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Sample records for passive smoking damage

  1. Biomarkers of Induced Active and Passive Smoking Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to thewell-known link between smoking and lung cancer, large epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between smoking and cancers of the nose, oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney, stomach, liver, colon and cervix, as well as myeloid leukemia. Epidemiological evidence has reported a direct link between exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke and disease, most notably, lung cancer. Much evidence demonstrates that carcinogenic-DNA adducts are useful markers of tobacco smoke exposure, providing an integrated measurement of carcinogen intake, metabolic activation, and delivery to the DNA in target tissues. Monitoring accessible surrogate tissues, such as white blood cells or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells, also provides a means of investigating passive and active tobacco exposure in healthy individuals and cancer patients. Levels of DNA adducts measured in many tissues of smokers are significantly higher than in non-smokers. While some studies have demonstrated an association between carcinogenic DNA adducts and cancer in current smokers, no association has been observed in ex or never smokers. The role of genetic susceptibility in the development of smoking related-cancer is essential. In order to establish whether smoking-related DNA adducts are biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and/or its carcinogenic activity we summarized all data that associated tobacco smoke exposure and smoking-related DNA adducts both in controls and/or in cancer cases and studies where the effect of genetic polymorphisms involved in the activation and deactivation of carcinogens were also evaluated. In the future we hope we will be able to screen for lung cancer susceptibility by using specific biomarkers and that subjects of compared groups can be stratified for multiple potential modulators of biomarkers, taking into account various confounding factors.

  2. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  3. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  4. Health risks of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, C M; Stellman, S D

    1986-01-01

    Passive or involuntary smoking is the inhalation of smoke which escapes directly into the air from the lit end of a burning cigarette. This unfiltered smoke contains the same toxic components of the mainstream smoke inhaled directly by the smoker, including numerous carcinogens, many in greater concentrations. It has long been known that exposure to this type of smoke leads to increased respiratory and other adverse health conditions in non-smokers, especially children. During the past five years, evidence has been accumulating that risk of lung cancer is also higher, particularly in non-smoking women whose husbands smoke. Despite uncertainties and differences in interpretation of various cancer studies, there is ample justification for public health measures now in place or proposed, such as restriction or elimination of smoking in the workplace and in public places.

  5. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B; Mason, P A; Moffat, A C; King, L J; Marks, V

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  6. Illegal Passive Smoking at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Lesage

    2011-01-01

    Results. Ninety-five percent of a total group of 172 OP of Champagne county filled the postal questionnaire. More than 80% of OP's replies identified illegal PSW. The average prevalence of PSW exposure was 0.7% of the total working population. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS levels were considered between low and medium for most passive smokers (71%. Main features exposure to ETS at work for non-smokers was associated with female gender (69.5%, age between 40 and 49 years (41.2% and belonging to tertiary sector (75.6%. Environmental tobacco smoke exposures at work was firstly in the office for 49.7% of the subjects and secondly in the restroom for 18% of them. Main medical symptoms encountered by non-smokers were respiratory tractus irritation (81.7%. Eighty-three percent of OPs indicated solution to eradicate PSW. Illegal PSW is really weaker than fifteen years ago. However, the findings support a real ban on smoking in the workplace in order to protect all workers.

  7. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  8. [The consequences of passive smoking in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trédaniel, J; Savinelli, F; Vignot, S; Bousquet, G; Le Maignan, C; Misset, J-L

    2006-04-01

    Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation by a non-smoker of smoke generated in his neighbourhood by one or more smokers. The effect of this exposure is already generally recognised in children. In adults the induction of chronic obstructive lung disease has not been demonstrated. This is no longer the case for ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer where the effect of passive exposure of non-smokers to cigarette smoke is recognised. The biological plausibility together with the concordance of results obtained over successive years, as well as the large numbers of patients included in the studies, lead to a confident conclusion that the risks in adult non-smokers are increased by the order of 25%. There is no evidence that bias affects the conclusions reached and the World Health Organisation has recently classified passive smoking as being carcinogenic in man. As a result of these data prevention of passive exposure to cigarette smoke should be part of a larger framework of smoking prevention, especially among the young.

  9. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  10. [Interventions on the exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ting-ting; Chen, Xue-yun; Hu, De-wei; Mao, Zheng-zhong

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the extent of exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking; to undertake interventions on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those women toward passive smoking; and to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions. A total of 128 non-smoking pregnant women participated in the survey. Their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards passive smoking were measured by a self-administered questionnaire. A sixteen-week intervention was undertaken. The knowledge and attitudes of the non-smoking pregnant women towards passive smoking improved significantly, as well as their attempts to avoid exposure to the passive smoking brought by their smoking husbands or other family members. Telephone counseling, booklets and doctors' advices were the most acceptable approaches of health education. The comprehensive interventions are effective for improving the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of non-smoking women toward passive smoking.

  11. Assessing smoke damage. First report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, F; Hartig, W

    1957-06-01

    Briefly described are experiments comparing air pollution tests with rags impregnated with BaO, hung both in the tree tops and below the canopy of Spruce stands, with analyses of needles collected at the same points. S content of the atmosphere (expressed in mg H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ content of the rags) was, at equal distances, markedly greater above than below the closed canopy, suggesting that the tallest trees would suffer most. While absolute S content of needles (also expressed in mg H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) gave no indication of smoke damage, relative differences in S content between 1-year-old and 5-year-old needles proved to be a useful indication.

  12. The effects of taxes and bans on passive smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  13. The Effect of Taxes and Bans on Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  14. Active and Passive Smoking, Chronic Disease and Poverty in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Active and Passive Smoking, Chronic Disease and Poverty in China. The globalization ... The impending burden of tobacco-related chronic disease will be significant in a population of 1.3 billion. ... Center for Health Statistics and Information.

  15. What determines levels of passive smoking in children with asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, L.; Crombie, I. K.; Clark, R. A.; Slane, P. W.; Goodman, K. E.; Feyerabend, C.; Cater, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with parents who smoke are often exposed to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke, and children with asthma are particularly susceptible to the detrimental effects of passive smoking. Data were collected from parents who smoke and from their asthmatic children. The families are currently taking part in a randomised controlled trial to test an intervention designed to reduce passive smoking in children with asthma. This paper reports on the baseline data. Questionnaire data and cotinine levels were compared in an attempt to assess exposure and to identify factors which influence exposure of the children. The aim of the study was to identify the scope for a reduction in passive smoking by these children. METHODS: A sample of 501 families with an asthmatic child aged 2-12 years was obtained. Factors influencing passive smoking were assessed by interviewing parents. Cotinine levels were measured from saliva samples using gas liquid chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detection. RESULTS: Cotinine levels in children were strongly associated with the age of the child, the number of parents who smoked, contact with other smokers, the frequency of smoking in the same room as the child, and crowding within the home. Parental cotinine levels, the amount smoked in the home, and whether the home had a garden also exerted an independent effect on cotinine levels in the children. CONCLUSIONS: Many children are exposed to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke and their cotinine levels are heavily dependent upon proximity to the parent who smokes. Parents who smoke have a unique opportunity to benefit their child's health by modifying their smoking habits within the home. 


 PMID:9371205

  16. Passive smoking, Cyp1A1 gene polymorphism and dysmenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yang, Fan; Li, Zhiping; Chen, Changzhong; Fang, Zhian; Wang, Lihua; Hu, Yonghua; Chen, Dafang

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether the association between passive smoking exposure and dysmenorrhea is modified by two susceptibility genes, CYP1A1MspI and CYP1A1HincII. Methods This report includes 1645 (1124 no dysmenorrhea, 521 dysmenorrhea) nonsmoking and nondrinking newly wed female workers at Anqing, China between June 1997 and June 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of passive smoking exposure and genetic susceptibility with dysmenorrhea, adjusting for perceived stress. Results When stratified by women genotype, the adjusted OR of dysmenorrhea was 1.6 (95%CI=1.3-2.1) for passive smoking group with Ile/Ile462 genotype, and 1.5 (95%CI=1.1-2.1) with C/C6235 genotype, compared to non passive smoking group, respectively. The data further showed that there was a significant combined effect between passive smoking and the CYP1A1 Msp1 C/C6235 and HincII Ile/Ile462 genotype (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.3-5.2). Conclusion CYP1A1 MspI and HincII genotypes modified the association between passive smoking and dysmenorrhea. PMID:17566695

  17. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  18. Increased oxidative stress in preschool children exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Faruk; Sermetow, Kabil; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on plasma oxidative and antioxidative status in passive smoking preschool children and to compare them with controls. Thirty-four passive smoking (five to 50 cigarettes per day) preschool children (study group) and 32 controls who had never been exposed to cigarette smoke were randomly chosen from children aged from 4 to 6 years. Urinary cotinine and plasma indicators of oxidative and antioxidative status, i.e., total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), were determined. Mean environmental cigarette consumption was 22±13 cigarettes per day in passive smoking children. Mean urinary cotinine levels were 77.6±41.4 ng/mL and 11.9±2.3 ng/mL in the study and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean plasma TAC levels were 0.95±0.13 mmol Trolox equivalent/L and 1.01±0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent/L, respectively (p = 0.039). Mean plasma TOS levels were 28.6±7.9 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L and 18.5±6.3 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean OSI levels were 3.08±0.98 arbitrary units and 1.84±0.64 arbitrary units, respectively (p < 0.001). A small amount of cigarette smoke (five to 10 cigarettes per day) causes considerable oxidative stress. There were significant correlations between number of cigarettes consumed and oxidant status and OSI levels. Passive smoke is a potent oxidant in preschool children. Its deleterious effects are not limited just to heavy passive smoking, but also occur with exposure to small amounts of smoke.

  19. Obstetric and perinatal effects of active and/or passive smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Alexandre, Sandra Maria; Kuhn dos Santos, Jorge Francisco; de Souza, Eduardo; Sass, Nelson; Auritscher Beck, Anna Paula; Trayna, Evelyn; Andrade, Carla Maria de Araújo; Barroso, Teresa; Kulay Júnior, Luiz

    2004-05-06

    Cigarette smoke, whether inhaled voluntarily or not, causes damage to the mother-infant pair. The antenatal period may present the best opportunity for performing effective anti-smoking campaigns. To study the obstetric and perinatal effects of smoking on pregnancy and the infant. Prospective study, interviewing pregnant women who were randomly selected at the maternity hospital as they were being discharged after giving birth. Hospital Municipal Vereador José Storópolli, São Paulo, Brazil. 758 patients were interviewed regarding smoke inhalation before being discharged from the maternity hospital. The groups were formed by 42 active smokers, 272 passive smokers, 108 who inhaled smoke both actively and passively, and 336 non-smokers. The groups were compared regarding age, parity, school education, incidence of spontaneous abortion, rate of caesarian births, average gestational age at birth, rate of low birth weight and adequacy of weight in relation to the gestational age of newborn infants. For all variables we considered p active, 35.9% passive and 14.3% active-passive smokers. Active and active-passive smokers were older and had higher parity. Active smokers had lower education levels and higher rates of previous spontaneous abortion. The weights of newborn babies were lower for smoking mothers. The study was performed among patients that were mostly of low economic, social and cultural levels, thus possibly explaining the high incidence of smokers. Worse still was that 35.9% of the non-smokers were actually passive smokers. These rates we report were similar to those from the literature. The typical receptiveness of teenage girls to unrestricted advertising in the media contributes towards an early start to acquiring the habit of smoking, including during pregnancy in our country. We emphasize the difficulties in quantifying exposure to cigarettes even among active smokers. Cigarette smoke, whether inhaled voluntarily or not, has an unfavorable effect on

  20. Passive smoking at work: The short-term cost

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, TH; McGhee, SM; Adab, P; Hedley, AJ; Ho, LM; Fielding, R; Wong, CM

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To estimate the impact of passive smoking at work on use of health care services and absenteeism.
DESIGN—Cross sectional survey.
SETTING—A workforce in Hong Kong.
PARTICIPANTS—5142 never-smoking police officers in a total sample of 9926.
MAIN RESULTS—A consistently strong association was found among men between length of time exposed to passive smoking at work and self reported consultations with a doctor, use of medicines and time off work. Results for women were similar but ...

  1. Determinants of passive smoking in children in Edinburgh, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Strachan, D P; Feyerabend, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Using saliva cotinine as a quantitative marker, we examined the contribution of factors other than parental smoking to children's passive exposure to tobacco smoke. METHODS. Saliva specimens from a random sample of 734 7-year-old schoolchildren in Edinburgh, Scotland, were analyzed for cotinine. Their parents completed a questionnaire covering smoking habits and conditions in the home. RESULTS. A number of independent predictors of cotinine were identified in addition to the main one of smoking by household members. These predictors included home ownership, social class, day of the week, season of the year, number of parents present, crowding in the home, the number of children in the household, and sex. Cotinine was higher in children from less advantaged backgrounds, during winter, on Mondays, in girls, and when fewer other children were present. The effects were similar between children from nonsmoking and smoking homes. CONCLUSIONS. Questionnaire measures of parental smoking are insufficient to fully characterize young children's exposure to passive smoking. Because socioeconomic variables contribute to measured exposure, passive-smoking studies that treat class as a confounder and control for it may be overcontrolling. PMID:1503162

  2. Preterm newborns show slower repair of oxidative damage and paternal smoking associated DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Loock, Kim; Ciardelli, Roberta; Decordier, Ilse; Plas, Gina; Haumont, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2012-09-01

    Newborns have to cope with hypoxia during delivery and a sudden increase in oxygen at birth. Oxygen will partly be released as reactive oxygen species having the potential to cause damage to DNA and proteins. In utero, increase of most (non)-enzymatic antioxidants occurs during last weeks of gestation, making preterm neonates probably more sensitive to oxidative stress. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that oxidative stress might be the common etiological factor for certain neonatal diseases in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to assess background DNA damage; in vitro H(2)O(2) induced oxidative DNA damage and repair capacity (residual DNA damage) in peripheral blood mononucleated cells from 25 preterm newborns and their mothers. In addition, demographic data were taken into account and repair capacity of preterm was compared with full-term newborns. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that preterm infants from smoking fathers have higher background DNA damage levels than those from non-smoking fathers, emphasizing the risk of paternal smoking behaviour for the progeny. Significantly higher residual DNA damage found after 15-min repair in preterm children compared to their mothers and higher residual DNA damage after 2 h compared to full-term newborns suggest a slower DNA repair capacity in preterm children. In comparison with preterm infants born by caesarean delivery, preterm infants born by vaginal delivery do repair more slowly the in vitro induced oxidative DNA damage. Final impact of passive smoking and of the slower DNA repair activity of preterm infants need to be confirmed in a larger study population combining transgenerational genetic and/or epigenetic effects, antioxidant levels, genotypes, repair enzyme efficiency/levels and infant morbidity.

  3. Evaluation of exposure to carbon monoxide associated with passive smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, W.-K.; Oh, J.-W.; Dong, J.-I.

    2004-01-01

    The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background breath CO levels after 30 min of exposure, yet only slightly higher after 10 min of exposure, thereby confirming that exposure to CO from passive smoking causes a significant body burden of CO. The air CO concentration gradually increased during the burning of a cigarette(s), regardless of the exposure duration, whereas it slightly decreased after burning. However, the pattern of breath CO decay was similar for the two different types of exposure (during and after a cigarette(s)) in each subject. The decrease in the postexposure alveolar CO concentrations was slow even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a monocompartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives (78-277 min) estimated in the present study were comparable to those reported in previous studies associated with CO exposure from active smoking or other activities. The current study also evaluated the CO exposure of visitors and workers at three different types of recreation facility (bars, Internet cafes, and billiard halls) typically associated with passive smoking. The results confirmed that passive smoking is the major contributor to the CO exposure of nonsmoking visitors in a recreation environment. In addition, workplace exposure to CO from passive smoking was found to be the most important contributor to the daily CO exposure of nonsmoking recreation workers

  4. Effects of passive smoking on health of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, G.B. Jr.; Ware, J.H.; Berkey, C.S.; Dockery, D.W.; Spiro, A. III; Speizer, F.E.

    1985-10-01

    Analysis of data on the effects of passive smoking obtained in preadolescent children from the Harvard Six-Cities Study demonstrates an exposure-response relationship between the number of smokers in the household and the reporting rates for doctor-diagnosed respiratory illness before age 2, history of bronchitis, wheeze most days and nights apart from colds, and a composite of symptoms defined as the lower respiratory index. Similarly, when only the amount currently smoked by the mother was used, the data indicated a relatively uniform increase in each of the reported diseases and symptoms. FEV/sub 1/ was lower in children with smoking mothers compared to children of nonsmoking mothers. Rate of increases in FEV/sub 1/ after adjusting for normal growth was significantly smaller in children of smoking mothers and was related also to amount smoked. Although children of smoking mothers were shorter on the average than children of nonsmoking mothers, no on-going passive smoking effect on height growth can be ascertained. All these differences are small and their medical significance remains to be defined.

  5. Increased oxidative stress in infants exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of passive cigarette smoking on the oxidative and anti-oxidative status of plasma in infants. Eighty-four infants aged 6-28 weeks were divided into two groups: the study group included infants who had been exposed to passive smoking via at least five cigarettes per day for at least the past 6 weeks at home, while the control group included infants who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma was assessed by the measurement of individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, thiol contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC 1 and TAC 2). Oxidative status was assessed by the determination of total peroxide levels and the oxidative stress index (OSI 1 and OSI 2). Plasma vitamin C, thiol concentration and TAC 1 and TAC 2 levels were significantly lower, whereas plasma total peroxide levels and OSI 1 and OSI 2 were significantly higher, in passive smoking infants than in the controls (Pantioxidant defence system in infants, and exposes them to potent oxidative stress.

  6. Nose and throat complications associated with passive smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess associations between nose-throat (NT) diseases and passive smoking prevalence among school children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a randomized multistage sample of 381 school children (50.9% males, aged 9.8 ± 3.5 years) from Kinshasa town. Parents and children were ...

  7. The effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on serum lipid profile in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    j Rahmani Kahnamoei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Passive cigarette smoke contains five times more carbon monoxide and six times more nicotine compared to the main smoke because cigarette filter has a protective role for smokers. Cigarette smoke contains a range of oxidants and free radicals that can directly or indirectly induce oxidative stress in the body. Adding some aromatic ingredients to cigarette may play an important role in increasing damage and free radicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on serum lipid profile in rats. For this purpose, 16 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups of eight rats, control and treatment. There was no intervention in the control group, but treatment group was exposed to a cigarette passive smoke on a daily basis for a month. After a month, the rat tail vein blood samples were taken and after separation of the sera, serum lipid profiles, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL was measured and the results were statistically analyzed using t-test. There was a significant (p

  8. Biomarkers of passive smoking among Greek preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristeidis M; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Balomenaki, Evaggelia; Linardakis, Manolis K; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2006-12-01

    Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence in the European Union, affecting not only those who smoke but also threatening the health of those who are involuntarily exposed to passive smoke, especially young Greek children. The aim of this study was to quantify passive smoking biomarkers (serum nicotine and cotinine levels) among preschool children in Crete in relation to parental smoking habits. All children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete (1,757 preschool children and 2,809 parents) were interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan health promotion programme out of which a sample of 81 children was randomly selected according to parental smoking status and blood samples for cotinine and nicotine assay were taken. The geometric means of serum nicotine values in children with both parents current smokers and in those with both parents non-smokers were 0.71 ng/ml (95%CI 0.62, 0.80) and 0.59 ng/ml (95%CI 0.49, 0.69), respectively, (p=0.073). Cotinine geometric mean values were found at 1.69 ng/ml (95%CI 0.93, 3.06) and 0.15 ng/ml (95%CI 0.09, 0.28), respectively, (pparents had also greater cotinine geometric mean values than boys (3.35 versus 0.85 ng/ml, respectively, p=0.018). Our findings prove that Greek preschool children, especially young girls, are exposed to substantial levels of passive smoke which therefore stresses the need for immediate action so as to prevent the predisposition and early addiction of Greek preschool children to tobacco.

  9. Obstetric and perinatal effects of active and/or passive smoking during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Uchiyama Nakamura

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Cigarette smoke, whether inhaled voluntarily or not, causes damage to the mother-infant pair. The antenatal period may present the best opportunity for performing effective anti-smoking campaigns. OBJECTIVE: To study the obstetric and perinatal effects of smoking on pregnancy and the infant. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study, interviewing pregnant women who were randomly selected at the maternity hospital as they were being discharged after giving birth. SETTING: Hospital Municipal Vereador José Storópolli, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 758 patients were interviewed regarding smoke inhalation before being discharged from the maternity hospital. The groups were formed by 42 active smokers, 272 passive smokers, 108 who inhaled smoke both actively and passively, and 336 non-smokers. The groups were compared regarding age, parity, school education, incidence of spontaneous abortion, rate of caesarian births, average gestational age at birth, rate of low birth weight and adequacy of weight in relation to the gestational age of newborn infants. For all variables we considered p < 0.05 as statistically significant. RESULTS: There was a high rate (55.7% of pregnant smokers, including 5.5% active, 35.9% passive and 14.3% active-passive smokers. Active and active-passive smokers were older and had higher parity. Active smokers had lower education levels and higher rates of previous spontaneous abortion. The weights of newborn babies were lower for smoking mothers. DISCUSSION: The study was performed among patients that were mostly of low economic, social and cultural levels, thus possibly explaining the high incidence of smokers. Worse still was that 35.9% of the non-smokers were actually passive smokers. These rates we report were similar to those from the literature. The typical receptiveness of teenage girls to unrestricted advertising in the media contributes towards an early start to acquiring the habit of smoking, including during pregnancy

  10. Passive smoking is associated with poor asthma control during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Pernille A; Janner, Julie H; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Asthma and tobacco exposure is common among pregnant women. We investigated the effect of passive and active smoking on asthma control during pregnancy. METHODS: Prospective observational design. Patients had their asthma control, based on symptoms, use of medication, spirometry......, and exhaled nitric oxide [FENO], assessed every four weeks during 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy; data on tobacco exposure were also collected prospectively. The primary outcome was episodes of uncontrolled and partly controlled asthma during pregnancy (defined according to GINA-guidelines). RESULTS......: A total of 500 pregnant women with asthma (mean age 30.8 years, range 17 to 44) were consecutively included, of whom 32 (6.4%), 115 (23.0%) and 353 (70.6%), respectively, were current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers [NS]. Sixty-five NS (18.4%) reported passive tobacco exposure. NS with passive...

  11. Influence of passive smoking on learning in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Juliana Gomes; Botelho, Clóvis; Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Moi, Gisele Pedroso

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the association between household smoking and the development of learning in elementary schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study with 785 students from the 2nd to the 5th year of elementary school. Students were evaluated by the School Literacy Screening Protocol to identify the presence of learning disabilities. Mothers/guardians were interviewed at home through a validated questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate analysis, as well as multivariate Poisson regression, were performed. In the final model, the variables associated with learning difficulties were current smoking at the household in the presence of the child (PR=6.10, 95% CI: 4.56 to 8.16), maternal passive smoking during pregnancy (PR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.01), students attending the 2nd and 3rd years of Elementary School (PR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.90), and being children of mothers with only elementary level education (PR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.79). The study demonstrated an association between passive exposure to tobacco smoke and learning difficulties at school. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available The role of passive smoking on breast cancer risk was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk among Chinese women.A hospital-based case-control study, including 877 breast cancer cases and 890 controls, frequency-matched by age and residence, was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on passive smoking history through face-to-face interview by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. A positive association between any passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk was observed. Compared with women who were never exposed to passive smoking, women who were ever exposed had a higher breast cancer risk, with the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.35 (1.11-1.65. Similar result was found on home passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk, but not on workplace passive smoking exposure. Women who were ever exposed to tobacco smoke at home had a higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed women, with the adjusted OR (95% CI of 1.30 (1.05-1.61. Home passive smoking exposure showed significant dose-response relationships with breast cancer risk in smoker-years, cigarettes/day and total pack-years (Ptrend=0.003, 0.006 and 0.009, respectively. An increased total smoker-years of any passive exposure significantly elevated the risk of breast cancer (Ptrend<0.001. Positive associations and dose-response relationships were found among postmenopausal women and all subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR status of breast cancer.Passive smoking was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. A stronger positive association with breast cancer risk was seen mainly among postmenopausal women.

  13. Association between passive smoking and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with household TB contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaily Zuliartha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tuberculosis (TB and cigarette consumption are relatively high in Indonesia. Passive smoking may increase the risk of infection and disease in adults and children exposed to TB. An association between passive smoking and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children has not been well documented. Objective To assess for an association between passive smoking and M. tuberculosis infection in children who had household contact with a TB patient. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2011. Children aged 5 to 18 years who had household contact with a TB patient underwent tuberculin testing for M. tuberculosis infection. Subjects were divided into two groups: those exposed to passive smoke and those not exposed to passive smoke. Chi-square test was used to assess for an association between passive smoking and M. tuberculosis infection. Results There were 140 children enrolled in this study, with 70 exposed to passive smoke and 70 not exposed to passive smoke. Prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection was significantly higher in the passive smoking group than in those not exposed to passive smoke [81.4% and 52.9%, respectively, (P= 0.0001]. In the passive smoking group there were significant associations between nutritional state, paternal and maternal education, and M. tuberculosis infection. But no associations were found between M. tuberculosis infection and familial income or BCG vaccination. Conclusion Among children who had household contact with a TB patient, they who exposed to passive smoke are more likely to have M. tuberculosis infection compared to they who not exposed to passive smoke.

  14. Smoking habits, exposure to passive smoking and attitudes to a non-smoking policy among hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, F; Gambi, A; Bergamaschi, A; Gentilini, F; De Luca, G; Monti, C; Stampi, S

    1998-01-01

    A survey was carried out into the smoking habits and exposure to passive smoking among health staff in the hospitals of Faenza, Forli and Rimini (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy), 2453 subjects answered anonymously a 41 question questionnaire. 53% of the subjects were professionals nurses, 16% doctors, 15% maintenance staff, 10% ancillary staff, 1% non-medical graduates, 2% were administrators and 3% were assigned to the category ¿other'. Of the subjects answering the questionnaire 39% were smokers, 19% ex-smokers and 42% non smokers. The highest number of smokers was found among women (41%) compared to men (37%) and among ancillary staff (48%) compared to nurses (41%) and doctors (31%). The males were mostly heavy smokers (> or = 20 cigarettes/d) and smoked strong cigarettes (> or = 12 mg/cig condensate content). The females were mostly light smokers (< 10 cigarettes/d) and smoked light cigarettes (1-6 mg/cig condensate content). A high percentage of subjects (87%) smoked at work especially in areas reserved for staff. 43% and 26% of shift workers and non-shift workers tended not to modify their habit when on morning or afternoon shifts. During night shifts the majority of them increased their tobacco consumption. Around 87% of hospital employees stated they were exposed to passive smoking inside the hospital especially in cooking areas, at information desks and corridors. Nurses, ancillaries and maintenance staff were those most exposed and for a greater number of hours per day compared to doctors. Almost all subjects were aware of the harm caused by passive smoking. 56% of smokers, 65% of ex-smokers and 72% of non smokers said they were willing to participate in future campaigns to limit smoking in their hospitals.

  15. Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Passive Smoking on Hearing Impairment: Data from a Population–Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiwon; Ryou, Namhyung; Jun, Hyung Jin; Hwang, Soon Young; Song, Jae-Jun; Chae, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of both active and passive smoking on the prevalence of the hearing impairment and the hearing thresholds in different age groups through the analysis of data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Study Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods The KNHANES is an ongoing population study that started in 1998. We included a total of 12,935 participants aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES, from 2010 to 2012, in the present study. Pure-tone audiometric (PTA) testing was conducted and the frequencies tested were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Smoking status was categorized into three groups; current smoking group, passive smoking group and non-smoking group. Results In the current smoking group, the prevalence of speech-frequency bilateral hearing impairment was increased in ages of 40−69, and the rate of high frequency bilateral hearing impairment was elevated in ages of 30−79. When we investigated the impact of smoking on hearing thresholds, we found that the current smoking group had significantly increased hearing thresholds compared to the passive smoking group and non-smoking groups, across all ages in both speech-relevant and high frequencies. The passive smoking group did not have an elevated prevalence of either speech-frequency bilateral hearing impairment or high frequency bilateral hearing impairment, except in ages of 40s. However, the passive smoking group had higher hearing thresholds than the non-smoking group in the 30s and 40s age groups. Conclusion Current smoking was associated with hearing impairment in both speech-relevant frequency and high frequency across all ages. However, except in the ages of 40s, passive smoking was not related to hearing impairment in either speech-relevant or high frequencies. PMID:26756932

  16. Actual implications of industrial smoke damage to forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieger, E

    1955-01-01

    General problems of smoke-induced damages, diagnosis, and control methods are reviewed. Damages caused by etching of leaves and needles are mostly of an acute and local character. Damages due to disturbed assimilation, caused primarily by sulfur dioxide, are of the greatest importance economically. Sulfur dioxide is less harmful in winter and during night hours. Acids and sulfur dioxide both turn the soil acid, and affect the edaphon. Such damages are primarily of chronic character. Different diagnostic methods such as plant, soil, and air analyses should be combined to obtain reliable results. Due to the complexity of the processes involved in smoke damages, biological tests are best in diagnosis. The sunlight test exploits the fact that branches cut from smoke-damaged trees lose their needles more readily than such from intact trees. Haertels turbidity test is based on the increased wax secretion by smoke-damaged needles. The appraisal of damages is made by evaluation of the economic losses after the limitation of the smoke-affected area. The possible control measures in forestry are the breeding of smoke-resistant species and liming, while the pollution control techniques presently available in industry are unsatisfactory, the major problems being caused by sulfur dioxide. Standardization of thresholds and maximum allowable concentrations, as well as cooperation of forestry and industries are imperative. 12 references.

  17. Association Between Passive Smoking and the Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 1 in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Jin Min

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of passive smoking on cervical carcinogenesis remains controversial. We investigated the association of passive smoking with the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer. Methods: The study recruited 1,322 women, aged 18–65 with normal cytology (n = 592, CIN1 (n = 420, CIN2/3 (n = 165, and cervical cancer (n = 145 from 2006 to 2009. This study is a cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data from the Korean human papillomavirus (HPV cohort study. Detailed information on smoking behaviors and lifestyles were collected using questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs. Results: Passive smoking was not statistically related to the risk of CINs and cervical cancer. However, passive smoking among non-smokers was associated with higher CIN 1 risk (OR 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–2.18, compared to not passive smoking, after adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyles, and oncogenic-HPV infection status. CIN 1 risk increased with longer time exposed to passive smoking (P for trend <0.0003. Multivariate odds of <2 hours/day of passive smoking and that of ≥2 hours/day of passive smoking were 2.48 (95% CI, 1.49–4.14 and 2.28 (95% CI, 1.21–4.26 for CIN 1, compared to not passive smoking. Conclusions: This study found that passive smoking among non-smoking women is associated with the risk of CIN 1.

  18. Sustainability of the prevention of passive infant smoking within well-baby clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, MR; Verlaan, M; Willemsen, MC; van Soelen, P; Reijneveld, SA; Sing, RAH; Paulussen, TGWA

    This study assessed the antecedents of continued use of an education program to prevent passive smoking in infants. It consists of a booklet for parents and a manual for health professionals describing a five-step procedure for discussing passive smoking. A questionnaire was sent to 67 managers, 670

  19. Sustainability of the prevention of passive infant smoking within well-baby clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.; Verlaan, M.; Willemsen, M.C.; Soelen, P. van; Reijneveld, S.A.; Sing, R.A.H.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the antecedents of continued use of an education program to prevent passive smoking in infants. It consists of a booklet for parents and a manual for health professionals describing a five-step procedure for discussing passive smoking. Aquestionnairewas sent to 67 managers, 670

  20. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T

    2011-01-01

    and body fat percentage were measured and 96.7% (n = 15,038) of the participants answered a self-reported questionnaire with information on passive smoking, other lifestyle factors, education, etc. The association between passive smoking and BMD was examined using multiple linear regression analysis...... in their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study included...

  1. DNA damage response in monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Francesca; Carotti, Daniela; Andreoli, Cristina; Siniscalchi, Ester; Leopardi, Paola; Caiola, Stefania; Biffoni, Mauro; Zijno, Andrea; Medda, Emanuela; Nisticò, Lorenza; Rossi, Sabrina; Crebelli, Riccardo

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies in twins indicate that non-shared environment, beyond genetic factors, contributes substantially to individual variation in mutagen sensitivity; however, the role of specific causative factors (e.g. tobacco smoke, diet) was not elucidated. In this investigation, a population of 22 couples of monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits was selected with the aim of evaluating the influence of tobacco smoke on individual response to DNA damage. The study design virtually eliminated the contribution of genetic heterogeneity to the intra-pair variation in DNA damage response, and thus any difference in the end-points investigated could directly be attributed to the non-shared environment experienced by co-twins, which included as main factor cigarette smoke exposure. Peripheral lymphocytes of study subjects were challenged ex vivo with γ-rays, and the induction, processing, fixation of DNA damage evaluated through multiple approaches. Folate status of study subjects was considered significant covariate since it is affected by smoking habits and can influence radiosensitivity. Similar responses were elicited by γ-rays in co-twins for all the end-points analysed, despite their discordant smoking habits. Folate status did not modify DNA damage response, even though a combined effect of smoking habits, low-plasma folic acid level, and ionising radiation was observed on apoptosis. A possible modulation of DNA damage response by duration and intensity of tobacco smoke exposure was suggested by Comet assay and micronucleus data, but the effect was quantitatively limited. Overall, the results obtained indicate that differences in smoking habits do not contribute to a large extent to inter-individual variability in the response to radiation-induced DNA damage observed in healthy human populations.

  2. The impact of active and passive peer influence on young adult smoking: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-03-01

    Peers influence adolescent and young adult smoking, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. It is necessary to understand whether the current assumption of peer pressure is valid, or whether an alternative explanation as imitation is more appropriate. We examined whether passive (imitation) and/or active (pressure) peer influence affects young adult smoking. An experiment was conducted among 68 daily-smoking students aged 16-24. The actual study aim was masked. Participants had to do a 30-min music task with a confederate. The experiment consisted of a 2 (smoking condition: confederate smokes or not) by 2 (pressure condition: confederate offers the participant a cigarette or not) factorial design, resulting in four conditions: (1) no smoking and no pressure (N=15); (2) smoking but no pressure (N=16); (3) pressure but no smoking (N=20); and (4) smoking and pressure (N=17). The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during this music assignment. Peer smoking significantly predicted the total number of cigarettes smoked by young adults while peer pressure did not. The interaction effect of peer pressure and peer smoking was not significant. Peer pressure did not have a significant additional contribution, over and above smoking of the peer. Passive (imitation) peer influence affected young adult smoking rather than active (pressure) peer influence. Thus, smoking cessation efforts should aim at preventing interaction with smoking peers and raising awareness about its impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Smoking behaviour in young families. Do parents take practical measures to prevent passive smoking by the children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, W; Bruusgaard, D

    1995-12-01

    To investigate smoking behaviour in young families. Cross-sectional study. Mother and child health centres in Oslo, Norway. The families of 1,046 children attending the health centres for 6-weeks-, 2- or 4- year well child visits. Daily smoking, smoking quantity and practical measures taken by the parents to prevent passive smoking among the children as assessed by parental reports. In 48% of the families at least one adult was smoking. 33% of the smoking parents smoked more than ten cigarettes per day. 47% of the smoking families reported that they did not smoke indoors. The parents were less likely to smoke if they were more than 35 years of age, had a child aged less than one year, had a spouse/co-habitee or had a long education. Smoking parents smoked less if they had a spouse/co-habitee, had a child aged less than one year or had few children. Smoking parents were more often careful and did not smoke indoors if they had a child aged less than one year, had a spouse/co-habitee, did not have a smoking spouse/co-habitee or smoked a low number of cigarettes per day.

  4. meta-analysis of the Relationship between Passive Smoking Population in China and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui ZHAO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Studies of passive smoking exposure in China however are of particular interest, because of the high lung cancer rate in people who are mostly non-smokers. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between passive smoking and lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese. Methods By searching Medline, PubMed, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, CBM, CNKI and VIP, et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents between 1987 and 2007 on passive smoking and lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct meta-analysis on the case control study results, and the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results Sixteen documents were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that there was statistical significance between passive smoking and lung cancer (OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.05-1.21, P=0.001. It was significant of lung cancer among non-smoking subjects associated with amount of tobacco passively smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily, with life period in adulthood passive smoking exposure, with gender female, and with exposure to workplace. The P value, OR and 95%CI were P=0.000 3, OR=1.78, 95%CI: 1.30-2.43; P=0.000 1, OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.23-1.83; P=0.000 7, OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.19-1.90; P<0.000 1, OR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.19-1.66; respectively. And there was no significant difference between passive smoking and lung cancer with amount of tobacco passively smoked within 20 cigarettes daily, with life period in childhood passive smoking exposure, with gender male and with exposure to spouse and parents. Conclusion Passive smoking is an important risk factor of lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese, and for non-smoking women who expose to environment tobacco smoke in a long period of time have a close relationship with lung cancer risk.

  5. Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-07-01

    It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers. To examine the acute effects of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on selected redox status markers. Using a randomized single-blind crossover design, 30 participants (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) were exposed to three different experimental conditions. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session (smoked 2 cigarettes within 30-min) and an active e-cigarette smoking session (smoked a pre-determined number of puffs within 30-min using a liquid with 11 ng/ml nicotine). Similarly, nonsmokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to 23 ± 1 ppm of CO in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber) and a passive e-cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to air enriched with pre- determined number of puffs in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed in participants' blood prior to, immediately after, and 1-h post-exposure. TAC, CAT and GSH remained similar to baseline levels immediately after and 1-h-post exposure (p > 0.05) in all trials. Tobacco and e-cigarette smoking exposure do not acutely alter the response of the antioxidant system, neither under active nor passive smoking conditions. Overall, there is not distinction between tobacco and e-cigarette active and passive smoking effects on specific redox status indices.

  6. Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: urinalysis and room air levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cone, E.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Darwin, W.D.; Yousefnejad, D.; Mell, L.D.; Paul, B.D.; Mitchell, J.

    1987-01-01

    In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens

  7. Smoke damages of forest from the biologic standpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisser, J

    1966-01-01

    Biological aspects of smoke damages are reviewed with special regard to forests. Due to the long exposures, smoke is more harmful to forests than to farm plants. Invisible physiological damages due to protoplasm lesions are counteracted by the regenerative effect of certain enzyme systems. Insoluble solid emissions reduce both light and assimilation, while soluble particles may penetrate into the plant or the soil, causing changes in the vegetation. Damage caused by soot and photochemical smog are detailed. Sulfur dioxide and hydrofluoric acid are two basic gaseous pollutants damaging forests. The importance of the damage is primarily determined by concentration and duration of exposure, with emphasis on concentration. In high concentrations, the substances are dissolved in the mesophyll cell wall fluid, causing point-like necroses. Low concentrations lead to necroses on the ends and edges of leaves and needles. The damages are also influenced by climatic factors. The transpiration and consequently the sensitivity for SO/sub 2/ are dependent of the relative humidity. Sharp increase in sensitivity can be observed from 60% to 90% relative humidity. There is no direct connection between transpiration rate and assimilation performance. High transpiration coefficients are characteristic of dry climates. There is no relation between transpiration and sensitivity, while any factor affecting the cuticular openings influences the extent of the damage. The resistance to smoke cannot be improved in forests by means of fertilizers. Different resistances of various species as well as problems of breeding smoke-resistant species are discussed.

  8. Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D.; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: \\ud \\ud It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers.\\ud \\ud OBJECTIVE: \\ud \\ud To examine the acute effects of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on selected redox status markers.\\ud \\ud METHODS: \\ud \\ud Using a randomized sing...

  9. Sources of fatigue damage to passive yaw wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laino, D.J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Using an integrated computer analysis approach developed at the University of Utah, fatigue damage sources to passive yaw wind turbine blades have been investigated. Models of a rigid hub and teetering hub machine reveal the parameters important to the fatigue design of each type. The teetering hub proved much less susceptible to fatigue damage from normal operation loads. As a result, extreme events were critical to the teetering hub fatigue life. The rigid hub blades experienced extremely large gyroscopic load cycles induced by rapid yaw rates during normal operation. These yaw rates stem from turbulence activity which is shown to be dependent upon atmospheric stability. Investigation revealed that increasing yaw damping is an effective way of significantly reducing these gyroscopic fatigue loads.

  10. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a PDF version of the Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking report and also a pdf version of an overview of progress made in reducing exposure to secondsmoke in the past 25 years.

  11. [The current status of passive smoking in Chinese families and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Ping; Xu, Xue-Fang; Ma, Shao-Jun; Mei, Cui-Zhu; Wang, Jun-Fang; Chen, Ai-Ping; Yang, Gong-Huan

    2008-03-01

    To understand the prevalence of passive smoking in Chinese families and discuss its associated factors, as to providing scientific evidence for establishing tobacco control measures in China. Cross-sectional survey: from June to September, 2004, we randomly selected six counties in three different provinces ( Mianzhu and Xichong of Sichuan Province; Anyi and Hukou of Jiangxi Province; Xinan and Yanshi of Henan Province) and performed face-to-face questionnaire survey on citizens between 18 and 69 years old. All the data were double independently input by professional data entry company to ensure data accuracy. The prevalence of home passive smoking exposure in families with different demographic characteristics was described by using prevalence, and the possible correlated factors of home passive smoking exposure as independent variables, multiple factors were analyzed using Logistic Stepwise Regression Analysis method. The analysis on 8142 nonsmokers revealed that the rate of passive smoking was 28.42%, with 27.38% of male and 28.93% of female suffering from passive smoking. All 87.19% of the smokers would smoke in front of their families. As many as 42.14% of the nonsmokers would offer cigarettes to their guests, while about 46.82% of the nonsmokers would suggest smokers to smoke outdoor. Home restriction on tobacco was extremely rare and only 6.33% of all the families completely forbade smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of non-conditions revealed that, there was a lower level of involuntary tobacco smoke exposure in female, older age group, lower education level, divorced, or widowed families. There was no difference in involuntary tobacco smoke exposure between town dwellers and county dwellers, but such difference did exist in different districts. The three provinces under investigation should have severe involuntary tobacco smoking exposure. Gender, age, literacy level, occupation and region should be all factors that influence the status of

  12. Atopic dermatitis is associated with active and passive cigarette smoking in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available The relationship between passive smoking and atopic dermatitis has previously been reported, but few studies have simultaneously evaluated the association of atopic dermatitis with active and passive smoking.The relationships between atopic dermatitis and active and passive smoking were evaluated in Korean adolescents. We used a large, representative, population-based survey (The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2011 and 2012. Active smoking was classified into 3 groups (0 days, 1-19 days, and ≥ 20 days/month. Passive smoking was categorized into 3 groups (0 days, 1-4 days, and ≥ 5 days/week. Atopic dermatitis diagnosed by a medical doctor either during the past 1 month or during the participant's lifetime was surveyed. Age, sex, obesity status, region of residence, economic level, and parental educational level of the participants were adjusted as confounders. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling.A total of 6.8% (10,020/135,682 of the participants reported atopic dermatitis during the last 12 months. Active smoking was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis (previous 12 months (AOR [95% CI] of smoking ≥ 20 days/month = 1.18 [1.07-1.29]; 1-19 days/month = 1.11 [0.99-1.23], P = 0.002. Passive smoking was also related to atopic dermatitis (previous 12 months (AOR [95% CI] of smoking ≥ 5 days/week = 1.12 [1.05-1.20]; 1-4 days/week = 1.08 [1.03-1.13], P < 0.001.Atopic dermatitis was significantly associated with active and passive smoking in Korean adolescents.

  13. Exposure to passive smoking and rheumatoid arthritis risk: results from the Swedish EIRA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, Anna Karin; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars

    2018-07-01

    Smoking has consistently been associated with increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of passive smoking on the risk of developing anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative RA. A population-based case-control study using incident cases of RA was performed in Sweden, and the study population in this report was restricted to include never-smokers (589 cases, 1764 controls). The incidence of RA among never-smokers who had been exposed to passive smoking was compared with that of never-smokers who had never been exposed, by calculating the OR with a 95% CI employing logistic regression. No association was observed between exposure to passive smoking and RA risk (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.2 for ACPA-positive RA, and OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.2, for ACPA-negative RA). No suggestion of a trend between duration of passive smoking and RA risk was observed. No association was observed between exposure to passive smoking and RA risk, which may be explained by a threshold below which no association between smoke exposure and RA occurs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing. II. Two studies of extreme cannabis smoke exposure in a motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, R Sam; Kardos, Keith W; Fritch, Dean F; Kunsman, Kenneth P; Blum, Kristen A; Newland, Gregory A; Waga, Joe; Kurtz, Lisa; Bronsgeest, Matth; Cone, Edward J

    2005-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine if extreme passive exposure to cannabis smoke in a motor vehicle would produce positive results for delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid. Passive exposure to cannabis smoke in an unventilated room has been shown to produce a transient appearance of THC in oral fluid for up to 30 min. However, it is well known that such factors as room size and extent of smoke exposure can affect results. Questions have also been raised concerning the effects of tobacco when mixed with marijuana and THC content. We conducted two passive cannabis studies under severe passive smoke exposure conditions in an unventilated eight-passenger van. Four passive subjects sat alongside four active cannabis smokers who each smoked a single cannabis cigarette containing either 5.4%, 39.5 mg THC (Study 1) or 10.4%, 83.2 mg THC (Study 2). The cigarettes in Study 1 contained tobacco mixed with cannabis; cigarettes in Study 2 contained only cannabis. Oral fluid specimens were collected from passive and active subjects with the Intercept Oral Specimen Collection Device for 1 h after smoking cessation while inside the van (Study 1) and up to 72 h (passive) or 8 h (active) outside the van. Additionally in Study 1, Intercept collectors were exposed to smoke in the van to assess environmental contamination during collection procedures. For Study 2, all oral fluid collections were outside the van following smoking cessation to minimize environmental contamination. Oral samples were analyzed with the Cannabinoids Intercept MICRO-PLATE EIA and quantitatively by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). THC concentrations were adjusted for dilution (x 3). The screening and confirmation cutoff concentrations for THC in neat oral fluid were 3 ng/mL and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for THC in the GC-MS-MS assay were 0.3 and 0.75 ng/mL, respectively. Urine specimens were collected, screened (EMIT, 50

  15. Cost of tobacco-related diseases, including passive smoking, in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, S M; Ho, L M; Lapsley, H M; Chau, J; Cheung, W L; Ho, S Y; Pow, M; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J

    2006-04-01

    Costs of tobacco-related disease can be useful evidence to support tobacco control. In Hong Kong we now have locally derived data on the risks of smoking, including passive smoking. To estimate the health-related costs of tobacco from both active and passive smoking. Using local data, we estimated active and passive smoking-attributable mortality, hospital admissions, outpatient, emergency and general practitioner visits for adults and children, use of nursing homes and domestic help, time lost from work due to illness and premature mortality in the productive years. Morbidity risk data were used where possible but otherwise estimates based on mortality risks were used. Utilisation was valued at unit costs or from survey data. Work time lost was valued at the median wage and an additional costing included a value of USD 1.3 million for a life lost. In the Hong Kong population of 6.5 million in 1998, the annual value of direct medical costs, long term care and productivity loss was USD 532 million for active smoking and USD 156 million for passive smoking; passive smoking accounted for 23% of the total costs. Adding the value of attributable lives lost brought the annual cost to USD 9.4 billion. The health costs of tobacco use are high and represent a net loss to society. Passive smoking increases these costs by at least a quarter. This quantification of the costs of tobacco provides strong motivation for legislative action on smoke-free areas in the Asia Pacific Region and elsewhere.

  16. Children's exposure to passive smoking in England since the 1980s: cotinine evidence from population surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Martin J; Goddard, Eileen; Higgins, Vanessa; Feyerabend, Colin; Bryant, Andrew; Cook, Derek G

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether children's exposure to passive smoking has changed since the late 1980s. Design Cross sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of secondary school children carried out between 1988 and 1998 by Office for National Statistics. Setting England. Subjects Secondary school children aged 11-15. Main outcome measures Salivary cotinine concentrations in non-smoking children. Results Cotinine concentrations in all non-smoking children almost halved between 1988 and 1998, from a geometric mean of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.11) ng/ml in 1988 to 0.52 (0.43 to 0.62) ng/ml in 1998. This reduction was largely due to reductions in exposure in children from non-smoking households and to decreases in the percentage of parents who smoked. Children living with mothers or fathers who smoked experienced little reduction in exposure. Conclusions Exposure to passive smoking among children in England has approximately halved since the late 1980s. This reduction is partly explained by the fall in the percentage of both mothers and fathers who smoke and is also likely to reflect reductions of smoking in public places. However, there is only limited evidence that children from smoking households have experienced a reduction in exposure through parents' avoidance of smoking in their presence. PMID:10926591

  17. 'Common courtesy' and the elimination of passive smoking. Results of the 1987 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R M; Boyd, G M; Schoenborn, C A

    1990-04-25

    The tobacco industry recommends "common courtesy" as the solution to potential conflicts over smoking in public places and as an alternative to policies that restrict or ban smoking. Specifically, the industry suggests that nonsmokers "mention annoyances in a pleasant and friendly manner" and that smokers ask others, "Do you mind if I smoke?" We analyzed data for 22,000 adults who responded to the 1987 National Health Interview Survey of Cancer Epidemiology and Control to determine if common courtesy is being used in passive-smoking situations. Almost half (47%) of smokers said they light up inside public places without asking if others mind. When someone lights up a cigarette inside a public place, only 4% of nonsmokers ask the person not to smoke despite the fact that most nonsmokers consider secondhand smoke harmful and annoying. We compared these data with similar data collected by the Roper Organization in the 1970s and found that smokers today are less likely to smoke inside public places. However, nonsmokers' actions in response to secondhand smoke have changed very little. These findings show that the common courtesy approach endorsed by the tobacco industry is unlikely, by itself, to eliminate exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Though no one would oppose the use of common courtesy, we conclude that legislative or administrative mechanisms are the only effective strategies to eliminate passive smoking.

  18. Passive smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, studies on passive smoking and type 2 diabetes have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore whether an association exists between passive smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and Web of Science up to April 9(th, 2013, to identify prospective cohort studies that assessed passive smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes. The fixed-effect model was used to calculate the overall relative risk (RR. RESULT: 4 prospective cohort studies were included for analysis, with a total of 112,351 participants involved. The pooled RR was 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.14 to 1.44 comparing those who were exposed to passive smoking with those who were not. Subgroup, sensitivity analysis and publication bias test suggested the overall result of this analysis was robust. CONCLUSIONS: Passive smoking is associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Further well-designed studies are warranted to confirm this association.

  19. Exposure to active and passive smoking among Greek pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria G. Vivilaki

    2016-04-01

    Of 300 women recruited to the study 48 % reported tobacco use during the first trimester of pregnancy. Amongst participants who were tobacco users, 83.3 % reported making an attempt to quit but less than half (45.1 % were successful. Among women who continued to smoke during pregnancy the majority (55.8 % reported that they felt unable to quit, and 9.3 % reported that they considered smoking cessation was not an important health issue for them. Participants who continued to smoke during pregnancy were more likely to report fetal (χ2 = 11.41; df = 5; p < 0.05 and newborn complications (χ2 = 6.41; df = 2; p < 0.05, including preterm birth and low birth weight. Participants who reported that their partners were smokers were more likely to smoke throughout their pregnancy (χ2 = 14.62; df = 1; p < 0.001. High rates of second-hand smoke exposure were reported among both smoking and non-smoking women. Pregnant smokers had significantly higher levels of postnatal depressive and anxiety symptomatology, as measured using the EPDS, than non-smokers.

  20. Employee's perceived exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, passive smoking risk beliefs and attitudes towards smoking: a case study in a university setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duaso, M J; De Irala, J; Canga, N

    2006-02-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace smoking policies, few studies have focused on the implementation of such policies in university settings. Smoking in the workplace is still very common in many countries, including Spain. While the law is about to change and more non-smoking policies are to be implemented, it is not clear what kind of restrictions Spanish workers would find acceptable. This study investigated perceived exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), passive smoking risks beliefs and attitudes towards smoking at the University of Navarra (Spain). A questionnaire was sent by E-mail to 641 randomly selected employees and a response rate of 70.4% was obtained. The survey results suggest that 27.3% of the university employees were smokers and 26.6% were exposed to ETS on a daily basis. The majority of respondents (81.7%) supported a restrictive non-smoking policy. Acceptance among active smokers was significantly lower (59.2 versus 89.3%). Smoking prohibition with the provision of smoking areas was the most favored option (46.9%). Results suggest that employees are ready to restrict smoking in the university, but there was not enough support for a total ban. Employers considering adopting a ban on smoking should be encouraged to conduct a similar survey to identify potential barriers to policy implementation.

  1. Experience with leaf analysis in smoke damage tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garber, K

    1960-01-01

    The role of chemical analysis in examining plant material for damage caused by smoke is discussed. Most difficult is the diagnosis of SO/sub 2/ damage, even in case of leaf discoloration, because this symptom is not specific. An increased content of sulfur in leaves can be an indication of damage by SO/sub 2/ but this proof is not reliable, since plants can manifest elevated sulfur levels through intake from the soil. A quantitative micromethod for the detection of SO/sub 2/ in fresh leaves has been developed by G. Bredemann and H. Radeloff. Hydrochloric acid and chlorine can also be detected by a micromethod (AgNO/sub 3/) but there is no proof of damage because the natural chloride content in plants fluctuates widely. The same holds for NO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 3/. Ammonia can be detected microchemically with great reliability; fluorine can also be detected microchemically and positive tests usually indicate reliably the cause of damage, but the fluorine test is not always reliable. A microchemical test also exists for asphalt and tar vapors. Thus, if the circumstances of the damage and local conditions are known, microchemical leaf analysis is useful as an auxiliary method in attributing damage to a specific agent. But leaf analysis by itself does not constitute conclusive proof. 12 references.

  2. Obstetric and perinatal effects of active and/or passive smoking during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura,Mary Uchiyama; Alexandre,Sandra Maria; Santos,Jorge Francisco Kuhn dos; Souza,Eduardo de; Sass,Nelson; Beck,Anna Paula Auritscher; Trayna,Evelyn; Andrade,Carla Maria de Araújo; Barroso,Teresa; Kulay Júnior,Luiz

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: Cigarette smoke, whether inhaled voluntarily or not, causes damage to the mother-infant pair. The antenatal period may present the best opportunity for performing effective anti-smoking campaigns. OBJECTIVE: To study the obstetric and perinatal effects of smoking on pregnancy and the infant. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study, interviewing pregnant women who were randomly selected at the maternity hospital as they were being discharged after giving birth. SETTING: Hospital Municipal Ve...

  3. Effect of passive smoking on the levels of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A in normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, A.K.; Rahim, A.; Malik, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    To measure the levels of pregnancy associated plasma protein- A (PAPPA-A) in normal rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Sixty albino rats of Sprague- Dawley strain weighing 200-250 gm, divided into two groups. Both the groups were kept in identical chambers. One group of 30 rats was further exposed to passive cigarette smoke for 4 weeks. No increase was observed in the levels of serum PAPP-A of both the groups: Passive smokers and not exposed to passive smoking i.e. P > 0.05. Smoking does not increase the levels of PAPP-A. (author)

  4. Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, C; Kunzli, N; de Marco, R; Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Svanes, C; Heinrich, J; Jogi, R; Gislason, T; Sunyer, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; Kerhof, M; Leynaert, B; Luczynska, C; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    The aim of the present investigation was to study changes and determinants for changes in active and passive smoking. The present study included 9,053 adults from 14 countries that participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The mean follow-up period was 8.8 yrs. Change in

  5. Passive smoking of cigarettes compared to inhalation of exhaust gases; Meeroken door uitlaatgassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Doorn, R. [Afdeling Medische Milieukuinde, GGD Rotterdam en omstreken, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-09-01

    A comparison has been made between the consequences of inhaling exhaust gases and passive smoking of cigarettes. In both cases it concerns the inhalation of combustion products with irritating and toxic properties. [Dutch] Er is een vergelijking gemaakt tussen de gevolgen van het inademen van uitlaatgassen en het meeroken van sigaretten. In biede gevallen gaat het om verbrandingsproducten met irriterende en toxische eigenschappen.

  6. Maternal active or passive smoking causes oxidative stress in placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Varma, Mustafa; Ahmet, Koc; Abdurrahim, Kocyigit; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of active and passive maternal smoking on placenta total oxidant/antioxidant status in term infants. The levels of cord blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured in samples of fetal placental tissue, cord blood, and the maternal peripheral blood serum and from 19 mothers who were active smokers, 19 who were passive smokers, and 22 who were nonsmokers (not exposed to active or passive smoking). The pregnancies were between 37 and 40 weeks' gestation, were uncomplicated, and the infants were delivered vaginally. Birth weight and head circumference in the active smokers were significantly (P antioxidant balance in fetal placental tissue and causes potent oxidative stress.

  7. [Why do health personnel neglect to talk about passive smoking with parents of small children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K E; Helgason, A R

    2000-05-30

    Health personnel make only moderate efforts at motivating parents to establish a smoke-free indoor environment for babies and infants. It is only when children show symptoms of exposure to tobacco smoke that they routinely raise the question of passive smoking during consultations with the parents. We wanted to find out why so many neglect to raise the matter when there is still time to prevent injury to the child. A pre-categorised questionnaire on possible obstacles to involvement in the matter was mailed to a representative sample of 1050 GPs, the senior midwives at Norway's 77 maternity departments, 492 senior public health nurses, and personnel at 1024 mother-and-child clinics. The response rate varied from 71% (GPs) to 82% (senior midwives). Public health nurses, midwives and doctors at the clinics regard it as part of their work to talk to parents about the possible effects of passive smoking on their children's health. The obstacles are a feeling of embarrassment at raising the matter, and not knowing how to talk to the parents about the problem. Even so, a clear majority experience a positive response from smoking parents when they discuss how to prevent the children from inhaling tobacco smoke. Among the GPs the main reason for not raising the matter is lack of time, followed by embarrassment at taking it up and lack of knowledge about the health risks. Health personnel seem to need training in conversation techniques in this connection.

  8. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  9. Enhancement of exposure to radon progeny as a consequence of passive smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Seiler, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Among indoor air pollutants, radon and tobacco smoke take dominant positions. Because radon decay products have a relatively short residence time in air, the extent of the equilibrium between radon and its daughter products is linearly proportional to the carcinogenic risk, at least at low exposure levels. The relevant factor is the equilibrium factor F. This paper discusses the enhancement of radon exposure as a result of the presence of particulate matter originating from tobacco smoke. The presence of tobacco smoke provides a mechanism for radon progeny to be attached to inhalable particles and to remain in indoor air for a prolonged time. The results of our study indicate a significant increase in F as a consequence of passive smoking. These modeling efforts are consistent with the experimental data reported previously

  10. Oxidative stress and anxiety-like symptoms related to withdrawal of passive cigarette smoke in mice: beneficial effects of pecan nut shells extract, a by-product of the nut industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckziegel, P; Boufleur, N; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Pase, C S; Muller, L G; Teixeira, A M; Zanella, R; Prado, A C P; Fett, R; Block, J M; Burger, M E

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the role of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shells aqueous extract (AE) against oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and behavioral parameters of smoking withdrawal. Mice were passively exposed to cigarette smoke for 3 weeks (6, 10, and 14 cigarettes/day) and orally treated with AE (25 g/L). CSE induced lipid peroxidation in brain and red blood cells (RBC), increased catalase (CAT) activity in RBC, and decreased plasma ascorbic acid levels. AE prevented oxidative damage and increased antioxidant defenses of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. In addition, AE reduced the locomotor activity and anxiety symptoms induced by smoking withdrawal, and these behavioral parameters showed a positive correlation with RBC lipid peroxidation. Our results showed the beneficial effects of this by-product of the pecan industry, indicating its usefulness in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of passive and active smoking on inflammation, lipid profile and the risk of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Ritienne; Dingli, Philip; Doggen, Carine J M; Cassar, Karen; Farrugia, Rosienne; Wettinger, Stephanie Bezzina

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of passive smoking, active smoking and smoking cessation on inflammation, lipid profile and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 423 cases with a first MI and 465 population controls from the Maltese Acute Myocardial Infarction (MAMI) Study were analysed. Data were collected through an interviewer-led questionnaire, and morning fasting blood samples were obtained. ORs adjusted for the conventional risk factors of MI (aORs) were calculated as an estimate of the relative risk of MI. The influence of smoking on biochemical parameters was determined among controls. Current smokers had a 2.7-fold (95% CI 1.7 to 4.2) and ex-smokers a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.0 to 2.4) increased risk of MI. Risk increased with increasing pack-years and was accompanied by an increase in high-sensitivity C reactive protein levels and an abnormal lipid profile. Smoking cessation was associated with lower triglyceride levels. Exposure to passive smoking increased the risk of MI (aOR 3.2 (95% CI 1.7 to 6.3)), with the OR being higher for individuals exposed to passive smoking in a home rather than in a public setting (aOR 2.0 (95% CI 0.7 to 5.6) vs aOR 1.2 (95% CI 0.7 to 2.0)). Passive smoke exposure was associated with higher levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio compared with individuals not exposed to passive smoking. Both active and passive smoking are strong risk factors for MI. This risk increased with increasing pack-years and decreased with smoking cessation. Such effects may be partly mediated through the influence of smoking on inflammation and lipid metabolism.

  12. Passive smoking increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus independently and synergistically with prepregnancy obesity in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Junhong; Wang, Peng; Shao, Ping; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Weiqin; Li, Nan; Wang, Leishen; Nan, Hairong; Yu, Zhijie; Hu, Gang; Chan, Juliana C N; Yang, Xilin

    2017-03-01

    Passive smoking increased type 2 diabetes mellitus risk, but it is uncertain whether it also increased gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. We aimed to examine the association of passive smoking during pregnancy and its interaction with maternal obesity for GDM. From 2010 to 2012, 12 786 Chinese women underwent a 50-g 1-hour glucose challenge test at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation and further underwent a 75-g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if the glucose challenge test result was ≥7.8 mmol/L. GDM was defined by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group's cut points. Self-reported passive smoking during pregnancy was collected by a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Additive interaction between maternal obesity and passive smoking was estimated using relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and synergy index (S). Significant RERI > 0, AP > 0, or S > 1 indicated additive interaction. A total of 8331 women (65.2%) were exposed to passive smoking during pregnancy. More women exposed to passive smoking developed GDM than nonexposed women (7.8% versus 6.3%, P = 0.002) with an adjusted OR of 1.29 (95%CI, 1.11 to 1.50). Compared with nonobesity and nonpassive smoking, prepregnancy obesity and passive smoking was associated with GDM risk with an adjusted OR of 3.09 (95%CI, 2.38-4.02) with significant additive interaction (P < .05 for RERI and AP). Passive smoking during pregnancy increased GDM risk in Chinese women independently and synergistically with prepregnancy obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Beltran Martin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p p Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children.

  14. Sustainability of the prevention of passive infant smoking within well-baby clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, M R; Verlaan, M; Willemsen, M C; van Soelen, P; Reijneveld, S A; Sing, R A Hira; Paulussen, T G W M

    2006-04-01

    This study assessed the antecedents of continued use of an education program to prevent passive smoking in infants. It consists of a booklet for parents and a manual for health professionals describing a five-step procedure for discussing passive smoking. A questionnaire was sent to 67 managers, 670 nurses, and 335 physicians working in well-baby clinics (response rate: 70%, 53%, 47% respectively). Questions concerned the completeness of use, level of institutionalization, and characteristics of the organization, the user, and the dissemination strategy. Seventy-one percent of nurses and 42% of physicians worked with the program. They foremost provided the first three steps of the five-step procedure. Physicians' completeness of use was related to their perceived responsibility in providing this education, and nurses' use was related to their perceived self-efficacy, responsibility, training attendance, participation in the adoption decision, and level of institutionalization. Diffusion efforts should focus on improving the completeness of use and level of institutionalization.

  15. [Active and passive smoking--attitudes and opinion of the students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić-Bibić, Nada; Dragas, Zorica V; Vukmirović, Vesna; Pinter, Snezana

    2006-10-01

    The concern is present worldwide as the tobacco use and smoking is becoming more and more common in young generation. Spread of tobacco use epidemics is a global problem with serious consequences to social, economic and ecological life a well as on health. To collect information about tobacco use in students aged 13-15 years in school in Subotica, their knowledge and standing about smoking as well as level of advertisement and availability of purchasing tobacco and tobacco products. It should include the level of passive smoking, i.e. exposure to tobacco smoke and health education in curriculum. Application of statistical study involving 327 students aged 13-15 years in 4 elementary and 2 high schools in Subotica, in October 2003. "Global youth tobacco survey" was the statistical study that was used after required permits had been granted. A total of 41.5% of students tried cigarette smoking, more girls (43.4%) than boys (38.6%; p > 0.05); 52.6% of first grade of high school students, 37.6% of eighth grade and 33.9% seventh grade students (X2 = 9.081; DF = 2; p media, and cigarettes are available easily. The level of passive smoking was also very high: 24.8% of parents were smokers, i.e. fathers accounted for 23.2%, and mothers accounted for 17% of cases. 28.7% of teachers smoked in school building. Educational and health programs in the schools are not satisfactory. The research shows that the use of tobacco products in student population is serious. It seems necessary to make an effective program which will control the use of tobacco products in early age of student population.

  16. Current active and passive smoking among adults living with same sex partners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Checa, Irene; Espejo, Begoña

    2017-05-19

    To assess the association between current active and passive tobacco smoking and living with a same-sex partner in Spain. We analysed data from two cross-sectional national surveys of the Spanish population 15 years and older (2011-Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España and 2014-Encuesta Europea de Salud en España). Analyses included only people living with their partner. Associations were calculated using multiple logistic regressions adjusting for gender, social class and age. Current active and passive smoking were significantly associated with living with same sex partners (odds ratio: 2.71 and 2.88), and particularly strong among women. Spanish adults living with same-sex partners are at higher risk of active and passive smoking. This risk varies by gender. Spanish national surveys should include items on sexual orientation for improved data on health disparities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Strumylaite

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28-90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.72-1.41 in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38-2.55 in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84-4.25 in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97-1.66 and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87-3.74 times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend 0.05. There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02 and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P < 0.05. In Caucasian women, lifetime exposure to passive smoking is associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of tumor hormone receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women.

  18. Contact highs and urinary cannabinoid excretion after passive exposure to marijuana smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, E J; Johnson, R E

    1986-09-01

    Five healthy men were passively exposed under pre- and postplacebo controlled conditions to sidestream smoke from four and 16 standard marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [delta-9-THC]) for 1 hour each day for 6 consecutive days. Subjective effects produced by the 16-cigarette exposure conditions were similar to those observed after active smoking of one 2.8% delta-9-THC marijuana cigarette. Effects after the four-cigarette condition were less pronounced. Concurrent physiologic measurements showed no clear trends or effects of smoke exposure for either condition. Daily mean plasma levels of delta-9-THC ranged from 2.4 to 7.4 ng/ml with an individual high of 18.8 ng/ml for the 16-cigarette condition. With the use of EMIT cannabinoid assays with 20 ng/ml (EMIT 20) and 100 ng/ml (EMIT 100) cutoffs, urines positive per subject under the four- and 16-cigarette passive exposure conditions were 4.6 +/- 2.2 and 35.2 +/- 3.8, respectively, for the EMIT 20 and 0.0 and 1.0 +/- 0.8, respectively, for the EMIT 100 assay. From the results of these studies, caution is clearly indicated for individuals who might be substantially exposed to heavy marijuana cigarette smoke environments and for those interpreting marijuana screening data.

  19. Absorption of nicotine and carbon monoxide from passive smoking under natural conditions of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C

    1983-01-01

    Seven non-smokers were exposed to tobacco smoke under natural conditions for two hours in a public house. Measures of nicotine and cotinine in plasma, saliva, and urine and expired air carbon monoxide all showed reliable increases. The concentrations of carbon monoxide and nicotine after exposure averaged 15.7% and 7.5% respectively of the values found in heavy smokers. Although the increase in expired air carbon monoxide of 5.9 ppm was similar to increases in smokers after a single cigarette, the amount of nicotine absorbed was between a tenth and a third of the amount taken in from one cigarette. Since this represented a relatively extreme acute natural exposure, any health risks of passive smoking probably depend less on quantitative factors than on qualitative differences between sidestream and mainstream smoke. PMID:6648864

  20. Factors Associated with Exposure to Passive Smoking among 12-18 year-old Students in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas S Lappas

    2015-11-01

    Passive-smoking exposure is prevalent among the student population in Greece, despite the New Anti-Smoking Legislation that came into effect in July 2009. Our findings indicate that enforcement of the law and additional public health initiatives must be implemented.

  1. New method for diagnosis of smoke damage to spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, O

    1953-01-01

    Spruce needles excrete more wax in smoke regions than in smoke-free areas. This increased wax excretion can be used as a measure to determine the effects of smoke on the plant. The wax is extracted with hot water and is preserved after cooling in the form of turbidity which can be determined photometrically. Good correlations between the degree of turbidity and the distance from the source of smoke are obtained. The low scatter of values, especially in smoke-free regions (+/-1%) makes the turbidity most useful in outlining the limits of the areas affected by smoke. 11 references, 5 tables.

  2. Does adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a protective effect against active and passive smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, C I; Flouris, A D; Tsatsakis, A; Kafatos, A G; Saris, W H M

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the existing evidence about whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet may have a role as an effect modifier of active and passive smoking on human health. Review. An overview of emerging evidence and published studies that cover the interaction between the Mediterranean diet and smoking. Both epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet has a protective effect against biochemical and molecular processes that lead to cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory illness. Based on the high daily intake of vitamins and antioxidants, the Mediterranean diet is comprised of a number of compounds that could alter certain outcomes related to smoking. Studies have indicated that certain diseases attributable to smoking, such as lung cancer, asthma and cardiovascular disease, are inversely associated with certain antioxidants and lipids. The literature indicates that the existence of a partial interaction between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the health effects of smoking is possible. Further research is needed to lead to a conclusive statement on this hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhijun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-07-29

    Many studies have suggested exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a risk factor for various somatic diseases, but only few studies based on small sample size or specific groups have explored the association between passive smoking and mental distress. We performed this study to examine the relationship between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers of north-east China. Multistage, stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study in 2012. A total of 12 978 never-smokers from Jilin, north-east China, were included. Data on passive smoking and baseline characteristics were collected by face-to-face interviews. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental health status. Rao-Scott χ(2) tests were used to compare the prevalence between different groups; multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between passive smoking and mental distress, and Spearman rank analysis was employed to assess the correlation between passive smoking and GHQ-12 scores. The estimated prevalence of mental distress among never-smokers in Jilin province is 24.5%, and the estimated prevalence of passive smoking among the mental distressing group is 65.0%. After adjusting for gender, age, region, body mass index (BMI), occupation, marriage, education, drinking status and family monthly income per capita, passive smoking conferred a risk for mental distress (adjusted OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.40). A high proportion of adults, especially women, were passive smokers at home, but for men, passive smoking was more common at workplace. The more frequently participants exposed to SHS, the higher GHQ-12 scores they got. Passive smoking is an important risk factor for mental distress in never-smokers of Jilin province, which reminds Chinese government of increasing the awareness of public health and take measure to prevent SHS, especially with regard to SHS exposure at home and workplace

  4. The independent role of prenatal and postnatal exposure to active and passive smoking on the development of early wheeze in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardavas, C. I.; Hohmann, C; Patelarou, Evridiki

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases childhood asthma risk, but health effects in children of nonsmoking mothers passively exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy are unclear. We examined the association of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and wheeze in children aged ≤2 years. I...

  5. Association of passive smoking with caries and related salivary biomarkers in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, A; Darka, O; Topaloğlu, B; Bek, Y

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the association between passive smoking, as determined by salivary cotinine level, and caries, salivary pH, buffering capacity, flow rate and microbiological counts in young children. Ninety passive smokers (PS) with a mean age of 5.02 years and 90 healthy age-matched controls were included in this study. Family income, smoking habits of household members, parental education levels, child's tooth-brushing habit and child's daily dietary sugar exposure were recorded by questionnaire. Three categories were formed with respect to the number of cigarettes smoked. A dmft score was calculated according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The children were also investigated for stimulated salivary cotinine level, pH, flow rate, buffering capacity and salivary Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli colonisation. There were no significant differences in tooth-brushing habit, sugar exposure, family income and parental education levels between the two groups (P>0.05). The mean cotinine level of the PS subjects was 1.58+/-4.3ng/ml. The dmft scores, and salivary S. mutans and lactobacilli colonisation in PS children were significantly higher than in the control subjects (Psalivary pH, flow rate and buffering capacity were found in the PS subjects (P<0.05). PS children are at increased risk of caries compared with control subjects.

  6. Passive smoking and cooking oil fumes (COF) may modify the association between tea consumption and oral cancer in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; He, Baochang; Hu, Zhijian; Huang, Jiangfeng; Liu, Fangping; Yan, Lingjun; Lin, Zheng; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Lin, Lisong; Zhang, Zuofeng; Cai, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the confounding effects of passive smoking and COF exposure on association between tea and oral cancer in Chinese women. A case-control study including 207 female oral cancer cases and 480 age-matched controls was performed in Fujian, China. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The effects of tea consumption on oral cancer were, respectively, adjusted for Model-1 and Model-2 using logistic regression analysis. Model-1 did not adjusted for passive smoking and COF; Model-2 included the variables in Model-1, passive smoking and COF. Tea consumption was associated with a decreased risk of oral cancer in females: The OR was 0.498 (95 % CI 0.312-0.795) for Model-1 and 0.565 (95 % CI 0.352-0.907) for Model-2. The ORs for all the categories of tea consumption estimated by Model-2 were slightly higher than Model-1. When stratified by passive smoking, the statistically significant association between tea drinking and oral cancer was only emerged in non-passive smoking women. Stratification by COF found tea drinking was still associated with a decreased risk of oral cancer for women who have light-COF exposure, but an increased risk for those who subjected to heavy exposure. A negative, multiplicative interaction was found between tea consumption and COF exposure for oral cancer, but not found between tea consumption and passive smoking. Tea consumption reduces the risk of oral cancer in Chinese women, but this effect is modified by the carcinogenic effects of passive smoking and COF exposure.

  7. The effect of passive exposure to tobacco smoke on perioperative respiratory complications and the duration of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Esen; Karaman, Yucel; Gonullu, Mustafa; Tekgul, Zeki; Cakmak, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of perioperative respiratory complications and postoperative care unit recovery time investigated in patients with passive tobacco smoke exposure according to the degree of exposure. Total 270 patients ranging in age from 18 to 60 years with the ASA physical status I or II exposed and not exposed to passive tobacco smoke received general anesthesia for various elective surgical operations evaluated for the study. Patients divided into two groups as exposed and non-exposed to passive tobacco smoke, those exposed to passive smoke are also divided into two groups according to the degree of exposure. Patients taken to the postoperative care unit (PACU) at the end of the operation and monitorized until Modified Aldrete's Scores became 9 and more. Respiratory complications evaluated and recorded in intraoperative and postoperative period. A total of 251 patients were enrolled; 63 (25.1%) patients had airway complications, 11 (4.4%) had complications intraoperatively and 52 (20.7%) patients had complications postoperatively. There has been found significant relation with passive tobacco smoke exposure and high incidences of perioperative and postoperative respiratory complications. The risk of cough, desaturation and hypersecretion complications were found to be increased depending on the degree of exposure. There was significant relation between the degree of passive smoke exposure and the duration of PACU stay. Passive tobacco smoke exposed general anesthesia receiving patients also regarding to the degree of exposure having high rates of perioperative respiratory complications and prolongation of PACU stays when compared with unexposed patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. [The effect of passive exposure to tobacco smoke on perioperative respiratory complications and the duration of recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Esen; Karaman, Yucel; Gonullu, Mustafa; Tekgul, Zeki; Cakmak, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of perioperative respiratory complications and postoperative care unit recovery time investigated in patients with passive tobacco smoke exposure according to the degree of exposure. Total 270 patients ranging in age from 18 to 60 years with the ASA physical status I or II exposed and not exposed to passive tobacco smoke received general anesthesia for various elective surgical operations evaluated for the study. Patients divided into two groups as exposed and non-exposed to passive tobacco smoke, those exposed to passive smoke are also divided into two groups according to the degree of exposure. Patients taken to the postoperative care unit (PACU) at the end of the operation and monitorized until Modified Aldrete's Scores became 9 and more. Respiratory complications evaluated and recorded in intraoperative and postoperative period. A total of 251 patients were enrolled; 63 (25.1%) patients had airway complications, 11 (4.4%) had complications intraoperatively and 52 (20.7%) patients had complications postoperatively. There has been found significant relation with passive tobacco smoke exposure and high incidences of perioperative and postoperative respiratory complications. The risk of cough, desaturation and hypersecretion complications were found to be increased depending on the degree of exposure. There was significant relation between the degree of passive smoke exposure and the duration of PACU stay. Passive tobacco smoke exposed general anesthesia receiving patients also regarding to the degree of exposure having high rates of perioperative respiratory complications and prolongation of PACU stays when compared with unexposed patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. INFLUENCE OF PASSIVE SMOKING ON CONTENT OF NICKEL IN CHILDREN PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kwapuliński

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this study was pharyngeal tonsils which his anatomic location is interesing tissue. They are first tissue which has contact content in air inhalation substances in selective way. Pharyngeal tonsils came from children who lived in Silesia province. Some of these children have been expose to passive smoking. Contains nickel in pharyngeal tonsils was marked by the method of Inductively Coupled Plasma. Geometrical mean of contents of nickel in pharyngeal tonsils from exposed to tobacco smoke girls was 0,75 µg/g, in unexposed girls was 0,67 µg/g, in exposed to tobacco smoke boys was 0,55 µg/g and unexposed boys 0,6 µg/g was observed. The results have verified that sex, living place and exposure to tobacco smoke matter in accumulation nickel in pharyngeal tonsils. The cross-corelation analysis between content of Ni and other metals, found out positive corelation between Ni and Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ca, Mg.

  10. Damage detection and isolation via autocorrelation: a step toward passive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. S.; Yuan, F. G.

    2018-03-01

    Passive sensing technique may eliminate the need of expending power from actuators and thus provide a means of developing a compact and simple structural health monitoring system. More importantly, it may provide a solution for monitoring the aircraft subjected to environmental loading from air flow during operation. In this paper, a non-contact auto-correlation based technique is exploited as a feasibility study for passive sensing application to detect damage and isolate the damage location. Its theoretical basis bears some resemblance to reconstructing Green's function from diffusive wavefield through cross-correlation. Localized high pressure air from air compressor are randomly and continuously applied on the one side surface of the aluminum panels through the air blow gun. A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) was used to scan a 90 mm × 90 mm area to create a 6 × 6 2D-array signals from the opposite side of the panels. The scanned signals were auto-correlated to reconstruct a "selfimpulse response" (or Green's function). The premise for stably reconstructing the accurate Green's function requires long sensing times. For a 609.6 mm × 609.6 mm flat aluminum panel, the sensing times roughly at least four seconds is sufficient to establish converged Green's function through correlation. For the integral stiffened aluminum panel, the geometrical features of the panel expedite the formation of the diffusive wavefield and thus shorten the sensing times. The damage is simulated by gluing a magnet onto the panels. Reconstructed Green's functions (RGFs) are used for damage detection and damage isolation based on an imaging condition with mean square deviation of the RGFs from the pristine and the damaged structure and the results are shown in color maps. The auto-correlation based technique is shown to consistently detect the simulated damage, image and isolate the damage in the structure subjected to high pressure air excitation. This technique may be transformed into

  11. Bark and wood pests of smoke-damaged Scots pine. [Myclophilus piniperda, Pissodes pini, Pissodes piniphilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudela, M; Wolf, R

    1964-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between smoke damage and insect infestation of trees. Two stands of trees were examined. The trees ranged in age from 64 > 75 years. Details are tabulated on the number and distribution of pests. The chief pests were Myclophilus piniperda, Pissodes pini, and Pissodes piniphilus. Results indicated that the intensity of attack by pests increased with increasing severity of smoke damage. 20 references.

  12. Maternal passive smoking and its effect on maternal, neonatal and placental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K N; Vidyadaran, M K; Goh, Y M; Nasaruddin, A A; Jammal, A B E; Zainab, S

    2005-08-01

    A study was undertaken to 1) determine the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on maternal and neonatal weight and body mass index (BMI) and placental weight, volume and surface area and 2) establish any correlations between the placental surface area, volume and weight with maternal and neonatal body weight and BMI in mothers exposed to cigarette smoke. A total of 154 full-term placentae, 65 from mothers exposed to tobacco smoke and 89 from non-exposed mothers were collected from Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital. The placental surface area was determined using a stereological grid, the volume by Scherle's method and the weight by using an electronic weighing machine. In general there were no differences in maternal, placental and neonatal parameters between the exposed and non-exposed groups. However, there were significant correlations between placental weight with maternal weight and maternal BMI in both exposed (r = 0.315; p = 0.013) and (r = 0.265; p = 0.038), and non-exposed (r = 0.224; p = 0.035) and (r = 0.241; p = 0.023) mothers. It was also found that the maternal weight on admission correlated significantly with placental weight in both Malay (r = 0.405; p = 0.020) and Indian (r = 0.553; p = 0.050) passive smokers. Correcting the placental parameters for the maternal weight had no effect on the results.

  13. Effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on structural and functional parameters in the respiratory system of guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on the respiratory system of guinea pigs. Methods: Male guinea pigs were divided into two groups: control and passive smoking, the latter being exposed to the smoke of ten cigarettes for 20 min in the morning, afternoon and evening (30 cigarettes/day for five days. After that period, inflammatory parameters were studied by quantifying mesenteric mast cell degranulation, as well as oxidative stress, in BAL fluid. In addition, we determined MIP, MEP, and mucociliary transport (in vivo, as well as tracheal contractility response (in vitro. Results: In comparison with the control group, the passive smoking group showed a significant increase in mast cell degranulation (19.75 ± 3.77% vs. 42.53 ± 0.42%; p < 0.001 and in the levels of reduced glutathione (293.9 ± 19.21 vs. 723.7 ± 67.43 nM/g of tissue; p < 0.05; as well as a significant reduction in mucociliary clearance (p < 0.05, which caused significant changes in pulmonary function (in MIP and MEP; p < 0.05 for both and airway hyperreactivity. Conclusions: Passive inhalation of cigarette smoke caused significant increases in mast cell degranulation and oxidative stress. This inflammatory process seems to influence the decrease in mucociliary transport and to cause changes in pulmonary function, leading to tracheal hyperreactivity.

  14. Active and passive cigarette smoking and mortality among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Stephanie D; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Connor, Avonne E; John, Esther M; Giuliano, Anna R; Hines, Lisa M; Rai, Shesh N; Riley, Elizabeth C; Pinkston, Christina M; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L

    2015-11-01

    Women who smoke at breast cancer diagnosis have higher risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality than nonsmokers; however, differences by ethnicity or prognostic factors and risk for noncancer mortality have not been evaluated. We examined associations of active and passive smoke exposure with mortality among Hispanic (n = 1020) and non-Hispanic white (n = 1198) women with invasive breast cancer in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study (median follow-up of 10.6 years). Risk of breast cancer-specific (HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.11-2.16) and all-cause (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.30-2.17) mortality was increased for current smokers, with similar results stratified by ethnicity. Ever smokers had an increased risk of noncancer mortality (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.12-2.51). Associations were strongest for current smokers who smoked for 20 years or more were postmenopausal, overweight and/or obese, or reported moderate and/or high alcohol consumption; however, interactions were not significant. Breast cancer-specific mortality was increased two fold for moderate and/or high recent passive smoke exposure among never smokers (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.24-3.63). Findings support associations of active-smoking and passive-smoking diagnosis with risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality and ever smoking with noncancer mortality, regardless of ethnicity, and other factors. Smoking is a modifiable lifestyle factor and effective smoking cessation, and maintenance programs should be routinely recommended for women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Gray, E M

    1985-10-05

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

  16. StopWatch: The preliminary evaluation of a smartwatch-based system for passive detection of cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Andrew L; Stone, Christopher J; Doughty, Hazel; Munafò, Marcus R

    2018-01-24

    Recent developments in smoking cessation support systems and interventions have highlighted the requirement for unobtrusive, passive ways to measure smoking behaviour. A number of systems have been developed for this that either use bespoke sensing technology, or expensive combinations of wearables and smartphones. Here we present StopWatch, a system for passive detection of cigarette smoking that runs on a low-cost smartwatch and does not require additional sensing or a connected smartphone. Our system uses motion data from the accelerometer and gyroscope in an Android smartwatch to detect the signature hand movements of cigarette smoking. It uses machine learning techniques to transform raw motion data into motion features, and in turn into individual drags and instances of smoking. These processes run on the smartwatch, and do not require a smartphone. We conducted preliminary validations of the system in daily smokers (n=13) in laboratory and free-living conditions running on an Android LG G-Watch. In free-living conditions, over a 24-hour period, the system achieved precision of 86% and recall of 71%. StopWatch is a system for passive measurement of cigarette smoking that runs entirely on a commercially available Android smartwatch. It requires no smartphone so the cost is low, and needs no bespoke sensing equipment so participant burden is also low. Performance is currently lower than other more expensive and complex systems, though adequate for some applications. Future developments will focus on enhancing performance, validation on a range of smartwatches, and detection of electronic cigarette use. We present a low-cost, smartwatch-based system for passive detection of cigarette smoking. It uses data from the motion sensors in the watch to identify the signature hand movements of cigarette smoking. The system will provide the detailed measures of individual smoking behaviour needed for context-triggered just-in-time smoking cessation support systems, and to

  17. Surfactant Protein D is a candidate biomarker for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock Johansson, Sofie; Tan, Qihua; Holst, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Variation in Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is associated with lung function in tobacco smoke-induced chronic respiratory disease. We hypothesized that the same association exists in the general population and could be used to identify individuals sensitive to smoke-induced lung damage. The associat......Variation in Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is associated with lung function in tobacco smoke-induced chronic respiratory disease. We hypothesized that the same association exists in the general population and could be used to identify individuals sensitive to smoke-induced lung damage...... or haplotypes, and expiratory lung function were assessed using twin study methodology and mixed-effects models. Significant inverse associations were evident between sSP-D and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity in the presence of current tobacco smoking but not in non...... with lung function measures in interaction with tobacco smoking. The obtained data suggest sSP-D as a candidate biomarker in risk assessments for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage. The data and derived conclusion warrant confirmation in a longitudinal population following chronic obstructive...

  18. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-07

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of cigarette smoke-induced lung damage and prevention by vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Siddhartha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke-induced cellular and molecular mechanisms of lung injury are not clear. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture containing long-lived radicals, including p-benzosemiquinone that causes oxidative damage. Earlier we had reported that oxidative protein damage is an initial event in smoke-induced lung injury. Considering that p-benzosemiquinone may be a causative factor of lung injury, we have isolated p-benzosemiquinone and compared its pathophysiological effects with cigarette smoke. Since vitamin C is a strong antioxidant, we have also determined the modulatory effect of vitamin C for preventing the pathophysiological events. Methods Vitamin C-restricted guinea pigs were exposed to cigarette smoke (5 cigarettes/day; 2 puffs/cigarette for 21 days with and without supplementation of 15 mg vitamin C/guinea pig/day. Oxidative damage, apoptosis and lung injury were assessed in vitro, ex vivo in A549 cells as well as in vivo in guinea pigs. Inflammation was measured by neutrophilia in BALF. p-Benzosemiquinone was isolated from freshly prepared aqueous extract of cigarette smoke and characterized by various physico-chemical methods, including mass, NMR and ESR spectroscopy. p-Benzosemiquinone-induced lung damage was examined by intratracheal instillation in guinea pigs. Lung damage was measured by increased air spaces, as evidenced by histology and morphometric analysis. Oxidative protein damage, MMPs, VEGF and VEGFR2 were measured by western blot analysis, and formation of Michael adducts using MALDI-TOF-MS. Apoptosis was evidenced by TUNEL assay, activation of caspase 3, degradation of PARP and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio using immunoblot analysis and confocal microscopy. Results Exposure of guinea pigs to cigarette smoke resulted in progressive protein damage, inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury up to 21 days of the experimental period. Administration of 15 mg of vitamin C/guinea pig/day prevented all these

  20. Impact of passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel exposure, and MBL/MASP-2 gene polymorphism upon susceptibility to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengshi Chen

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel, and polymorphisms of MBL (rs7096206 and MASP-2 (rs6695096 genes were associated with susceptibility to TB in non-smokers, and there were gene–environment interactions among them. Further studies are needed to explore details of the mechanisms of association.

  1. The importance of passive smoking in the accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Mg, Ca, Sr in the children adenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gerycka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of our life is determined by the quality of the air that we breathe. Hence the influence of cigarette smoking and secondary exposure of persons within the smoking environment is significant. Previous studies have confirmed the influence of passive smoking to on the accumulation of given elements in the tonsils. The subject of the study is to determine the importance of ETS exposure for the accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr in the pharyngeal tonsils. Material and methods. The study involved 162 adenoids from boys and girls living in Tychy and Chorzów. exposed and not exposed to passive smoking. All biological samples were subjected to mineralization with nitric acid (V from Merck. The chemical composition of the samples was determined by the ICP – AES method. Results. The statistical analysis of the elements in the tonsils of children exposed and not exposed to ETS is performed taking into account as an additional criterion of distribution the place of residence and gender of the children. Conclusions. There was no significant effect of passive smoking on the increase of the examined metals in the adenoid. However the role of gender and place of residence to the process of accumulation of elements in this organ remains significant.

  2. Passive Smoke Exposure and Its Effects on Cognition, Sleep, and Health Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine L; Tingen, Martha S; Jia, Jenny; Sherman, Forrest; Williams, Celestine F; Bhavsar, Kruti; Wood, Nancy; Kobleur, Jessica; Waller, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    Passive smoke exposure (PSE) may be a risk factor for childhood overweight and obesity and is associated with worse neurocognitive development, cognition, and sleep in children. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of PSE on adiposity, cognition, and sleep in overweight and obese children using an objective measure of PSE. Overweight or obese children (n = 222) aged 7-11 (9.4 ± 1.1 years; 58% black; 58% female; 85% obese) were recruited from schools near Augusta, Georgia, over the course of the school year from 2003-2006 for a clinical trial, with data analyzed in 2009-2010. Passive smoke exposure was measured with plasma cotinine. Health, cognitive, and sleep measures and parent report of smoke exposure were obtained. Overweight and obese children with PSE had greater overall and central adiposity than nonexposed overweight and obese children (p prevent adverse health outcomes related to tobacco use and obesity.

  3. Active and passive smoking impacts on asthma with quantitative and temporal relations: A Korean Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2018-06-05

    This study aimed to evaluate the relations of smoking with asthma and asthma-related symptoms, considering quantitative and temporal influences. The 820,710 Korean adults in the Korean Community Health Survey in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013 were included and classified as non-smoker, past smoker or current smoker. Total smoking years, total pack-years, and age at smoking onset were assessed. Information on wheezing, exercise wheezing, and aggravation of asthma in the past 12 months and asthma diagnosis history and current treatment was collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling was used. Current and former smokers showed significant positive relations with wheezing, exercise wheezing, asthma ever, current asthma, and asthma aggravation. Current smokers demonstrated higher adjusted odd ratios (AORs) for wheezing, exercise wheezing, and asthma aggravation than former smokers. Former smokers showed higher AORs than current smokers for current asthma treatment. Longer passive smoking was related to wheezing and exercise wheezing. Greater age at smoking onset and duration since cessation were negatively related to wheezing, exercise wheezing, and current asthma; total pack-years demonstrated proportional associations with these symptoms. Former, current, and passive smoking was positively correlated with wheezing and exercise wheezing. Total pack-years and early initiation were increasingly related to asthma.

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke is just as damaging to DNA as mainstream smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, E; Stone, K; Carter, K M; Pryor, W A

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of tar isolated from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to nick DNA in mammalian cells. Solutions of ETS tar behave similarly to aqueous solutions of cigarette tar from mainstream smoke. Both solutions contain the tar semiquinone radical, and this radical associates with the DNA in viable rat alveolar macrophages. Solutions of tar from ETS cause single-strand DNA breaks in rat thymocytes in proportion to the amount of tar present, until a plateau is reached....

  5. Active and passive smoking and risk of death from pancreatic cancer: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingsong; Yagyu, Kiyoko; Ueda, Junko; Kurosawa, Michiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    There is uncertainty in the risk of pancreatic cancer with particular aspects of smoking, such as a dose-response relationship and cumulative amount, in Japanese men and women. Very few studies have addressed the role of passive smoking in pancreatic cancer among Japanese women. We examined the association between active or passive smoking and the risk of death from pancreatic cancer using data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. The cohort participants (46,395 men and 64,190 women) were followed-up for mortality from baseline (1988-1990) through December 31, 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During follow-up, we recorded 611 pancreatic cancer deaths. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, current smokers had a significantly increased risk of death from pancreatic cancer compared with non-smokers, with an RR of 1.70 (95% CI: 1.33-2.19). The risk of death from pancreatic cancer significantly increased with increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked per day. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in public spaces was not associated with risk of death from pancreatic cancer. The RR for women who reported ETS exposure was 1.20 (95% CI: 0.87-1.67). Women exposed to ETS during childhood or adolescence had 1.21-fold increased risk, but the association was statistically insignificant. Cigarette smoking is associated with an approximately 70% increase in the risk of death from pancreatic cancer. Further studies with improved exposure assessment are needed to better quantify the association between passive smoking and pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2013 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Does vitamin E prevent tubal damage caused by smoking? A light microscopy and animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Muzeyyen; Ustunyurt, Emin; Kosus, Aydin; Kosus, Nermin; Turhan, Nilgun; Hızlı, Deniz; Sarac, Gulce Naz; Erdogan, Deniz

    2014-04-01

    To assess the histomorphological effects of smoking on the cilia of fallopian tubes in mice and the effect of vitamin E on the negative effects of smoke. Eighteen 12-14 week-old Swiss albino type female mice were randomly divided into three groups, each consisting of six mice: Group A: control group; Group B: mice exposed to cigarette smoke; Group C: mice exposed to cigarette smoke together with vitamin E. Groups B and C were exposed to cigarette smoke for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, tubal excision was performed in all animals. Histopathologic examination of excised tubal tissue was conducted under light microscopy. The number of cilia was significantly lower in Group B. Although not statistically significant, the median number of cilia in Group C was measured to be higher than in Group B but lower than in Group A. Based on the results, it can be concluded that smoking decreases tubal cilia numbers. Supplementation by vitamin E may treat or at least help to slow down the decrease in number of cilia caused by smoking; therefore it could be used therapeutically in the treatment of smoking-related tubal damage. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of active and passive smoking, and associated factors, in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP region in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is an important health threat in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and main factors associated with smoking in persons of 15 years and over, and the frequency of passive smoking in homes in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP Region in Turkey. Methods A cross sectional design was employed. The sample waschosen by the State Institute of Statistics using a stratified cluster probability sampling method. 1126 houses representing the SEAP Region were visited. Questionnaires about tobacco smoking and related factors were applied to 2166 women and 1906 men (of 15 years old and above in their homes. Face-to-face interview methods were employed. Participants were classified as current, ex, and non-smokers. The presence of a regular daily smoker in a house was used as an indication of passive smoking. The chi-square andlogistic regressionanalysis methods were used for the statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of smoking, in those of 15 years and over, was 11.8% in women and 49.7% in men. The prevalence of current smokers was higher in urban (34.5 % than in rural (22.8 % regions. The mean of total cigarette consumption was 6.5 packs/year in women and 17.9 packs/year in men. There was at least one current smoker in 70.1% of the houses. Conclusion Smoking is a serious problem in the South-eastern Anatolian Region. Male gender, middle age, a high level of education and urban residency were most strongly associated with smoking.

  8. Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerd, Sabina de; Thomas, Chris M.G.; Kuster, Josien E.T.G.; Cikot, Rolf J.L.M.; Steegers, Eric A.P.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ≥20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

  9. Hemispheric side of damage influences sex-related differences in smoking cessation in neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaznick, Natassia; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of smoking behavior vary between the sexes. There is evidence that decision making, which is one of the key "executive functions" necessary for making life-style modifications such as smoking cessation, is relatively lateralized to the right hemisphere in males and left hemisphere in females. In the current study, we examined whether the side of brain lesion has a differential effect on smoking behavior between the sexes. We hypothesized sex differences in smoking cessation based on lesion side. Participants were 49 males and 50 females who were smoking at the time of lesion onset. The outcome variable was abstinence from smoking (quit rate) at least one year post lesion. We found that in patients with left-hemisphere damage, quit rates were significantly higher in males than in females; however, in patients with right-hemisphere damage, quit rates were not statistically different. The findings support previous cognitive neuroscience literature showing that components of behavior responsible for maintaining addiction tend to be more strongly lateralized in males, whereas in females there is a more bilateral distribution. Our study provides further evidence for differences in lateralization of complex behavior between the sexes, which has significant implications for differences in treatment strategies between the sexes.

  10. Haertel's turbidity test and extraction of conifer needles by benzene as methods for the determination of smoke-induced damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materna, J; Hrncirova, L

    1960-01-01

    The applicability of the Haertel turbidity test to the assessment of smoke damage to conifers is based on the observation that needles from smoke damage to conifers is based on the observation that needles from smoke-damaged areas eliminate less wax than undamaged needles. Of the various organic solvent and extraction methods tested, best results were obtained by a half-hour extraction of the wax from the needle surface with cold benzene. The evaporation residue from this extraction method contained only traces of components from the inside of the needles; microscopic examination of the surface of the needles revealed that all wax was removed from the needle surface fissures. Comparison of wax quantities extracted from needles from smoke-damage areas with those from healthy needles and comparison of wax yields from areas which suffered different degrees of smoke damage confirmed that higher wax yields are obtained from healthy than from smoke-damaged needles. Comparison with results of turbidity tests disclosed that benzene extraction yields decreased with increasing turbidity test values, indicating that increased turbidity of smoke-damaged needles is not caused by wax. In the Haertel test extract, silicon, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, iron, nitrogenous substances, tannin, glycides, and waxes were found. It is as yet unresolved which substances contribute to increased turbidity from smoke damage.

  11. Pacemaker Implantation Associated Myocardial Micro-Damage: A Randomised Comparison between Active and Passive Fixation Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažek, Patrick; Ferri-Certić, Jerko; Vražić, Hrvoje; Lennerz, Carsten; Grebmer, Christian; Kaitani, Kazuaki; Karch, Martin; Starčević, Boris; Semmler, Verena; Kolb, Christof

    2018-03-20

    Fixation of the pacemaker leads during pacemaker implantation leads to an increase of cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) that can be interpreted as a sign of minimal myocardial damage. This trial evaluates whether the mechanism type of lead fixation influences the magnitude of cTnT release. Patients having a de-novo cardiac pacemaker implantation or a lead revision were centrally randomized to receive either a ventricular lead with an active (screw) or passive (tine) fixation mechanism. High-sensitive Troponin T (hsTnT) was determined on the day of the procedure beforehand and on the following day. 326 Patients (median age (IQR) 75.0 (69.0-80.0) years, 64% male) from six international centers were randomized to receive ventricular leads with an active (n = 166) or passive (n = 160) fixation mechanism. Median (IQR) hsTnT levels increased by 0.009 (0.004-0.021) ng/ml in the group receiving screw-in ventricular leads and by 0.008 (0.003-0.030) ng/ml in the group receiving tined ventricular leads (n.s.). In conclusion pacemaker implantations are followed by a release of hsTnT. The choice between active or passive fixation ventricular leads does not have a significant influence on the extent of myocardial injury and the magnitude of hsTnT release.

  12. Role of active and passive smoking in high-risk human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui Mei; Hu, Shang Ying; Zhao, Fang Hui; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Xun; Wallach, Asya Izraelit; Qiao, You Lin

    2017-09-01

    We performed a pooled analysis to examine cigarette smoking and household passive smoke exposure in relation to the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+). Data were pooled from 12 cross-sectional studies for cervical cancer screenings from 10 provinces of China in 1999-2007. A total of 16,422 women were analyzed, along with 2,392 high-risk-HPV (hr-HPV) positive women and 381 CIN2+ cases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for sexual and non-sexual confounding factors. There was an excess risk between active smoking and hr-HPV infection and CIN2+. Adjusted OR for ever smokers vs. never smokers was 1.45 (95% CI=1.10-1.91), for hr-HPV infection and 1.89 (95% CI=1.03-3.44), for CIN2+. Passive smoking had a slightly increased risk on the hr-HPV infection with adjusted OR 1.11 (1.00-1.24), but no statistical association was observed between passive smoke exposure and CIN2+. Compared with the neither active nor passive smokers, both active and passive smokers had a 1.57-fold (95% CI=1.14-2.15) increased risk of HPV infection and a 1.99-fold (95% CI=1.02-3.88) risk of CIN2+. Our large multi-center cross-sectional study found active smoking could increase the risk of overall hr-HPV infection and CIN2+ adjusted by passive smoking and other factors. Passive smoking mildly increased the risk of HPV infection but not the CIN2+. An interaction existed between passive tobacco exposure and active smoking for hr-HPV infection and the CIN2+. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  13. Changes in the SF-8 scores among healthy non-smoking school teachers after the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy: a comparison by passive smoke status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Itani, Yuri; Kawamura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Yuko

    2010-04-28

    The effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free workplace policy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among a healthy population are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy on HRQOL among healthy non-smoking schoolteachers with respect to their exposure to passive smoke. Two self-reported questionnaire surveys were conducted, the first before and the second after the enforcement of a total smoke-free public school policy in Nara City. A total of 1534 teachers were invited from 62 schools, and their HRQOL was assessed using six domains extracted from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8): general health perception (GH), role functioning-physical (RP), vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), mental health (MH), and role functioning-emotional (RE). The participants were divided into two groups according to their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at baseline: participants not exposed to ETS at school (non-smokers), and participants exposed to ETS at school (passive smokers). Changes in each SF-8 score were evaluated using paired t-tests for each group, and their inter-group differences were evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, school type, managerial position, and attitude towards a smoke-free policy. After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689 teachers were included in the analyses. The number of non-smokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5) and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3) in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7), SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8), MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0.7-2.9), VT (1.4, 95% CI, 0.3-2.5), SF (2

  14. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Rima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

  15. The Association between active and passive smoking and latent tuberculosis infection in adults and children in the united states: results from NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Lindsay

    Full Text Available Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children.We used the 1999-2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598 and children 3-19 years (n = 2943 and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI.LTBI prevalence in 1999-2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999-2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born, household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17-4.55. Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87-4.60. Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20-5.45 and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09-4.72 were significantly associated with LTBI.Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI. Targeted smoking prevention and cessation

  16. A Case of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia Following Short-Term Passive Smoking: An Evidence of Very High Level of Urinary Cotinine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosaku Komiya

    2010-01-01

    The level of urinary cotinine, which is a biomarker of smoke exposure, was considerably higher (0.198 μg/ml [201 ng/mg Creatinine] than that in nonsmokers, but never detected following period. This case suggests that short-term passive smoking may cause AEP.

  17. Respiratory effects in children from passive smoking of cigarettes and narghile: ISAAC Phase Three in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Y; Shaaban, R; Hassan, M; Yassine, F; Mohammad, S; Tessier, J F; Ellwood, P

    2014-11-01

    The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and asthma symptoms is well documented, but a causal relationship is inconclusive. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three was the first to report a dose-response relationship between current wheezing and exposure to parental cigarette smoke. As exposure of children to water pipe (narghile) smoke is of concern in Syria, in the ISAAC Phase Three Tartous Centre we also examined the role of parental smoking of the narghile. Parents of children aged 6-7 years completed core written questionnaires about the prevalence of symptoms, and an environmental questionnaire for other risk factors, including parental cigarette smoking. We added questions about narghile to the questionnaire. Among 2 734 pupils (49% females) surveyed, we found an association between exposure to ETS of the mother smoking cigarette or narghile and ever wheezing, nocturnal cough and severe wheeze; however, the strongest association was found when the mother smoked narghile. Mother smoking narghile was also associated with exercise wheeze. Father smoking narghile, but not cigarettes, was associated with nocturnal cough, severe wheeze and exercise wheeze. The association with current wheeze became significant when mother smoked both cigarettes and narghile; however, the effect was addititive and not synergic. We recommend that international studies investigating ETS include questions on narghile smoking.

  18. Comparison of advanced mid-sized reactors regarding passive features, core damage frequencies and core melt retention features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wider, H.

    2005-01-01

    New Light Water Reactors, whose regular safety systems are complemented by passive safety systems, are ready for the market. The special aspect of passive safety features is their actuation and functioning independent of the operator. They add significantly to reduce the core damage frequency (CDF) since the operator continues to play its independent role in actuating the regular safety devices based on modern instrumentation and control (I and C). The latter also has passive features regarding the prevention of accidents. Two reactors with significant passive features that are presently offered on the market are the AP1000 PWR and the SWR 1000 BWR. Their passive features are compared and also their core damage frequencies (CDF). The latter are also compared with those of a VVER-1000. A further discussion about the two passive plants concerns their mitigating features for severe accidents. Regarding core-melt retention both rely on in-vessel cooling of the melt. The new VVER-1000 reactor, on the other hand features a validated ex-vessel concept. (author)

  19. DNA damage by smoke: Protection by turmeric and other inhibitors of ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, L.; Shalini, V.K. (Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore (India))

    1991-01-01

    Twigs-dry leaves smoke condensate (TDS), as a source of clastogenic ROS and carcinogenic PAH, was investigated for its in vitro DNA-damaging effect in calf thymus DNA and human peripheral lymphocytes. An aqueous turmeric component--Aq.T--with an established antioxidant activity, was tested as a DNA protectant. TDS induced 13-fold damage to calf thymus DNA as judged by the emergence of a DNA damage specific, fluorescent product (em: 405 nm). Aq.T at 800 ng/microL extended 69% protection to calf thymus DNA and was comparable to the other protectants such as curcumin, BHA, vitamin E, SOD, and CAT. In human peripheral lymphocytes, TDS induced extensive DNA damage in comparison with the tumor promoter TPA, as judged by FADU. Aq.T at 300 ng/microL extended 90% protection to human lymphocyte DNA against TDS-induced damage, and was more effective than the other protectants--DABCO, D-mannitol, sodium benzoate, vitamin E (ROS quenchers), SOD, CAT (antioxidant enzymes), tannic acid, flufenamic acid, BHA, BHT, n-PG, curcumin and quercetin (antioxidants). Aq.T offered 65% protection to human lymphocyte DNA against TPA-induced damage and was comparable to SOD. The above results indicate that TDS induces substantial DNA damage in calf thymus DNA and human lymphocytes and Aq.T is an efficient protectant.

  20. Chronic cigarette smoke causes oxidative damage and apoptosis to retinal pigmented epithelial cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Fujihara

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke develop features of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Two month old C57Bl6 mice were exposed to either filtered air or cigarette smoke in a smoking chamber for 5 h/day, 5 days/week for 6 months. Eyes were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde/2% paraformaldehyde and examined for ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy. The contralateral eye was fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and examined for oxidative injury to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG immunolabeling and apoptosis by TUNEL labeling. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke had immunolabeling for 8-OHdG in 85+/-3.7% of RPE cells counted compared to 9.5+/-3.9% in controls (p<0.00001. Bruch membrane was thicker in mice exposed to smoke (1086+/-332 nm than those raised in air (543+/-132 nm; p = 0.0069. The two most pronounced ultrastructural changes (severity grading scale from 0-3 seen were a loss of basal infoldings (mean difference in grade = 1.98; p<0.0001, and an increase in intracellular vacuoles (mean difference in grade = 1.7; p<0.0001. Ultrastructural changes to Bruch membrane in cigarette-smoke exposed mice were smaller in magnitude but consistently demonstrated significantly higher grade injury in cigarette-exposed mice, including basal laminar deposits (mean difference in grade = 0.54; p<0.0001, increased outer collagenous layer deposits (mean difference in grade = 0.59; p = 0.002, and increased basal laminar deposit continuity (mean difference in grade = 0.4; p<0.0001. TUNEL assay showed a higher percentage of apoptotic RPE from mice exposed to cigarette smoke (average 8.0+/-1.1% than room air (average 0+/-0%; p = 0.043. Mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke develop evidence of oxidative damage with ultrastructural degeneration to the RPE and Bruch membrane, and RPE cell apoptosis. This model could be useful for studying the

  1. Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, L.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Kaaks, R.; Gram, I.T.; Vilier, A.; Fervers, B.; Manjer, J.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Chang-Claude, J.; Boeing, H.; Steffen, A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Sarantopoulou, M.; Palli, D.; Berrino, F.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Mattiello, A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent cohort studies suggest that increased breast cancer risks were associated with longer smoking duration, higher pack-years and a dose-response relationship with increasing pack-years of smoking between menarche and first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). Studies with comprehensive quantitative

  2. NEIL2 protects against oxidative DNA damage induced by sidestream smoke in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf H Sarker

    Full Text Available Secondhand smoke (SHS is a confirmed lung carcinogen that introduces thousands of toxic chemicals into the lungs. SHS contains chemicals that have been implicated in causing oxidative DNA damage in the airway epithelium. Although DNA repair is considered a key defensive mechanism against various environmental attacks, such as cigarette smoking, the associations of individual repair enzymes with susceptibility to lung cancer are largely unknown. This study investigated the role of NEIL2, a DNA glycosylase excising oxidative base lesions, in human lung cells treated with sidestream smoke (SSS, the main component of SHS. To do so, we generated NEIL2 knockdown cells using siRNA-technology and exposed them to SSS-laden medium. Representative SSS chemical compounds in the medium were analyzed by mass spectrometry. An increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in SSS-exposed cells was detected through the fluorescent detection and the induction of HIF-1α. The long amplicon-quantitative PCR (LA-QPCR assay detected significant dose-dependent increases of oxidative DNA damage in the HPRT gene of cultured human pulmonary fibroblasts (hPF and BEAS-2B epithelial cells exposed to SSS for 24 h. These data suggest that SSS exposure increased oxidative stress, which could contribute to SSS-mediated toxicity. siRNA knockdown of NEIL2 in hPF and HEK 293 cells exposed to SSS for 24 h resulted in significantly more oxidative DNA damage in HPRT and POLB than in cells with control siRNA. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that decreased repair of oxidative DNA base lesions due to an impaired NEIL2 expression in non-smokers exposed to SSS would lead to accumulation of mutations in genomic DNA of lung cells over time, thus contributing to the onset of SSS-induced lung cancer.

  3. DNA-nicotine adduction of lung and liver of mice exposed to passive smoking studied by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Qin; Sun Hongfang; Shi Jingyuan; Liu Yuanfang; Wang Jianjun; Lu Xiangyang; Li Kun; Zhao Qiang

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the measurement of adduction of mice lung or liver DNA with nicotine by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Mice were exposed in a toxicity infecting chamber filled up with cigarette smoke for a period of time of simulate the exposure of mice to passive smoking. The dose of nicotine inhaled by mice was determined. The results of AMS showed, when the dose of inhaled nicotine ranged from 33 μg/kg to 330 μg/kg, the adducts number of lung DNA was 10 3 -10 4 adducts/10 12 nucleotides, and the adducts increased linearly with increasing dose of nicotine; the adducts number of liver DNA reached to 10 4 -10 5 adducts/10 12 nucleotides, when the dose of nicotine ranged from 99 μg/kg to 330 μg/kg, and the adducts increased vigorously as dose of nicotine increased. Comparing the DNA adducts levels of the same nicotine dose, liver DNA adducts were more than lung DNA adducts. This study also suggested that the other components of cigarette smoke have synergic effect on the formation of nicotine derived DNA adducts

  4. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group C Deficiency Alters Cigarette Smoke DNA Damage Cell Fate and Accelerates Emphysema Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Catherine R; Zhou, Huaxin; Justice, Matthew J; Fisher, Amanda J; Saliba, Jacob; Lamb, Isaac; Wicker, Jessica; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Petrache, Irina

    2018-03-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is a major risk factor for the development of emphysema, a common disease characterized by loss of cells comprising the lung parenchyma. The mechanisms of cell injury leading to emphysema are not completely understood but are thought to involve persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic DNA damage induced by CS. Using complementary cell culture and mouse models of CS exposure, we investigated the role of the DNA repair protein, xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC), on CS-induced DNA damage repair and emphysema. Expression of XPC was decreased in mouse lungs after chronic CS exposure and XPC knockdown in cultured human lung epithelial cells decreased their survival after CS exposure due to activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Similarly, cell autophagy and apoptosis were increased in XPC-deficient mouse lungs and were further increased by CS exposure. XPC deficiency was associated with structural and functional changes characteristic of emphysema, which were worsened by age, similar to levels observed with chronic CS exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that repair of DNA damage by XPC plays an important and previously unrecognized role in the maintenance of alveolar structures. These findings support that loss of XPC, possibly due to chronic CS exposure, promotes emphysema development and further supports a link between DNA damage, impaired DNA repair, and development of emphysema.

  5. The Effects of Passive Cigarette Smoke Exposure on the Survival of the Reverse Sural Fasciocutaneous Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagatullah, Abdul Nawfar; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Bathusha, Mohd Shakir; Ramachandran, Anantha Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Background  The possibility of a person who had undergone surgery to be exposed to the ill effects of cigarette smoke is high, more so if the person lives with a smoker. With increasing popularity of reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps, a surgeon may have to manage a person who lives with a smoker or is exposed to cigarette smoke. A clear understanding of the effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps is necessary. This study was performed to establish a clearer understanding of the effects of smoking on reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps and evidence for preoperative patient counseling about smoking and smoke exposure. Objective  The study investigated effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on the survival of the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap. Methods  This was an experimental observational study conducted at the Laboratory for Animal Research Unit in the Health Campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia. Twelve adult White New Zealand rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) were divided into two groups of six. All 12 rabbits had a 2.5- × 2.5-cm reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap raised on both its hind limbs. The group exposed to cigarette smoke underwent 4 weeks of smoke exposure for 2 hours daily prior to surgery. This was then continued until analysis of the results. The control group had no intervention. All flaps were analyzed on the seventh postoperative day, after tracing on transparent plastic sheets with the necrotic area marked followed by 2D planimetry done on a grid paper. The flaps were assessed on the total flap area and survival area percentage. It was recorded as mean ± SD. The presence or absence of infection and hematoma was also noted. Results  Twelve flaps were analyzed in each group. Total mean flap area and survival area percentage of the control group were 120.33 ± 31.03 mm 2 and 80.12 ± 15.75%, respectively, whereas in the cigarette smoke-exposed group, it was 121.83 ± 17.93 mm 2

  6. Risks for heart disease and lung cancer from passive smoking by workers in the catering industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Anthony J; McGhee, Sarah M; Repace, James L; Wong, Lai-Chin; Yu, Marcus Y S; Wong, Tze-Wai; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2006-04-01

    Workers in the catering industry are at greater risk of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) when smoke-free workplace policies are not in force. We determined the exposure of catering workers to SHS in Hong Kong and their risk of death from heart disease and lung cancer. Nonsmoking catering workers were provided with screening at their workplaces and at a central clinic. Participants reported workplace, home, and leisure time exposure to SHS. Urinary cotinine was estimated by enzyme immunoassay. Catering facilities were classified into three types: nonsmoking, partially restricted smoking (with nonsmoking areas), and unrestricted smoking. Mean urinary cotinine levels ranged from 3.3 ng/ml in a control group of 16 university staff through 6.4 ng/ml (nonsmoking), 6.1 ng/ml (partially restricted), and 15.9 ng/ml (unrestricted smoking) in 104 workers who had no exposures outside of work. Workers in nonsmoking facilities had exposures to other smoking staff. We modeled workers' mortality risks using average cotinine levels, estimates of workplace respirable particulates, risk data for cancer and heart disease from cohort studies, and national (US) and regional (Hong Kong) mortality for heart disease and lung cancer. We estimated that deaths in the Hong Kong catering workforce of 200,000 occur at the rate of 150 per year for a 40-year working-lifetime exposure to SHS. When compared with the current outdoor air quality standards for particulates in Hong Kong, 30% of workers exceeded the 24-h and 98% exceeded the annual air quality objectives due to workplace SHS exposures.

  7. Tabagismo passivo no Brasil: resultados da Pesquisa Especial Do Tabagismo, 2008 Passive smoking in Brazil: results from the 2008 Special Survey on Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi descrever prevalência e características sócio-demográficas associadas ao tabagismo passivo no domicílio e no trabalho, em participantes (15+ anos de amostra populacional da Pesquisa Especial do Tabagismo, sub-amostra da PNAD 2008. O tabagismo passivo é definido como a exposição ao tabaco por não-fumante, em casa, no trabalho ou em outros locais fechados, excluídas ocupações ao ar livre. Associações com características sócio-demográficas foram estimadas por análise de regressão logística. Nos 25.005 não-fumantes, a exposição domiciliar é diária para 12,5% e ocasional para 21%. À regressão multinomial (referência: não-expostos, a exposição diária diminui com aumento de idade e tanto a exposição diária como a ocasional diminuem com maiores escolaridade e renda. Comparada à Região Sudeste, há menor exposição diária no Norte e no Centro-Oeste, e maior ocasional no Nordeste. Dos 10.933 trabalhadores, 55% dos homens e 45% das mulheres relataram exposição no trabalho e 67% exposição domiciliar adicional. A exposição no trabalho é maior em homens, nos mais velhos (55+anos e com menor escolaridade e renda; e menor no Sul. A desigualdade social no Brasil se revela também na maior exposição ao tabagismo passivo daqueles com menor escolaridade e renda.The scope of this article was to describe indoor passive smoking, at home and at work, among Brazilians (15+ years participants of the "Special Research on Smoking", a sub-sample of the PNAD 2008. Non-smokers who reported exposure to indoor household smoking were classified as daily or occasional passive smokers, based on the frequency of exposure. Associations with socio-demographic factors were verified by logistic regression analysis. Among 25,005 participants, prevalence of daily and occasional household exposure were 12.5% and 21%, respectively. Compared to those not exposed, daily exposure decreased with increasing age, schooling and income

  8. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  9. Atomic Oxygen Treatment Technique for Removal of Smoke Damage from Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S. K.; Banks, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    Soot deposits that can accumulate on surfaces of a painting during a fire can be difficult to clean from some types of paintings without damaging the underlying paint layers. A non-contact technique has been developed which can remove the soot by allowing a gas containing atomic oxygen to flow over the surface and chemically react with the soot to form carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The reaction is limited to the surface, so the underlying paint is not touched. The process can be controlled so that the cleaning can be stopped once the paint surface is reached. This paper describes the smoke exposure and cleaning of untreated canvas, acrylic gesso, and sections of an oil painting using this technique. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy and reflectance spectroscopy.

  10. Active or passive exposure to tobacco smoking and allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Saulyte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases, especially among children, and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking (AS or passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic conditions.We retrieved studies published in any language up to June 30th, 2013 by systematically searching Medline, Embase, the five regional bibliographic databases of the World Health Organization, and ISI-Proceedings databases, by manually examining the references of the original articles and reviews retrieved, and by establishing personal contact with clinical researchers. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR or relative risk (RR estimates and confidence intervals of smoking and allergic conditions, first among the general population and then among children. We retrieved 97 studies on allergic rhinitis, 91 on allergic dermatitis, and eight on food allergy published in 139 different articles. When all studies were analyzed together (showing random effects model results and pooled ORs expressed as RR, allergic rhinitis was not associated with active smoking (pooled RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.92-1.15], but was associated with passive smoking (pooled RR 1.10 [95% CI 1.06-1.15]. Allergic dermatitis was associated with both active (pooled RR, 1.21 [95% CI 1.14-1.29] and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.07 [95% CI 1.03-1.12]. In children and adolescent, allergic rhinitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.40 (95% CI 1.24-1.59 and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.09 [95% CI 1.04-1.14]. Allergic dermatitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.36 [95% CI 1.17-1.46] and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.06 [95% CI 1.01-1.11]. Food allergy was associated with SHS (1

  11. Individual fluctuations of S content in healthy, and smoke-damaged Scots Pine and the relations between S content and contents of other major nutrients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Themlitz, R

    1960-01-01

    This paper compares the sulfur content of pine needles on trees not subject to smoke damage to the sulfur content of pine needles from trees subject to smoke damage. Four stands of pines located in East and West Germany were studied. The data showed no correlation with the sulfur content, with the age of the trees, nor with the uptake of other nutrients.

  12. Lymphocyte DNA damage in elevator manufacturing workers in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tai Hing; Zhu, Chang Qi; Jiang, Chao Qiang

    2002-03-25

    To study the effect of smoking, passive smoking, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposure to low level of benzene on DNA strand breaks in elevator manufacturing workers in Guangzhou, China. Three hundred and fifty-nine workers (252 men and 107 women) of a modern elevator manufacturing factory, 205 were from production departments and 154 from managerial department. Information on the workers' health conditions, smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption and occupational exposure history was collected by personal interview. Lymphocyte DNA damage was measured by the Comet assay. None of the women smoked and 20.6% of the men were daily smokers. In non-smokers, the prevalence of passive smoking at work was 25% for men and 11.2% for women, and at home, 37.8 and 48.6%, respectively. Smoking significantly increased tail moment (P<0.001). Daily smokers had the largest tail moment (geometric mean, 95% CI) (0.93 microm (0.81-0.94)), followed by occasional smokers (0.76 microm (0.59-0.95)), ex-smokers (0.70 microm (0.58-0.85)), and never smokers (0.56 microm (0.53-0.60)). Tail moment increased significantly with daily tobacco consumption (cigarettes per day) (r=0.26, P<0.001) after adjusting for age, gender, occupational exposure, passive smoking, and drinking. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that smoking (P<0.001), passive smoking at home (P=0.026), occupational exposure (P<0.001), male gender (P<0.001), and age (P=0.001) had independent effects on tail moment, whereas passive smoking at work and alcohol drinking had no significant effect. Smoking, passive smoking at home, male gender, age and occupational exposure independently increased lymphocyte DNA strand breaks. The presence of excess DNA damage under low level of occupational exposure to benzene or other solvents suggest that the current allowance concentrations may not be safe to prevent genotoxicity.

  13. Oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure in mice: impact on lung tissue and diaphragm muscle,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Portão de Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate oxidative damage (lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS], and carbonylation and inflammation (expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin [p-AMPK and p-mTOR, respectively] in the lung parenchyma and diaphragm muscles of male C57BL-6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, or 60 days. METHODS: Thirty-six male C57BL-6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 6/group: a control group; and five groups exposed to CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control mice, CS-exposed mice presented lower body weights at 30 days. In CS-exposed mice (compared with control mice, the greatest differences (increases in TBARS levels were observed on day 7 in diaphragm-muscle, compared with day 45 in lung tissue; the greatest differences (increases in carbonyl levels were observed on day 7 in both tissue types; and sulfhydryl levels were lower, in both tissue types, at all time points. In lung tissue and diaphragm muscle, p-AMPK expression exhibited behavior similar to that of TBARS. Expression of p-mTOR was higher than the control value on days 7 and 15 in lung tissue, as it was on day 45 in diaphragm muscle. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that CS exposure produces oxidative damage, not only in lung tissue but also (primarily in muscle tissue, having an additional effect on respiratory muscle, as is frequently observed in smokers with COPD.

  14. Atomic Oxygen Treatment as a Method of Recovering Smoke Damaged Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Forkapa, Mark; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward; Malinowski, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Smoke damage, as a result of a fire, can be difficult to remove from some types of painting media without causing swelling, leaching or pigment movement or removal. A non-contact technique has been developed which can remove soot from the surface of a painting by use of a gently flowing gas containing atomic oxygen. The atomic oxygen chemically reacts with the soot on the surface creating gasses such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide which can be removed through the use of an exhaust system. The reaction is limited to the surface so that the process can be timed to stop when the paint layer is reached. Atomic oxygen is a primary component of the low Earth orbital environment, but can be generated on Earth through various methods. This paper will discuss the results of atomic oxygen treatment of soot exposed acrylic gesso, ink on paper, and a varnished oil painting. Reflectance measurements were used to characterize the surfaces before and after treatment.

  15. Contribution to the microchemistry of smoke damage by fluoride. The migration of fluorides in plant tissue. 2. The visible damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckendorfer, P

    1953-01-01

    In continuation of former investigations, a theory of damage caused by fluorine compounds on green plants was developed. It is possible to differentiate between acute and chronic damages by use of microanalytical estimation of total fluorine and inorganic and organic fluorine compounds in the plants.

  16. N-acetyl Cysteine Reduced Oxidative Damages in Guinea Pigs Exposed to Cigarette Smoke and / or Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.K.; Abd-EL Aziz, N.; El-Deghidy, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) supplementation on oxidative cigarette smoke induced-oxidative damage in irradiated guinea pigs. N-acetyl cysteine was injected (i.p) to guinea pigs at a dose of 150 mg/kg b. w/day pre-exposure to cigarette smoke for one hour daily for 30 successive days. Animals were submitted to fractionate whole body gamma radiation (2 Gy installment every two weeks up to 4 Gy total dose started on the 2nd week of the experiment). Animals were sacrificed during the first hours from the last treatment of cigarette smoke. The results obtained showed significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content associated with decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration in cardiac and pulmonary tissues as compared with their equivalent in control animals. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate transaminase (AST), concentration of nitric oxide (NO), total cholesterol, Triacylglycerol, LDL-cholesterol were significant increased in plasma associated with significant decreased HDL-cholesterol. The administration of NAC has significantly attenuated the cigarette smoke and/or irradiation-induced changes in all the studied parameters. It could be concluded that NAC reduced cigarette smoke and radiation hazards via neutralized their capability to generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals in the biological systems

  17. High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Chen, YuShan; Yin, Jinde; Zhang, Xuejun; Guo, Tuan; Yan, Peiguang

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we demonstrate a high-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror (WS2-SAM) fabricated by magnetron sputtering technique. The WS2-SAM has an all-fiber-integrated configuration and high-damage-resistant merit because the WS2 layer is protected by gold film so as to avoid being oxidized and destroyed at high pump power. Employing the WS2-SAM in an Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with linear cavity, the stable Q-switching operation is achieved at central wavelength of 1560 nm, with the repetition rates ranging from 29.5 kHz to 367.8 kHz and the pulse duration ranging from 1.269 μs to 154.9 ns. For the condition of the maximum pump power of 600 mW, the WS2-SAM still works stably with an output power of 25.2 mW, pulse energy of 68.5 nJ, and signal-noise-ratio of 42 dB. The proposed WS2-SAM configuration provides a promising solution for advanced pulsed fiber lasers with the characteristics of high damage resistance, high output energy, and wide tunable frequency.

  18. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking (CS is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  19. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  20. Effects of passive smoking in the work place on expiration air carbon monoxide (Co) and carboxihemoglobin (cohb) levels: results of a survey in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acimis, N.M.; Bostanci, M.; Ergin, A.; Bozkurt, A.Y.; Ozsahin, A.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of smoking and the effects of passive smoking among bank employees. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2001 and 2002. Data was collected through questionnaire. The level of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and the percentage of Carboxihemoglobin (COHb) level in the blood were measured by using Bend fond Pico Smokerlyser. Chi-square and ANOVA were used. Six hundred fifty four respondents participated in the study which included 384 (58.7%) male and 267 (40.6%) female. The mean value for CO in the expiration air was 14.57+-11.1 ppm [(18.49 +- 11.21, 7.74 +- 5.71 and 4.85 +- 2.35; for current smokers, non-smokers with current exposure and non-smokers without current exposure, respectively (p<0.001)]. The mean value for COHb % was 2.97 +- 1.9 [(3.60 +- 1.88, 1.80 +- 1.17 and 1.21 +- 0.99; for current smokers, non-smokers with current exposure and non-smokers without current exposure, respectively (p<0.001)]. Passive smoking is still a significant health problem in the work place. Anti-tobacco implementations should be carried out strictly in all work places. (author)

  1. Smoking modify the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure on oxidative damage to DNA in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zhang, Hongjie; Zhang, Huitao; Wang, Wubin; Liu, Yanli; Fan, Yanfeng

    2017-07-01

    Coke oven emissions containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominant toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that have been linked to increased risk of lung cancer. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that oxidative DNA damage may play a pivotal role in the carcinogenic mechanism of lung cancer. Little is known about the effect of interaction between PAHs exposure and lifestyle on DNA oxidative damage. The study population is composed by coke oven workers (365) and water treatment workers (144), and their urinary levels of four PAH metabolites and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined. Airborne samples of exposed sites (4) and control sites (3) were collected, and eight carcinogenic PAHs were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The median values of the sum of eight carcinogenic PAHs and BaP in exposed sites were significantly higher than control sites (P < 0.01). The study found that the urinary PAH metabolites were significantly elevated in coke oven workers (P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of high levels of urinary 8-OHdG will increase with increasing age, cigarette consumption, and levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, and P for trend were all <0.05. Smoking can significantly modify the effects of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene on high concentrations urinary 8-OHdG, during co-exposure to both light or heavy smoking and high 1-hydroxypyrene levels (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.32-13.86 and OR 5.05, 95% CI 1.63-15.67, respectively). Our findings quantitatively demonstrate that workers exposed to coke oven fumes and smoking will cause more serious DNA oxidative damage.

  2. Cigarette smoking: health effects of passive smoking. January 1970-February 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-February 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the health consequences of involuntary tobacco smoking. The effects of cigarette pollutants on humans is emphasized. Animal studies are included. Discussion of the specific pollutants and their effects are presented. (Contains 56 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  3. Oxidatively damaged DNA and its repair after experimental exposure to wood smoke in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Barregard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    after controlled short-term exposure of human volunteers to wood smoke. Thirteen healthy adults were exposed first to clean air and then to wood smoke in a chamber during 4h sessions, 1 week apart. Blood samples were taken 3h after exposure and on the following morning, and urine was collected after...... moiety X-type motif 1 (hNUDT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (hHO1) were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in urine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography purification followed by gas...

  4. "Conclusions about exposure to ETS and health that will be unhelpful to us": how the tobacco industry attempted to delay and discredit the 1997 Australian National Health and Medical Research Council report on passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, L; Chapman, S

    2003-12-01

    Major reviews of the health effects of passive smoking have been subjected to tobacco industry campaigns to refute the scientific evidence. Following the 1992 US Environmental Protection Agency review, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) initiated a review of the health effects of passive smoking. At the time of this review, evidence that environmental tobacco smoke causes disease was being increasingly accepted in courts of law and voluntary adoption of smoking restrictions was rapidly growing. To demonstrate how the tobacco industry attempted to delay and discredit the publication of a report on passive smoking that the tobacco industry anticipated to contain recommendations that would be unfavourable to their business. A search of tobacco industry documents on the Master Settlement Agreement websites was conducted using the terms and acronyms representative of the NHMRC review. The tobacco industry sought to impede the progress of the NHMRC Working Party by launching an intensive campaign to delay and discredit the report. The main strategies used were attempts to criticise the science, extensive use of Freedom of Information provisions to monitor all activity of the group, legal challenges, ad hominem attacks on the credibility of the Working Party members, rallying support from industry allies, and influencing public opinion through the media. The Australian tobacco industry deliberately impeded the NHMRC Working Party's progress and successfully prevented the publication of the report's recommendations. The tobacco industry's motivation and capacity to disrupt the advancement of scientific knowledge and policy in tobacco control should be recognised and anticipated.

  5. Recent studies on smoke-, dust-, and waste gas-induced damages. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garber, K

    1962-01-01

    This paper covers the effects that fluoride compounds have on plants, animals, and man. Fluorides cause damage to plant leaves (fluorosis) and a retardation of growth. These injuries can reduce the productivity of plants. Cattle and poultry exposed to fluorine compounds develop brittle bones and teeth. These problems lead to loss of weight and loss of productivity. Man also develops brittle bones and teeth when exposed to a high level of fluorine. 607 references.

  6. The occurrence of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils of children dependent on gender, living place and influence of passive smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of occurrence calcium content in pharyngeal tonsils from 60 girls and 90 boys living in 9 region of Upper Silesia is presented in this article. Analysis of content of Ca in pharyngheal tonsils was observed in four groups of children: girls and boys exposed to tobacco smoke and unexposed to tabacco smoke, influence parameters environments on contents Ca in tissue tonsil and the cross-correlation analysis between content of ion Ca and other metals Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mg, Ba, showed repeating co-dependences between Ca in girls from Cd, Al., Zn, Ni, Pb. In case of boys colective dependence was been dependence Ca in Mg, Cd, Zn. Arithmetic mean of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils from exposed girls was 1345.00 µg/g, in comparison to unexposed girls 1292.88 µg/g, in exposed to tobacco smoke boys- 1832.63 µg/g and unexposed boys 565.05 µg/g. It turned out that gender perform important part in absorbed calcium and here noticeable was been big ability to concentrate toxic metals in girls

  7. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  8. Atomic Oxygen Treatment as a Method of Recovering Smoke Damaged Paintings. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Forkapa, Mark; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward; Malinowski, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    A noncontact technique is described that uses atomic oxygen, generated under low pressure in the presence of nitrogen, to remove soot and charred varnish from the surface of a painting. The process, which involves surface oxidation, permits control of the amount of surface material removed. The effectiveness of the process was evaluated by reflectance measurements from selected areas made during the removal of soot from acrylic gesso, ink on paper, and varnished oil paint substrates. For the latter substrate, treatment also involved the removal of damaged varnish and paint binder from the surface.

  9. Damaging Effect of Cigarette Smoke in Gamma-Irradiated Rats: Possible Protection by Certain Natural Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashoub, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be defined as any type of electromagnetic (such as X- or gamma) rays or particle radiation (such as neutron or alpha particles) with sufficient energy to ionize atoms or molecules; that is, to eject electrons from their outer orbitals (Eggermont et al., 2006). Radiations may be directly or indirectly ionizing. All of the charged particles previously discussed including particles and heavy ions are directly ionizing; that is, provided the individual particles that have sufficient kinetic energy. They can directly disrupt the atomic structure of the absorber through which they pass, and produce chemical and biological changes. Electromagnetic radiations (X- and gamma rays) are indirectly ionizing. They do not produce chemical or biological damage themselves, but when they are absorbed in the material through which they pass they give up their energy to produce fast-moving electrons that stimulate the living cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS); which in turn can induce oxidative damage to vital cellular molecules including DNA, proteins and lipids (Spitz et al., 2004). The amount or quantity of ionizing radiation, or as it is usually called, the dose, is measured in terms of the energy absorbed in the tissues. The unit of absorbed dose is the Gray (Gy) defined to be an energy absorption of 1 joule per kilogram. In some instances, the dose is very much less than one Gray and then the units milligray (mGy) or micro gray (μGy) are used. There are 1000 mGy or one million μGy in 1 Gy. A total body dose of 5 Gy to a human being would most probably be fatal; the average natural background radiation to which one is exposed is about 3 mGy per year. Equal doses of different types of radiation do not necessarily produce equal biological effects. For example, 0.5 Gy of neutrons is more effective than 0.5 Gy of X-rays. In general, X-rays, gamma rays, and electrons are least effective for a given dose, while heavy ions are the most damaging

  10. Concentrations of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in blood and urine after passive exposure to Cannabis smoke in a coffee shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrich, J; Schimmel, I; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Drobnik, S; Kaufmann, T; Kuntz, V; Urban, R

    2010-05-01

    Cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine after passive exposure to cannabis smoke under real-life conditions were investigated in this study. Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to cannabis smoke for 3 h in a well-attended coffee shop in Maastricht, Netherlands. An initial blood and urine sample was taken from each volunteer before exposure. Blood samples were taken 1.5, 3.5, 6, and 14 h after start of initial exposure, and urine samples were taken after 3.5, 6, 14, 36, 60, and 84 h. The samples were subjected to immunoassay screening for cannabinoids and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). It could be demonstrated that all volunteers absorbed THC. However, the detected concentrations were rather small. None of the urine samples produced immunoassay results above the cutoff concentration of 25 ng/mL. THC-COOH concentrations up to 5.0 and 7.8 ng/mL before and after hydrolysis, respectively, were found in the quantitative GC-MS analysis of urine. THC could be detected in trace amounts close to the detection limit of the used method in the first two blood samples after initial exposure (1.5 and 3.5 h). In the 6 h blood samples, THC was not detectable anymore. THC-COOH could be detected after 1.5 h and was still found in 3 out of 8 blood samples after 14 h in concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL.

  11. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in exhaled human breath. Acetonitrile as biomarker for passive smoking. Model for isoprene in human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prazeller, P.

    2000-03-01

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath under various circumstances. The composition of exhaled breath reflects metabolic processes in the human body. Breath analysis is a non invasive technique which makes it most interesting especially for medical or toxicological applications. Measurements were done with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS). This technique combines the advantage of small fragmentation of chemical ionization with highly time resolved mass spectrometry. A big part of this work is about investigations of exposition due to tobacco smoke. After smoking cigarettes the initial increase and time dependence of some compounds in the human breath are monitored . The calculated decrease resulting only from breathing out the compounds is presented and compared to the measured decline in the breath. This allows the distinction whether breathing is the dominant loss of a compound or a different metabolic process remover it more efficiently. Acetonitrile measured in human breath is presented as a biomarker for exposition to tobacco smoke. Especially its use for quantification of passive smoking, the exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is shown. The reached accuracy and the fast way of measuring of acetonitrile in human breath using PTR-MS offer a good alternative to common used biomarkers. Numerous publications have described measurements of breath isoprene in humans, and there has been a hope that breath isoprene analyses could be a non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess serum cholesterol levels or cholesterol synthesis rate. However, significant analytical problems in breath isoprene analysis and variability in isoprene levels with age, exercise, diet, etc. have limited the usefulness of these measurements. Here, we have applied proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to this problem, allowing on-line detection of breath isoprene. We show that breath isoprene

  12. Passive opium smoking does not have beneficial effect on plasma lipids and cardiovascular indices in hypercholesterolemic rabbits with ischemic and non-ischemic hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Joukar, Siyavash; Malekpour-Afshar, Reza; Mirzaeipour, Fateme; Nasri, Hamid Reza

    2010-02-03

    To scientifically test a traditionally belief of some Asian countries residents that opium may prevent or have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) we investigated the effect of passive opium smoking (POS) on plasma lipids and some cardiovascular parameters in hypercholesterolemic rabbits with ischemic and non-ischemic hearts. 40 rabbits were fed for 2 weeks with cholesterol-enriched diet and divided to control (CTL), short-term opium (SO) and long-term opium (LO) groups. SO and LO groups were exposed to POS for 3 days and 4 weeks respectively. ECG, blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular pressure recorded and serum lipid and cardiac troponin I levels were measured. Isoproterenol (ISO) injected for induction of cardiac ischemia and after 4h the above variables were measured along with cardiac histopathology assessment. HDL cholesterol decreased significantly in LO compared to CTL group (35+/-5 vs 53+/-5mg/dl). Groups treated with ISO showed significantly higher increments in troponin I level (POpium exposure caused a trend of increase in blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and ECG disturbances, attenuated ISO induced myonecrosis but augmented tissue congestion and hemorrhage. POS can be considered as a CVD risk factor. Opium does not reduce BP or cholesterol level, as is anticipated by its users. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. E-cigarette smoke damages DNA and reduces repair activity in mouse lung, heart, and bladder as well as in human lung and bladder cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Park, Sung-Hyun; Weng, Mao-wen; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Huang, William C.; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Chen, Lung-Chi; Tang, Moon-shong

    2018-01-01

    Significance E-cigarette smoke (ECS) delivers nicotine through aerosols without burning tobacco. ECS is promoted as noncarcinogenic. We found that ECS induces DNA damage in mouse lung, bladder, and heart and reduces DNA-repair functions and proteins in lung. Nicotine and its nitrosation product 4-(methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone can cause the same effects as ECS and enhance mutations and tumorigenic cell transformation in cultured human lung and bladder cells. These results indica...

  14. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hausswirth

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC, far infrared (FIR or passive (PAS modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being] were recorded before, immediately after (post, post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h, while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

  15. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities. PMID:22163272

  16. Forekomsten af passiv rygning i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T S; Møller, L; Holstein, B E

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of passive smoking in the adult population in Denmark has not been described previously. This article publishes data from three investigations all of which were carried out in 1987. One was an interview investigation of a random section of the Danish population carried out by the D...... inconvenienced by passive smoking at work and a corresponding fraction had taken steps to reduce the extent of passive smoking in their daily life. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-Aug-27...... showed consistent results as regards the occurrence of passive smoking among adult Danes. About 12% of non-smokers were exposed to passive smoking for at least eight hours and 40% for at least one hour daily. Altogether 73% were exposed to passive smoking daily. About one third of the non-smokers were...

  17. Impact of active and passive smoking as risk factors for asthma and COPD in women presenting to primary care in Syria: first report by the WHO-GARD survey group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Yousser; Shaaban, Rafea; Al-Zahab, Bassam Abou; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bousquet, Jean; Dubaybo, Basim

    2013-01-01

    The burden of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) is alarming. International studies suggest that women with CRD are undersurveyed and underdiagnosed by physicians worldwide. It is unclear what the prevalence of CRD is in the general population of Syria, particularly among women, since there has never been a survey on CRD in this nation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of different patterns of smoking on CRD in women. We extracted data on smoking patterns and outcome in women from the Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases survey. Using spirometric measurements before and after the use of inhaled bronchodilators, we tracked the frequency of CRD in females active and passive narghile or cigarette smokers presenting to primary care. We administered the questionnaire to 788 randomly selected females seen during 1 week in the fiscal year 2009-2010 in 22 primary care centers in six different regions of Syria. Inclusion criteria were age >6 years, presenting for any medical complaint. In this cross-sectional study, three groups of female subjects were evaluated: active smokers of cigarettes, active smokers of narghiles, and passive smokers of either cigarettes or narghiles. These three groups were compared to a control group of female subjects not exposed to active or passive smoking. Exposure to active cigarette smoke but not narghile smoke was associated with doctor-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, neither cigarette nor narghile active smoking was associated with increased incidence of spirometrically diagnosed COPD. Paradoxically, exposure to passive smoking of either cigarettes or narghiles resulted in association with airway obstruction, defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 70% according to the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria; association with FEV1 < 80% predicted, evidencing moderate to severe GOLD spirometric grade

  18. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  19. Assessment of Multiple Types of DNA Damage in Human Placentas from Smoking and Non-smoking Women in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Pratt, M.; King, Leon C.; Adams, Linda D.; John, Kaarthik; Sirajuddin, Paul; Olivero, Ofelia A.; Manchester, David K.; Sram, Radim J.; DeMarini, David M.; Poirier, Miriam C.

    2010-01-01

    Three classes of DNA damage were assessed in human placentas collected (in 2000-4) from 51 women living in the Teplice region of the Czech Republic, a mining area considered to have some of the worst environmental pollution in Europe in the 1980s. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were localized and semiquantified using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS). More generalized DNA damage was measured both by 32P-postlabeling and by abasic (AB) site analysis. Placenta stained with antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) revealed PAH-DNA adduct localization in nuclei of the cytotrophoblast (CT) cells and syncytiotrophoblast (ST) knots lining the chorionic villi. The highest levels of DNA damage, 49–312 PAH-DNA adducts/108 nucleotides, were found by IHC/ACIS in 14 immediately-fixed placenta samples. An additional 37 placenta samples were stored frozen before fixation and embedding, and because PAH-DNA adducts were largely undetectable in these samples, freezing was implicated in the loss of IHC signal. The same placentas (n = 37) contained 1.7 – 8.6 stable/bulky DNA adducts/108 nucleotides and 0.6 – 47.2 AB sites/105 nucleotides. For all methods there was no correlation among types of DNA damage and no difference in extent of DNA damage between smokers and non-smokers. Therefore, the data show that DNA from placentas obtained in Teplice contained multiple types of DNA damage, which likely arose from various environmental exposures. In addition, PAH-DNA adducts were present at high concentrations in the CT cells and ST knots of the chorionic villi. PMID:20839217

  20. A motivational interviewing intervention to PREvent PAssive Smoke Exposure (PREPASE) in children with a high risk of asthma: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Sasha G; Mesters, Ilse; van Breukelen, Gerard; Muris, Jean Wm; Feron, Frans Jm; Hammond, S Katharine; van Schayck, Constant P; Dompeling, Edward

    2013-02-27

    Especially children at risk for asthma are sensitive to the detrimental health effects of passive smoke (PS) exposure, like respiratory complaints and allergic sensitisation. Therefore, effective prevention of PS exposure in this group of vulnerable children is important. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that an effective intervention program to prevent PS exposure in children is possible by means of a motivational interviewing tailored program with repeated contacts focussing on awareness, knowledge, beliefs (pros/cons), perceived barriers and needs of parents, in combination with feedback about urine cotinine levels of the children. The aim of the PREPASE study is to test the effectiveness of such an intervention program towards eliminating or reducing of PS exposure in children at risk for asthma. This article describes the protocol of the PREPASE study. The study is a one-year follow-up randomized controlled trial. Families with children (0-13 years of age) having an asthma predisposition who experience PS exposure at home are randomized into an intervention group receiving an intervention or a control group receiving care as usual. The intervention is given by trained research assistants. The intervention starts one month after a baseline measurement and takes place once per month for an hour during six home based counselling sessions. The primary outcome measure is the percentage of families curtailing PS exposure in children (parental report verified with the urine cotinine concentrations of the children) after 6 months. The secondary outcome measures include: household nicotine level, the child's lung function, airway inflammation and oxidative stress, presence of wheezing and questionnaires on respiratory symptoms, and quality of life. A process evaluation is included. Most of the measurements take place every 3 months (baseline and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of study). The PREPASE study incorporates successful elements of previous interventions

  1. Attitudes towards passive smoking at restaurants and effects of the provision of information: A comparison between smokers and non-smokers via a web survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Reiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Goto, Rei; Suwa, Kiyomi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our objectives were to conduct a web-based survey using adult participants to investigate 1) differences in attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers between smokers and non-smokers and 2) the potential impact of knowledge regarding the harmful effects of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) on smoker behavior in a restaurant.Method Japanese smokers and non-smokers aged 20 to 69 were separately sampled and both groups were randomly allocated to either a knowledge group or a control group. The participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire to capture their attitudes and how they think they would behave in a restaurant where it was not clear whether smoking is prohibited or not. Data were analyzed using a t-test for numerical variables and a χ 2 test for categorical variables. Logistic regression analysis was also conducted to elucidate the factors influencing the smoking behavior near non-smokers.Results Overall, 2,157 participants were surveyed (smokers, n=1,084; non-smokers, n=1,073). Among smokers who intended to smoke in the restaurant, 24.8% answered that they would ask for permission from nearby persons before lighting up. However, only 2.8% of non-smokers had ever actually been asked for such permission. The percentage of smokers who would smoke in the restaurant was significantly lower in the knowledge group (16.4%) than the control group (22.8%). The most common reason for refraining from smoking was a lack of an ashtray on the table in both groups. Among the non-smokers, 37.4% of the knowledge group and 27.6% of the control group answered that they did not like nearby smoking. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking in restaurants was significantly associated with nicotine dependence, household income, pregnancy, smoking place in the home, age, and SHS knowledge.Conclusion This study suggested that most non-smokers do not inform smokers that they do not like nearby smoking. It was also

  2. An indoor air quality-pharmacokinetic simulation of passive inhalation of marijuana smoke and the resultant buildup of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, N J

    1997-03-01

    In military courts of law, the good soldier defense is often used by the defendant to explain the presence of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine (hereafter referred to as THCA) above the Department of Defense (DOD) established limit of 15 ng/mL. The defense will contend the defendant unwittingly breathed side-stream marijuana smoke, thus resulting in the presence of THCA in the defendant's urine. The purpose of this work was to link an indoor air quality model (IAQ) with a pharmacokinetic (PK) model to predict a passive marijuana smoker's resultant concentration of the major urinary metabolite THCA.

  3. Passive electromagnetic NDE for mechanical damage inspection by detecting leakage magnetic flux. (I. Reconstruction of magnetic charges from detected field signals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenmao; Aoto, Kazumi; Kato, Syoichi

    1999-07-01

    In this report, reconstruction of magnetic charges induced by mechanical damages in a test piece of SUS304 stainless steel is performed as a part of efforts to establish a passive nondestructive testing method on the basis of the inspection of leakage magnetic field. The approach for solving this typical ill-posed inverse problem is selected as a way in the least square method category. Concerning the ill-poseness of the system of equations, an iteration algorithm is adopted to its solving in which the designations of initial profile, the weight coefficients and the total number of iterations are taken as means of regularization. From examples using simulated input data, it is verified that the approach gives good reconstruction results in case of signals with a relative high S/N ratio. For improving the robustness of the proposed method, a Galerkin procedure with base functions chosen as the Daubechies' wavelet is also introduced for discretizing the governing equation. By comparing the reconstruction results of the least square method and those using wavelet discretization, it is found that the wavelet used approach is more feasible in the inversion of noise polluted signals. Reconstruction of 1-D and 2-D magnetic charges with the least square strategy and reconstruction of an 1-D problem with the wavelet used method are carried out from both simulated and measured magnetic field signals which are used as the validation of the proposed inversion strategy. (author)

  4. Tobacco Smoke: Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Stable Free Radicals in Mechanisms of Oxidative Damage, Carcinogenesis and Synergistic Effects with Other Respirable Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Fiotakis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains many toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals, as well as stable and unstable free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS in the particulate and the gas phase with the potential for biological oxidative damage. Epidemiological evidence established that smoking is one of the most important extrinsic factor of premature morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate oxidative and carcinogenic mechanisms of tobacco and synergistic action with other respirable particles in the respiratory system of smokers. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR and spin- trapping techniques were used to study stable free radicals in the cigarette tar, and unstable superoxide anion (O2·- and hydroxyl (HO· radicals in the smoke Results showed that the semiquinone radical system has the potential for redox recycling and oxidative action. Further, results proved that aqueous cigarette tar (ACT solutions can generate adducts with DNA nucleobases, particularly the mutagenic 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (a biomarker for carcinogenesis.Also, we observed synergistic effects in the generation of HO·, through the Fenton reaction, with environmental respirable particles (asbestos fibres, coal dust, etc. and ambient particulate matter (PM, such as PM10, PM2.5 and diesel exhaust particles (DEP. The highest synergistic effects was observed with the asbestos fibres (freshly grounded, PM2.5 and DEP. Finally, we discuss results from our previous study of conventional cellulose acetate filters and “bio-filters” with hemoglobin impregnated activated carbon, which showed that these filters do not substantially alter the free radical content of smoke in the particulate and in the gaseous phase.

  5. Tobacco Smoke: Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Stable Free Radicals in Mechanisms of Oxidative Damage, Carcinogenesis and Synergistic Effects with Other Respirable Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Vlachogianni, Thomais; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains many toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals, as well as stable and unstable free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the particulate and the gas phase with the potential for biological oxidative damage. Epidemiological evidence established that smoking is one of the most important extrinsic factor of premature morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate oxidative and carcinogenic mechanisms of tobacco and synergistic action with other respirable particles in the respiratory system of smokers. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and spin-trapping techniques were used to study stable free radicals in the cigarette tar, and unstable superoxide anion (O2•−) and hydroxyl (HO•) radicals in the smoke Results showed that the semiquinone radical system has the potential for redox recycling and oxidative action. Further, results proved that aqueous cigarette tar (ACT) solutions can generate adducts with DNA nucleobases, particularly the mutagenic 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (a biomarker for carcinogenesis). Also, we observed synergistic effects in the generation of HO•, through the Fenton reaction, with environmental respirable particles (asbestos fibres, coal dust, etc.) and ambient particulate matter (PM), such as PM10, PM2.5 and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). The highest synergistic effects was observed with the asbestos fibres (freshly grounded), PM2.5 and DEP. Finally, we discuss results from our previous study of conventional cellulose acetate filters and “bio-filters” with hemoglobin impregnated activated carbon, which showed that these filters do not substantially alter the free radical content of smoke in the particulate and in the gaseous phase. PMID:19440393

  6. The effect of tobacco smoke exposure on the generation of reactive oxygen species and cellular membrane damage using co-culture model of blood brain barrier with astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung-Beom; Choe, Eun Sang; Kim, Kwang-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2017-06-01

    Brain tissue is known to be vulnerable to the exposure by tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke can induce generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing inflammatory activity and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on cell cytotoxicity, generation of ROS, and cellular membrane damage in astrocytes and BBB using a co-culture system. Cell viability of U373MG cells was reduced in a dose-dependent manner, ranging from 96.7% to 40.3% by tobacco smoke condensate (TSC). Cell viability of U373MG co-cultured with human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) was 104.9% at the IC 50 value of TSC. Trans-epithelial electric resistance values drastically decreased 80% following 12-h incubation. The value was maintained until 48 h and then increased at 72-h incubation (85%). It then decreased to 75% at 120 h. Generation of ROS increased in a dose-dependent manner, ranging from 102.7% to 107.9%, when various concentrations of TSC (4-16 mg/mL) were administered to the U373MG monoculture. When TSC was added into U373MG co-cultured with HBMECs, production of ROS ranged from 101.7% to 102.6%, slightly increasing over 12 h. Maximum exposure-generated ROS of 104.8% was reached at 24 h. Cell cytotoxicity and oxidative stress levels in the U373MG co-culture model system with HBMECs were lower than U373MG monoculture. HBMECs effectively acted as a barrier to protect the astrocytes (U373MG) from toxicity of TSC.

  7. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  8. The effect of cigarette smoking on endothelial damage and atherosclerosis development – modeled and analyzed using Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewska Kaja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis as one of the crucial causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVD is the leading reason of death worldwide. One of the contributing factors to this phenomenon is endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with the impact of various agents and their interactions. Tobacco smoke is one of the well known factors here. For better understanding of its significance a model of its impact on atherosclerotic plaque formation has been proposed. The model contains selected aspects of the influence of tobacco smoke, dual function of nitric oxide (NO (influence of various mechanisms on NO bioavailability, oxidative stress which promotes low density lipoproteins oxidation, macrophages significance and other mechanisms leading to an aggravation of the endothelial disturbances. The model has been built using Petri nets theory and the analysis has been based on t-invariants. This approach allowed to confirm the important role of inflammation and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis development and moreover it has shown the considerable influence of the cigarette smoke.

  9. [Did household parental smoking attitude change over the last 15 years? A survey among primary school children in the city of Agrigento, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Serena; de Gregorio, Cesare; Magro, Laura; Fernandez, Dalila; Sacchi, Gabriella; Sarullo, Filippo Maria; Magro, Francesco; Novo, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Exposure of children to passive tobacco smoking in the household setting has been demonstrated to cause respiratory diseases. Early atherosclerosis has also been demonstrated in young people previously exposed to passive tobacco smoking. Functional damage can initiate at the fetal age due to maternal smoking, with a tendency towards over-time progress. To date only scant data are available about indoor parental smoking attitudes and their changes after campaigns against smoke and risk factors in exposed youths. Questionnaires are useful tools in order to search for information on cigarette smoking and parental household lifestyle. In this study, we asked pupils of primary schools for providing information on their relatives' every 5 years throughout the period 1994-2009. A multiple-choice answer questionnaire about sharing household parental smoking was administered to all primary school children (mean age 10.5 ± 0.5 years) of the city of Agrigento (Sicily, Italy). A total of 2221 questionnaires were collected from 637 children in 1994, 687 in 1999, 516 in 2004, and 381 in 2009. Important findings show a significant reduction in both smoking parents and exposure to passive tobacco smoking (from 64% in 1994 to 45% in 2009, psmoking. These results likely reflect such a greater awareness about smoke-related risks in children, and the effectiveness of medical campaigns against cardiovascular risk factors as well.

  10. Accelerated repair and reduced mutagenicity of DNA damage induced by cigarette smoke in human bronchial cells transfected with E.coli formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Foresta

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke (CS is associated to a number of pathologies including lung cancer. Its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are partially linked to the presence of reactive oxygen species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH inducing DNA damage. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG repairs both oxidized bases and different types of bulky DNA adducts. We investigated in vitro whether FPG expression may enhance DNA repair of CS-damaged DNA and counteract the mutagenic effects of CS in human lung cells. NCI-H727 non small cell lung carcinoma cells were transfected with a plasmid vector expressing FPG fused to the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP. Cells expressing the fusion protein EGFP-FPG displayed accelerated repair of adducts and DNA breaks induced by CS condensate. The mutant frequencies induced by low concentrations of CS condensate to the Na(+K(+-ATPase locus (oua(r were significantly reduced in cells expressing EGFP-FPG. Hence, expression of the bacterial DNA repair protein FPG stably protects human lung cells from the mutagenic effects of CS by improving cells' capacity to repair damaged DNA.

  11. Application of ion chromatography for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkowska, Ilona; Polkowska, Żaneta; Kiełbratowska, Bogumiła; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-11-01

    Tobacco smoking constitutes a significant source of indoor air pollution. Various chemical compounds that are emitted during tobacco smoking can have a direct cytotoxic effect on spermatozoa by damaging DNA. There is some evidence that tobacco smoking in men could affect male fertility. The goals of this study were to find relationships between thiocyanates (as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure) and other inorganic ions in human semen samples and present the effectiveness of the proposed sample preparation procedure combined with ion chromatography technique for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples collected from heavy, moderate, and passive smokers, as well as nonsmoking individuals.

  12. Passive safety; Passive Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, J. [Skoda Auto a.s., Mlada Boleslav (Czech Republic). Interieurentwicklung und Versuche; Hau, M. [Skoda Auto a.s., Mlada Boleslav (Czech Republic). Koordination der Fahrzeugsicherung

    2004-05-01

    The specifications for passive safety are partly based on the legal requirements for all export markets combined with the strict internal standards of Volkswagen Group. The Euro NCAP tests and their precisely defined testing methods using the new point assessment are very important. (orig.)

  13. 2-ethylpyridine, a cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our goal was to identify the cellular and molecular effects of 2-ethylpyridine (2-EP, a component of cigarette smoke on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 in vitro. Materials and Methods: ARPE-19 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of 2-EP. Cell viability (CV was measured by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities were measured by fluorochrome assays. The production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS was detected with a 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye assay. The JC-1 assay was used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. Mitochondrial redox potential was measured using a RedoxSensor Red kit and mitochondria were evaluated with Mitotracker dye. Results: After 2-EP exposure, ARPE-19 cells showed significantly decreased CV, increased caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, elevated ROS/RNS levels, decreased ΔΨm value and decreased redox fluorescence when compared with control samples. Conclusions: These results show that 2-EP treatment induced cell death by caspase-dependent apoptosis associated with an oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These data represent a possible mechanism by which smoking contributes to age-related macular degeneration and other retinal diseases and identify mitochondria as a target for future therapeutic interventions.

  14. Application of annual ring analyses to the determination of smoke damage. II. Contribution to the evaluation of annual ring analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vins, B

    1962-01-01

    The most emission-endangered forested areas of Czechoslovakia are Krusne Hory and of Decinsky Sneznik. The condition of the forest cover today is such that not only the productivity of the forests but also their hydrological and ecological functions are in jeopardy. Measurements by annual ring analysis were made on trees at 102 selected experimental sites to determine the growth gain decrease due to air pollution. The decrease in growth gains was first noted in 1952. Up to 1958 this decrease was differentiated according to the degree of damage caused in different areas. Thus, forests in the Chomutov area exhibited a 30% damage while forests in the Most and Teplice areas exhibited a 90% damage. In the Decinsky Sneznik area the growth gain drop was already noted in 1947 and from then on the annual growth impairment was about 15%. From 1953 on, this area suffered growth gain damage of the same magnitude as the Krusne Hory area. During 1954-1958, the growth gain decreases in four areas exposed to pollution of different severity were 23, 37, 40, and 70% respectively, compared to normal growth gains of trees grown in an unpolluted environment.

  15. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoking, and passive smoking. Secondhand smoke contains at least 250 toxic ... in tea bag-like pouches or sachets. No matter what it's called, smokeless tobacco is addictive and ...

  16. Childhood myopia and parental smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S-M; Chia, K-S; Lindstrom, J M; Tan, D T H; Stone, R A

    2004-07-01

    To examine the relation between exposure to passive parental smoke and myopia in Chinese children in Singapore. 1334 Chinese children from three schools in Singapore were recruited, all of whom were participants in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM). Information on whether the father or mother smoked, number of years smoked, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day during the child's lifetime were derived. These data were correlated with contemporaneously obtained data available in SCORM. The children's cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius, and biometry measures were compared with reported parental smoking history. There were 434 fathers (33.3%) and 23 mothers (1.7%) who smoked during their child's lifetime. There were no significant trends observed between paternal smoking and refractive error or axial length. After controlling for age, sex, school, mother's education, and mother's myopia, children with mothers who had ever smoked during their lifetime had more "positive" refractions (adjusted mean -0.28 D v -1.38 D) compared with children whose mother did not smoke (p = 0.012). The study found no consistent evidence of association between parental smoking and refractive error. There was a suggestion that children whose mothers smoked cigarettes had more hyperopic refractions, but the absence of a relation with paternal smoking and the small number of mothers who smoked in this sample preclude definite conclusions about a link between passive smoking exposure and myopia.

  17. Efeitos da inalação passiva da fumaça de cigarro sobre as pregas vocais de ratos Effects of passive smoke inhalation on the vocal cords of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilene Luciene Duarte

    2006-04-01

    other areas of the larynx and inflammatory reaction of the lamina propria were also not observed. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the passive inhalation of cigarette smoke yields important morphological changes in the vocal fold epithelium, which may progress to neoplasia.

  18. Dotriacontane-16,17-14C distribution pattern in the respiratory system of two hamster species after passive exposure to radioactive labelled smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmoch, N.; Mohr, U.

    1974-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative distribution of 14 C labeled dotriacontane (DOT- 14 C) determined by liquid scintillation counting and autoradiography in the respiratory system, the digestive tract, liver and kidneys of Syrian golden and European hamsters, males and females, is described after they had been exposed to radioactive labeled cigarette smoke. The different DOT- 14 C distributions are discussed in detail with special attention given to the respiratory tract, related species differences and the topographic subdivisions of apex nasi, fundus nasi, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs. It is apparent that the absolute amount of activity in the respiratory tract related to body size of the Syrian golden hamster is greater than in the European hamster but that the percentual distribution exhibits a greater filtering action of the upper respiratory tract of Syrian golden hamster than of the European hamster so that a larger percentual amount of total inhaled particulate matter reaches the lungs. The European hamster might be a more useful model for the investigation of respiratory tract carcinogenesis due to the possibility of a longer life time exposure and a higher sensitivity to respiratory tract carcinogens

  19. Passive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Emile

    2018-01-01

    This paper does not present an advocacy of a passive education as opposed to an active education nor does it propose that passive education is in any way 'better' or more important than active education. Through readings of Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida and B.S. Johnson, and gentle critiques of Jacques Rancière and John Dewey, passive…

  20. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  1. Up in Smoke: The Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Joe

    1993-01-01

    Environmental or second-hand smoke can have serious effects on children. Many smokers are more likely to consider quitting if they know they are causing harm to their children and families. Physicians must take the time to point out the dangers of passive smoking to parents who smoke. (SM)

  2. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A hospital-b...

  3. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matthew B; Nix, Carrie M; Greenwood, Lori D; Greenwood, Mike C

    2018-03-01

    Cooke, MB, Nix, C, Greenwood, L, and Greenwood, M. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 736-747, 2018-The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes and weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between 3 recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness, and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15 ± 3.53 years, 75.75 ± 11.91 kg, 180.52 ± 7.3 cm) were randomly matched by V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak (53.86 ± 6.65 ml·kg·min) and assigned to one of 3 recovery methods: anti-gravity treadmill (G-Trainer) (N = 8), conventional treadmill (N = 8) or static stretching (N = 9). Recovery methods were performed 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours after a 45-minute downhill run. Following eccentrically biased running, no significant differences were noted in isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque, systemic markers of muscle damage, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation such as serum creatine kinase (CK), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively, and subjective ratings of perceived muscle soreness between recovery methods. The G-Trainer group did however display a higher mood state as indicated by the Profile of Mood State global scores at 24 hours postexercise when compared to the conventional treadmill recovery group (p = 0.035). The improved mood state after the use of the anti-gravity treadmill may provide clinical relevance to other populations.

  4. Secondhand smoke induces hepatic apoptosis and fibrosis in hamster fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang; Cho, Ta-Hsiung; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Jeng; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2016-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an important health issue worldwide. Inhaling SHS during pregnancy could cause abnormalities in the internal tissues of newborns, which may then impair fetal development and even cause severe intrauterine damage and perinatal death. However, the understanding of cytopathic mechanisms of SHS by maternal passive smoking on fetus liver during pregnancy is still limited. This study analyzed the effects of high-dose SHS (SHSH) on fetus liver using a maternal passive smoking animal model. Experiments showed that hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells were significantly increased in livers from fetuses of hamsters treated with SHSH. Similarly, expressions of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic molecules were significantly higher in livers from fetuses of hamsters exposed to SHSH. Additionally, significantly increased inflammatory proteins, including transforming growth factor β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1β, and fibrotic signaling molecules, including phosphorylated Smad2/3, SP1, and α-smooth muscle actin, were observed in the fetus livers from hamsters treated with SHSH. This study revealed that SHSH not only increased apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the livers of fetuses from hamsters exposed to SHSH but also augmented hepatic fibrosis via Smad2/3 signaling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Oxidative damage to DNA and repair induced by Norwegian wood smoke particles in human A549 and THP-1 cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Kocbach, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxic effects of traffic-generated particulate matter (PM) are well described, whereas little data are available on PM from combustion of biomass and wood, which contributes substantially to air pollution world wide. The aim of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of wood smoke particul......Genotoxic effects of traffic-generated particulate matter (PM) are well described, whereas little data are available on PM from combustion of biomass and wood, which contributes substantially to air pollution world wide. The aim of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of wood smoke...... than PM collected from vehicle exhaust with respect to development of lung cancer....

  6. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  7. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in rats after intratracheal instillation or oral exposure to ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2010-01-01

    Wood combustion is a significant source of ambient particulate matter (PM) in many regions of the world. Exposure occurs through inhalation or ingestion after deposition of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM) on crops and food. We investigated effects of ambient PM and WSPM by intragastric...

  8. How does individual smoking behaviour among hospital staff influence their knowledge of the health consequences of smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willaing, Ingrid; Jørgensen, Torben; Iversen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: This study examined associations between individual smoking habits among hospital staff and their knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and passive smoking. The a priori hypothesis was a higher level of knowledge among non-smokers compared with smokers. METHODS: A survey...... and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main outcome measures were knowledge of the health consequences of smoking, passive smoking and other lifestyle factors. RESULTS: A total of 445 of 487 employees (91%) from all professional groups returned the questionnaire. Compared with ex- and never...... smokers, smokers systematically underestimate the health consequences of smoking and passive smoking independent of profession, department, sex, and age. There is no consistent association between knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and profession and department. There are significant inverse...

  9. Influence of passivation process on chip performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the performance of CMOS chips before and after a low temperature post-processing step. In order to prevent damage to the IC chips by the post-processing steps, a first passivation layers is needed on top of the IC chips. Two different passivation layer deposition

  10. Smoking within the Household: Spousal Peer Effects and Children's Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Canta, Chiara; Dubois, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies spousal peer effects on the smoking behaviour and their implication for the health of children through passive smoking. Smoking decisions are modeled as equilibrium strategies of an incomplete information game within the couple. Using data from the French Health Survey 2002-2003, we identify two distinct effects linked to spousal behaviour: a smoking enhancing effect of smoking partners and a smoking deterring effect of non smoking partners. On the one hand, ...

  11. Assessment of Nicotine Exposure From Active Human Cigarette Smoking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of a cigarette is a series of consecutive sequences of both passive and active burnings when a smoking cycle is applied to the cigarette. A previous study, using a smoking machine, showed that cigarette nicotine yields are dependent linearly on the difference between the time of smouldering (passive burning and the time of smoking (active burning. It is predicted that the smoker’s nicotine yield increases when the intensity of smoking increases, i.e., when the time to smoke a cigarette (smoking time decreases. Note that observations made on machines might not be comparable to human behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine whether nicotine mouth-level exposure could be predicted through measurement of human smoking time. A smoking behaviour study was conducted to compare human smoking nicotine yields obtained from both filter tip analysis and the cigarette burning time model. Results showed that smokers’ exposure to the smoke depends essentially on the speed at which the cigarette is smoked. An increase in human smoking intensity, resulting in a decrease in smoking time, generates an increase in smoke exposure, whatever the puff number, puff duration, puff volume and filter ventilation (open or blocked. The association of a machine smoking yield with a corresponding smoking time, and the time taken by a consumer to smoke the cigarette would provide information on the exposure to smoke constituents in a simple and effective manner.

  12. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  13. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  14. Smoking Behavior, Attitudes of Second-Hand Smoke, and No-Smoking Policies on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacek, Georgia N. L. Johnston; Atkins, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    Smoking, when condoned as socially acceptable, overtly establishes such behavior as normal and risk-free. Scientific evidence verifies that cigarette smoking pervasively damages the body, causes early death, costs billions of dollars annually in medical care for smokers, and poses serious health risks to nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Yet…

  15. Oxidative Stress: A Unifying Mechanism for Cell Damage Induced by Noise, (Water-Pipe) Smoking, and Emotional Stress-Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Redox Imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Li, Huige; Laher, Ismail

    2018-03-20

    Modern technologies have eased our lives but these conveniences can impact our lifestyles in destructive ways. Noise pollution, mental stresses, and smoking (as a stress-relieving solution) are some environmental hazards that affect our well-being and healthcare budgets. Scrutinizing their pathophysiology could lead to solutions to reduce their harmful effects. Recent Advances: Oxidative stress plays an important role in initiating local and systemic inflammation after noise pollution, mental stress, and smoking. Lipid peroxidation and release of lysolipid by-products, disturbance in activation and function of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), induction of stress hormones and their secondary effects on intracellular kinases, and dysregulation of intracellular Ca 2+ can all potentially trigger other vicious cycles. Recent clinical data suggest that boosting the antioxidant system through nonpharmacological measures, for example, lifestyle changes that include exercise have benefits that cannot easily be achieved with pharmacological interventions alone. Indiscriminate manipulation of the cellular redox network could lead to a new series of ailments. An ideal approach requires meticulous scrutiny of redox balance mechanisms for individual pathologies so as to create new treatment strategies that target key pathways while minimizing side effects. Extrapolating our understanding of redox balance to other debilitating conditions such as diabetes and the metabolic syndrome could potentially lead to devising a unifying therapeutic strategy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 741-759.

  16. Children Deserve Smoke Free World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesh Kumar, R; Jayakumar, P R; Krishna Mohan, R

    2018-04-01

    Tobacco smoke, active or passive exposure was the major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world during twentieth century and will continue to be the same in the twenty-first century also if the current trends continue. Both active and passive smoking are having significance in relation to child health. Exposure starts antenatally from placenta to the fetus and later phases through passive exposure to experimental and regular smoking and ultimately addiction and habitual smoking. Evidences are in favour of causal relationship with intrauterine growth restriction, sudden infant death syndrome, decreased pulmonary function, increased risk for respiratory tract infection, otitis media, wheeze, asthma, neurobehavioral disorders, cleft palate and triggering pathogenesis of fetal and childhood onset of adult diseases, especially pulmonary and cardio vascular diseases. All these facts stress the importance of behavioral changes in the population as well as stringent public health measures and legislation for ensuring smoke free work places, public places and households for children. M POWER- Package by WHO is a novel global initiative taking us closer to the target of achieving tobacco free environment for children in the near future.

  17. [Response of the tobacco industry to the creation of smoke-free environments in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Presman, Sabrina; Gigliotti, Analice; Muggli, Monique; Hurt, Richard

    2010-04-01

    To document the response of the tobacco industry to the regulation of smoking in public places in Brazil starting in 1996. The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) and the British American Tobacco (BAT) Company Documents (bat.library.ucsf.edu/) were searched. The following key words were used: Brasil/Brazil; Souza Cruz; fumo passivo, tabagismo passivo/passive smoking; fumo de segunda mão/secondhand smoking; convivência em harmonia/courtesy of choice; along with the names of institutions, politicians, and individuals associated with tobacco control. We also searched the websites of cigarette manufacturers and hospitality industry organizations and businesses, news websites, and online newspapers and magazines. The search was limited to the period from 1995 to 2005. The text of the first law restricting smoking in Brazil (no. 9 294, of 1996) benefited the industry by stating that smokers and nonsmokers could share the same space provided that specific areas were designated as smoking and nonsmoking. As in other countries, the tobacco industry established partnerships with hotel, bar, and restaurant associations to prevent the passing of laws creating 100% smoke-free environments, as recommended by the World Health Organization. However, local state and city laws in major cities and states (such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) have been successful in ensuring the creation of 100% smoke-free places. It is essential that Brazil recognize the damage caused by smoking and revise its federal law regulating smoking in closed environments. The knowledge concerning the strategies employed by the industry may be useful for politicians and health care professionals to prepare arguments opposing measures that can be detrimental to public health.

  18. Compositional properties of passivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    The classical passivity theorem states that the negative feedback interconnection of passive systems is again passive. The converse statement, - passivity of the interconnected system implies passivity of the subsystems -, turns out to be equally valid. This result implies that among all feasible

  19. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  20. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  1. The effects of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy on postnatal outcomes: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hui Huang

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and small chest circumference. Although the incidence of active smoking in Taiwanese pregnant women is low, most of them are exposed to passive smoking environment. Further studies are required to evaluate useful interventions to enhance a smoking-free environment during pregnancy.

  2. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....

  3. Airborne Nicotine, Secondhand Smoke, and Precursors to Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jennifer J; Racicot, Simon; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hammond, S Katharine; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) directly increases exposure to airborne nicotine, tobacco's main psychoactive substance. When exposed to SHS, nonsmokers inhale 60% to 80% of airborne nicotine, absorb concentrations similar to those absorbed by smokers, and display high levels of nicotine biomarkers. Social modeling, or observing other smokers, is a well-established predictor of smoking during adolescence. Observing smokers also leads to increased pharmacological exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS. The objective of this study is to investigate whether greater exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS increases the risk for smoking initiation precursors among never-smoking adolescents. Secondary students ( N = 406; never-smokers: n = 338, 53% girls, mean age = 12.9, SD = 0.4) participated in the AdoQuest II longitudinal cohort. They answered questionnaires about social exposure to smoking (parents, siblings, peers) and known smoking precursors (eg, expected benefits and/or costs, SHS aversion, smoking susceptibility, and nicotine dependence symptoms). Saliva and hair samples were collected to derive biomarkers of cotinine and nicotine. Adolescents wore a passive monitor for 1 week to measure airborne nicotine. Higher airborne nicotine was significantly associated with greater expected benefits ( R 2 = 0.024) and lower expected costs ( R 2 = 0.014). Higher social exposure was significantly associated with more temptation to try smoking ( R 2 = 0.025), lower aversion to SHS ( R 2 = 0.038), and greater smoking susceptibility ( R 2 = 0.071). Greater social exposure was significantly associated with more nicotine dependence symptoms; this relation worsened with higher nicotine exposure (cotinine R 2 = 0.096; airborne nicotine R 2 = 0.088). Airborne nicotine exposure via SHS is a plausible risk factor for smoking initiation during adolescence. Public health implications include limiting airborne nicotine through smoking bans in homes and cars, in addition to stringent restrictions

  4. Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Inflammation Induced by Ambient Air and Wood Smoke Particulate Matter in Human A549 and THP-1 Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Møller, Peter; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2011-01-01

    PM (WSPM) is poorly assessed. We assessed a wide spectrum of toxicity end points in human A549 lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cell lines comparingWSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in a village with many operating wood stoves and from a rural background area...... from the wood stove area. Expression of oxoguanine glycosylase 1, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, and interleukin-6 did not change. We conclude that WSPM has small particle size, high level of PAH, low level of water-soluble metals, and produces high levels of free radicals, DNA damage...

  5. Application of annual ring analyses to the detection of smoke damage. I. A methodical contribution to the treatment of annual ring analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vins, B

    1961-01-01

    Losses in growth of silvicultural stands caused by smoke can be measured by annual ring analysis. The method is advantageous mainly because the annual gains can be checked far into the past and thus compared with gains before the onset of the pollution. Experience gained in the Krusne Hory area of Czechoslovakia with the methodical processing of 2000 annual ring analyses is reviewed. The principal problem was that more than half the trees exposed to pollution failed to grow annual rings. At first no rings are added from the ground up to a certain height; then the defect spreads all the way into the crowns of the affected trees. This observation is of fundamental importance in the calculation of losses in growth gains due to industrial emissions because hitherto the last annual ring next to the bark was always identified with the test year, while in reality a number of annual rings might already have failed to grow due to the effects of pollution. Errors far exceeding permissible limits might have occurred in the analysis.

  6. SMOKING HABITS OF NIS PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Vucic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The greatest threat for the public health in Serbia is definitively smoking. 1,3 billion of people in the world are smokers and 4,9 million of death at the global level are direct consequences of smoking. If this smoking rhythm continues until 2020. the number of deaths caused by smoking will have been doubled. There are 4000 identified substances in the tobacco smoke, 50 of which have been proven to be carcinogenic. Nowdays, 14000 to 15000 young people in the developed countries and 68000-84000 in the underdeveloped contries begin to smoke. 700 millions of children, the half of the whole children population, are exposed to the passive smoking.The prevalence of smoking in Serbia, although reduced by 6,9% compared to 2000 is still very high and makes 33,6% of the whole population (38,1% of men and 29,9% of women.The aim of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of preschool children's parents, motivated by the fact that the children of that age are highly sensitive and susceptible to the toxic influence of tobacco smoke, but also to check the necessity for an aggressive public health programme implementation in the aimed populations.This research, as a cross-sectional stady, is carried out among preschool children's parents, children being 4 to 6 years old that attend nursery schools in Nis.The prevalence of smoking in preschool children's parents is extremely high, and makes 46% (45,1% of men and 46,9% of women. Having taken into consideration the parental role in upbringing and education of children, as well as the influence of passive smoking, the main conclusion is that the children's health is seriously endangered. Education, making new and maintaining already existing programmes and legal obligations considering smoking are significant steps for reducing smoking and promoting health.

  7. [Smoking status among urban family and the measures of smoking control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ciyin; Ma, Grace; Zhai, Chengkai; Cao, Pei

    2009-01-01

    To find out the smoking status among the families and their members, in order to hold their knowledge, attitude, practice on smoking and its influence and to put forward the countermeasure of smoking Control. A questionnaire surveys were conducted among 419 people which came from 419 families. 409 qualified questionnaire were obtained. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, test and logistic analysis. The family current smoking rates were 68.2%, the smoking rates of past family were 90.2%, the current smoking rates of individual were 31.5%, the individual past smoking rates were 39.9%. Those who attempted smoking under the age of 18 years accounted for 46.6%. Those who smoked their first cigarette from friends accounted for 48.1%. The comparisons of knowledge, attitude between smoking-ever family members and non-smoking family members had significant difference (P attitude between smoking family members and non-smoking family members had significant difference (P < 0.05). Those who were married women, and had career had high score of KAP. The contents of education of the decreases of smoking rates were on the following: (1) Smoking damages health. (2) Smoking should not be used as means of communication. (3) Feel offensive when someone smoking around. (4) Most persons still don't smoke. The key place of smoking control could be family. Smoking control could depend on married female. The key crowd of tobacco control could be children and youngsters. Not offering smoke and not advise others to smoking could be the key measures of smoking control.

  8. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  9. [Smoking at workplace - Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Wiszniewska, Marta; Kleniewska, Aneta; Dörre-Kolasa, Dominika; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers' awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers' health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers' awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. Decreased peak expiratory flow in pediatric passive smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest aggregate levels of tobacco consumption in the world. Infants and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke have increased rates of asthma, respiratory and ear infections, as well as reduced lung function. The effects of tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in children have been reported to be dependent on the source of smoke and the length and dose of exposure. Lung function may also be affected by a child’s gender and asthma status. Objective To compare peak expiratory flow (PEF in pediatric passive smokers to that of children not exposed to second hand smoke, and to define factors that may affect PEF in passive smokers. Methods In August 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional study at an elementary school in the Langkat district. Subjects were aged 6 to 12 years, and divided into two groups: passive smokers and those not exposed to secondhand smoke. Subjects’ PEFs were measured with a Mini-Wright peak flow meter. Measurements were performed in triplicate with the highest value recorded as the PEF. Demographic data including age, sex, weight, height, family income, parental education levels and occupations were obtained through questionnaires. Results Of the 170 participants, 100 were passive smokers and 70 were not exposed to secondhand smoke. Age distribution, weight and height were similar in both groups. We observed a significant difference in PEFs between the group of passive smokers and the group not exposed to secondhand smoke, 211.3 L/minute (SD 61.08 and 242.7 L/minute (SD 77.09, respectively (P < 0.005. The number of years of exposure to smoke (P = 0.079 and the number of cigarettes smoked daily in the household (P = 0.098 did not significantly influence PEF. Conclusion The PEF in pediatric passive smokers was significantly lower than that of children not exposed to secondhand smoke. PEF in passive smokers was not influenced by the number of years of smoke

  11. Passive systems for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.; Noviello, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the most original concepts that have been considered in Italy for the back-fitting of the nuclear power plants in order to reduce the probability and the importance of the release to the environment in case of a core melt. With reference either to BWR or PWR, passive concepts have been considered for back-fitting in the following areas: pump seals damage prevention and ECCS passive operation; reactor passive depressurization; molten reactor core passive cooling; metal containment passive water cooling through a water tank located at high level; containment isolation improvement through a sealing system; containment leaks control and limitation of environmental release. In addition some considerations will be made on the protection against external events introduced from the beginning on the PUN design either on building and equipment lay-out either on structure design. (author). 5 figs

  12. Daño al ADN en mujeres expuestas al humo de la leña en Chiapas, México DNA damage in women exposed to firewod fuel smoke , in Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispín Herrera-Portugal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente alrededor de la cuarta parte de la población mexicana, entre 25 y 28 millones de habitantes, cocina con leña, Sin embargo, el humo de la leña contiene una amplia gama de sustancias tóxicas, entre ellas el monóxido de carbono (CO cuyo impacto en la salud de la población rural debe ser estudiado. Por esto, el potencial daño al ADN asociado con la exposición a CO de 30 mujeres que cocinaban con leña en Chiapas, México, fue evaluado por el ensayo cometa. Los resultados se compararon con 30 controles comparables en edad y condiciones socioeconómicas, quienes cocinaban con gas licuado de petróleo (GLP. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre total para medir carboxihemoglobina (COHb y llevar a cabo el ensayo cometa. Se encontró diferencia significativa (PCurrently, about a quarter of the Mexican population, between 25 and 28 million people, cook with firewood. However, wood smoke contains a wide range of toxic substances, including carbon monoxide (CO whose impact on health of the rural population should be studied. Therefore, the potential DNA damage associated with the exposition to CO of 30 women who cooked with wood in Chiapas, Mexico, was assessed using Comet Assay. Results were compared with 30 controls of similar age and socioeconomic status, who cooked with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. We obtained whole blood samples to measure carboxyhemoglobin (% COHb and perform the comet assay. There was a significant difference (P <0.001 in the percentages of COHb between women who cooked with wood (mean= 6.6% and those who did it with LPG (mean=1.8% being 3.6 times higher in the former compared with the latter. There was a significant difference in comet tail length between the two groups examined (mean 18.5 +/- 4.21 versus 5.97 +/- 1.0 μm, P <0.001 and tail moment (mean 4.55 +/- 1.5 versus 1.5 +/- 0.40, P <0.001. The results of this study strongly suggest that exposure to carbon monoxide and compounds present in wood smoke can cause

  13. Decreased total antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative stress in passive smoker infants and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    Smoking has many adverse health effects in infants and adults. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on oxidative and antioxidative status of plasma in passive smoker infants and their mothers and to compare with those of non-smokers. Subjects were randomly chosen from infants aged 8-26 weeks and their mothers aged 20-34 years. Passive smoker infants (n = 29) and their mothers (n = 29) were defined as having other family members who smoked six or more cigarettes per day continually for at least 8 weeks. Non-smokers were defined as infants (n = 30) and their mothers (n = 24) who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma were perused by measuring the total antioxidant capacity. Oxidative status was evaluated by predicating total peroxide level, oxidative stress index, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in passive smoker infants and their mothers than non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. However, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress index were remarkably higher in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. There were significant correlations between the oxidative and antioxidative parameters of the passive smoker infants and their mothers. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-smokers. Passive smoker infants and their mothers are exposed to potent oxidative stress.

  14. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  15. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  16. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    magnesium level than the passive smokers/social drinkers group and controls. The results of this study ... non-alcohol/non-cigarette smoke exposed combined oral contraceptive ..... contraceptives: historical perspective. Johns. Hopkins Med.

  17. Smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and smoking restrictions in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Adams, Marc A; Sánchez, José de Jesús; Guzmán-Cerda, Gabriela

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and smoking restrictions in the home and workplace among residents of Tijuana, one of Mexico's largest cities. This cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, during 2003 and 2004. A population-based sample of 400 Tijuana adult residents responded to a tobacco survey, and 397 of the surveys were analyzed. About 22.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.7%-27.1%) of Tijuana adults reported current smoking, and 53.9% (95% CI: 48.8%-58.9%) reported chronic exposure to secondhand smoke. Approximately 44.4% (95% CI: 37.9%-50.9%) of Tijuana adults had a nonsmoking policy in their workplace, while 65.8% (95% CI: 61.0%-70.6%) of Tijuana households were smoke-free. The results underline the need for increased tobacco control efforts, particularly stricter enforcement of existing passive smoking regulations, in order to expand protection from secondhand smoke from private settings to public ones and to curb the tobacco epidemic in Tijuana and elsewhere in Mexico.

  18. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from cancer goes down. Your blood pressure goes down. Your pulse and blood oxygen level return to normal. If you have children, you can help them be healthier by quitting smoking. Children whose parents smoke around them are at higher risk for ...

  19. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ''point defects models'' (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies

  20. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  1. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  2. Young adult smoking in peer groups: an experimental observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this experimental observational study is to examine whether, in a group setting (same-sex triads), passive peer influence (imitation) in the context of homogeneous and heterogeneous (contradictory) behavior of peer models affects young adults' smoking behavior. An experiment was conducted among 48 daily-smoking college and university students aged 17-25. Participants had to complete a 30-min music task with two same-sex confederates. We tested the following three conditions: (a) neither of the confederates is smoking, (b) one confederate is smoking and the other is not, and (c) both confederates are smoking. The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during the task. Students in the condition with two smoking peer models and in the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model smoked significantly more cigarettes than those in the condition with two nonsmoking peer models. However, results for the condition with two smoking peer models did not differ significantly from the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model. Our findings show that in a group setting, the impact of the homogeneity of smoking peers on young adults' smoking behavior is not greater than the impact of the heterogeneity of smoking and nonsmoking peers. This would suggest that the smoking peer in the group has a greater impact on the daily-smoking young adult, thus reducing or even eliminating the protective effect of the nonsmoking peer model.

  3. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Trace Element Concentration of Rats Exposed to Second-hand Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    K, Ergen; F, Yildiz; M, Ozcan; M, Cekmen; , Tanyeri P; , Utkan T; Y, Karakoc

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements have an important effect on and play a key role in a variety of the processes necessary for life. Studies have indicated a definite correlation between content of trace elements and many common diseases. It has been concluded that smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements, not only to the smoker, but to nonsmokers via passive smoke, as well. Even passive intake of such elements can change the metabolism of other trace elements and influence their...

  4. [Smoke-free environment--nurse attitudes towards smoke-free regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Czarnecka, Karolina; Drygas, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the nurse attitudes towards smoke-free regulations in public places. The study population consisted of 299 nurses. Among the study population questionnaire was conducted including socio-demographic characteristic, smoking and ETS profile, knowledge about health effects of smoking and abilities for conduction of antismoking counseling. Detail information was collected about nurse opinion on smoke-free public places such as offices, other workplaces, health and educational buildings, restaurants and bars. About 18% of study participants declared current tobacco smoking and 25% were former smokers. Almost all participating in the study women (85%-98%) are in favor of smoking ban in offices, health and educational buildings. 75% supported smoking ban in workplaces but 15% of them were somewhat opposed. Most of the nurses were in favor of smoke-free restaurants (64%) but they were less likely to support smoke-free bars, pubs and clubs (45%). Unfortunately 63% of interview women do not accept smoking ban in private cars. The percentage of women who support total ban of smoking in the presence of pregnant women was 93% and in the presence of children 79%. It is important to conduct educational and informational activities to increase public awareness on health consequences of active and passive smoking and the ways of elimination of such exposures.

  5. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  6. Emotional Intelligence, Hardiness, and Smoking: Protective Factors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the biggest threat to public health, and it remains a serious cause of death in the world. It even causes acute and chronic diseases in passive smokers. Remarkably, the age of the onset of cigarette smoking is decreasing. Therefore, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the attitudes among adolescents toward cigarette…

  7. Knowledge and attitude towards smoking of pregnant women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Diamanti

    2017-05-01

    Having not being informed and helped adequately, a significant percentage of pregnant women continued to smoke throughout their pregnancy. The failure in imposing the clean indoor air law in public places in Greece has also contributed to the increased passive smoking exposure.

  8. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  9. Toxicological Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Some Biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that while normal people may suffer complications of active and passive cigarette smoking, diabetes patients may suffer more. This study therefore aimed at investigating the toxicological effects of cigarette smoke on some biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n ...

  10. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  11. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  12. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  13. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  14. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, L; Ogilvie, A; Pelkonen, M; Notkola, I; Tukiainen, H; Tervahauta, M; Tuomilehto, J; Nissinen, A

    2002-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  15. Influence of stress on passive behaviour of steel bars in concrete pore solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xingguo; Tang Yuming; Zuo Yu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The influence of load on passivity of steel in concrete pore solution is studied. → The passivity of steel in pore solution decreased as the load amplitude increased. → A micro-crack model is presented to explain passive behaviour of steel under loads. - Abstract: The influence of stress on passive behaviour of steel bars in concrete pore solution was studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The passive ability of steel decreased as the applied load increased and higher load had much greater influence on passivation than repeated loading of small magnitude. A micro-crack model was presented to explain the damage of passive layer by loads. Lower load caused micro-cracks in the passive film which might be completely recovered after unloading. Under higher load more micro-cracks were produced in the passive film and some may penetrate the film, leading to irreversible damages.

  16. Supporting smoking cessation in the medical specialist practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, G. M.

    2004-01-01

    Although smoking cessation reduces the cardiovascular risk of smoking, why this is so is still uncertain. Nevertheless, because they are strongly and authoritatively involved in much of the serious health damage caused by smoking, medical specialists should do all they can to support their patients

  17. Agriculture and smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H T

    1940-01-01

    The effects of smoke fumes on the growth of crops and on the reaction of soils in Yorkshire during the last 15 years are reported. Attention is focused on the scorching effect on vegetation caused by acid rain, and the indirect effect of these acids on plants by reducing the lime status of the soil. In cities and towns the worst offenders are domestic chimneys which contribute 150 tons of sulfur to the atmosphere every week. In less densely populated industrial districts, the bulk of the fumes are contributed by industrial chimneys and by the smouldering pit heaps of collieries. The symptoms of smoke damage on wheat are the scorching of the tip of the leaf, followed by a yellowing of the remainder of the leaf. Adequate liming greatly increases the resistance of crops to attacks by fumes. The effect of acid fumes on the soil is also discussed.

  18. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Oviedo Tejada

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  19. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Ewerling, Fernanda; Santos, Anderson Moreira Aristides dos; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Menezes, Ana Maria

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  20. Damage caused due to foundry smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1891-01-01

    A detailed analysis of an air pollution event which occurred in 1891 in the vicinity of a superphosphate plant is given. The logic and tests used to implicate HF as the causative agent of environmental stress are detailed thoroughly.

  1. Failure of policy regarding smoke-free bars in the Netherlands*

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tobacco companies consistently work to prevent and undermine smoke-free laws. The tobacco industry and its allies have funded hospitality associations and other third parties to oppose smoke-free laws, argue that smoke-free laws will economically damage hospitality venues, promote ventilation and voluntary smoker ‘accommodation’ as an alternative to smoke-free laws, and to challenge smoke-free laws in court. In 2008, the Netherlands extended its smoke-free law to hospitality venue...

  2. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardakis Manolis K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents, and interviewed during the 2004–2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. Results 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers. Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p Conclusion Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  3. Radiation-induced damage of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonei, Shuji

    1977-01-01

    An outline of membranous structure was stated, and radiation-induced damage of membranes were surveyed. By irradiation, permeability of membranes, especially passive transportation mechanism, was damaged, and glycoprotein in the surface layers of cells and the surface layer structures were changed. The intramembranous damage was induced by decrease of electrophoresis of nuclear mambranes and a quantitative change of cytochrome P450 of microsomal membranes of the liver, and peroxidation of membranous lipid and SH substitute damage of membranous protein were mentioned as the mechanism of membranous damage. Recovery of membranous damage depends on radiation dose and temperature, and membranous damage participates largely in proliferation death. (tsunoda, M.)

  4. Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure: A longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Martínez, Cristina; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-12-01

    In Spain, two smoke-free laws have been passed after the approval of the WHO-FCTC. This study assesses the impact of these Spanish smoking legislations on the active and passive smoking through a population cohort in Barcelona (Spain). This is a longitudinal study before and after the implementation of two national smoking bans in Spain in a representative sample (n=1245) of adults (≥16years old) from Barcelona (Spain) surveyed in 2004-2005 and followed-up in 2013-2014. The final sample analyzed was 736 individuals. Both questionnaires (before and after the two laws) included the same variables about active and passive smoking. We calculated the prevalence and the prevalence ratio (PR, with their 95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of smoking cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco and also the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, work, public transport, leisure time and at any setting after vs. before Spanish legislations. After the implementation of the two Spanish smoke-free bans, a significant decrease was observed in the smoking prevalence (from 34.5% to 26.1%, PR=0.76, psmoke-free legislations in Spain is related to a reduction in smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. However, the smoking of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, has increased among young population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Involuntary Smoking in Adolescents, Their Awareness of Its Harmfulness, and Attitudes towards Smoking in the Presence of Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Szatko, Franciszek

    2017-09-21

    The aim of the study was to examine involuntary smoking among young people, their awareness of its harmfulness and the factors associated with attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3552 students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland. Almost 40% of the participants were exposed to involuntary smoking at home and 60% outside of home on a daily or almost daily basis. More than 80% of the students felt that smoking should be banned around children at home, 59% thought it should be banned in vehicles, and 41% in the presence of non-smokers. The majority of the students were aware of the health consequences of active smoking, and 69% understood the threats of passive smoking. Females, never-smokers and current non-smokers, as well as those without smoking parents were more likely to claim that smoking should be banned at home and in vehicles ( p < 0.05). Those aware of the fact that smoking was harmful to health, who discussed those issues with their parents and teachers, and who saw school tobacco control policies, were more likely to maintain that passive smoking should be banned ( p < 0.05). The study results highlight the need for programs and policies to eliminate involuntary smoking among young people.

  6. Involuntary Smoking in Adolescents, Their Awareness of Its Harmfulness, and Attitudes towards Smoking in the Presence of Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine involuntary smoking among young people, their awareness of its harmfulness and the factors associated with attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3552 students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland. Almost 40% of the participants were exposed to involuntary smoking at home and 60% outside of home on a daily or almost daily basis. More than 80% of the students felt that smoking should be banned around children at home, 59% thought it should be banned in vehicles, and 41% in the presence of non-smokers. The majority of the students were aware of the health consequences of active smoking, and 69% understood the threats of passive smoking. Females, never-smokers and current non-smokers, as well as those without smoking parents were more likely to claim that smoking should be banned at home and in vehicles (p < 0.05. Those aware of the fact that smoking was harmful to health, who discussed those issues with their parents and teachers, and who saw school tobacco control policies, were more likely to maintain that passive smoking should be banned (p < 0.05. The study results highlight the need for programs and policies to eliminate involuntary smoking among young people.

  7. A longitudinal study on the effects of maternal smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija Val, Victoria; Escribano Subías, Joaquín; Canals Sans, Josefa

    2012-06-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one of the most modifiable causes of morbidity and mortality for both pregnant women and their fetuses. The long-term effects of prenatal exposure to smoke on child behavior and development have been the subject of more extensive research than have the short-term effects. Therefore, the aim of this work is to examine the effects of smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal behavior, including in our study a group of mothers exposed to secondhand smoke. The behavior of 282 healthy full-term newborns was assessed using the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 48-72 h of life. Sixty-two mothers smoked during pregnancy (no mother smoked more than 15 cig/day) and 17 were exposed to secondhand smoke. After adjusting for socio-demographic and obstetric factors, both newborns whose mothers smoked and those whose mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke showed significantly lower scores in the habituation cluster than non-smoking mothers. Exposure to secondhand smoke was also related to lower motor system cluster scores as well as some supplementary items and the newborns of smoking mothers showed significantly lower scores in the state regulation cluster and in some items of the state organization cluster than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy affects several aspects of neurobehavioral development, regardless of socio-demographic, obstetric and pediatric factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  9. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  10. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  11. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  12. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in exhaled human breath. Acetonitrile as biomarker for passive smoking. Model for isoprene in human breath; Quantifizierung organischer Spurenkomponenten in der menschlichen Atemluft. Acetonitril als Biomarker fuer Passivrauchen. Modell fuer Isopren im Atem, Zusammenhang Isoprenkonzentration, Cholesterinsynthese, lebensmittelchemische Untersuchungen an Knoblauch und Zwiebel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prazeller, P

    2000-03-01

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath under various circumstances. The composition of exhaled breath reflects metabolic processes in the human body. Breath analysis is a non invasive technique which makes it most interesting especially for medical or toxicological applications. Measurements were done with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS). This technique combines the advantage of small fragmentation of chemical ionization with highly time resolved mass spectrometry. A big part of this work is about investigations of exposition due to tobacco smoke. After smoking cigarettes the initial increase and time dependence of some compounds in the human breath are monitored . The calculated decrease resulting only from breathing out the compounds is presented and compared to the measured decline in the breath. This allows the distinction whether breathing is the dominant loss of a compound or a different metabolic process remover it more efficiently. Acetonitrile measured in human breath is presented as a biomarker for exposition to tobacco smoke. Especially its use for quantification of passive smoking, the exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is shown. The reached accuracy and the fast way of measuring of acetonitrile in human breath using PTR-MS offer a good alternative to common used biomarkers. Numerous publications have described measurements of breath isoprene in humans, and there has been a hope that breath isoprene analyses could be a non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess serum cholesterol levels or cholesterol synthesis rate. However, significant analytical problems in breath isoprene analysis and variability in isoprene levels with age, exercise, diet, etc. have limited the usefulness of these measurements. Here, we have applied proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to this problem, allowing on-line detection of breath isoprene. We show that breath isoprene

  13. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. [A study on male high school students' smoking patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K Y

    1997-01-01

    curiosity from being developed into habitual smoking. We should teach them how harmful smoking is and make them stop smoking by themselves. It is very essential for family members and teachers to give continuous interest since childhood. As the teacher affect the students very much, they should give up smoking first. The incidence of smoking should be identified in each of the middle and high schools, smoking prohibition programs relevant to each school should be developed and implemented. The local community should ban cigarette vending machines. Cigarettes should not be sold to adolescents. By setting every place where adolescents gather including schools non-smoking area, we should decrease their impulse to smoke, then smoking opportunities, and harmful effects to them caused by passive smoking.

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, M.D.; Eng, S.M.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Hatch, Maureen; Paykin, A.B.; Neugut, A.I.; Santella, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure throughout the life course, the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer were not substantially elevated in relation to ETS exposure, active smoking, or a joint measure of active and passive smoking (OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.90, 1.48). An increased OR, however, was noted among nonsmokers who lived with a smoking spouse for over 27 years (2.10, 95% CI, 1.47, 3.02), although no dose-response was evident. Also, among women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors only, the OR for both active and passive smoking was increased (1.42 for ER + PR + , 95% CI, 1.00, 2.00). Our data suggest that if there is an effect for ETS on breast cancer, that effect is restricted to selected subgroups of women, such as those with long-term exposure from a smoking spouse

  16. Smoking habits in Italian pregnant women: any changes after the ban?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Lorena; Serafini, Paola; Giordano, Livia; Zotti, Carla Maria

    2010-04-01

    A reduction in the prevalence of smoking and tobacco consumption was noted after the enactment in 2005 of new smoking regulations in Italy. To determine the impact of the smoking ban on pregnant women, we compared the results of two retrospective studies on two samples of 300 women, who recently delivered, conducted before and after the regulations went into effect. The comparison showed a marked drop in passive exposure to smoke in the workplace but not in the family environment; however, passive exposure and smoking were associated before and during pregnancy. Nearly all women agreed that the ban on smoking in public was reasonable and stated it had influenced their smoking habit or exposure. Despite this lip service, both studies highlighted that smoking in pregnancy remains a problem for many women, as about 10 per cent did not quit and over 50 per cent relapsed after delivery.

  17. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  18. 'You think that I'm smoking and they're not': why mothers still smoke in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J

    2007-08-01

    Past research into smoking and motherhood has explained how smoking enables mothers to care in conditions of hardship and poverty. However, much of this research was conducted before the risks to the health of non-smokers of inhaling tobacco smoke were widely known, and so mothers' attitudes towards passive smoking and caring remain under explored. Children living with smokers are at risk of developing serious acute and chronic conditions during childhood and later life. Despite increased awareness of health messages among parents, young children are still exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the home, with maternal smoking identified as the primary source of exposure. In this paper, we present the findings from a project set up to explore the changing social and environmental context of smoking and motherhood. Using focus groups, 54 mothers of children aged under five years from the Merseyside area of England, who smoked, discussed their beliefs about smoking, passive smoking and the health of their children. Although mothers were aware of the messages linking ETS exposure to childhood illnesses they appeared to rely more on their own explanations for any ill health experienced by their children, discounting smoking as a primary cause and preferring alternative explanations including 'genetics' and 'pollution'. These alternative explanations were common both within and between groups, suggesting that they form part of a wider resistant dialogue constructed within families and communities, where information about smoking and child health is received, challenged, and reconciled with existing knowledge, before being either accepted or rejected. Crucially, this alternative dialogue supports the mothers' continued smoking, and is inevitably linked to their personal need to smoke while caring. These findings have implications for the development of future strategies for promoting the health of children with mothers who are reluctant, or feel unable, to accept

  19. Maternal smoking and testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Zhang, Yawei; Sakoda, Lori C; Rubertone, Mark V; Erickson, Ralph L; Graubard, Barry I

    2006-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common cancer among men ages 15 to 35 years in the United States. The well-established TGCT risk factors cryptorchism, prior diagnosis of TGCT, and family history of testicular cancer indicate that exposures in early life and/or in the familial setting may be critical to determining risk. Previous reports of familial clustering of lung cancer in mothers and testicular cancers in sons suggest that passive smoking in childhood may be such an exposure. To clarify the relationship of passive smoking exposure to TGCT risk, data from 754 cases and 928 controls enrolled in the Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants study were analyzed. Data from 1,086 mothers of the cases and controls were also examined. Overall, there was no relationship between maternal [odds ratio (OR), 1.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.9-1.3] or paternal smoking (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3) and TGCT risk. Although living with a non-parent smoker was marginally related to risk (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1), there was no relationship with number of smokers, amount smoked, or duration of smoking. Responses from both case-control participants and mothers also revealed no relationship between either maternal smoking while pregnant or while breast-feeding. Results did not differ by TGCT histology (seminoma, non-seminoma). These results do not support the hypothesis that passive smoking, either in utero or in childhood, is related to risk of TGCT. Other early life exposures, however, may explain the familial clustering of lung cancer in mothers and TGCT in sons.

  20. Harmfulness of smoking among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Rotter

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the level of awareness of smoking and non smoking students on harmful impact of nicotine and cigarette smoke on human body. Material and methods: The study was carried out in March 2011 in high schools in Szczecin. Own elaborated questionnaire was used. 288 students from high school, technical college and vocational school were tested. Results: The majority of responders (95,1% claimed that cigarette smoke is harmful both for passive and active smokers. They most often pinpoint the direct cause connected with smoking to pulmonary diseases (264 persons and cancers (240 persons. Almost 90% of students found negative impact of tobacco products on development of fetus of pregnant women. Overwhelming majority of respondents (83,2% feels anxious if it comes to stay in a room filled with smoke. Conclusions: The awareness of high school students on negative influence of smoking on human body is quite satisfactory, but there is still a need for more education in the range of diseases and symptoms connected with smoking.

  1. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Balomenaki, Evaggelia; Niaounaki, Dora; Linardakis, Manolis K; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-06-14

    Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents), and interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers). Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  2. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  3. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    consistent evidence that smoking bans reduced exposure to SHS in workplaces, restaurants, pubs and in public places. There was a greater reduction in exposure to SHS in hospitality workers compared to the general population. We failed to detect any difference in self-reported exposure to SHS in cars. There was no change in either the prevalence or duration of reported exposure to SHS in the home as a result of implementing legislative bans. Twenty-three studies reported measures of active smoking, often as a co-variable rather than an end-point in itself, with no consistent evidence of a reduction in smoking prevalence attributable to the ban. Total tobacco consumption was reduced in studies where prevalence declined. Twenty-five studies reported health indicators as an outcome. Self-reported respiratory and sensory symptoms were measured in 12 studies, with lung function measured in five of them. There was consistent evidence of a reduction in hospital admissions for cardiac events as well as an improvement in some health indicators after the ban. AUTHORS\\' CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a legislative smoking ban does lead to a reduction in exposure to passive smoking. Hospitality workers experienced a greater reduction in exposure to SHS after implementing the ban compared to the general population. There is limited evidence about the impact on active smoking but the trend is downwards. There is some evidence of an improvement in health outcomes. The strongest evidence is the reduction seen in admissions for acute coronary syndrome. There is an increase in support for and compliance with smoking bans after the legislation.

  4. Lenticels as indicators of atmospheric smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesek, F.

    1960-01-01

    The invasion of smoke pollution gets from the atmosphere into the plants only by lenticels and stomata. The most toxic smoke constituents penetrating into the stele are SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/, H/sub 3/AsO/sub 4/, HCl and C/sub 6/H/sub 5/OH. Lenticels are bark stomata filled with merenchym tissue, which hinders the entrance of mechanical smoke particles into the interior tissues of the stele. In autumn, the lenticels are packed by cork slabs formed by the cork cambium. In spring, this cork slab is broken by a new mechanical tissue. Sambucus nigra L. has a merenchym sensitive to the presence of smoke pollution, and the lenticels may serve, therefore, as indicators of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The intensity of damage caused by smoke constituents penetrating into the plants through lenticels depends upon a series of exterior and interior factors. They are the number of lenticels per area unit of bark surface in the whole circumference, the pH of the biocomplex near the lenticel in the interior tissues of stele, and the concentration of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The most effective way of preventing smoke damage is to install pollution control equipment in the industrial works.

  5. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  6. Modulation of cigarette smoke-related end-points in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Flora, Silvio; D'Agostini, Francesco; Balansky, Roumen; Camoirano, Anna; Bennicelli, Carlo; Bagnasco, Maria; Cartiglia, Cristina; Tampa, Elena; Longobardi, Maria Grazia; Lubet, Ronald A.; Izzotti, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    The epidemic of lung cancer and the increase of other tumours and chronic degenerative diseases associated with tobacco smoking have represented one of the most dramatic catastrophes of the 20th century. The control of this plague is one of the major challenges of preventive medicine for the next decades. The imperative goal is to refrain from smoking. However, chemoprevention by dietary and/or pharmacological agents provides a complementary strategy, which can be targeted not only to current smokers but also to former smokers and passive smokers. This article summarises the results of studies performed in our laboratories during the last 10 years, and provides new data generated in vitro, in experimental animals and in humans. We compared the ability of 63 putative chemopreventive agents to inhibit the bacterial mutagenicity of mainstream cigarette smoke. Modulation by ethanol and the mechanisms involved were also investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Several studies evaluated the effects of dietary chemopreventive agents towards smoke-related intermediate biomarkers in various cells, tissues and organs of rodents. The investigated end-points included metabolic parameters, adducts to haemoglobin, bulky adducts to nuclear DNA, oxidative DNA damage, adducts to mitochondrial DNA, apoptosis, cytogenetic damage in alveolar macrophages, bone marrow and peripheral blood erytrocytes, proliferation markers, and histopathological alterations. The agents tested in vivo included N-acetyl-L-cysteine, 1,2-dithiole-3-thione, oltipraz, phenethyl isothiocyanate, 5,6-benzoflavone, and sulindac. We started applying multigene expression analysis to chemoprevention research, and postulated that an optimal agent should not excessively alter per se the physiological background of gene expression but should be able to attenuate the alterations produced by cigarette smoke or other carcinogens. We are working to develop an animal model for the induction of lung tumours following exposure

  7. Physiological and biochemical contributions to the problems of smoke damage research. III. The influence of strong spasmodic doses of SO/sub 2/ on the CO/sub 2/ absorption and on certain constituents of the needles of Picea abies and Pinus mugo under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, M; Boertitz, S; Polster, H

    1964-01-01

    Potted young plants show assimilation depressions of various degrees before smoke damage becomes visible. Needles or parts of needles without any outward injuries can recover within a few weeks. Individual differences in outward appearance as well as in physiological behavior were found with the species investigated. Contrary to assimilation, the variations of pH-values as well as those of the sugar-, and amino-acid balances of saps pressed from needles are measurable within the lethal region only. 18 references, 9 figures.

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among non-smoking waiters: measurement of expired carbon monoxide levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a health risk that is of concern to patrons and of particular concern to employees of restaurants and bars. OBJECTIVE: To assess environmental tobacco smoke exposure (using expired carbon monoxide levels in non-smoking waiters before and after a normal day's shift and to compare pre-exposure levels with non-smoking medical students. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: Restaurants with more than 50 tables or 100 places in São Paulo. SUBJECTS: 100 non-smoking restaurant waiters and 100 non-smoking medical students in São Paulo, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Levels of expired carbon monoxide, measured with a Smokerlyser (Bedfont EC 50 Scientific, before and after a normal day's work. RESULTS: Waiters' pre-exposure expired carbon monoxide levels were similar to those of medical students, but after a mean of 9 hours exposure in the workplace, median levels more than doubled (2.0 ppm vs. 5.0 ppm, P <0.001. Post-exposure carbon monoxide levels were correlated with the number of tables available for smokers (Kendall's tau = 0.2, P <0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is the most likely explanation for the increase in carbon monoxide levels among these non-smoking waiters. These findings can be used to inform the ongoing public health debate on passive smoking.

  9. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  10. Secure passive RFID tag with seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Reynolds, Matthew; Lefton, Scott; Dowla, Farid; Twogood, Richard

    2017-11-14

    A secure passive RFID tag system comprises at least one base station and at least one passive RFID tag. The tag includes a fiber optic cable with the cable ends sealed within the tag and the middle portion forming an external loop. The loop may be secured to at least portions of an object. The tag transmits and receives an optical signal through the fiber optic cable, and the cable is configured to be damaged or broken in response to removal or tampering attempts, wherein the optical signal is significantly altered if the cable is damaged or broken. The tag transmits the optical signal in response to receiving a radio signal from the base station and compares the transmitted optical signal to the received optical signal. If the transmitted optical signal and the received optical signal are identical, the tag transmits an affirmative radio signal to the base station.

  11. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu; Shamma, Jeff S.; Martins, Nuno C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  12. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu

    2018-03-21

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  13. Tobacco Use and Environmental Smoke Exposure among Taiwanese Pregnant Smokers and Recent Quitters: Risk Perception, Attitude, and Avoidance Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Yang, Yann-Jy; Wang, Chih-Chien; Lee, Ming-Chang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women. PMID:24005830

  14. Tobacco Use and Environmental Smoke Exposure among Taiwanese Pregnant Smokers and Recent Quitters: Risk Perception, Attitude, and Avoidance Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women.

  15. [High time for a total ban on smoking in the hotel, restaurant and catering industry: the arguments are mounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, R.J.; Franke, L.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Active and passive smoking are well-known causes of disease, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 2004 the Dutch government introduced new legislation to regulate smoking in the workplace. However, smoking is still allowed in hotels, bars and restaurants, despite the fact

  16. The effects of acute exercise on attentional bias towards smoking-related stimuli during temporary abstinence from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; Taylor, Adrian; Hodgson, Tim

    2009-11-01

    Attentional bias towards smoking-related cues is increased during abstinence and can predict relapse after quitting. Exercise has been found to reduce cigarette cravings and desire to smoke during temporary abstinence and attenuate increased cravings in response to smoking cues. To assess the acute effects of exercise on attentional bias to smoking-related cues during temporary abstinence from smoking. In a randomized cross-over design, on separate days regular smokers (n = 20) undertook 15 minutes of exercise (moderate intensity stationary cycling) or passive seating following 15 hours of nicotine abstinence. Attentional bias was measured at baseline and post-treatment. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixation was assessed during the passive viewing of a series of paired smoking and neutral images using an Eyelink II eye-tracking system. Self-reported desire to smoke was recorded at baseline, mid- and post-treatment and post-eye-tracking task. There was a significant condition x time interaction for desire to smoke, F((1,18)) = 10.67, P = 0.004, eta(2) = 0.36, with significantly lower desire to smoke at mid- and post-treatment following the exercise condition. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixations towards smoking images were also reduced significantly following the exercise condition compared with the passive control. Findings support previous research that acute exercise reduces desire to smoke. This is the first study to show that exercise appears to also influence the salience and attentional biases towards cigarettes.

  17. Aktiv kontra passiv forvaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2017-01-01

    Fordele og ulemper ved aktiv og passiv forvaltning har fået fornyet opmærksomhed blandt andet i forbindelse med den forestående implementering af MiFID II. Som bidrag til denne diskussion indeholder dette nummer af Finans/Invest tre artikler, der behandler aktiv og passiv forvaltning fra...... forskellige vinkler. Denne leder forklarer, hvorfor valget mellem aktiv og passiv forvaltning er mere kompliceret, end hvad man kunne tro ved første øjekast, og konkluderer, at der vil være plads til - og behov for - begge typer forvaltning....

  18. Most energetic passive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Huber, Marcus; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Tura, Jordi; Acín, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Passive states are defined as those states that do not allow for work extraction in a cyclic (unitary) process. Within the set of passive states, thermal states are the most stable ones: they maximize the entropy for a given energy, and similarly they minimize the energy for a given entropy. Here we find the passive states lying in the other extreme, i.e., those that maximize the energy for a given entropy, which we show also minimize the entropy when the energy is fixed. These extremal properties make these states useful to obtain fundamental bounds for the thermodynamics of finite-dimensional quantum systems, which we show in several scenarios.

  19. Smoking and Diet: Impact on Disease Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosnes, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The impact of current smoking on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) course has been studied extensively; smoking is deleterious in Crohn's disease (CD), and beneficial in ulcerative colitis (UC). Except for enteral nutrition, there are only limited data regarding the impact of diet on disease course. Current smoking worsens the course of CD, increasing the incidence of flares, the need for steroids, immunosuppressants and re-operations. Conversely, smoking cessation has a rapid beneficial effect on disease course, decreasing the risk of flares and of post-operative recurrences. From 3 months after the quit date, quitters have a disease course similar to that of never smokers. Achieving smoking cessation in CD is thus an important goal of therapy. On the contrary, smoking improves the course of UC and in particular, is associated with a decreased need for colectomy. Smoking cessation increases the risk of flare and the need for steroids or immunosuppressants. However, patients with UC should not be discouraged to quit, because the beneficial effect of smoking for their disease is counterbalanced by the deleterious systemic effects of tobacco. Among dietary interventions, only exclusive enteral nutrition was shown to induce remission and achieve mucosal healing in some patients with CD. The beneficial effect of liquid-defined diet is observed whatever be the type of administration (orally or by tube), the type of diet regarding protein and fat content and resulting alterations in the gut microbiota. In UC, enteral nutrition has no effect. Finally, popularized restrictive diets in IBD as the specific-carbohydrate diet and the gluten-free diet have not been rigorously tested. In a small trial, a semi-vegetarian diet was shown to be effective in maintaining remission over 2 years in CD. Patients with IBD should not smoke and avoid passive smoking. Aside from the defined liquid diets, there is no rationale for advising particular diets. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Techniques for active passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  1. Passive radon daughter dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.G.C.; Johnson, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    On the basis of an extensive review of the recent literature concerning passive radon daughter dosimeters, we have reached the following conclusions: 1) Passive dosimeters for measuring radon are available and reliable. 2) There does not presently exist an acceptable passive dosimeter for radon daughters. There is little if any hope for the development of such a device in the foreseeable future. 3) We are pessimistic about the potential of 'semi-passive dosimeters' but are less firm about stating categorically that these devices cannot be developed into a useful radon daughter dosimeter. This report documents and justifies these conclusions. It does not address the question of the worker's acceptance of these devices because at the present time, no device is sufficiently advanced for this question to be meaningful. 118 refs

  2. Passive Mixing inside Microdroplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengmin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Droplet-based micromixers are essential units in many microfluidic devices for widespread applications, such as diagnostics and synthesis. The mixers can be either passive or active. When compared to active methods, the passive mixer is widely used because it does not require extra energy input apart from the pump drive. In recent years, several passive droplet-based mixers were developed, where mixing was characterized by both experiments and simulation. A unified physical understanding of both experimental processes and simulation models is beneficial for effectively developing new and efficient mixing techniques. This review covers the state-of-the-art passive droplet-based micromixers in microfluidics, which mainly focuses on three aspects: (1 Mixing parameters and analysis method; (2 Typical mixing element designs and the mixing characters in experiments; and, (3 Comprehensive introduction of numerical models used in microfluidic flow and diffusion.

  3. How the tobacco industry responded to an influential study of the health effects of secondhand smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Mi-Kyung; Bero, Lisa A

    2002-01-01

    In 1981 an influential Japanese study showed an association between passive smoking and lung cancer. This article documents the tobacco industry's attempts to refute this study by producing a credible alternative study.

  4. CANDU passive shutdown systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R S; Olmstead, R A [AECL CANDU, Sheridan Park Research Community, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    CANDU incorporates two diverse, passive shutdown systems, independent of each other and from the reactor regulating system. Both shutdown systems function in the low pressure, low temperature, moderator which surrounds the fuel channels. The shutdown systems are functionally different, physically separate, and passive since the driving force for SDS1 is gravity and the driving force for SDS2 is stored energy. The physics of the reactor core itself ensures a degree of passive safety in that the relatively long prompt neutron generation time inherent in the design of CANDU reactors tend to retard power excursions and reduces the speed required for shutdown action, even for large postulated reactivity increases. All passive systems include a number of active components or initiators. Hence, an important aspect of passive systems is the inclusion of fail safe (activated by active component failure) operation. The mechanisms that achieve the fail safe action should be passive. Consequently the passive performance of the CANDU shutdown systems extends beyond their basic modes of operation to include fail safe operation based on natural phenomenon or stored energy. For example, loss of power to the SDS1 clutches results in the drop of the shutdown rods by gravity, loss of power or instrument air to the injection valves of SDS2 results in valve opening via spring action, and rigorous self checking of logic, data and timing by the shutdown systems computers assures a fail safe reactor trip through the collapse of a fluctuating magnetic field or the discharge of a capacitor. Event statistics from operating CANDU stations indicate a significant decrease in protection system faults that could lead to loss of production and elimination of protection system faults that could lead to loss of protection. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the passive shutdown systems employed by CANDU. (author). 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  5. Domestic smoke detectors - a radioactive waste problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    A common form of domestic smoke detector is the ionization chamber smoke detector. A small radioactive source provides the ionization and when smoke enters the sensitive volume the change in voltage is sensed electronically. The use of domestic ionization chamber smoke detectors is widespread and is recommended by fire authorities and insurance companies. That one million such detectors were imported into New South Wales in 1994 is an indication of the numbers involved. The typical radioactive source in a domestic smoke detector is Am 241, which is regarded as one of the more hazardous radionuclides. If it is such a hazardous material, should it be allowed in the normal household without any control? Or, in a smoke detector, is it in a less hazardous form than assumed in the ICRP recommendations and do its benefits outweigh its possible risks? In spite of the apparent hazard of Am 241, the possession of the radioactive source in smoke detectors is generally exempt from any form of regulation. Waste regulations, however, set requirements for the disposal of Am 241 and these regulations can be interpreted as applying to smoke detectors. We appear to have a situation where a home owner can legally purchase any number of smoke detectors but when they fail there are codes of practice that prevent them being disposed of. On the other hand, smoke detectors have a direct life saving function and reports indicate that smoke detectors can reduce both injury and property damage by up to 50%. Do these benefits from the use of smoke detectors compensate for any radiological risk? (author)

  6. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    Active smoking is causally associated with cancers of the lung, larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and urinary bladder, and passive smoking appears to be causally associated with cancer of the lung. Information on smoking habits for the years 1965......, 1975 and 1985 shows that more men than women in the Nordic countries were current smokers. The rates of women were stable over time and those of men were decreasing, approaching those of women. Lung cancer, in particular, is strongly associated with active smoking: by increasing the number...... of cigarettes smoked per day (lifelong) to 5, 10, 20 and 40 or more, the risk increases by five-, eight-, 16- and 30-fold, respectively, over that of people who have never smoked. Thus, with approximately 35% current smokers and 25% former smokers among Nordic men in 1985 and approximately 30% current smokers...

  7. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth / For Kids / Smoking Stinks! What's in ... out more about cigarettes and tobacco. What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  8. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  9. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  10. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  11. Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cully, G

    2010-09-01

    Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

  12. The support for smoke free policy and how it is influenced by tolerance to smoking - experience of a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Manan, Azizah Ab; Yahya, Noorlia; Ibrahim, Lailanor

    2014-01-01

    This cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the support in making Penang UNESCO World Heritage Site (GTWHS) smoke free and to determine the influence of tolerance towards smoking on this support. This is the first phase in making Penang, Malaysia a smoke free state. A multistage sampling process was done to select a sample of respondents to represent the population of GTWHS. Attitude towards smoking was assessed using tolerance as a proxy. A total of 3,268 members of the community participated in the survey. A big majority (n = 2969; 90.9%) of the respondents supported the initiative. Support was lowest among the owners and residents/tenants, higher age groups, the Chinese, men, respondents who had poor knowledge of the places gazetted as smoke free, and respondents with poor knowledge of the health effects on smokers and on passive smokers. The odds (both adjusted and unadjusted) of not supporting the initiative was high among those tolerant to smoking in public areas. Tolerance towards smoking was associated with 80.3% risk of non-support in the respondents who were tolerant to smoking and a 57.2% risk in the population. Health promotion and education concerning the harm of tobacco smoke in Malaysia, which has mainly targeted smokers, must change. Health education concerning the risks of second hand smoke must also be given to non-smokers and efforts should be made to denormalize smoking.

  13. The support for smoke free policy and how it is influenced by tolerance to smoking - experience of a developing country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    Full Text Available This cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the support in making Penang UNESCO World Heritage Site (GTWHS smoke free and to determine the influence of tolerance towards smoking on this support. This is the first phase in making Penang, Malaysia a smoke free state. A multistage sampling process was done to select a sample of respondents to represent the population of GTWHS. Attitude towards smoking was assessed using tolerance as a proxy. A total of 3,268 members of the community participated in the survey. A big majority (n = 2969; 90.9% of the respondents supported the initiative. Support was lowest among the owners and residents/tenants, higher age groups, the Chinese, men, respondents who had poor knowledge of the places gazetted as smoke free, and respondents with poor knowledge of the health effects on smokers and on passive smokers. The odds (both adjusted and unadjusted of not supporting the initiative was high among those tolerant to smoking in public areas. Tolerance towards smoking was associated with 80.3% risk of non-support in the respondents who were tolerant to smoking and a 57.2% risk in the population. Health promotion and education concerning the harm of tobacco smoke in Malaysia, which has mainly targeted smokers, must change. Health education concerning the risks of second hand smoke must also be given to non-smokers and efforts should be made to denormalize smoking.

  14. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  15. Passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart-Mateu, D; Elbal, L; Armenta, S; de la Guardia, M

    2016-05-15

    A procedure based on the use of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), after liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME), has been successfully employed for the determination of passive exposure to nicotine from cigarette and e-cigarette smoking. Nicotine has been determined in exhaled breath and oral fluids of both, active and passive smokers. The aforementioned studies, made in closed environments, evidenced that the exhaled breath after conventional blend cigarette smoke provides nicotine levels of the order of 220 ng per puff, in the case of experienced smokers, being exhaled only 32 ng in the case of e-cigarettes. On the other hand, the nicotine amount in oral fluids of passive vapers was between 8 and 14 µg L(-1) lower than the average value of 38±14 µg L(-1) found for passive smokers of rolling tobacco and clearly lower than the 79±36 µg L(-1) obtained from passive smokers of classical yellow blend. This study was also placed in the frame of the verification of the e-cigarettes composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  17. Genotoxicity of waterpipe smoke in buccal cells and peripheral blood leukocytes as determined by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amrah, Hadba Jar-Allah; Aboznada, Osama Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; ElAssouli, M-Zaki Mustafa; Mujallid, Mohammad Ibrahim; ElAssouli, Sufian Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Waterpipe smoke causes DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes and in buccal cells of smokers. To determine the exposure effect of waterpipe smoke on buccal cells and peripheral blood leukocytes in regard to DNA damage using comet assay. The waterpipe smoke condensates were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study was performed on 20 waterpipe smokers. To perform comet assay on bucaal cells of smokers, 10 µl of cell suspension was mixed with 85 µl of pre-warmed 1% low melting agarose, applied to comet slide and electrophoresed. To analyze the effect of smoke condensate in vitro, 1 ml of peripheral blood was mixed with 10 µl of smoke condensate and subjected for comet assay. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4on, nicotine, hydroxymethyl furancarboxaldehyde and 3-ethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in the smoke condensates. Waterpipe smoking caused DNA damage in vivo in buccal cells of smokers. The tail moment and tail length in buccal cells of smokers were 186 ± 26 and 456 ± 71, respectively, which are higher than control. The jurak and moassel smoke condensates were found to cause DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes. The moassel smoke condensate was more damaging. There is wide misconception that waterpipe smoking is not as harmful as cigarette smoking. This study demonstrated that waterpipe smoke induced DNA damage in exposed cells. Waterpipe smokes cause DNA damage in buccal cells. The smoke condensate of both jurak and moassel caused comet formation suggesting DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  18. The exposure of nonsmoking and smoking mothers to environmental tobacco smoke during different gestational phases and fetal growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejmek, Jan; Solanský, I.; Peterková, Kateřina; Šrám, Radim

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 6 (2002), s. 601-606 ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/1/97; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : active smoking * passive smoking * fetal growth Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.452, year: 2002

  19. Measure Guideline: Passive Vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, David [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Neri, Robin [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-05

    This document addresses the use of passive vents as a source of outdoor air in multifamily buildings. The challenges associated with implementing passive vents and the factors affecting performance are outlined. A comprehensive design methodology and quantified performance metrics are provided. Two hypothetical design examples are provided to illustrate the process. This document is intended to be useful to designers, decision-makers, and contractors implementing passive ventilation strategies. It is also intended to be a resource for those responsible for setting high-performance building program requirements, especially pertaining to ventilation and outdoor air. To ensure good indoor air quality, a dedicated source of outdoor air is an integral part of high-performance buildings. Presently, there is a lack of guidance pertaining to the design and installation of passive vents, resulting in poor system performance. This report details the criteria necessary for designing, constructing, and testing passive vent systems to enable them to provide consistent and reliable levels of ventilation air from outdoors.

  20. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (Pissues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  2. Physical exercise is effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesi RT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Renata Tiscoski Nesi,1 Priscila Soares de Souza,1 Giulia Pedroso dos Santos,1 Anand Thirupathi,1 Bruno T Menegali,1 Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira,1 Luciano Acordi da Silva,1 Samuel Santos Valença,2 Ricardo Aurino Pinho11Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 2Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAbstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS exposure, and physical exercise (Ex is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30–35 g were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks. After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities. Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with P<0.05 considered significantly different. Preventive Ex impeded histological changes and increased the enzymatic defense system (SOD and GPx by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure.Keywords: exercise

  3. Effects of passive smoking on children health | Salih | Sudan Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Health effects of passive smoking in adolescent children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    serum levels of ~-caroteneand vitamin C (important anti- .... The category"oiher smc*ets at 11cm!' was miaBd rn:m tte analysis. Table IV. Logistic regression ..... Van Poppel G. Kok FJ, Gorgels WJMJ, Schrivref J. lung cancer atId exposure 10.

  5. Cannabinoids in oral fluid following passive exposure to marijuana smoke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, Christine; Coulter, Cynthia; Uges, Donald; Tuyay, James; van der Linde, Susanne; van Leeuwen, Arthur; Garnier, Margaux; Orbita, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its main metabolite 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) as well as cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) were measured in oral fluid following realistic exposure to marijuana in a Dutch coffee-shop. Ten healthy

  6. Constructing passive houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehler, S. [Oehler Faigle Archkom Solar Architektur, Bretten (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Everybody can learn to build energy-efficient. It needs theoretical and practical experience. 1997 we built the first freestanding Passive House in Europe, the Passive House Oehler. There had been a lot of questions, starting with the insecurity, whether the calculation program of the Passive House Institute, the PHPP, is working properly in our case. Nobody knew at that time because nobody tried it out before. It took us a lot of time to find out and every detail of the construction hat to be invented to meet the very high demand of thermal quality. All the following houses needed less time and had fewer open questions, adding one piece of experience with every building. 2002 we realised the biggest Passive House, the office building Energon Ulm with 420 working spaces. In the meantime we have learned a lot like how to produce prefabricated timber elements for the facades, providing good insulation, air tightness and avoiding serious thermal bridges. We have proofed, that any kind of building type can be a Passive House. And with increasing experience the freedom of design and construction is growing. Even the economical efficiency increased. The Energon Ulm is providing a much better indoor climate than any other office building and was build 10 % cheaper than an average German office building. At present the Passive House Standard is the most efficient solution for the user to live in the desired comfort zone between 20 C and 25 C. This zone of individual feeling-well can be described with the term ''operative temperature''. This term is defined by factors like air temperature, radiation temperature of warm and cold surfaces, air speed and humidity. The result of all these factors has to be within 18 C to 25 C without accepting one of the factors getting extreme.

  7. Workplace smoking related absenteeism and productivity costs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S P; Wen, C P; Hu, S C; Cheng, T Y; Huang, S J

    2005-06-01

    To estimate productivity losses and financial costs to employers caused by cigarette smoking in the Taiwan workplace. The human capital approach was used to calculate lost productivity. Assuming the value of lost productivity was equal to the wage/salary rate and basing the calculations on smoking rate in the workforce, average days of absenteeism, average wage/salary rate, and increased risk and absenteeism among smokers obtained from earlier research, costs due to smoker absenteeism were estimated. Financial losses caused by passive smoking, smoking breaks, and occupational injuries were calculated. Using a conservative estimate of excess absenteeism from work, male smokers took off an average of 4.36 sick days and male non-smokers took off an average of 3.30 sick days. Female smokers took off an average of 4.96 sick days and non-smoking females took off an average of 3.75 sick days. Excess absenteeism caused by employee smoking was estimated to cost USD 178 million per annum for males and USD 6 million for females at a total cost of USD 184 million per annum. The time men and women spent taking smoking breaks amounted to nine days per year and six days per year, respectively, resulting in reduced output productivity losses of USD 733 million. Increased sick leave costs due to passive smoking were approximately USD 81 million. Potential costs incurred from occupational injuries among smoking employees were estimated to be USD 34 million. Financial costs caused by increased absenteeism and reduced productivity from employees who smoke are significant in Taiwan. Based on conservative estimates, total costs attributed to smoking in the workforce were approximately USD 1032 million.

  8. Passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimola, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a containment system that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is prevented from over-heating by a high containment back-pressure and a reactor vessel refill system. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high sub-atmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means. 20 claims, 14 figures

  9. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  10. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  11. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  12. Smoking and The Simpsons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Guy D; Eslick, Marielle G

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency of smoking on The Simpsons television show, and the relationship with the sex and age groups of characters shown smoking, and with positive, negative and neutral connotations associated with instances of smoking. Content analysis (performed from January to October 2008) of instances of smoking that appeared in the first 18 seasons of The Simpsons television show, which aired from 1989 to 2007. Frequency, impact (positive, negative, neutral) of instances of smoking; and frequency associated with age (child or adolescent versus adult characters), sex and types of characters on the show. There were 795 instances of smoking in the 400 episodes observed. Most (498; 63%) involved male characters. Only 8% of instances of smoking (63) involved child or adolescent characters. Just over a third of instances of smoking (275; 35%) reflected smoking in a negative way, compared with the majority, which reflected smoking in a neutral way (504; 63%) and the minority, which reflected smoking in a positive way (16; 2%). Child and adolescent characters were much more likely to be involved in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way compared with adult characters (odds ratio, 44.93; 95% CI, 16.15-172.18). There are a large number of instances of smoking in The Simpsons television show. Child and adolescent characters are much more likely to be portrayed in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way than adult characters. Viewing The Simpsons characters smoking may prompt children to consider smoking at an early age.

  13. Cigarette smoking and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; Lynge, Elsebeth; Vejborg, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    with MD. METHODS: For the 5,356 women (4,489 postmenopausal) from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993-1997) who attended mammographic screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001), we used MD (mixed/dense or fatty) assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. Active smoking (status, duration......PURPOSE: Smoking before first childbirth increases breast cancer risk, but the biological mechanism remains unknown and may involve mammographic density (MD), one of the strongest biomarkers of breast cancer risk. We aimed to examine whether active smoking and passive smoking were associated......, and intensity) and passive smoking were assessed at cohort baseline (1993-1997) via questionnaire, together with other breast cancer risk factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations (odds ratios, 95 % confidence intervals) between smoking and MD, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Two...

  14. Association of sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions with intention to quit smoking in Korean adults: findings from the ITC Korea Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults.

  15. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Lars-H.R. Siemers

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  16. A whole-blood transcriptome meta-analysis identifies gene expression signatures of cigarette smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huan, T. (Tianxiao); R. Joehanes (Roby); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K. Schramm (Katharina); L.C. Pilling (Luke); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); R. Mägi (Reedik); D.L. Demeo (Dawn L.); G.T. O'Connor (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Homuth (Georg); R. Biffar (Reiner); U. Völker (Uwe); C. Herder (Christian); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); A. Peters (Annette); S. Zeilinger (Sonja); A. Metspalu (Andres); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); P.J. Munson (Peter); H. Lin (Honghuang); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); T. Esko (Tõnu); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); H. Prokisch (Holger); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D. Melzer (David); D. Levy (Daniel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCigarette smoking is a leading modifiable cause of death worldwide. We hypothesized that cigarette smoking induces extensive transcriptomic changes that lead to target-organ damage and smoking-related diseases. We performed a metaanalysis of transcriptome-wide gene expression using whole

  17. Should we bother with second-hand smoke exposure if smoking is on track?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the serious health-damaging effects of tobacco smoke exposure has initiated several preventive programmes on the national and international levels worldwide. In the last decade, a considerable decrease in the prevalence of active smoking was observed in Denmark, changing...... the country from a poor to a favourable position in comparison to other EU countries. However, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, especially in homes, still ranks Denmark among the problematic countries in Europe. This poorly recognised and studied discrepancy calls for further research and effective...

  18. [To smoke or not to smoke, in restaurants, hotels, and bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Antuñano, Francisco Javier; Tovar-Guzmán, Victor José

    2002-01-01

    A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify relevant references, to review the information on adverse effects of tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Occupational exposure to ETS causes significant damages to food industry workers. High levels of mutagenic substances have been demonstrated in restaurant air as well as in the urine samples from those workers. Exposition to 3-aminophenyl, a hemoglobin-associated carcinogen. The best way to protect these workers is the reduction of tobacco smoking in restaurants, hotels, bars and taverns. In restaurant workers, ETS attributable risk for lung cancer is evident.

  19. Passiv-Sammler

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsche, U.

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to a passive collector for air pollution for the determination of emission rates for dry and wet deposits on construction materials such as natural stone, whereby the collector has a surrogate surface of the stone under investigation, the surrogate surface being linked to a collecting vessel such that any dry or wet contamination occurring can be collected.

  20. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  1. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  2. Passive THz metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present our activities in the fabrication and characterization of passive THz metamaterials. We use two fabrication processes to develop metamaterials either as free-standing metallic membranes or patterned metallic multi-layers on the substrates to achieve different functionalities...

  3. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ye

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Results Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day. Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%, compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P Conclusion The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  4. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Lu, Li; Jun, Ye Xue; Mei, Wang Hong

    2007-03-04

    This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day). Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%), compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P opportunity costs, including in terms of healthcare access. The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  5. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: a cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravara, Sofia B; Calheiros, Jose M; Aguiar, Pedro; Barata, Luis Taborda

    2011-09-23

    Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial

  6. Effects of smoke on horticulture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krussmann, G

    1963-01-01

    Several researchers are listed who as far back as 1883 had recognized the varying resistance factors of plants and trees to the effects of smoke. The differences, however, were envisioned partly as the reaction of vegetation to soil and climate. Using today's more sophisticated technological advances, a comprehensive study was conducted in 1956-57 in the Ruhr district to determine the adaptability of 151 leafy evergreens and 60 conifers. The forestry service attempted to establish and evaluate the types of trees selected for the study according to the following criteria: 1) not planted, 2) not adaptable to industry (plant dies), 3) poor adaptation (plant does not thrive), 4) tolerably adaptable to industry (plant grows satisfactorily), and 5) very adaptable to industry (plant thrives very well). Constant monitoring so that the adaptability factor was assessed on the basis of resistance to smoke damage and not due to lack of nourishment and parasitism was ensured. The results of the study are described and evaluated.

  7. TOBACCO SMOKING AND LUNG DISEASES: EFFICIENCY OF TREATMENT APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikitin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on the significant increase of tobacco smoking prevalence and its harmful effect on the development and course of chronic respiratory diseases: tuberculosis, pneumonia, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Negative consequences of tobacco smoking are caused by chronic intoxication of the host by the components of tobacco smoke providing impact on various organs and cells of the host, thus causing a big variety of diseases. Both active and passive smoking deteriorates their course and increase the risk of exacerbation, hinders taking control over the disease and interferes with adequate response to drugs.Current approaches to treatment of tobacco addiction have been presented. There are several ways to overcome nicotine addiction – drug therapy and the other forms of therapy. Integrated approach to tobacco smoking management allows achieving success in 30% of cases within short period of time with continuous and quality remissions. 

  8. Biochemical diagnosis of spruce trees in regions polluted by smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvrkal, H

    1959-01-01

    The material showing different degrees of damage caused by gases in smoke was sampled from 24 trees (spruces) in two smoke polluted regions - the Svatonice and Krusne Hory regions of Czechoslovakia. The essential oils were distilled out in the usual manner and chromatographed. The following terpenes were investigated: santene, ..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, ..beta..-phelandrene, substance A, which could not be identified. The following relationships were determined on the basis of the compiled per cent content tables and the degree of damage caused by gases in smoke: the highest degree of damage occurs in spruce trees in whose essential oils camphene is represented in minimal amounts; smoke damages are not observed when the dipentene content is increased even at the cost of a lower camphene content; the degree of damage is also influenced to some extent by the presence of ..beta..-pinene. A higher degree of damage caused by gases in smoke presupposes a high ..beta..-pinene content in essential oils. Results suggest that the terpene changes do not occur during the damage, but are the consequence of specific species characteristics.

  9. Intrinsically Passive Handling and Grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Khodabandehloo, Koorosh

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a control philosophy called Intrinsically Passive Control, which has the feature to properly behave during interaction with any passive objects. The controlled robot will never become unstable due to the physical structure of the controller.

  10. Passive safety features in current and future water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    Better understanding of the passive safety systems and components in current and future water-cooled reactors may enhance the safety of present reactors, to the extend passive features are backfitted. This better understanding should also improve the safety of future reactors, which can incorporate more of these features. Passive safety systems and components may help to prevent accidents, core damage, or release radionuclides to the environment. The Technical Committee Meeting which was hosted by the USSR State Committee for Utilization of Nuclear Energy was attended by about 80 experts from 16 IAEA Member States and the NEA-OECD. A total of 21 papers were presented during the meeting. The objective of the meeting was to review and discuss passive safety systems and features of current and future water cooled reactor designs and to exchange information in this area of activity. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 21 papers published in this proceedings. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  12. Hydrogen passivation of silicon sheet solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Milstein, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Significant improvements in the efficiencies of dendritic web and edge-supported-pulling silicon sheet solar cells have been obtained after hydrogen ion beam passivation for a period of ten minutes or less. We have studied the effects of the hydrogen ion beam treatment with respect to silicon material damage, silicon sputter rate, introduction of impurities, and changes in reflectance. The silicon sputter rate for constant ion beam flux of 0.60 +- 0.05 mA/cm 2 exhibits a maximum at approximately 1400-eV ion beam energy

  13. Passive solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, K

    1981-11-10

    The present work treats the possibilities for heating according to the passive solar heating method. Problems of 'spatial organization in an energy-saving society' are distinguished from among other social problems. The final delimination of the actual problems under investigation consists of the use of passive solar heating and especially the 'consequences of such solar heating exploitation upon the form and structures' of planning and construction. In the concluding chapter an applied example shows how this method can be used in designing an urban area and what are its limitations. The results indicate the possibilities and difficulties in attempting to transfer this ideal and general method into models and directives for form and structure from which examples of the actual possibilities in practical planning can be given.

  14. Knowledge of and attitudes towards tobacco control among smoking and non-smoking physicians in 2 Gulf Arab states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbehani, Nasser N; Hamadeh, Randah R; Macklai, Nejma S

    2004-05-01

    The global health professional survey is a project organized by the World Health Organization, to determine the smoking habits, knowledge and attitude towards tobacco control of health professionals in several countries around the world. This paper presents data from Kuwait and Bahrain. The survey period was between May 2000 and March 2001. A questionnaire was distributed to all physicians in Bahrain and to a random sample from Kuwait. The responses to knowledge and attitude questions were on a scale of 1-5, (1 strongly agree, 2 agree, 3 unsure, 4 disagree and 5 strongly disagree). Four hundred and seventy physicians from Bahrain and 1095 from Kuwait completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in Kuwait was: current smokers 18.4%, previous smokers 15.8%, Bahrain 14.6% and 14.3%. The prevalence of shisha smoking was 12% and 6.4% for Kuwait and Bahrain, (p=0.004). The mean scores of agreement with the association between passive smoking and lung diseases, lower respiratory tract infections in children were 1.6, 1.7 and 1.8, 1.9 for non smoking physicians and smoking physicians (Pnon-smoking physicians (pattitude towards tobacco control compared to non-smokers. There was no difference in the prevalence of cigarette smoking between Kuwait and Bahrain, but the prevalence of shisha smoking was higher in Kuwait.

  15. Qademah Fault Passive Data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this field trip we collect passive data to 1. Convert passive to surface waves 2. Locate Qademah fault using surface wave migration INTRODUCTION: In this field trip we collected passive data for several days. This data will be used to find the surface waves using interferometry and then compared to active-source seismic data collected at the same location. A total of 288 receivers are used. A 3D layout with 5 m inline intervals and 10 m cross line intervals is used, where we used 12 lines with 24 receivers at each line. You will need to download the file (rec_times.mat), it contains important information about 1. Field record no 2. Record day 3. Record month 4. Record hour 5. Record minute 6. Record second 7. Record length P.S. 1. All files are converted from original format (SEG-2) to matlab format P.S. 2. Overlaps between records (10 to 1.5 sec.) are already removed from these files

  16. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  17. SMOKING IS THE DANGEROUS VIRUS FOR RUSSIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Borisov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of the smoker’s quantity inRussiais one of the highest in the World. Smoking very negatively infl uences on the human’s health and causes serious damage to state economical development due to big losses of production from it. The author evaluates economical damage caused to Russian economical development by smokers.

  18. Concept research on general passive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xu; Yang Yanhua; Zheng Mingguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarized the current passive techniques used in nuclear power plants. Through classification and analysis, the functional characteristics and inherent identification of passive systems were elucidated. By improving and extending the concept of passive system, the general passive concept was proposed, and space and time relativity was discussed and assumption of general passive system were illustrated. The function of idealized general passive system is equivalent with the current passive system, but the design of idealized general passive system is more flexible. (authors)

  19. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  20. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  1. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cigar Smoking and Cancer On This Page How are cigars ... to quit? How can I get help quitting smoking? How are cigars different from cigarettes? Cigarettes usually ...

  2. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. Things that make your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger ...

  3. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - smoking; COPD - secondhand smoke ... Things that make COPD symptoms worse are called triggers. Knowing what your triggers are and how to avoid them can help you feel ...

  4. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Impairs Fracture Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Hildemberg A R; Zamarioli, Ariane; Sousa Neto, Manoel D; Volpon, Jose B

    2017-03-01

    Nonsmokers may be affected by environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke), but the effects of such exposure on fracture healing have not been well studied. To explore the possible effects of passive inhalation of tobacco smoke on the healing of a diaphyseal fracture in femurs of rats. We hypothesized that secondhand exposure to tobacco smoke adversely affects fracture healing. A mid-diaphyseal fracture was created in the femur of 41 female Wistar rats and fixed with an intramedullary metallic pin; 14 rats were excluded (nine for inadequate fractures and five for K wire extrusion). Tobacco exposure was provided by a smoking machine on a daily basis of four cigarettes a day. Each cigarette yielded 10 mg tar and 0.8 mg nicotine, and was puffed by alternating injections of fresh air for 30 seconds and smoke air for 15 seconds. The smoke exposure was previously adjusted to provide serum levels of cotinine similar to human secondhand tobacco exposure. Cotinine is a predominant catabolite of nicotine that is used as a biological biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke. In one group (n = 11), the animals were intermittently exposed to tobacco smoke before sustaining the fracture but not afterward. In another group (n = 7), the exposure occurred before and after the fracture. The control group (n = 9) was sham-exposed before and after the fracture. We evaluated the specimens 28 days after bone fracture. The callus quality was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (bone mineral density [BMD], bone mineral content [BMC], and callus area), μCT (callus volume and woven bone fraction), and mechanical bending (maximum force and stiffness). Tobacco exposure resulted in delayed bone callus formation, which is represented by decreased BMD (Control: 0.302 ± 0.008 g/cm 2 vs Preexposed: 0.199 ± 0.008 g/cm 2 and Pre- and Postexposed: 0.146 ± 0.009 g/cm 2 ; mean difference = 0.103 g/cm 2 , 95% CI, 0.094-0.112 g/cm 2 and mean difference = 0.156 g/cm 2 , 95% CI, 0.147-0.167 g

  5. Passive Impact Damage Detection of Fiber Glass Composite Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    Another important reason to chose sensor embedding is that the composite layers prevent the electromechanical fatigue degradation of the PZT (Sung...15 Figure 3-1 PZT sensor used on this work. .................................................................................... 28 Figure 3-3 PZT ...are used to hold the PZT sensor. ........................ 29 Figure 3-5 A small amount of solder is applied to the sensor to connect the wire leads

  6. Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing, protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer, can provide effective protection against such hair damage.

  7. Smoking trend indicators in Brazilian capitals, 2006-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the trend of indicators related to smoking in the capitals of Brazil from 2006 to 2013. Information on smoking trends extracted from the survey of risk and protective factors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are analyzed through telephone interviews - VIGITEL conducted from 2006-2013 for the adult population in Brazilian capitals. To estimate the trend, the simple linear regression model was used. The prevalence of smokers in Brazil showed a relative reduction of 0.62% for each year of the survey, ranging from 15.6% in 2006 to 11.3% in 2013. A decrease was observed in both sexes in all age ranges except between 55 and 64 years in all education levels and regions. The total population of former smokers remained stable, with a reduction for men. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day decreased from 4.6% (2006 to 3.4% (2013, or 0.162 percentage points per year. Passive smoking at home decreased among women 13.4% (2009 to 10.7% (2013, a reduction of 0.72% per annum. Passive smoking at work has remained stable over the period. The smoking trend reduced in the period in most indicators, reflecting the importance of the tobacco control actions in the country.

  8. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  9. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  10. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim R Fida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Results: Of the studied group, 258 (37% currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9% and friends who smoked (42.5%. Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%, and only (45.3% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%, especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9% had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6% had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. Conclusion: A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  11. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Of the studied group, 258 (37%) currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9%) and friends who smoked (42.5%). Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%), and only (45.3%) knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9%) had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6%) had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  12. [Prevention of coronary heart disease: smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, T; Meinertz, T

    2005-01-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of illness and premature death in Germany, claiming over 110,000 lives a year because it directly increases the risk of dying from heart disease, stroke, emphysema and a variety of cancers. The overwhelming majority of smokers begin tobacco use before they reach adulthood. Among those young people who smoke, the average age is now 13-14. In Germany, about 39% of male and 31% of female adults (age 18-60 years) continue to smoke, despite information about the unequivocally negative health consequences of smoking. The exact mechanisms of smoking-related vascular disease are not yet known. Smoking causes acute hemodynamic alterations such as increase in heart rate, systematic and coronary vascular resistance, myocardial contractility, and myocardial oxygen demand. These short-term effects could lower the ischemic threshold in smokers with coronary artery disease and contribute to the increased risk for acute cardiovascular events. Endothelial damage is thought to be an initiating event in atherosclerosis and early studies have demonstrated that long-term smoking has direct toxic effects with structural changes of human endothelial cells. Recent research has shown the importance of the functional role of the endothelium in regulating vascular tone, platelet-endothelial interactions, leukocyte adhesion and smooth muscle cell proliferation via synthesis and release of a variety of substances such as nitric oxide. There is strong evidence that smoking leads to endothelial dysfunction mainly by increased inactivation of nitric oxide by oxygen-derived free radicals. Smoking also increases oxidative modification of LDL and is associated with lower HDL plasma levels. Smoking induces a systemic inflammatory response with increased leukocyte count and elevation of the C-reactive protein level. Importantly, the prothrombotic effects of smoking have been repeatedly demonstrated to cause alterations in platelet function, imbalance of

  13. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  14. Changes in Passive Tension of the Hamstring Muscles During a Simulated Soccer Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul W; Lovell, Ric; Siegler, Jason C

    2016-07-01

    Passive muscle tension is increased after damaging eccentric exercise. Hamstring-strain injury is associated with damaging eccentric muscle actions, but no research has examined changes in hamstring passive muscle tension throughout a simulated sport activity. The authors measured hamstring passive tension throughout a 90-min simulated soccer match (SAFT90), including the warm-up period and every 15 min throughout the 90-min simulation. Passive hamstring tension of 15 amateur male soccer players was measured using the instrumented straight-leg-raise test. Absolute torque (Nm) and slope (Nm/°) of the recorded torque-angular position curve were used for data analysis, in addition to total leg range of motion (ROM). Players performed a 15-min prematch warm-up, then performed the SAFT90 including a 15-min halftime rest period. Reductions in passive stiffness of 20-50° of passive hip flexion of 22.1-29.2% (P hamstring ROM (P = .0009). The findings of this study imply that hamstring passive tension is reduced after an active warm-up that includes dynamic stretching but does not increase in a pattern suggestive of eccentric induced muscle damage during soccer-specific intermittent exercise. Hamstring ROM and passive tension increases are best explained by improved stretch tolerance.

  15. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  16. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  17. Periodontal tissue damage in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutojo Djajakusuma

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is the primary etiological factor in periodontal diseases. However, there are many factors that can modify how an individual periodontal tissue will respond to the accumulation of dental plaque. Among such risk factors, there is increasing evidence that smoking tobacco products alters the expression and rate of progression of periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the loss of periodontal tissue adhesion in smokers by measuring pocket depth using probe, and by measuring alveolar bone damage using Bone Loss Score (BLS radiographic methods on teeth 12, 11, 21, 22, 32, 31, 41, 42. Based on T Test statistical analysis, there were significant differences in pocket depth damage of alveolar bone in smokers and non smokers. In conclusion there were increasing pocket depth and alveolar bone damage in smokers.

  18. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p smoking initiation of young Chinese children in Hong Kong independent of parental smoking status. On the other hand, the effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  19. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-12-01

    Despite voluntary restrictions prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others). We performed a comprehensive literature review. We identified 40 studies. Smoking in the movies decreased from 1950 to approximately 1990 and then increased rapidly. In 2002, smoking in movies was as common as it was in 1950. Movies rarely depict the negative health outcomes associated with smoking and contribute to increased perceptions of smoking prevalence and the benefits of smoking. Movie smoking is presented as adult behavior. Exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable and has a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior. Parental restrictions on R-rated movies significantly reduces youth exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking uptake. Beginning in 2002, the total amount of smoking in movies was greater in youth-rated (G/PG/PG-13) films than adult-rated (R) films, significantly increasing adolescent exposure to movie smoking. Viewing antismoking advertisements before viewing movie smoking seems to blunt the stimulating effects of movie smoking on adolescent smoking. Strong empirical evidence indicates that smoking in movies increases adolescent smoking initiation. Amending the movie-rating system to rate movies containing smoking as "R" should reduce adolescent exposure to smoking and subsequent smoking.

  20. Expansion of passive safety function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko; Nei, Hiromichi; Kumada, Toshiaki.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of the use of passive safety functions is proposed. Two notions are presented. One is that, in the design of passive safety nuclear reactors where aversion of active components is stressed, some active components are purposely introduced, by which a system is built in such a way that it behaves in an apparently passive manner. The second notion is that, instead of using a passive safety function alone, a passive safety function is combined with some active components, relating the passivity in the safety function with enhanced controllability in normal operation. The nondormant system which the authors propose is one example of the first notion. This is a system in which a standby safety system is a portion of the normal operation system. An interpretation of the nondormant system via synergetics is made. As an example of the second notion, a PIUS density lock aided with active components is proposed and is discussed

  1. Determinants of Exposure to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke (SHS among Current Non-Smoking In-School Adolescents (aged 11–18 years in South Africa: Results from the 2008 GYTS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  2. Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  3. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  4. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function

  5. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camlin, Nicole J. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, Eileen A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holt, Janet E. [School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  6. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  7. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  8. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  9. Safety significance of ATR passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: 1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, 2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and 3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond to most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models and results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system)

  10. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameter...

  11. No Borders for Tobacco Smoke in Hospitality Venues in Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Neuberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In public places many countries banned smoking as the most important indoor source of fine airborne particulate matter. In Austria partial bans have been in force since 2009, with exemptions for the hospitality industry. From February to October 2010 we investigated PM2.5 concentrations in the breathing area of guests in well frequented Viennese establishments of all sizes, and compared these chance indoor samples with PM2.5 concentrations measured during the same half hour at the next outdoor monitoring station. The laser particle counter (OPC1.108, Grimm® used for indoor measurements had been calibrated by ß-attenuation (FH 62 I-R, Eberline®, which was used outdoors. 48% of 112 venues visited did not fully comply with the law, notwithstanding its weakness.  Highest median concentrations (in µg/m3 were found in bars (443.7, followed by nightclubs/discotheques (421.1, pubs (147.7, cafes (106.1 and restaurants (23.4. Concentrations increased with number of smokers present (p < 0.01, with medians of 282.4/241,3/67.6/6.9 µg/m³ in smoking venues/smoking rooms/adjacent non-smoking rooms/exclusive non-smoking venues. Only for the latter, a significant correlation was found with outdoor concentrations (r = 0.48, p < 0.01, while concentrations in non-smoking rooms were higher (p < 0.01 and unrelated to outdoor concentrations, but significantly dependent on concentrations in the adjacent smoking room (r = 0.64, p < 0.01. In conclusion, the partial smoking ban failed and guests of Viennese hospitality venues continue to risk disease from passive smoking, even in so-called “non-smoking rooms”, which are second-hand smoke rooms.

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  13. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  14. Cigarette smoking and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; Lynge, Elsebeth; Vejborg, Ilse; Tjønneland, Anne; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Andersen, Zorana J

    2016-02-01

    Smoking before first childbirth increases breast cancer risk, but the biological mechanism remains unknown and may involve mammographic density (MD), one of the strongest biomarkers of breast cancer risk. We aimed to examine whether active smoking and passive smoking were associated with MD. For the 5,356 women (4,489 postmenopausal) from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993-1997) who attended mammographic screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001), we used MD (mixed/dense or fatty) assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. Active smoking (status, duration, and intensity) and passive smoking were assessed at cohort baseline (1993-1997) via questionnaire, together with other breast cancer risk factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations (odds ratios, 95 % confidence intervals) between smoking and MD, adjusting for confounders. Two thousand and twenty-six (56.5 %) women had mixed/dense MD, 2,214 (41.4 %) were current, and 1,175 (21.9 %) former smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower odds (0.86, 0.75-0.99) of having mixed/dense MD compared to never smokers, while former smoking was not associated with MD. Inverse association between smoking and MD was strongest in women who initiated smoking before age of 16 years (0.79, 0.64-0.96), smoked ≥15 cigarettes/day (0.83, 0.71-0.98), smoked ≥5 pack-years (0.62, 0.43-0.89), smoked >30 years (0.86, 0.75-0.99), and smoked ≥11 years before first childbirth (0.70, 0.51-0.96). Association between smoking and MD diminished after smoking cessation, with increased odds of having mixed/dense breasts in women who quit smoking >20 years ago as compared to current smokers (1.37, 1.01-1.67). There was no association between passive smoking and MD. We found an inverse association between active smoking and MD.

  15. The Support for Smoke Free Policy and How It Is Influenced by Tolerance to Smoking – Experience of a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Manan, Azizah Ab; Yahya, Noorlia; Ibrahim, Lailanor

    2014-01-01

    This cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the support in making Penang UNESCO World Heritage Site (GTWHS) smoke free and to determine the influence of tolerance towards smoking on this support. This is the first phase in making Penang, Malaysia a smoke free state. A multistage sampling process was done to select a sample of respondents to represent the population of GTWHS. Attitude towards smoking was assessed using tolerance as a proxy. A total of 3,268 members of the community participated in the survey. A big majority (n = 2969; 90.9%) of the respondents supported the initiative. Support was lowest among the owners and residents/tenants, higher age groups, the Chinese, men, respondents who had poor knowledge of the places gazetted as smoke free, and respondents with poor knowledge of the health effects on smokers and on passive smokers. The odds (both adjusted and unadjusted) of not supporting the initiative was high among those tolerant to smoking in public areas. Tolerance towards smoking was associated with 80.3% risk of non-support in the respondents who were tolerant to smoking and a 57.2% risk in the population. Health promotion and education concerning the harm of tobacco smoke in Malaysia, which has mainly targeted smokers, must change. Health education concerning the risks of second hand smoke must also be given to non-smokers and efforts should be made to denormalize smoking. PMID:25338116

  16. Exposure to ultrafine particles in hospitality venues with partial smoking bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Schietz, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Fine particles in hospitality venues with insufficient smoking bans indicate health risks from passive smoking. In a random sample of Viennese inns (restaurants, cafes, bars, pubs and discotheques) effects of partial smoking bans on indoor air quality were examined by measurement of count, size and chargeable surface of ultrafine particles (UFPs) sized 10-300 nm, simultaneously with mass of particles sized 300-2500 nm (PM2.5). Air samples were taken in 134 rooms unannounced during busy hours and analyzed by a diffusion size classifier and an optical particle counter. Highest number concentrations of particles were found in smoking venues and smoking rooms (median 66,011 pt/cm(3)). Even non-smoking rooms adjacent to smoking rooms were highly contaminated (median 25,973 pt/cm(3)), compared with non-smoking venues (median 7408 pt/cm(3)). The particle number concentration was significantly correlated with the fine particle mass (Phospitality premises. Health protection of non-smoking guests and employees from risky UFP concentration is insufficient, even in rooms labeled "non-smoking". Partial smoking bans with separation of smoking rooms failed.

  17. Smoking and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-hee Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.

  18. Image Acquisition of Robust Vision Systems to Monitor Blurred Objects in Hazy Smoking Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yongjin; Park, Seungkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Kim, Donglyul; Nam, Sungmo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Image information in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important data for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, robust vision system for structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments, such as the places of a fire and detonation, is essential in remote monitoring. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog, dust. The vision system based on wavefront correction can be applied to blurred imaging environments and the range-gated imaging system can be applied to both of blurred imaging and darken light environments. Wavefront control is a widely used technique to improve the performance of optical systems by actively correcting wavefront distortions, such as atmospheric turbulence, thermally-induced distortions, and laser or laser device aberrations, which can reduce the peak intensity and smear an acquired image. The principal applications of wavefront control are for improving the image quality in optical imaging systems such as infrared astronomical telescopes, in imaging and tracking rapidly moving space objects, and in compensating for laser beam distortion through the atmosphere. A conventional wavefront correction system consists of a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror and a control computer. The control computer measures the wavefront distortions using a wavefront sensor and corrects it using a deformable mirror in a closed-loop. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra

  19. Image Acquisition of Robust Vision Systems to Monitor Blurred Objects in Hazy Smoking Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yongjin; Park, Seungkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Kim, Donglyul; Nam, Sungmo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Image information in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important data for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, robust vision system for structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments, such as the places of a fire and detonation, is essential in remote monitoring. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog, dust. The vision system based on wavefront correction can be applied to blurred imaging environments and the range-gated imaging system can be applied to both of blurred imaging and darken light environments. Wavefront control is a widely used technique to improve the performance of optical systems by actively correcting wavefront distortions, such as atmospheric turbulence, thermally-induced distortions, and laser or laser device aberrations, which can reduce the peak intensity and smear an acquired image. The principal applications of wavefront control are for improving the image quality in optical imaging systems such as infrared astronomical telescopes, in imaging and tracking rapidly moving space objects, and in compensating for laser beam distortion through the atmosphere. A conventional wavefront correction system consists of a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror and a control computer. The control computer measures the wavefront distortions using a wavefront sensor and corrects it using a deformable mirror in a closed-loop. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra

  20. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  1. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  2. Attitudes to smoking and smoking cessation among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakumar, Sreejith; Adams, John

    2015-10-28

    This article presents a literature review on smoking rates among nurses and the nursing role in promoting smoking cessation worldwide. Findings included wide variations between countries in smoking rates among nurses, and the important influence of peers and family members on smoking behaviours. Several studies indicated that nurses would value more education on techniques to promote smoking cessation.

  3. [High time for a total ban on smoking in the hotel, restaurant and catering industry: the arguments are mounting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, R J; Franke, L J A

    2007-02-24

    Active and passive smoking are well-known causes of disease, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 2004 the Dutch government introduced new legislation to regulate smoking in the workplace. However, smoking is still allowed in hotels, bars and restaurants, despite the fact that two-thirds of the Dutch population support a total ban on smoking in public places. Several other European countries and American states have banned smoking in public places. Studies performed in these regions show that the new smoking regulations have had no negative economic effects. Moreover, various studies have shown that smoking bans have a positive impact on public health, even in the short-term, including a significant decrease in respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There is therefore no reason to continue to exclude hotels, bars and restaurants from the smoking ban in all public places in The Netherlands.

  4. Passive magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  5. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in

  6. Passive films at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, Vincent; Marcus, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoscale data on growth, structure and local properties of passive films reviewed. ► Preferential role of defects of passive films on the corrosion resistance emphasized. ► Effect of grain boundaries on local electronic properties shown by new data. ► Use of atomistic modeling to test mechanistic hypotheses illustrated. - Abstract: The nanometer scale chemical and structural aspects of ultrathin oxide passive films providing self-protection against corrosion to metals and alloys in aqueous environments are reviewed. Data on the nucleation and growth of 2D anodic oxide films, details on the atomic structure and nanostructure of 3D passive films, the preferential role of surface step edges in dissolution in the passive state and the preferential role of grain boundaries of the passive films in passivity breakdown are presented. Future perspectives are discussed, and exemplified by new data obtained on the relationship between the nanostructure of oxide passive films and their local electronic properties. Atomistic corrosion modeling by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) is illustrated by the example of interactions of chloride ions with hydroxylated oxide surfaces, including the role of surface step edges. Data obtained on well-defined substrate surfaces with surface analytical techniques are emphasized.

  7. Udviklingen i bilers passive sikkerhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    man mellem aktiv og passiv sikkerhed, det vil sige faktorer, der nedsætter • risikoen for, at der sker et uheld (aktiv sikkerhed), henholdsvis • graden af alvorlighed, givet at uheldet er sket (passiv sikkerhed). Rapporten begrænser sig til at undersøge, om der kan påvises en generel sammenhæng mellem...

  8. The Passive in Singapore English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhiming; Wee, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the two passive (or passive-like) constructions in Singapore English which exhibit substrate influence from Malay and Chinese. The paper shows that while substrate languages contribute to the grammar of Singapore English, the continued prestige of standard English exerts normative pressure and mitigates the effect of…

  9. The Prevalence and Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, K A; Osibogun, A; Akinsete, A O; Sadiq, L

    2009-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of smoking among secondary school students and identify factors that influence smoking amongst them. This descriptive and explorative study was conducted among 1,183 secondary school students, selected by multistage sampling from each of the 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Data was collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaires. This study recorded a lifetime smoking prevalence of 26.4% and current smoking prevalence of 17.1% among secondary school students in Nigeria. Most (82%) of the students had seen warnings against smoking and most of them were aware that it is possible for cigarette smoking to damage body organs. Unfortunately, however, seeing such warnings had no significant effect on their decision to smoke or not. The students who smoke were introduced to smoking mainly by their friends (67.4 %), and the television (13.4%). Smoking habits of the respondents were influenced by parents' educational status (psmoke (psmoked. Peer pressure was the main reason cited by respondents for initiating smoking. It is suggested that our smoking prevention programmes be reviewed and appropriate health education and smoking cessation programmes be developed and implemented in order to prevent and control smoking among Nigerian students.

  10. Smoking and atherosclerosis: mechanisms of disease and new therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siasos, Gerasimos; Tsigkou, Vasiliki; Kokkou, Eleni; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Verveniotis, Alexis; Limperi, Maria; Genimata, Vasiliki; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    It has been clear that at least 1 billion adults worldwide are smokers and at least 700 million children are passive smokers at home. Smoking exerts a detrimental effect to many organ systems and is responsible for illnesses such as lung cancer, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer of head and neck, cancer of the urinary and gastrointestinal tract, periodontal disease, cataract and arthritis. Additionally, smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease, stable angina, acute coronary syndromes, sudden death, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, erectile dysfunction and aortic aneurysms via initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. A variety of studies has proved that cigarette smoking induces oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, platelet coagulation, vascular dysfunction and impairs serum lipid pro-file in both current and chronic smokers, active and passive smokers and results in detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. The aim of this review is to depict the physical and biochemical properties of cigarette smoke and, furthermore, elucidate the main pathophysiological mechanisms of cigarette-induced atherosclerosis and overview the new therapeutic approaches for smoking cessation and augmentation of cardiovascular health.

  11. Smoking out carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, David; Griffiths, Huw; Parker, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Smoked foods are becoming increasingly popular and are being produced by large and small food operations, artisan producers, chefs and consumers themselves. Epidemiological studies conducted over a number of decades have linked the consumption of smoked foods with various cancers and these findings have been supported by animal testing. Smoke contains a group of dangerous carcinogens that are responsible for lung cancer in cigarette smokers and implicated as causative agents for colorectal an...

  12. Health literacy and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Panahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both population-based and clinical interventions have been successful in lowering rates of smoking in the USA over time, the prevalence of smoking remains considerably higher than the Healthy People 2020 objective of 12% [1]. The latest national study conducted in Iran showed that 25% of the population aged 18- 65 years were smokers and age, education, gender, occupation, and marital status variables had a significant relationship with smoking [2].

  13. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  14. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L; Kokkala, M [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  15. Antireflection/Passivation Step For Silicon Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Gerald T.; Kachare, Akaram H.; Daud, Taher

    1988-01-01

    New process excludes usual silicon oxide passivation. Changes in principal electrical parameters during two kinds of processing suggest antireflection treatment almost as effective as oxide treatment in passivating cells. Does so without disadvantages of SiOx passivation.

  16. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  17. Association of Sociodemographic Factors, Smoking-Related Beliefs, and Smoking Restrictions With Intention to Quit Smoking in Korean Adults: Findings From the ITC Korea Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. Methods We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. Results A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults. PMID:22186157

  18. Fatigue Life of Postbuckled Structures with Indentation Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue life of composite stiffened panels with indentation damage was investigated experimentally using single stringer compression specimens. Indentation damage was induced on one of the two flanges of the stringer. The experiments were conducted using advanced instrumentation, including digital image correlation, passive thermography, and in-situ ultrasonic scanning. Specimens with initial indentation damage lengths of 37 millimeters to 56 millimeters were tested in fatigue and the effects of cyclic load amplitude and damage size were studied. A means of comparison of the damage propagation rates and collapse loads based on a stress intensity measure and the Paris law is proposed.

  19. Fatigue Life of Postbuckled Structures with Indentation Damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue life of composite stiffened panels with indentation damage was investigated experimentally using single stringer compression specimens. Indentation damage was induced on one of the two flanges of each stringer. The experiments were conducted using advanced instrumentation, including digital image correlation, passive thermography, and in-situ ultrasonic scanning. Specimens with initial indentation damage lengths of 32 millimeters to 56 millimeters were tested quasi-statically and in fatigue, and the effects of cyclic load amplitude and damage size were studied. A means of comparison of the damage propagation rates and collapse loads based on a stress intensity measure and the Paris law is proposed.

  20. Air pollution damage to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, G T

    1974-01-01

    The effects of the most important air pollutants on plants are described in detail. The include: smoke and particulates, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, peroxyacetyl nitrate, nitrogen oxides, and ozone. An attempt is made to show that plant injury by air pollution can be recognized and evaluated in the presence of effects from insect, fungal, bacterial, viral pathogens and the symptoms of nutrient and enviromental stress. All plants are more or less affected by toxic gases and metals absorbed from the air. For each plant and each pollutant there is a critical concentration above which damage occurs, and below which growth is normal.

  1. An Exploration of Smoking-to-Vaping Transition Attempts Using a "Smart" Electronic Nicotine Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Mei-Ling; Hoek, Janet; George, Mark; Gendall, Philip; Conner, Tamlin S; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela M; Langlotz, Tobias

    2018-06-06

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are used to aid smoking cessation attempts; however, many smokers continue to smoke while using an ENDS (dual use). Although uncertainty remains regarding whether specific ENDS patterns hinder or support successful smoking cessation, recent advances in "smart" technology allow passive and active recording of behaviors in real time, enabling more detailed insights into how smoking and vaping patterns may coevolve. We describe patterns of ENDS initiation, and subsequent use, including any changes in cigarette consumption, among daily smokers using a "smart" ENDS (S-ENDS) to quit smoking. An 8-week long mixed-methods feasibility study used Bluetooth-enabled S-ENDS that passively recorded real-time device use by participants (n = 11). Daily surveys administered via smartphones collected data on self-reported cigarette consumption. All 11 participants were dual users, at least initially, during their quit attempt. We observed three provisional vaping and smoking patterns: immediate and intensive ENDS initiation coupled with immediate, dramatic, and sustained smoking reduction, leading to smoking abstinence; gradual ENDS uptake with gradual smoking reductions, leading to daily dual use throughout the study period; and ENDS experimentation with return to exclusive smoking. For six participants, the patterns observed in week 1 were similar to the vaping and smoking patterns observed throughout the rest of the study period. Technological advances now allow fine-grained description of ENDS use and smoking patterns. Larger and longer studies describing smoking-to-vaping patterns, and estimating associations with smoking outcomes, could inform ENDS-specific cessation advice promoting full transition from smoking to exclusive ENDS use. The use of an S-ENDS that recorded real-time device use among daily smokers engaged in a quit attempt provides insight into patterns and trajectories of dual use (continuing to smoke while using ENDS

  2. Use of an online smoking cessation community promotes abstinence: Results of propensity score weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L; Papandonatos, George D; Erar, Bahar; Stanton, Cassandra A

    2015-12-01

    We estimated the causal effects of use of an online smoking cessation community on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months. Participants (N = 492) were adult current smokers in the enhanced Internet arm of The iQUITT Study, a randomized trial of Internet and telephone treatment for smoking cessation. All participants accessed a Web-based smoking-cessation program that included a large, established online community. Automated tracking metrics of passive (e.g., reading forum posts, viewing member profiles) and active (e.g., writing forum posts, sending private messages) community use were extracted from the site at 3 months. Self-selected community use defines the groups of interest: "None," "Passive," and "Both" (passive + active). Inverse probability of treatment weighting corrected for baseline imbalances on demographic, smoking, psychosocial, and medical history variables. Propensity weights estimated via generalized boosted models were used to calculate Average Treatment Effects (ATE) and Average Treatment effects on the Treated (ATT). Patterns of community use were: None = 198 (40.2%), Passive = 110 (22.4%), and Both = 184 (37.4%). ATE-weighted abstinence rates were: None = 4.2% (95% CI = 1.5-6.9); Passive = 15.1% (95% CI = 8.4-21.9); Both = 20.4% (95% CI = 13.9-26.8). ATT-weighted abstinence rates indicated even greater benefits of community use. Community users were more likely to quit smoking at 3 months than nonusers. The estimated benefit from use of online community resources was even larger among subjects with high propensity to use them. No differences in abstinence emerged between passive and passive/active users. Results suggest that lurking in online communities confers specific abstinence benefits. Implications of these findings for online cessation communities are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Smoke Ready Toolbox for Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides an online Smoke Ready Toolbox for Wildfires, which lists resources and tools that provide information on health impacts from smoke exposure, current fire conditions and forecasts and strategies to reduce exposure to smoke.

  4. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking affects the entire body, increasing the ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ...

  5. Nitridation of SiO2 for surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. K. C.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to relate the electrical properties of silicon dioxide film to the process history. A model is proposed to explain some of the observed results. It is shown that with our present knowledge of the dielectric, silicon dioxide film shows a lot of promise for its use in surface passivation, both for its resistance to impurity diffusion and for its resistance to radiation damage effects.

  6. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  7. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the workplace, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In the United States, the source of most secondhand smoke is from cigarettes, followed by pipes, cigars, and other tobacco products ( 4 ). The amount of smoke created by a tobacco product depends on the amount ...

  8. Smoking - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 3 - Smoking - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... and Well-Being 3 - Smoking - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  9. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.

  10. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  11. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  12. Cytogenetic damages induced in vivo in human lymphocytes by environmental chemicals or radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of various environmental exposures has been evident in variation in cancer incidence and mortality. Benzene is considered to be a human carcinogen, is clastogenic to rodents and humans, and it affects the immune response. Workers in various industrial plants, are exposed to benzene and benzene related compounds as a result of various activities in which benzene is processed, generated or used. Major sources of environmental exposure to benzene related compounds, continue to be active and passive smoking, auto exhaust, and driving or riding in automobiles. Benzene is of a particular interest, not only because of its known toxicity, but also because this was to be the parent compound and a model for extensive programs of metabolism of a variety of aromatic chemicals. Ionizing radiation is an unavoidable physical agent that is presented in environment, and public opinion is well aware against radiation risk and strongly against it. The aim of the presentation was comparison between cytogenetic damages induced in vivo by environmental chemicals with those of radiation. Results from biomonitoring survey on genotoxicity in human blood cells of benzene and benzene related compounds were compared to damages detected in lymphocytes of persons who had been accidentally exposed to gamma radiation. In the groups, that had been occupationally or environmentally exposed to benzene related compound, total aberration frequencies, or percent of aberrant cells ranged between 0 - 0.16 aberrations/cell or 16% of aberrant cells respectively. A multivariate regression analysis confirmed: (i) a significant association between cytogenetic damage and exposure to benzene related compound, (ii) a possible association between cytogenetic damage and cancer, (iii) a significant influence of smoking habit. In 1996 few persons were suspected of accidental exposure to gamma radiation. To estimate the absorbed doses, lymphocytes from their blood have been analyzed for the presence of

  13. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  14. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  15. Carbon monoxide, smoking, and atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, P

    1973-10-01

    Studies on the effects of carbon monoxide and smoking on atherosclerosis are reviewed. Nonsmokers do not run the risk of getting significantly elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels from automobile exhaust in the streets, however, they do run the risk of getting elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels from exposure to CO in closed areas such as garages and tunnels. Carboxyhemoglobin levels up to 20 percent may also be found in smokers. The central nervous system seems to be influenced by carboxyhemoglobin concentrations up to 20 percent. The myocardium may also be affected. Experimental work with rabbits exposed to carbon monoxide and cholesterol is described which proved that CO has a damaging effect on arterial walls, leading to increased permeability for various plasma components, to the formation of subendothelial edema, and to increased atheromatosis. The results indicate that the much higher risk of smokers of developing arterial disease in comparison to nonsmokers is mainly due to the inhaled CO in the tobacco smoke and not to nicotine. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  16. Formation of cigarette smoke-induced DNA adducts in the rat lung and nasal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Sopori, M.L.; Gairola, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of DNA adducts in the nasal, lung, and liver tissues of rats exposed daily to fresh smoke from a University of Kentucky reference cigarette (2R1) for up to 40 weeks was examined. The amount of smoke total particulate matter (TPM) inhaled and the blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) values averaged 5-5.5 mg smoke TPM/day/rat and 5.5%, respectively. The pulmonary AHH activity measured at the termination of each experiment showed an average increase of about two- to threefold in smoke-exposed groups. These observations suggested that animals effectively inhaled both gaseous and particulate phase constituents of cigarette smoke. DNAs from nasal, lung, and liver tissue were extracted and analyzed by an improved 32 P-postlabeling procedure. The data demonstrate the DNA-damaging potential of long term fresh cigarette smoke exposure and suggest the ability of the tissue to partially recover from such damage following cessation of the exposure

  17. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-10-25

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, and behavior and attitudes towards smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with an 87.4% response rate. The age range of this student sample was 16-22 years. Two hundred fifty-eight (37%) of the study group were current smokers. The most common reasons given for smoking were personal choice (50.8%) and the peer pressure from smoker friends (32.8%). Many students researched the smoking hazards (68.1%), but only 47.6% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking. Two thirds of the smoking students wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was available, and 75.1% tried to quit. A third of the smoking students (36.8%) found it difficult to stop smoking in no-smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. Our study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, which will lead to future high smoking-related health problems if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  18. Impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues on second hand smoke exposure: a comparison of exposure assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Bauer, Georg F; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin

    2013-06-04

    In May 2010, Switzerland introduced a heterogeneous smoking ban in the hospitality sector. While the law leaves room for exceptions in some cantons, it is comprehensive in others. This longitudinal study uses different measurement methods to examine airborne nicotine levels in hospitality venues and the level of personal exposure of non-smoking hospitality workers before and after implementation of the law. Personal exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was measured by three different methods. We compared a passive sampler called MoNIC (Monitor of NICotine) badge, to salivary cotinine and nicotine concentration as well as questionnaire data. Badges allowed the number of passively smoked cigarettes to be estimated. They were placed at the venues as well as distributed to the participants for personal measurements. To assess personal exposure at work, a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements was calculated. Prior to the ban, smoke-exposed hospitality venues yielded a mean badge value of 4.48 (95%-CI: 3.7 to 5.25; n = 214) cigarette equivalents/day. At follow-up, measurements in venues that had implemented a smoking ban significantly declined to an average of 0.31 (0.17 to 0.45; n = 37) (p = 0.001). Personal badge measurements also significantly decreased from an average of 2.18 (1.31-3.05 n = 53) to 0.25 (0.13-0.36; n = 41) (p = 0.001). Spearman rank correlations between badge exposure measures and salivary measures were small to moderate (0.3 at maximum). Nicotine levels significantly decreased in all types of hospitality venues after implementation of the smoking ban. In-depth analyses demonstrated that a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements represented typical personal SHS exposure at work more reliably than personal exposure measures such as salivary cotinine and nicotine.

  19. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  20. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  1. Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking and Motivation to Quit among Street Food Sellers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Thanh Thi Le

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, smoke-free signs in public places, including in restaurants and food stores, have been introduced in Vietnam, aiming to prevent passive smoking. Although extensive research has been carried out on second-hand smoking among clients in public places (e.g., hospitals, restaurants in Vietnam, no single study exists which captures the current practice of smoking among street food outlets. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify factors associated with smoking status and cessation motivation amongst food sellers in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study involving 1733 food providers at outlets was conducted in 29 districts in Hanoi capital, Vietnam, in 2015. The prevalence of smoking amongst food sellers was determined to be 8.5% (25% for men and 0.8% for women. The enforcement of the smoke-free policy remains modest, since only 7.9% observed outlets complied with the law, providing a room designated for smokers. Although approximately 80% of the participants were aware of the indoor smoke-free regulations in public places, such as restaurants and food stores, 40.2% of smokers reported no intention of quitting smoking. A percentage of 37.6% of current smokers reported that despite having intentions to quit, they did not receive any form of support for smoking cessation. Being male and having hazardous drinking habits and a poor quality of life were all factors that were significantly associated with smoking status. Additionally, having awareness of smoking’s adverse effects and being frequently supervised by the authority were associated with a greater motivation to quit. This study highlights the importance of an accompanying education and smoking cessation program in addition to the frequent inspection and reinforcement of smoke-free policy in food stores. This research extends on our knowledge of smoking prevalence and its factors related to smoking events and motivation to quit among street food outlets. Overall

  2. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  3. Passivation of black phosphorus saturable absorbers for reliable pulse formation of fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Dongsoo; Park, Kichul; Park, Ki-Hwan; Song, Yong-Won

    2017-11-24

    Black phosphorus (BP) has attracted increasing attention due to its unique electrical properties. In addition, the outstanding optical nonlinearity of BP has been demonstrated in various ways. Its functionality as a saturable absorber, in particular, has been validated in demonstrations of passive mode-locked lasers. However, normally, the performance of BP is degraded eventually by both thermal and chemical damage in ambient conditions. The passivation of BP is the critical issue to guarantee a stable performance of the optical devices. We quantitatively characterized the mode-locked lasers operated by BP saturable absorbers with diversified passivation materials such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or Al 2 O 3 , considering the atomic structure of the materials, and therefore the hydro-permeability of the passivation layers. Unlike the BP layers without passivation, we demonstrated that the Al 2 O 3 -passivated BP layer was protected from the surface oxidation reaction in the long-term, and the PDMS-passivated one had a short-term blocking effect. The quantitative analysis showed that the time-dependent characteristics of the pulsed laser without passivation were changed with respect to the pulse duration, spectral width, and time-bandwidth product displaying 550 fs, 2.8 nm, and 0.406, respectively. With passivation, the changes were limited to <43 fs, <0.3 nm, and <0.012, respectively.

  4. Passivation of black phosphorus saturable absorbers for reliable pulse formation of fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Dongsoo; Park, Kichul; Park, Ki-Hwan; Song, Yong-Won

    2017-11-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) has attracted increasing attention due to its unique electrical properties. In addition, the outstanding optical nonlinearity of BP has been demonstrated in various ways. Its functionality as a saturable absorber, in particular, has been validated in demonstrations of passive mode-locked lasers. However, normally, the performance of BP is degraded eventually by both thermal and chemical damage in ambient conditions. The passivation of BP is the critical issue to guarantee a stable performance of the optical devices. We quantitatively characterized the mode-locked lasers operated by BP saturable absorbers with diversified passivation materials such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or Al2O3, considering the atomic structure of the materials, and therefore the hydro-permeability of the passivation layers. Unlike the BP layers without passivation, we demonstrated that the Al2O3-passivated BP layer was protected from the surface oxidation reaction in the long-term, and the PDMS-passivated one had a short-term blocking effect. The quantitative analysis showed that the time-dependent characteristics of the pulsed laser without passivation were changed with respect to the pulse duration, spectral width, and time-bandwidth product displaying 550 fs, 2.8 nm, and 0.406, respectively. With passivation, the changes were limited to <43 fs, <0.3 nm, and <0.012, respectively.

  5. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.; Serret, M.

    1990-01-01

    N 4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  6. Effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Author's abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors for youth alcohol enforcement conducted as part of normal or typical police operations. Three municipal police departments of 100 or more sworn ...

  7. Young People Smokers' Reactions on Peer Influence Not to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J

    2016-11-09

    Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young people. Two conditions were conducted: 1) a peer confederate stating three times that s/he had quit smoking and was glad to have done so (covert peer influence); 2) a peer confederate making similar statements, but urging to quit smoking (overt peer influence). The participant performed a music task with the peer in order to disguise the true nature of the experiment. Thirty-one daily-smoking young people (16-24 years) participated; 44 responses in the overt and 34 responses in the covert condition were analyzed in a discourse analysis. The participants in the covert condition were more elaborative about smoking, i.e., taking an active role in a dialogue about the experiences of the peer or the participant in quitting smoking while in the overt condition participants showed more passive resistance, i.e., not showing an intention to follow the advice but avoid causing the peer embarrassment or discomfort. Open resistance, i.e., demonstration of being well-informed and indicating the redundancy of the advice, does not significantly differ in these two conditions but occurs, for both, primarily at the third discouragement. Overt and frequent discouragement seems to be less effective in stimulating young people to take an active role in the dialogue with their peers about smoking.

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tountas Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5, performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  9. Passive heat removal in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    CANDU has a tradition of incorporating passive systems and passive components whenever they are shown to offer performance that is equal to or better than that of active systems, and to be economic. Examples include the two independent shutdown systems that employ gravity and stored energy respectively, the dousing subsystem of the CANDU 6 containment system, and the ability of the moderator to cool the fuel in the event that all coolant is lost from the fuel channels. CANDU 9 continues this tradition, incorporating a reserve water system (RWS) that increases the inventory of water in the reactor building and profiles a passive source of makeup water and/or heat sinks to various key process systems. The key component of the CANDU 9 reserve water system is a large (2500 cubic metres) water tank located at a high elevation in the reactor building. The reserve water system, while incorporating the recovery system functions, and the non-dousing functions of the dousing tank in CANDU 6, embraces other key systems to significantly extend the passive makeup/heat sink capability. The capabilities of the reserve water system include makeup to the steam generators secondary side if all other sources of water are lost; makeup to the heat transport system in the event of a leak in excess of the D 2 O makeup system capability; makeup to the moderator in the event of a moderator leak when the moderator heat sink is required; makeup to the emergency core cooling (ECC) system to assure NPSH to the ECC pumps during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), and provision of a passive heat sink for the shield cooling system. Other passive designs are now being developed by AECL. These will be incorporated in future CANDU plants when their performance has been fully proven. This paper reviews the passive heat removal systems and features of current CANDU plants and the CANDU 9, and briefly reviews some of the passive heat removal concepts now being developed. (author)

  10. Key issues for passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ''review paper'' as such and only record the highlights. (author)

  11. Key issues for passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayns, M R [AEA Technology, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom). European Institutions; Hicken, E F [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ``review paper`` as such and only record the highlights. (author).

  12. Parental education and family status--association with children's cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloudíková, Iva; Hrubá, Drahoslava; Samara, Ibrahim

    2012-03-01

    Social influences are among the most important factors associated with children's and adolescents' smoking. Social norms in families, peer groups, professional and municipal communities influence the individuals ones by the process of socialization obtained mainly by interactions and observations. Especially social context of the home environment expressed by household smoking restriction serves as a socialization mechanism that dissuades from the using of tobacco. Parental anti-smoking socialization practices (their attitudes and knowledge about children smoking, discussion about smoking in appropriate quality and frequency, smoking environment in homes) are influenced by their education and family status. Markers of social environment (the level of mothers' and fathers' education, family status) were investigated during interview with 5th graders included in the cohort participating in the programme "Non-smoking Is Normal". Data about the self-reported exposure to passive smoking at homes and cars were taken into consideration. Information about discussions with parents about smoking, opinions about adults smoking, experimentation with smoking, and concurrent decision about smoking in the future were obtained from 766 children aged 11 years. Those who did not know parental education or family status were excluded from the evaluation. Differences were evaluated using the chi-square, Mantel-Haenszel, Fisher and Yates corrected tests in the statistic software Epi Info, version 6. The level of mothers' and fathers' education significantly influenced the exposure of children to passive smoking. Compared to families of higher educated parents, children living in families with middle and low levels of parents' education were significantly more exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home and in car (RR 1.38; 95% CI 1.04-1.83) and fewer of them live in non-smoking environments. In the whole cohort, 67.5% children have not smoked even one puff yet, 17.2% reported one

  13. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft 3 /min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft 3 /min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  14. Passive exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use increases desire for combustible and e-cigarettes in young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; McNamara, Patrick J; Matthews, Alicia K; Fridberg, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Passive exposure to combustible cigarette use has been shown to act as a cue to increase smoking urge. Given the resemblance of e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to combustible cigarettes, we examined whether these devices could also act as a cue to increase smoking desire and urges in those passively exposed. Young adult daily smokers (age 18-35 years; N=60) completed subjective ratings before and after exposure to a study confederate drinking bottled water (control cue) and then smoking either a combustible or e-cigarette (active cue). Smoking desire and urge ratings were measured with visual analogue scale items for desire for a regular and an e-cigarette and the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. Passive exposure to both the e-cigarette and combustible cigarette cue significantly increased observers' ratings of desire and urge to smoke a regular cigarette (all ps<0.05). Exposure to the e-cigarette cue but not the regular cigarette cue also increased desire to smoke an e-cigarette (p<0.01). The results provide the first evidence in a controlled setting that electronic cigarette exposure may evoke smoking urges in young adult daily smokers. With replication, these findings may have relevance for ENDS regulation and policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Women and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, A

    1996-01-01

    Smoking kills over half a million women each year and is the most important preventable cause of female premature death in several developed countries. However, in many countries, cigarette smoking still tends to be regarded as a mainly male problem. This paper explores the reasons why more attention needs to be paid to issues around smoking and women, even in countries which currently have low levels of female cigarette smoking. The article includes an overview of current patterns and trends of smoking among women, and the factors which influence smoking uptake and cessation in women compared to men. The experience of countries with the longest history of widespread female smoking is used to identify some of the key challenges facing developed and developing countries. Tobacco companies have identified women as a key target group, therefore particular attention is given to the ways in which they have attempted to reach women through advertising and other marketing strategies. It is concluded that in order to halt and ultimately reverse the tobacco epidemic among women, tobacco control policies need to encompass both gender-specific and gender-sensitive approaches. Examples are given of the types of action that are needed in relation to research, public policy and legislation, and education.

  16. Sidewall passivation for InGaN/GaN nanopillar light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Hyuck; Abraham, Michael; Yu, Shih-Ying [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); You, Guanjun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Li; Xu, Jian, E-mail: jianxu@engr.psu.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Mohney, Suzanne E., E-mail: mohney@ems.psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    We studied the effect of sidewall passivation on InGaN/GaN multiquantum well-based nanopillar light emitting diode (LED) performance. In this research, the effects of varying etch rate, KOH treatment, and sulfur passivation were studied for reducing nanopillar sidewall damage and improving device efficiency. Nanopillars prepared under optimal etching conditions showed higher photoluminescence intensity compared with starting planar epilayers. Furthermore, nanopillar LEDs with and without sulfur passivation were compared through electrical and optical characterization. Suppressed leakage current under reverse bias and four times higher electroluminescence (EL) intensity were observed for passivated nanopillar LEDs compared with unpassivated nanopillar LEDs. The suppressed leakage current and EL intensity enhancement reflect the reduction of non-radiative recombination at the nanopillar sidewalls. In addition, the effect of sulfur passivation was found to be very stable, and further insight into its mechanism was gained through transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects

  18. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  19. Oxidative stress in a rat model of cotton smoke inhalation-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoke inhalation injury refers to airway and lung parenchyma injury and general chemical damage caused by inhaling toxic gases and substances. The aim of this study was to explore the oxidative stress mechanism of cotton smoke inhalation-induced pulmonary injury in a rat model. Materials and Methods: ...

  20. Iodine nutrition in breast-fed infants is impaired by maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Nøhr, Susanne B; Pedersen, Klaus M

    2004-01-01

    the sodium-iodide symporter responsible for iodide transport in the lactating mammary gland. Smoking during the period of breastfeeding increases the risk of iodine deficiency-induced brain damage in the child. Women who breastfeed should not smoke, but if they do, an extra iodine supplement should...

  1. Influences on adolescent smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Koprivnikar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are numerous and intertwining factors that influence adolescent smoking and have to be considered when we develop and implement programmes and measures for the prevention and reduction of adolescent smoking. In different environments (schools, health system, local communities we have to reduce risk factors and strenghten protective factors through programmes incorporated in the system. The protective factors are low prevalence of smoking, healthy lifestyle, physical activity and good mental health, indicating the importance of links to programmes outside of the tobacco control.

  2. Smoking, health and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicita-Mauro Claudio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On March 19, 2008 a Symposium on Pathophysiology of Ageing and Age-Related diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Here, the lecture of V. Nicita-Mauro on Smoking, health and ageing is summarized. Smoking represents an important ageing accelerator, both directly by triggering an inflammatory responses, and indirectly by favoring the occurrence of several diseases where smoking is a recognized risk factor. Hence, non-smokers can delay the appearance of diseases and of ageing process, so attaining longevity.

  3. Defect generation/passivation by low energy hydrogen implant for silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopori, B.L.; Zhou, T.Q.; Rozgonyi, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Low energy ion implant is shown to produce defects in silicon. These defects include surface damage, hydrogen agglomeration, formation of platelets with (111) habit plane and decoration of dislocations. Hydrogen also produces an inversion type of surface on boron doped silicon. These effects indicate that a preferred approach for passivation is to incorporate hydrogen from the back side of the cell. A backside H + implant technique is described. The results show that degree of passivation differs for various devices. A comparison of the defect structures of hydrogenated devices indicates that the structure and the distribution of defects in the bulk of the material plays a significant role in determining the degree of passivation

  4. Damaged Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  5. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  6. Adolescents' knowledge and opinions about smoking: a qualitative study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Bhaktapur District, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Lene; Aryal, Umesh Raj; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2016-04-09

    The use of tobacco products among adolescents in Southeast Asia represents a major public health burden. Two out of ten adolescents attending school are tobacco users and several factors influence them to initiate tobacco use. Most studies related to tobacco use are quantitative, whereas qualitative studies exploring adolescents' smoking behavior and their views, knowledge and experiences are scarce. To gain a deep understanding of Nepalese adolescents' knowledge and opinions about smoking and reasons for smoking initiation. Adolescents from four secondary schools in the Bhaktapur district, Nepal. Eight focus-group discussions were conducted with 71 adolescents aged 13-16 years and from grades 8-10. Data were analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. The participants knew that smoking represents health risks as well as socio-economic risks, but few described the addictive nature of tobacco and health risks related to passive smoking. Most participants related smoking initiation to the smoking behavior of peers and family members, but easy accessibility to cigarettes, ineffective rules and regulations, and exposure to passive smoking also created environments for smoking. Some expressed confidence to resist peer pressure and refuse to start smoking, but also expressed the need for prevention strategies in schools and for governmental initiatives, such as more strict implementation of tobacco control and regulations to prevent and reduce smoking. Curbing the tobacco epidemic in Nepal requires healthy public policies and multifaceted interventions to address the knowledge gap on health consequences associated with smoking among adolescents, teachers and parents/adults.

  7. Radiation damage prediction system using damage function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Mori, Seiji

    1979-01-01

    The irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was investigated. This irradiation damage analysis system consists of the following three processes, the unfolding of a damage function, the calculation of the neutron flux spectrum of the object of damage analysis and the estimation of irradiation effect of the object of damage analysis. The damage function is calculated by applying the SAND-2 code. The ANISN and DOT3, 5 codes are used to calculate neutron flux. The neutron radiation and the allowable time of reactor operation can be estimated based on these calculations of the damage function and neutron flux. The flow diagram of the process of analyzing irradiation damage by a damage function and the flow diagram of SAND-2 code are presented, and the analytical code for estimating damage, which is determined with a damage function and a neutron spectrum, is explained. The application of the irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was carried out to the core support structure of a fast breeder reactor for the damage estimation and the uncertainty evaluation. The fundamental analytical conditions and the analytical model for this work are presented, then the irradiation data for SUS304, the initial estimated values of a damage function, the error analysis for a damage function and the analytical results are explained concerning the computation of a damage function for 10% total elongation. Concerning the damage estimation of FBR core support structure, the standard and lower limiting values of damage, the permissible neutron flux and the allowable years of reactor operation are presented and were evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  8. Perceptions of smoking-related risk and worry among dual-smoker couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranby, Krista W; Lewis, Megan A; Toll, Benjamin A; Rohrbaugh, Michael J; Lipkus, Isaac M

    2013-03-01

    Quit rates are lower and relapse rates are higher for people in close relationships with a partner who smokes. Although desire to quit is often related to health concerns for one's self, much less is known about psychosocial factors associated with quitting in dual-smoker couples. This study investigated relations among beliefs about smoking and desire to quit from both partners' perspectives. We recruited 63 couples in which both partners smoke daily. Participants were aged 21-67 (M = 43.0, SD = 11.3) and had been smoking for 4-51 years (M = 22.9, SD = 11.3). Individuals' desire to quit related to worry about partner's health (r = .29, p belief that own smoking has caused partner physical harm (r = .38, p harm of smoking for oneself (r = .30, p scale) for their partner's help if they attempt to quit. Dual-smoker couples are at heightened health risks due to exposure to passive smoke and their own smoking. Partners' perceived risk and worry about the harms of smoking could be important leverage points for smoking cessation efforts. Interventions can be informed by considering both partners' beliefs and by helping partners develop plans for quitting and supporting each other.

  9. Retrieving Smoke Aerosol Height from DSCOVR/EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Unlike industrial pollutant particles that are often confined within the planetary boundary layer, smoke from forest and agriculture fires can inject massive carbonaceous aerosols into the upper troposphere due to the intense pyro-convection. Sensitivity of weather and climate to absorbing carbonaceous aerosols is regulated by the altitude of those aerosol layers. However, aerosol height information remains limited from passive satellite sensors. Here we present an algorithm to estimate smoke aerosol height from radiances in the oxygen A and B bands measured by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) from the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). With a suit of case studies and validation efforts, we demonstrate that smoke aerosol height can be well retrieved over both ocean and land surfaces multiple times daily.

  10. Linear Depolarization of Lidar Returns by Aged Smoke Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    We use the numerically exact (superposition) T-matrix method to analyze recent measurements of the backscattering linear depolarization ratio (LDR) for a plume of aged smoke at lidar wavelengths ranging from 355 to 1064 nm. We show that the unique spectral dependence of the measured LDRs can be modeled, but only by assuming expressly nonspherical morphologies of smoke particles containing substantial amounts of nonabsorbing (or weakly absorbing) refractory materials such as sulfates. Our results demonstrate that spectral backscattering LDR measurements can be indicative of the presence of morphologically complex smoke particles, but additional (e.g., passive polarimetric or bistatic lidar) measurements may be required for a definitive characterization of the particle morphology and composition.

  11. Results and Insights on the Impact of Smoke on Digital Instrumentation and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nowlen, S. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-01-31

    Smoke can cause interruptions and upsets in active electronics. Because nuclear power plants are replacing analog with digital instrumentation and control systems, qualification guidelines for new systems are being reviewed for severe environments such as smoke and electromagnetic interference. Active digital systems, individual components, and active circuits have been exposed to smoke in a program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The circuits and systems were all monitored during the smoke exposure, indicating any immediate effects of the smoke. The major effect of smoke has been to increase leakage currents (through circuit bridging across contacts and leads) and to cause momentary upsets and failures in digital systems. This report summarizes two previous reports and presents new results from conformal coating, memory chip, and hard drive tests. The report describes practices for mitigation of smoke damage through digital system design, fire barriers, ventilation, fire suppressants, and post fire procedures.

  12. Cigarette smoke extract increases albumin flux across pulmonary endothelium in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, W.E.; Maier, J.M.; Malinow, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes lung inflammation, and a characteristic of inflammation is an increase in vascular permeability. To determine if cigarette smoke could alter endothelial permeability, we studied flux of radiolabeled albumin across monolayers of porcine pulmonary artery endothelium grown in culture on microporous membranes. Extracts (in either dimethylsulfoxide or phosphate-buffered saline) of cigarette smoke in a range estimate of concentrations simulating cigarette smoke exposure to the lungs in vivo caused a dose-dependent increase in albumin flux that was dependent on extracellular divalent cations and associated with polymerization of cellular actin. The effect was reversible, independent of the surface of endothelial cells exposed (either luminal or abluminal), and due primarily to components of the vapor phase of smoke. The effects occurred without evidence of cell damage, but subtle morphological changes were produced by exposure to the smoke extracts. These findings suggest that cigarette smoke can alter permeability of the lung endothelium through effects on cytoskeletal elements

  13. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, K; Rahu, K; Rahu, M

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians. Cross-sectional data for 2668 physicians were gathered by a self-administered postal survey. The current smoking prevalence was 24.9% for male physicians and 10.8% for female physicians. The percentages of ex-smokers were 32.9 and 16.8%, respectively. Smoking prevalence among physicians was below the levels reported for the highest educational bracket of the total population in Estonia. Non-smoking physicians had more unfavourable views towards smoking than those who smoked. The majority of physicians were aware of the association between smoking and various diseases, with significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Non-smoking physicians were more active in asking patients about smoking habits than those who smoked. Most Estonian physicians, especially those who smoked, failed to perceive themselves as positive role models. This study found a lower prevalence of smoking among physicians compared with the general population, and demonstrated the impact of personal smoking on physicians' attitudes towards smoking. The results provide an important challenge to medical education in Estonia.

  14. Smoking During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low Socioeconomic Status Tobacco Use Among Adults with Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders Tobacco Use by Geographic ... Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report ...

  15. Smoking (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around along with the pipe. Also beware of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), which contain cancer-causing chemicals ... smoking. Nicotine and the other toxins in cigarettes, cigars, and pipes can affect a person's body quickly, ...

  16. Thermal-hydraulic unreliability of passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Saltos, N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced light water reactor designs like AP600 and the simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) use passive safety systems for accident prevention and mitigation. Because these systems rely on natural forces for their operation, their unavailability due to hardware failures and human error is significantly smaller than that of active systems. However, the coolant flows predicted to be delivered by these systems can be subject to significant uncertainties, which in turn can lead to a significant uncertainty in the predicted thermal-hydraulic performance of the plant under accident conditions. Because of these uncertainties, there is a probability that an accident sequence for which a best estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis predicts no core damage (success sequence) may actually lead to core damage. For brevity, this probability will be called thermal-hydraulic unreliability. The assessment of this unreliability for all the success sequences requires very expensive computations. Moreover, the computational cost increases drastically as the required thermal-hydraulic reliability increases. The required computational effort can be greatly reduced if a bounding approach can be used that either eliminates the need to compute thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities, or it leads to the analysis of a few bounding sequences for which the required thermal-hydraulic reliability is relatively small. The objective of this paper is to present such an approach and determine the order of magnitude of the thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities that may have to be computed

  17. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  18. Smoking habits of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacka

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little debate as to the harmful effects of cigarette smoking on health. Most health workers advise their patients to cease the practice. The impact of the advice is however diluted if it is seen to be ignored by the professionals themselves. As nurses play an increasing role in all levels of health care a survey was undertaken to investigate the smoking habits of two groups of nurses - those operating within the community and those working in institutions.

  19. Materials for passively safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, T.

    1993-01-01

    Future nuclear power capacity will be based on reactor designs that include passive safety features if recent progress in advanced nuclear power developments is realized. There is a high potential for nuclear systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the current generation of reactors, especially when passive or intrinsic characteristics are applied to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction and to minimize the burden on equipment and operating personnel. Taylor, has listed the following common generic technical features as the most important goals for the principal reactor development systems: passive stability, simplification, ruggedness, case of operation, and modularity. Economic competitiveness also depends on standardization and assurance of licensing. The performance of passively safe reactors will be greatly influenced by the successful development of advanced fuels and materials that will provide lower fuel-cycle costs. A dozen new designs of advanced power reactors have been described recently, covering a wide spectrum of reactor types, including pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, heavy-water reactors, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs), and fast breeder reactors. These new designs address the need for passive safety features as well as the requirement of economic competitiveness

  20. Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic inflammation, possibly exacerbated by cigarette smoking, is considered to be the primary cause of pulmonary damage in patients with tuberculosis (TB). However, the mechanisms which underpin these harmful inflammatory responses, have not been well documented. Objectives: The current study ...

  1. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  2. Parental and household smoking and the increased risk of bronchitis, bronchiolitis and other lower respiratory infections in infancy: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passive smoke exposure increases the risk of lower respiratory infection (LRI in infants, but the extensive literature on this association has not been systematically reviewed for nearly ten years. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of the association between passive smoking and LRI, and with diagnostic subcategories including bronchiolitis, in infants aged two years and under. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (to November 2010, reference lists from publications and abstracts from major conference proceedings to identify all relevant publications. Random effect pooled odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated. Results We identified 60 studies suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Smoking by either parent or other household members significantly increased the risk of LRI; odds ratios (OR were 1.22 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.35 for paternal smoking, 1.62 (95% CI 1.38 to 1.89 if both parents smoked, and 1.54 (95% CI 1.40 to 1.69 for any household member smoking. Pre-natal maternal smoking (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.38 had a weaker effect than post-natal smoking (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.73. The strongest effect was on bronchiolitis, where the risk of any household smoking was increased by an OR of 2.51 (95% CI 1.96 to 3.21. Conclusions Passive smoking in the family home is a major influence on the risk of LRI in infants, and especially on bronchiolitis. Risk is particularly strong in relation to post-natal maternal smoking. Strategies to prevent passive smoke exposure in young children are an urgent public and child health priority.

  3. Parental and household smoking and the increased risk of bronchitis, bronchiolitis and other lower respiratory infections in infancy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura L; Hashim, Ahmed; McKeever, Tricia; Cook, Derek G; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2011-01-10

    Passive smoke exposure increases the risk of lower respiratory infection (LRI) in infants, but the extensive literature on this association has not been systematically reviewed for nearly ten years. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of the association between passive smoking and LRI, and with diagnostic subcategories including bronchiolitis, in infants aged two years and under. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (to November 2010), reference lists from publications and abstracts from major conference proceedings to identify all relevant publications. Random effect pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. We identified 60 studies suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Smoking by either parent or other household members significantly increased the risk of LRI; odds ratios (OR) were 1.22 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.35) for paternal smoking, 1.62 (95% CI 1.38 to 1.89) if both parents smoked, and 1.54 (95% CI 1.40 to 1.69) for any household member smoking. Pre-natal maternal smoking (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.38) had a weaker effect than post-natal smoking (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.73). The strongest effect was on bronchiolitis, where the risk of any household smoking was increased by an OR of 2.51 (95% CI 1.96 to 3.21). Passive smoking in the family home is a major influence on the risk of LRI in infants, and especially on bronchiolitis. Risk is particularly strong in relation to post-natal maternal smoking. Strategies to prevent passive smoke exposure in young children are an urgent public and child health priority.

  4. Chemical control of smoke damage in plantations near towns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobko, E V; Fortunatov, I K

    1958-01-01

    Mainly Russian and American work on the effects of air pollution on trees is reviewed, indicating three ways of tackling the problem: (1) fertilizing, to improve the plants resistance; (2) sprinkling to wash off harmful substances; (3) neutralization of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/, F etc. by spraying with solutions of ammonia (0.2-2%), with or without urea.

  5. Forest smoke damage symptomatalogy in the case of conifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbwachs, G

    1971-01-01

    Due to their minor content of storage tissue and, therefore, reserve materials, their low capability for regeneration and the long life of their assimilation organs, conifers are among the most sensitive groups in respect to the impact of gaseous pollutants. Differences in the sensitivity of whole plants and assimilation organs necessitate a separate discussion of symptoms in needles and trees. Comparison of chronic and acute injuries in needles caused by sulfur dioxide, fluorine compounds and nitric oxides demonstrates that differences are not pronounced enough to be of value in differential diagnosis. Quite generally, acute injuries are characterized by tip necroses, which affect a different length of the terminal needle parts depending on the concentration of the pollutant. Effects on cell physiology are discussed in connection with the description of microscopic symptoms. Needle necroses as well as alterations of tree appearance are not specific for pollution effects, a number of other factors having been found to produce similar symptoms. So, symptoms can be regarded as characteristic, but not sufficiently distinct for an unequivocal diagnosis. An evaluation of symptoms proves very useful for pollution studies, however, in connection with other methods (e.g. chemical analysis of air or plant samples). 47 references.

  6. [Smoking in movies and established smoking in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, R; Blohmke, S; Sargent, J D

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether smoking in movies can predict established smoking in adolescence. A longitudinal study was conducted over a period of 13 months with 4112 German students. Adolescents' exposure to smoking in movies was assessed by asking each student to indicate which film he or she had seen from a unique list of 50 movies, which was randomly selected for each individual survey from a sample of 398 popular contemporary movies. We calculated exposure to movie smoking for each respondent by summing the number of smoking occurrences for each movie that the respondent reported seeing. At follow-up, a total of 272 young people had smoked more than 100 cigarettes during their lifetime. While 2.1% of the young people with the lowest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking, 13.4% of the group with the highest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking. The adjusted relative risk of initiation of established smoking was 2.05 times higher in the group with the highest movie smoking exposure compared to the group with the lowest exposure (95% confidence interval: 1.25-3.35). Our data indicate that smoking in movies can be regarded as an independent risk factor for the initiation of established smoking in adolescence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 MOmega) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems

  8. Measurements of the effects of smoke on active circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformally coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 Mohm) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the contacts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems

  9. Heubach Smoking Habits and Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    This Questionnaire, consisting of 74 yes/no, multiple choice, and completion items, is designed to assess smoking practices and attitudes toward smoking in high school students. Questions pertain to personal data, family smoking practices and attitudes, personal smoking habits, reasons for smoking or not smoking, and opinions on smoking. Detailed…

  10. Acupuncture for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A R; Rampes, H; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Acupuncture is promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation, and is believed to reduce withdrawal symptoms. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in smoking cessation in comparison with: a) sham acupuncture b) other interventions c) no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, Medline, PsycLit, Dissertation Abstracts, Health Planning and Administration, Social SciSearch, Smoking & Health, Embase, Biological Abstracts and DRUG. Randomised trials comparing a form of acupuncture with either sham acupuncture, another intervention or no intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of subjects, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before 6 weeks), at six months and at one year follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing to smoke. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. We identified 18 publications involving 20 comparisons. Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture in smoking cessation at any time point. The odds ratio (OR) for early outcomes was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.49); the OR after 6 months was 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.11) and after 12 months 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.43). Similarly, when acupuncture was compared with other anti-smoking interventions, there were no differences in outcome at any time point. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to no intervention in the early results, but this difference was not sustained. The results with different acupuncture techniques do not show any one particular method (i.e. auricular acupuncture or non

  11. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  12. Active Versus Passive Academic Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goel, Rajeev K.; Grimpe, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of networking by academics. Using information from a unique large survey of German researchers, the key contribution focuses on the active versus passive networking distinction. Is active networking by researchers a substitute or a complement to passive networking......? Other contributions include examining the role of geographic factors in networking and whether research bottlenecks affect a researcher's propensity to network. Are the determinants of European conference participation by German researchers different from conferences in rest of the world? Results show...... that some types of passive academic networking are complementary to active networking, while others are substitute. Further, we find differences in factors promoting participation in European conferences versus conferences in rest of the world. Finally, publishing bottlenecks as a group generally do...

  13. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.; Bosselaar, L.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  14. [Application and effects of smoking ban in bars and restaurants of Rome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, L; Di Martino, T; Iavicoli, I

    2007-01-01

    Both active and passive tobacco smoke is carcinogenic. In the last years the most important countries of European Community developed and passed smoke-free public places and smoke-free workplace legislations. The aim of this study was to investigate the real application of smoking ban in bars and restaurants of Rome and to value social, economic and health effects caused by the application of the law. The study was carried out in 200 public places (100 restaurants and 100 bars) with an inspection of the sites and the administration of a questionnaire to the managers of the public places. Results demonstrate that smoking ban in public places is widely respected and that the application of the law had a very positive impact on the quality of life and health of workers and general population.

  15. Nicotine cut-off value in human hair as a tool to distinguish active from passive smokers: A cross-sectional study in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Yayoi; Ito, Teruna; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kawazoe, Miki; Sato, Sei; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-07-19

    Nicotine concentration in hair is a useful marker of tobacco exposure. Detection of nicotine in the hair of non-smokers indicates passive smoking. Accurate measurement of nicotine among active and passive smokers can help in smoking cessation programs or programs designed to prevent secondhand smoke exposure. To establish, using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV), a hair nicotine cut-off value to distinguish active from passive smokers. Hair samples were collected from randomly chosen Japanese men (n= 192) between 2009 and 2011. Nicotine and cotinine levels in hair were measured using HPLC/UV with column-switching. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare active and passive smokers, while receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the cut-off value. There were 69 active smokers and 123 passive smokers. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were significantly higher in active than in passive smokers (psmokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair clearly distinguished active from passive smokers.

  16. Smoking habits and smoking cessation among North Carolina nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, I E

    1989-01-01

    A 1987 questionnaire survey of a 1% random sample (n = 356) of registered nurses in North Carolina provided data on the smoking habits and smoking cessation. Fifty-six percent were never smokers; 19% were current smokers. Among the ever smokers, 31% had quit smoking for at least one year. Twenty-two percent of the former smokers had smoked less than 5 years and 39% less than 10 years before quitting. Anecdotal notes from never smokers suggested that their major deterrent to smoking was their own parents smoking. Concerns about the addictive smoking behavior and health effects of smoking observed in their parents as well as concerns about potential health risks to themselves deterred them from smoking. Concerns about the adverse consequences of smoking was the most influential factor influencing smoking cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking. Friends' and family's encouragement to stop smoking was the most influential external factor motivating nurses to quit or reduce cigarette consumption. Fifty-seven percent of the former smokers quit smoking after one or two attempts while 53 of the current smokers had tried to quit 3 or more times - 90% had tried at least once to quit smoking; however, only 18% of the current smokers had abstained for more than one year during any of their attempts to quit. Implications of the results include: (1) smoking cessation programs for nurses in the workplace may have considerable impact since the majority of nurses who smoke are tying to quit; (2) relapse prevention strategies need to be an integral part of such smoking cessation programs including involvement of family and friends to support the smokers in their cessation efforts.

  17. Effect of Smoking Scenes in Films on Immediate Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. Purpose This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. Methods 100 cigarette smokers aged 18–25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Results Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR 6.73; 1.00–45.25 comparing the top to bottom percentiles of exposure) were more likely to smoke during the break. Level of nicotine dependence (OR 1.71; 1.27–2.32 per point on the FTND scale), “contemplation” (OR 9.07; 1.71–47.99) and “precontemplation” (OR 7.30; 1.39–38.36) stages of change, and impulsivity (OR 1.21; 1.03–1.43), were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. Conclusions There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. PMID:20307802

  18. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  19. Investigations on passive containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Cheng, X.; Neitzel, H.J.; Erbacher, F.J.; Hofmann, F.

    1997-01-01

    The composite containment design for advanced LWRs that has been examined under the PASCO project is a promising design concept for purely passive decay heat removal after a severe accident. The passive cooling processes applied are natural convection and radiative heat transfer. Heat transfer through the latter process removes at an emission coefficient of 0.9 about 50% of the total heat removed via the steel containment, and thus is an essential factor. The heat transferring surfaces must have a high emission coefficient. The sump cooling concept examined under the SUCO project achieves a steady, natural convection-driven flow from the heat source to the heat sink. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Passive solar offices: integrated design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, B

    1992-05-06

    Passive solar design in out-of-town offices can remove the need for air-conditioning by making greater use of daylight and natural ventilation. To promote the use of passive solar energy a series of design studies are being run by the Energy Technology Support Unit on behalf of the Department of Energy. The three reported here are designs for out-of-town business buildings. Each is a hypothetical building designed to a realistic brief for an organisation taking the role of real client. (author).

  1. Passive and Active Sensing Technologies for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Richard

    A combination of passive and active sensing technologies is proposed as a structural health monitoring solution for several applications. Passive sensing is differentiated from active sensing in that with the former, no energy is intentionally imparted into the structure under test; sensors are deployed in a pure detection mode for collecting data mined for structural health monitoring purposes. In this thesis, passive sensing using embedded fiber Bragg grating optical strain gages was used to detect varying degrees of impact damage using two different classes of features drawn from traditional spectral analysis and auto-regressive time series modeling. The two feature classes were compared in detail through receiver operating curve performance analysis. The passive detection problem was then augmented with an active sensing system using ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs). This thesis considered two main challenges associated with UGW SHM including in-situ wave propagation property determination and thermal corruption of data. Regarding determination of wave propagation properties, of which dispersion characteristics are the most important, a new dispersion curve extraction method called sparse wavenumber analysis (SWA) was experimentally validated. Also, because UGWs are extremely sensitive to ambient temperature changes on the structure, it significantly affects the wave propagation properties by causing large errors in the residual error in the processing of the UGWs from an array. This thesis presented a novel method that compensates for uniform temperature change by considering the magnitude and phase of the signal separately and applying a scalable transformation.

  2. The Danish Reportive Passive as a Non-Canonical Passive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Danish passive utterance and cognitive verbs allow a construction where the subject of an infinitival complement is raised: Peter siges at være bortrejst (‘Peter is said to be out of town’). Contrary to English, these verbs are not ECM-verbs or subject-to-object raising verbs in the active...

  3. Impact of institutional smoking bans on reducing harms and secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; McHugh, Jack; Callinan, Joanne E; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-05-27

    Smoking bans or restrictions can assist in eliminating nonsmokers' exposure to the dangers of secondhand smoke and can reduce tobacco consumption amongst smokers themselves. Evidence exists identifying the impact of tobacco control regulations and interventions implemented in general workplaces and at an individual level. However, it is important that we also review the evidence for smoking bans at a meso- or organisational level, to identify their impact on reducing the burden of exposure to tobacco smoke. Our review assesses evidence for meso- or organisational-level tobacco control bans or policies in a number of specialist settings, including public healthcare facilities, higher education and correctional facilities. To assess the extent to which institutional smoking bans may reduce passive smoke exposure and active smoking, and affect other health-related outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. We contacted authors to identify completed or ongoing studies eligible for inclusion in this review. We also checked websites of state agencies and organisations, such as trial registries. Date of latest searches was 22nd June 2015. We considered studies that reported the effects of tobacco bans or policies, whether complete or partial, on reducing secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco consumption, smoking prevalence and other health outcomes, in public healthcare, higher educational and correctional facilities, from 2005 onwards.The minimum standard for inclusion was having a settings-level policy or ban implemented in the study, and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included quasi-experimental studies (i.e. controlled before-and-after studies), interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. Two or more review authors independently

  4. Cigarette smoking accelerated brain aging and induced pre-Alzheimer-like neuropathology in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Shan Ho

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD. To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β-amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia.

  5. Cigarette Smoking Accelerated Brain Aging and Induced Pre-Alzheimer-Like Neuropathology in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yuen-Shan; Yang, Xifei; Yeung, Sze-Chun; Chiu, Kin; Lau, Chi-Fai; Tsang, Andrea Wing-Ting; Mak, Judith Choi-Wo; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β–amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia. PMID:22606286

  6. Effect of the number of cigarettes smoked and of radon exposure on the lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.; Holy, K.; Sedlak, A.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between the extent of cigarette smoking and the lung cancer risk in people exposed to radon was examined. The changes in the airway geometry due to an increased production of mucus caused by smoking were taken into account. The mucous layer protects the target cells from the effects of ionizing radiation. The radiation risk per unit exposure decreases with the number of cigarettes smoked, in contrast to the total risk, which increases to stagnate in the range of extensive daily cigarette smoking. Lung damage in chronic smokers should be taken into account, though. (orig.)

  7. Maternal waterpipe smoke exposure and the risk of asthma and allergic diseases in childhood: A post hoc analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Waked

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This analysis was conducted with the objective of evaluating association between waterpipe passive smoking exposure and asthma, and allergies among Lebanese children. Material and methods Data were taken from a crosssectional study on children from public and private schools. A sample of 22 schools participated in the study, where standardized written core questionnaires were distributed. From 5 to 12-year-old students filled in the questionnaires at home, while 13–14-year-old students filled it in in the class. In total, 5522 children were evaluated for the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema, and their associated factors, including waterpipe exposure due to parents’ smoking. Results The descriptive results of parental smoking were, as follows: among mothers: 1609 (29% mothers smoked cigarettes, 385 (7% smoked waterpipe and 98 (1.8% smoked both; among fathers: 2449 (44.2% smoked cigarettes, 573 (10.3% smoked waterpipe and 197 (3.5% smoked both. Maternal waterpipe smoking was significantly and moderately associated with allergic diseases (p < 0.001; ORa = 1.71, including probable asthma, rhinitis and dermatitis (p < 0.001 for all. Quite on the opposite, father’s waterpipe smoking was not associated with any of the diseases. Parental cigarette smoking demonstrated some positive effects: father’s cigarette smoking did not show association with dermatitis or asthma diagnosed by a physician, while mother’s cigarette smoking showed a positive association only with probable asthma. Moreover, no interactions between cigarette and waterpipe smoking were observed. Conclusions Maternal waterpipe smoking should be regarded as a high risk behavior; however, additional studies are necessary to confirm this finding.

  8. Natural resource damage assessments: The second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, R.; Burlington, L.; Reinharz, E.; Shutler, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), Office of General Counsel, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has focused on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures may lower the transaction costs of assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments, simplify most assessments and provide technical guidance for conducting assessments. DART is developing regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration and economic valuation. NOAA encourages federal, state, tribal and foreign trustees, to develop prespill plans. Coordination with response agencies assures protection of important natural resources. The regulations provide an open record, which becomes the basis for judicial review. Various methods being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources include: compensation formulas for spills under 50,000 gallons of oil, the Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive damage assessment (CDA) procedures which can be used for spills of various sizes. These procedures provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages to each oil spill. NOAA is emphasizing the importance of restoration. Restoration plans will define project goals and objectives, establish procedures and methods for site restoration, and define the approach based on sound science. Finally, numerous economic methods are identified to calculate the lost or diminished use as passive use of the affected resources

  9. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  10. Evaluation of the pilot phase of the 'Give up smokes for good' social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovic, Lauren; Shen, Damien; Bandick, Mark; Ettridge, Kerry; Eckert, Marion

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of tobacco smoking among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia is comparatively high. To help combat this, an Aboriginal-specific social marketing campaign, 'Give up smokes for good', was piloted in South Australia in 2011. To evaluate the campaign, a face-to-face survey was conducted with two samples of convenience through Aboriginal Health services in South Australia (city and regional locations; n=190). Surveys assessed the cultural appropriateness of the campaign, campaign awareness and recognition, knowledge of the harms of smoking and smoking/quit smoking behaviours. Campaign awareness was high with 76.3% of participants aware of at least one aspect of the campaign. Participants indicated campaign materials (posters and radio ads) to be culturally appropriate. Knowledge that smoking and passive smoking caused illness was high (85.8% and 86.8%); however, knowledge of specific illnesses was not as high. Large proportions of participants had imposed bans on smoking in homes (73.2%) and in cars (75.9%). Our findings suggest the 'Give up smokes for good' campaign reached the intended audience with high levels of campaign awareness. Results also suggest the pilot campaign made progress in achieving its communication objectives. SO WHAT?: High quality, culturally targeted anti-tobacco poster and radio campaigns can be effective ways to reach Aboriginal Australians. Future research could explore the impact of this type of social marketing campaign, particularly in regards to the impact on quitting intention and behaviour.

  11. Movie Smoking, Movie Horror, and Urge to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARGENT, James D.; MARUSKA, Karin; MORGENSTERN, Matthis; ISENSEE, Barbara; HANEWINKEL, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horror films, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31–0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  12. Incorporation of passive components aging into PRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Magleby, H.L.; Geidl, V.

    1993-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. The possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. We are developing a method for selecting risk-significant passive components and including them in probabilistic risk assessments. We demonstrated the method by selecting a weld in the auxiliary feedwater system. The selection of this component was based on expert judgement of the likelihood of failure and on an estimate of the consequence of component failure to plant safety. We then used the PRAISE computer code to perform a probabilistic structural analysis to calculate the probability that crack growth due to aging would cause the weld to fail. The calculation included the effects of mechanical loads and thermal transients considered in the design and the effects of thermal cycling caused by a leaking check valve. We modified an existing probabilistic risk assessment (NUREG-1150 plant) to include the possible failure of the auxiliary feedwater weld, and then we used the weld failure probability as input to the modified probabilistic risk assessment to calculate the change in plant risk with time. The results showed that if the failure probability of the selected weld is high, the effect on plant risk is significant. However, this particular calculation showed a very low weld failure probability and no change in plant risk for the 48 years of service analyzed. The success of this demonstration shows that this method could be applied to nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  13. Passive fire protection role and evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerosky, Tristan [NUVIA (France); Perdrix, Johan [NUVIA Protection (France)

    2015-12-15

    Major incidents associated with nuclear power plants often invoke a re-examination of key safety barriers. Fire hazard, in particular, is a key concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants given its propensity to damage safety systems which could ultimately lead to radioactive release into the atmosphere. In the recent past, events such as the Fukushima disaster have led to an industry-wide push to improve nuclear safety arrangements. As part of these measures, upgrading of fire safety systems has received significant attention. In addition to the inherent intricacies associated with such a complex undertaking, factors such as frequent changes in the national and European fire regulations also require due attention while formulating a fire protection strategy. This paper will highlight some salient aspects underpinning an effective fire protection strategy. This will involve: A) A comprehensive introduction to the different aspects of fire safety (namely prevention, containment and mitigation) supported by a review of the development of the RCC-I from 1993 to 1997 editions and the ETC-F (AFCEN codes used by EDF in France). B) Development of the fire risk analysis methodology and the different functions of passive fire protection within this method involving confinement and protection of safety-related equipment. C) A review of the benefits of an effective passive fire protection strategy, alongside other arrangements (such as active fire protection) to a nuclear operator in term of safety and cost savings. It is expected that the paper will provide nuclear operators useful guidelines for strengthening existing fire protection systems.

  14. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  15. Radiological hazards of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oraby, M. N. A.

    2011-01-01

    A study of Polonium-210 and Lead -210 contents of tobacco has a great importance because of the increase in the incidence of lung cancer observed among smokers. The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Naturally occurring primordial radionuclides of the uranium-radium series have long been associated with tobacco plants. The properties and distribution of trichomes on tobacco leaf surfaces suggest that they are effective collectors of small particles. It was reported that for an individual smoking two packages of cigarettes a day, the radiation dose to bronchial epithelium from 210 Po inhaled in cigarette smoking probably is at least seven times that from background sources. The effective dose of persons who smoke one or more packs per day of low quality brands is much higher than that resulting from intake with food and water. This indicates that smoke absorbed through the respiratory system is the main source and the principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake. Cigarette smoking can be the reason for the higher incidence of cancer of all organs of the respiratory system. (author)

  16. Ion smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, Georges.

    1976-01-01

    This invention covers an ion smoke detector in which the capacity that the smoke will cross, in the event of an accident, is irradiated by a very low energy radioactive source. The gas in the containment is thus partially ionised. Smoke in this containment reduces the mobility of the ions, thereby increasing the impedance of the measuring chamber. A leak tight reference chamber that therefore receives no smoke is added to the measuring chamber. This chamber is filled with the same gas as that present in the measuring chamber and undergoes the same irradiation. It is of course subjected to the same conditions of temperature, atmospheric pressure and hygrometry as the measuring chamber. This makes it possible to break free from the fluctuations of the impedance of the chamber which would seem to be due to these interferences. One only radioactive source irradiates the measuring chamber and the reference chamber. The measuring chamber is in the shape of a cylinder open at one end and the reference chamber is annular and encompasses the measuring chamber. Provision is made for detecting an increase in the potential across the terminals of the measuring chamber in relation to the reference chamber, which is characteristic of the presence of smoke and other provisions separate from the former for dectecting a reduction in potential between the electrodes of the first ionisation chamber, which is characteristic of a change in the detector [fr

  17. Significant use of diagnostic radiology for sport injuries and damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, C J; Kessler, M

    1983-09-01

    The diagnosis of a sport injury or a sport damage is usually made by the clinical investigation. However, the X-ray examination is indispensable. In addition to standard projections further radiologic techniques such as passive motion, tomography, computed tomography, arthrography or angiography are necessary. The relevant use of these X-ray methods with regard to sports injuries or damages of the particular regions of the locomotor system are described.

  18. Significant use of diagnostic radiology for sport injuries and damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, C.J.; Kessler, M.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnosis of a sport injury or a sport damage is usually made by the clinical investigation. However, the X-ray examination is indispensable. In addition to standard projections further radiologic techniques such as passive motion, tomography, computed tomography, arthrography or angiography are necessary. The relevant use of these X-ray methods with regard to sports injuries or damages of the particular regions of the locomotor system are described. (orig.)

  19. Mediators and moderators of magazine advertisement effects on adolescent cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Slater, Michael D; Cruickshank, Courtney C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between magazine advertising for cigarettes and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants (242 adolescents) reported their frequency of reading 46 magazines and their attention to cigarette ads. Recognition of cigarette ads, passive peer pressure (i.e., normative beliefs), and the smoker image also were assessed. Results indicate that exposure to cigarette advertising and recognition of ads augment the effect of passive peer pressure on smoking. In addition, a positive smoker image was associated with attention to advertising and mediated the relation between attention and smoking. It is suggested that the effect of magazine ads on adolescents should be considered in policymaking on cigarette advertising.

  20. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults. The report finds a causal relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), and declares ... Learn more about asthma at the CDC site . Exposure to secondhand smoke may cause new cases of asthma in children ...