-body, positive-pressure treadmill. Knee extensor and flexor muscles activation during steady treadmill walking (3 km/h) were measured before, at the mid-point, and after training. Increasing BW support decreased knee extensor muscle activation (normalization) and increased knee flexor muscle activation (abnormal) in PD patients when compared to healthy participants. Training improved flexor peak muscle activation adaptability to increased (BW) support during walking in PD patients. During walking without BW support shorter knee extensor muscle off-activation time and increased relative peak muscle activation was observed in PD patients and did not improve with 8 weeks of training. In conclusion, patients with PD walked with excessive activation of the knee extensor and flexor muscles when compared to healthy participants. Specialized locomotor training may facilitate adaptive processes related to motor control of walking in PD patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. People trying to lose weight dislike calorie counting apps and want motivational support to help them achieve their goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrig, Linda; Jones, Ray; Kavanagh, David; May, Jon; Parkin, Tracey; Andrade, Jackie

    2017-03-01

    Two thirds of UK adults are overweight or obese and at increased risk of chronic conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. Basic public health support for weight loss comprises information about healthy eating and lifestyle, but internet and mobile applications (apps) create possibilities for providing long-term motivational support. To explore among people currently trying to lose weight, or maintaining weight loss, (i) problems, experiences and wishes in regards to weight management and weight loss support including e-health support; (ii) reactions to Functional Imagery Training (FIT) as a possible intervention. Six focus groups ( N  = 24 in total) were recruited from a public pool of people who had expressed an interest in helping with research. The topics considered were barriers to weight loss, desired support for weight loss and acceptability of FIT including the FIT app. The focus group discussions were transcribed and thematically analysed. All groups spontaneously raised the issue of waning motivation and expressed the desire for motivational app support for losing weight and increasing physical activity. They disliked calorie counting apps and those that required lots of user input. All groups wanted behavioural elements such as setting and reviewing goals to be included, with the ability to personalise the app by adding picture reminders and choosing times for goal reminders. Participants were positive about FIT and FIT support materials. There is a mismatch between the help provided via public health information campaigns and commercially available weight-loss self-help (lifestyle information, self-monitoring), and the help that individuals actually desire (motivational and autonomous e-support), posing an opportunity to develop more effective electronic, theory-driven, motivational, self-help interventions.

  20. Text Message Support for Weight Loss in Patients With Prediabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Henry H; Fischer, Ilana P; Pereira, Rocio I; Furniss, Anna L; Rozwadowski, Jeanne M; Moore, Susan L; Durfee, Michael J; Raghunath, Silvia G; Tsai, Adam G; Havranek, Edward P

    2016-08-01

    Although the benefits of in-person Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) classes for diabetes prevention have been demonstrated in trials, effectiveness in clinical practice is limited by low participation rates. This study explores whether text message support enhances weight loss in patients offered DPP classes. English- and Spanish-speaking patients with prediabetes (n = 163) were randomized to the control group, which only received an invitation to DPP classes as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or to the text message-augmented intervention group, which also received text messages adapted from the DPP curriculum for 12 months. Mean weight decreased 0.6 pounds (95% CI -2.7 to 1.6) in the control group and 2.6 pounds (95% CI -5.5 to 0.2) in the intervention group (P value 0.05). Three percent weight loss was achieved by 21.5% of participants in the control group (95% CI 12.5-30.6), compared with 38.5% in the intervention group (95% CI 27.7-49.3) (absolute difference 17.0%; P value 0.02). Mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) increased by 0.19% or 2.1 mmol/mol (95% CI -0.1 to 0.5%) and decreased by 0.09% or 1.0 mmol/mol (95% CI -0.2 to 0.0%) in the control group and intervention participants, respectively (absolute difference 0.28%; P value 0.07). Stratification by language demonstrated a significant treatment effect in Spanish speakers but not in English speakers. Text message support can lead to clinically significant weight loss in patients with prediabetes. Further study assessing effect by primary language and in an operational setting is warranted. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  1. Does Brief Telephone Support Improve Engagement With a Web-Based Weight Management Intervention? Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dennison, Laura; Morrison, Leanne; Lloyd, Scott; Phillips, Dawn; Stuart, Beth; Williams, Sarah; Bradbury, Katherine; Roderick, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Michie, Susan; Little, Paul; Yardley, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent reviews suggest Web-based interventions are promising approaches for weight management but they identify difficulties with suboptimal usage. The literature suggests that offering some degree of human support to website users may boost usage and outcomes. Objective We disseminated the POWeR (“Positive Online Weight Reduction”) Web-based weight management intervention in a community setting. POWeR consisted of weekly online sessions that emphasized self-monitoring, goal-settin...

  2. Locomotor training with body weight support in SCI : EMG improvement is more optimally expressed at a low testing speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyns, P.; Van de Crommert, H. W. A. A.; Rijken, H.; van Kuppevelt, D. H. J. M.; Duysens, J.

    2014-01-01

    Study design: Case series. Objectives: To determine the optimal testing speed at which the recovery of the EMG (electromyographic) activity should be assessed during and after body weight supported (BWS) locomotor training. Setting: Tertiary hospital, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

  3. Decision Support System to Choose Digital Single Lens Camera with Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pina Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies that evolve today is Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR camera. The number of products makes users have difficulties to choose the appropriate camera based on their criteria. Users may utilize several ways to help them choosing the intended camera such as using magazine, internet, and other media. This paper discusses about a web based decision support system to choose cameras by using SAW (Simple Additive Weighting method in order to make the decision process more effective and efficient. This system is expected to give recommendations about the camera which is appropriate with the user’s need and criteria based on the cost, the resolution, the feature, the ISO, and the censor. The system was implemented by using PHP and MySQL. Based on the result of questionnaire distributed to 20 respondents, 60% respondents agree that this decision support system can help users to choose the appropriate camera DSLR in accordance with the user’s need, 60% of respondents agree that this decision support system is more effective to choose DSLR camera and 75% of respondents agree that this system is more efficient. In addition, 60.55% of respondents agree that this system has met 5 Es Usability Framework.

  4. Training Veterans to Provide Peer Support in a Weight-Management Program: MOVE!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Carr, Carol; Orr, Melinda; Kahwati, Leila C.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Kinsinger, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has implemented MOVE!, a weight-management program for veterans designed to address the increasing proportion of overweight and obese veterans. The objective of our study was to determine whether peer support employing motivational interviewing (MI) could positively influence lifestyle changes, thus expanding the reach of the MOVE! program. We describe the initial evaluation of the peer training program. Methods We developed an MI peer counselor training program for volunteer veterans, the “Buddies” program, to provide one-on-one telephone support for veterans enrolled in MOVE!. Buddies were recruited at 5 VHA sites and trained to provide peer support for the 6-month MOVE! intervention. We used a DVD to teach MI skills and followed with 2 to 3 booster sessions. We observed training, conducted pre- and posttraining surveys, and debriefed focus groups to assess training feasibility. Results Fifty-six Buddies were trained. Results indicate positive receipt of the program (89% reported learning about peer counseling and 87% reported learning communication skills). Buddies showed a small improvement in MI self-efficacy on posttraining surveys. We also identified key challenges to learning MI and training implementation. Conclusions MI training is feasible to implement and acceptable to volunteer Buddies. Trainers must assess how effectively volunteers learn MI skills in order to enhance its effective use in health promotion. PMID:24199738

  5. Support for laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States: public attitudes from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young; Puhl, Rebecca; Liu, Sai; Milici, Frances Fleming

    2014-08-01

    Public attitudes about three proposed laws prohibiting weight discrimination in the US, from 2011 to 2013 were examined. An online survey using a diverse national sample of US adults to assess their level of support for three specific laws against weight discrimination was conducted. Data collection occurred between June and July in 2011 (n = 1,098), 2012 (n = 1,202), and 2013 (n = 1,202). Between 2011 and 2013, support for laws prohibiting weight discrimination remained consistent, and in some cases became increasingly supportive, primarily in 2012-2013. At least 75% of participants consistently favored laws prohibiting weight discrimination in the workplace. Individuals became increasingly supportive of extending disability protections for individuals with obesity (62% in 2011 to 69% in 2013) and adding body weight as a protected class in Civil Rights statutes (70% in 2011 to 76% in 2013). Analyses highlight specific predictors of support (gender, race, education, and political affiliation). There is strong, consistent support for policies prohibiting weight discrimination. These findings have important implications for developing specific antidiscrimination legislation to protect Americans with obesity and improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  6. Automatic Decision Support for Clinical Diagnostic Literature Using Link Analysis in a Weighted Keyword Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuqing; Sun, Ying; Soergel, Dagobert

    2017-12-23

    We present a novel approach to recommending articles from the medical literature that support clinical diagnostic decision-making, giving detailed descriptions of the associated ideas and principles. The specific goal is to retrieve biomedical articles that help answer questions of a specified type about a particular case. Based on the filtered keywords, MeSH(Medical Subject Headings) lexicon and the automatically extracted acronyms, the relationship between keywords and articles was built. The paper gives a detailed description of the process of by which keywords were measured and relevant articles identified based on link analysis in a weighted keywords network. Some important challenges identified in this study include the extraction of diagnosis-related keywords and a collection of valid sentences based on the keyword co-occurrence analysis and existing descriptions of symptoms. All data were taken from medical articles provided in the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) clinical decision support track 2015. Ten standard topics and one demonstration topic were tested. In each case, a maximum of five articles with the highest relevance were returned. The total user satisfaction of 3.98 was 33% higher than average. The results also suggested that the smaller the number of results, the higher the average satisfaction. However, a few shortcomings were also revealed since medical literature recommendation for clinical diagnostic decision support is so complex a topic that it cannot be fully addressed through the semantic information carried solely by keywords in existing descriptions of symptoms. Nevertheless, the fact that these articles are actually relevant will no doubt inspire future research.

  7. Dynamics and stability of rigid rotors levitated by passive cylinder-magnet bearings and driven/supported axially by pointwise contact clutch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Bøgh; Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    A stable rotor—supported laterally by passive magnetic bearings and longitudinally by magnetic forces and a clutch—loses suddenly its contact to the clutch and executes abruptly longitudinal movements away from its original equilibrium position as a result of small increases in angular velocity...... by MCMB using several configurations of magnet distribution are described based on an accurate nonlinear model able to reliably reproduce the rotor-bearing dynamic behaviour. Such investigations lead to: (a) clear physical explanation about the reasons for the rotor's unstable behaviour, losing its...

  8. Walking with robot assistance: the influence of body weight support on the trunk and pelvis kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Knaepen, Kristel; Michielsen, Marc; Hens, Gerrit; Clijsen, Ron; Goossens, Maggie; Buyl, Ronald; Meeusen, Romain; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The goal was to assess in healthy participants the three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and the trunk during robot-assisted treadmill walking (RATW) at 0%, 30% and 50% body weight support (BWS), compared with treadmill walking (TW). 18 healthy participants walked (2 kmph) on a treadmill with and without robot assistance (Lokomat; 60% guidance force; 0%, 30% and 50% BWS). After an acclimatisation period (four minutes), trunk and pelvis kinematics were registered in each condition (Polhemus Liberty [240 Hz]). The results were analysed using a repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction, with the level of suspension as within-subject factor. During RATW with BWS, there were significantly (1) smaller antero-posterior and lateral translations of the trunk and the pelvis; (2) smaller antero-posterior flexion and axial rotation of the trunk; (3) larger lateral flexion of the trunk; and (4) larger antero-posterior tilting of the pelvis compared with TW. There are significant differences in trunk and pelvis kinematics in healthy persons during TW with and without robot assistance. These data are relevant in gait rehabilitation, relating to normal balance regulation. Additional research is recommended to further assess the influence of robot assistance on human gait. The trunk and pelvis moves in a different way during walking with robot assistance. The data suggest that the change in movement is due to the robot device and the harness of the suspension system more than due to the level of suspension itself.

  9. Body weight support during robot-assisted walking: influence on the trunk and pelvis kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Hens, Gerrit; Knaepen, Kristel; Beckwée, David; Michielsen, Marc; Clijsen, Ron; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Efficacy studies concerning robot assisted gait rehabilitation showed limited clinical benefits. A changed kinematic pattern might be responsible for this. Little is known about the kinematics of the trunk and pelvis during robot assisted treadmill walking (RATW). The aim of this study was to assess the trunk and pelvis kinematics of healthy subjects during RATW, with different amounts of body weight support (BWS) compared to regular treadmill walking (TW). Eighteen healthy participants walked on a treadmill, while kinematics were registered by an electromagnetic tracking device. Hereafter, the kinematics of pelvis and trunk were registered during RATW (guidance force 30%) with 0%, 30% and 50% BWS. Compared to TW, RATW showed a decrease in the following trunk movements: axial rotation, anteroposterior flexion, lateral and anteroposterior translation. Besides, a decrease in lateral tilting and all translation of the pelvis was found when comparing RATW with TW. Furthermore, the anteroposterior tilting of the pelvis increased during RATW. In general, there was a decrease in trunk and pelvis movement amplitude during RATW compared with regular TW. Though, it is not known if these changes are responsible for the limited efficacy of robot assisted gait rehabilitation. Further research is indicated.

  10. Treadmill training with partial body weight support after stroke: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Restoration and improvement of gait after stroke are major aspects of neurorehabilitation. Mobilization out of the bed into the wheelchair and verticalisation with the help of a standing frame are first steps. With the patient cardiovascular stable, gait restoration is put on the agenda. Instead of tone-inhibiting and gait preparatory maneuvers, patients should practice complex gait cycles repetitively. Treadmill training with partial body weight support enables the harness-secured patients to practice numerous steps assisted by two or three therapists. In controlled studies, it proved equally effective as walking on the floor. Gait machines, as the Lokomat or the Gait Trainer GTI, intend to relieve the strenuous effort for the therapists. For the GTI, several controlled trials showed a superior effect in acute stroke patients with respect to walking ability and velocity. For the ambulatory patient, aerobic treadmill training is effective to improve speed and endurance without worsening gait quality. Belt velocity and inclination are gradually increased so that the patients reach a predefined target heart rate. On the belt, patients walk more symmetrically, and higher velocities result in a facilitation of paretic muscles and render gait more efficient. In summary, gait rehabilitation has seen dramatic changes over the last years. More is to be expected.

  11. Support vector machine classification of Major Depressive Disorder using diffusion-weighted neuroimaging and graph theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Sacchet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been considerable interest in understanding brain networks in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. Neural pathways can be tracked in the living brain using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI; graph theory can then be used to study properties of the resulting fiber networks. To date, global abnormalities have not been reported in tractography-based graph metrics in MDD, so we used a machine learning approach based on ‘support vector machines’ to differentiate depressed from healthy individuals based on multiple brain network properties. We also assessed how important specific graph metrics were for this differentiation. Finally, we conducted a local graph analysis to identify abnormal connectivity at specific nodes of the network. We were able to classify depression using whole-brain graph metrics. Small-worldness was the most useful graph metric for classification. The right pars orbitalis, right inferior parietal cortex, and left rostral anterior cingulate all showed abnormal network connectivity in MDD. This is the first use of structural global graph metrics to classify depressed individuals. These findings highlight the importance of future research to understand network properties in depression across imaging modalities, improve classification results, and relate network alterations to psychiatric symptoms, medication, and co-morbidities.

  12. Support vector machine classification of major depressive disorder using diffusion-weighted neuroimaging and graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Prasad, Gautam; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Thompson, Paul M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in understanding brain networks in major depressive disorder (MDD). Neural pathways can be tracked in the living brain using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI); graph theory can then be used to study properties of the resulting fiber networks. To date, global abnormalities have not been reported in tractography-based graph metrics in MDD, so we used a machine learning approach based on "support vector machines" to differentiate depressed from healthy individuals based on multiple brain network properties. We also assessed how important specific graph metrics were for this differentiation. Finally, we conducted a local graph analysis to identify abnormal connectivity at specific nodes of the network. We were able to classify depression using whole-brain graph metrics. Small-worldness was the most useful graph metric for classification. The right pars orbitalis, right inferior parietal cortex, and left rostral anterior cingulate all showed abnormal network connectivity in MDD. This is the first use of structural global graph metrics to classify depressed individuals. These findings highlight the importance of future research to understand network properties in depression across imaging modalities, improve classification results, and relate network alterations to psychiatric symptoms, medication, and comorbidities.

  13. Weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation, emotional social support, and physical activity in underserved adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; Lawman, Hannah G; Van Horn, M Lee

    2013-05-01

    This study examined weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation (controlled, autonomous, regulatory), emotional social support (parents, peers) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in underserved adolescents (ethnic minority, low-income). Participants from the Active by Choice Today Trial (n = 1,416; 54% girls, 73% African American, 52% overweight/obese) completed baseline measures, including height and weight, psychosocial surveys, and 7-day accelerometry estimates. Weight status was defined by body mass index z-score (zBMI). Weight status moderated the effects of controlled, autonomous, and regulatory motivation on MVPA, such that these variables were more strongly associated with MVPA in adolescents with lower versus higher zBMI scores. A better understanding of why motivation is not related to MVPA in underserved youth with a higher weight status is needed. Future pediatric obesity treatment in underserved youth may need to move beyond motivation into environmental factors associated with long-term behavior change.

  14. Quantifying the passive gamma signal from spent nuclear fuel in support of determining the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel with nondestructive assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The objective of safeguarding nuclear material is to deter diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials by timely monitoring and detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel (SF), by means of nondestructive assay (NDA), in order to meet this goal. These motivations include the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguard nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from SF; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium in SF. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of 13 NDA techniques for characterizing Pu mass in spent fuel. This paper focuses on the development of a passive gamma measurement system in support the spent fuel assay system. Gamma ray detection for fresh nuclear fuel focuses on gamma ray emissions that directly coincide with the actinides of interest to the assay. For example, the 186-keV gamma ray is generally used for {sup 235}U assay and the 384-keV complex is generally used for assaying plutonium. In spent nuclear fuel, these signatures cannot be detected as the Compton continuum created from the fission products dominates the signal in this energy range. For SF, the measured gamma signatures from key fission products ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 154}Eu) are used to ascertain burnup, cooling time, and fissile content information. In this paper the Monte Carlo modeling set-up for a passive gamma spent fuel assay system will be described. The set-up of the system includes a germanium detector and an ion chamber and will be used to gain passive gamma information that will be integrated into a system for determining Pu in SF. The passive gamma signal will be determined from a library of {approx} 100 assemblies that have been

  15. Can Hypocaloric, High-Protein Nutrition Support Be Used in Complicated Bariatric Patients to Promote Weight Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Mara Lee; Crowley, Nina

    2015-08-01

    Bariatric surgery, an effective treatment for morbid obesity, may result in complications that require nutrition support. Common goals for nutrition support in post-bariatric surgery patients include nutrition repletion, avoiding overfeeding, preserving lean body mass, and promoting wound healing. It is often questioned if continued weight loss can be part of the nutrition goals and if weight loss is safe for patients who become critically ill following bariatric surgery. Recent clinical practice guidelines from both the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) and Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) have recommended the use of hypocaloric, high-protein nutrition support in both critically and non-critically ill obese patients. Hypocaloric feedings of 50%-70% of estimated energy requirements based on predictive equations or obesity. Two small studies in complicated post-bariatric surgery patients requiring nutrition support have shown that the strategy of hypocaloric, high-protein feedings can result in positive outcomes, including positive nitrogen balance, wound healing, weight loss, and successful transition to oral diets. Additional research, including large, randomized studies, is still needed to validate these findings. However, based on a review of available clinical practice guidelines, predictive equations, indirect calorimetry, case studies, and systematic reviews, hypocaloric, high-protein nutrition support appears to at least be equal to eucaloric feedings and may be a useful tool for clinicians to achieve continued weight loss in complicated bariatric surgery patients requiring nutrition support. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. Improving anti-bullying laws and policies to protect youth from weight-based victimization: parental support for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Suh, Y; Li, X

    2017-04-01

    Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015. Identical online questionnaires were completed by two independent national samples of parents in 2014 and 2015 (N = 1804). Parental support for all policy actions was high (at least 81%) and significantly increased from 2014 to 2015 for legal measures that would a) require state anti-bullying laws to add protections against weight-based bullying, and b) enact a federal anti-bullying law that includes weight-based bullying. These findings can inform policy discourse about remedies for youth bullying, and suggest that parental support for improved legal protections against weight-based bullying is present, consistent, and strong. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. A reliability study on brain activation during active and passive arm movements supported by an MRI-compatible robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Yu, Ningbo; Brügger, Mike; Villiger, Michael; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Riener, Robert; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-11-01

    In neurorehabilitation, longitudinal assessment of arm movement related brain function in patients with motor disability is challenging due to variability in task performance. MRI-compatible robots monitor and control task performance, yielding more reliable evaluation of brain function over time. The main goals of the present study were first to define the brain network activated while performing active and passive elbow movements with an MRI-compatible arm robot (MaRIA) in healthy subjects, and second to test the reproducibility of this activation over time. For the fMRI analysis two models were compared. In model 1 movement onset and duration were included, whereas in model 2 force and range of motion were added to the analysis. Reliability of brain activation was tested with several statistical approaches applied on individual and group activation maps and on summary statistics. The activated network included mainly the primary motor cortex, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal cortex, medial and lateral premotor regions, and subcortical structures. Reliability analyses revealed robust activation for active movements with both fMRI models and all the statistical methods used. Imposed passive movements also elicited mainly robust brain activation for individual and group activation maps, and reliability was improved by including additional force and range of motion using model 2. These findings demonstrate that the use of robotic devices, such as MaRIA, can be useful to reliably assess arm movement related brain activation in longitudinal studies and may contribute in studies evaluating therapies and brain plasticity following injury in the nervous system.

  18. Tail nerve electrical stimulation induces body weight-supported stepping in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-03-30

    Walking or stepping has been considered the result from the activation of the central pattern generator (CPG). In most patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) the CPG is undamaged. To date, there are no noninvasive approaches for activating the CPG. Recently we developed a noninvasive technique, tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES), which can induce positive hind limb movement of SCI rats. The purpose of this study is to introduce the novel technique and examine the effect of TANES on CPG activation. A 25 mm contusion injury was produced at spinal cord T10 of female, adult Long-Evans rats by using the NYU impactor device. Rats received TANES ( approximately 40 mA at 4 kHz) 7 weeks after injury. During TANES all injured rats demonstrated active body weight-supported stepping of hind limbs with left-right alternation and occasional front-hind coordination, resulting in significant, temporary increase in BBB scores (p<0.01). However, there is no response to TANES from rats with L2 transection, consistent with other reports that the CPG may be located at L1-2. S1 transection negatively implies the key role of TANES in CPG activation. The TANES not only renders paralyzed rats with a technique-induced ability to walk via activating CPG, but also is likely to be used for locomotor training. It has more beneficial effects for physical training over other training paradigms including treadmill training and invasive functional electrical stimulation. Therefore the TANES may have considerable potential for achieving improvement of functional recovery in animal models and a similar method may be suggested for human study. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscle activity during backward and forward running with body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Kenji; Soucy, Michael T; Bailey, Joshua P; Mercer, John A

    2017-10-01

    We investigated muscle activity during backward (BR) and forward (FR) running with body weight support (BWS). Ten participants completed BR and FR on a lower body positive pressure treadmill while selecting a preferred speed (PS) for different BWS conditions (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%BWS). Muscle activity from the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GA), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), preferred stride frequency (PSF), and PS were measured. Magnitude of muscle activity (BF, TA, and GA), RPE, PSF, and PS were not influenced by the interaction of direction and BWS (P>0.05). BF, TA, and GA were not different between directions (P>0.05) but were different between BWS conditions (P<0.01). RF was influenced by the interaction of direction and BWS (P<0.01). RF, BF, TA, and GA during BR were lower with increasing BWS. RF during BR was 59-86% higher than that of FR within BWS condition. RPE was lower with increasing BWS (P<0.001), regardless of direction of locomotion. PSF was lower and PS was higher during BR and FR with increasing BWS (both P<0.001). PSF during BR was 6-9% higher than that of FR. PS during BR was 24-31% lower than that of FR. These observations demonstrate that a change in BWS influences magnitude of muscle activity, PS, PSF, and RPE for both BR and FR. However, a change in direction of locomotion may not influence magnitude of muscle activity or RPE during running for a given BWS, even though muscle activity pattern, PS, and PSF were different between BR and FR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-related differences in the control of weight-shifting within the surface of support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.; Caljouw, S.R.; Coppens, M.J.M.; Postema, K.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Lamoth, C.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: An important reason for falling in elderly is incorrect weight-shifting¹. In many daily life activities quick and accurate weight-shifting is needed to maintain balance, especially in situations when balance is suddenly disturbed and anticipation on the upcoming movement is

  1. Passive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Emile

    2018-01-01

    This paper does not present an advocacy of a passive education as opposed to an active education nor does it propose that passive education is in any way 'better' or more important than active education. Through readings of Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida and B.S. Johnson, and gentle critiques of Jacques Rancière and John Dewey, passive…

  2. People trying to lose weight dislike calorie counting apps and want motivational support to help them achieve their goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Solbrig

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: There is a mismatch between the help provided via public health information campaigns and commercially available weight-loss self-help (lifestyle information, self-monitoring, and the help that individuals actually desire (motivational and autonomous e-support, posing an opportunity to develop more effective electronic, theory-driven, motivational, self-help interventions.

  3. Feasibility of Using an Arm Weight-Supported Training System to Improve Hand Function Skills in Children With Hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Swetha; Coletti, Daniel J; Berlin, Hilary; Friel, Kathleen

    This investigation was a pilot feasibility trial evaluating the use of an arm-weight-supported training device to improve upper-extremity function in children with hemiplegia. A single-group within-subject design was used. Participants were 6 children ages 7-17 yr with upper-extremity weakness secondary to hemiplegia. The intervention consisted of 15-18 treatment sessions using an arm-weight-supported training device with the affected upper extremity. Fine motor function was assessed using the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, the Box and Block Test, and the Assisting Hand Assessment. We examined participants' interactions with the device and assessment scores pre- and postintervention. Five of the 6 children exhibited some changes after the therapy. The system required significant modifications to ensure appropriate positioning. The arm-weight-supported system may be viable for therapeutic use. Future studies should use randomized controlled designs and compare effectiveness of weight-supported training with that of other rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Modeling DNA affinity landscape through two-round support vector regression with weighted degree kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiaolei

    2014-12-12

    Background: A quantitative understanding of interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their DNA binding sites is key to the rational design of gene regulatory networks. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have enabled high-resolution measurements of protein-DNA binding affinity. Importantly, such experiments revealed the complex nature of TF-DNA interactions, whereby the effects of nucleotide changes on the binding affinity were observed to be context dependent. A systematic method to give high-quality estimates of such complex affinity landscapes is, thus, essential to the control of gene expression and the advance of synthetic biology. Results: Here, we propose a two-round prediction method that is based on support vector regression (SVR) with weighted degree (WD) kernels. In the first round, a WD kernel with shifts and mismatches is used with SVR to detect the importance of subsequences with different lengths at different positions. The subsequences identified as important in the first round are then fed into a second WD kernel to fit the experimentally measured affinities. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to increase the accuracy of the affinity prediction by applying two rounds of string kernels and by identifying a small number of crucial k-mers. The proposed method was tested by predicting the binding affinity landscape of Gcn4p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using datasets from HiTS-FLIP. Our method explicitly identified important subsequences and showed significant performance improvements when compared with other state-of-the-art methods. Based on the identified important subsequences, we discovered two surprisingly stable 10-mers and one sensitive 10-mer which were not reported before. Further test on four other TFs in S. cerevisiae demonstrated the generality of our method. Conclusion: We proposed in this paper a two-round method to quantitatively model the DNA binding affinity landscape. Since the ability to modify

  5. Support vector machine for breast cancer classification using diffusion-weighted MRI histogram features: Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidić, Igor; Egnell, Liv; Jerome, Neil P; Teruel, Jose R; Sjøbakk, Torill E; Østlie, Agnes; Fjøsne, Hans E; Bathen, Tone F; Goa, Pål Erik

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is currently one of the fastest developing MRI-based techniques in oncology. Histogram properties from model fitting of DWI are useful features for differentiation of lesions, and classification can potentially be improved by machine learning. To evaluate classification of malignant and benign tumors and breast cancer subtypes using support vector machine (SVM). Prospective. Fifty-one patients with benign (n = 23) and malignant (n = 28) breast tumors (26 ER+, whereof six were HER2+). Patients were imaged with DW-MRI (3T) using twice refocused spin-echo echo-planar imaging with echo time / repetition time (TR/TE) = 9000/86 msec, 90 × 90 matrix size, 2 × 2 mm in-plane resolution, 2.5 mm slice thickness, and 13 b-values. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), relative enhanced diffusivity (RED), and the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters diffusivity (D), pseudo-diffusivity (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) were calculated. The histogram properties (median, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis) were used as features in SVM (10-fold cross-validation) for differentiation of lesions and subtyping. Accuracies of the SVM classifications were calculated to find the combination of features with highest prediction accuracy. Mann-Whitney tests were performed for univariate comparisons. For benign versus malignant tumors, univariate analysis found 11 histogram properties to be significant differentiators. Using SVM, the highest accuracy (0.96) was achieved from a single feature (mean of RED), or from three feature combinations of IVIM or ADC. Combining features from all models gave perfect classification. No single feature predicted HER2 status of ER + tumors (univariate or SVM), although high accuracy (0.90) was achieved with SVM combining several features. Importantly, these features had to include higher-order statistics (kurtosis and skewness), indicating the importance to account for heterogeneity. Our

  6. An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. Objective To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. Methods De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC’s Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (–500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Results

  7. An 8-week web-based weight loss challenge with celebrity endorsement and enhanced social support: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchesson, Melinda J; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-07-04

    Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC's Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (-500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Using GLMM, including weight data for all

  8. Clinical Efficacy of Jump Training Augmented With Body Weight Support After ACL Reconstruction: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Audrey R C; Harris, Kari J; LaStayo, Paul C; Mizner, Ryan L

    2018-06-01

    Limited knee flexion and increased muscle co-contraction during jump landing are believed to diminish outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The efficacy of jump training to improve patients' mechanical and neuromuscular deficits is understudied. Jump training will improve functional, mechanical, and neuromuscular outcomes and higher repetition training augmented by body weight support will result in better retention of gains. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Thirty athletes (18 months after surgery) were screened, and 19 with mechanical deficits and limited clinical outcomes were enrolled in the trial. Testing included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) questionnaire, leg landing mechanics via motion analysis, knee joint effusion using a stroke test, and a surface electromyography-generated co-contraction index during a single-legged landing. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: jump training with normal body weight (JTBW) and high-repetition jump training with body weight support (JTBWS). Knee effusion grading throughout training was used to assess joint tolerance. Changes in outcomes over time were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling. Immediate outcomes were compared with retention testing at 8 weeks after training by use of 2-way analyses of variance with effects of time and group. Significant effects of time were found during the training phase for all outcome measures, but no effects of group or sex were found. IKDC score (pooled; mean ± SD) increased from 76 ± 12 to 87 ± 8 ( P Jump training mitigated some risk factors for second injury and osteoarthritis in patients after ACL reconstruction. Training made lasting improvements in physical function measures as well as mechanical and neuromuscular coordination deficits. Higher repetitions used with body weight support did not improve retention but substantially reduced risk for effusion. Jump training is an efficacious

  9. PubMed-supported clinical term weighting approach for improving inter-patient similarity measure in diagnosis prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lawrence Wc; Liu, Ying; Chan, Tao; Law, Helen Kw; Wong, S C Cesar; Yeung, Andy Ph; Lo, K F; Yeung, S W; Kwok, K Y; Chan, William Yl; Lau, Thomas Yh; Shyu, Chi-Ren

    2015-06-02

    Similarity-based retrieval of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) from large clinical information systems provides physicians the evidence support in making diagnoses or referring examinations for the suspected cases. Clinical Terms in EHRs represent high-level conceptual information and the similarity measure established based on these terms reflects the chance of inter-patient disease co-occurrence. The assumption that clinical terms are equally relevant to a disease is unrealistic, reducing the prediction accuracy. Here we propose a term weighting approach supported by PubMed search engine to address this issue. We collected and studied 112 abdominal computed tomography imaging examination reports from four hospitals in Hong Kong. Clinical terms, which are the image findings related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), were extracted from the reports. Through two systematic PubMed search methods, the generic and specific term weightings were established by estimating the conditional probabilities of clinical terms given HCC. Each report was characterized by an ontological feature vector and there were totally 6216 vector pairs. We optimized the modified direction cosine (mDC) with respect to a regularization constant embedded into the feature vector. Equal, generic and specific term weighting approaches were applied to measure the similarity of each pair and their performances for predicting inter-patient co-occurrence of HCC diagnoses were compared by using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. The Areas under the curves (AUROCs) of similarity scores based on equal, generic and specific term weighting approaches were 0.735, 0.728 and 0.743 respectively (p PubMed. Our findings suggest that the optimized similarity measure with specific term weighting to EHRs can improve significantly the accuracy for predicting the inter-patient co-occurrence of diagnosis when compared with equal and generic term weighting approaches.

  10. FEM static analysis for the ITER gravity support system under the combined action of the dead weight and seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shangming; Yan Xijiang; Mo Chunhua; Hou Binglin; Li Pengyuan; Jian Guangde; Liu Dequan; Zhou Caipin

    2010-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the gravity support system of ITER, a finite element static analysis method of the system was proposed. ANSYS was applied to built the three dimensional model of the system. A mesh dividing method,which has high precision and an acceptable calculating scale, was used. After the mesh of the model had been divided, the contact elements were defined on interfaces between volumes. The finite element static analysis of the gravity support system under the dead weight and seismic loads was performed. The stress distributions and the maximal stress values of all parts of the gravity support system were obtained, and the stress strength of the parts was analyzed. The results showed that the maximum stresses of the TF leg, the flexible-plate, the ring support and the support column occur respectively on the joint of TF leg and equivalent toroidal shell, at the corner of the weld joint of the flexible-plate and its lower flange, on the joint of the upper transverse plane and internal stiffening rib of the ring support, and on the support column's upper transverse plane. These maximum stresses are smaller than their respective allowable stress limits. All parts of the gravity support system have enough mechanical strength according to the ASME See. III-NF Code. The results of static analysis lay the solid foundation for the design and improvement of the gravity supports system of ITER. (authors)

  11. Body weight-supported treadmill training vs. overground walking training for persons with chronic stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Miller, Stephanie A; Kalpathi Parameswaran, Anu; Colburn, Dawn; Ertel, Tara; Harmeyer, Amanda; Tucker, Lindsay; Schmid, Arlene A

    2014-09-01

    To compare the effects of body weight-supported treadmill training and overground walking training when matched for task and dose (duration/frequency/intensity) on improving walking function, activity, and participation after stroke. Single-blind, pilot randomized controlled trial with three-month follow-up. University and community settings. A convenience sample of participants (N = 20) at least six months post-stroke and able to walk independently were recruited. Thirty-minute walking interventions (body weight-supported treadmill training or overground walking training) were administered five times a week for two weeks. Intensity was monitored with the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale at five-minute increments to maintain a moderate training intensity. Walking speed (comfortable/fast 10-meter walk), walking endurance (6-minute walk), spatiotemporal symmetry, and the ICF Measure of Participation and ACTivity were assessed before, immediately after, and three months following the intervention. The overground walking training group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in comfortable walking speed compared with the body weight-supported treadmill training group immediately (change of 0.11 m/s vs. 0.06 m/s, respectively; p = 0.047) and three months (change of 0.14 m/s vs. 0.08 m/s, respectively; p = 0.029) after training. Only the overground walking training group significantly improved comfortable walking speed (p = 0.001), aspects of gait symmetry (p = 0.032), and activity (p = 0.003) immediately after training. Gains were maintained at the three-month follow-up (p training was more beneficial than body weight-supported treadmill training at improving self-selected walking speed for the participants in this study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. A Challenge-Based Approach to Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training Poststroke: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Avantika; Brown, David; Roth, Elliot

    2018-05-03

    Body weight support treadmill training protocols in conjunction with other modalities are commonly used to improve poststroke balance and walking function. However, typical body weight support paradigms tend to use consistently stable balance conditions, often with handrail support and or manual assistance. In this paper, we describe our study protocol, which involved 2 unique body weight support treadmill training paradigms of similar training intensity that integrated dynamic balance challenges to help improve ambulatory function post stroke. The first paradigm emphasized walking without any handrails or manual assistance, that is, hands-free walking, and served as the control group, whereas the second paradigm incorporated practicing 9 essential challenging mobility skills, akin to environmental barriers encountered during community ambulation along with hands-free walking (ie hands-free + challenge walking). We recruited individuals with chronic poststroke hemiparesis and randomized them to either group. Participants trained for 6 weeks on a self-driven, robotic treadmill interface that provided body weight support and a safe gait-training environment. We assessed participants at pre-, mid- and post 6 weeks of intervention-training, with a 6-month follow-up. We hypothesized greater walking improvements in the hands-free + challenge walking group following training because of increased practice opportunity of essential mobility skills along with hands-free walking. We assessed 77 individuals with chronic hemiparesis, and enrolled and randomized 30 individuals poststroke for our study (hands-free group=19 and hands-free + challenge walking group=20) from June 2012 to January 2015. Data collection along with 6-month follow-up continued until January 2016. Our primary outcome measure is change in comfortable walking speed from pre to post intervention for each group. We will also assess feasibility, adherence, postintervention efficacy, and changes in various

  13. Social Support for Exercise as a Predictor of Weight and Physical Activity Status Among Puerto Rican and Mexican Men: Results From the Latino Men's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Meredith R; Keefer, Laurie; Rademaker, Alfred; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2018-07-01

    Social support is an important factor in increasing positive health outcomes and positive health behaviors across a variety of disease states including obesity. However, research examining the relationship between social support for exercise and weight and physical activity status, particularly among Latino men, is lacking. This paper examined whether social support for exercise predicted weight and physical activity status and whether the direction of these relationships differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background (Puerto Rican/Mexican). Participants were 203 men who participated in a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study addressing culture- and obesity-related variables. Both family participation social support and f amily rewards and punishment social support predicted higher weight status ( p social support did not predict weight status. The direction of the relationship between weight status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. The direction of the relationship between physical activity status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. Findings suggest that increased social support for exercise from family members may be focused on those who need it most-overweight and obese participants. Additional research is needed to explore sociocultural factors that may promote social support, physical activity, and weight loss and maintenance in Puerto Rican and Mexican men.

  14. Treadmill training with partial body-weight support after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Shen, Weizhong; Jiang, Zhong; Sha, Jiao

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] To compare the effects of treadmill training with partial body weight support (TTPBWS) and conventional physical therapy (PT) on subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 subjects were randomly allocated to either a treatment group or a control group. Subjects received either treadmill training with partial body weight support (treatment group) or conventional physical therapy (control group). The circumferences of the lower extremities, Holden classifications, 10-meter walking times and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were compared at 12 and 24 weeks post-operation. The knee joint stability was tested at 24 weeks post-operation using a KT-1000. [Results] Significant differences were found between the two groups at the 12 weeks post-operation. For most of the measures, there was no significant difference between the groups at 24 weeks post-operation. Interestingly, for most of the measures, there was no significant difference between their values in the treatment group at 12 weeks and their values in the control group at 24 weeks post-operation. [Conclusion] The function of a subject's lower extremities can be improved and the improvement was clearly accelerated by the intervention of treadmill training with partial body weight support, without compromising the stability of the knee joints in a given follow-up period.

  15. Perceived Child Weight Status, Family Structure and Functioning, and Support for Health Behaviors in a Sample of Bariatric Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Ferriby, Megan; Noria, Sabrena; Skelton, Joseph; Taylor, Christopher; Needleman, Bradley

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this study is to describe the associations between bariatric surgery patients' perspectives of their child's weight status, family support for eating and exercise behavior change, and family structure and functioning. A cross-sectional descriptive design with pre- and postsurgery (N = 224) patients was used. Demographics, perceptions of child weight status, family support for eating habits and exercise, and family functioning were assessed from patients at a University Bariatric Clinic. Patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese reported more impaired family functioning, less family exercise participation, and more discouragement for eating habit change in the family compared to patients who did not perceive their child to be overweight/obese. Single parents more often perceived their children to be overweight/obese, and had more impaired family functioning, and less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Patients with impaired family functioning reported less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Bariatric patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese and identified as single parents reported more impaired family functioning and less support for eating habits and family participation in exercise. Assessing pre- and postsurgery measures from parents and children will allow the further identification of relationship variables that can be targeted to promote positive family changes that benefit parents and children long-term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: SBM supports curbing summertime weight gain among America's youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy; Zarrett, Nicole; Beets, Michael W; Hall, Georgia; Buscemi, Joanna; Heard, Amy; Pate, Russell

    2017-12-01

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine recommends adoption of policies at the district, state, and federal levels that minimize weight gain among youth over the summertime, particularly among low-income, minority school-age youth who appear to be at greater risk. Policies that facilitate (1) partnerships between school districts and community organizations to provide affordable summertime programming, (2) strategic efforts by schools and communities to encourage families to enroll and attend summertime programming via the creation of community-wide summertime offerings offices, (3) adoption of joint-use/shared use agreements in communities to promote use of indoor and outdoor school facilities to provide affordable programming during the summer months, and (4) implementation of strategies that help summer programs achieve the Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) standards which have been endorsed by the Healthy Out-of-School Time (HOST) coalition. Research is needed to elucidate key mechanisms by which involvement in structured programming may reduce weight gain over the summer months.

  17. SNOW DEPTH ESTIMATION USING TIME SERIES PASSIVE MICROWAVE IMAGERY VIA GENETICALLY SUPPORT VECTOR REGRESSION (CASE STUDY URMIA LAKE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zahir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Urmia is one of the most important ecosystems of the country which is on the verge of elimination. Many factors contribute to this crisis among them is the precipitation, paly important roll. Precipitation has many forms one of them is in the form of snow. The snow on Sahand Mountain is one of the main and important sources of the Lake Urmia’s water. Snow Depth (SD is vital parameters for estimating water balance for future year. In this regards, this study is focused on SD parameter using Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I instruments on board the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F16. The usual statistical methods for retrieving SD include linear and non-linear ones. These methods used least square procedure to estimate SD model. Recently, kernel base methods widely used for modelling statistical problem. From these methods, the support vector regression (SVR is achieved the high performance for modelling the statistical problem. Examination of the obtained data shows the existence of outlier in them. For omitting these outliers, wavelet denoising method is applied. After the omission of the outliers it is needed to select the optimum bands and parameters for SVR. To overcome these issues, feature selection methods have shown a direct effect on improving the regression performance. We used genetic algorithm (GA for selecting suitable features of the SSMI bands in order to estimate SD model. The results for the training and testing data in Sahand mountain is [R²_TEST=0.9049 and RMSE= 6.9654] that show the high SVR performance.

  18. The effectiveness of body weight-supported gait training and floor walking in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurala, Sinikka H; Tarkka, Ina M; Pitkänen, Kauko; Sivenius, Juhani

    2005-08-01

    To compare body weight-supported exercise on a gait trainer with walking exercise overground. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation hospital. Forty-five ambulatory patients with chronic stroke. Patients were randomized to 3 groups: (1) gait trainer exercise with functional electric stimulation (GTstim), (2) gait trainer exercise without stimulation (GT), and (3) walking overground (WALK). All patients practiced gait for 15 sessions during 3 weeks (each session, 20 min), and they received additional physiotherapy 55 minutes daily. Ten-meter walk test (10MWT), six-minute walk test (6MWT), lower-limb spasticity and muscle force, postural sway tests, Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS), and FIM instrument scores were recorded before, during, and after the rehabilitation and at 6 months follow-up. The mean walking distance using the gait trainer was 6900+/-1200 m in the GTstim group and 6500+/-1700 m in GT group. In the WALK group, the distance was 4800+/-2800 m, which was less than the walking distance obtained in the GTstim group (P=.027). The body-weight support was individually reduced from 30% to 9% of the body weight over the course of the program. In the pooled 45 patients, the 10MWT (Pgait after the intensive rehabilitation program. Patients' motor performance remained improved at the follow-up.

  19. GIS Supported Landslide Susceptibility Modeling at Regional Scale: An Expert-Based Fuzzy Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is landslide susceptibility assessment using fuzzy expert-based modeling. Factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as elevation, slope, aspect, lithology, land cover, precipitation and seismicity were considered. Expert-based fuzzy weighting (EFW approach was used to combine these factors for landslide susceptibility mapping (Peloponnese, Greece. This method produced a landslide susceptibility map of the investigated area. The landslides under investigation have more or less same characteristics: lateral based and downslope shallow movement of soils or rocks. The validation of the model reveals, that predicted susceptibility levels are found to be in good agreement with the past landslide occurrences. Hence, the obtained landslide susceptibility map could be acceptable, for landslide hazard prevention and mitigation at regional scale.

  20. Modeling DNA affinity landscape through two-round support vector regression with weighted degree kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiaolei; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    high-quality estimates of such complex affinity landscapes is, thus, essential to the control of gene expression and the advance of synthetic biology. Results: Here, we propose a two-round prediction method that is based on support vector regression

  1. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  2. The Weighted Support Vector Machine Based on Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Optimization for Icing Prediction of Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Not only can the icing coat on transmission line cause the electrical fault of gap discharge and icing flashover but also it will lead to the mechanical failure of tower, conductor, insulators, and others. It will bring great harm to the people’s daily life and work. Thus, accurate prediction of ice thickness has important significance for power department to control the ice disaster effectively. Based on the analysis of standard support vector machine, this paper presents a weighted support vector machine regression model based on the similarity (WSVR. According to the different importance of samples, this paper introduces the weighted support vector machine and optimizes its parameters by hybrid swarm intelligence optimization algorithm with the particle swarm and ant colony (PSO-ACO, which improves the generalization ability of the model. In the case study, the actual data of ice thickness and climate in a certain area of Hunan province have been used to predict the icing thickness of the area, which verifies the validity and applicability of this proposed method. The predicted results show that the intelligent model proposed in this paper has higher precision and stronger generalization ability.

  3. Gait analysis following treadmill training with body weight support versus conventional physical therapy: a prospective randomized controlled single blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucareli, P R; Lima, M O; Lima, F P S; de Almeida, J G; Brech, G C; D'Andréa Greve, J M

    2011-09-01

    Single-blind randomized, controlled clinical study. To evaluate, using kinematic gait analysis, the results obtained from gait training on a treadmill with body weight support versus those obtained with conventional gait training and physiotherapy. Thirty patients with sequelae from traumatic incomplete spinal cord injuries at least 12 months earlier; patients were able to walk and were classified according to motor function as ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) impairment scale C or D. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 15 patients by the drawing of opaque envelopes: group A (weight support) and group B (conventional). After an initial assessment, both groups underwent 30 sessions of gait training. Sessions occurred twice a week, lasted for 30 min each and continued for four months. All of the patients were evaluated by a single blinded examiner using movement analysis to measure angular and linear kinematic gait parameters. Six patients (three from group A and three from group B) were excluded because they attended fewer than 85% of the training sessions. There were no statistically significant differences in intra-group comparisons among the spatial-temporal variables in group B. In group A, the following significant differences in the studied spatial-temporal variables were observed: increases in velocity, distance, cadence, step length, swing phase and gait cycle duration, in addition to a reduction in stance phase. There were also no significant differences in intra-group comparisons among the angular variables in group B. However, group A achieved significant improvements in maximum hip extension and plantar flexion during stance. Gait training with body weight support was more effective than conventional physiotherapy for improving the spatial-temporal and kinematic gait parameters among patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries.

  4. Managing Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Body Weight Supported Physical Activity on Joint Pain, Function, and Thigh Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Jason; Christian, Mathew; Cooper, Juliette; Leiter, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week lower body positive pressure (LBPP)-supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee joint pain, function, and thigh muscle strength in overweight patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, observational, repeated measures investigation. Community-based, multidisciplinary sports medicine clinic. Thirty-one patients aged between 55 and 75 years, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m and mild-to-moderate knee OA. Twelve-week LBPP-supported low-load treadmill walking regimen. Acute knee joint pain (visual analog scale) during full weight bearing treadmill walking, chronic knee pain, and joint function [Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire] during normal activities of daily living, and thigh muscle strength (isokinetic testing). Appropriate methods of statistical analysis were used to compare data from baseline and follow-up evaluation. Participants reported significant improvements in knee joint pain and function and demonstrated significant increases in thigh muscle strength about the degenerative knee. Participants also experienced significant reductions in acute knee pain during full weight bearing treadmill walking and required dramatically less LBPP support to walk pain free on the treadmill. Data suggest that an LBPP-supported low-load exercise regimen can be used to significantly diminish knee pain, enhance joint function, and increase thigh muscle strength, while safely promoting pain-free walking exercise in overweight patients with knee OA. These findings have important implications for the development of nonoperative treatment strategies that can be used in the management of joint symptoms associated with progressive knee OA in at-risk patient populations. This research suggests that LBPP-supported low-load walking is a safe user-friendly mode of exercise that can be successfully used in the management of day-to-day joint symptoms associated with knee OA, helping to improve the

  5. Effectiveness of web-based self-disclosure peer-to-peer support for weight loss: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Mie; Ando, Masahiko; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kawamura, Takashi

    2013-07-09

    Obesity is one of the most common public health problems in the industrialized world as a cause of noncommunicable diseases. Although primarily used for one-on-one communication, email is available for uninterrupted support for weight loss, but little is known about the effects of dietitian group counseling for weight control via the Internet. We developed a Web-based self-disclosure health support (WSHS) system for weight loss. This study aims to compare the effect of weight change between those using the WSHS and those using the email health support (EHS). This study was designed as an open prospective individual randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants were aged 35 to 65 years with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥25.0 in their latest health examination. Participants were randomly assigned to either the WSHS group or the EHS group. Thirteen registered dietitians under the direction of a principal dietitian each instructed 6 to 8 participants from the respective groups. All participants in the WSHS group could receive nutritional advice and calculate their nutritive intake from a photograph of a meal on their computer screen from the Internet sent to them by their dietitian, receive supervision from the registered dietitian, and view fellow participants' weight changes and lifestyle modifications. In the EHS group, a participant could receive one-on-one nutritional advice and calculate his/her nutritive intake from the photograph of a meal on computer screen sent by email from his/her dietitian, without being able to view fellow participants' status. The follow-up period was 12 weeks for both groups. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight. The secondary outcome measure included changes in BMI and waist circumference. The intergroup comparison of the changes before and after intervention was evaluated using analysis of covariance. A total of 193 participants were randomly assigned to either the WSHS group (n=97) or the EHS group (n=96). Ten

  6. A walker with a device of partial suspension for patients with gait disturbance: body weight supported walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Mitsuhiro; Makino, Kenichiro; Wada, Futoshi; Saeki, Satoru; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2009-09-01

    We developed a walker, the Body Weight Supported (BWS) Walker, with a device of partial suspension for patients with gait disturbance. It consists of a light frame with casters, a harness, and a winch system. One therapist alone can perform gait training safely with the BWS Walker without any additional physical load, even if a patient has severe gait disturbance, and the therapist can concentrate on evaluating and improving the patient' s standing balance and gait pattern. Because the BWS Walker is less expensive, simpler, and easier to operate than other BWS systems, we believe the BWS Walker can be widely applicable in training for patients with severe and moderate gait disturbance.

  7. Decision support system in Predicting the Best teacher with Multi Atribute Decesion Making Weighted Product (MADMWP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikhun Solikhun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Predicting of the best teacher in Indonesia aims to spur the development of the growth and improve the quality of the education. In this paper, the predicting  of the best teacher is implemented based on predefined criteria. To help the predicting process, a decision support system is needed. This paper employs Multi Atribute Decesion Making Weighted Product (MADMWP method. The result of this method is tested some teachers in  junior high school islamic boarding Al-Barokah school, Simalungun, North Sumatera, Indonesia. This system can be used to help in solving problems of the best teacher prediction.

  8. Decision support system of e-book provider selection for library using Simple Additive Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptayani, P. I.; Dewi, K. C.

    2018-01-01

    Each library has its own criteria and differences in the importance of each criterion in choosing an e-book provider for them. The large number of providers and the different importance levels of each criterion make the problem of determining the e-book provider to be complex and take a considerable time in decision making. The aim of this study was to implement Decision support system (DSS) to assist the library in selecting the best e-book provider based on their preferences. The way of DSS works is by comparing the importance of each criterion and the condition of each alternative decision. SAW is one of DSS method that is quite simple, fast and widely used. This study used 9 criteria and 18 provider to demonstrate how SAW work in this study. With the DSS, then the decision-making time can be shortened and the calculation results can be more accurate than manual calculations.

  9. Seismic reliability assessment of RC structures including soil–structure interaction using wavelet weighted least squares support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatibinia, Mohsen; Javad Fadaee, Mohammad; Salajegheh, Javad; Salajegheh, Eysa

    2013-01-01

    An efficient metamodeling framework in conjunction with the Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) is introduced to reduce the computational cost in seismic reliability assessment of existing RC structures. In order to achieve this purpose, the metamodel is designed by combining weighted least squares support vector machine (WLS-SVM) and a wavelet kernel function, called wavelet weighted least squares support vector machine (WWLS-SVM). In this study, the seismic reliability assessment of existing RC structures with consideration of soil–structure interaction (SSI) effects is investigated in accordance with Performance-Based Design (PBD). This study aims to incorporate the acceptable performance levels of PBD into reliability theory for comparing the obtained annual probability of non-performance with the target values for each performance level. The MCS method as the most reliable method is utilized to estimate the annual probability of failure associated with a given performance level in this study. In WWLS-SVM-based MCS, the structural seismic responses are accurately predicted by WWLS-SVM for reducing the computational cost. To show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed metamodel, two RC structures are studied. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and computational advantages of the proposed metamodel for the seismic reliability assessment of structures. Furthermore, the consideration of the SSI effects in the seismic reliability assessment of existing RC structures is compared to the fixed base model. It shows which SSI has the significant influence on the seismic reliability assessment of structures.

  10. Robot-Assisted Body-Weight-Supported Treadmill Training in Gait Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łyp, Marek; Stanisławska, Iwona; Witek, Bożena; Olszewska-Żaczek, Ewelina; Czarny-Działak, Małgorzata; Kaczor, Ryszard

    2018-02-13

    This study deals with the use of a robot-assisted body-weight-supported treadmill training in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with gait dysfunction. Twenty MS patients (10 men and 10 women) of the mean of 46.3 ± 8.5 years were assigned to a six-week-long training period with the use of robot-assisted treadmill training of increasing intensity of the Lokomat type. The outcome measure consisted of the difference in motion-dependent torque of lower extremity joint muscles after training compared with baseline before training. We found that the training uniformly and significantly augmented the torque of both extensors and flexors of the hip and knee joints. The muscle power in the lower limbs of SM patients was improved, leading to corrective changes of disordered walking movements, which enabled the patients to walk with less effort and less assistance of care givers. The torque augmentation could have its role in affecting the function of the lower extremity muscle groups during walking. The results of this pilot study suggest that the robot-assisted body-weight-supported treadmill training may be a potential adjunct measure in the rehabilitation paradigm of 'gait reeducation' in peripheral neuropathies.

  11. Body weight-supported bedside treadmill training facilitates ambulation in ICU patients: An interventional proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Juultje; Wieferink, Denise C; Dongelmans, Dave A; Nollet, Frans; Engelbert, Raoul H H; van der Schaaf, Marike

    2017-10-01

    Early mobilisation is advocated to improve recovery of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. However, severe weakness in combination with tubes, lines and machinery are practical barriers for the implementation of ambulation with critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training (BWSTT) in critically ill patients in the ICU. A custom build bedside Body Weight-Supported Treadmill was used and evaluated in medical and surgical patients in the ICU. Feasibility was evaluated according to eligibility, successful number of BWSTT, number of staff needed, adverse events, number of patients that could not have walked without BWSTT, patient satisfaction and anxiety. Twenty participants, underwent 54 sessions BWSTT. Two staff members executed the BWSTT and no adverse events occurred. Medical equipment did not have to be disconnected during all treatment sessions. In 74% of the sessions, the participants would not have been able to walk without the BWSTT. Patient satisfaction with BWSTT was high and anxiety low. This proof of concept study demonstrated that BWSTT is safe, reduces staff resource, and facilitates the first time to ambulation in critically ill patients with severe muscle weakness in the ICU. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Catarina O; Barela, José A; Prado-Medeiros, Christiane L; Salvini, Tania F; Barela, Ana M F

    2009-12-01

    Body weight support (BWS) systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years) were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical assistance.

  13. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barela Ana MF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight support (BWS systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Methods Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. Results The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Conclusion Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical

  14. Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support: a randomized controlled trial of a theory-based weight loss program for couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A. Gorin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity risk is shared between spouses, yet existing weight loss programs focus on individuals and not the marital dyad. Given the interdependence of weight in couples, weight management outcomes might be improved by targeting joint weight loss and the creation of an interpersonal milieu that supports long-term behavior change. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT, greater autonomous self-regulation of behaviors, and subsequently better treatment outcomes, are observed in needs supportive environments in which personally meaningful choice is supported and criticism and control are minimized. Correlational analyses confirm these pathways in weight management, with needs support from one’s spouse or partner emerging as a distinct predictor of weight loss success. Research is now needed to establish causal links and to develop and test weight loss interventions designed to facilitate the needs supportive behavior of spouses. Methods Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support is a randomized controlled trial testing a couples-based intervention, grounded in SDT, designed to change the social context of weight loss by training spouses to provide needs support for each other’s eating and physical activity behavior. Sixty-four couples will be randomized to either 6 months of behavioral weight loss treatment informed by SDT (SDT-WL or to 6 months of standard behavioral weight loss treatment (BWL. Couples will attend weekly sessions for 6 months and will be assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. By bolstering needs support, SDT-WL is predicted to increase autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence and produce greater weight loss and maintenance than standard behavioral treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine the SDT process model prediction that the influence of needs support on treatment outcomes will be mediated by autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence. Discussion This

  15. Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support): a randomized controlled trial of a theory-based weight loss program for couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A; Powers, Theodore A; Gettens, Katelyn; Cornelius, Talea; Koestner, Richard; Mobley, Amy R; Pescatello, Linda; Medina, Tania Huedo

    2017-09-29

    Obesity risk is shared between spouses, yet existing weight loss programs focus on individuals and not the marital dyad. Given the interdependence of weight in couples, weight management outcomes might be improved by targeting joint weight loss and the creation of an interpersonal milieu that supports long-term behavior change. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), greater autonomous self-regulation of behaviors, and subsequently better treatment outcomes, are observed in needs supportive environments in which personally meaningful choice is supported and criticism and control are minimized. Correlational analyses confirm these pathways in weight management, with needs support from one's spouse or partner emerging as a distinct predictor of weight loss success. Research is now needed to establish causal links and to develop and test weight loss interventions designed to facilitate the needs supportive behavior of spouses. Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support) is a randomized controlled trial testing a couples-based intervention, grounded in SDT, designed to change the social context of weight loss by training spouses to provide needs support for each other's eating and physical activity behavior. Sixty-four couples will be randomized to either 6 months of behavioral weight loss treatment informed by SDT (SDT-WL) or to 6 months of standard behavioral weight loss treatment (BWL). Couples will attend weekly sessions for 6 months and will be assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. By bolstering needs support, SDT-WL is predicted to increase autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence and produce greater weight loss and maintenance than standard behavioral treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine the SDT process model prediction that the influence of needs support on treatment outcomes will be mediated by autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence. This study addresses the fundamental importance of interpersonal

  16. Effects of maternal pregnancy intention, depressive symptoms and social support on risk of low birth weight: a prospective study from southwestern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Dibaba Wado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is the principal risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality in developing countries. This study examines the effects of unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support on the risk of low birth weight in rural southwestern Ethiopia. We hypothesized that unwanted pregnancy and prenatal depression increase the risk of low birth weight, while social support mediates this association. METHODS: Data for the study comes from a prospective study in which women were followed from pregnancy through to delivery. Six hundred twenty two women were followed and 537 birth weights were measured within 72 hours. Multivariable log binomial regression was used to model the risk of low birth weight. RESULTS: The mean birth weight was 2989 grams (SD ± 504 grams, and the incidence of LBW was 17.88%. The mean birth weight of babies after unwanted pregnancy was 114 g lower compared to births from intended pregnancy. Similarly, mean birth weight for babies among women with symptoms of antenatal depression was 116 grams lower. Results of unadjusted log-binomial regression showed that unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support were associated with LBW. The relationship between antenatal depressive symptoms and LBW was mediated by the presence of social support, while the association between LBW and unwanted pregnancy remained after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: The incidence of low birth weight is high in the study area. Poverty, nonuse of antenatal care, low social support and unwanted pregnancy contribute to this high incidence of low birth weight. Hence, identifying women's pregnancy intention during antenatal care visits, and providing appropriate counseling and social support will help improve birth outcomes.

  17. 'Are you still on that stupid diet?': women's experiences of societal pressure and support regarding weight loss, and attitudes towards health policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, Katie; Gillison, Fiona B; Smith, Paula C

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated how people's attitudes and motivations towards losing weight are influenced by societal pressures surrounding weight loss, their interaction with the obesogenic environment and individuals' attitudes and motivations towards weight. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women currently attending commercial weight-loss programmes. Participants experienced conflicting messages regarding weight norms, with the media portraying powerful social norms relating to thinness and beauty, and changes to the food environment and interactions with family and friends commonly undermining weight-loss activities and promoting increased consumption. Providing social and environmental support for the behaviours needed to produce weight loss may need to be a primary focus for obesity policy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Three-site mechanism and molecular weight: Time dependency in liquid propylene batch polymerization using a MgCl2-supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimizu, Fumihiko; Pater, J.T.M.; Weickert, G.

    2001-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the molecular weight of propylene homopolymer decreases with time, and that the molecular weight distribution (MWD) narrows when a highly active MgCl2-supported catalyst is used in a liquid pool polymerization at constant H2 concentration and temperature. To track the

  19. Cuckoo search with Lévy flights for weighted Bayesian energy functional optimization in global-support curve data fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Akemi; Iglesias, Andrés; Cabellos, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The problem of data fitting is very important in many theoretical and applied fields. In this paper, we consider the problem of optimizing a weighted Bayesian energy functional for data fitting by using global-support approximating curves. By global-support curves we mean curves expressed as a linear combination of basis functions whose support is the whole domain of the problem, as opposed to other common approaches in CAD/CAM and computer graphics driven by piecewise functions (such as B-splines and NURBS) that provide local control of the shape of the curve. Our method applies a powerful nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm called cuckoo search, introduced recently to solve optimization problems. A major advantage of this method is its simplicity: cuckoo search requires only two parameters, many fewer than other metaheuristic approaches, so the parameter tuning becomes a very simple task. The paper shows that this new approach can be successfully used to solve our optimization problem. To check the performance of our approach, it has been applied to five illustrative examples of different types, including open and closed 2D and 3D curves that exhibit challenging features, such as cusps and self-intersections. Our results show that the method performs pretty well, being able to solve our minimization problem in an astonishingly straightforward way.

  20. Quantitative prop support estimation and remote monitor early warning for hard roof weighting at the Muchengjian Mine in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Y.; Zhao, T.; Xiao, Y. [Shandong Univ. of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong (China). Key Laboratory of Mine Disaster Prevention and Control

    2010-09-15

    Pillar extraction is the method used to mine the ore in the Muchengjian Coal Mine in China because the coal seams are too unstable for canopy-powered or shield-powered support. This study involved a retrospective analysis of roof cave-ins to determine the tensile strength by examining the complex coal seam structure and hard roof at the mine. The objective was to ensure workers' safety when hard roof strata cave in. The roof caving span and thickness was analyzed to determine the prop spacing or number of hydraulic props needed per unit area. The study showed that the early warning threshold bedding vertical separation velocity for hard roof caving at the Muchengjian Coal Mine was about 14 mm/day. The newly developed bedding separation remote monitoring system (BSRMS) was used for the first time for early warning of a roof fall. A total of 48 trials of early warning roof weighting were performed at the Muchengjian Mine on the no. 4 face. The roof above the coal seam consists of 3 layers. The roof is supported by hydraulic props connected to an articulated roof beam manufactured in China. It was concluded that the early warnings from the BSRMS proved to be accurate. The BSRMS also indicated that the support system is safe and reliable. 12 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  1. Effects of the addition of functional electrical stimulation to ground level gait training with body weight support after chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Medeiros, Christiane L; Sousa, Catarina O; Souza, Andréa S; Soares, Márcio R; Barela, Ana M F; Salvini, Tania F

    2011-01-01

    The addition of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to treadmill gait training with partial body weight support (BWS) has been proposed as a strategy to facilitate gait training in people with hemiparesis. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of FES addition on ground level gait training with BWS, which is the most common locomotion surface. To investigate the additional effects of commum peroneal nerve FES combined with gait training and BWS on ground level, on spatial-temporal gait parameters, segmental angles, and motor function. Twelve people with chronic hemiparesis participated in the study. An A1-B-A2 design was applied. A1 and A2 corresponded to ground level gait training using BWS, and B corresponded to the same training with the addition of FES. The assessments were performed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA), and filming. The kinematics analyzed variables were mean walking speed of locomotion; step length; stride length, speed and duration; initial and final double support duration; single-limb support duration; swing period; range of motion (ROM), maximum and minimum angles of foot, leg, thigh, and trunk segments. There were not changes between phases for the functional assessment of RMA, for the spatial-temporal gait variables and segmental angles, no changes were observed after the addition of FES. The use of FES on ground level gait training with BWS did not provide additional benefits for all assessed parameters.

  2. Family Support and Family Negativity as Mediators of the Relation between Acculturation and Postpartum Weight in Low-Income Mexican-Origin Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Letham-Hamlett, Kirsten; Hanna Ibrahim, Mariam; Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P

    2017-12-01

    Obesity presents a significant health concern among low-income, ethnic minority women of childbearing age. The study investigated the influence of maternal acculturation, family negativity, and family support on postpartum weight loss among low-income Mexican-origin women. Low-income Mexican-origin women (N=322; 14% born in the U.S.) were recruited from a prenatal clinic in an urban area of the Southwest U.S. Acculturation was assessed during a prenatal home visit (26-38 weeks gestation), and post-birth family support and general family negativity were assessed at 6 weeks postpartum. Objective maternal weight measures were obtained at five time points across the first postpartum year. Higher acculturation predicted higher family support and family negativity. Higher family support predicted decreasing weight across the first postpartum year, and higher family negativity predicted higher weight at 6 weeks postpartum and increasing weight across the first postpartum year. In combination, family negativity and support mediated the impact of acculturation on postpartum weight gain. Cultural and family-related factors play a significant role in postpartum weight gain and loss for low-income Mexican-origin women.

  3. Weight Loss Maintenance for 2 Years after a 6-Month Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Education-Only and Group-Based Support in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Nakata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our previous study, a 6-month randomised controlled trial, demonstrated that a group-based support promoted weight loss as compared to an education-only intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss maintenance for 2 years. Methods: Originally, 188 overweight Japanese adults, aged 40-65 years, were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control, education-only or group-based support. After the 6-month intervention, 125 participants in the education-only and the group-based support groups were followed up for 2 years. The primary outcome was the amount of weight lost. The participants were retrospectively grouped into quartiles of percent weight loss for secondary analyses. Results: At the end of follow-up, the amount of weight lost in the education-only and the group-based support groups was the same (3.3 kg. Secondary analyses using data of those who completed the study (n = 100 revealed that the participants in the highest quartile of percent weight loss significantly increased their step counts and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared with the lowest quartile. No significant differences were observed in the energy intake among the four groups. Conclusion: The effects of group-based support disappear within 2 years. Increasing physical activity may be a crucial factor for successful maintenance of weight loss.

  4. Comparative analysis of speed's impact on muscle demands during partial body weight support motor-assisted elliptical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnfield, Judith M; Irons, Sonya L; Buster, Thad W; Taylor, Adam P; Hildner, Gretchen A; Shu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with walking limitations often experience challenges engaging in functionally relevant exercise. An adapted elliptical trainer (motor to assist pedal movement, integrated body weight harness, ramps/stairs, and grab rails) has been developed to help individuals with physical disabilities and chronic conditions regain/retain walking capacity and fitness. However, limited published studies are available to guide therapeutic interventions. This repeated measures study examined the influence of motor-assisted elliptical training speed on lower extremity muscle demands at four body weight support (BWS) levels commonly used therapeutically for walking. Electromyography (EMG) and pedal trajectory data were recorded as ten individuals without known disability used the motor-assisted elliptical trainer at three speeds [20,40, 60 revolutions per minute (RPM)] during each BWS level (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%). Overall, the EMG activity (peak, mean, duration) in key stabilizer muscles (i.e., gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius and soleus) recorded at 60 RPM exceeded those at 40 RPM, which were higher than values at 20 RPM in all but three situations (gluteus medius mean at 0% BWS, vastus lateralis mean at 20% BWS, soleus duration at 40% BWS); however, these differences did not always achieve statistical significance. Slower motor-assisted speeds can be used to accommodate weakness of gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius and soleus. As strength improves, training at faster motor-assisted speeds may provide a means to progressively challenge key lower extremity stabilizers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Icing Forecasting of High Voltage Transmission Line Using Weighted Least Square Support Vector Machine with Fireworks Algorithm for Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiannan Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecasting of icing thickness has great significance for ensuring the security and stability of the power grid. In order to improve the forecasting accuracy, this paper proposes an icing forecasting system based on the fireworks algorithm and weighted least square support vector machine (W-LSSVM. The method of the fireworks algorithm is employed to select the proper input features with the purpose of eliminating redundant influence. In addition, the aim of the W-LSSVM model is to train and test the historical data-set with the selected features. The capability of this proposed icing forecasting model and framework is tested through simulation experiments using real-world icing data from the monitoring center of the key laboratory of anti-ice disaster, Hunan, South China. The results show that the proposed W-LSSVM-FA method has a higher prediction accuracy and it may be a promising alternative for icing thickness forecasting.

  6. LMethyR-SVM: Predict Human Enhancers Using Low Methylated Regions based on Weighted Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingting; Hu, Hong; Dai, Yang

    The identification of enhancers is a challenging task. Various types of epigenetic information including histone modification have been utilized in the construction of enhancer prediction models based on a diverse panel of machine learning schemes. However, DNA methylation profiles generated from the whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) have not been fully explored for their potential in enhancer prediction despite the fact that low methylated regions (LMRs) have been implied to be distal active regulatory regions. In this work, we propose a prediction framework, LMethyR-SVM, using LMRs identified from cell-type-specific WGBS DNA methylation profiles and a weighted support vector machine learning framework. In LMethyR-SVM, the set of cell-type-specific LMRs is further divided into three sets: reliable positive, like positive and likely negative, according to their resemblance to a small set of experimentally validated enhancers in the VISTA database based on an estimated non-parametric density distribution. Then, the prediction model is obtained by solving a weighted support vector machine. We demonstrate the performance of LMethyR-SVM by using the WGBS DNA methylation profiles derived from the human embryonic stem cell type (H1) and the fetal lung fibroblast cell type (IMR90). The predicted enhancers are highly conserved with a reasonable validation rate based on a set of commonly used positive markers including transcription factors, p300 binding and DNase-I hypersensitive sites. In addition, we show evidence that the large fraction of the LMethyR-SVM predicted enhancers are not predicted by ChromHMM in H1 cell type and they are more enriched for the FANTOM5 enhancers. Our work suggests that low methylated regions detected from the WGBS data are useful as complementary resources to histone modification marks in developing models for the prediction of cell-type-specific enhancers.

  7. Bilateral coordination and gait symmetry after body-weight supported treadmill training for persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie A; Dugan, Eric L; Ozimek, Elicia N; Curtis, Amy B

    2013-04-01

    Locomotor interventions are commonly assessed using functional outcomes, but these outcomes provide limited information about changes toward recovery or compensatory mechanisms. The study purposes were to examine changes in gait symmetry and bilateral coordination following body-weight supported treadmill training in individuals with chronic hemiparesis due to stroke and to compare findings to participants without disability. Nineteen participants with stroke (>6 months) who ambulated between 0.4 and 0.8 m/s and 22 participants without disability were enrolled in this repeated-measures study. The stroke group completed 24 intervention sessions over 8 weeks with 20 minutes of walking/session. The non-disabled group served as a comparison for describing changes in symmetry and coordination. Bilateral 3-dimensional motion analysis and gait speed were assessed across 3 time points (pre-test, immediate post-test, and 6-month retention). Continuous relative phase was used to evaluate bilateral coordination (thigh-thigh, shank-shank, foot-foot) and gait symmetry was assessed with spatiotemporal ratios (step length, swing time, stance time). Significant improvements in continuous relative phase (shank-shank and foot-foot couplings) were found at post-test and retention for the stroke group. Significant differences in spatiotemporal symmetry ratios were not found over time. Compared to the non-disabled group, changes in bilateral coordination moved in the direction of normal recovery. Most measures of continuous relative phase were more responsive to change after training than the spatiotemporal ratios. After body-weight supported treadmill training, the stroke group made improvements toward recovery of normal bilateral coordination. Bilateral coordination and gait symmetry measures may assess different aspects of gait. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A painless and constraint-free method to estimate viscoelastic passive dynamics of limbs' joints to support diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venture, Gentiane; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Yamane, Katsu; Hirashima, Masaya

    2007-01-01

    Though seldom identified, the human joints dynamics is important in the fields of medical robotics and medical research. We present a general solution to estimate in-vivo and simultaneously the passive dynamics of the human limbs' joints. It is based on the use of the multi-body description of the human body and its kinematics and dynamics computations. The linear passive joint dynamics of the shoulders and the elbows: stiffness, viscosity and friction, is estimated simultaneously using the linear least squares method. Acquisition of movements is achieved with an optical motion capture studio on one examinee during the clinical diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. Experimental results are given and discussed.

  9. The relative importance of body change strategies, weight perception, perceived social support, and self-esteem on adolescent depressive symptoms: longitudinal findings from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawana, Jennine S

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relative importance of body change strategies and weight perception in adolescent depression after accounting for established risk factors for depression, namely low social support across key adolescent contexts. The moderating effect of self-esteem was also examined. Participants (N=4587, 49% female) were selected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Regression analyses were conducted on the association between well-known depression risk factors (lack of perceived support from parents, peers, and schools), body change strategies, weight perception, and adolescent depressive symptoms one year later. Each well-known risk factor significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Body change strategies related to losing weight and overweight perceptions predicted depressive symptoms above and beyond established risk factors. Self-esteem moderated the relationship between trying to lose weight and depressive symptoms. Maladaptive weight loss strategies and overweight perceptions should be addressed in early identification depression programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Family support is associated with success in achieving weight loss in a group lifestyle intervention for diabetes prevention in Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Nicole R; Brown, Morton B; Herman, William H; Jaber, Linda A

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown the feasibility of a community-based, culturally-specific, Diabetes Prevention Program-adapted, goal-oriented group lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss in Arab Americans. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with weight-loss goal attainment at 24-weeks of the lifestyle intervention. We assessed the relationship among demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and the attainment of > or =7% decrease of initial body weight among 71 lifestyle intervention participants. Weight loss goal of > or = 7% of body weight was achieved by 44% of study participants. Demographic and psychosocial factors were not associated with weight loss. Individuals attaining the weight loss goal were more likely to have family support during the core curriculum sessions (70% vs 30%; P=.0023). Decrease in body weight was positively correlated with attendance at sessions (r=.46; P=.0016) and physical activity minutes (r=.66; Pwomen; these trends were similar but not significant in men. Family support was an important predictor of attainment of the weight loss goal. Family-centered lifestyle interventions are likely to succeed in curtailing the rising epidemic of diabetes in the Arab-American Community.

  11. Compositional properties of passivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    The classical passivity theorem states that the negative feedback interconnection of passive systems is again passive. The converse statement, - passivity of the interconnected system implies passivity of the subsystems -, turns out to be equally valid. This result implies that among all feasible

  12. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients' Affected Side Lower Extremity's Walking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity's walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in all of the assessed items than the other two groups. [Conclusion] In the present study progressive body weight supported treadmill training was performed in an environment in which the subjects were actually walked, and PBWSTFBWT was more effective at efficiently training stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability.

  13. Spontaneous development of full weight-supported stepping after complete spinal cord transection in the neonatal opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Spinal cord trauma in the adult nervous system usually results in permanent loss of function below the injury level. The immature spinal cord has greater capacity for repair and can develop considerable functionality by adulthood. This study used the marsupial laboratory opossum Monodelphis domestica, which is born at a very early stage of neural development. Complete spinal cord transection was made in the lower-thoracic region of pups at postnatal-day 7 (P7 or P28, and the animals grew to adulthood. Injury at P7 resulted in a dense neuronal tissue bridge that connected the two ends of the cord; retrograde neuronal labelling indicated that supraspinal and propriospinal innervation spanned the injury site. This repair was associated with pronounced behavioural recovery, coordinated gait and an ability to use hindlimbs when swimming. Injury at P28 resulted in a cyst-like cavity encased in scar tissue forming at the injury site. Using retrograde labelling, no labelled brainstem or propriospinal neurons were found above the lesion, indicating that detectable neuronal connectivity had not spanned the injury site. However, these animals could use their hindlimbs to take weight-supporting steps but could not use their hindlimbs when swimming. White matter, demonstrated by Luxol Fast Blue staining, was present in the injury site of P7- but not P28-injured animals. Overall, these studies demonstrated that provided spinal injury occurs early in development, regrowth of supraspinal innervation is possible. This repair appears to lead to improved functional outcomes. At older ages, even without detectable axonal growth spanning the injury site, substantial development of locomotion was still possible. This outcome is discussed in conjunction with preliminary findings of differences in the local propriospinal circuits following spinal cord injury (demonstrated with fluororuby labelling, which may underlie the weight bearing locomotion observed in the

  14. Evaluation of Behavioral Theory and Integrated Internet/telephone Technologies to Support Military Obesity and Weight Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Obesity - Cushing’s Syndrome (97%) - Hypothyroidism - Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (10-80%) - Growth Hormone Deficiency - Drug-Induced Weight Gain...interventions and two methods of follow up counseling on weight loss in overweight active duty military service members after 3 months. Participants...different weight control behaviors (dietary fat, fruits and vegetables, portion control, beverage choices, exercise) and weight loss after 3 months

  15. Effects of Gait Training With Body Weight Support on a Treadmill Versus Overground in Individuals With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Gabriela L; Celestino, Melissa L; Barela, José A; Forrester, Larry; Whitall, Jill; Barela, Ana M

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effects of gait training with body weight support (BWS) on a treadmill versus overground in individuals with chronic stroke. Randomized controlled trial. University research laboratory. Individuals (N=28) with chronic stroke (>6mo from the stroke event). Participants were randomly assigned to receive gait training with BWS on a treadmill (n=14) or overground (n=14) 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Gait speed measured using the 10-meter walk test, endurance measured using the 6-minute walk test, functional independence measured using the motor domain of the FIM, lower limb recovery measured using the lower extremity domain of the Fugl-Meyer assessment, step length, step length symmetry ratio, and single-limb support duration. Measurements were obtained at baseline, immediately after the training session, and 6 weeks after the training session. At 1 week after the last training session, both groups improved in all outcome measures except paretic step length and step length symmetry ratio, which were improved only in the overground group (P=.01 and P=.01, respectively). At 6 weeks after the last training session, all improvements remained and the treadmill group also improved paretic step length (P.05). Individuals with chronic stroke equally improve gait speed and other gait parameters after 18 sessions of BWS gait training on either a treadmill or overground. Only the overground group improved step length symmetry ratio, suggesting a role of integrating overground walking into BWS interventions poststroke. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of body weight support gait training system using pneumatic Mckibben actuators -control of lower extremity orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Dzahir, M A; Nobutomo, T; Yamamoto, S I

    2013-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, the control system of lower extremity orthosis for the body weight support gait training system which implements pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) is proposed. The hip and knee joint angles of the gait orthosis system are controlled based on the PAM coordinates information from the simulation. This information provides the contraction data for the mono- and bi-articular PAMs that are arranged as posterior and anterior actuators to simulate the human walking motion. The proposed control system estimates the actuators' contraction as a function of hip and knee joint angles. Based on the contraction model obtained, input pressures for each actuators are measured. The control system are performed at different gait cycles and two PMA settings for the mono- and bi-articular actuators are evaluated in this research. The results showed that the system was able to achieve the maximum muscle moment at the joints, and able to perform the heel contact movement. This explained that the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators worked effectively.

  17. Robust Template Decomposition without Weight Restriction for Cellular Neural Networks Implementing Arbitrary Boolean Functions Using Support Vector Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Lon Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available If the given Boolean function is linearly separable, a robust uncoupled cellular neural network can be designed as a maximal margin classifier. On the other hand, if the given Boolean function is linearly separable but has a small geometric margin or it is not linearly separable, a popular approach is to find a sequence of robust uncoupled cellular neural networks implementing the given Boolean function. In the past research works using this approach, the control template parameters and thresholds are restricted to assume only a given finite set of integers, and this is certainly unnecessary for the template design. In this study, we try to remove this restriction. Minterm- and maxterm-based decomposition algorithms utilizing the soft margin and maximal margin support vector classifiers are proposed to design a sequence of robust templates implementing an arbitrary Boolean function. Several illustrative examples are simulated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method by comparing our results with those produced by other decomposition methods with restricted weights.

  18. Confinement and the Glass Transition Temperature in Supported Polymer Films: Molecular Weight, Repeat Unit Modification, and Cooperativity Length Scale Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Manish K.

    2005-03-01

    It is well known that the glass transition temperatures, Tgs, of supported polystyrene (PS) films decrease dramatically with decreasing film thickness below 60-80 nm. However, a detailed understanding of the cause of this effect is lacking. We have investigated the impact of several parameters, including polymer molecular weight (MW), repeat unit structure, and the length scale of cooperatively rearranging regions in bulk. There is no significant effect of PS MW on the Tg-confinement effect over a range of 5,000 to 3,000,000 g/mol. In contrast, the strength of the Tg reduction and the onset of the confinement effect increase dramatically upon changing the polymer from PS to poly(4-tert-butylstyrene) (PTBS), with PTBS exhibiting a Tg reduction relative to bulk at a thickness of 300-400 nm. PTBS also shows a Tg reduction relative to bulk of 47 K in a 21-nm-thick film, more than twice that observed in a PS film of identical thickness. Characterization of the length scale of cooperatively rearranging regions has been done by differential scanning calorimetry but reveals at best a limited correlation with the confinement effect.

  19. Locomotor training with body weight support in SCI: EMG improvement is more optimally expressed at a low testing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyns, P; Van de Crommert, H W A A; Rijken, H; van Kuppevelt, D H J M; Duysens, J

    2014-12-01

    Case series. To determine the optimal testing speed at which the recovery of the EMG (electromyographic) activity should be assessed during and after body weight supported (BWS) locomotor training. Tertiary hospital, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Four participants with incomplete chronic SCI were included for BWS locomotor training; one AIS-C and three AIS-D (according to the ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) Impairment Scale or AIS). All were at least 5 years after injury. The SCI participants were trained three times a week for a period of 6 weeks. They improved their locomotor function in terms of higher walking speed, less BWS and less assistance needed. To investigate which treadmill speed for EMG assessment reflects the functional improvement most adequately, all participants were assessed weekly using the same two speeds (0.5 and 1.5 km h(-1), referred to as low and high speed, respectively) for 6 weeks. The change in root mean square EMG (RMS EMG) was assessed in four leg muscles; biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis and tibialis anterior. The changes in RMS EMG occurred at similar phases of the step cycle for both walking conditions, but these changes were larger when the treadmill was set at a low speed (0.5 km h(-1)). Improvement in gait is feasible with BWS treadmill training even long after injury. The EMG changes after treadmill training are more optimally expressed using a low rather than a high testing treadmill speed.

  20. Body weight supported treadmill training versus traditional training in patients dependent on walking assistance after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, Ellen; Jahnsen, Reidun; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik; Strand, Liv Inger

    2012-01-01

    Treadmill training with body weight support (TTBWS) for relearning walking ability after brain damage is an approach under current investigation. Efficiency of this method beyond traditional training is lacking evidence, especially in patients needing walking assistance after stroke. The objective of this study was to investigate change in walking and transfer abilities, comparing TTBWS with traditional walking training. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty patients referred for multi-disciplinary primary rehabilitation were assigned into one of two intervention groups, one received 30 sessions of TTBWS plus traditional training, the other traditional training alone. Daily training was 1 hr. Outcome measures were Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC), Walking, Functional Independence Measure (FIM); shorter transfer and stairs, 10 m and 6-min walk tests. Substantial improvements in walking and transfer were shown within both groups after 5 and 11 weeks of intervention. Overall no statistical significant differences were found between the groups, but 12 of 17 physical measures tended to show improvements in favour of the treadmill approach. Both training strategies provided significant improvements in the tested activities, suggesting that similar outcomes can be obtained in the two modalities by systematic, intensive and goal directed training.

  1. Change of muscle architecture following body weight support treadmill training for persons after subacute stroke: evidence from ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Yanjun; Hu, Huijing; Mao, Yurong; Huang, Dongfeng; Li, Le

    2014-01-01

    Although the body weight support treadmill training (BWSTT) in rehabilitation therapy has been appreciated for a long time, the biomechanical effects of this training on muscular system remain unclear. Ultrasonography has been suggested to be a feasible method to measure muscle morphological changes after neurological diseases such as stroke, which may help to enhance the understanding of the mechanism underlying the impaired motor function. This study investigated the muscle architectural changes of tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius in patients after subacute stroke by ultrasound. As expected, we found the effect of BWSTT on the muscular system. Specifically, the results showed larger pennation angle and muscle thickness of tibialis anterior and longer fascicle length of medial gastrocnemius after the training. The findings of this study suggest that the early rehabilitation training of BWSTT in subacute stage of stroke provides positive changes of the muscle architecture, leading to the potential improvement of the force generation of the muscle. This may not only help us understand changes of subacute stroke in muscular system but also have clinical implications in the evaluation of rehabilitation training after neurological insults.

  2. Partial Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training in Patients With Parkinson Disease: Impact on Gait and Clinical Manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Mohan; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Gupta, Anupam

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of conventional gait training (CGT) and partial weight-supported treadmill training (PWSTT) on gait and clinical manifestation. Prospective experimental research design. Hospital. Patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) (N=60; mean age, 58.15±8.7y) on stable dosage of dopaminomimetic drugs were randomly assigned into the 3 following groups (20 patients in each group): (1) nonexercising PD group, (2) CGT group, and (3) PWSTT group. The interventions included in the study were CGT and PWSTT. The sessions of the CGT and PWSTT groups were given in patient's self-reported best on status after regular medications. The interventions were given for 30min/d, 4d/wk, for 4 weeks (16 sessions). Clinical severity was measured by the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and its subscores. Gait was measured by 2 minutes of treadmill walking and the 10-m walk test. Outcome measures were evaluated in their best on status at baseline and after the second and fourth weeks. Four weeks of CGT and PWSTT gait training showed significant improvements of UPDRS scores, its subscores, and gait performance measures. Moreover, the effects of PWSTT were significantly better than CGT on most measures. PWSTT is a promising intervention tool to improve the clinical and gait outcome measures in patients with PD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A home-based body weight supported treadmill training program for children with cerebral palsy: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Westman, Marci; Hefferan, Ashley; McCrary, Peter; Baker, Barbara J

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary approaches to the treatment of cerebral palsy (CP) advocate a task-specific approach that emphasizes repetition and practice of specific tasks. Recent studies suggest that body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) programs may be beneficial in clinical settings. The purposes of this case series were to explore the outcomes and feasibility of a home-based BWSTT program for three children with CP. Three children with CP at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) Levels III or IV participated in this case series. Examination included the Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), the 10-meter walk test, the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT). A harness system was used to conduct the BWSTT program over an 8-12 week period. All of the families reported enjoying the BWSTT program and found the harness easy to use. Participant 2 increased from a 2 to a 4 on the FAQ, while Participant 3 increased from a 6 to a 7. Two of the participants demonstrated post-intervention improvements in functional mobility. In addition to mobility outcomes, future research should explore the potential health benefits of a home-based BWSTT program.

  4. Impact of food support on food security and body weight among HIV antiretroviral therapy recipients in Honduras: a pilot intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palar, Kartika; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Smith, Alexandria; Farías, Hugo; Wagner, Glenn; Martinez, Homero

    2015-01-01

    Optimal strategies to improve food security and nutrition for people living with HIV (PLHIV) may differ in settings where overweight and obesity are prevalent and cardiovascular disease risk is a concern. However, no studies among PLHIV have investigated the impact of food support on nutritional outcomes in these settings. We therefore assessed the effect of food support on food insecurity and body weight in a population of PLHIV with high prevalence of overweight and obesity. We implemented a pilot intervention trial in four government-run HIV clinics in Honduras. The trial tested the effect of a monthly household food ration plus nutrition education (n = 203), compared to nutrition education alone (n = 197), over 12 months. Participants were clinic patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Assessments were obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes for this analysis were food security, using the validated Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale and body weight (kg). Thirty-one percent of participants were overweight (22%) or obese (8%) at baseline. At 6 months, the probability of severe food insecurity decreased by 48.3% (p < 0.01) in the food support group, compared to 11.6% in the education-only group (p < 0.01). Among overweight or obese participants, food support led to average weight gain of 1.13 kg (p < 0.01), while nutrition education alone was associated with average weight loss of 0.72 kg (p < 0.10). Nutrition education alone was associated with weight gain among underweight and normal weight participants. Household food support may improve food security but not necessarily nutritional status of ART recipients above and beyond nutrition education. Improving nutritional tailoring of food support and testing the impact of nutrition education should be prioritized for PLHIV in Latin America and similar settings.

  5. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  6. Success in Weight Management Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Do Perceived Autonomy Support, Autonomous Motivation, and Self-Care Competence Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Anne M; Simonsen, Nina; Suominen, Sakari B

    2018-01-01

    Based on self-determination theory (SDT), this study investigated whether the three central SDT variables-perceived autonomy support (from a physician), autonomous motivation and self-care competence-were associated with success in weight management (SWM) among primary care patients with type 2 diabetes when the effect of other important life-context factors was controlled for. Patients participated in a mail survey in 2011. Those who had tried to change their health behavior during the past two years in order to lose weight, either with or without success (n = 1433, mean age 63 years, 50% men), were included in this study. The successors were more autonomously motivated and energetic than the non-successors. Moreover, male gender, younger age, taking oral medication only, and receiving less social support in diabetes care predicted better success. Autonomous motivation predicted SWM; self-care competence also played a role by partly mediating the effect of autonomous motivation on SWM. These results support the idea of SDT that internalizing the value of weight management and its health benefits is necessary for long-term maintenance of health behavior change. Perceived autonomy support was not directly associated with SWM. However, physicians can promote patients' weight management by supporting their autonomous motivation and self-care competence.

  7. Speed-dependent body weight supported sit-to-stand training in chronic stroke: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyne, Pierce; Israel, Susan; Dunning, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Body weight support (BWS) and speed-dependent training protocols have each been used for poststroke gait training, but neither approach has been tested in the context of sit-to-stand (STS) training. This study evaluated the feasibility and outcomes of speed-dependent BWS STS training for 2 persons with chronic stroke. Two individuals 68 and 75 years old, and 2.3 and 8.7 years post-ischemic stroke, respectively, participated. Both exhibited right hemiparesis, required moderate (25%-50%) assistance for STS, and ambulated household distances with assistive devices. Participants performed speed-dependent BWS STS training 3 days/week for 45 to 60 minutes until able to perform STS independently. Gait parameters, the Stroke Impact Scale Mobility Domain (SIS-mobility), and the 3-Repetition STS test (3RSTS) were assessed before and after intervention. Each participant completed more than 750 STS repetitions over the course of the intervention, achieving independence in 8 to 11 sessions. Aside from muscle soreness, no adverse effects occurred. Participants also exhibited increased gait velocity (0.17-0.24 m/s and 0.25-0.42 m/s), SIS-mobility score (78-88 and 63-66), and decreased 3RSTS time (18-8 seconds and 40-21 seconds). Speed-dependent BWS STS training appears to be a feasible and promising method to increase STS independence and speed for persons with chronic stroke. In this small case series, a potential transfer effect to gait parameters was also observed. Future randomized controlled study is warranted to evaluate efficacy and long-term effects.

  8. Gait parameters associated with responsiveness to treadmill training with body-weight support after stroke: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulroy, Sara J; Klassen, Tara; Gronley, JoAnne K; Eberly, Valerie J; Brown, David A; Sullivan, Katherine J

    2010-02-01

    Task-specific training programs after stroke improve walking function, but it is not clear which biomechanical parameters of gait are most associated with improved walking speed. The purpose of this study was to identify gait parameters associated with improved walking speed after a locomotor training program that included body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT). A prospective, between-subjects design was used. Fifteen people, ranging from approximately 9 months to 5 years after stroke, completed 1 of 3 different 6-week training regimens. These regimens consisted of 12 sessions of BWSTT alternated with 12 sessions of: lower-extremity resistive cycling; lower-extremity progressive, resistive strengthening; or a sham condition of arm ergometry. Gait analysis was conducted before and after the 6-week intervention program. Kinematics, kinetics, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded from the hemiparetic lower extremity while participants walked at a self-selected pace. Changes in gait parameters were compared in participants who showed an increase in self-selected walking speed of greater than 0.08 m/s (high-response group) and in those with less improvement (low-response group). Compared with participants in the low-response group, those in the high-response group displayed greater increases in terminal stance hip extension angle and hip flexion power (product of net joint moment and angular velocity) after the intervention. The intensity of soleus muscle EMG activity during walking also was significantly higher in participants in the high-response group after the intervention. Only sagittal-plane parameters were assessed, and the sample size was small. Task-specific locomotor training alternated with strength training resulted in kinematic, kinetic, and muscle activation adaptations that were strongly associated with improved walking speed. Changes in both hip and ankle biomechanics during late stance were associated with greater increases in

  9. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Recumbent Stepping and Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilutti, Lara A; Paulseth, John E; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P; Hicks, Audrey L

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0-8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS.

  10. Role of spared pathways in locomotor recovery after body-weight-supported treadmill training in contused rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Murray, Marion; Lemay, Michel; Houle, John

    2011-12-01

    Body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT)-related locomotor recovery has been shown in spinalized animals. Only a few animal studies have demonstrated locomotor recovery after BWSTT in an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) model, such as contusion injury. The contribution of spared descending pathways after BWSTT to behavioral recovery is unclear. Our goal was to evaluate locomotor recovery in contused rats after BWSTT, and to study the role of spared pathways in spinal plasticity after BWSTT. Forty-eight rats received a contusion, a transection, or a contusion followed at 9 weeks by a second transection injury. Half of the animals in the three injury groups were given BWSTT for up to 8 weeks. Kinematics and the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) test assessed behavioral improvements. Changes in Hoffmann-reflex (H-reflex) rate depression property, soleus muscle mass, and sprouting of primary afferent fibers were also evaluated. BWSTT-contused animals showed accelerated locomotor recovery, improved H-reflex properties, reduced muscle atrophy, and decreased sprouting of small caliber afferent fibers. BBB scores were not improved by BWSTT. Untrained contused rats that received a transection exhibited a decrease in kinematic parameters immediately after the transection; in contrast, trained contused rats did not show an immediate decrease in kinematic parameters after transection. This suggests that BWSTT with spared descending pathways leads to neuroplasticity at the lumbar spinal level that is capable of maintaining locomotor activity. Discontinuing training after the transection in the trained contused rats abolished the improved kinematics within 2 weeks and led to a reversal of the improved H-reflex response, increased muscle atrophy, and an increase in primary afferent fiber sprouting. Thus continued training may be required for maintenance of the recovery. Transected animals had no effect of BWSTT, indicating that in the absence of spared pathways this

  11. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, <1000 g birth weight) despite current practices of vitamin and mineral supplementation. Few data are available evaluating the usual course of markers of mineral status in this population. Our objectives in this study w...

  12. Family PArtners in Lifestyle Support (PALS): Family-Based Weight Loss for African American Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D.; Holder-Cooper, Judith C.; Gizlice, Ziya; Davis, Gwendolyn; Steele, Sonia P.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Brantley, Phillip J.; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a family-centered behavioral weight loss intervention for African American adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this randomized trial, dyads consisting of African American adult with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes (index participant) paired with a family partner with overweight or obesity, but not diagnosed with diabetes, were assigned in a 2:1 ratio to a 20-week special intervention (SI) or delayed intervention (DI) control group. The primary outcome was weight loss among index participants at 20 weeks follow-up. Results One hundred-eight participants (54 dyads – 36 (SI) and 18 (DI) dyads) were enrolled: 81% females; mean age, 51 years; mean weight,103 kg; and mean BMI, 37 kg/m2. At post-intervention, 96 participants (89%) returned for follow-up measures. Among index participants, mean difference in weight loss between groups was −5.0 kg, pfamily interactions, and dietary, physical activity, and diabetes self-care behaviors. SI family partners also had significant weight loss (−3.9 kg (SI) vs. −1.0 kg (DI) p=0.02). Conclusions A family-centered, behavioral weight loss intervention led to clinically significant short-term weight loss among family dyads. PMID:27911049

  13. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ''point defects models'' (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies

  14. Body weight-supported gait training for restoration of walking in people with an incomplete spinal cord injury : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Monique; Lucas, Cees; Eriks, Inge; de Groot, Sonja

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of body weight-supported gait training on restoration of walking, activities of daily living, and quality of life in persons with an incomplete spinal cord injury by a systematic review of the literature. Methods: Cochrane, MEDLINE, EM BASE, CINAHL, PEDro, DocOnline

  15. Body weight-supported gait training for restoration of walking in people with an incomplete spinal cord injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Monique; Lucas, Cees; Eriks, Inge; de Groot, Sonja

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of body weight-supported gait training on restoration of walking, activities of daily living, and quality of life in persons with an incomplete spinal cord injury by a systematic review of the literature. Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, DocOnline were searched and identified studies were assessed for eligibility and methodological quality and described regarding population, training protocol, and effects on walking ability, activities of daily living and quality of life. A descriptive and quantitative synthesis was conducted. Eighteen articles (17 studies) were included. Two randomized controlled trials showed that subjects with injuries of less than one year duration reached higher scores on the locomotor item of the Functional Independence Measure (range 1-7) in the over-ground training group compared with the body weight-supported treadmill training group. Only for persons with an American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale C or D was the mean difference significant, with 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.04-1.56). No differences were found regarding walking velocity, activities of daily living or quality of life. Subjects with subacute motor incomplete spinal cord injury reached a higher level of independent walking after over-ground training, compared with body weight-supported treadmill training. More randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the effectiveness of body weight-supported gait training on walking, activities of daily living, and quality of life for subgroups of persons with an incomplete spinal cord injury.

  16. Body weight-supported gait training for restoration of walking in people with an incomplete spinal cord injury: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Monique; Lucas, Cees; Eriks, Inge; de Groot, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of body weight-supported gait training on restoration of walking, activities of daily living, and quality of life in persons with an incomplete spinal cord injury by a systematic review of the literature. Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, DocOnline were searched and

  17. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.

  18. The application of smart phone, weight-mile truck data to support freight-modeling, performance measures and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Oregon is one of the few states that currently charge a commercial truck weight-mile tax (WMT). The Oregon Department of : Transportation (ODOT) has developed a data-collection system Truck Road Use Electronics (TRUE) to simplify WMT : collec...

  19. Passive solar offices: integrated design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, B

    1992-05-06

    Passive solar design in out-of-town offices can remove the need for air-conditioning by making greater use of daylight and natural ventilation. To promote the use of passive solar energy a series of design studies are being run by the Energy Technology Support Unit on behalf of the Department of Energy. The three reported here are designs for out-of-town business buildings. Each is a hypothetical building designed to a realistic brief for an organisation taking the role of real client. (author).

  20. Improved clinical status, quality of life, and walking capacity in Parkinson's disease after body weight-supported high-intensity locomotor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Martin H; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jensen, Bente R

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of body weight-supported progressive high-intensity locomotor training in Parkinson's disease (PD) on (1) clinical status; (2) quality of life; and (3) gait capacity. Open-label, fixed sequence crossover study. University motor control laboratory. Patients (N=13) with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 or 3) and stable medication use. Patients completed an 8-week (3 × 1h/wk) training program on a lower-body positive-pressure treadmill. Body weight support was used to facilitate increased intensity and motor challenges during treadmill training. The training program contained combinations of (1) running and walking intervals, (2) the use of sudden changes (eg, in body weight support and speed), (3) different types of locomotion (eg, chassé, skipping, and jumps), and (4) sprints at 50 percent body weight. The Movement Disorders Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 items (PDQ-39), and the six-minute walk test were conducted 8 weeks before and pre- and posttraining. At the end of training, statistically significant improvements were found in all outcome measures compared with the control period. Total MDS-UPDRS score changed from (mean ± 1SD) 58±18 to 47±18, MDS-UPDRS motor part score changed from 35±10 to 29±12, PDQ-39 summary index score changed from 22±13 to 13±12, and the six-minute walking distance changed from 576±93 to 637±90m. Body weight-supported progressive high-intensity locomotor training is feasible and well tolerated by patients with PD. The training improved clinical status, quality of life, and gait capacity significantly. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity on weight loss in a technology-supported behavioral intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wang1, Susan M Sereika2,3, Eileen R Chasens2, Linda J Ewing4, Judith T Matthews2,5, Lora E Burke2,31School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, 2School of Nursing, 3Graduate School of Public Health, 4School of Medicine, 5University Center for Social and Urban Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USABackground: Examination of mediating behavioral factors could explain how an intervention works and thus provide guidance to optimize behavioral weight-loss programs. This study examined the mediating role of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity on weight loss in a behavioral weight-loss trial testing the use of personal digital assistants (PDA for self-monitoring.Methods: Mediation analysis was conducted to examine the possible mediating role of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity between treatments using varying self-monitoring methods (paper record, PDA, and PDA with daily tailored feedback messages and weight loss.Findings: The sample (N = 210 was predominantly white (78% and female (85%. Compared to a paper record, using a PDA for self-monitoring diet (P = 0.027 and physical activity (P = 0.014 had significant direct effects on weight loss at 12 months, as well as a significant indirect effect on outcomes through improved adherence to self-monitoring (PS < 0.001. Receiving an automated daily feedback message via PDA only had a significant indirect effect on weight through self-monitoring adherence to diet (P = 0.004 and physical activity (P = 0.002.Conclusions: Adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity is important as the underlying mechanism in this technology-supported behavioral weight-loss intervention.Keywords: behavioral intervention, self-monitoring, mobile technology, mediation analysis, weight loss, adherence 

  2. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  3. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  4. Passive magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  5. Improved clinical status, quality of life, and walking capacity in Parkinson's disease after body weight-supported high-intensity locomotor training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Martin Høyer; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of body weight-supported progressive high-intensity locomotor training in Parkinson's disease (PD) on (1) clinical status; (2) quality of life; and (3) gait capacity. DESIGN: Open-label, fixed sequence crossover study. SETTING: University motor control laboratory......±93 to 637±90m. CONCLUSIONS: Body weight-supported progressive high-intensity locomotor training is feasible and well tolerated by patients with PD. The training improved clinical status, quality of life, and gait capacity significantly....... were found in all outcome measures compared with the control period. Total MDS-UPDRS score changed from (mean ± 1SD) 58±18 to 47±18, MDS-UPDRS motor part score changed from 35±10 to 29±12, PDQ-39 summary index score changed from 22±13 to 13±12, and the six-minute walking distance changed from 576...

  6. Does technique matter; a pilot study exploring weighting techniques for a multi-criteria decision support framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, Janine Astrid; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Lieferink, Marijke; Dolan, James; Goetghebeur, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an increased interest in the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to support regulatory and reimbursement decision making. The EVIDEM framework was developed to provide pragmatic multi-criteria decision support in health care, to estimate the value of healthcare

  7. Effects of conventional overground gait training and a gait trainer with partial body weight support on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of both conventional overground gait training (CGT) and a gait trainer with partial body weight support (GTBWS) on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with hemiparesis following chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were alternately assigned to one of two treatment groups, and both groups underwent CGT and GTBWS. [Results] The functional ambulation classification on the affected side improved signifi...

  8. Passivity and passivity breakdown of 304L stainless steel in hot and concentrated nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard-Tcharkhtchi, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the oxidation behavior of 304L stainless steel (SS) in representative conditions of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, i.e. in hot and concentrated nitric acid. In these conditions the SS electrochemical potential is in the passive domain and its corrosion rate is low. However when the media becomes more aggressive, the potential may be shifted towards the trans-passive domain characterized with a high corrosion rate. Passivity and passivity breakdown in the trans-passive domain are of a major interest for the industry. So as to characterize these phenomenons, this work was undertaken with the following representative conditions: a 304L SS from an industrial sheet was studied, the media was hot and concentrated HNO 3 , long term tests were performed. First, the surface of an immersed 304L SS was characterized with several complementary techniques from the micro to the nanometer scale. Then oxidation kinetics was studied in the passive and in the trans-passive domain. The oxidation behavior was studied thanks to weight loss determination and surface analysis. Finally, oxidation evolution as a function of the potential was studied from the passive to the trans-passive domain. In particular, this allowed us to obtain the anodic curve of 304L SS in hot and concentrated and to define precisely the 304L SS limits of in such conditions. (author) [fr

  9. What Did We Learn from the Animal Studies of Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training and Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Ray D; Dy, Christine J

    2017-05-01

    Body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) developed from animal studies of spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidence that spinal cats (i.e., cats that have a complete surgical transection of the cord) could regain the ability to step on a moving treadmill indicated a vast potential for spinal circuits to generate walking without the brain. BWSTT represented a means to unlock that potential. As the technique was adapted as a rehabilitation intervention for humans with SCI, shortcomings in the translation to walking in the real world were exposed. Evidence that BWSTT has not been as successful for humans with SCI leads us to revisit key animal studies. In this short review, we describe the task-specific nature of BWSTT and discuss how this specificity may pose limits on the recovery of overground walking. Also discussed are more recent studies that have introduced new strategies and tools that adapt BWSTT ideas to more functionally-relevant tasks. We introduce a new device for weight-supported overground walking in rats called Circular BART (Body weight supported Ambulatory Rat Trainer) and demonstrate that it is relatively easy and inexpensive to produce. Future animal studies will benefit from the development of simple tools that facilitate training and testing of overground walking.

  10. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM PEMBERIAN BONUS TAHUNAN PADA KARYAWAN BERDASARKAN KINERJA KARYAWAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING (STUDY KASUS : STMIK PRINGSEWU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Zulkifli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bonuses is one method that is widely used as a form of tribute to workers whose performance so far can be considered satisfactory by the company. So is the case with STMIK Pringsewu that rewards Her staff as a token of appreciation for its performance over the years. However, the annual bonus is only given to employees who are considered berprestasit. It required a decision support system (DSS or decesion support system that can take into account all the criteria that support and to help facilitate the decision making process. This decision support system using Simple Additive Wighting (SAW. The issue of decision support is basically a form of election of the various alternative actions that may be selected include discipline or the number of absences in a year, length of employment, crafts, and work in a year that the process through specific mechanisms, in hopes of generating a best decision. Employees who got the votes of 100% working receive an annual bonus that is the departure of the hajj, work evaluation 87.5% earn an annual bonus that is the departure of Umrah, and the assessment work 75% earn an annual bonus that is the departure of the general allowance.

  11. HIGH REPETITION JUMP TRAINING COUPLED WITH BODY WEIGHT SUPPORT IN A PATIENT WITH KNEE PAIN AND PRIOR HISTORY OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Audrey R C; Kinney, Anthony E; Mizner, Ryan L

    2015-12-01

    Patients frequently experience long-term deficits in functional activity following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and commonly present with decreased confidence and poor weight acceptance in the surgical knee. Adaptation of neuromuscular behaviors may be possible through plyometric training. Body weight support decreases intensity of landing sufficiently to allow increased training repetition. The purpose of this case report is to report the outcomes of a subject with a previous history of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction treated with high repetition jump training coupled with body weight support (BWS) as a primary intervention strategy. A 23-year old female, who had right ACL reconstruction seven years prior, presented with anterior knee pain and effusion following initiation of a running program. Following visual assessment of poor mechanics in single leg closed chain activities, landing mechanics were assessed using 3-D motion analysis of single leg landing off a 20 cm box. She then participated in an eight-week plyometric training program using a custom-designed body weight support system. The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) and the ACL-Return to Sport Index (ACL-RSI) were administered at the start and end of treatment as well as at follow-up testing. The subject's IKDC and ACL-RSI scores increased with training from 68% and 43% to 90% and 84%, respectively, and were retained at follow-up testing. Peak knee and hip flexion angles during landing increased from 47 ° and 53 ° to 72 ° and 80 ° respectively. Vertical ground reaction forces in landing decreased with training from 3.8 N/kg to 3.2 N/kg. All changes were retained two months following completion of training. The subject experienced meaningful changes in overall function. Retention of mechanical changes suggests that her new landing strategy had become a habitual pattern. Success with high volume plyometric training is

  12. Usefulness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using double roller pumps in a low body weight newborn: A novel strategy for mechanical circulatory support in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nakanishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO with a centrifugal pump requires a certain flow rate; therefore, its application for low body weight infants is frequently accompanied by oxygenator membrane malfunction and/or inadequate perfusion. To prevent low-flow associated complications, we report a case in which a novel system of dual roller pumps was used. A baby girl with a body mass index 0.25 m 2 , who experienced difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass after a Norwood-like operation, required an ECMO. Concerns for the tube lifespan reduction due to roller pump friction led to the use of a double roller pump circulation. The termination of ECMO during tube exchange is not needed, because circulation is maintained by another roller pump. The novel strategy of ECMO with double roller pumps will allow low perfusion rate to provide adequate circulatory support for low body weight patients.

  13. A randomized pilot study comparing the role of PEEP, O2 flow, and high-flow air for weaning of ventilatory support in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yo Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of evidence to guide step-wise weaning of positive pressure respiratory support for premature infants. This study sought to compare the efficacy of three weaning protocols we designed to facilitate weaning of very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g preterm infants from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP support. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of VLBW preterm infants who received positive pressure ventilatory support in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU from April 2008 through March 2009. When these infants were weaned to CPAP as their last step of respiratory support, they would be randomly assigned to one of the following three groups as their further weaning methods (M: (M1 CPAP group, (M2 O2 flow group, and (M3 air flow group. The time period they needed to wean off any kind of respiratory support, as well as the likelihood of developing relevant prematurity related morbidities, were compared among patients using different weaning modalities. Results: 181 patients were enrolled in the study. Their gestational age (GA and birth weight (BW were 29.1 ± 2.5, 28.7 ± 2.4, 28.7 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD weeks and 1142 ± 232, 1099 ± 234, 1083 ± 219 g, in M1, M2 and M3, respectively. The time (period needed to wean off support was 16.0 ± 10.0 days (M1, 11.6 ± 6.4 days (M2, and 15.0 ± 8.9 days (M3, respectively (p = .033. Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD were both significantly higher in the O2 flow group (p = .048. Conclusions: Although using low oxygen flow significantly shortens CPAP weaning time, it may increase risks of BPD and ROP, both known to be related to oxygen toxicity. Unless the infant has BPD and is O2-dependent, clinicians should consider using air flow or just splinting with no support at all when weaning NCPAP. Key Words: weaning, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, very

  14. Cuckoo Search with Lévy Flights for Weighted Bayesian Energy Functional Optimization in Global-Support Curve Data Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Gálvez

    2014-01-01

    for data fitting by using global-support approximating curves. By global-support curves we mean curves expressed as a linear combination of basis functions whose support is the whole domain of the problem, as opposed to other common approaches in CAD/CAM and computer graphics driven by piecewise functions (such as B-splines and NURBS that provide local control of the shape of the curve. Our method applies a powerful nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm called cuckoo search, introduced recently to solve optimization problems. A major advantage of this method is its simplicity: cuckoo search requires only two parameters, many fewer than other metaheuristic approaches, so the parameter tuning becomes a very simple task. The paper shows that this new approach can be successfully used to solve our optimization problem. To check the performance of our approach, it has been applied to five illustrative examples of different types, including open and closed 2D and 3D curves that exhibit challenging features, such as cusps and self-intersections. Our results show that the method performs pretty well, being able to solve our minimization problem in an astonishingly straightforward way.

  15. Addition of Passive Dynamics to a Flapping Airfoil to Improve Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Daniel; Young, Jay; Williamson, C. H. K.

    2017-11-01

    Animals which fly or swim typically employ flapping motions of their wings and fins in order to produce thrust and to maneuver. Small, unmanned vehicles might also exploit such motions and are of considerable interest for the purposes of surveillance, environmental monitoring, and search and rescue. Flapping refers to a combination of pitch and heave and has been shown to provide good thrust and efficiency (Read, et al. 2003) when both axes are independently controlled (an Active-Active system). In this study, we examine the performance of an airfoil actuated only in the heave direction but allowed to pitch passively under the control of a torsion spring (an Active-Passive system). The presence of the spring is simulated in software using a force-feedback control system called Cyber-Physical Fluid Dynamics, or CPFD (Mackowski & Williamson 2011, 2015, 2016). Adding passive pitch to active heave provides significantly improved thrust and efficiency compared with heaving alone, especially when the torsion spring stiffness is selected so that the system operates near resonance (in an Active-Passive system). In many cases, values of thrust and efficiency are comparable to or better than those obtained with two actively controlled degrees of freedom. By using carefully-designed passive dynamics in the pitch direction, we can eliminate one of the two actuators, saving cost, complexity, and weight, while maintaining performance. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0243, monitored by Dr. Douglas Smith.

  16. EP1000 passive plant description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiu, G.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, a group of European Utilities, together with Westinghouse and its Industrial Partner GENESI (an Italian consortium including ANSALDO and FIAT), initiated a program designated EPP (European Passive Plant) to evaluate Westinghouse Passive Nuclear Plant Technology for application in Europe. In Phase I of the European Passive Plant Program which was completed in 1996, a 1000 MWe passive plant reference design (EP1000) was established which conforms to the European Utility Requirements (EUR) and is expected to meet the European Safety Authorities requirements. Phase 2 of the program was initiated in 1997 with the objective of developing the Nuclear Island design details and performing supporting analyses to start development of Safety Case Report (SCR) for submittal to European Licensing Authorities. The first part of Phase 2, 'Design Definition' phase (Phase 2A) will be completed at the end of 1998, the main efforts being design definition of key systems and structures, development of the Nuclear Island layout, and performing preliminary safety analyses to support design efforts. The second part, 'Phase 2B', includes both the analyses and evaluations required to demonstrate the adequacy of the design, and to support the preparation of Safety Case Report. The second part of Phase 2 of the program will start at the beginning of 1999 and will be completed in the 2001. Incorporation of the EUR has been a key design requirement for the EP1000 from the beginning of the program. Detailed design solutions to meet the EUR have been defined and the safety approach has also been developed based on the EUR guidelines. This paper integrates and updates the plant description reported in the IAEA TECDOC-968. The most significant developments of the EP1000 plant design during Phase 2A of the EPP program are described and reference is made to the key design requirements set by the EUR Rev. B document. (author)

  17. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Bruce R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, Methods We evaluated all ELBW infants admitted to Texas Children's Hospital NICU in 2006 and 2007. Of 211 admissions, we excluded 98 patients who were admitted at >30 days of age or did not survive/stay for >6 weeks. Bone radiographs obtained in 32 infants were reviewed by a radiologist masked to laboratory values. Results In this cohort of 113 infants, P-APA was found to have a significant inverse relationship with BW, gestational age and serum phosphorus. In paired comparisons, P-APA of infants Conclusion Elevation of P-APA >600 IU/L was very common in ELBW infants. BW was significantly inversely related to both P-APA and radiologic rickets. No single value of P-APA was related to radiological findings of rickets. Given the very high risk of osteopenia and rickets among ELBW infants, we recommend consideration of early screening and early mineral supplementation, especially among infants

  18. Using the Nintendo Wii Fit and body weight support to improve aerobic capacity, balance, gait ability, and fear of falling: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A; Hayes, Dawn M; Dye, Kelli; Johnson, Courtney; Meyers, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb amputation in older adults has a significant impact on balance, gait, and cardiovascular fitness, resulting in diminished community participation. The purpose of this case study was to describe the effects of a balance training program utilizing the Nintendo Wii™ Fit (Nintendo of America, Inc, Redmond, Washington) balance board and body-weight supported gait training on aerobic capacity, balance, gait, and fear of falling in two persons with transfemoral amputation. Participant A, a 62 year-old male 32 months post traumatic transfemoral amputation, reported fear of falling and restrictions in community activity. Participant B, a 58 year-old male 9 years post transfemoral amputation, reported limited energy and balance deficits during advanced gait activities. 6-weeks, 2 supervised sessions per week included 20 minutes of Nintendo™ Wii Fit Balance gaming and 20 minutes of gait training using Body Weight Support. Measures included oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), economy of movement, dynamic balance (Biodex platform system), Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, and spatial-temporal parameters of gait (GAITRite). Both participants demonstrated improvement in dynamic balance, balance confidence, economy of movement, and spatial-temporal parameters of gait. Participant A reduced the need for an assistive device during community ambulation. Participant B improved his aerobic capacity, indicated by an increase in OUES. This case study illustrated that the use of Nintendo Wii™ Fit training and Body Weight Support were effective interventions to achieve functional goals for improving balance confidence, reducing use of assistive devices, and increasing energy efficiency when ambulating with a transfemoral prosthesis.

  19. Supportive treatment in weight-losing cancer patients due to the additive adverse effects of radiation treatment and/or chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkurt, E.; Tunali, C.; Erkisi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The reversal of anorexia and weight loss especially in patients with advanced cancer suffering from radiation treatment (RT) -related complications and debilitated further during RT would be a welcome relief. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of supportive treatment with megestrol acetate (MA) in the weight-losing cancer patients increasingly experiencing anorexia, smell, taste, and weight loss due to the additive adverse effects of RT plus or minus chemotherapy and how MA changes the additive role of the severity of RT reactions on such patients. From June 1997 to October 1998, 100 eligible patients were enrolled on a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Of the 100 patients, 46 received MA during RT and 4 after the end of the RT, and 50 received placebo for 3 months. Subjective parameters were assessed by a brief questionnaire form based on scoring from 1 to 5, according to the degree of the loss or change for each parameter of malnutrition, appetite, taste and smell developed by the researchers. At the end of the study a statistically significant weight gain was achieved in the patient group receiving MA compared to the placebo group (+ 3 to + 5 kg versus -3.7 to -5.9 kg, p=0.000). Significant improvements were seen in performance status p=0.000), appetite (p=0.000), malnutrition (p=0.000), loss of taste (p=0.000) and smell qualities (p=0.02) in the MA group compared to the placebo group. In the MA group there was no statistically significant difference related to the weight changes according to the grade of either the acute or late RT effects (p=0.65 and 0.07, respectively). Whereas, in the placebo group a statistically significant additive effect of the acute and late RT effects was detected on weight loss (p=0.008 and 0.007, respectively). It was observed no side-effects of MA in a 3-month time follow-up. The use of MA 480 mg/day during RT was effective in reversing anorexia and weight loss in spite of the acute RT effects, and

  20. Supportive treatment in weight-losing cancer patients due to the additive adverse effects of radiation treatment and/or chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkurt, E.; Tunali, C. [Cukurova University Medical Faculty, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Balcali-Adana (Turkey); Erkisi, M. [Cukurova University Medical Faculty, Dept. of Medical Oncology (Turkey)

    2000-12-01

    The reversal of anorexia and weight loss especially in patients with advanced cancer suffering from radiation treatment (RT) -related complications and debilitated further during RT would be a welcome relief. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of supportive treatment with megestrol acetate (MA) in the weight-losing cancer patients increasingly experiencing anorexia, smell, taste, and weight loss due to the additive adverse effects of RT plus or minus chemotherapy and how MA changes the additive role of the severity of RT reactions on such patients. >From June 1997 to October 1998, 100 eligible patients were enrolled on a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Of the 100 patients, 46 received MA during RT and 4 after the end of the RT, and 50 received placebo for 3 months. Subjective parameters were assessed by a brief questionnaire form based on scoring from 1 to 5, according to the degree of the loss or change for each parameter of malnutrition, appetite, taste and smell developed by the researchers. At the end of the study a statistically significant weight gain was achieved in the patient group receiving MA compared to the placebo group (+ 3 to + 5 kg versus -3.7 to -5.9 kg, p=0.000). Significant improvements were seen in performance status (p=0.000), appetite (p=0.000), malnutrition (p=0.000), loss of taste (p=0.000) and smell qualities (p=0.02) in the MA group compared to the placebo group. In the MA group there was no statistically significant difference related to the weight changes according to the grade of either the acute or late RT effects (p=0.65 and 0.07, respectively). Whereas, in the placebo group a statistically significant additive effect of the acute and late RT effects was detected on weight loss (p=0.008 and 0.007, respectively). It was observed no side-effects of MA in a 3-month time follow-up. The use of MA 480 mg/day during RT was effective in reversing anorexia and weight loss in spite of the acute RT effects

  1. Supported exercise improves controlled eating and weight through its effects on psychosocial factors: extending a systematic research program toward treatment development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral weight-loss treatments have been overwhelmingly unsuccessful. Many inadequately address both behavioral theory and extant research--especially in regard to the lack of viability of simply educating individuals on improved eating and exercise behaviors. The aim was to synthesize research on associations of changes in exercise behaviors, psychosocial factors, eating behaviors, and weight; and then conduct further direct testing to inform the development of an improved treatment approach. A systematic program of health behavior-change research based on social cognitive theory, and extensions of that theory applied to exercise and weight loss, was first reviewed. Then, to extend this research toward treatment development and application, a field-based study of obese adults was conducted. Treatments incorporated a consistent component of cognitive-behaviorally supported exercise during 26 weeks that was paired with either standard nutrition education (n = 183) or cognitive-behavioral methods for controlled eating that emphasized self-regulatory methods such as goal setting and caloric tracking, cognitive restructuring, and eating cue awareness (n = 247). Both treatment conditions were associated with improved self-efficacy, self-regulation, mood, exercise, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight, and waist circumference; with improvements in self-regulation for eating, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight, and waist circumference significantly greater in the cognitive-behavioral nutrition condition. Changes in exercise- and eating-related self-efficacy and self-regulation were associated with changes in exercise and eating (R(2) = 0.40 and 0.17, respectively), with mood change increasing the explanatory power to R(2) = 0.43 and 0.20. Improved self-efficacy and self-regulation for exercise carried over to self-efficacy and self-regulation for controlled eating (β= 0.53 and 0.68, respectively). Development and longitudinal testing of a new and different

  2. The Effects of Two Months Body Weight Supported Treadmill Training on Balance and Quality of Life of Patients With Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Zamani

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion According to achieved results, eight weeks body weight supported treadmill training can improve the balance of the patients with spinal cord injury. It was observed that the gait training with stimulation and use of proprioceptors and increase of patient’s confidence in walking and standing positions improve the patient’s balance. The patients were also able to control the internal and external perturbations and maintain the better balance. But eight weeks gait training had no significant effect on the quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury which suggest that more extended rehabilitation is required.

  3. Cyclodextrin-supported organic matrix for application of MALDI-MS for forensics. Soft-ionization to obtain protonated molecules of low molecular weight compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, Tetsu, E-mail: tetsu@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Asano, Takashi [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Criminal Investigation Laboratory, Metropolitan Police Department, 2-1-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8929 (Japan); Fujino, Tatsuya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nishihara, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► MALDI-MS applications for drug identification in forensic science is investigated. ► Cyclodextrin-supported organic matrices strongly suppress the obstacle peaks of organic matrix compounds. ► Cyclodextrin-supported organic matrices also suppress the alkali adducted molecule peaks. ► Sugar units of cyclodextrins work for this specific features. - Abstract: A mass measurement technique for detecting low-molecular-weight drugs with a cyclodextrin-supported organic matrix was investigated. By using cyclodextrin-supported 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP), the matrix-related peaks of drugs were suppressed. The peaks of protonated molecules of the sample and THAP were mainly observed, and small fragments were detected in a few cases. Despite the Na{sup +} and K{sup +} peaks were observed in the spectrum, Na{sup +} or K{sup +} adduct sample molecules were undetected, owing to the sugar units of cyclodextrin. The advantages of MALDI-MS with cyclodextrin-supported matrices as an analytical tool for forensic samples are discussed. The suppression of alkali adducted molecules and desorption process are also discussed.

  4. Cyclodextrin-supported organic matrix for application of MALDI-MS for forensics. Soft-ionization to obtain protonated molecules of low molecular weight compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Tetsu; Asano, Takashi; Fujino, Tatsuya; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► MALDI-MS applications for drug identification in forensic science is investigated. ► Cyclodextrin-supported organic matrices strongly suppress the obstacle peaks of organic matrix compounds. ► Cyclodextrin-supported organic matrices also suppress the alkali adducted molecule peaks. ► Sugar units of cyclodextrins work for this specific features. - Abstract: A mass measurement technique for detecting low-molecular-weight drugs with a cyclodextrin-supported organic matrix was investigated. By using cyclodextrin-supported 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP), the matrix-related peaks of drugs were suppressed. The peaks of protonated molecules of the sample and THAP were mainly observed, and small fragments were detected in a few cases. Despite the Na + and K + peaks were observed in the spectrum, Na + or K + adduct sample molecules were undetected, owing to the sugar units of cyclodextrin. The advantages of MALDI-MS with cyclodextrin-supported matrices as an analytical tool for forensic samples are discussed. The suppression of alkali adducted molecules and desorption process are also discussed

  5. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  6. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  7. Working memory training in healthy young adults: Support for the null from a randomized comparison to active and passive control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cameron M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M

    2017-01-01

    Training of working memory as a method of increasing working memory capacity and fluid intelligence has received much attention in recent years. This burgeoning field remains highly controversial with empirically-backed disagreements at all levels of evidence, including individual studies, systematic reviews, and even meta-analyses. The current study investigated the effect of a randomized six week online working memory intervention on untrained cognitive abilities in a community-recruited sample of healthy young adults, in relation to both a processing speed training active control condition, as well as a no-contact control condition. Results of traditional null hypothesis significance testing, as well as Bayesian factor analyses, revealed support for the null hypothesis across all cognitive tests administered before and after training. Importantly, all three groups were similar at pre-training for a variety of individual variables purported to moderate transfer of training to fluid intelligence, including personality traits, motivation to train, and expectations of cognitive improvement from training. Because these results are consistent with experimental trials of equal or greater methodological rigor, we suggest that future research re-focus on: 1) other promising interventions known to increase memory performance in healthy young adults, and; 2) examining sub-populations or alternative populations in which working memory training may be efficacious.

  8. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu; Shamma, Jeff S.; Martins, Nuno C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  9. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu

    2018-03-21

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  10. Study protocol for the 'HelpMeDoIt!' randomised controlled feasibility trial: an app, web and social support-based weight loss intervention for adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynsay; Pugmire, Juliana; Moore, Laurence; Kelson, Mark; McConnachie, Alex; McIntosh, Emma; Morgan-Trimmer, Sarah; Murphy, Simon; Hughes, Kathryn; Coulman, Elinor; Utkina-Macaskill, Olga; Simpson, Sharon Anne

    2017-10-25

    HelpMeDoIt! will test the feasibility of an innovative weight loss intervention using a smartphone app and website. Goal setting, self-monitoring and social support are three key facilitators of behaviour change. HelpMeDoIt! incorporates these features and encourages participants to invite 'helpers' from their social circle to help them achieve their goal(s). To test the feasibility of the intervention in supporting adults with obesity to achieve weight loss goals. 12-month feasibility randomised controlled trial and accompanying process evaluation. Participants (n=120) will be adults interested in losing weight, body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m 2 and smartphone users. The intervention group will use the app/website for 12 months. Participants will nominate one or more helpers to support them. Helpers have access to the app/website. The control group will receive a leaflet on healthy lifestyle and will have access to HelpMeDoIt! after follow-up. The key outcome of the study is whether prespecified progression criteria have been met in order to progress to a larger randomised controlled effectiveness trial. Data will be collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Outcomes focus on exploring the feasibility of delivering the intervention and include: (i) assessing three primary outcomes (BMI, physical activity and diet); (ii) secondary outcomes of waist/hip circumference, health-related quality of life, social support, self-efficacy, motivation and mental health; (iii) recruitment and retention; (iv) National Health Service (NHS) resource use and participant borne costs; (v) usability and acceptability of the app/website; and (vi) qualitative interviews with up to 50 participants and 20 helpers on their experiences of the intervention. Statistical analyses will focus on feasibility outcomes and provide initial estimates of intervention effects. Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews will assess implementation, acceptability, mechanisms of effect and contextual

  11. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  12. The Combined Effects of Body Weight Support and Gait Speed on Gait Related Muscle Activity: A Comparison between Walking in the Lokomat Exoskeleton and Regular Treadmill Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kammen, Klaske; Boonstra, Annemarijke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen; den Otter, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background For the development of specialized training protocols for robot assisted gait training, it is important to understand how the use of exoskeletons alters locomotor task demands, and how the nature and magnitude of these changes depend on training parameters. Therefore, the present study assessed the combined effects of gait speed and body weight support (BWS) on muscle activity, and compared these between treadmill walking and walking in the Lokomat exoskeleton. Methods Ten healthy participants walked on a treadmill and in the Lokomat, with varying levels of BWS (0% and 50% of the participants’ body weight) and gait speed (0.8, 1.8, and 2.8 km/h), while temporal step characteristics and muscle activity from Erector Spinae, Gluteus Medius, Vastus Lateralis, Biceps Femoris, Gastrocnemius Medialis, and Tibialis Anterior muscles were recorded. Results The temporal structure of the stepping pattern was altered when participants walked in the Lokomat or when BWS was provided (i.e. the relative duration of the double support phase was reduced, and the single support phase prolonged), but these differences normalized as gait speed increased. Alternations in muscle activity were characterized by complex interactions between walking conditions and training parameters: Differences between treadmill walking and walking in the exoskeleton were most prominent at low gait speeds, and speed effects were attenuated when BWS was provided. Conclusion Walking in the Lokomat exoskeleton without movement guidance alters the temporal step regulation and the neuromuscular control of walking, although the nature and magnitude of these effects depend on complex interactions with gait speed and BWS. If normative neuromuscular control of gait is targeted during training, it is recommended that very low speeds and high levels of BWS should be avoided when possible. PMID:25226302

  13. Aktiv kontra passiv forvaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2017-01-01

    Fordele og ulemper ved aktiv og passiv forvaltning har fået fornyet opmærksomhed blandt andet i forbindelse med den forestående implementering af MiFID II. Som bidrag til denne diskussion indeholder dette nummer af Finans/Invest tre artikler, der behandler aktiv og passiv forvaltning fra...... forskellige vinkler. Denne leder forklarer, hvorfor valget mellem aktiv og passiv forvaltning er mere kompliceret, end hvad man kunne tro ved første øjekast, og konkluderer, at der vil være plads til - og behov for - begge typer forvaltning....

  14. Most energetic passive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Huber, Marcus; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Tura, Jordi; Acín, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Passive states are defined as those states that do not allow for work extraction in a cyclic (unitary) process. Within the set of passive states, thermal states are the most stable ones: they maximize the entropy for a given energy, and similarly they minimize the energy for a given entropy. Here we find the passive states lying in the other extreme, i.e., those that maximize the energy for a given entropy, which we show also minimize the entropy when the energy is fixed. These extremal properties make these states useful to obtain fundamental bounds for the thermodynamics of finite-dimensional quantum systems, which we show in several scenarios.

  15. Development of Decision-making Support System to Determine the Feasibility of the Job Training Industry Using Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisah Riski Zubaeti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The activities of the job training is an activity that must be implemented at Vocational Secondary School. The lack of utilization of technology on such activities in Vocational Secondary School,  so the data management of the job training become less effective and efficient. Therefore, it is necessary the information system for manage the data on the job training and produces the decision support of the decent industry of the job training as a result of the evaluation of the job training. This research has a goal to produce decision support system to determine the feasibility of the job training industry (SPK-KTP, measure the feasibility of the system, and produce a decision support using a Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method. The information system can help the school to manage the administration on the job training, recap the daily journal, recap the reports in pursuit, and provide decision support the job training of decent industry used in the next period. SPK-KTP uses SAW method to produce decision support the job training of decent industry. SPK-KTP is the web-based information system which it is developed using the programming language PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor. This information system uses The Waterfall Model as its system development method. The steps of The Waterfall Model consists of Analysis, Design, Code, and Test. SPK-KTP has done testing to an expert of the information system with value 90,7%, an expert of the substance of the job training with value  91,6%, supervising teachers with value 83,3%, and learners with value 90,6%. Based on the result, so SPK-KTP is very decent to use.

  16. Techniques for active passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  17. Passive radon daughter dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.G.C.; Johnson, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    On the basis of an extensive review of the recent literature concerning passive radon daughter dosimeters, we have reached the following conclusions: 1) Passive dosimeters for measuring radon are available and reliable. 2) There does not presently exist an acceptable passive dosimeter for radon daughters. There is little if any hope for the development of such a device in the foreseeable future. 3) We are pessimistic about the potential of 'semi-passive dosimeters' but are less firm about stating categorically that these devices cannot be developed into a useful radon daughter dosimeter. This report documents and justifies these conclusions. It does not address the question of the worker's acceptance of these devices because at the present time, no device is sufficiently advanced for this question to be meaningful. 118 refs

  18. Passive Mixing inside Microdroplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengmin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Droplet-based micromixers are essential units in many microfluidic devices for widespread applications, such as diagnostics and synthesis. The mixers can be either passive or active. When compared to active methods, the passive mixer is widely used because it does not require extra energy input apart from the pump drive. In recent years, several passive droplet-based mixers were developed, where mixing was characterized by both experiments and simulation. A unified physical understanding of both experimental processes and simulation models is beneficial for effectively developing new and efficient mixing techniques. This review covers the state-of-the-art passive droplet-based micromixers in microfluidics, which mainly focuses on three aspects: (1 Mixing parameters and analysis method; (2 Typical mixing element designs and the mixing characters in experiments; and, (3 Comprehensive introduction of numerical models used in microfluidic flow and diffusion.

  19. Partial body weight support treadmill training speed influences paretic and non-paretic leg muscle activation, stride characteristics, and ratings of perceived exertion during acute stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnfield, Judith M; Buster, Thad W; Goldman, Amy J; Corbridge, Laura M; Harper-Hanigan, Kellee

    2016-06-01

    Intensive task-specific training is promoted as one approach for facilitating neural plastic brain changes and associated motor behavior gains following neurologic injury. Partial body weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT), is one task-specific approach frequently used to improve walking during the acute period of stroke recovery (training parameters and physiologic demands during this early recovery phase. To examine the impact of four walking speeds on stride characteristics, lower extremity muscle demands (both paretic and non-paretic), Borg ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood pressure. A prospective, repeated measures design was used. Ten inpatients post unilateral stroke participated. Following three familiarization sessions, participants engaged in PBWSTT at four predetermined speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0mph) while bilateral electromyographic and stride characteristic data were recorded. RPE was evaluated immediately following each trial. Stride length, cadence, and paretic single limb support increased with faster walking speeds (p⩽0.001), while non-paretic single limb support remained nearly constant. Faster walking resulted in greater peak and mean muscle activation in the paretic medial hamstrings, vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius, and non-paretic medial gastrocnemius (p⩽0.001). RPE also was greatest at the fastest compared to two slowest speeds (ptraining at the slowest speeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CANDU passive shutdown systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R S; Olmstead, R A [AECL CANDU, Sheridan Park Research Community, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    CANDU incorporates two diverse, passive shutdown systems, independent of each other and from the reactor regulating system. Both shutdown systems function in the low pressure, low temperature, moderator which surrounds the fuel channels. The shutdown systems are functionally different, physically separate, and passive since the driving force for SDS1 is gravity and the driving force for SDS2 is stored energy. The physics of the reactor core itself ensures a degree of passive safety in that the relatively long prompt neutron generation time inherent in the design of CANDU reactors tend to retard power excursions and reduces the speed required for shutdown action, even for large postulated reactivity increases. All passive systems include a number of active components or initiators. Hence, an important aspect of passive systems is the inclusion of fail safe (activated by active component failure) operation. The mechanisms that achieve the fail safe action should be passive. Consequently the passive performance of the CANDU shutdown systems extends beyond their basic modes of operation to include fail safe operation based on natural phenomenon or stored energy. For example, loss of power to the SDS1 clutches results in the drop of the shutdown rods by gravity, loss of power or instrument air to the injection valves of SDS2 results in valve opening via spring action, and rigorous self checking of logic, data and timing by the shutdown systems computers assures a fail safe reactor trip through the collapse of a fluctuating magnetic field or the discharge of a capacitor. Event statistics from operating CANDU stations indicate a significant decrease in protection system faults that could lead to loss of production and elimination of protection system faults that could lead to loss of protection. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the passive shutdown systems employed by CANDU. (author). 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  1. High molecular weight FGF2 isoforms demonstrate canonical receptor-mediated activity and support human embryonic stem cell self-renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006, and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011. A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18 kDa low molecular weight (LMW isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW isoforms (Arese et al., 1999; Arnaud et al., 1999. As they are not generally secreted, high molecular weight (HMW FGF2 isoforms have predominantly been investigated intracellularly; only a very limited number of studies have investigated their activity as extracellular factors. Here we report over-expression, isolation, and biological activity of all recombinant human FGF2 isoforms. We show that HMW FGF2 isoforms can support self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in vitro. Exogenous supplementation with HMW FGF2 isoforms also activates the canonical FGFR/MAPK pathway and induces mitogenic activity in a manner similar to that of the 18 kDa FGF2 isoform. Though all HMW isoforms, when supplemented exogenously, are able to recapitulate LMW FGF2 activity to some degree, it appears that certain isoforms tend to do so more poorly, demonstrating a lesser functional response by several measures. A better understanding of isoform-specific FGF2 effects will lead to a better understanding of developmental and pathological FGF2 signaling.

  2. The Comparison of Traditional Exercises & Body Weight Supported Training (BWST Exercises on Sensory-Motor Function, Quality and Quantity of Walking in Paraplegic Spinal Cord Injured Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Raeisi-dehkordi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the comparison of traditional exercises & body weight supported training (BWST exercises on sensory-motor function, quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons. Materials & Methods: 17 voluntary paraplegic spinal cord injured persons (Asia B,C, age 32.53±1.793 years, height 175.71±1.658 cm, weight 71.59±2.442 kg, and body mass index (BMI 23.18 ± 0.828 kg/m2 availability. The subjects were randomly assigned to BWSTT group (N=10 and Traditional exercises group (N=7 according to sensory and motor score. The subjects trained for 12 weeks, four times per week and 60 min per session. BWSTT include 15 min warm-up on fixed gear bike, 45 min BWSTT with 50% body weight and 10 min cold-down finally. 10% load was added each week. Traditional exercises included 15 min warm-up plus 45 min stretch exercise and resistance training. Results: The data showed that there were significant differences in changes of sensory function Pin score (P=0.002 and Light Score (P=0.002 sensory function, motor function (P=0.000, Walking index Spinal cord injury (WISCI (P=0.002, 6 min walking test (P=0.001 and 10 meter walking (P=0.001 between BWSTT and traditional exercise. Conclusion: BWSTT in comparison with traditional exercise can improve sensory-motor function and quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons.

  3. Exercise training utilizing body weight-supported treadmill walking with a young adult with cerebral palsy who was non-ambulatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiasio, Paula A; Lewis, Cynthia L

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to determine the effects of exercise training using body weight-supported treadmill walking (BWSTW) with an 18-year-old male diagnosed with Cerebral palsy (CP) who was non-ambulatory and not receiving physical therapy. Outcome measures included the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion, 3-minute walk test and physiological cost index (PCI). BWSTW sessions took place twice a week for 6 weeks with a reduction of approximately 40% of the patient's weight. Over-ground 3-minute walk test distance and PCI were essentially unchanged. BWSTW exercise time increased by 67% with a 43% increase in speed while average working HR decreased by 8%. BWSTW PCI decreased by 26%. PedsQL parent report improved in all domains. PedsQL self-report demonstrated a mild decrease. PEDI showed improvements in self-care and mobility. Exercise utilizing BWSTW resulted in a positive training effect for this young adult with CP who was non-ambulatory. Developing effective and efficient protocols for exercise training utilizing BWSTW may aid in the use of this form of exercise and further quantify outcomes. Ensuring that young adults with CP have safe and feasible options to exercise and be physically active on a regular basis is an important role of a physical therapist.

  4. Effects of conventional overground gait training and a gait trainer with partial body weight support on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of both conventional overground gait training (CGT) and a gait trainer with partial body weight support (GTBWS) on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with hemiparesis following chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were alternately assigned to one of two treatment groups, and both groups underwent CGT and GTBWS. [Results] The functional ambulation classification on the affected side improved significantly in the CGT and GTBWS groups. Walking speed also improved significantly in both groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the GTBWS in company with CGT may be, in part, an effective method of gait training for restoring gait ability in patients after a stroke.

  5. Combination of robot-assisted and conventional body-weight-supported treadmill training improves gait in persons with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jennifer; Labas, Michele P; Triche, Elizabeth W; Lo, Albert C

    2013-12-01

    The majority of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience problems with gait, which they characterize as highly disabling impairments that adversely impact their quality of life. Thus, it is crucial to develop effective therapies to improve mobility for these individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combination gait training, using robot-assisted treadmill training followed by conventional body-weight-supported treadmill training within the same session, improved gait and balance in individuals with MS. This study tested combination gait training in 7 persons with MS. The participants were randomized into the immediate therapy group (IT group) or the delayed therapy group (DT group). In phase I of the trial, the IT group received treatment while the DT group served as a concurrent comparison group. In phase II of the trial, the DT group received treatment identical to the treatment received by the IT group in phase I. Outcome measures included the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the Timed 25-Foot Walk Test, velocity, cadence, and the Functional Reach Test (FRT). Nonparametric statistical techniques were used for analysis. Combination gait training resulted in significantly greater improvements in the 6MWT for the IT group (median change = +59 m) compared with Phase I DT group (median change = -8 m) (P = 0.08) and FRT (median change = +3.3 cm in IT vs -0.8 cm in the DT group phase I; P = 0.03). Significant overall pre-post improvements following combination gait training were found in 6MWT (+32 m; P = 0.02) and FRT (+3.3 cm; P = 0.06) for IT and Phase II DT groups combined. Combination of robot with body-weight-supported treadmill training gait training is feasible and improved 6MWT and FRT distances in persons with MS.Video Abstract available (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A62) for more insights from the authors.

  6. Measure Guideline: Passive Vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, David [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Neri, Robin [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-05

    This document addresses the use of passive vents as a source of outdoor air in multifamily buildings. The challenges associated with implementing passive vents and the factors affecting performance are outlined. A comprehensive design methodology and quantified performance metrics are provided. Two hypothetical design examples are provided to illustrate the process. This document is intended to be useful to designers, decision-makers, and contractors implementing passive ventilation strategies. It is also intended to be a resource for those responsible for setting high-performance building program requirements, especially pertaining to ventilation and outdoor air. To ensure good indoor air quality, a dedicated source of outdoor air is an integral part of high-performance buildings. Presently, there is a lack of guidance pertaining to the design and installation of passive vents, resulting in poor system performance. This report details the criteria necessary for designing, constructing, and testing passive vent systems to enable them to provide consistent and reliable levels of ventilation air from outdoors.

  7. Performance of the PBX-M passive plate stabilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.

    1994-02-01

    The PBX-M passive plate stabilization system provides significant stabilization of long-wavelength external kink modes, the slowing of vertical instability growth rates, and the amelioration of disruption characteristics. The passive plate stabilization system has allowed the use of LHCD and IBW to induce current density and pressure profile modifications, and m = 1 divertor biasing for modifying edge plasma transport. Improvements in the passive plate system insulators and support structures have provided reliable operation. Impurity influxes with the close-fitting passive plates are low. Solid target boronization is applied routinely to reduce conditioning time and maintain clean conditions

  8. Constructing passive houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehler, S. [Oehler Faigle Archkom Solar Architektur, Bretten (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Everybody can learn to build energy-efficient. It needs theoretical and practical experience. 1997 we built the first freestanding Passive House in Europe, the Passive House Oehler. There had been a lot of questions, starting with the insecurity, whether the calculation program of the Passive House Institute, the PHPP, is working properly in our case. Nobody knew at that time because nobody tried it out before. It took us a lot of time to find out and every detail of the construction hat to be invented to meet the very high demand of thermal quality. All the following houses needed less time and had fewer open questions, adding one piece of experience with every building. 2002 we realised the biggest Passive House, the office building Energon Ulm with 420 working spaces. In the meantime we have learned a lot like how to produce prefabricated timber elements for the facades, providing good insulation, air tightness and avoiding serious thermal bridges. We have proofed, that any kind of building type can be a Passive House. And with increasing experience the freedom of design and construction is growing. Even the economical efficiency increased. The Energon Ulm is providing a much better indoor climate than any other office building and was build 10 % cheaper than an average German office building. At present the Passive House Standard is the most efficient solution for the user to live in the desired comfort zone between 20 C and 25 C. This zone of individual feeling-well can be described with the term ''operative temperature''. This term is defined by factors like air temperature, radiation temperature of warm and cold surfaces, air speed and humidity. The result of all these factors has to be within 18 C to 25 C without accepting one of the factors getting extreme.

  9. 'Fit Moms/Mamás Activas' internet-based weight control program with group support to reduce postpartum weight retention in low-income women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Brannen, Anna; Erickson, Karen; Diamond, Molly; Schaffner, Andrew; Muñoz-Christian, Karen; Stewart, Ana; Sanchez, Teresa; Rodriguez, Vanessa C; Ramos, Dalila I; McClure, Linda; Stinson, Caro; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-02-25

    High postpartum weight retention is a strong independent risk factor for lifetime obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes in women. Interventions to promote postpartum weight loss have met with some success but have been limited by high attrition. Internet-based treatment has the potential to overcome this barrier and reduce postpartum weight retention, but no study has evaluated the effects of an internet-based program to prevent high postpartum weight retention in women. Fit Moms/Mamás Activas targets recruitment of 12 Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program clinics with a total of 408 adult (>18 years), postpartum (internet-based weight loss intervention. The intervention includes: monthly face-to-face group sessions; access to a website with weekly lessons, a web diary, instructional videos, and computer-tailored feedback; four weekly text messages; and brief reinforcement from WIC counselors. Participants are assessed at baseline, six months, and 12 months. The primary outcome is weight loss over six and 12 months; secondary outcomes include diet and physical activity behaviors, and psychosocial measures. Fit Moms/Mamás Activas is the first study to empirically examine the effects of an internet-based treatment program, coupled with monthly group contact at the WIC program, designed to prevent sustained postpartum weight retention in low-income women at high risk for weight gain, obesity, and related comorbidities. This trial was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT01408147 ) on 29 July 2011.

  10. Passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimola, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a containment system that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is prevented from over-heating by a high containment back-pressure and a reactor vessel refill system. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high sub-atmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means. 20 claims, 14 figures

  11. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  12. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points:\\ud - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks\\ud - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby\\ud - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  13. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  14. Varied overground walking training versus body-weight-supported treadmill training in adults within 1 year of stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaul, Vincent G; Wishart, Laurie R; Richardson, Julie; Thabane, Lehana; Ma, Jinhui; Lee, Timothy D

    2015-05-01

    Although task-related walking training has been recommended after stroke, the theoretical basis, content, and impact of interventions vary across the literature. There is a need for a comparison of different approaches to task-related walking training after stroke. To compare the impact of a motor-learning-science-based overground walking training program with body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in ambulatory, community-dwelling adults within 1 year of stroke onset. In this rater-blinded, 1:1 parallel, randomized controlled trial, participants were stratified by baseline gait speed. Participants assigned to the Motor Learning Walking Program (MLWP) practiced various overground walking tasks under the supervision of 1 physiotherapist. Cognitive effort was encouraged through random practice and limited provision of feedback and guidance. The BWSTT program emphasized repetition of the normal gait cycle while supported on a treadmill and assisted by 1 to 3 therapy staff. The primary outcome was comfortable gait speed at postintervention assessment (T2). In total, 71 individuals (mean age = 67.3; standard deviation = 11.6 years) with stroke (mean onset = 20.9 [14.1] weeks) were randomized (MLWP, n = 35; BWSTT, n = 36). There was no significant between-group difference in gait speed at T2 (0.002 m/s; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.11, 0.12; P > .05). The MLWP group improved by 0.14 m/s (95% CI = 0.09, 0.19), and the BWSTT group improved by 0.14 m/s (95% CI = 0.08, 0.20). In this sample of community-dwelling adults within 1 year of stroke, a 15-session program of varied overground walking-focused training was not superior to a BWSTT program of equal frequency, duration, and in-session step activity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Passiv-Sammler

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsche, U.

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to a passive collector for air pollution for the determination of emission rates for dry and wet deposits on construction materials such as natural stone, whereby the collector has a surrogate surface of the stone under investigation, the surrogate surface being linked to a collecting vessel such that any dry or wet contamination occurring can be collected.

  16. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  17. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  18. Passive THz metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present our activities in the fabrication and characterization of passive THz metamaterials. We use two fabrication processes to develop metamaterials either as free-standing metallic membranes or patterned metallic multi-layers on the substrates to achieve different functionalities...

  19. Influence of visual and auditory biofeedback on partial body weight support treadmill training of individuals with chronic hemiparesis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasileiro, A; Gama, G; Trigueiro, L; Ribeiro, T; Silva, E; Galvão, É; Lindquist, A

    2015-02-01

    Stroke is an important causal factor of deficiency and functional dependence worldwide. To determine the immediate effects of visual and auditory biofeedback, combined with partial body weight supported (PBWS) treadmill training on the gait of individuals with chronic hemiparesis. Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient rehabilitation hospital. Thirty subjects with chronic hemiparesis and ability to walk with some help. Participants were randomized to a control group that underwent only PBWS treadmill training; or experimental I group with visual biofeedback from the display monitor, in the form of symbolic feet as the subject took a step; or experimental group II with auditory biofeedback associated display, using a metronome at 115% of the individual's preferred cadence. They trained for 20 minutes and were evaluated before and after training. Spatio-temporal and angular gait variables were obtained by kinematics from the Qualisys Motion Analysis system. Increases in speed and stride length were observed for all groups over time (speed: F=25.63; Phemiparesis, in short term. Additional studies are needed to determine whether, in long term, the biofeedback will promote additional benefit to the PBWS treadmill training. The findings of this study indicate that visual and auditory biofeedback does not bring immediate benefits on PBWS treadmill training of individuals with chronic hemiparesis. This suggest that, for additional benefits are achieved with biofeedback, effects should be investigated after long-term training, which may determine if some kind of biofeedback is superior to another to improve the hemiparetic gait.

  20. A robot and control algorithm that can synchronously assist in naturalistic motion during body-weight-supported gait training following neurologic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Daisuke; Ichinose, Wade E; Harkema, Susan J; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Bobrow, James E

    2007-09-01

    Locomotor training using body weight support on a treadmill and manual assistance is a promising rehabilitation technique following neurological injuries, such as spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke. Previous robots that automate this technique impose constraints on naturalistic walking due to their kinematic structure, and are typically operated in a stiff mode, limiting the ability of the patient or human trainer to influence the stepping pattern. We developed a pneumatic gait training robot that allows for a full range of natural motion of the legs and pelvis during treadmill walking, and provides compliant assistance. However, we observed an unexpected consequence of the device's compliance: unimpaired and SCI individuals invariably began walking out-of-phase with the device. Thus, the robot perturbed rather than assisted stepping. To address this problem, we developed a novel algorithm that synchronizes the device in real-time to the actual motion of the individual by sensing the state error and adjusting the replay timing to reduce this error. This paper describes data from experiments with individuals with SCI that demonstrate the effectiveness of the synchronization algorithm, and the potential of the device for relieving the trainers of strenuous work while maintaining naturalistic stepping.

  1. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyu Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%–19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  2. Multiplex protein pattern unmixing using a non-linear variable-weighted support vector machine as optimized by a particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Zou, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Li-Juan; Shen, Guo-Li; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-01-15

    Most of the proteins locate more than one organelle in a cell. Unmixing the localization patterns of proteins is critical for understanding the protein functions and other vital cellular processes. Herein, non-linear machine learning technique is proposed for the first time upon protein pattern unmixing. Variable-weighted support vector machine (VW-SVM) is a demonstrated robust modeling technique with flexible and rational variable selection. As optimized by a global stochastic optimization technique, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, it makes VW-SVM to be an adaptive parameter-free method for automated unmixing of protein subcellular patterns. Results obtained by pattern unmixing of a set of fluorescence microscope images of cells indicate VW-SVM as optimized by PSO is able to extract useful pattern features by optimally rescaling each variable for non-linear SVM modeling, consequently leading to improved performances in multiplex protein pattern unmixing compared with conventional SVM and other exiting pattern unmixing methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  4. Effects of body weight-support treadmill training on postural sway and gait independence in patients with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias-Escudero, Felipe; Rivera-Lillo, Gonzalo; Torres-Castro, Rodrigo; Varas-Díaz, Gonzalo

    2017-10-23

    To examine the effects of a six-week body weight-support treadmill training (BWSTT) program on center-of-mass control and gait independence in chronic, incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) patients. Descriptive. Clinica Los Coihues. Neurorehabilitation center in Santiago, Chile. 17 chronic iSCI patients and 17 healthy subjects. An instrumented sway (ISway) test was performed before and after the implementation of a six-week BWSTT program. The standing balance of participants was measured by Normalized jerk (NJ) and root mean square (RMS). These values were used to assess the standing balance of participants, and were correlated with the scores obtained on the Walking Index Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) II test. Significant differences were found in standing balance (i.e., through NJ) after the BWSTT program (P = 0.016), but no significant differences were found in RMS values for postural sway (P = 0.693). None of the patients obtained improved WISCI II scores pre- vs. post-intervention. While a BWSTT program can improve center-of-mass control in iSCI patients, no effects were recorded for gait independence. National Clinical Trials, registry number NCT02703883.

  5. The Effect of Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Gait Recovery, Proximal Lower Limb Motor Pattern, and Balance in Patients with Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu-Rong; Lo, Wai Leung; Lin, Qiang; Li, Le; Xiao, Xiang; Raghavan, Preeti; Huang, Dong-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Gait performance is an indicator of mobility impairment after stroke. This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and conventional overground walking training (CT) in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. Inpatient department of rehabilitation medicine at a university-affiliated hospital. 24 subjects with unilateral hemiplegia in the subacute stage were randomized to the BWSTT (n = 12) and CT (n = 12) groups. Parameters were compared between the two groups. Data from twelve age matched healthy subjects were recorded as reference. Patients received gait training with BWSTT or CT for an average of 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. Balance was measured by the Brunel balance assessment. Lower extremity motor function was evaluated by the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale. Kinematic data were collected and analyzed using a gait capture system before and after the interventions. Both groups improved on balance and lower extremity motor function measures (P training. Both methods can improve balance and motor function.

  6. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over the supplementary motor area body weight-supported treadmill gait training in hemiparetic patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, Atsushi; Amimoto, Kazu; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Wada, Yoshiaki; Inaba, Akira; Ko, Sangkyun

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is used in a variety of disorders after stroke including upper limb motor dysfunctions, hemispatial neglect, aphasia, and apraxia, and its effectiveness has been demonstrated. Although gait ability is important for daily living, there were few reports of the use of tDCS to improve balance and gait ability. The supplementary motor area (SMA) was reported to play a potentially important role in balance recovery after stroke. We aimed to investigate the effect of combined therapy body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and tDCS on gait function recovery of stroke patients. Thirty stroke inpatients participated in this study. The two BWSTT periods of 1weeks each, with real tDCS (anode: front of Cz, cathode: inion, 1mA, 20min) on SMA and sham stimulation, were randomized in a double-blind crossover design. We measured the time required for the 10m Walk Test (10MWT) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test before and after each period. We found that the real tDCS with BWSTT significantly improved gait speed (10MWT) and applicative walking ability (TUG), compared with BWSTT+sham stimulation periods (ptraining after stroke. The facilitative effects of tDCS on SMA possibly improved postural control during BWSTT. The results indicated the implications for the use of tDCS in balance and gait training rehabilitation after stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The influence of locomotor treatment using robotic body-weight-supported treadmill training on rehabilitation outcome of patients suffering from neurological disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Isabella; Meiner, Zeev

    2013-03-01

    Regaining one's ability to walk is of great importance for neurological patients and is a major goal of all rehabilitation programs. Treating neurological patients in the acute phase after the event is technically difficult because of their motor weakness and balance disturbances. Based on studies in spinalized animals, a novel locomotor training that incorporates high repetitions of task-oriented practice by the use of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) was developed to overcome these obstacles. The use of BWSTT enables early initiation of gait training, integration of weightbearing activities, stepping and balance by the use of a task-specific approach, and a symmetrical gait pattern. However, despite the theoretical potential of BWSTT to become an invaluable therapeutic tool, its effect on walking outcomes was disappointing when compared with conventional training of the same duration. To facilitate the deLivery of BWSTT, a motorized robotic driven gait orthosis (RBWSTT) was recently developed. It has many advantages over the conventional method, including less effort for the physiotherapists, longer session duration, more physiological and reproducible gait patterns, and the possibility of measuring a patient's performances. Several studies have been conducted using RBWSTT in patients after stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases. Although some of the results were encouraging, there is still uncertainty regarding proper patient selection, timing and protocol for RBWTT treatment following neurological diseases. More large randomized controlled studies are needed in order to answer these questions.

  8. Atypical autonomic dysreflexia during robotic-assisted body weight supported treadmill training in an individual with motor incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geigle, Paula R; Frye, Sara Kate; Perreault, John; Scott, William H; Gorman, Peter H

    2013-03-01

    A 41-year-old man with a history of C6 American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) C spinal cord injury (SCI), enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, robotic-assisted body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT), and aquatic exercise research protocol developed asymptomatic autonomic dysreflexia (AD) during training. Little information is available regarding the relationship of robotic-assisted BWSTT and AD. After successfully completing 36 sessions of aquatic exercise, he reported exertional fatigue during his 10th Lokomat intervention and exhibited asymptomatic or silent AD during this and the three subsequent BWSTT sessions. Standard facilitators of AD were assessed and no obvious irritant identified other than the actual physical exertion and positioning required during robotic-assisted BWSTT. Increased awareness of potential silent AD presenting during robotic assisted BWSTT training for individuals with motor incomplete SCI is required as in this case AD clinical signs were not concurrent with occurrence. Frequent vital sign assessment before, during, and at conclusion of each BWSTT session is strongly recommended.

  9. Changes of pelvis control with subacute stroke: A comparison of body-weight- support treadmill training coupled virtual reality system and over-ground training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Lifang; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Gait recovery is very important to stroke survivors to regain their independence in activity of daily life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR) coupled body weight support treadmill training (BWSTT) on pelvic control at the early stage of stroke. Kinematic and kinetic changes of pelvic motion were evaluated by a 3D gait analysis system and were compared to the results from over-ground walking training. Twenty-four patients having unilateral hemiplegia with subacute stroke were recruited to a VR coupled BWSTT group (n= 12) and a conventional therapy (CT) group (n= 12). Both of the groups received training of 20-40 min/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. The results showed the tilt of pelvis in sagittal plane improved significantly (P= 0.038) after treatment in the BWSTT+VR group, in terms of decreased amplitude of anterior peak (mean, from 10.99° to 6.25°), while there were no significant differences in the control group. The findings suggested that VR coupled BWSTT gait training could decrease anterior tilt of pelvis in early hemiparetic persons following a modest intervention dose, and the training may have advantages over conventional over-ground gait training and can assist the therapists in correcting abnormal gait pattern of stroke survivors.

  10. Comparison of forward versus backward walking using body weight supported treadmill training in an individual with a spinal cord injury: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Gabriele; Pathare, Neeti; Cirone, Cono; Pastore, Danielle; Shears, Dacia; Sulehri, Sahira

    2014-01-01

    Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific intervention that promotes functional locomotion. There is no research evaluating the effect of backward walking (BW) using BWSTT in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this single subject design was to examine the differences between forward walking (FW) and BW training using BWSTT in an individual with quadriparesis. The participant was a 57-year-old male with incomplete C3-C6 SCI. An ABABAB design (A = BW; B = FW; each phase = 3 weeks of biweekly sessions) was utilized. Outcome measures included: gait parameters; a timed 4-meter walk; the 5-repetition sit-to-stand test (STST); tandem stance time; and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Data was analyzed with split level method of trend estimation. Improvements in gait parameters, on the timed 4-meter walk, 6MWT, tandem balance and aerobic endurance were similar with FW and BW training. The only difference between FW and BW training was that BW training resulted in greater improvements in the STST. The results of this study suggest that in this individual backward walking training was advantageous, resulting in improved ability to perform the 5-repetition STST. It is suspected that these changes can be attributed to the differences in muscle activation and task difficulty between FW and BW.

  11. Robot-Applied Resistance Augments the Effects of Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training on Stepping and Synaptic Plasticity in a Rodent Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinahon, Erika; Estrada, Christina; Tong, Lin; Won, Deborah S; de Leon, Ray D

    2017-08-01

    The application of resistive forces has been used during body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) to improve walking function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Whether this form of training actually augments the effects of BWSTT is not yet known. To determine if robotic-applied resistance augments the effects of BWSTT using a controlled experimental design in a rodent model of SCI. Spinally contused rats were treadmill trained using robotic resistance against horizontal (n = 9) or vertical (n = 8) hind limb movements. Hind limb stepping was tested before and after 6 weeks of training. Two control groups, one receiving standard training (ie, without resistance; n = 9) and one untrained (n = 8), were also tested. At the terminal experiment, the spinal cords were prepared for immunohistochemical analysis of synaptophysin. Six weeks of training with horizontal resistance increased step length, whereas training with vertical resistance enhanced step height and movement velocity. None of these changes occurred in the group that received standard (ie, no resistance) training or in the untrained group. Only standard training increased the number of step cycles and shortened cycle period toward normal values. Synaptophysin expression in the ventral horn was highest in rats trained with horizontal resistance and in untrained rats and was positively correlated with step length. Adding robotic-applied resistance to BWSTT produced gains in locomotor function over BWSTT alone. The impact of resistive forces on spinal connections may depend on the nature of the resistive forces and the synaptic milieu that is present after SCI.

  12. Passive Cooling of Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Ronald; Matic, Peter; Mott, David

    2013-03-01

    Warfighter performance can be adversely affected by heat load and weight of equipment. Current tactical vest designs are good insulators and lack ventilation, thus do not provide effective management of metabolic heat generated. NRL has undertaken a systematic study of tactical vest thermal management, leading to physics-based strategies that provide improved cooling without undesirable consequences such as added weight, added electrical power requirements, or compromised protection. The approach is based on evaporative cooling of sweat produced by the wearer of the vest, in an air flow provided by ambient wind or ambulatory motion of the wearer. Using an approach including thermodynamic analysis, computational fluid dynamics modeling, air flow measurements of model ventilated vest architectures, and studies of the influence of fabric aerodynamic drag characteristics, materials and geometry were identified that optimize passive cooling of tactical vests. Specific architectural features of the vest design allow for optimal ventilation patterns, and selection of fabrics for vest construction optimize evaporation rates while reducing air flow resistance. Cooling rates consistent with the theoretical and modeling predictions were verified experimentally for 3D mockups.

  13. Intrinsically Passive Handling and Grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Khodabandehloo, Koorosh

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a control philosophy called Intrinsically Passive Control, which has the feature to properly behave during interaction with any passive objects. The controlled robot will never become unstable due to the physical structure of the controller.

  14. Linking actions and objects: Context-specific learning of novel weight priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2017-06-01

    Distinct explicit and implicit memory processes support weight predictions used when lifting objects and making perceptual judgments about weight, respectively. The first time that an object is encountered weight is predicted on the basis of learned associations, or priors, linking size and material to weight. A fundamental question is whether the brain maintains a single, global representation of priors, or multiple representations that can be updated in a context specific way. A second key question is whether the updating of priors, or the ability to scale lifting forces when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects requires focused attention. To investigate these questions we compared the adaptability of weight predictions used when lifting objects and judging their weights in different groups of participants who experienced size-weight inverted objects passively (with the objects placed on the hands) or actively (where participants lift the objects) under full or divided attention. To assess weight judgments we measured the size-weight illusion after every 20 trials of experience with the inverted objects both passively and actively. The attenuation of the illusion that arises when lifting inverted object was found to be context-specific such that the attenuation was larger when the mode of interaction with the inverted objects matched the method of assessment of the illusion. Dividing attention during interaction with the inverted objects had no effect on attenuation of the illusion, but did slow the rate at which lifting forces were scaled to the weight inverted objects. These findings suggest that the brain stores multiple representations of priors that are context specific, and that focused attention is important for scaling lifting forces, but not for updating weight predictions used when judging object weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  16. Passive solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, K

    1981-11-10

    The present work treats the possibilities for heating according to the passive solar heating method. Problems of 'spatial organization in an energy-saving society' are distinguished from among other social problems. The final delimination of the actual problems under investigation consists of the use of passive solar heating and especially the 'consequences of such solar heating exploitation upon the form and structures' of planning and construction. In the concluding chapter an applied example shows how this method can be used in designing an urban area and what are its limitations. The results indicate the possibilities and difficulties in attempting to transfer this ideal and general method into models and directives for form and structure from which examples of the actual possibilities in practical planning can be given.

  17. Treadmill training with partial body weight support and an electromechanical gait trainer for restoration of gait in subacute stroke patients: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C; Von Frankenberg, S; Treig, T; Konrad, M; Hesse, S

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare treadmill and electromechanical gait trainer therapy in subacute, nonambulatory stroke survivors. The gait trainer was designed to provide nonambulatory subjects the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overexerting therapists. This was a randomized, controlled study with a crossover design following an A-B-A versus a B-A-B pattern. A consisted of 2 weeks of gait trainer therapy, and B consisted of 2 weeks of treadmill therapy. Thirty nonambulatory hemiparetic patients, 4 to 12 weeks after stroke, were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups receiving locomotor therapy every workday for 15 to 20 minutes for 6 weeks. Weekly gait ability (functional ambulation category [FAC]), gait velocity, and the required physical assistance during both kinds of locomotor therapy were the primary outcome measures, and other motor functions (Rivermead motor assessment score) and ankle spasticity (modified Ashworth score) were the secondary outcome measures. Follow-up occurred 6 months later. The groups did not differ at study onset with respect to the clinical characteristics and effector variables. During treatment, the FAC, gait velocity, and Rivermead scores improved in both groups, and ankle spasticity did not change. Median FAC level was 4 (3 to 4) in group A compared with 3 (2 to 3) in group B at the end of treatment (P=0.018), but the difference at 6-month follow up was not significant. The therapeutic effort was less on the gait trainer, with 1 instead of 2 therapists assisting the patient at study onset. All but seven patients preferred the gait trainer. The newly developed gait trainer was at least as effective as treadmill therapy with partial body weight support while requiring less input from the therapist. Further studies are warranted.

  18. Physiological responses and energy cost of walking on the Gait Trainer with and without body weight support in subacute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delussu, Anna Sofia; Morone, Giovanni; Iosa, Marco; Bragoni, Maura; Traballesi, Marco; Paolucci, Stefano

    2014-04-10

    Robotic-assisted walking after stroke provides intensive task-oriented training. But, despite the growing diffusion of robotic devices little information is available about cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during electromechanically-assisted repetitive walking exercise. Aim of the study was to determine whether use of an end-effector gait training (GT) machine with body weight support (BWS) would affect physiological responses and energy cost of walking (ECW) in subacute post-stroke hemiplegic patients. six patients (patient group: PG) with hemiplegia due to stroke (age: 66 ± 15y; time since stroke: 8 ± 3 weeks; four men) and 6 healthy subjects as control group (CG: age, 76 ± 7y; six men). overground walking test (OWT) and GT-assisted walking with 0%, 30% and 50% BWS (GT-BWS0%, 30% and 50%). heart rate (HR), pulmonary ventilation, oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and ECW. Intervention conditions significantly affected parameter values in steady state (HR: p = 0.005, V'E: p = 0.001, V'O2: p < 0.001) and the interaction condition per group affected ECW (p = 0.002). For PG, the most energy (V'O2 and ECW) demanding conditions were OWT and GT-BWS0%. On the contrary, for CG the least demanding condition was OWT. On the GT, increasing BWS produced a decrease in energy and cardiac demand in both groups. In PG, GT-BWS walking resulted in less cardiometabolic demand than overground walking. This suggests that GT-BWS walking training might be safer than overground walking training in subacute stroke patients.

  19. Body weight-supported treadmill training is no better than overground training for individuals with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Addie; Merlo-Rains, Angela; Peters, Denise M; Greene, Jennifaye V; Blanck, Erika L; Moran, Robert; Fritz, Stacy L

    2014-01-01

    Body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) has produced mixed results compared with other therapeutic techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an intensive intervention (intensive mobility training) including BWSTT provides superior gait, balance, and mobility outcomes compared with a similar intervention with overground gait training in place of BWSTT. Forty-three individuals with chronic stroke (mean [SD] age, 61.5 [13.5] years; mean [SD] time since stroke, 3.3 [3.8] years), were randomized to a treatment (BWSTT, n = 23) or control (overground gait training, n = 20) group. Treatment consisted of 1 hour of gait training; 1 hour of balance activities; and 1 hour of strength, range of motion, and coordination for 10 consecutive weekdays (30 hours). Assessments (step length differential, self-selected and fast walking speed, 6-minute walk test, Berg Balance Scale [BBS], Dynamic Gait Index [DGI], Activities-specific Balance Confidence [ABC] scale, single limb stance, Timed Up and Go [TUG], Fugl-Meyer [FM], and perceived recovery [PR]) were conducted before, immediately after, and 3 months after intervention. No significant differences (α = 0.05) were found between groups after training or at follow-up; therefore, groups were combined for remaining analyses. Significant differences (α = 0.05) were found pretest to posttest for fast walking speed, BBS, DGI, ABC, TUG, FM, and PR. DGI, ABC, TUG, and PR results remained significant at follow-up. Effect sizes were small to moderate in the direction of improvement. Future studies should investigate the effectiveness of intensive interventions of durations greater than 10 days for improving gait, balance, and mobility in individuals with chronic stroke.

  20. Using robot-applied resistance to augment body-weight-supported treadmill training in an individual with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tania; Pauhl, Katherine; Krassioukov, Andrei; Eng, Janice J

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of task-specific gait training for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) is premised on evidence that the provision of gait-related afferent feedback is key for the recovery of stepping movements. Recent findings have shown that sensory feedback from flexor muscle afferents can facilitate flexor muscle activity during the swing phase of walking. This case report was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using robot-applied forces to resist leg movements during body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and to measure its effect on gait and other health-related outcomes. The patient described in this case report was a 43-year-old man with a T11 incomplete chronic SCI. He underwent 36 sessions of BWSTT using a robotic gait orthosis to provide forces that resist hip and knee flexion. Tolerance to the training program was monitored using the Borg CR10 scale and heart rate and blood pressure changes during each training session. Outcome measures (ie, 10-Meter Walk Test, Six-Minute Walk Test, modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile [mEFAP], Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) were completed and kinematic parameters of gait, lower-extremity muscle strength (force-generating capacity), lower-limb girth, and tolerance to orthostatic stress were measured before and after the training program. The patient could tolerate the training. Overground walking speed, endurance, and performance on all subtasks of the mEFAP improved and were accompanied by increased lower-limb joint flexion and toe clearance during gait. The patient's ambulatory self-confidence and self-perceived performance in walking also improved. These findings suggest that this new approach to BWSTT is a feasible and potentially effective therapy for improving skilled overground walking performance.

  1. Varied overground walking-task practice versus body-weight-supported treadmill training in ambulatory adults within one year of stroke: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DePaul Vincent G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although task-oriented training has been shown to improve walking outcomes after stroke, it is not yet clear whether one task-oriented approach is superior to another. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the Motor Learning Walking Program (MLWP, a varied overground walking task program consistent with key motor learning principles, to body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT in community-dwelling, ambulatory, adults within 1 year of stroke. Methods/Design A parallel, randomized controlled trial with stratification by baseline gait speed will be conducted. Allocation will be controlled by a central randomization service and participants will be allocated to the two active intervention groups (1:1 using a permuted block randomization process. Seventy participants will be assigned to one of two 15-session training programs. In MLWP, one physiotherapist will supervise practice of various overground walking tasks. Instructions, feedback, and guidance will be provided in a manner that facilitates self-evaluation and problem solving. In BWSTT, training will emphasize repetition of the normal gait cycle while supported over a treadmill, assisted by up to three physiotherapists. Outcomes will be assessed by a blinded assessor at baseline, post-intervention and at 2-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be post-intervention comfortable gait speed. Secondary outcomes include fast gait speed, walking endurance, balance self-efficacy, participation in community mobility, health-related quality of life, and goal attainment. Groups will be compared using analysis of covariance with baseline gait speed strata as the single covariate. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion In order to direct clinicians, patients, and other health decision-makers, there is a need for a head-to-head comparison of different approaches to active, task-related walking training after stroke. We hypothesize that

  2. Varied overground walking-task practice versus body-weight-supported treadmill training in ambulatory adults within one year of stroke: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaul, Vincent G; Wishart, Laurie R; Richardson, Julie; Lee, Timothy D; Thabane, Lehana

    2011-10-21

    Although task-oriented training has been shown to improve walking outcomes after stroke, it is not yet clear whether one task-oriented approach is superior to another. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the Motor Learning Walking Program (MLWP), a varied overground walking task program consistent with key motor learning principles, to body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in community-dwelling, ambulatory, adults within 1 year of stroke. A parallel, randomized controlled trial with stratification by baseline gait speed will be conducted. Allocation will be controlled by a central randomization service and participants will be allocated to the two active intervention groups (1:1) using a permuted block randomization process. Seventy participants will be assigned to one of two 15-session training programs. In MLWP, one physiotherapist will supervise practice of various overground walking tasks. Instructions, feedback, and guidance will be provided in a manner that facilitates self-evaluation and problem solving. In BWSTT, training will emphasize repetition of the normal gait cycle while supported over a treadmill, assisted by up to three physiotherapists. Outcomes will be assessed by a blinded assessor at baseline, post-intervention and at 2-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be post-intervention comfortable gait speed. Secondary outcomes include fast gait speed, walking endurance, balance self-efficacy, participation in community mobility, health-related quality of life, and goal attainment. Groups will be compared using analysis of covariance with baseline gait speed strata as the single covariate. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. In order to direct clinicians, patients, and other health decision-makers, there is a need for a head-to-head comparison of different approaches to active, task-related walking training after stroke. We hypothesize that outcomes will be optimized through the application of a task

  3. Qademah Fault Passive Data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this field trip we collect passive data to 1. Convert passive to surface waves 2. Locate Qademah fault using surface wave migration INTRODUCTION: In this field trip we collected passive data for several days. This data will be used to find the surface waves using interferometry and then compared to active-source seismic data collected at the same location. A total of 288 receivers are used. A 3D layout with 5 m inline intervals and 10 m cross line intervals is used, where we used 12 lines with 24 receivers at each line. You will need to download the file (rec_times.mat), it contains important information about 1. Field record no 2. Record day 3. Record month 4. Record hour 5. Record minute 6. Record second 7. Record length P.S. 1. All files are converted from original format (SEG-2) to matlab format P.S. 2. Overlaps between records (10 to 1.5 sec.) are already removed from these files

  4. Concept research on general passive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xu; Yang Yanhua; Zheng Mingguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarized the current passive techniques used in nuclear power plants. Through classification and analysis, the functional characteristics and inherent identification of passive systems were elucidated. By improving and extending the concept of passive system, the general passive concept was proposed, and space and time relativity was discussed and assumption of general passive system were illustrated. The function of idealized general passive system is equivalent with the current passive system, but the design of idealized general passive system is more flexible. (authors)

  5. European Embedding of Passive Houses. www.europeanpassivehouses.org

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elswijk, M.; Kaan, H. (eds.) [and others

    2008-05-15

    The passive house concept has become a European wide accepted solution to reach a significant energy demand reduction in the built environment. The European Commission has published the ambition to construct newly built ho uses in 2015 accordingly to the passive ho use standard. In most project participating countries this ambition is shared. With the support of the Intelligent Energy Europe program this project 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' (PEP-project) contributed to achieve this ambition to clear the first market barriers internationally to reach the status 'Business As Usual' for passive houses in 2015. The PEP project aimed at the development of easy accessible web based documentation for stakeholders in the building process to solve national market introduction barriers regarding the passive house concept. The project also aimed at the distribution of this information via international and national workshops, seminars and conferences. It can be concluded that the PEP-project has been successful. All participating countries made significant progress in the societal embedding process of passive houses and in most countries the passive house concept is on the brink of breaking through nationally. Further, the PEP-project contributed successfully in the internationalisation of the Internal Passive House Conference and fixed the definition of a passive house for three geographical European regions. Finally, the PEP website with its wealth of information was a powerful tool for promotion of passive houses in Europe. In order to increase the implementation efficiency of the passive house concept it is recommended to develop additional information packages concerning passive house solutions for offices, schools and social homes (e.g. architectural examples, organisational issues); passive house renovations; financial schemes for passive houses; performance oriented quality approach for the design and construction process; industrial

  6. Folding in and out: passive morphing in flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowers, Amanda K; Lentink, David

    2015-03-25

    We present a new mechanism for passive wing morphing of flapping wings inspired by bat and bird wing morphology. The mechanism consists of an unactuated hand wing connected to the arm wing with a wrist joint. Flapping motion generates centrifugal accelerations in the hand wing, forcing it to unfold passively. Using a robotic model in hover, we made kinematic measurements of unfolding kinematics as functions of the non-dimensional wingspan fold ratio (2-2.5) and flapping frequency (5-17 Hz) using stereo high-speed cameras. We find that the wings unfold passively within one to two flaps and remain unfolded with only small amplitude oscillations. To better understand the passive dynamics, we constructed a computer model of the unfolding process based on rigid body dynamics, contact models, and aerodynamic correlations. This model predicts the measured passive unfolding within about one flap and shows that unfolding is driven by centrifugal acceleration induced by flapping. The simulations also predict that relative unfolding time only weakly depends on flapping frequency and can be reduced to less than half a wingbeat by increasing flapping amplitude. Subsequent dimensional analysis shows that the time required to unfold passively is of the same order of magnitude as the flapping period. This suggests that centrifugal acceleration can drive passive unfolding within approximately one wingbeat in small and large wings. Finally, we show experimentally that passive unfolding wings can withstand impact with a branch, by first folding and then unfolding passively. This mechanism enables flapping robots to squeeze through clutter without sophisticated control. Passive unfolding also provides a new avenue in morphing wing design that makes future flapping morphing wings possibly more energy efficient and light-weight. Simultaneously these results point to possible inertia driven, and therefore metabolically efficient, control strategies in bats and birds to morph or recover

  7. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-01-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y 2 O 3 ) with 6 LiF (95% 6 Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

  8. Treadmill training with partial body weight support compared with conventional gait training for low-functioning children and adolescents with nonspastic cerebral palsy: a two-period crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ivan Y W; Chung, Kenny K Y; Chow, Daniel H K

    2013-12-01

    Partial body weight-supported treadmill training has been shown to be effective in gait training for patients with neurological disorders such as spinal cord injuries and stroke. Recent applications on children with cerebral palsy were reported, mostly on spastic cerebral palsy with single subject design. There is lack of evidence on the effectiveness of such training for nonspastic cerebral palsy, particularly those who are low functioning with limited intellectual capacity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of partial body weight-supported treadmill training for improving gross motor skills among these clients. A two-period randomized crossover design with repeated measures. A crossover design following an A-B versus a B-A pattern was adopted. The two training periods consisted of 12-week partial body weight-supported treadmill training (Training A) and 12-week conventional gait training (Training B) with a 10-week washout in between. Ten school-age participants with nonspastic cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation were recruited. The Gross Motor Function Measure-66 was administered immediately before and after each training period. Significant improvements in dimensions D and E of the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 and the Gross Motor Ability Estimator were obtained. Our findings revealed that the partial body weight-supported treadmill training was effective in improving gross motor skills for low-functioning children and adolescents with nonspastic cerebral palsy. .

  9. Do Postoperative Psychotherapeutic Interventions and Support Groups Influence Weight Loss Following Bariatric Surgery? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized and Nonrandomized Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Nina N.; Johannsen, Maja; Støvring, René K.

    2012-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently considered the most effective treatment of severe obesity, but considerable individual variations in weight loss results have been reported. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating the effect of psychotherapeutic...

  10. WSU-IR at TREC 2015 Clinical Decision Support Track: Joint Weighting of Explicit and Latent Medical Query Concepts from Diverse Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Iron Deficiency Anemia ” was represented using the Indri query language as follows: 1.00...weight( 0.40 #combine( Iron Deficiency Anemia ) 0.35 #combine( #od4( Iron Deficiency ) #od4( Deficiency Anemia ) ) 0.45 #combine( #uw17( Iron Deficiency ...uw17( Deficiency Anemia ) ) ) where 0.40, 0.35 and 0.45 are the weights of the corresponding concept types. The window sizes for ordered

  11. The Big-Wheel TGC-1 being moved against the Barrel Muon Spectrometer. The 216 trigger chambers are supported by a thin structure of 22 m diameter and 0.4 m thickness, weighting 44 tons and supported on two rails.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    The Big-Wheel TGC-1 being moved against the Barrel Muon Spectrometer. The 216 trigger chambers are supported by a thin structure of 22 m diameter and 0.4 m thickness, weighting 44 tons and supported on two rails.

  12. A Comparison of Locomotor Therapy Interventions: Partial-Body Weight-Supported Treadmill, Lokomat, and G-EO Training in People With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenazi, Alberto; Lee, Stella; Wikoff, Amanda; Packel, Andrew; Toczylowski, Theresa; Feeley, John

    2017-09-01

    Literature in the application of gait training techniques in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is limited. Current techniques require multiple staff and are physically demanding. The use of a robotic locomotor training may provide improved training capacity for this population. To examine the impact of 3 different modes of locomotor therapy on gait velocity and spatiotemporal symmetry using an end effector robot (G-EO); a robotic exoskeleton (Lokomat), and manual assisted partial-body weight-supported treadmill training (PBWSTT) in participants with traumatic brain injury. Randomized, prospective study. Tertiary rehabilitation hospital. A total of 22 individuals with ≥12 months chronic TBI with hemiparetic pattern able to walk overground without assistance at velocities between 0.2 and 0.6 m/s. Eighteen sessions of 45 minutes of assigned locomotor training. Overground walking self-selected velocity (SSV), maximal velocity (MV), spatiotemporal asymmetry ratio, 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and mobility domain of Stroke Impact Scale (MSIS). Severity in walking dysfunction was similar across groups as determined by walking velocity data. At baseline, participants in the Lokomat group had a baseline velocity that was slightly slower compared with the other groups. Training elicited a statistically significant median increase in SSV for all groups compared with pretraining (Lokomat, P = .04; G-EO, P = .03; and PBWSTT, P = .02) and MV excluding the G-EO group (Lokomat, P = .04; PBWSTT, P = .03 and G-EO, P = .15). There were no pre-post significant differences in swing time, stance time, and step length asymmetry ratios at SSV or MV for any of the interventions. Mean rank in the change of SSV and MV was not statistically significantly different between groups. Participants in the G-EO and PBWSTT groups significantly improved their 6MWT posttraining (P = .04 and .03, respectively). The MSIS significantly improved only for the Lokomat group (P = .04 and .03). The

  13. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  14. Passive cooling of control rod drive mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Schwirian, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for passively cooling the control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) in the reactor vessel of a nuclear power plant. Passive cooling is achieved by dispersing a plurality of chimneys within the CRDM array in positions where a control rod is not required. The chimneys induce convective air currents which cause ambient air from within the containment to flow over the CRDM coils. The air heated by the coils is guided into inlets in the chimneys by baffles. The chimney is insulated and extends through the seismic support platform and missile shield disposed above the closure head. A collar of adjustable height mates with plate elements formed at the distal end of the CRDM pressure housings by an interlocking arrangement so that the seismic support platform provides lateral restraint for the chimneys. (Author)

  15. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  16. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  17. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  18. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  19. Expansion of passive safety function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko; Nei, Hiromichi; Kumada, Toshiaki.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of the use of passive safety functions is proposed. Two notions are presented. One is that, in the design of passive safety nuclear reactors where aversion of active components is stressed, some active components are purposely introduced, by which a system is built in such a way that it behaves in an apparently passive manner. The second notion is that, instead of using a passive safety function alone, a passive safety function is combined with some active components, relating the passivity in the safety function with enhanced controllability in normal operation. The nondormant system which the authors propose is one example of the first notion. This is a system in which a standby safety system is a portion of the normal operation system. An interpretation of the nondormant system via synergetics is made. As an example of the second notion, a PIUS density lock aided with active components is proposed and is discussed

  20. Review of passive accumulation devices for monitoring organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 15 years passive sampling devices have been developed that accumulate organic micropollutants and allow detection at ambient sub ng/l concentrations. Most passive accumulation devices (PADs) are designed for 1-4 weeks field deployment, where uptake is governed by linear first order kinetics providing a time weighted average of the exposure concentration. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are the most comprehensively studied PADs, but other samplers may also be considered for aquatic monitoring purposes. The applicability of the PADs is reviewed with respect to commonly monitored aqueous matrices and compounds, the detection limits, and for use in quantitative monitoring related to requirements embedded in the EU Water Framework Directive, the US and EU Water Quality Criteria, and the Danish monitoring aquatic programme. The PADs may monitor >75% of the organic micropollutants of the programmes. Research is warranted regarding the uptake in PADs in low flow environments and for the development of samplers for polar organic compounds. - Major developments in the passive sampling of organic contaminants in aquatic environments will support future monitoring, compliance and research

  1. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  2. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  3. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameter...

  4. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  5. Sum rules and constraints on passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernland, A; Gustafsson, M; Luger, A

    2011-01-01

    A passive system is one that cannot produce energy, a property that naturally poses constraints on the system. A system in convolution form is fully described by its transfer function, and the class of Herglotz functions, holomorphic functions mapping the open upper half-plane to the closed upper half-plane, is closely related to the transfer functions of passive systems. Following a well-known representation theorem, Herglotz functions can be represented by means of positive measures on the real line. This fact is exploited in this paper in order to rigorously prove a set of integral identities for Herglotz functions that relate weighted integrals of the function to its asymptotic expansions at the origin and infinity. The integral identities are the core of a general approach introduced here to derive sum rules and physical limitations on various passive physical systems. Although similar approaches have previously been applied to a wide range of specific applications, this paper is the first to deliver a general procedure together with the necessary proofs. This procedure is described thoroughly and exemplified with examples from electromagnetic theory.

  6. Addressing weight stigma in physiotherapy: Development of a theory-driven approach to (re)thinking weight-related interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, J; Gard, M; Jones, L; Watson, B M

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we propose a theory-driven approach to developing interventions for reducing weight stigma in physiotherapy and discuss the design and exploratory trial of such an intervention. Weight stigma has been identified in physiotherapists in empirical investigations. However, there has been little consideration of how this stigma might be addressed. We highlight Goffman's work on stigma that provides social and embodied understandings of stigma. Goffman's approach, however, is notably apolitical, ahistorical and lacks mechanisms for understanding power. We suggest that post-structuralist perspectives can provide insight into these areas. Drawing on these theories, we critically examine the literature on weight stigma reduction, finding that trials have largely been unsuccessful. We argue that this may be due to overly passive and simplistic intervention designs. As context-specific understandings are desirable, we examine the nature of physiotherapy to determine what might be relevant to (re)thinking weight in this profession. We then discuss the development of a multifactorial, active weight stigma intervention we trialed with eight physiotherapists. Supported by theory, the outcomes of the exploratory study suggest that physiotherapy-specific factors such as fostering professional reflexivity and improving understandings of stigma need to be incorporated into an active intervention that considers the complex determinants of weight stigma.

  7. Traffic Scheduling in WDM Passive Optical Network with Delay Guarantee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    WDM passive optical network becomes more favorable as the required bandwidth increases, but currently few media access control algorithms adapted to WDM access network. This paper presented a new scheduling algorithm for bandwidth sharing in WDM passive optical networks, which provides per-flow delay guarantee and supports variable-length packets scheduling. Through theoretical analysis and simulation, the end-to-end delay bound and throughput fairness of the algorithm was demonstrated.

  8. DNSSM: A Large Scale Passive DNS Security Monitoring Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal , Samuel; François , Jérôme; Wagner , Cynthia; State , Radu; Dulaunoy , Alexandre; Engel , Thomas; Festor , Olivier

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We present a monitoring approach and the supporting software architecture for passive DNS traffic. Monitoring DNS traffic can reveal essential network and system level activity profiles. Worm infected and botnet participating hosts can be identified and malicious backdoor communications can be detected. Any passive DNS monitoring solution needs to address several challenges that range from architectural approaches for dealing with large volumes of data up to specific D...

  9. Stores, Weight and Inertial System Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides stores weight, center of gravity, and inertia measurements in support of weapon/aircraft compatibility testing. System provides store weight...

  10. Investigation of methanol oxidation on a highly active and stable Pt–Sn electrocatalyst supported on carbon–polyaniline composite for application in a passive direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amani, Mitra [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemeini, Mohammad [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamedanian, Mahboobeh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pahlavanzadeh, Hassan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharibi, Hussein, E-mail: h.gharibi@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Material Science & Engineering, 122 S Campus Drive, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • PtSn/C-PANI performed superior in the MOR compared with a commercial PtRu/C. • Catalytic activity of PtRu/C was highly reduced during the accelerated durability test. • Anode of the PtSn/C-PANI in a passive DMFC lowered methanol crossover by 30%. - Abstract: Polyaniline fiber (PANI) was synthesized and utilized to fabricate a vulcan–polyaniline (C-PANI) composite. Pt/C-PANI and PtSn/C-PANI electro-catalysts with different Pt:Sn atomic ratios were prepared by the impregnation method. These electro-catalysts, along with commercial PtRu/C (Electrochem), were characterized with respect to their structural and electrochemical properties in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI showed excellent performance in MOR, the obtained maximum current density being about 40% and 50% higher than that for PtRu/C and Pt/C-PANI, respectively. It was also found that the CO tolerance and stability of PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI was considerably higher than that of PtRu/C. Finally, the performance of these two materials was compared in a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The DMFC test results demonstrated that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared using PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI anode catalyst performed more satisfactorily in terms of maximum power density and lower methanol crossover.

  11. Passivity analysis for uncertain BAM neural networks with time delays and reaction-diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianping; Xu, Shengyuan; Shen, Hao; Zhang, Baoyong

    2013-08-01

    This article deals with the problem of passivity analysis for delayed reaction-diffusion bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with weight uncertainties. By using a new integral inequality, we first present a passivity condition for the nominal networks, and then extend the result to the case with linear fractional weight uncertainties. The proposed conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and thus can be checked easily. Examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  12. Wallboard with Latent Heat Storage for Passive Solar Applications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedl, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional wallboard impregnated with octadecane paraffin[melting point-23 C (73.5 F)] is being developed as a building material with latent heat storage for passive solar and other applications. Impregnation was accomplished simply by soaking the wallboard in molten wax. Concentrations of wax in the combined product as high as 35% by weight can be achieved. Scale-up of the soaking process, from small laboratory samples to full-sized 4- by 8-ft sheets, has been successfully accomplished. The required construction properties of wallboard are maintained after impregnation, that is, it can be painted and spackled. Long-term, high-temperature exposure tests and thermal cycling tests showed no tendency of the paraffin to migrate within the wallboard, and there was no deterioration of thermal energy storage capacity. In support of this concept, a computer model was developed to handle thermal transport and storage by a phase change material (PCM) dispersed in a porous media. The computer model was confirmed by comparison with known analytical solutions and also by comparison with temperatures measured in wallboard during an experimentally generated thermal transient. Agreement between the model and known solution was excellent. Agreement between the model and thermal transient was good, only after the model was modified to allow the PCM to melt over a temperature range, rather than at a specific melting point. When the melting characteristics of the PCM (melting point, melting range, and heat of fusion), as determined from a differential scanning calorimeter plot, were used in the model, agreement between the model and transient data was very good. The confirmed computer model may now be used in conjunction with a building heating and cooling code to evaluate design parameters and operational characteristics of latent heat storage wallboard for passive solar applications

  13. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in

  14. Passive films at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, Vincent; Marcus, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoscale data on growth, structure and local properties of passive films reviewed. ► Preferential role of defects of passive films on the corrosion resistance emphasized. ► Effect of grain boundaries on local electronic properties shown by new data. ► Use of atomistic modeling to test mechanistic hypotheses illustrated. - Abstract: The nanometer scale chemical and structural aspects of ultrathin oxide passive films providing self-protection against corrosion to metals and alloys in aqueous environments are reviewed. Data on the nucleation and growth of 2D anodic oxide films, details on the atomic structure and nanostructure of 3D passive films, the preferential role of surface step edges in dissolution in the passive state and the preferential role of grain boundaries of the passive films in passivity breakdown are presented. Future perspectives are discussed, and exemplified by new data obtained on the relationship between the nanostructure of oxide passive films and their local electronic properties. Atomistic corrosion modeling by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) is illustrated by the example of interactions of chloride ions with hydroxylated oxide surfaces, including the role of surface step edges. Data obtained on well-defined substrate surfaces with surface analytical techniques are emphasized.

  15. Udviklingen i bilers passive sikkerhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    man mellem aktiv og passiv sikkerhed, det vil sige faktorer, der nedsætter • risikoen for, at der sker et uheld (aktiv sikkerhed), henholdsvis • graden af alvorlighed, givet at uheldet er sket (passiv sikkerhed). Rapporten begrænser sig til at undersøge, om der kan påvises en generel sammenhæng mellem...

  16. The Passive in Singapore English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhiming; Wee, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the two passive (or passive-like) constructions in Singapore English which exhibit substrate influence from Malay and Chinese. The paper shows that while substrate languages contribute to the grammar of Singapore English, the continued prestige of standard English exerts normative pressure and mitigates the effect of…

  17. Passive athermalization of doublets in 8-13 micron waveband

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    Passive athermalization of lenses has become a key-technology for automotive and other outdoor applications using modern uncooled 25, 17 and 12 micron pixel pitch bolometer arrays. Typical pixel counts for thermal imaging are 384x288 (qVGA), 640x480 (VGA), and 1024x768 (XGA). Two lens arrangements (called Doublets) represent a cost effective way to satisfy resolution requirements of these detectors with F-numbers 1.4 or faster. Thermal drift of index of refraction and the geometrical changes (in lenses and housing) versus temperature defocus the initial image plane from the detector plane. The passive athermalization restricts this drop of spatial resolution in a wide temperature range (typically -40°C…+80°C) to an acceptable value without any additional external refocus. In particular, lenses with long focal lengths and high apertures claim athermalization. A careful choice of lens and housing materials and a sophistical dimensioning lead to three different principles of passivation: The Passive Mechanical Athermalization (PMA) shifts the complete lens cell, the Passive Optical and Mechanical Athermalization (POMA) shifts only one lens inside the housing, the Passive Optical Athermalization (POA) works without any mechanism. All three principles will be demonstrated for a typical narrow-field lens (HFOV about 12°) with high aperture (aperture based F-number 1.3) for the actual uncooled reference detector (17micron VGA). Six design examples using different combinations of lens materials show the impact on spatial lens resolution, on overall length, and on weight. First order relations are discussed. They give some hints for optimization solutions. Pros and cons of different passive athermalization principles are evaluated in regards of housing design, availability of materials and costing. Examples with a convergent GASIR®1-lens in front distinguish by best resolution, short overall length, and lowest weight.

  18. Antireflection/Passivation Step For Silicon Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Gerald T.; Kachare, Akaram H.; Daud, Taher

    1988-01-01

    New process excludes usual silicon oxide passivation. Changes in principal electrical parameters during two kinds of processing suggest antireflection treatment almost as effective as oxide treatment in passivating cells. Does so without disadvantages of SiOx passivation.

  19. Illegal Passive Smoking at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Lesage

    2011-01-01

    Results. Ninety-five percent of a total group of 172 OP of Champagne county filled the postal questionnaire. More than 80% of OP's replies identified illegal PSW. The average prevalence of PSW exposure was 0.7% of the total working population. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS levels were considered between low and medium for most passive smokers (71%. Main features exposure to ETS at work for non-smokers was associated with female gender (69.5%, age between 40 and 49 years (41.2% and belonging to tertiary sector (75.6%. Environmental tobacco smoke exposures at work was firstly in the office for 49.7% of the subjects and secondly in the restroom for 18% of them. Main medical symptoms encountered by non-smokers were respiratory tractus irritation (81.7%. Eighty-three percent of OPs indicated solution to eradicate PSW. Illegal PSW is really weaker than fifteen years ago. However, the findings support a real ban on smoking in the workplace in order to protect all workers.

  20. Passivation condition of carbon steel in bentonite/sand mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Kawakami, Susumu

    2002-03-01

    It is essential to understand the corrosion type of carbon steel under the repository conditions for the lifetime assessment of carbon steel overpack used for geological isolation of high-level radioactive waste. According to the previous study, carbon steel is hard to passivate in buffer material assuming a chemical condition range of groundwater in Japan. However, concrete support will be constructed around the overpack in the case of repository in the soft rock system and groundwater having a higher pH may infiltrate to buffer material. There is a possibility that the corrosion type of carbon steel will be influenced by the rise of the pH in groundwater. In this study, anodic polarization experiments were performed to understand the passivation condition of carbon steel in buffer material saturated with water contacted with concrete. An ordinary concrete an a low-alkalinity concrete were used in the experiment. The results of the experiments showed that the carbon steel can passivate under the condition that water having pH > 13 infiltrate to the buffer material assuming present property of buffer material. If the low-alkalinity concrete is selected as the support material, passivation can not occur on carbon steel overpack. The effect of the factors of buffer material such as dry density and mixing ratio of sand on the passivation of carbon steel was also studied. The results of the study showed that the present property of buffer material is enough to prevent passivation of carbon steel. (author)

  1. Polymer Brush Coatings Regulating Cell Behavior: Passive Interfaces Turn Into Active

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moroni, Lorenzo; Klein Gunnewiek, Michel; Benetti, Edmondo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Material technology platforms able to modulate the communication with cells at the interface of biomaterials are being increasingly experimented on. Progress in the fabrication of supports is simultaneously introducing new surface modification strategies aimed at turning these supports from passive

  2. Preparation of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene/Graphene Nanocomposite In situ Polymerization via Spherical and Sandwich Structure Graphene/Sio2 Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Enqi; Gao, Wensheng; Hu, Xinjun; Zhang, Caicai; Zhu, Bochao; Jia, Junji; Huang, Anping; Bai, Yongxiao

    2018-04-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/SiO2 (RGO/SiO2) serving as a novel spherical support for Ziegler-Natta (Z-N) catalyst is reported. The surface and interior of the support has a porous architecture formed by RGO/SiO2 sandwich structure. The sandwich structure is like a brick wall coated with a graphene layer of concreted as skeleton which could withstand external pressures and endow the structure with higher support stabilities. After loading the Z-N catalyst, the active components anchor on the surface and internal pores of the supports. When the ethylene molecules meet the active centers, the molecular chains grow from the surface and internal catalytic sites in a regular and well-organized way. And the process of the nascent molecular chains filled in the sandwich structure polymerization could ensure the graphene disperse uniformly in the polymer matrix. Compared with traditional methods, the porous spherical graphene support of this strategy has far more advantages and could maintain an intrinsic graphene performance in the nanocomposites.

  3. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  4. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.; Serret, M.

    1990-01-01

    N 4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  5. Effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Author's abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors for youth alcohol enforcement conducted as part of normal or typical police operations. Three municipal police departments of 100 or more sworn ...

  6. Passive heat removal in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    CANDU has a tradition of incorporating passive systems and passive components whenever they are shown to offer performance that is equal to or better than that of active systems, and to be economic. Examples include the two independent shutdown systems that employ gravity and stored energy respectively, the dousing subsystem of the CANDU 6 containment system, and the ability of the moderator to cool the fuel in the event that all coolant is lost from the fuel channels. CANDU 9 continues this tradition, incorporating a reserve water system (RWS) that increases the inventory of water in the reactor building and profiles a passive source of makeup water and/or heat sinks to various key process systems. The key component of the CANDU 9 reserve water system is a large (2500 cubic metres) water tank located at a high elevation in the reactor building. The reserve water system, while incorporating the recovery system functions, and the non-dousing functions of the dousing tank in CANDU 6, embraces other key systems to significantly extend the passive makeup/heat sink capability. The capabilities of the reserve water system include makeup to the steam generators secondary side if all other sources of water are lost; makeup to the heat transport system in the event of a leak in excess of the D 2 O makeup system capability; makeup to the moderator in the event of a moderator leak when the moderator heat sink is required; makeup to the emergency core cooling (ECC) system to assure NPSH to the ECC pumps during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), and provision of a passive heat sink for the shield cooling system. Other passive designs are now being developed by AECL. These will be incorporated in future CANDU plants when their performance has been fully proven. This paper reviews the passive heat removal systems and features of current CANDU plants and the CANDU 9, and briefly reviews some of the passive heat removal concepts now being developed. (author)

  7. Key issues for passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ''review paper'' as such and only record the highlights. (author)

  8. Key issues for passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayns, M R [AEA Technology, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom). European Institutions; Hicken, E F [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ``review paper`` as such and only record the highlights. (author).

  9. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft 3 /min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft 3 /min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  10. Hydrogen passivation of silicon sheet solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Milstein, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Significant improvements in the efficiencies of dendritic web and edge-supported-pulling silicon sheet solar cells have been obtained after hydrogen ion beam passivation for a period of ten minutes or less. We have studied the effects of the hydrogen ion beam treatment with respect to silicon material damage, silicon sputter rate, introduction of impurities, and changes in reflectance. The silicon sputter rate for constant ion beam flux of 0.60 +- 0.05 mA/cm 2 exhibits a maximum at approximately 1400-eV ion beam energy

  11. Passive appendages improve the maneuverability of fish-like robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Beau; Tallapragada, Phanindra

    2017-11-01

    It is known that the passive mechanics of fish appendages play a role in the high efficiency of their swimming. A well known example of this is the experimental demonstration that a dead fish could swim upstream. However little is known about the role if any of passive deformations of a fish-like body that could aid in its maneuverability. Part of the difficulty investigating this lies in clearly separating the role of actuated body deformations and passive deformations in response to the fluid structure interaction. In this paper we compare the maneuverability of several fish shaped robotic models that possess varying numbers of passive appendages with a fish shaped robot that has no appendages. All the robots are propelled by the oscillations of an internal momentum wheel thereby eliminating any active deformations of the body. Our experiments clearly reveal the significant improvement in maneuverability of robots with passive appendages. In the broader context of swimming robots our experiments show that passive mechanisms could be useful to provide mechanical feedback that can help maneuverability and obstacle avoidance along with propulsive efficiency. This work was partly supported by a Grant from the NSF CMMI 1563315.

  12. Development of Decision-making Support System to Determine the Feasibility of the Job Training Industry Using Simple Additive Weighting Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisah Riski Zubaeti; Aris Budianto; Dwi Maryono

    2017-01-01

    The activities of the job training is an activity that must be implemented at Vocational Secondary School. The lack of utilization of technology on such activities in Vocational Secondary School,  so the data management of the job training become less effective and efficient. Therefore, it is necessary the information system for manage the data on the job training and produces the decision support of the decent industry of the job training as a result of the evaluation of the job training. Th...

  13. The Weight of Evidence Does Not Support the Listing of Styrene as “Reasonably Anticipated to be a Human Carcinogen” in NTP's Twelfth Report on Carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R.; Goodman, Julie E.; Prueitt, Robyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Styrene was listed as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen” in the twelfth edition of the National Toxicology Program's Report on Carcinogens based on what we contend are erroneous findings of limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans, sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals, and supporting mechanistic data. The epidemiology studies show no consistent increased incidence of, or mortality from, any type of cancer. In animal studies, increased incidence rates of mostly benign tumors have been observed only in certain strains of one species (mice) and at one tissue site (lung). The lack of concordance of tumor incidence and tumor type among animals (even within the same species) and humans indicates that there has been no particular cancer consistently observed among all available studies. The only plausible mechanism for styrene-induced carcinogenesis—a non-genotoxic mode of action that is specific to the mouse lung—is not relevant to humans. As a whole, the evidence does not support the characterization of styrene as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen,” and styrene should not be listed in the Report on Carcinogens. PMID:23335843

  14. The importance of community consultation and social support in adhering to an obesity reduction program: results from the Healthy Weights Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra,1 Marla R Rogers2 1Alliance Wellness and Rehabilitation, Moose Jaw, 2College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: Few community-based obesity reduction programs have been evaluated. After 153 community consultations, the City of Moose Jaw, SK, Canada, decided to initiate a free comprehensive program. The initiative included 71 letters of support from the Mayor, every family physician, cardiologist, and internist in the city, and every relevant community group including the Heart and Stroke Foundation, the Canadian Cancer Society, and the Public Health Agency of Canada.Objective: To promote strong adherence while positively influencing a wide range of physical and mental health variables measured through objective assessment or validated surveys.Methods: The only inclusion criterion was that the individuals must be obese adults (body mass index >30 kg/m2. Participants were requested to sign up with a “buddy” who was also obese and identify three family members or friends to sign a social support contract. During the initial 12 weeks, each individual received 60 group exercise sessions, 12 group cognitive behavioral therapy sessions, and 12 group dietary sessions with licensed professionals. During the second 12-week period, maintenance therapy included 12 group exercise sessions (24 weeks in total.Results: To date, 243 people have been referred with 229 starting. Among those who started, 183 completed the program (79.9%, while 15 quit for medical reasons and 31 quit for personal reasons. Mean objective reductions included the following: 31.0 lbs of body fat, 3.9% body fat, 2.9 in from the waist, 2.3 in from the hip, blood cholesterol by 0.5 mmol/L, systolic blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure by 3.2 mmHg (all P<0.000. There were no changes in blood sugar levels. There was also statistically significant differences in aerobic fitness, self-report health, quality of

  15. Materials for passively safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, T.

    1993-01-01

    Future nuclear power capacity will be based on reactor designs that include passive safety features if recent progress in advanced nuclear power developments is realized. There is a high potential for nuclear systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the current generation of reactors, especially when passive or intrinsic characteristics are applied to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction and to minimize the burden on equipment and operating personnel. Taylor, has listed the following common generic technical features as the most important goals for the principal reactor development systems: passive stability, simplification, ruggedness, case of operation, and modularity. Economic competitiveness also depends on standardization and assurance of licensing. The performance of passively safe reactors will be greatly influenced by the successful development of advanced fuels and materials that will provide lower fuel-cycle costs. A dozen new designs of advanced power reactors have been described recently, covering a wide spectrum of reactor types, including pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, heavy-water reactors, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs), and fast breeder reactors. These new designs address the need for passive safety features as well as the requirement of economic competitiveness

  16. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  17. Passivating electron contact based on highly crystalline nanostructured silicon oxide layers for silicon solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuckelberger, J.; Nogay, G.; Wyss, P.; Jeangros, Q.; Allebe, Ch.; Debrot, F.; Niquille, X.; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Despeisse, M.; Haug, F.J.; Löper, P.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, Dec (2016), s. 2-10 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface passivation * passivating contact * nanostructure * silicon oxide * nanocrystalline * microcrystalline * poly-silicon * crystallization * Raman * transmission line measurement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.784, year: 2016

  18. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-07-01

    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  19. NRC review of passive reactor design certification testing programs: Overview, progress, and regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, A.E.

    1995-09-01

    New reactor designs, employing passive safety systems, are currently under development by reactor vendors for certification under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) design certification rule. The vendors have established testing programs to support the certification of the passive designs, to meet regulatory requirements for demonstration of passive safety system performance. The NRC has, therefore, developed a process for the review of the vendors` testing programs and for incorporation of the results of those reviews into the safety evaluations for the passive plants. This paper discusses progress in the test program reviews, and also addresses unique regulatory aspects of those reviews.

  20. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B; Mason, P A; Moffat, A C; King, L J; Marks, V

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  1. Active Versus Passive Academic Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goel, Rajeev K.; Grimpe, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of networking by academics. Using information from a unique large survey of German researchers, the key contribution focuses on the active versus passive networking distinction. Is active networking by researchers a substitute or a complement to passive networking......? Other contributions include examining the role of geographic factors in networking and whether research bottlenecks affect a researcher's propensity to network. Are the determinants of European conference participation by German researchers different from conferences in rest of the world? Results show...... that some types of passive academic networking are complementary to active networking, while others are substitute. Further, we find differences in factors promoting participation in European conferences versus conferences in rest of the world. Finally, publishing bottlenecks as a group generally do...

  2. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.; Bosselaar, L.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  3. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  4. Gait pattern of severely disabled hemiparetic subjects on a new controlled gait trainer as compared to assisted treadmill walking with partial body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D; Sarkodie-Gyan, T

    1999-10-01

    To investigate to what extent and with how much therapeutic effort nonambulatory stroke patients could train a gait-like movement on a newly developed, machine-supported gait trainer. Open study comparing the movement on the gait trainer with assisted walking on the treadmill. Motion analysis laboratory of a rehabilitation centre. Fourteen chronic, nonambulatory hemiparetic patients. Complex gait analysis while training on the gait trainer and while walking on the treadmill. Gait kinematics, kinesiological EMG of several lower limb muscles and the required assistance. Patients could train a gait-like movement on the gait trainer, characterized kinematically by a perfect symmetry, larger hip extension during stance, less knee flexion and less ankle plantar flexion during swing as compared to treadmill walking (p gait trainer (p gait trainer offered severely disabled hemiparetic subjects the possibility of training a gait-like, highly symmetrical movement with a favourable facilitation of relevant anti-gravity muscles. At the same time, the effort required of the therapists was reduced.

  5. Energy extraction from a semi-passive flapping-foil turbine with active heave and passive pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Matthieu; Dumas, Guy; Gunther, Kevin; CFD Laboratory LMFN Team

    2017-11-01

    Due to the inherent complexity of the mechanisms needed to prescribe the heaving and the pitching motions of optimal flapping-foil turbines, several research groups are now investigating the potential of using unconstrained passive motions. The amplitude, the phase and the frequency of such free motions are thus the result of the interaction of the blade with the flow and its elastic supports, namely springs and dampers. In parallel with our current study on fully-passive flapping-foil turbines, we investigate in this work the possibility of using a semi-passive turbine. Unlike previous semi-passive turbines studied in the literature, we propose a turbine with a passive pitching motion and an active heaving motion constrained to be a sine wave with desired amplitude and frequency. As most of the energy extracted by flapping-foil turbines comes from the heaving motion, it is natural to connect an electric generator to this degree of freedom, thereby allowing one to constrain this motion. It is found that large-amplitude pitching motions leading to a considerable energy extraction can arise under different circumstances and mechanisms, either forced by the heaving motion or driven by an instability of the pitching motion itself. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Tyler Lewis Clean Energy Research Foundation, Calcul Québec and Compute Canada.

  6. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  7. Investigations on passive containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Cheng, X.; Neitzel, H.J.; Erbacher, F.J.; Hofmann, F.

    1997-01-01

    The composite containment design for advanced LWRs that has been examined under the PASCO project is a promising design concept for purely passive decay heat removal after a severe accident. The passive cooling processes applied are natural convection and radiative heat transfer. Heat transfer through the latter process removes at an emission coefficient of 0.9 about 50% of the total heat removed via the steel containment, and thus is an essential factor. The heat transferring surfaces must have a high emission coefficient. The sump cooling concept examined under the SUCO project achieves a steady, natural convection-driven flow from the heat source to the heat sink. (orig./CB) [de

  8. The Danish Reportive Passive as a Non-Canonical Passive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Danish passive utterance and cognitive verbs allow a construction where the subject of an infinitival complement is raised: Peter siges at være bortrejst (‘Peter is said to be out of town’). Contrary to English, these verbs are not ECM-verbs or subject-to-object raising verbs in the active...

  9. Chronic toxicity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to algae and crustaceans using passive dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, Gail E; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Letinksi, Daniel J; Butler, Josh D; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Sutherland, Cary A; Knarr, Tricia M; Comber, Mike; den Haan, Klaas

    2016-12-01

    Because of the large number of possible aromatic hydrocarbon structures, predictive toxicity models are needed to support substance hazard and risk assessments. Calibration and evaluation of such models requires toxicity data with well-defined exposures. The present study has applied a passive dosing method to generate reliable chronic effects data for 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. The observed toxicity of these substances on algal growth rate and neonate production were then compared with available literature toxicity data for these species, as well as target lipid model and chemical activity-based model predictions. The use of passive dosing provided well-controlled exposures that yielded more consistent data sets than attained by past literature studies. Results from the present study, which were designed to exclude the complicating influence of ultraviolet light, were found to be well described by both target lipid model and chemical activity effect models. The present study also found that the lack of chronic effects for high molecular weight PAHs was consistent with the limited chemical activity that could be achieved for these compounds in the aqueous test media. Findings from this analysis highlight that variability in past literature toxicity data for PAHs may be complicated by both poorly controlled exposures and photochemical processes that can modulate both exposure and toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2948-2957. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  10. [Assessment of therapeutic passive hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy that need interhospital transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ruiz, José A; Lagares-Franco, Carolina; Rodríguez-Molina, Óscar; Cordero-Cañas, Enrique; Benavente-Fernández, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    Induced hypothermia for the first hours of life in a newborn is an effective treatment to reduce mortality and serious effects in neonates that had suffered a hypoxia episode. This method needs an universal attendance independently of the place of birth being usually necessary a transfer to the reference hospital. To analyze the efficacy of the newborn with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy transfer in passive hypothermia. Descriptive study of series of cases with retrospective character of newborn from Cadiz's province that need induced hypothermia. 46 newborn were included in the study: 33 of them (71.74%) needed being transfer by the Critical Patients Transport service (CPT group), the rest (28.26%) were born into the reference hospital. Both groups are similar in age gestational at birth, sex, weight and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy degree. It analyzed variables related to hypothermia therapy and in addition in CPT group transfer specific variables. At discharge, it does not exist significant differences between groups in the efficiency-consequence of neuroprotection therapy with hypothermia (p = 0.159). It does not find complications derived from the interhospital move. Neonatal inter-hospital transfer in passive therapeutic hypothermia is effective, safe and necessary for the therapy compliance. It is required reach an agreement between the attendance and the reference service, setting up guides for the support and suitable range of temperature.

  11. Healthy apple program to support child care centers to alter nutrition and physical activity practices and improve child weight: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Evans, Jane; Chan, Curtis; Tao-Lew, Lisa; Arana, Tito; Arthur, Susan

    2017-12-19

    North Carolina Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) resources improve child body mass index (BMI) when the resources are introduced by nurses to child care providers, and offered with workshops and incentives. In San Francisco, public health and child care agencies partnered to adapt NAP SACC resources into an annual "Healthy Apple" quality improvement program (HAP). This cluster randomized controlled trial pilot-tested integration of the HAP with bi-annual public health screenings by nurses. All child care centers that participated in Child Care Health Program (CCHP) screenings in San Francisco in 2011-2012 were offered routine services plus HAP in 2012-2013 (CCHP + HAP, n = 19) or routine services with delayed HAP in 2014-2015 (CCHP + HAP Delayed, n = 24). Intention-to-treat analyses (robust SE or mixed models) used 4 years of screening data from 12 to 17 CCHP + HAP and 17 to 20 CCHP + HAP Delayed centers, regarding 791 to 945 children ages 2 to 5y, annually. Year-specific, child level models tested if children in CCHP + HAP centers had greater relative odds of exposure to 3 index best practices and smaller Autumn-to-Spring changes in BMI percentile and z-score than children in CCHP + HAP Delayed centers, controlling for age, sex, and Autumn status. Multi-year, child care center level models tested if HAP support modified year-to-year changes (2013-2014 and 2014-2015 vs 2011-2012) in child care center annual mean Autumn-to-Spring BMI changes. In 2011-2012, the CCHP + HAP and CCHP + HAP Delayed centers had similar index practices (public health nursing services was associated with significantly more children exposed to best practices and improvement in child BMI change. The results warrant continued integration of HAP into local public health infrastructure. ISRCTN18857356 (24/04/2015) Retrospectively registered.

  12. Strategy for Passivating Char Efficiently at the Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, Timothy C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-18

    Fast pyrolysis is a promising pathway for the commercialization of liquid transportation fuels from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is performed at moderate heat (450-600 degrees Celcius) in an oxygen-deficient environment. One of the products of fast pyrolysis is biochar, which is often used as a heat source or as a soil amendment. Biochar is a partially reacted solid that is created in the production of bio-oil during fast pyrolysis. Biochar produced at these conditions contains significant quantities of carbon that adsorb oxygen when exposed to air. Biochar adsorption of oxygen is an exothermic process that may generate sufficient heat for combustion in ambient air. Biochar is also a self-insulating material which compounds the effects of heat generated internally. These factors lead to safety concerns and material handling difficulties. The Thermochemical Process Development Unit at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory operates a pilot plant that may be configured for fast pyrolysis, gasification, and will be introducing catalytic fast pyrolysis capabilities in 2018. The TCPDU designed and installed a system to introduce oxygen to collected biochar systematically for a controlled passivation. Biochar is collected and cooled in an oxygen deficient environment during fast pyrolysis. Oxygen is then introduced to the biochar on a mass flow basis. A sparger imbedded within the biochar sample near the bottom of the bed flows air diluted with nitrogen into the char bed, and excess gasses are removed from the top of the collection drum, above the char bed. Pressure within the collection drum is measured indicating adequate flow through filters. Sample weight is recorded before and after passivation. During passivation, temperature is measured at 18 points within the char bed. Oxygen content and temperature are measured leaving the char bed. Maximum temperature parameters were established to ensure operator safety during biochar passivation. Extensive passivation data was

  13. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight ... The result showed that the treated flour supported growth but had no definite effect on other parameters measured.

  14. Passive Plasma Contact Mechanisms for Small-Scale Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, Jesse K.

    Small-scale spacecraft represent a paradigm shift in how entities such as academia, industry, engineering firms, and the scientific community operate in space. However, although the paradigm shift produces unique opportunities to build satellites in unique ways for novel missions, there are also significant challenges that must be addressed. This research addresses two of the challenges associated with small-scale spacecraft: 1) the miniaturization of spacecraft and associated instrumentation and 2) the need to transport charge across the spacecraft-environment boundary. As spacecraft decrease in size, constraints on the size, weight, and power of on-board instrumentation increase--potentially limiting the instrument's functionality or ability to integrate with the spacecraft. These constraints drive research into mechanisms or techniques that use little or no power and efficiently utilize existing resources. One limited resource on small-scale spacecraft is outer surface area, which is often covered with solar panels to meet tight power budgets. This same surface area could also be needed for passive neutralization of spacecraft charging. This research explores the use of a transparent, conductive layer on the solar cell coverglass that is electrically connected to spacecraft ground potential. This dual-purpose material facilitates the use of outer surfaces for both energy harvesting of solar photons as well as passive ion collection. Mission capabilities such as in-situ plasma measurements that were previously infeasible on small-scale platforms become feasible with the use of indium tin oxide-coated solar panel coverglass. We developed test facilities that simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit to test the dual-purpose material and the various application of this approach. Particularly, this research is in support of two upcoming missions: OSIRIS-3U, by Penn State's Student Space Programs Lab, and MiTEE, by the University of Michigan. The purpose of

  15. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  16. Electrochemical and optical characterisation of passive films on stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesighe, T L Sudesh L; Blackwood, D J

    2006-01-01

    The formation and breakdown of the passive film are mainly controlled by ionic and electronic transport processes; processes that are in turn controlled by the electronic properties of the film. Consequently a comprehensive understanding of mechanisms behind passivity and localised corrosion require a detailed perception of the electronic properties of the passive films together with compositional and structural information. As a step towards this goal the passive film on austenitic stainless steel, AISI 316L, formed in borate solution was characterised by in situ Raman spectroscopy and photocurrent spectroscopy coupled with electrochemical measurements. The composition, structure and semiconductivity of the passive films depended on the potential; Fe rich n-type oxide and a Cr rich p-type oxide dominated at more positive potentials and more negative potentials respectively whilst n-type dual layered film formed at intermediate potentials. Analyses of the bandgap determined for these oxides suggested their structures to be Fe 2 O 3 and a Fe-Cr spinel. This hypothesis was supported by the results of in situ Raman spectroscopy

  17. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2016-03-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameters. This method is applied to a Si quantum well and a Si ultra-thin body transistor oxidized with SiO2 in several oxidation configurations. Comparison with ab-initio results and experiments verifies the presented method. Oxidation configurations that severely hamper the transistor performance are identified. It is also shown that the commonly used implicit H atom passivation overestimates the transistor performance.

  18. Decreased peak expiratory flow in pediatric passive smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest aggregate levels of tobacco consumption in the world. Infants and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke have increased rates of asthma, respiratory and ear infections, as well as reduced lung function. The effects of tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in children have been reported to be dependent on the source of smoke and the length and dose of exposure. Lung function may also be affected by a child’s gender and asthma status. Objective To compare peak expiratory flow (PEF in pediatric passive smokers to that of children not exposed to second hand smoke, and to define factors that may affect PEF in passive smokers. Methods In August 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional study at an elementary school in the Langkat district. Subjects were aged 6 to 12 years, and divided into two groups: passive smokers and those not exposed to secondhand smoke. Subjects’ PEFs were measured with a Mini-Wright peak flow meter. Measurements were performed in triplicate with the highest value recorded as the PEF. Demographic data including age, sex, weight, height, family income, parental education levels and occupations were obtained through questionnaires. Results Of the 170 participants, 100 were passive smokers and 70 were not exposed to secondhand smoke. Age distribution, weight and height were similar in both groups. We observed a significant difference in PEFs between the group of passive smokers and the group not exposed to secondhand smoke, 211.3 L/minute (SD 61.08 and 242.7 L/minute (SD 77.09, respectively (P < 0.005. The number of years of exposure to smoke (P = 0.079 and the number of cigarettes smoked daily in the household (P = 0.098 did not significantly influence PEF. Conclusion The PEF in pediatric passive smokers was significantly lower than that of children not exposed to secondhand smoke. PEF in passive smokers was not influenced by the number of years of smoke

  19. Passive sampling of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křesinová, Zdena; Petrů, Klára; Lhotský, O.; Rodsand, T.; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2016), s. 43-46 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : passive sampling * polar organic chemical integrative samplers * aquatic matrices Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. Passivation Of High-Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Surfaces of high-temperature superconductors passivated with native iodides, sulfides, or sulfates formed by chemical treatments after superconductors grown. Passivating compounds nearly insoluble in and unreactive with water and protect underlying superconductors from effects of moisture. Layers of cuprous iodide and of barium sulfate grown. Other candidate passivating surface films: iodides and sulfides of bismuth, strontium, and thallium. Other proposed techniques for formation of passivating layers include deposition and gas-phase reaction.

  1. Passive Scalar Evolution in Peripheral Region

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedev, V. V.; Turitsyn, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider evolution of a passive scalar (concentration of pollutants or temperature) in a chaotic (turbulent) flow. A universal asymptotic behavior of the passive scalar decay (homogenization) related to peripheral regions (near walls) is established. The passive scalar moments and its pair correlation function in the peripheral region are analyzed. A special case investigated in our paper is the passive scalar decay along a pipe.

  2. Two or three decades of passive directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the direction of passive solar architecture. The topics of the paper include design temperatures for buildings, active vs passive, fuel vs philosophy, engineering vs architecture, the thermal scale: heating vs cooling, fuel subsidies, divergent practices, sustainability, lighting, health, the place of passive technology

  3. Active house concept versus passive House

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Vehler, R.; Verhoeven, M.; Fremouw, M.

    2009-01-01

    The passive house concept is the present trend in energy efficient sustainable dwellings. Within the passive house concept every effort is made to minimize the energy use. Substantial savings can be achieved by passive energy systems, especially natural ventilation, summer shading and winter solar

  4. Innovative solutions in passive house details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Hilderson, W.

    2008-01-01

    For the realization of the first passive house demonstration projects in Belgium, passive houses were requested by convinced clients, designed by architects with experience in low energy building, and built by contractors with a feeling for working in building teams. These first passive house

  5. A Lexical Approach to Passive in ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Fred

    Dissatisfaction with the standard transformational grammar approach to teaching passive voice sentences gave rise to the method developed. It is based on the framework of a lexical-functional grammar, which claims that both active and passive sentences are base-generated, and that both active and passive verb forms occur in the lexicon. It would…

  6. Supporting your child with weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child can share with a friend. Images Fast food References Hoelscher DM, Kirk S, Ritchie L, Cunningham-Sabo L; Academy Positions Committee. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: interventions for the prevention and treatment ...

  7. Marijuana and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...

  8. Local vibration enhanced the efficacy of passive exercise on mitigating bone loss in hindlimb unloading rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunfei; Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lianwen; Bi, Jingfang; Wang, Ying; Fan, Yubo

    2017-08-01

    Spaceflight induced bone loss is seriously affecting astronauts. Mechanical stimulation from exercise has been shown to restrain bone resorption as well as improve bone formation. Current exercise countermeasures in space cannot prevent it completely. Active exercise may convert to passive exercise in some ways because of the loss of gravity stimulus and inertia of exercise equipment. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive exercise or/and local vibration on counteracting the deterioration of the musculoskeletal system, including bone, muscle and tendons in tail-suspended rats. We hypothesized that local vibration could enhance the efficacy of passive exercise on countering bone loss. 40 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into five groups (n = 8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS+35 Hz vibration (TSV), TS + passive exercise (TSP), TS + passive exercise coupled with 35 Hz vibration (TSPV) and control (CON). Passive exercise or/and local vibration was performed for 21 days. On day 0 and 21, bone mineral density (BMD) was observed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and trabecular microstructure was evaluated by microcomputer tomography (μCT) analysis in vivo. Mechanical properties of tibia and tendon were determined by a mechanical testing system. Soleus and bone ash weight was tested by an electronic balance. Results showed that the passive exercise could not prevent the decrease of trabecular BMD, microstructure and bone ash weight induced by TS, whereas vibration and passive exercise coupled with local vibration (PV) could. Biomechanical properties of the tibia and tendon in TSPV group significantly increased compared with TS group. In summary, PV in this study was the best method in preventing weightlessness-induced bone loss. Consistent with our hypothesis, local vibration partly enhanced the effect of passive exercise. Furthermore, this study will be useful in improving countermeasure for astronauts, but also for the

  9. Traffic classification with passive measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hoang Phong

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This is a master thesis from a collaboration between Oslo University College and Uninett Research. Uninett have a passive monitoring device on a 2.5 Gbps backbone link between Trondheim and Narvik. They uses measurement with optical splitters and specialized measuring interfaces to trace traffic with Gigabit speed. We would like to investigate the structure and patterns in these data. It is of special interest to classify the traffic belonging to different services and protocols. ...

  10. Active and Passive Hybrid Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid ocean wind sensor (HOWS) can map ocean vector wind in low to hurricane-level winds, and non-precipitating and precipitating conditions. It can acquire active and passive measurements through a single aperture at two wavelengths, two polarizations, and multiple incidence angles. Its low profile, compact geometry, and low power consumption permits installation on air craft platforms, including high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

  11. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  12. Interior design for passive solar homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  13. Interior design for passive solar homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building from incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitably of various interior elements.

  14. Degradation of materials and passivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, W.

    1997-01-01

    Demanding for a reduction in materials degradation is a serious problem all over the world. Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) is, among others, a very valuable tool to follow many degradation processes. Evidently, Fe is the most important Moessbauer element considering the overall presence of iron in everyday life. MS may contribute to our knowledge about nearly all fields of materials degradation, chemical, mechanical, thermal, irradiative, etc. Following some general lines, corrosion is considered in particular. MS is applicable to investigate the bulk of materials as well as their surface layers with an information depth of ca. 250 nm. In general, it has to be applied as a surface sensitive method in combination with other relevant methods in order to get a detailed insight into ongoing processes. Some examples have been selected to elucidate the application of MS in this field. Another class of examples concerns attempts to prevent corrosion, i.e., the application of coatings and transforming chemicals. A very effective and most natural way to reduce corrosion is the passivation of materials. The effect of passive layers and their destruction by environmental influences are discussed using results of MS and related methods. It is outlined that passivity is not restricted to chemically treated metals but can be considered as a general concept for preventing different kinds of materials from degradation. (orig.)

  15. Passive infrared motion sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    In the last 10 years passive IR based (8--12 microns) motion sensing has matured to become the dominant method of volumetric space protection and surveillance. These systems currently cost less than $25 to produce and yet use traditionally expensive IR optics, filters, sensors and electronic circuitry. This IR application is quite interesting in that the volumes of systems produced and the costs and performance level required prove that there is potential for large scale commercial applications of IR technology. This paper will develop the basis and principles of operation of a staring motion sensor system using a technical approach. A model for the motion of the target is developed and compared to the background. The IR power difference between the target and the background as well as the optical requirements are determined from basic principles and used to determine the performance of the system. Low cost reflective and refractive IR optics and bandpass IR filters are discussed. The pyroelectric IR detector commonly used is fully discussed and characterized. Various schemes for ''false alarms'' have been developed and are also explained. This technology is also used in passive IR based motion sensors for other applications such as lighting control. These applications are also discussed. In addition the paper will discuss new developments in IR surveillance technology such as the use of linear motion sensing arrays. This presentation can be considered a ''primer'' on the art of Passive IR Motion Sensing as applied to Surveillance Technology

  16. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlíf Árnadóttir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tímarit.is. Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  17. Passivation layer of Si/Li ionizing radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidra, M.; Reznicek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The proposed passivating layer of Si/Li ionizing radiation detectors ensures a good long-time stability of their volt-ampere characteristics and noise properties. The layer can be applied to protect the detector junction surface in systems cyclically cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature, and in preamplifier feedback optoelectronics to prevent light from entering into the detector. The passivating layer is obtained by evaporating solvent from a cured suspension of boron nitride or aluminium oxide powder in a solution containing piceine and a nonpolar solvent such as toluene. The weight proportions are 1 to 8 parts of piceine, 3 to 9 parts of boron nitride or aluminium oxide, and 1 to 10 parts of the nonpolar solvent. (Z.S.)

  18. The behavior of dissolution/passivation and the transformation of passive films during electrocoagulation: Influences of initial pH, Cr(VI) concentration, and alternating pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhao-hui; Xu, Hai-yin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Luo, Yuan-ling; Yang, Xia; Huang, Jing; Wang, Li-ke; Song, Pei-pei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Initial pH, Cr(VI) and APC could affect the behavior of dissolution/passivation in Fe-EC. • A dissolution/passivation region was constructed with different initial pH-Cr(VI). • The film was rich in Fe and Cr at high Cr(VI), whereas with lots of Fe but negligible of Cr at low Cr(VI). • The film was non-protective at long T APC , but became more stable and protective at short T APC . • Behavior of dissolution/passivation and passive film transformation in Fe-EC was elucidated. - Abstract: The passivation behavior of an iron anode for electrocoagulation (EC) was first investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Tested initial pH range, Cr(VI) concentration and alternating pulsed current (APC) were 4.0 to 8.0, 52 to 520 mg L −1 and 10 to 590 s, respectively. The distance between electrodes was 25 mm, and K 2 SO 4 (1 g L −1 ) was used as the supporting electrolyte in a 2.5 L EC reactor. Results confirmed that initial pH, Cr(VI) concentration, and APC significantly influence the extent of passivation. Then, based on the interaction effect on passivation behavior between initial pH and Cr(VI) in RSM, a pH-Cr(VI)-dissolution/passivation diagram was constructed with galvanostatic measurements. The diagram showed an optimal dissolution region for EC operation. This optimum was characterized by a reasonable final pH for extended precipitation and little passivation. Results of the cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a significant difference in the composition and stability of oxide films in the region with more pronounced passivation. Interestingly, the APC had both positive and negative effect on the passivation behavior. Long period of APC (T APC = 590 s) produced a non-protective film, which favored the Fe 0 dissolution. However, a more stable and protective passive film with a uniform structure of Fe and Cr oxides was formed by short T APC (10 s). Based on the above results, this study elucidated the

  19. EP 1000 -The European Passive Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, Ed; Oyarzabal, Mariano; Saiu, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    margins such as lager volumes of water inventory, lower power density, and negative power and temperature coefficients to limit system challenges. The EP 1000 uses passive safety systems to further enhance plant safety to satisfy U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission safety criteria and the EUR. The use of passive systems has provided significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, safety, reliability, and investment protection. Phase 2 of the EPP program is focused on developing design details and performing supporting analyses to produce a Standard Safety Analysis Report for submittal to European safety authorities. The first part of Phase 2 is concentrating on definition and design of important systems and structures, and the second part will include the analyses and evaluations required to demonstrate the adequacy of the design. Results and conclusions of the EPP program are discussed in this paper, and an overview of the EP 1000 plant is provided. (author)

  20. Passive film growth on carbon steel and its nanoscale features at various passivating potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Imaged the topography of passivated steel at various film-forming potentials. • Characterized the nanoscale features of passive films. • Determined the composition of passive films formed at various potentials. - Abstract: In this work, the passivation and topographic sub-structure of passive films on a carbon steel in a carbonate/bicarbonate solution was characterized by electrochemical measurements, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When passivating at a potential near the active-passive transition, the film contains the mixture of Fe_3O_4, Fe_2O_3 and FeOOH, with numerous nanoscale features. As the film-forming potential shifts positively, the passive film becomes more compact and the nanoscale features disappear. When the film is formed at a passive potential where the oxygen evolution is enabled, the content of FeOOH in the film increases, resulting in an amorphous topography and reduced corrosion resistance.

  1. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  2. Passive margins getting squeezed in the mantle convection vice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Philippe; Husson, Laurent; Becker, Thorsten W.; Pedoja, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Passive margins often exhibit uplift, exhumation and tectonic inversion. We speculate that the compression in the lithosphere gradually increased during the Cenozoic. In the same time, the many mountain belts at active margins that accompany this event seem readily witness this increase. However, how that compression increase affects passive margins remains unclear. In order to address this issue, we design a 2D viscous numerical model wherein a lithospheric plate rests above a weaker mantle. It is driven by a mantle conveyor belt, alternatively excited by a lateral downwelling on one side, an upwelling on the other side, or both simultaneously. The lateral edges of the plate are either free or fixed, representing the cases of free convergence, and collision or slab anchoring, respectively. This distinction changes the upper boundary condition for mantle circulation and, as a consequence, the stress field. Our results show that between these two regimes, the flow pattern transiently evolves from a free-slip convection mode towards a no-slip boundary condition above the upper mantle. In the second case, the lithosphere is highly stressed horizontally and deforms. For an equivalent bulk driving force, compression increases drastically at passive margins provided that upwellings are active. Conversely, if downwellings alone are activated, compression occurs at short distances from the trench and extension prevails elsewhere. These results are supported by Earth-like 3D spherical models that reveal the same pattern, where active upwellings are required to excite passive margins compression. These results support the idea that compression at passive margins, is the response to the underlying mantle flow, that is increasingly resisted by the Cenozoic collisions.

  3. The passive-aggressive organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress.

  4. Architectural Qualities in Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    that it is possible to build this type of houses, but the knowledge and discussion about the architectural quality in the buildings is hardly present. The question is if the strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment collide with the architectural qualities of buildings. This paper brings forth...... this discussion based in literature and four case studies. The paper highlights cases on how passive strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment affect, restrict, inspire or create possibilities for the architectural expression and there through the architectural quality of the building....

  5. Passive Containment DataSet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data is for Figures 6 and 7 in the journal article. The data also includes the two EPANET input files used for the analysis described in the paper, one for the looped system and one for the block system.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Grayman, W., R. Murray , and D. Savic. Redesign of Water Distribution Systems for Passive Containment of Contamination. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION. American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, USA, 108(7): 381-391, (2016).

  6. Passive longitudinal phase space linearizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Craievich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the possibility to passively linearize the bunch compression process in electron linacs for the next generation x-ray free electron lasers. This can be done by using the monopole wakefields in a dielectric-lined waveguide. The optimum longitudinal voltage loss over the length of the bunch is calculated in order to compensate both the second-order rf time curvature and the second-order momentum compaction terms. Thus, the longitudinal phase space after the compression process is linearized up to a fourth-order term introduced by the convolution between the bunch and the monopole wake function.

  7. Passive Aerial Grasping of Ferrous Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Fiaz, Usman Amin

    2017-10-19

    Aerial transportation is probably the most efficient way to supply quick and effective aid especially in cases of emergency like search and rescue operations. Thus the ability to grasp and deliver objects is of vital importance in all sorts of unmanned and autonomous aerial operations. We detail a simple yet novel approach for aerial grasping of ferrous objects using a passive magnetic pickup and an impulse based drop mechanism. The design enables our gripper to grasp ferrous objects using single as well as multiple gripping pads, with visual as well as pickup and drop feedback. We describe the various components of the gripper with emphasis on its low mass and high lift capability since weight is a matter of high consideration in all aerial applications. In addition, we investigate and address the issues that may cause our design to fail. We demonstrate by experiments that the proposed design is robust and effective, based on its high payload capability, its sturdiness against possible slide during aggressive aerial maneuvers, and optimum performance of the drop mechanism for the designed range of payloads. We also show that the gripper is able to pick up and drop a single as well as multiple ferrous objects of different shapes, curvature, and inclination, which also involves picking up an object and then grasping the next, while keeping hold of the previous one.

  8. Passive thermal management using phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Yash Yogesh

    The trend of enhanced functionality and reducing thickness of mobile devices has. led to a rapid increase in power density and a potential thermal bottleneck since. thermal limits of components remain unchanged. Active cooling mechanisms are not. feasible due to size, weight and cost constraints. This work explores the feasibility. of a passive cooling system based on Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for thermal. management of mobile devices. PCMs stabilize temperatures due to the latent heat. of phase change thus increasing the operating time of the device before threshold. temperatures are exceeded. The primary contribution of this work is the identification. of key parameters which influence the design of a PCM based thermal management. system from both the experiments and the numerical models. This work first identifies strategies for integrating PCMs in an electronic device. A. detailed review of past research, including experimental techniques and computational. models, yields key material properties and metrics to evaluate the performance of. PCMs. Subsequently, a miniaturized version of a conventional thermal conductivity. measurement technique is developed to characterize thermal resistance of PCMs. Further, latent heat and transition temperatures are also characterized for a wide. range of PCMs. In-situ measurements with PCMs placed on the processor indicate that some. PCMs can extend the operating time of the device by as much as a factor of 2.48. relative to baseline tests (with no PCMs). This increase in operating time is investigated. by computational thermal models that explore various integration locations, both at the package and device level.

  9. Passive Aerial Grasping of Ferrous Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Fiaz, Usman; Toumi, Noureddine; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    Aerial transportation is probably the most efficient way to supply quick and effective aid especially in cases of emergency like search and rescue operations. Thus the ability to grasp and deliver objects is of vital importance in all sorts of unmanned and autonomous aerial operations. We detail a simple yet novel approach for aerial grasping of ferrous objects using a passive magnetic pickup and an impulse based drop mechanism. The design enables our gripper to grasp ferrous objects using single as well as multiple gripping pads, with visual as well as pickup and drop feedback. We describe the various components of the gripper with emphasis on its low mass and high lift capability since weight is a matter of high consideration in all aerial applications. In addition, we investigate and address the issues that may cause our design to fail. We demonstrate by experiments that the proposed design is robust and effective, based on its high payload capability, its sturdiness against possible slide during aggressive aerial maneuvers, and optimum performance of the drop mechanism for the designed range of payloads. We also show that the gripper is able to pick up and drop a single as well as multiple ferrous objects of different shapes, curvature, and inclination, which also involves picking up an object and then grasping the next, while keeping hold of the previous one.

  10. Uncertainty reduction requirements in cores designed for passive reactivity shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to describe the changed focus of neutronics accuracy requirements existing in the current US advanced LMR development program where passive shutdown is a major design goal. The second purpose is to provide the background and rationale which supports the selection of a formal data fitting methodology as the means for the application of critical experiment measurements to meet these accuracy needs. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Passive fire protection role and evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerosky, Tristan [NUVIA (France); Perdrix, Johan [NUVIA Protection (France)

    2015-12-15

    Major incidents associated with nuclear power plants often invoke a re-examination of key safety barriers. Fire hazard, in particular, is a key concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants given its propensity to damage safety systems which could ultimately lead to radioactive release into the atmosphere. In the recent past, events such as the Fukushima disaster have led to an industry-wide push to improve nuclear safety arrangements. As part of these measures, upgrading of fire safety systems has received significant attention. In addition to the inherent intricacies associated with such a complex undertaking, factors such as frequent changes in the national and European fire regulations also require due attention while formulating a fire protection strategy. This paper will highlight some salient aspects underpinning an effective fire protection strategy. This will involve: A) A comprehensive introduction to the different aspects of fire safety (namely prevention, containment and mitigation) supported by a review of the development of the RCC-I from 1993 to 1997 editions and the ETC-F (AFCEN codes used by EDF in France). B) Development of the fire risk analysis methodology and the different functions of passive fire protection within this method involving confinement and protection of safety-related equipment. C) A review of the benefits of an effective passive fire protection strategy, alongside other arrangements (such as active fire protection) to a nuclear operator in term of safety and cost savings. It is expected that the paper will provide nuclear operators useful guidelines for strengthening existing fire protection systems.

  12. New developments in India concerning the policy of passive euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniyakonil, Scaria

    2018-02-15

    Euthanasia and assisted dying are illegal in India according to Sections 306 and 309 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), and Article 21 of the Constitution of India. There have been a number of cases where the Indian High Courts and Indian Supreme Court issued differing verdicts concerning the right to life and the right to die. Nevertheless, on 7 March 2011, a paradigm shift happened as a result of the Indian Supreme Court's judgment on involuntary passive euthanasia in the case of Aruna Shanbaug. In its judgment, the Supreme Court requested the government to prepare a law on euthanasia. Accordingly, the 241st Report of the Law Commission of India proposed a bill to permit passive euthanasia. In May 2016 the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) issued the draft bill for public comment in order to create an informed decision. The Indian people are divided on the issue of euthanasia. The majority of the scientific community welcome it, while some religious groups oppose it. Hindus, in general, express both supporting and opposing views on euthanasia, whereas, Christians and Muslims have hardened their opposition against it. The Supreme Court judgment and the Report of the Law Commission pave the way for the development of new policies pertaining to passive euthanasia by the central government of India. Once such legislation is passed, passive euthanasia may, and probably will, have an enormous impact on the cultural, political, public and medical spheres of India in the near future. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Seismic passive earth resistance using modified pseudo-dynamic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Anindya; Choudhury, Deepankar; Bhattacharyya, S. K.

    2017-04-01

    In earthquake prone areas, understanding of the seismic passive earth resistance is very important for the design of different geotechnical earth retaining structures. In this study, the limit equilibrium method is used for estimation of critical seismic passive earth resistance for an inclined wall supporting horizontal cohesionless backfill. A composite failure surface is considered in the present analysis. Seismic forces are computed assuming the backfill soil as a viscoelastic material overlying a rigid stratum and the rigid stratum is subjected to a harmonic shaking. The present method satisfies the boundary conditions. The amplification of acceleration depends on the properties of the backfill soil and on the characteristics of the input motion. The acceleration distribution along the depth of the backfill is found to be nonlinear in nature. The present study shows that the horizontal and vertical acceleration distribution in the backfill soil is not always in-phase for the critical value of the seismic passive earth pressure coefficient. The effect of different parameters on the seismic passive earth pressure is studied in detail. A comparison of the present method with other theories is also presented, which shows the merits of the present study.

  14. A reliability assessment methodology for the VHTR passive safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyungsuk; Jae, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    The passive safety system of a VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), which has recently attracted worldwide attention, is currently being considered for the design of safety improvements for the next generation of nuclear power plants in Korea. The functionality of the passive system does not rely on an external source of an electrical support system, but on the intelligent use of natural phenomena. Its function involves an ultimate heat sink for a passive secondary auxiliary cooling system, especially during a station blackout such as the case of the Fukushima Daiichi reactor accidents. However, it is not easy to quantitatively evaluate the reliability of passive safety for the purpose of risk analysis, considering the existing active system failure since the classical reliability assessment method cannot be applied. Therefore, we present a new methodology to quantify the reliability based on reliability physics models. This evaluation framework is then applied to of the conceptually designed VHTR in Korea. The Response Surface Method (RSM) is also utilized for evaluating the uncertainty of the maximum temperature of nuclear fuel. The proposed method could contribute to evaluating accident sequence frequency and designing new innovative nuclear systems, such as the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) in VHTR to be designed and constructed in Korea.

  15. Measurement and Treatment of Passive Muscle Stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Henrik

    , which aimed to investigate: 1) The development of a clinical method to evaluate and distinguish neural (reflex mediated stiffness) and non-neural (passive muscle stiffness) components of muscle stiffness in adults with CP by objective and reliable measurements. 2) The association between increased...... and reliability of the method, and argue for the use of the method in the clinical practice. The device is able to distinguish between passive muscle stiffness and reflex-mediated stiffness in subjects with CP. It shows good high intrarater and interrater reliability in evaluation of passive muscle stiffness...... to measure muscle stiffness, and distinguish between passive muscle stiffness and reflex-mediated stiffness. Furthermore, it is a reliable device to measure changes in passive ROM. Treatment of passive muscle stiffness should be directed towards intense training, comprising many repetitions with a functional...

  16. Forekomsten af passiv rygning i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T S; Møller, L; Holstein, B E

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of passive smoking in the adult population in Denmark has not been described previously. This article publishes data from three investigations all of which were carried out in 1987. One was an interview investigation of a random section of the Danish population carried out by the D...... inconvenienced by passive smoking at work and a corresponding fraction had taken steps to reduce the extent of passive smoking in their daily life. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-Aug-27...... showed consistent results as regards the occurrence of passive smoking among adult Danes. About 12% of non-smokers were exposed to passive smoking for at least eight hours and 40% for at least one hour daily. Altogether 73% were exposed to passive smoking daily. About one third of the non-smokers were...

  17. Waste receiving and processing drum weight measurement uncertainty review findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of reviewing the weight scale operation at the WRAP facility was to determine the uncertainty associated with weight measurements. Weight measurement uncertainty is needed to support WRAP Nondestructive Examination (NDE) and Non-destructive Assay (NDA) analysis

  18. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    Columbia County Habitat for Humanity (CCHH) (New York, Climate Zone 5A) built a pair of townhomes to Passive House Institute U.S. (PHIUS+ 2015) criteria to explore approaches for achieving Passive House performance (specifically with respect to exterior wall, space-conditioning, and ventilation strategies) within the labor and budget context inherent in a Habitat for Humanity project. CCHH’s goal is to eventually develop a cost-justified Passive House prototype design for future projects.

  19. Passive Nuclear Plants Program (UPDATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimeno, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    The light water passive plants program (PCNP), today Advanced Nuclear Power Plants Program (PCNA), was constituted in order to reach the goals of the Spanish Electrical Sector in the field of advanced nuclear power plants, optimize the efforts of all Spanish initiatives, and increase joint presence in international projects. The last update of this program, featured in revision 5th of the Program Report, reflects the consolidation of the Spanish sector's presence in International programs of the advanced power plants on the basis of the practically concluded American ALWR program. Since the beginning of the program , the PCNP relies on financing from the Electrical sector, Ocide, SEPI-Endesa, Westinghouse, General Electric, as well as from the industrial cooperators, Initec, UTE (Initec- Empresarios Agrupados), Ciemat, Enusa, Ensa and Tecnatom. The program is made up of the following projects, already concluded: - EPRI's Advanced Light Water Plants Certification Project - Westinghouse's AP600 Project - General Electric's SBWR Project (presently paralyzed) and ABWR project Currently, the following project are under development, at different degrees of advance: - EPP project (European Passive Plant) - EBWR project (European Advanced Boiling Water Reactor)

  20. A Portable Passive Physiotherapeutic Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheek Naidu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The public healthcare system in South Africa is in need of urgent attention in no small part because there has been an escalation in the number of stroke victims which could be due to the increase in hypertension in this urbanizing society. There is a growing need for physiotherapists and occupational therapists in the country, which is further hindered by the division between urban and rural areas. A possible solution is a portable passive physiotherapeutic exoskeleton device. The exoskeleton device has been formulated to encapsulate methodologies that enable the anthropomorphic integration between a biological and mechatronic limb. A physiotherapeutic mechanism was designed to be portable and adjustable, without limiting the spherical motion and workspace of the human arm. The exoskeleton was designed to be portable in the sense that it could be transported geographically. It is a complete device allowing for motion in the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand joints. The inverse kinematics was solved iteratively via the Damped Least Squares (DLS method. The electronic and computer system allowed for professional personnel to either change an individual joint or a combination of joints angles via the kinematic models. A ramp PI controller was established to provide a smooth response to simulate the passive therapy motion.

  1. Liberal theory of passive citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatić Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this seminar paper I will focus on the analysis of liberal theory of citizenship. The focus of the study will be on the liberal-communitarian dispute in the theory of citizenship, with main ideas of the most important representatives of liberal discourse in the field of citizenship also being discussed. I will look more closely at the ideas of T.H. Marshall, as the most significant writer of liberal orthodoxy in the second half of the twentieth century, his contribution to liberal theory of passive citizenship, but I will also deal with the ideas of his biggest critics, both from the aspect of liberalism and from the aspect of communitarianism, including Anthony Giddens, Claus Offe, Michael Mann, Barrington Moore and Brian Turner. The emphasis will be on Marshall's term 'conquest of citizenship', as well as on the derivation of various theories of state from the obtained rights achieved through the expansion of the concept of citizenship. Finally, I will say something about modern obstacles to theories of passive citizenship derived from the communitarian school.

  2. Passive propulsion in vortex wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, D. N.; Hover, F. S.; Triantafyllou, M. S.; Liao, J. C.; Lauder, G. V.

    A dead fish is propelled upstream when its flexible body resonates with oncoming vortices formed in the wake of a bluff cylinder, despite being well outside the suction region of the cylinder. Within this passive propulsion mode, the body of the fish extracts sufficient energy from the oncoming vortices to develop thrust to overcome its own drag. In a similar turbulent wake and at roughly the same distance behind a bluff cylinder, a passively mounted high-aspect-ratio foil is also shown to propel itself upstream employing a similar flow energy extraction mechanism. In this case, mechanical energy is extracted from the flow at the same time that thrust is produced. These results prove experimentally that, under proper conditions, a body can follow at a distance or even catch up to another upstream body without expending any energy of its own. This observation is also significant in the development of low-drag energy harvesting devices, and in the energetics of fish dwelling in flowing water and swimming behind wake-forming obstacles.

  3. A comparison of the effects of visual deprivation and regular body weight support treadmill training on improving over-ground walking of stroke patients: a multiple baseline single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon

    2015-01-01

    The body-weight-support treadmill (BWST) is commonly used for gait rehabilitation, but other forms of BWST are in development, such as visual-deprivation BWST (VDBWST). In this study, we compare the effect of VDBWST training and conventional BWST training on spatiotemporal gait parameters for three individuals who had hemiparetic strokes. We used a single-subject experimental design, alternating multiple baselines across the individuals. We recruited three individuals with hemiparesis from stroke; two on the left side and one on the right. For the main outcome measures we assessed spatiotemporal gait parameters using GAITRite, including: gait velocity; cadence; step time of the affected side (STA); step time of the non-affected side (STN); step length of the affected side (SLA); step length of the non-affected side (SLN); step-time asymmetry (ST-asymmetry); and step-length asymmetry (SL-asymmetry). Gait velocity, cadence, SLA, and SLN increased from baseline after both interventions, but STA, ST-asymmetry, and SL-asymmetry decreased from the baseline after the interventions. The VDBWST was significantly more effective than the BWST for increasing gait velocity and cadence and for decreasing ST-asymmetry. VDBWST is more effective than BWST for improving gait performance during the rehabilitation for ground walking.

  4. Support system, excavation arrangement, and process of supporting an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Bill W.

    2017-08-01

    A support system, an excavation arrangement, and a process of supporting an object are disclosed. The support system includes a weight-bearing device and a camming mechanism positioned below the weight-bearing device. A downward force on the weight-bearing device at least partially secures the camming mechanism to opposing surfaces. The excavation arrangement includes a borehole, a support system positioned within and secured to the borehole, and an object positioned on and supported by the support system. The process includes positioning and securing the support system and positioning the object on the weight-bearing device.

  5. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  6. Utility requirements for advanced LWR passive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedidia, J.M.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    LWR Passive Plants are becoming an increasingly attractive and prominent option for future electric generating capacity for U.S. utilities. Conceptual designs for ALWR Passive Plants are currently being developed by U.S. suppliers. EPRI-sponsored work beginning in 1985 developed preliminary conceptual designs for a passive BWR and PWR. DOE-sponsored work from 1986 to the present in conjunction with further EPRI-sponsored studies has continued this development to the point of mature conceptual designs. The success to date in developing the ALWR Passive Plant concepts has substantially increased utility interest. The EPRI ALWR Program has responded by augmenting its initial scope to develop a Utility Requirements Document for ALWR Passive Plants. These requirements will be largely based on the ALWR Utility Requirements Document for Evolutionary Plants, but with significant changes in areas related to the passive safety functions and system configurations. This work was begun in late 1988, and the thirteen-chapter Passive Plant Utility Requirements Document will be completed in 1990. This paper discusses the progress to date in developing the Passive Plant requirements, reviews the top-level requirements, and discusses key issues related to adaptation of the utility requirements to passive safety functions and system configurations. (orig.)

  7. Multiple mechanisms quench passive spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin; Dolley, Tim; Bonne, Nicolas J.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the properties of a sample of 35 nearby passive spiral galaxies in order to determine their dominant quenching mechanism(s). All five low-mass (M⋆ environments. We postulate that cluster-scale gas stripping and heating mechanisms operating only in rich clusters are required to quench low-mass passive spirals, and ram-pressure stripping and strangulation are obvious candidates. For higher mass passive spirals, while trends are present, the story is less clear. The passive spiral bar fraction is high: 74 ± 15 per cent, compared with 36 ± 5 per cent for a mass, redshift and T-type matched comparison sample of star-forming spiral galaxies. The high mass passive spirals occur mostly, but not exclusively, in groups, and can be central or satellite galaxies. The passive spiral group fraction of 74 ± 15 per cent is similar to that of the comparison sample of star-forming galaxies at 61 ± 7 per cent. We find evidence for both quenching via internal structure and environment in our passive spiral sample, though some galaxies have evidence of neither. From this, we conclude no one mechanism is responsible for quenching star formation in passive spiral galaxies - rather, a mixture of mechanisms is required to produce the passive spiral distribution we see today.

  8. Inherent/passive safety for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1986-06-01

    The concept of inherent or passive passive safety for fusion energy is explored, defined, and partially quantified. Four levels of safety assurance are defined, which range from true inherent safety to passive safety to protection via active engineered safeguard systems. Fusion has the clear potential for achieving inherent or passive safety, which should be an objective of fusion research and design. Proper material choice might lead to both inherent safety and high mass power density, improving both safety and economics. When inherent safety is accomplished, fusion will be well on the way to achieving its ultimate potential and to be truly different and superior

  9. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the preliminary development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors for NASA application to distributed...

  10. Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A; Datta, Saurabh; Holland, Christy K; Mast, T Douglas

    2009-12-01

    A method is presented for passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions using an ultrasound array, with potential application in real-time monitoring of ultrasound ablation. To create such images, microbubble emissions were passively sensed by an imaging array and dynamically focused at multiple depths. In this paper, an analytic expression for a passive image is obtained by solving the Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral, under the Fresnel approximation, and passive images were simulated. A 192-element array was used to create passive images, in real time, from 520-kHz ultrasound scattered by a 1-mm steel wire. Azimuthal positions of this target were accurately estimated from the passive images. Next, stable and inertial cavitation was passively imaged in saline solution sonicated at 520 kHz. Bubble clusters formed in the saline samples were consistently located on both passive images and B-scans. Passive images were also created using broadband emissions from bovine liver sonicated at 2.2 MHz. Agreement was found between the images and source beam shape, indicating an ability to map therapeutic ultrasound beams in situ. The relation between these broadband emissions, sonication amplitude, and exposure conditions are discussed.

  11. Hybrid Active-Passive Radiation Shielding System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A radiation shielding system is proposed that integrates active magnetic fields with passive shielding materials. The objective is to increase the shielding...

  12. Mechanical evidence that flamingos can support their body on one leg with little active muscular force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Hui; Ting, Lena H

    2017-05-01

    Flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) often stand and sleep on one leg for long periods, but it is unknown how much active muscle contractile force they use for the mechanical demands of standing on one leg: body weight support and maintaining balance. First, we demonstrated that flamingo cadavers could passively support body weight on one leg without any muscle activity while adopting a stable, unchanging, joint posture resembling that seen in live flamingos. By contrast, the cadaveric flamingo could not be stably held in a two-legged pose, suggesting a greater necessity for active muscle force to stabilize two-legged versus one-legged postures. Our results suggest that flamingos engage a passively engaged gravitational stay apparatus (proximally located) for weight support during one-legged standing. Second, we discovered that live flamingos standing on one leg have markedly reduced body sway during quiescent versus alert behaviours, with the point of force application directly under the distal joint, reducing the need for muscular joint torque. Taken together, our results highlight the possibility that flamingos stand for long durations on one leg without exacting high muscular forces and, thus, with little energetic expenditure. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Universality in passively advected hydrodynamic fields : the case of a passive vector with pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzi, R.; Biferale, L.; Toschi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Universality of statistical properties of passive quantities advected by turbulent velocity fields at changing the passive forcing mechanism is discussed. In particular, we concentrate on the statistical properties of an hydrodynamic system with pressure. We present theoretical arguments and

  14. Therapy induces widespread reorganization of motor cortex after complete spinal transection that supports motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Patrick D; Manohar, Anitha; Shumsky, Jed S; Moxon, Karen A

    2016-05-01

    Reorganization of the somatosensory system and its relationship to functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been well studied. However, little is known about the impact of SCI on organization of the motor system. Recent studies suggest that step-training paradigms in combination with spinal stimulation, either electrically or through pharmacology, are more effective than step training alone at inducing recovery and that reorganization of descending corticospinal circuits is necessary. However, simpler, passive exercise combined with pharmacotherapy has also shown functional improvement after SCI and reorganization of, at least, the sensory cortex. In this study we assessed the effect of passive exercise and serotonergic (5-HT) pharmacological therapies on behavioral recovery and organization of the motor cortex. We compared the effects of passive hindlimb bike exercise to bike exercise combined with daily injections of 5-HT agonists in a rat model of complete mid-thoracic transection. 5-HT pharmacotherapy combined with bike exercise allowed the animals to achieve unassisted weight support in the open field. This combination of therapies also produced extensive expansion of the axial trunk motor cortex into the deafferented hindlimb motor cortex and, surprisingly, reorganization within the caudal and even the rostral forelimb motor cortex areas. The extent of the axial trunk expansion was correlated to improvement in behavioral recovery of hindlimbs during open field locomotion, including weight support. From a translational perspective, these data suggest a rationale for developing and optimizing cost-effective, non-invasive, pharmacological and passive exercise regimes to promote plasticity that supports restoration of movement after spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Chemical Passivation of Li(exp +)-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Lim, James

    2008-01-01

    Plates of a solid electrolyte that exhibits high conductivity for positive lithium ions can now be passivated to prevent them from reacting with metallic lithium. Such passivation could enable the construction and operation of high-performance, long-life lithium-based rechargeable electrochemical cells containing metallic lithium anodes. The advantage of this approach, in comparison with a possible alternative approach utilizing lithium-ion graphitic anodes, is that metallic lithium anodes could afford significantly greater energy-storage densities. A major impediment to the development of such cells has been the fact that the available solid electrolytes having the requisite high Li(exp +)-ion conductivity are too highly chemically reactive with metallic lithium to be useful, while those solid electrolytes that do not react excessively with metallic lithium have conductivities too low to be useful. The present passivation method exploits the best features of both extremes of the solid-electrolyte spectrum. The basic idea is to coat a higher-conductivity, higher-reactivity solid electrolyte with a lower-conductivity, lower-reactivity solid electrolyte. One can then safely deposit metallic lithium in contact with the lower-reactivity solid electrolyte without incurring the undesired chemical reactions. The thickness of the lower-reactivity electrolyte must be great enough to afford the desired passivation but not so great as to contribute excessively to the electrical resistance of the cell. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in experiments on plates of a commercial high-performance solid Li(exp +)- conducting electrolyte. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) was the solid electrolyte used for passivation. LiPON-coated solid-electrolyte plates were found to support electrochemical plating and stripping of Li metal. The electrical resistance contributed by the LiPON layers were found to be small relative to overall cell impedances.

  16. R and D on passive stabilization loop at EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, X., E-mail: jixiang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Song, Y.T.; Wu, S.T.; Shen, G.; Wang, Z.; Cao, L.; Zhou, Z.; Liu, X.; Peng, X.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.; Zhu, N.; Zhang, P.; Wu, J.; Gong, X.; Shen, B.; Gao, D.; Fu, P.; Wan, B.; Li, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The passive stabilization loop (PSL) is part of the plasma stabilization system built in the EAST. The project of PSL has been carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EM and structural analysis of PSL has been done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The R and D of the silvered craft for the PSL is done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The R and D of the insulation structure for the PSL is done. - Abstract: The passive stabilization loop (PSL) is part of the plasma stabilization system built in the EAST. Its purpose is to provide passive feedback control of the plasma vertical instability on short time scales. To accommodate with the new stage for high performance plasma and enhance the control of vertical stabilization in EAST, the project of PSL has been carried out. The eddy currents are induced by the vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruption. The distribution of the eddy currents depend on the structure of the PSL and the formation of the induction. The global model is created and meshed by the ANSYS software. Based on the simulation of plasma VDEs and disruption, the distribution and decay curve of the eddy currents on the PSL are obtained. The stress and the strain caused by the eddy currents and the magnetic field are calculated. To decrease the resistance of the joint and enhance anti-corrosion of the joint surface, the silvered craft is used. In the experiment of test model, the resistance is decreased to half after silvered with the same matrix material and under the same preload. The PSL is insulated from the vacuum vessel at the supports of passive stabilizers. The insulation structure is designed and tested with ceramic material. The PSL is designed, fabricated and assembled with the total resistance 150 {mu}{Omega}. It can supply passive feedback control to the plasma by the eddy currents induced by the VDEs, which could enhance the vertical placement control of plasma.

  17. R and D on passive stabilization loop at EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, X.; Song, Y.T.; Wu, S.T.; Shen, G.; Wang, Z.; Cao, L.; Zhou, Z.; Liu, X.; Peng, X.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.; Zhu, N.; Zhang, P.; Wu, J.; Gong, X.; Shen, B.; Gao, D.; Fu, P.; Wan, B.; Li, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The passive stabilization loop (PSL) is part of the plasma stabilization system built in the EAST. The project of PSL has been carried out. ► The EM and structural analysis of PSL has been done. ► The R and D of the silvered craft for the PSL is done. ► The R and D of the insulation structure for the PSL is done. - Abstract: The passive stabilization loop (PSL) is part of the plasma stabilization system built in the EAST. Its purpose is to provide passive feedback control of the plasma vertical instability on short time scales. To accommodate with the new stage for high performance plasma and enhance the control of vertical stabilization in EAST, the project of PSL has been carried out. The eddy currents are induced by the vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruption. The distribution of the eddy currents depend on the structure of the PSL and the formation of the induction. The global model is created and meshed by the ANSYS software. Based on the simulation of plasma VDEs and disruption, the distribution and decay curve of the eddy currents on the PSL are obtained. The stress and the strain caused by the eddy currents and the magnetic field are calculated. To decrease the resistance of the joint and enhance anti-corrosion of the joint surface, the silvered craft is used. In the experiment of test model, the resistance is decreased to half after silvered with the same matrix material and under the same preload. The PSL is insulated from the vacuum vessel at the supports of passive stabilizers. The insulation structure is designed and tested with ceramic material. The PSL is designed, fabricated and assembled with the total resistance 150 μΩ. It can supply passive feedback control to the plasma by the eddy currents induced by the VDEs, which could enhance the vertical placement control of plasma.

  18. TU-C-17A-12: Towards a Passively Optimized Phase-Space Monte Carlo (POPMC) Treatment Planning Method: A Proof of Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y M; Bednarz, B; Zankowski, C; Svatos, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The advent of on-line/off-line adaptive, and biologically-conformal radiation therapy has led to a need for treatment planning solutions that utilize voxel-specific penalties, requiring optimization over a large solution space that is performed quickly, and the dose in each voxel calculated accurately. This work proposes a “passive” optimization framework, which is executed concurrently during Monte Carlo dose calculation, evaluating the cost/benefit of each history during transport, and creates a passively optimized fluence map. Methods: The Monte Carlo code Geant4 v9.6 was used for this study. The standard voxel geometry implementation was modified to support the passive optimization framework, with voxel-specific optimization parameters. Dose-benefit functions, which will increase a particle history’s weight upon dose deposition, were defined in a central collection of voxels to effectively create target structures. Histories that deposit energy to voxels are reweighted based on a voxel’s dose multiplied by its cost/benefit value. Upon full termination of each history, the dose contributions of that history are reweighted to reflect a contribution proportional to the history’s final weight. A parallel-planar 1.25 MeV photon fluence is transported through the geometry, and re-weighted at each dose deposition step. The resulting weight is tallied with the incident spatial and directional coordinates in a phase-space distribution. Results: A uniform incident fluence was reweighted during MC dose calculations to create an optimized fluence map which would generate dose profiles in target volumes that exhibit the same dose characteristics as the prescribed optimization parameters. An optimized dose profile, calculated concurrently with the phase-space, reflects the resulting dose distribution. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of passively optimizing an incident fluence map during Monte Carlo dose calculations. The flexibility of

  19. Health risks of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, C M; Stellman, S D

    1986-01-01

    Passive or involuntary smoking is the inhalation of smoke which escapes directly into the air from the lit end of a burning cigarette. This unfiltered smoke contains the same toxic components of the mainstream smoke inhaled directly by the smoker, including numerous carcinogens, many in greater concentrations. It has long been known that exposure to this type of smoke leads to increased respiratory and other adverse health conditions in non-smokers, especially children. During the past five years, evidence has been accumulating that risk of lung cancer is also higher, particularly in non-smoking women whose husbands smoke. Despite uncertainties and differences in interpretation of various cancer studies, there is ample justification for public health measures now in place or proposed, such as restriction or elimination of smoking in the workplace and in public places.

  20. Integrated Passive And Wireless Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-04-30

    A passive and wireless sensor is provided for sensing at least one of magnetic field, temperature or humidity. The sensor can provide only one of the sensing functions, individually or any combination of them simultaneously. It can be used for various applications where magnetic field changes, temperature and/or humidity need to be measured. In one or more embodiments, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor is provided that can measure one or more of a magnetic field (or current that generates the magnetic field), temperature and humidity. In one or more embodiments, a magnetoimpedence (MI) sensor (for example a thin film giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor), a thermally sensitive (for example a Lithium Niobite (LiNbO.sub.3)) substrate, and a humidity sensitive film (for example a hydrogel film) can be used as sensing elements.

  1. Integrated Passive And Wireless Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    A passive and wireless sensor is provided for sensing at least one of magnetic field, temperature or humidity. The sensor can provide only one of the sensing functions, individually or any combination of them simultaneously. It can be used for various applications where magnetic field changes, temperature and/or humidity need to be measured. In one or more embodiments, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor is provided that can measure one or more of a magnetic field (or current that generates the magnetic field), temperature and humidity. In one or more embodiments, a magnetoimpedence (MI) sensor (for example a thin film giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor), a thermally sensitive (for example a Lithium Niobite (LiNbO.sub.3)) substrate, and a humidity sensitive film (for example a hydrogel film) can be used as sensing elements.

  2. A novel permanent maglev rotary LVAD with passive magnetic bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K X; Yuan, H Y; Zeng, P; Ru, W M

    2005-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that permanent maglev cannot achieve stability; however, the authors have discovered that stable permanent maglev is possible under the effect of a combination of passive magnetic and nonmagnetic forces. In addition, a rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) with passive magnetic bearings has been developed. It is a radially driven impeller pump, having a rotor and a stator. The rotor consists of driven magnets and impeller; the motor coil and pump housing form the stator. Two passive magnetic bearings counteract the attractive force between motor coil iron core and rotor magnets; the rotor thereafter can be disaffiliated from the stator and become levitated under the action of passive magnetic and haemodynamic forces. Because of the pressure difference between the outlet and the inlet of the pump, there is a small flow passing through the gap of rotor and stator, and then entering the lower pressure area along the central hole of the rotor. This small flow comes to a full washout of all blood contacting surfaces in the motor. Moreover, a decreased Bernoulli force in the larger gap with faster flow produces a centring force that leads to stable levitation of the rotor. Resultantly, neither mechanical wear nor thrombosis will occur in the pump. The rotor position detection reveals that the precondition of levitation is a high rotating speed (over 3250 rpm) and a high flow rate (over 1 l min(-1)). Haemodynamic tests with porcine blood indicate that the device as a LVAD requires a rotating speed between 3500 and 4000 rpm for producing a blood flow of 4 - 6 l min(-1) against 100 mmHg mean pressure head. The egg-sized device has a weight of 200 g and an O.D. of 40 mm at its largest point.

  3. Passive and active protection of cotton textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochove, C. van

    1967-01-01

    In rotproofing of cotton a distinction is made between passive and active protection. In passive protection, the structure of the cotton fibre is modified in such a way that the fibre can longer be attacked. This modification of structure can be effected on different levels: microscopical,

  4. Influence of passivation process on chip performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the performance of CMOS chips before and after a low temperature post-processing step. In order to prevent damage to the IC chips by the post-processing steps, a first passivation layers is needed on top of the IC chips. Two different passivation layer deposition

  5. Passive and Portable Polymer Optical Fiber Cleaver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-Rodriguez, D.; Min, R.; Ortega, B.

    2016-01-01

    opening up the possibility of an electrically passive cleaver. In this letter, we describe the implementation and testing of a high quality cleaver based on a mechanical system formed by a constant force spring and a damper, which leads to the first reported electrical passive and portable cleaver....

  6. Passive house networks : How can they deliver?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines experiences with the diffusion of the passive house concept, applied to the situation of ‘emerging’ countries like Belgium and the Netherlands. Adopter categories considering the passive house concept are defined. A marketing study based on Rogers’ theory of diffusion of

  7. Passive Solar Construction--Design and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented is a list of books and reports intended to serve as technical sources of information for the building professional interested in energy conservation. These publications are grouped under these headings: (1) energy-conserving building design; (2) passive systems/design; (3) passive systems/performance; and (4) proceedings (of the American…

  8. Is body-weight-supported treadmill training or robotic-assisted gait training superior to overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy in people with spinal cord injury? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, J; Harvey, L A; Thomas, S; Elsner, B

    2017-08-01

    Systematic review about randomised trials comparing different training strategies to improve gait in people with spinal cord injuries (SCI). The aim of this systematic review was to compare the effectiveness of body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and robotic-assisted gait training with overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy in people with traumatic SCI. Systematic review conducted by researchers from Germany and Australia. An extensive search was conducted for randomised controlled trials involving people with traumatic SCI that compared either BWSTT or robotic-assisted gait training with overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy. The two outcomes of interest were walking speed (m s -1 ) and walking distance (m). BWSTT and robotic-assisted gait training were analysed separately, and data were pooled across trials to derive mean between-group differences using a random-effects model. Thirteen randomised controlled trials involving 586 people were identified. Ten trials involving 462 participants compared BWSTT to overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy, but only nine trials provided useable data. The pooled mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) between-group differences for walking speed and walking distance were -0.03 m s -1 (-0.10 to 0.04) and -7 m (-45 to 31), respectively, favouring overground gait training. Five trials involving 344 participants compared robotic-assisted gait training to overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy but only three provided useable data. The pooled mean (95% CI) between-group differences for walking speed and walking distance were -0.04 m s -1 (95% CI -0.21 to 0.13) and -6 m (95% CI -86 to 74), respectively, favouring overground gait training. BWSTT and robotic-assisted gait training do not increase walking speed more than overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy do, but their effects on walking distance are not clear.

  9. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  10. Considerations on nuclear reactor passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After having indicated some passive safety systems present in electronuclear reactors (control bars, safety injection system accumulators, reactor cooling after stoppage, hydrogen recombination systems), this report recalls the main characteristics of passive safety systems, and discusses the main issues associated with the assessment of new passive systems (notably to face a sustained loss of electric supply systems or of cold water source) and research axis to be developed in this respect. More precisely, the report comments the classification of safety passive systems as it is proposed by the IAEA, outlines and comments specific aspects of these systems regarding their operation and performance. The next part discusses the safety approach, the control of performance of safety passive systems, issues related to their reliability, and the expected contribution of R and D (for example: understanding of physical phenomena which have an influence of these systems, capacities of simulation of these phenomena, needs of experimentations to validate simulation codes)

  11. Passive systems for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.; Noviello, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the most original concepts that have been considered in Italy for the back-fitting of the nuclear power plants in order to reduce the probability and the importance of the release to the environment in case of a core melt. With reference either to BWR or PWR, passive concepts have been considered for back-fitting in the following areas: pump seals damage prevention and ECCS passive operation; reactor passive depressurization; molten reactor core passive cooling; metal containment passive water cooling through a water tank located at high level; containment isolation improvement through a sealing system; containment leaks control and limitation of environmental release. In addition some considerations will be made on the protection against external events introduced from the beginning on the PUN design either on building and equipment lay-out either on structure design. (author). 5 figs

  12. All optical OFDM transmission for passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, Nitin; Ashik T., J.; Bai, K. Kalyani; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2017-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the idea of data transmission at a very higher rate (Tbits/s) through optical fibers in a passive optical network using the most efficient data transmission technique widely used in wireless communication that is orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. With an increase in internet users, data traffic has also increased significantly and the current dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems may not support the next generation passive optical networks (PONs) requirements. The approach discussed in this paper allows to increase the downstream data rate per user and extend the standard single-mode fiber reach for future long-haul applications. All-optical OFDM is a promising solution for terabit per second capable single wavelength transmission, with high spectral efficiency and high tolerance to chromatic dispersion.

  13. Passive decay heat removal from the core region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hichen, E.F.; Jaegers, H.

    2002-01-01

    The decay heat in commercial Light Water Reactors is commonly removed by active and redundant safety systems supported by emergency power. For advanced power plant designs passive safety systems using a natural circulation mode are proposed: several designs are discussed. New experimental data gained with the NOKO and PANDA facilities as well as operational data from the Dodewaard Nuclear Power Plant are presented and compared with new calculations by different codes. In summary, the effectiveness of these passive decay heat removal systems have been demonstrated: original geometries and materials and for the NOKO facility and the Dodewaard Reactor typical thermal-hydraulic inlet and boundary conditions have been used. With several codes a good agreement between calculations and experimental data was achieved. (author)

  14. Analysis of surface dark current dependent upon surface passivation in APD based on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hong Joo; Roh, Cheong Hyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Hong Goo; Hahn, Cheol-Koo; Kim, Dong Ho; Park, Jung Ho

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the dependence of reverse dark current on two types of surface passivation, one of which is polyimide and the other is SiN x , for InAs quantum dots/GaAs separate absorption, charge, multiplication avalanche photodiode (SACM APD). From the experimental results, we found that dark current was dominated by surface current, and not bulk current. It was also noted that SiN x passivation has a surface current that is lower by three to nine times in magnitude than that in polyimide passivation in the whole range of bias. To analyze the difference in dark current due to the passivation types, we propose the theoretical current components. This shows that the dark current of both passivation types is mainly composed of generation–recombination (G–R) and tunneling components, originating from the surface. However, each component has a different magnitude for passivation types, which can be explained by carrier concentration and trap density. The dependence of dark current on temperature shows the different behaviors between passivation types and supports a theoretical description of current components

  15. Passivity-based design of robust passive damping for LCL-filtered voltage source converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Passive damping is proven as a robust stabilizing technique for LCL-filtered voltage source converters. However, conventional design methods of passive dampers are based on the passive components only, while the inherent damping effect of time delay in the digital control system is overlooked....... In this paper, a frequency-domain passivity-based design approach is proposed, where the passive dampers are designed to eliminate the negative real part of the converter output admittance with closed-loop current control, rather than shaping the LCL-filter itself. Thus, the influence of time delay...... in the current control is included, which allows a relaxed design of the passive damper with the reduced power loss and improved stability robustness against grid parameters variations. Design procedures of two commonly used passive dampers with LCL-filtered VSCs are illustrated. Experimental results validate...

  16. Obstetric and perinatal effects of active and/or passive smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Alexandre, Sandra Maria; Kuhn dos Santos, Jorge Francisco; de Souza, Eduardo; Sass, Nelson; Auritscher Beck, Anna Paula; Trayna, Evelyn; Andrade, Carla Maria de Araújo; Barroso, Teresa; Kulay Júnior, Luiz

    2004-05-06

    Cigarette smoke, whether inhaled voluntarily or not, causes damage to the mother-infant pair. The antenatal period may present the best opportunity for performing effective anti-smoking campaigns. To study the obstetric and perinatal effects of smoking on pregnancy and the infant. Prospective study, interviewing pregnant women who were randomly selected at the maternity hospital as they were being discharged after giving birth. Hospital Municipal Vereador José Storópolli, São Paulo, Brazil. 758 patients were interviewed regarding smoke inhalation before being discharged from the maternity hospital. The groups were formed by 42 active smokers, 272 passive smokers, 108 who inhaled smoke both actively and passively, and 336 non-smokers. The groups were compared regarding age, parity, school education, incidence of spontaneous abortion, rate of caesarian births, average gestational age at birth, rate of low birth weight and adequacy of weight in relation to the gestational age of newborn infants. For all variables we considered p active, 35.9% passive and 14.3% active-passive smokers. Active and active-passive smokers were older and had higher parity. Active smokers had lower education levels and higher rates of previous spontaneous abortion. The weights of newborn babies were lower for smoking mothers. The study was performed among patients that were mostly of low economic, social and cultural levels, thus possibly explaining the high incidence of smokers. Worse still was that 35.9% of the non-smokers were actually passive smokers. These rates we report were similar to those from the literature. The typical receptiveness of teenage girls to unrestricted advertising in the media contributes towards an early start to acquiring the habit of smoking, including during pregnancy in our country. We emphasize the difficulties in quantifying exposure to cigarettes even among active smokers. Cigarette smoke, whether inhaled voluntarily or not, has an unfavorable effect on

  17. Oxygen Passivation Mediated Tunability of Trion and Excitons in MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Gogoi, Pranjal Kumar

    2017-08-17

    Using wide spectral range in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry with systematic ultrahigh vacuum annealing and in situ exposure to oxygen, we report the complex dielectric function of MoS2 isolating the environmental effects and revealing the crucial role of unpassivated and passivated sulphur vacancies. The spectral weights of the A (1.92 eV) and B (2.02 eV) exciton peaks in the dielectric function reduce significantly upon annealing, accompanied by spectral weight transfer in a broad energy range. Interestingly, the original spectral weights are recovered upon controlled oxygen exposure. This tunability of the excitonic effects is likely due to passivation and reemergence of the gap states in the band structure during oxygen adsorption and desorption, respectively, as indicated by ab initio density functional theory calculation results. This Letter unravels and emphasizes the important role of adsorbed oxygen in the optical spectra and many-body interactions of MoS2.

  18. Oxygen Passivation Mediated Tunability of Trion and Excitons in MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Gogoi, Pranjal Kumar; Hu, Zhenliang; Wang, Qixing; Carvalho, Alexandra; Schmidt, Daniel; Yin, Xinmao; Chang, Yung-Huang; Li, Lain-Jong; Sow, Chorng Haur; Neto, A.  H. Castro; Breese, Mark B.  H.; Rusydi, Andrivo; Wee, Andrew T.  S.

    2017-01-01

    Using wide spectral range in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry with systematic ultrahigh vacuum annealing and in situ exposure to oxygen, we report the complex dielectric function of MoS2 isolating the environmental effects and revealing the crucial role of unpassivated and passivated sulphur vacancies. The spectral weights of the A (1.92 eV) and B (2.02 eV) exciton peaks in the dielectric function reduce significantly upon annealing, accompanied by spectral weight transfer in a broad energy range. Interestingly, the original spectral weights are recovered upon controlled oxygen exposure. This tunability of the excitonic effects is likely due to passivation and reemergence of the gap states in the band structure during oxygen adsorption and desorption, respectively, as indicated by ab initio density functional theory calculation results. This Letter unravels and emphasizes the important role of adsorbed oxygen in the optical spectra and many-body interactions of MoS2.

  19. Oxygen Passivation Mediated Tunability of Trion and Excitons in MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Pranjal Kumar; Hu, Zhenliang; Wang, Qixing; Carvalho, Alexandra; Schmidt, Daniel; Yin, Xinmao; Chang, Yung-Huang; Li, Lain-Jong; Sow, Chorng Haur; Neto, A. H. Castro; Breese, Mark B. H.; Rusydi, Andrivo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2017-08-01

    Using wide spectral range in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry with systematic ultrahigh vacuum annealing and in situ exposure to oxygen, we report the complex dielectric function of MoS2 isolating the environmental effects and revealing the crucial role of unpassivated and passivated sulphur vacancies. The spectral weights of the A (1.92 eV) and B (2.02 eV) exciton peaks in the dielectric function reduce significantly upon annealing, accompanied by spectral weight transfer in a broad energy range. Interestingly, the original spectral weights are recovered upon controlled oxygen exposure. This tunability of the excitonic effects is likely due to passivation and reemergence of the gap states in the band structure during oxygen adsorption and desorption, respectively, as indicated by ab initio density functional theory calculation results. This Letter unravels and emphasizes the important role of adsorbed oxygen in the optical spectra and many-body interactions of MoS2 .

  20. Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

  1. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  2. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  3. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  4. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives. This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Approach/Activities. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation were measured and 19 of these investigations provided direct comparisons relating passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation. Polymers compared included low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and organisms ranged from polychaetes and oligochaetes to bivalves, aquatic insects, and gastropods. Regression equations correlating bioaccumulation (CL) and passive sampler uptake (CPS) were used to assess the strength of observed relationships. Results/Lessons Learned. Passive sampling based concentrations resulted in strong logarithmic regression relationships, most of which were within one to two orders of magnitude of measured bioaccumulation. Mean coefficients of determination (r2) for LDPE, PDMS and POM were 0.68, 0.76 and 0.58, respectively. For the available raw data, the mean ratio of CL and CPS was 10.8 ± 18.4 (n = 609). Passive sampler uptake and bioaccumulation were not found to be identical (i.e., CPS ≠ CL) but the logarithmic-based relationships between these values were consistently linear and predictive. This review concludes that in many applications passive sampling may serve as a

  5. Impact of Various Charge States of Hydrogen on Passivation of Dislocation in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihui; Lou, Jingjing; Fu, Jiayi; Ji, Zhenguo

    2018-03-01

    Dislocation, one of typical crystallographic defects in silicon, is detrimental to the minority carrier lifetime of silicon wafer. Hydrogen passivation is able to reduce the recombination activity of dislocation, however, the passivation efficacy is strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. In this paper, a model based on the theory of hydrogen charge state control is proposed to explain the passivation efficacy of dislocation correlated to the peak temperature of thermal annealing and illumination intensity. Experimental results support the prediction of the model that a mix of positively charged hydrogen and negatively charged hydrogen at certain ratio can maximise the passivation efficacy of dislocation, leading to a better power conversion efficiency of silicon solar cell with dislocation in it.

  6. PWR passive plant heat removal assessment: Joint EPRI-CRIEPI advanced LWR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    An independent assessment of the capabilities of the PWR passive plant heat removal systems was performed, covering the Passive Residual Heat Removal (PRHR) System, the Passive Safety Injection System (PSIS) and the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) used in a 600 MWe passive plant (e.g., AP600). Additional effort included a review of the test programs which support the design and analysis of the systems, an assessment of the licensability of the plant with regard to heat removal adequacy, and an evaluation of the use of the passive systems with a larger plant. The major conclusions are as follows. The PRHR can remove core decay heat, prevents the pressurizer from filling with water for a loss-of-feedwater transient, and provides safety-grade means for maintaining the reactor coolant system in a safe shutdown condition for the case where the non-safety residual heat removal system becomes unavailable. The PSIS is effective in maintaining the core covered with water for loss-of-coolant accident pipe breaks to eight inches. The PCCS has sufficient heat removal capability to maintain the containment pressure within acceptable limits. The tests performed and planned are adequate to confirm the feasibility of the passive heat removal system designs and to provide a database for verification of the analytical techniques used for the plant evaluations. Each heat removal system can perform in accordance with Regulatory requirements, with the exception that the PRHR system is unable to achieve the required cold shutdown temperature of 200 F within the required 36-hour period. The passive heat removal systems to be used for the 600 MWe plant could be scaled up to a 900 MWe passive plant in a straightforward manner and only minimal, additional confirmatory testing would be required. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. [Passive euthanasia and living will].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-07-06

    This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital.

  8. Passive fault current limiting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  9. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiederhirn, G.; Nucci, J.; Richter, G.; Arzt, E.; Balk, T. J.; Dehm, G.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the influence of a 10 nm AlxOy passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 μm thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm film; however, its effect on the 1 μm film is negligible. At high temperatures, the opposite behavior is observed; while the passivation does not change the 100 nm film behavior, it strengthens the 1 μm film by driving it deeper into compression. These observations are explained in light of a combination of constrained diffusional creep and dislocation dynamics unique to ultra-thin films

  10. Python passive network mapping P2NMAP

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, Chet

    2015-01-01

    Python Passive Network Mapping: P2NMAP is the first book to reveal a revolutionary and open source method for exposing nefarious network activity. The ""Heartbleed"" vulnerability has revealed significant weaknesses within enterprise environments related to the lack of a definitive mapping of network assets. In Python Passive Network Mapping, Chet Hosmer shows you how to effectively and definitively passively map networks. Active or probing methods to network mapping have traditionally been used, but they have many drawbacks - they can disrupt operations, crash systems, and - most important

  11. Non-Chromate Passivation of Zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1993-01-01

    Phos). The treatments are within the same concentration region, and they have a mutual pat-ent pending. Although some tests still need to be conducted, the following aspects are clear at the present time: The general appearance of the passivated zinc surface is very similar to a standard yellow chromate treatment...... successfully. The corrosion resistance against white rust on zinc and zinc alloys is just as good as that of yellow chromate, although the result de-pends on the corrosion test method as well as on the nature of the zinc substrate pas-sivated. The passivation procedure is simply a dip for approxi-mately 2...

  12. A Recombinant Measles Vaccine with Enhanced Resistance to Passive Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julik, Emily; Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge

    2017-09-21

    Current measles vaccines suffer from poor effectiveness in young infants due primarily to the inhibitory effect of residual maternal immunity on vaccine responses. The development of a measles vaccine that resists such passive immunity would strongly contribute to the stalled effort toward measles eradication. In this concise communication, we show that a measles virus (MV) with enhanced hemagglutinin (H) expression and incorporation, termed MVvac2-H2, retained its enhanced immunogenicity, previously established in older mice, when administered to very young, genetically modified, MV-susceptible mice in the presence of passive anti-measles immunity. This immunity level mimics the sub-neutralizing immunity prevalent in infants too young to be vaccinated. Additionally, toward a more physiological small animal model of maternal anti-measles immunity interference, we document vertical transfer of passive anti-MV immunity in genetically-modified, MV susceptible mice and show in this physiological model a better MVvac2-H2 immunogenic profile than that of the parental vaccine strain. In sum, these data support the notion that enhancing MV hemagglutinin incorporation can circumvent in vivo neutralization. This strategy merits additional exploration as an alternative pediatric measles vaccine.

  13. Design of the inboard passive stabilizer for TPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.; Boonstra, R.; Baxi, C.B.; Chin, E.; Drees, L.; Lee, W.; Redler, K.L.; Reis, E.E.; Bialek, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Inboard Passive Stabilizer (IPS) is part of the plasma stabilizing system built into the TPX. Its purpose is to provide passive stabilization of the plasma vertical instability on short time scales. With carbon fiber composite (CFC) armor tiles it serves as a startup limiter, protects the vacuum vessel from radiation heat load during steady state operation and also functions as Neutral Beam armor. The inboard passive stabilizer is a saddle coil, constructed of a ring of copper plates, armored with CFC tiles, that surrounds the inner vacuum vessel at the midplane. The design of the plates, the support structure, cooling lines, CFC tiles and tile attach method is described. Tiles that experience only the normal heat load of 0.4 MW/m 2 are attached with mechanical fasteners. Tiles in the neutral beam shine through area are exposed to as much as 1.7 MW/m 2 and are brazed to the IPS. Significant forces are generated in the plates by the stabilization currents as well as during the frequent bakeout cycles. These plates are required to be fully remotely handled, including tile replacement, and the influence of this requirement on the design is discussed

  14. From Dodewaard to a modern economic passive plant-ESBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, H.; Yadigaroglu, G.; Stoop, P.M.; Gonzales, A.; Rao, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    For over 25 years the Dodewaard nuclear plant has produced electricity with one of the highest reliability of any nuclear power plant in the world. Almost 10 years ago when some designers looked at the features to incorporate in a modern mid-size Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) design that was developed by an international team and consisted of natural circulation and passive safety injection and decay heat removal. Since the passive decay heat removal was a major new technology area, an extensive test program was developed and conducted - utilizing newly constructed large scale integrated system test facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. The development of any modern reactor is time consuming and expensive, hence, the design and technology was done as part of an international team effort. This paper provides an overview of the international design and technology effort and discusses how the development costs were minimized through cooperation. The result of the design effort showed that overall plant economics could be improved by a power level increase, supported by some modest design changes. This paper provides the approach and key results of this multi-year international design effort to develop a modern, larger scale, passive plant - the European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). This effort, in addition to developing an economic nuclear power station, also demonstrates how the benefits of international cooperation can be utilized to keep development costs reasonable. An overview is also provided of the planned research efforts to extend existing technology to the ESBWR. (authors)

  15. Performance of the prism reactor's passive decay heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Hunsbedt, A.

    1989-01-01

    The PRISM modular reactor concept has a totally passive safety-grade decay heat removal system referred to as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection of air. The system is inherently reliable and is not subject to the failure modes commonly associated with active cooling systems. The thermal performance of RVACS exceeds requirements and significant thermal margins exist. RVACS has been shown to perform its function under many postulated accident conditions. The PRISM power plant is equipped with three methods for shutdown: condenser cooling in conjunction with intermediate sodium and steam generator systems, and auxiliary cooling system (ACS) which removes heat from the steam generator by natural convection of air and transport of heat from the core by natural convection in the primary and intermediate systems, and a safety- grade reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) which removes heat passively from the reactor containment vessel by natural convection of air. The combination of one active and two passive systems provides a highly reliable and economical shutdown heat removal system. This paper provides a summary of the RVACS thermal performance for expected operating conditions and postulated accident events. The supporting experimental work, which substantiates the performance predictions, is also summarized

  16. Combination contraceptives: effects on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A; Carayon, Florence; Schulz, Kenneth F; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2014-01-29

    evidence supporting a causal association between combination oral contraceptives or a combination skin patch and weight change. Most comparisons of different combination contraceptives showed no substantial difference in weight. In addition, discontinuation of combination contraceptives because of weight change did not differ between groups where this was studied. Available evidence was insufficient to determine the effect of combination contraceptives on weight, but no large effect was evident. Trials to evaluate the link between combination contraceptives and weight change require a placebo or non-hormonal group to control for other factors, including changes in weight over time.

  17. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.

  18. Lipid-Based Passivation in Nanofluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Stretching DNA in nanochannels is a useful tool for direct, visual studies of genomic DNA at the single molecule level. To facilitate the study of the interaction of linear DNA with proteins in nanochannels, we have implemented a highly effective passivation scheme based on lipid bilayers. We demonstrate virtually complete long-term passivation of nanochannel surfaces to a range of relevant reagents, including streptavidin-coated quantum dots, RecA proteins, and RecA–DNA complexes. We show that the performance of the lipid bilayer is significantly better than that of standard bovine serum albumin-based passivation. Finally, we show how the passivated devices allow us to monitor single DNA cleavage events during enzymatic degradation by DNase I. We expect that our approach will open up for detailed, systematic studies of a wide range of protein–DNA interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:22432814

  19. Hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria and passive sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bokai; Ding, Yang; Xu, Xinliang

    2017-11-01

    Understanding hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria and passive sphere is important for identifying rheological properties of bacterial and colloidal suspension. Over the past few years, scientists mainly focused on bacterial influences on tracer particle diffusion or hydrodynamic capture of a bacteria around stationary boundary. Here, we use superposition of singularities and regularized method to study changes in bacterial swimming velocity and passive sphere diffusion, simultaneously. On this basis, we present a simple two-bead model that gives a unified interpretation of passive sphere diffusion and bacterial swimming. The model attributes both variation of passive sphere diffusion and changes of speed of bacteria to an effective mobility. Using the effective mobility of bacterial head and tail as an input function, the calculations are consistent with simulation results at a broad range of tracer diameters, incident angles and bacterial shapes.

  20. Experiments, Passive Observation and Scenario Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoover, Kevin D.; Juselius, Katarina

    The paper provides a careful, analytical account of Trygve Haavelmo's unsystematic, but important, use of the analogy between controlled experiments common in the natural sciences and econometric techniques. The experimental analogy forms the linchpin of the methodology for passive observation...

  1. Thermophysiological adaptations to passive mild heat acclimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallubinsky, H; Schellen, L; Kingma, B R M; Dautzenberg, B; van Baak, M A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    Passive mild heat acclimation (PMHA) reflects realistic temperature challenges encountered in everyday life. Active heat acclimation, combining heat exposure and exercise, influences several important thermophysiological parameters; for example, it decreases core temperature and enhances heat

  2. Passive water and ion transport by cotransporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, D D; Hirayama, B A; Meinild, A K

    1999-01-01

    the Lp of control oocytes. Passive Na+ transport (Na+ leak) was obtained from the blocker-sensitive Na+ currents in the absence of substrates (glucose and GABA). 2. Passive Na+ and water transport through SGLT1 were blocked by phlorizin with the same sensitivity (inhibitory constant (Ki), 3-5 micro......1. The rabbit Na+-glucose (SGLT1) and the human Na+-Cl--GABA (GAT1) cotransporters were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and passive Na+ and water transport were studied using electrical and optical techniques. Passive water permeabilities (Lp) of the cotransporters were determined from......M). When Na+ was replaced with Li+, phlorizin also inhibited Li+ and water transport, but with a lower affinity (Ki, 100 microM). When Na+ was replaced by choline, which is not transported, the SGLT1 Lp was indistinguishable from that in Na+ or Li+, but in this case water transport was less sensitive...

  3. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Graham S. [Building Science Corp., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Building Science Corp., Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-07-29

    In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the value of performance-based passive building standards when it joined with Passive House Institute US (PHIUS) to promote DOE’s Challenge Home program in tandem with the PHIUS+ Certification program. Since then, the number of passive building projects that have been certified under the partnership has grown exponentially because of some synergy. Passive building represents a well-developed approach to arrive at the envelope basis for zero energy and energy-positive projects by employing performance-based criteria and maximizing cost-effective savings from conservation before implementing renewable energy technologies. The Challenge Home program evolved into the Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program in a move toward 1) attaining zero energy and 2) including active renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics (PV)—toward the zero energy goal.

  4. Passivation properties of alumina for multicrystalline silicon nanostructure prepared by spin-coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ye; Shen, Honglie; Yang, Wangyang; Zheng, Chaofan; Tang, Quntao; Yao, Hanyu; Raza, Adil; Li, Yufang; Huang, Chunlai

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report passivation properties of inverted pyramidal nanostructure based multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) by Al2O3 films with spin-coating method. Precursors AlCl3 and Al(acac)3 for Al2O3 films were chosen for comparison. Al2O3/SiO x stacks were found to be able to passivate the nanostructured surface well. With the number of spin-coating up to five, the Al2O3 films could conformally attach the nanostructure. The weighted average reflectance values (ranging from 400-900 nm) of the passivated silicon surface could be reduced to 10.74% (AlCl3) and 11.12% (Al(acac)3), and the effective carrier lifetime could reach 7.84 and 16.98 μs, respectively. This work presented a potential process to fabricate low cost high efficiency mc-Si solar cells.

  5. Maternal active or passive smoking causes oxidative stress in placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Varma, Mustafa; Ahmet, Koc; Abdurrahim, Kocyigit; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of active and passive maternal smoking on placenta total oxidant/antioxidant status in term infants. The levels of cord blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured in samples of fetal placental tissue, cord blood, and the maternal peripheral blood serum and from 19 mothers who were active smokers, 19 who were passive smokers, and 22 who were nonsmokers (not exposed to active or passive smoking). The pregnancies were between 37 and 40 weeks' gestation, were uncomplicated, and the infants were delivered vaginally. Birth weight and head circumference in the active smokers were significantly (P antioxidant balance in fetal placental tissue and causes potent oxidative stress.

  6. Symmetry Breaking in a random passive scalar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Zeliha; McLaughlin, Richard; Camassa, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    We consider the evolution of a decaying passive scalar in the presence of a gaussian white noise fluctuating shear flow. We focus on deterministic initial data and establish the short, intermediate, and long time symmetry properties of the evolving point wise probability measure for the random passive scalar. Analytical results are compared directly to Monte Carlo simulations. Time permitting we will compare the predictions to experimental observations.

  7. Comprehensive Planning for Passive Solar Architectural Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    technical information, and the natural environ- ment. Since the Air Force Energy plan stresses Passive Solar (Architecture) before using Active Solar...retrofitted by-1990, and the Air Force Energy Plan stresses Passive Solar Applications. Bdcause of this requirement, you must consider the following retrofit...OF THI SUN AT NOON ON O CUMIN 21 EXAWMKU[ AT 3M. AN I S - W Figure 12-4 12-3 Skylight- use a reflector ,with horizontal skylights to ,iincrease solar

  8. An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Li; Wang, Jian; Varghese, Leo T.; Shen, Hao; Niu, Ben; Xuan, Yi; Weiner, Andrew M.; Qi, Minghao

    2011-01-01

    A passive optical diode effect would be useful for on-chip optical information processing but has been difficult to achieve. Using a method based on optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate a forward-backward transmission ratio of up to 28 decibels within telecommunication wavelengths. Our device, which uses two silicon rings 5 micrometers in radius, is passive yet maintains optical nonreciprocity for a broad range of input power levels, and it performs equally well even if the backward input pow...

  9. Technical - Economic Research for Passive Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniotaite, Ruta

    2017-10-01

    A newly constructed passive house must save 80 % of heat resources; otherwise it is not a passive house. The heating energy demand of a passive building is less than 15 kWh/m2 per year. However, a passive house is something more than just an energy-saving house. This concept involves sustainable, high-quality, valuable, healthy and durable construction. Features of a passive house: high insulation of envelope components, high-quality windows, good tightness of the building, regenerative ventilation system and elimination of thermal bridges. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 61 requires all new public buildings to become near-zero energy buildings by 2019 and will be extended to all new buildings by 2021. This concept involves sustainable, high-quality, valuable, healthy and durable construction. Foundation, walls and roofs are the most essential elements of a house. The type of foundation for a private house is selected considering many factors. The article examines technological and structural solutions for passive buildings foundation, walls and roofs. The technical-economic comparison of the main structures of a passive house revealed that it is cheaper to install an adequately designed concrete slab foundation than to build strip or pile foundation and the floor separately. Timber stud walls are the cheapest wall option for a passive house and 45-51% cheaper compared to other options. The comparison of roofs and ceilings showed that insulation of the ceiling is 25% more efficient than insulation of the roof. The comparison of the main envelope elements efficiency by multiple-criteria evaluation methods showed that it is economically feasible to install concrete slab on ground foundation, stud walls with sheet cladding and a pitched roof with insulated ceiling.

  10. Active and passive cooling methods for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2018-01-01

    In this document a review of three active as well as ten passive cooling methods suitable for residential buildings is carried out. The review firstly addresses how the various technologies cool the space according to the terms of the building heat balance, under what technical conditions...... ventilation, controlled ventilation, roof coating and eco-evaporative cooling are the most suitable passive methods for an extensive use in this country....

  11. New Frontiers in Passive and Active Nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    The articles included in this special section focus on several recent advances in the field of passive and active nanoantennas that employ not only traditional based realizations but also their new frontiers.......The articles included in this special section focus on several recent advances in the field of passive and active nanoantennas that employ not only traditional based realizations but also their new frontiers....

  12. Uncertainty Prediction in Passive Target Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Number 15/152,696 Filing Date 12 May 2016 Inventor John G. Baylog et al Address any questions concerning this matter to the Office of...300118 1 of 25 UNCERTAINTY PREDICTION IN PASSIVE TARGET MOTION ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein...at an unknown location and following an unknown course relative to an observer 12. Observer 12 has a sensor array such as a passive sonar or radar

  13. Feasibility of passive heat removal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurko, Yu M [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a review of decay heat removal systems (DHRSs) used in liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Advantages and the disadvantages of these DHRSs, extent of their passivity and prospects for their use in advanced fast reactor projects are analyzed. Methods of extending the limitations on the employment of individual systems, allowing enhancement in their effectiveness as safety systems and assuring their total passivity are described. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs.

  14. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  15. Brookfield Homes Passive House Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    In 2012-2013, IBACOS worked with a builder, Brookfield Homes in Denver, Colorado, to design and construct a Passive House certified model home. IBACOS used several modeling programs and calculation methods to complete the final design package along with Brookfield's architect KGA Studio. This design package included upgrades to the thermal enclosure, basement insulation, windows, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Short-term performance testing in the Passive House was done during construction and after construction.

  16. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  17. Passive Safety Features for Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in the size and complexity of commercial nuclear power plants in the 1970s spawned an interest in smaller, simpler designs that are inherently or intrinsically safe through the use of passive design features. Several designs were developed, but none were ever built, although some of their passive safety features were incorporated into large commercial plant designs that are being planned or built today. In recent years, several reactor vendors are actively redeveloping small modular reactor (SMR) designs with even greater use of passive features. Several designs incorporate the ultimate in passive safety they completely eliminate specific accident initiators from the design. Other design features help to reduce the likelihood of an accident or help to mitigate the accidents consequences, should one occur. While some passive safety features are common to most SMR designs, irrespective of the coolant technology, other features are specific to water, gas, or liquid-metal cooled SMR designs. The extensive use of passive safety features in SMRs promise to make these plants highly robust, protecting both the general public and the owner/investor. Once demonstrated, these plants should allow nuclear power to be used confidently for a broader range of customers and applications than will be possible with large plants alone.

  18. Active versus passive screening for entrance control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The benefits of different entrance control actions are quantitatively assessed by defining a relative improvement index for the screening activity. Three classes of entrance control measures are investigated: the use of a purely active screening measure (such as a portal monitor), the use of a purely passive screening measure (such as personality typing), and the combined use of active and passive measures. Active entrance control measures have been studied previously [McCormick and Erdmann, Nucl. Mat. Manag. 4, (1975)] where it was determined that the relative improvement index is approximately related to the nondetection probability factor r for the protective system by (1-r + r ln r). It is shown here that the relative improvement index for a purely passive screening system also can be approximately expressed in a convenient manner. Because the probability is very small that a sabotage or diversion action would be attempted, the result for passive screening, multiplied by r, may be combined with the factor (1-r + r ln r) to give the relative improvement index for a combined, active-and-passive entrance control system. Results from simple example calculations indicate that passive screening of nuclear plant personnel or applicants for such positions is orders-of-magnitude less effective than portal monitors or reasonable improvements in them. 5 tables

  19. Passive film growth on carbon steel and its nanoscale features at various passivating potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan; Cheng, Y. Frank, E-mail: fcheng@ucalgary.ca

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Imaged the topography of passivated steel at various film-forming potentials. • Characterized the nanoscale features of passive films. • Determined the composition of passive films formed at various potentials. - Abstract: In this work, the passivation and topographic sub-structure of passive films on a carbon steel in a carbonate/bicarbonate solution was characterized by electrochemical measurements, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When passivating at a potential near the active-passive transition, the film contains the mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeOOH, with numerous nanoscale features. As the film-forming potential shifts positively, the passive film becomes more compact and the nanoscale features disappear. When the film is formed at a passive potential where the oxygen evolution is enabled, the content of FeOOH in the film increases, resulting in an amorphous topography and reduced corrosion resistance.

  20. Electrode activation and passivation of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hendriksen, P.V.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of anode-supported cells with a composite LSM-YSZ cathode and an LSM current collector was investigated. Over the first 48 hours, after the application of a constant current, the cell voltage was observed to increase by up to 20%. When the current was switched off, the cell...... than at open circuit conditions. This frequency range of the spectrum was also sensitive to the oxygen partial pressure at the cathode side, indicating that it is the cathode that activates and passivates....

  1. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C x F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH 4 F. The charcoal laden with NH 4 F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH 4 F as a mixture of NH 3 and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH 4 F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH 3 concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests

  2. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  3. Role of bond adaptability in the passivation of colloidal quantum dot solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Susanna M; Ip, Alexander H; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Levina, Larissa; Kemp, Kyle W; Carey, Graham H; Masala, Silvia; Sargent, Edward H

    2013-09-24

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solids are attractive materials for photovoltaic devices due to their low-cost solution-phase processing, high absorption cross sections, and their band gap tunability via the quantum size effect. Recent advances in CQD solar cell performance have relied on new surface passivation strategies. Specifically, cadmium cation passivation of surface chalcogen sites in PbS CQDs has been shown to contribute to lowered trap state densities and improved photovoltaic performance. Here we deploy a generalized solution-phase passivation strategy as a means to improving CQD surface management. We connect the effects of the choice of metal cation on solution-phase surface passivation, film-phase trap density of states, minority carrier mobility, and photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. We show that trap passivation and midgap density of states determine photovoltaic device performance and are strongly influenced by the choice of metal cation. Supported by density functional theory simulations, we propose a model for the role of cations, a picture wherein metals offering the shallowest electron affinities and the greatest adaptability in surface bonding configurations eliminate both deep and shallow traps effectively even in submonolayer amounts. This work illustrates the importance of materials choice in designing a flexible passivation strategy for optimum CQD device performance.

  4. Role of bond adaptability in the passivation of colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Thon, Susanna

    2013-09-24

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solids are attractive materials for photovoltaic devices due to their low-cost solution-phase processing, high absorption cross sections, and their band gap tunability via the quantum size effect. Recent advances in CQD solar cell performance have relied on new surface passivation strategies. Specifically, cadmium cation passivation of surface chalcogen sites in PbS CQDs has been shown to contribute to lowered trap state densities and improved photovoltaic performance. Here we deploy a generalized solution-phase passivation strategy as a means to improving CQD surface management. We connect the effects of the choice of metal cation on solution-phase surface passivation, film-phase trap density of states, minority carrier mobility, and photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. We show that trap passivation and midgap density of states determine photovoltaic device performance and are strongly influenced by the choice of metal cation. Supported by density functional theory simulations, we propose a model for the role of cations, a picture wherein metals offering the shallowest electron affinities and the greatest adaptability in surface bonding configurations eliminate both deep and shallow traps effectively even in submonolayer amounts. This work illustrates the importance of materials choice in designing a flexible passivation strategy for optimum CQD device performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Examining the free radical bonding mechanism of benzoquinone– and hydroquinone–methanol passivation of silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotulak, Nicole A.; Chen, Meixi; Schreiber, Nikolas; Jones, Kevin; Opila, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photons are required for high levels of c-Si passivation by both BQ/ME and HQ/ME solutions. • Protons are required for high levels of c-Si passivation by both BQ/ME and HQ/ME solutions. • The free radical QH· is the likely passivating species for c-Si surfaces from BQ/ME and HQ/ME solutions. - Abstract: The surface passivation of p-benzoquinone (BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ) when dissolved in methanol (ME) has been examined through effective lifetime testing of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers treated with the aforementioned solutions. Changes in the availability of both photons and protons in the solutions were demonstrated to affect the level of passivation achieved. The requirement of both excess protons and ambient light exposure to maintain high effective lifetimes supports the presence of a free radical species that drives the surface passivation. Surface analysis suggests a 1:1 ratio of HQ-like bonds to methoxy bonds on the c-Si surface after treatment with a BQ/ME solution.

  6. Comparative performance of passive devices for piping system under seismic excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen, E-mail: pra_veen74@rediffmail.com [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Jangid, R.S. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Correlated the analytical results obtained from the proposed analytical procedures with experimental results in the case of XPD. • Substantial reduction of the seismic response of piping system with passive devices is observed. • Significant increase in the modal damping of the piping system is noted. • There exist an optimum parameters of the passive devices. • Good amount of energy dissipation is observed by using passive devices. - Abstract: Among several passive control devices, X-plate damper, viscous damper, visco-elastic damper, tuned mass damper and multiple tuned mass dampers are popular and used to mitigate the seismic response in the 3-D piping system. In the present paper detailed studies are made to see the effectiveness of the dampers when used in 3-D piping system subjected to artificial earthquake with increasing amplitudes. The analytical results obtained using Wen's model are compared with the corresponding experimental results available which indicated a good match with the proposed analytical procedure for the X-plate dampers. It is observed that there is significant reduction in the seismic response of interest like relative displacement, acceleration and the support reaction of the piping system with passive devices. In general, the passive devices under particular optimum parameters such as stiffness and damping are very effective and practically implementable for the seismic response mitigation, vibration control and seismic requalification of piping system.

  7. A Prototype for Passive Gamma Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkamaa, T.; Levai, F.; Berndt, R.; Schwalbach, P.; Vaccaro, S.; ); Turunen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Combined efforts of multiple stakeholders of the IAEA Support Programme task JNT 1510: ''Prototype of passive gamma emission tomograph (PGET)'', resulted in the design, manufacturing and extensive testing of an advanced verification tool for partial defect testing on light water reactor spent fuel. The PGET has now reached a proven capability of detecting a single missing or substituted pin inside a BWR and VVER-440 fuel assemblies. The task started in 2004 and it is planned to be finished this year. The PGET head consists of two banks of 104 CdTe detectors each with integrated data acquisition electronics. The CdTe detectors are embedded in tungsten collimators which can be rotated around the fuel element using an integrated stepping motor mounted on a rotating table. All components are packed inside a toroid watertight enclosure. Control, data acquisition and image reconstruction analysis is fully computerized and automated. The design of the system is transportable and suitable for safeguards verifications in spent fuel ponds anywhere. Four test campaigns have been conducted. In 2009, the first test in Ringhals NPP failed collecting data but demonstrated suitability of the PGET for field deployments. Subsequent tests on fuel with increasing complexity were all successful (Ispra, Italy (2012), Olkiluoto, Finland (2013) and Loviisa, Finland (2014)). The paper will present the PGET design, results obtained from the test campaigns and mention also drawbacks that were experienced in the project. The paper also describes further tests which would allow evaluating the capabilities and limitations of the method and the algorithm used. Currently, the main technical shortcoming is long acquisition time, due to serial control and readout of detectors. With redesigned electronics it can be expected that the system would be able to verify a VVER-440 assembly in five minutes, which meets the IAEA user requirements. (author)

  8. Weight Changes in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    weight loss and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes are in opposition to the prevailing observational literature. Harrington's meta-analysis of intentional weight loss and the underlying studies are evaluated along with the Look AHEAD trial and a number of diabetes prevention studies. Difficulties in conducting and interpreting weight change studies are discussed.   CONCLUSIONS: Surprisingly, intentional therapeutic weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes, supervised by a medical doctor, did not seem to reduce the long-term risk for CVD, CVD-mortality or all-cause mortality. The contradictions between our results and the prevailing observational evidence may be explained by methodological weaknesses favoring weight loss in earlier studies. Consequently, there is no good evidence to support that intentional weight loss will reduce the risk of CVD or mortality in any group of patients in general practice or in the general population. Age was a powerful determinant of weight changes and the 'normal weight development' can be taken into consideration when evaluating weight studies, and when general practitioners are following their patients over time. Compared with age, sex, education, and comorbidity, lifestyle factors like the dietary intake and physical activity seemed to be of less importance for long-term weight development. An exception to this was smoking or smoking cessation. Based on the scientific literature in the field and on the results of article 3, it seems uncertain whether weight loss is beneficial or harmful in terms of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with diabetes and in overweight people in general. Improvements in for instance psychosocial factors and diabetes prevention may well be short term as only few are able to a maintain weight loss. Rather than going for weight loss in overweight high risk patients, it seems more rational for general practitioners to focus on other lifestyle changes like for instance Mediterranean

  9. The relationship between multiple developmental difficulties in very low birth weight children at 3½ years of age and the need for learning support at 5 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether multiple developmental difficulties are more frequent in very low birth weight (VLBW) children than in those born full term. The association between multiple developmental difficulties assessed at 3½ years of age and educational provision for the child at 5½ years was

  10. Active and passive fatigue in simulated driving: discriminating styles of workload regulation and their safety impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxby, Dyani J; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S; Hitchcock, Edward M; Neubauer, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    Despite the known dangers of driver fatigue, it is a difficult construct to study empirically. Different forms of task-induced fatigue may differ in their effects on driver performance and safety. Desmond and Hancock (2001) defined active and passive fatigue states that reflect different styles of workload regulation. In 2 driving simulator studies we investigated the multidimensional subjective states and safety outcomes associated with active and passive fatigue. Wind gusts were used to induce active fatigue, and full vehicle automation to induce passive fatigue. Drive duration was independently manipulated to track the development of fatigue states over time. Participants were undergraduate students. Study 1 (N = 108) focused on subjective response and associated cognitive stress processes, while Study 2 (N = 168) tested fatigue effects on vehicle control and alertness. In both studies the 2 fatigue manipulations produced different patterns of subjective response reflecting different styles of workload regulation, appraisal, and coping. Active fatigue was associated with distress, overload, and heightened coping efforts, whereas passive fatigue corresponded to large-magnitude declines in task engagement, cognitive underload, and reduced challenge appraisal. Study 2 showed that only passive fatigue reduced alertness, operationalized as speed of braking and steering responses to an emergency event. Passive fatigue also increased crash probability, but did not affect a measure of vehicle control. Findings support theories that see fatigue as an outcome of strategies for managing workload. The distinction between active and passive fatigue is important for assessment of fatigue and for evaluating automated driving systems which may induce dangerous levels of passive fatigue. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Passive cooling application in the north of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahachad, M.; Draoui, A.; Belarbi, R.; Allard, F.

    2006-01-01

    According to the inter-professional union of the poultry farm sector in Morocco, the heat stress, during the last summer, has led to ones of heavy losses estimated of about ten million Euros at producers. In this paper the measures which could be used to reduce the fatal effect of heat stress phenomenon are presented. This is achieved by modeling and simulation of a typical poultry house in the north of Morocco. A case study was realized to show the influence of each parameter on the behaviour of the building. The most influential parameters are: ventilation shape, orientation, number of the occupants...etc. The evaporative cooling systems models were linked to thermal building software, TRNSYS, and the assessment of poultry house equipped with passive cooling systems will be presented. The simulations show that the heat stress phenomenon could be avoided. The experimental study of the poultry house equipped with a passive cooling system shows a decrease of temperature of the internal air from 5 to 9 degree centigrade, and an amelioration of quality of production, which is translated by an important decrease of mortality number and an increase of poultry weight.(Author)

  12. Passive sampler for dissolved organic matter in freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Buuan; Simpson, André J

    2006-12-15

    A passive sampler for the isolation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from freshwater environments is described. The sampler consists of a molecular weight selective membrane (1000 kDa) and an anion exchange resin (diethylaminoethylcellulose (DEAE-cellulose)). NMR indicates the samplers isolate DOM that is nearly indistinguishable from that isolated using the batch DEAE-cellulose procedure. In a comparative study DOM isolated from Lake Ontario cost approximately 0.30 dollars/mg to isolate using the passive samplers while DOM isolated using the traditional batch procedure cost approximately 8-10 dollars/mg. The samplers have been shown to be effective in a range of freshwater environments including a large inland lake (Lake Ontario), fast flowing tributary, and wetland. Large amounts (gram quantities of DOM) can be easily isolated by increasing the size or number of samplers deployed. Samplers are easy to construct, negate the need for pressure filtering, and also permit a range of temporal and spatial experiments that would be very difficult or impossible to perform using conventional approaches. For example, DOM can be monitored on a regular basis at numerous different locations, or samplers could be set at different depths in large lakes. Furthermore, they could potentially be deployed into hard to reach environments such as wells, groundwater aquifers, etc., and as they are easy to use, they can be mailed to colleagues or included with expeditions going to difficult to reach places such as the Arctic and Antarctic.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Norwegian Passive House Criteria and of Criteria related to the Concept of International Passive House Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, Karin; Vestergaard, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard.......The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard....

  14. Maternal passive smoking and its effect on maternal, neonatal and placental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K N; Vidyadaran, M K; Goh, Y M; Nasaruddin, A A; Jammal, A B E; Zainab, S

    2005-08-01

    A study was undertaken to 1) determine the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on maternal and neonatal weight and body mass index (BMI) and placental weight, volume and surface area and 2) establish any correlations between the placental surface area, volume and weight with maternal and neonatal body weight and BMI in mothers exposed to cigarette smoke. A total of 154 full-term placentae, 65 from mothers exposed to tobacco smoke and 89 from non-exposed mothers were collected from Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital. The placental surface area was determined using a stereological grid, the volume by Scherle's method and the weight by using an electronic weighing machine. In general there were no differences in maternal, placental and neonatal parameters between the exposed and non-exposed groups. However, there were significant correlations between placental weight with maternal weight and maternal BMI in both exposed (r = 0.315; p = 0.013) and (r = 0.265; p = 0.038), and non-exposed (r = 0.224; p = 0.035) and (r = 0.241; p = 0.023) mothers. It was also found that the maternal weight on admission correlated significantly with placental weight in both Malay (r = 0.405; p = 0.020) and Indian (r = 0.553; p = 0.050) passive smokers. Correcting the placental parameters for the maternal weight had no effect on the results.

  15. Molecular weight characterisation of synthetic polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Holding, Steve R

    1995-01-01

    The report comprises a state-of-the-art overview of the subject of molecular weight characterisation, supported by an extensive, indexed bibliography. The bibliography contains over 400 references and abstracts, compiled from the Polymer Library.

  16. Comparison of Active and Passive Humidifiers on Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dilek Mersin Özcanoğlu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To research the effectiveness on humidifying, respiratory mechanics, bacterial colonization and infection rates of continuous usage for 96 hours of active and passive humidifiers which are used for heating and moisturizing the inspired gases in patients under mechanical ventilation. Materials and Methods: Adult patients who are expected to support at least 4 days under mechanical ventilation, excluding patients with primary lung disease and sepsis, are included in the research. Patients are separated in two groups as a passive humidifier group (heat moisture exchange filter (n=16 and an active humidifier group (n=14. In passive humidifier group, humidifier is used continuously for 96 hours without change. In active humidifier group moisturizing is obtained by using sterile distilled water in heated humidifier. Patients whose demographic characteristics were recorded and first 24 hour APACHE II scores were calculated, were taking chest X-Ray’s daily. Respiratory mechanics measurements were recorded twice a day which were watched in Servo300A ventilators respiratory mechanics monitor, in patients under volume controlled ventilation. The amount of moisture and liquidity of the secretion in endotracheal tube were recorded and scored visually. The endotracheal aspiration samples at the beginning and at the end of 96th hour and respiratory circuits ventilator side sample taken at 96th hour were studied microbiologically. Cultures and colonial counts were studied at Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty Microbiology Laboratory. Results: There were no significant difference in two groups by demographic data, APACHE II scores and illness diagnoses. In passive humidifier group, respiratory mechanics showed no significant difference between the beginning and the 4th day (p>0.05. In active humidifier group when MAP, PEEPtot, EEF, Rins, Rexp values showed no significant difference between the beginning and the 4th day but PIP values showed significant

  17. Application of REPAS Methodology to Assess the Reliability of Passive Safety Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pierro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the presentation of the Reliability Evaluation of Passive Safety System (REPAS methodology developed by University of Pisa. The general objective of the REPAS is to characterize in an analytical way the performance of a passive system in order to increase the confidence toward its operation and to compare the performances of active and passive systems and the performances of different passive systems. The REPAS can be used in the design of the passive safety systems to assess their goodness and to optimize their costs. It may also provide numerical values that can be used in more complex safety assessment studies and it can be seen as a support to Probabilistic Safety Analysis studies. With regard to this, some examples in the application of the methodology are reported in the paper. A best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP5, has been used to support the analyses and to model the selected systems. Probability distributions have been assigned to the uncertain input parameters through engineering judgment. Monte Carlo method has been used to propagate uncertainties and Wilks' formula has been taken into account to select sample size. Failure criterions are defined in terms of nonfulfillment of the defined design targets.

  18. Weighted network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Illes; Abel, Daniel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos-Renyi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs

  19. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  20. Calibration and Application of Passive Sampling in Drinking Water for Perfluoroalkyl Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are global environmental contaminants and a need for monitoring levels has arisen due to their persistency and their ability to bioaccumulate. One relatively novel method of monitoring for both long and short time intervals and generating time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations is passive sampling for which no power, maintenance and supervision is required. The polar organic compound integrative sampler (POCIS) with a weak anion exchange (WAX) sorbent and ...

  1. Rearranging the lenslet array of the compact passive interference imaging system with high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Wen, Desheng; Song, Zongxi

    2017-10-01

    With the development of aeronautics and astronautics, higher resolution requirement of the telescope was necessary. However, the increase in resolution of conventional telescope required larger apertures, whose size, weight and power consumption could be prohibitively expensive. This limited the further development of the telescope. This paper introduced a new imaging technology using interference—Compact Passive Interference Imaging Technology with High Resolution, and proposed a rearranging method for the arrangement of the lenslet array to obtain continuously object spatial frequency.

  2. Magnesium Counteracts Vascular Calcification: Passive Interference or Active Modulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Braake, Anique D; Shanahan, Catherine M; de Baaij, Jeroen H F

    2017-08-01

    Over the last decade, an increasing number of studies report a close relationship between serum magnesium concentration and cardiovascular disease risk in the general population. In end-stage renal disease, an association was found between serum magnesium and survival. Hypomagnesemia was identified as a strong predictor for cardiovascular disease in these patients. A substantial body of in vitro and in vivo studies has identified a protective role for magnesium in vascular calcification. However, the precise mechanisms and its contribution to cardiovascular protection remain unclear. There are currently 2 leading hypotheses: first, magnesium may bind phosphate and delay calcium phosphate crystal growth in the circulation, thereby passively interfering with calcium phosphate deposition in the vessel wall. Second, magnesium may regulate vascular smooth muscle cell transdifferentiation toward an osteogenic phenotype by active cellular modulation of factors associated with calcification. Here, the data supporting these major hypotheses are reviewed. The literature supports both a passive inorganic phosphate-buffering role reducing hydroxyapatite formation and an active cell-mediated role, directly targeting vascular smooth muscle transdifferentiation. However, current evidence relies on basic experimental designs that are often insufficient to delineate the underlying mechanisms. The field requires more advanced experimental design, including determination of intracellular magnesium concentrations and the identification of the molecular players that regulate magnesium concentrations in vascular smooth muscle cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. WeightLifter: Visual Weight Space Exploration for Multi-Criteria Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Stephan; Streit, Marc; Torsney-Weir, Thomas; Spechtenhauser, Florian; Muller, Torsten; Piringer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    A common strategy in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is to rank alternative solutions by weighted summary scores. Weights, however, are often abstract to the decision maker and can only be set by vague intuition. While previous work supports a point-wise exploration of weight spaces, we argue that MCDM can benefit from a regional and global visual analysis of weight spaces. Our main contribution is WeightLifter, a novel interactive visualization technique for weight-based MCDM that facilitates the exploration of weight spaces with up to ten criteria. Our technique enables users to better understand the sensitivity of a decision to changes of weights, to efficiently localize weight regions where a given solution ranks high, and to filter out solutions which do not rank high enough for any plausible combination of weights. We provide a comprehensive requirement analysis for weight-based MCDM and describe an interactive workflow that meets these requirements. For evaluation, we describe a usage scenario of WeightLifter in automotive engineering and report qualitative feedback from users of a deployed version as well as preliminary feedback from decision makers in multiple domains. This feedback confirms that WeightLifter increases both the efficiency of weight-based MCDM and the awareness of uncertainty in the ultimate decisions.

  4. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  5. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....

  7. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L.

    2013-01-01

    The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. This procedure results in the formation of a metal oxide layer to prevent corrosion. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid which exhibits excellent corrosion performance; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. The longtime military specification for the passivation of stainless steel was cancelled in favor of newer specifications which allow for the use of citric acid in place of nitric acid. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits that include increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and reduced operational costs. There have been few studies, however, to determine whether citric acid is an acceptable alternative for NASA and DoD. This paper details activities to date including development of the joint test plan, on-going and planned testing, and preliminary results.

  8. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.B. Rebak; J.H. Payer

    2006-01-01

    Alloy 22 (NO6022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nano-meters per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids

  9. A Passive Optical Location with Limited Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Fiala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We know active and passive methods of a location. This article deals only with a passive location of dynamic targets. The passive optics location is suitable just for tracking of targets with mean velocity which is limited by the hardware basis. The aim of this work is to recognize plasma, particles etc. It is possible to propose such kind of evaluation methods which improve the capture probability markedly. Suggested method is dealing with the short-distance evaluation of targets. We suppose the application of three independent principles how to recognize an object in a scanned picture. These principles use similar stochastic functions in order to evaluate an object location by means of simple mathematical operations. Methods are based on direct evaluation of picture sequence by the help of the histogram and frequency spectrum. We find out the probability of unidentified moving object in pictures. If the probability reaches a setting value we will get a signal.

  10. Passive heat removal characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Kwang; Kang, Hyung Seok; Yoon, Joo Hyun; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Cho, Bong Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A new advanced integral reactor of 330 MWt thermal capacity named SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is currently under development in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for multi-purpose applications. Modular once-through steam generator (SG) and self-pressurizing pressurizer equipped with wet thermal insulator and cooler are essential components of the SMART. The SMART provides safety systems such as Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS). In this study, a computer code for performance analysis of the PRHRS is developed by modeling relevant components and systems of the SMART. Using this computer code, a performance analysis of the PRHRS is performed in order to check whether the passive cooling concept using the PRHRS is feasible. The results of the analysis show that PRHRS of the SMART has excellent passive heat removal characteristics. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  11. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy. Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The monitoring will be directed at the absolute amount of used solar energy, the relative contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand in the Netherlands, and the average efficiency of passive solar energy systems. Based on a model of the total building stock the quantities to be monitored can be determined. The most important parameters in the model are: the window surface per orientation, the average U-value (heat transfer coefficient) of windows, the average ZTA-value (incoming solar radiation factor) of windows, and the presence of sun lounges and atriums

  12. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Graham S. [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Passive design principles (super insulation, airtight envelopes, elimination of thermal bridges, etc.) - pioneered in North America in the 70s and 80s and refined in Europe in the 90s have proven to be universally effective to significantly reduce heating and cooling loads. However, a single, rigid performance metric developed in Germany has led to limited uptake of passive building principles in many regions of the United States. It has also, in many cases, promoted some design decisions that had negative effects on economic feasibility and thermal comfort. This study's main objective is to validate (in a theoretical sense) verifiable, climate-specific passive standards and space conditioning criteria that retain ambitious, environmentally-necessary energy reduction targets and are economically feasible, such standards provide designers an ambitious but achievable performance target on the path to zero.

  13. A passive sampler for atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosjean, D.; Hisham, M.W.M.

    1992-01-01

    A simple, cost-effective passive sampler has been developed for the determination of atmospheric ozone. This passive sampler is based on a colorant which fades upon reaction with ozone, whose concentration can be determined by reflectance measurement of the color change. Direct, on-site measurements are possible, and no chemical analyses are needed. Sampler design and validation studies have been carried out and included quantitative determination of color change vs exposure time (1-8 days), color change vs. ozone concentration (30-350 ppb), and response to changes in sampler configuration that modify the passive sampling rate. With indigo carmine as the colorant, the detection limits are 30 ppb. day and 120 ppb. day using a plastic grid and Teflon filter, respectively, as diffusion barriers. Interferences from nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and peroxyacetyl nitrate are 15, 4 and 16%, respectively, thus resulting in a negligible bias when measuring ozone in ambient air

  14. High-order passive photonic temporal integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Wang, Chao; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José

    2010-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, an ultrafast photonic high-order (second-order) complex-field temporal integrator. The demonstrated device uses a single apodized uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and it is based on a general FBG design approach for implementing optimized arbitrary-order photonic passive temporal integrators. Using this same design approach, we also fabricate and test a first-order passive temporal integrator offering an energetic-efficiency improvement of more than 1 order of magnitude as compared with previously reported passive first-order temporal integrators. Accurate and efficient first- and second-order temporal integrations of ultrafast complex-field optical signals (with temporal features as fast as approximately 2.5ps) are successfully demonstrated using the fabricated FBG devices.

  15. Passivated emitters in silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Gruenbaum, P.E.; Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    In high-efficiency silicon solar cells with low metal contact coverage fractions and high bulk lifetimes, cell performance is often dominated by recombination in the oxide-passivated diffusions on the cell surface. Measurements of the emitter saturation current density, J o , of oxide-passivated, boron and phosphorus diffusions are presented, and from these measurements, the dependence of surface recombination velocity on dopant concentration was extracted. The lowest observed values of J o which are stable under UV light are given for both boron- and phosphorus-doped, oxide-passivated diffusions, for both textured and untextured surfaces. Contour plots which incorporate the above data have been applied to two types of backside-contact solar cells with large area (37.5 cm 2 ) and one-sun efficiencies up to 22.7%

  16. On the energetics of the walking gait of a human operator using a passive exoskeleton apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrovskii, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    We study the energy expenditures and the peak values of control torques which a human operator must apply in the process of exoskeleton displacement for various types of regular, plane, and single-support gaits. The obtained results allow us to estimate the performance of the passive exoskeleton apparatus.

  17. TEPSS - Technology Enhancement for Passive Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.; Slegers, W.J.M.; Boer, S.L. de; Huggenberger, M.; Lopez Jimenez, J.; Munoz-Cabo Gonzalez, J.L.; Reventos Puigjaner, F.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the TEPSS project was to make significant additions to the technology base of the European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The project focused on mixing and stratification phenomena in large water pools, passive decay heat removal from containments, and effects of aerosol deposition inside a passive heat exchanger. The PSI experimental facility LINX (Large-scale Investigation of Natural Circulation and Mixing) has been used to investigate venting of steam and steam-noncondensable gas mixtures into water pools. The test revealed that no significant steam bypass could be detected when injecting a mixture of steam or air and that mixing was very efficient. In addition to the tests, 3-D numerical computations and initial model development have been performed to study the behaviour of bubble plumes in water pools. The major part of the TEPSS project studied selective aspects of the response technology of modem pressure-suppression type containment designs and of passive-type decay heat removal systems. The work included an experimental phase using the large-scale experimental facility PANDA (Passive Nachwaermeabfuhr und Druckabbau), operated by PSI, where eight experiments successfully have been executed to test the performance of the ESBWR containment configuration. The PANDA tests have been analysed successfully using thermalhydraulic system analysis codes and 3-D CFD codes. The AIDA (Aerosol Impaction and Deposition Analysis) experimental facility of PSI has been used to investigate the degradation of passive decay heat removal due to fission product aerosols deposited on the inside surfaces of the PCC (Passive Containment Cooler) heat exchanger tubes. The one test performed revealed that the degradation of the heat transfer in the PCC tubes due to the deposition of aerosols reached about 20%. The test has been analysed using the MELCOR severe accident analysis code. (author)

  18. Fast New Method for Temporary Chemical Passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Solčanský

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main material parameter of silicon, that influences the effectiveness of photovoltaic cells, is the minority carrier bulk lifetime.It may change in the technological process especially during high temperature operations. Monitoring of the carrier bulk-lifetimeis necessary for modifying the whole technological process of production. For the measurement of the minority carrier bulk-lifetimethe characterization method MW PCD (Microwave Photoconductance Decay is used, where the result of measurement is the effectivecarrier lifetime, which is very dependent on the surface recombination velocity and therefore on the quality of a silicon surfacepassivation.This work deals with an examination of a different solution types for the chemical passivation of a silicon surface. Varioussolutions are tested on silicon wafers for their consequent comparison. The main purpose of this work is to find optimal solution, whichsuits the requirements of a time stability and start-up velocity of passivation, reproducibility of the measurements and a possibilityof a perfect cleaning of a passivating solution remains from a silicon surface. Another purpose of this work is to identify the parametersof other quinhydrone solutions with different concentrations as compared with the quinhydrone solution in methanol witha concentration of 0.07 mol/dm³ marked QM007 (referential solution.The method of an effective chemical passivation with a quinhydrone in methanol solution was suggested. The solution witha concentration of 0.07 mol /dm3 fulfills all required criteria. The work also confirms the influence of increased concentrationquinhydrone on the temporal stability of the passivation layer and the effect for textured silicon wafers. In conclusion, the influenceof an illumination and the temperature on the properties of the passivating solution QM007 is discussed.

  19. Passive remediation strategies for petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, L.G.; Cullen, S.J.; Eccles, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA is becoming increasingly aware of costs and the limited success of existing remediation strategies. Research teams within the US EPA believe that if passive remediation can be successfully demonstrated, it is a candidate for best available technology. Passive remediation, however, must be demonstrated through the use of monitoring techniques, which demonstrate: contaminants are not moving in the dissolved, adsorbed or free product phase; and contamination is biodegrading in-place. This paper presents a concise monitoring and analysis strategy for passive remediation. Specifically, the paper presents the accuracy, precision and operating range of neutron moderation techniques as a low cost, real-time screening tool to measure the migration of the dissolved phase in soil moisture, the stabilized adsorbed phase and free product movement. In addition, the paper identifies the capillary pressure range through which the dissolved phase will move and identifies techniques for satisfying the risk analysis that movement is not taking place. The rationale for passive remediation taking place is confirmed through a discussion of gas ratios associated with bacterial assimilation of hydrocarbons. Gas ratios which are relatively constant above ground are highly inverted in the subsurface at contamination sites. The use of frequent screening of a vertical geologic profile using least cost techniques and the infrequent analysis of soil gas ratios provides the required data upon which the public will accept passive remediation as best available technology at a particular site. The paper points out that neutron moderation is a high candidate vadose zone monitoring device and identifies alternative techniques using resistivity and dielectric constants, which are in the developmental stage. The economic implications for passive remediation are enormous relative to the excavation and remediation strategies which are currently in use

  20. Study on diverse passive decay heat removal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qian; Si Shengyi

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important principles for nuclear safety is the decay heat removal in accidents. Passive decay heat removal systems are extremely helpful to enhance the safety. In currently design of many advanced nuclear reactors, kinds of passive systems are proposed or developed, such as the passive residual heat removal system, passive injection system, passive containment cooling system. These systems provide entire passive heat removal paths from core to ultimate heat sink. Various kinds of passive systems for decay heat removal are summarized; their common features or differences on heat removal paths and design principle are analyzed. It is found that, these passive decay heat removal paths are similarly common on and connected by several basic heat transfer modes and steps. By the combinations or connections of basic modes and steps, new passive decay heat removal approach or diverse system can be proposed. (authors)