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Sample records for passive protection mouse

  1. H5N1 whole-virus vaccine induces neutralizing antibodies in humans which are protective in a mouse passive transfer model.

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    M Keith Howard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vero cell culture-derived whole-virus H5N1 vaccines have been extensively tested in clinical trials and consistently demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic; however, clinical efficacy is difficult to evaluate in the absence of wide-spread human disease. A lethal mouse model has been utilized which allows investigation of the protective efficacy of active vaccination or passive transfer of vaccine induced sera following lethal H5N1 challenge. METHODS: We used passive transfer of immune sera to investigate antibody-mediated protection elicited by a Vero cell-derived, non-adjuvanted inactivated whole-virus H5N1 vaccine. Mice were injected intravenously with H5N1 vaccine-induced rodent or human immune sera and subsequently challenged with a lethal dose of wild-type H5N1 virus. RESULTS: Passive transfer of H5N1 vaccine-induced mouse, guinea pig and human immune sera provided dose-dependent protection of recipient mice against lethal challenge with wild-type H5N1 virus. Protective dose fifty values for serum H5N1 neutralizing antibody titers were calculated to be ≤1∶11 for all immune sera, independently of source species. CONCLUSIONS: These data underpin the confidence that the Vero cell culture-derived, whole-virus H5N1 vaccine will be effective in a pandemic situation and support the use of neutralizing serum antibody titers as a correlate of protection for H5N1 vaccines.

  2. Passive and active protection of cotton textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochove, C. van

    1967-01-01

    In rotproofing of cotton a distinction is made between passive and active protection. In passive protection, the structure of the cotton fibre is modified in such a way that the fibre can longer be attacked. This modification of structure can be effected on different levels: microscopical,

  3. Passive fire protection role and evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerosky, Tristan [NUVIA (France); Perdrix, Johan [NUVIA Protection (France)

    2015-12-15

    Major incidents associated with nuclear power plants often invoke a re-examination of key safety barriers. Fire hazard, in particular, is a key concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants given its propensity to damage safety systems which could ultimately lead to radioactive release into the atmosphere. In the recent past, events such as the Fukushima disaster have led to an industry-wide push to improve nuclear safety arrangements. As part of these measures, upgrading of fire safety systems has received significant attention. In addition to the inherent intricacies associated with such a complex undertaking, factors such as frequent changes in the national and European fire regulations also require due attention while formulating a fire protection strategy. This paper will highlight some salient aspects underpinning an effective fire protection strategy. This will involve: A) A comprehensive introduction to the different aspects of fire safety (namely prevention, containment and mitigation) supported by a review of the development of the RCC-I from 1993 to 1997 editions and the ETC-F (AFCEN codes used by EDF in France). B) Development of the fire risk analysis methodology and the different functions of passive fire protection within this method involving confinement and protection of safety-related equipment. C) A review of the benefits of an effective passive fire protection strategy, alongside other arrangements (such as active fire protection) to a nuclear operator in term of safety and cost savings. It is expected that the paper will provide nuclear operators useful guidelines for strengthening existing fire protection systems.

  4. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

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    Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Sonter, Laura J.; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa’s tropical forests are among the world’s largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection — forest management that is low or nonexistent — ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy’s influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results

  5. Simulation of quenches in SSC magnets with passive quench protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, K.

    1985-06-01

    The relative ease of protecting an SSC magnet following a quench and the implications of quench protection on magnet reliability and operation are necessary inputs in a rational magnet selection process. As it appears likely that the magnet selection will be made prior to full scale prototype testing, an alternative means is required to ascertain the surviveability of contending magnet types. This paper attempts to provide a basis for magnet selection by calculating the peak expected quench temperatures in the 3 T Design C magnet and the 6 T Design D magnet as a function of magnet length. A passive, ''cold diode'' protection system has been assumed. The relative merits of passive versus active protection systems have been discussed in a previous report. It is therefore assumed that - given the experience gained from the Tevatron system - that an active quench protection system can be employed to protect the magnets in the eventuality of unreliable cold diode function

  6. An adult passive transfer mouse model to study desmoglein 3 signaling in pemphigus vulgaris.

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    Schulze, Katja; Galichet, Arnaud; Sayar, Beyza S; Scothern, Anthea; Howald, Denise; Zymann, Hillard; Siffert, Myriam; Zenhäusern, Denise; Bolli, Reinhard; Koch, Peter J; Garrod, David; Suter, Maja M; Müller, Eliane J

    2012-02-01

    Evidence has accumulated that changes in intracellular signaling downstream of desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) may have a significant role in epithelial blistering in the autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Currently, most studies on PV involve passive transfer of pathogenic antibodies into neonatal mice that have not finalized epidermal morphogenesis, and do not permit analysis of mature hair follicles (HFs) and stem cell niches. To investigate Dsg3 antibody-induced signaling in the adult epidermis at defined stages of the HF cycle, we developed a model with passive transfer of AK23 (a mouse monoclonal pathogenic anti-Dsg3 antibody) into adult 8-week-old C57Bl/6J mice. Validated using histopathological and molecular methods, we found that this model faithfully recapitulates major features described in PV patients and PV models. Two hours after AK23 transfer, we observed widening of intercellular spaces between desmosomes and EGFR activation, followed by increased Myc expression and epidermal hyperproliferation, desmosomal Dsg3 depletion, and predominant blistering in HFs and oral mucosa. These data confirm that the adult passive transfer mouse model is ideally suited for detailed studies of Dsg3 antibody-mediated signaling in adult skin, providing the basis for investigations on novel keratinocyte-specific therapeutic strategies.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies passively protect BALB/c mice against Burkholderia mallei aerosol challenge.

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    Treviño, Sylvia R; Permenter, Amy R; England, Marilyn J; Parthasarathy, Narayanan; Gibbs, Paul H; Waag, David M; Chanh, Tran C

    2006-03-01

    Glanders is a debilitating disease with no vaccine available. Murine monoclonal antibodies were produced against Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, and were shown to be effective in passively protecting mice against a lethal aerosol challenge. The antibodies appeared to target lipopolysaccharide. Humoral antibodies may be important for immune protection against B. mallei infection.

  8. The protective nature of passivation films on zinc: surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muster, Tim H.; Cole, Ivan S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of oxide surface charge on the corrosion performance of zinc metals was investigated. Oxidised zinc species (zinc oxide, zinc hydroxychloride, zinc hydroxysulfate and zinc hydroxycarbonate) with chemical compositions similar to those produced on zinc during atmospheric corrosion were formed as particles from aqueous solution, and as passive films deposited onto zinc powder, and rolled zinc, surfaces. Synthesized oxides were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The zeta potentials of various oxide particles, as determined by microelectrophoresis, are reported as a function of pH. Particulates containing a majority of zinc hydroxycarbonate and zinc hydroxysulfate crystallites were found to possess a negative surface charge below pH 6, whilst zinc oxide-hydroxide and zinc hydroxychloride crystallites possessed isoelectric points (IEP's) higher than pH 8. The ability of chloride species to pass through a bed of 3 μm diameter zinc powder was found to increase for surfaces possessing carboxy and sulfate surface species, suggesting that negatively charged surfaces can aid in the repulsion of chloride ions. Electrochemical analysis of the open-circuit potential as a function of time at a fixed pH of 6.5 showed that the chemical composition of passive films on zinc plates influenced the ability of chloride ions to access anodic sites for periods of approximately 1 h

  9. Passive fire building protection system evaluation (case study: millennium ict centre)

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    Rahman, Vinky; Stephanie

    2018-03-01

    Passive fire protection system is a system that refers to the building design, both regarding of architecture and structure. This system usually consists of structural protection that protects the structure of the building and prevents the spread of fire and facilitate the evacuation process in case of fire. Millennium ICT Center is the largest electronic shopping center in Medan, Indonesia. As a public building that accommodates the crowd, this building needs a fire protection system by the standards. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate passive fire protection system of Millennium ICT Center building. The study was conducted to describe the facts of the building as well as direct observation to the research location. The collected data is then processed using the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) method in its weighting process to obtain the reliability value of passive fire protection fire system. The results showed that there are some components of passive fire protection system in the building, but some are still unqualified. The first section in your paper

  10. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging.

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    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation.

  11. Problem of corium melt coolability in passive protection systems against severe accidents in the containment

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    Ali Kalvand

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper is devoted to the development of the mathematical model and analysis of the problem of corium melt interaction with low-temperature melting blocks in the passive protection systems against severe accidents at the NPP, which is of high importance for substantiation of the nuclear power safety, for building and successful op-erating of passive protection systems. In the third-generation reactors passive protection systems against severe accidents at the NPP are mandatory, therefore this paper is of importance for the nuclear power safety. A few configurations for the cooling blocks’ distribution have been considered and an analysis of the blocks’ melting and corium’s cooling in the pool under reactor vessel have been done, which can serve more effective for further improvement of the safety current systems and for the development of new ones. The ways for solution of the problems and the methods for their successful elaboration were discussed. The developed mathematical models and the analysis performed in the paper might be helpful for the design of passive protection systems of the cori-um melt retention inside the containment after corium melt eruption from the broken reactor vessel.

  12. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paltrinieri, N.; Landucci, G.; Molag, M.; Bonvicini, S.; Spadoni, G.; Cozzani, V.

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements

  13. Passive Cushiony Biomechanics of Head Protection in Falling Geckos

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    Hao Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gekko geckos are capable to crawl on the steep even on upside-down surfaces. Such movement, especially at great altitude, puts them at high risks of incidentally dropping down and inevitable body or head impactions, though they may trigger air-righting reaction (ARR to attenuate the landing shocks. However, the air-righting ability (ARA in Gekko geckos is not fully developed. The implementation of ARR in some geckos is quite slow; and for those without tails, the ARR is even unobservable. Since ARA is compromised in Gekko geckos, there must be some other mechanisms responsible for protecting them from head injuries during falls. In this study, we looked into a Gekko gecko’s brain to study its internal environment and structure, using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique. The results showed that the brain parenchyma was fully surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in the skull. A succulent characteristic was presented, which meant the intracalvarium was significantly occupied by the CSF, up to 45% in volume. Then a simplified three-dimensional finite element model was built, and a dynamic simulation was conducted to evaluate the mechanical property of this succulent characteristic during the head impactions. These implied the succulent characteristic may play certain roles on the self-protection in case of head impaction, which is adaptable to the Gekko gecko’s locomotion and behavior.

  14. Passive films and corrosion protection due to phosphonic acid inhibitors

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    Fang, J.L.; Liu, Q. (Nanjing Univ. (China)); Li, Y.; Wang, Z.W. (Nanjing Inst. of Chemical Tech. (China))

    1993-04-01

    For protecting mild steel from corrosion, aminotrimethylidenephosphonic acid (ATMP) was more effective than 1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonic acid (HEDP), N.N-dimethylidenediphosphonic acid (EEDP), and ethylenediaminetetramethylidenephosphonic acid (EDTMP). A 20-min treatment in 1.0 mol/l of ATMP with a pH 0.23 at 45 C formed an anti-corrosive complex film that was composed of 48.4% O, 28.6% P, 7.0% Fe, 4.3% N, and 11.7% C, based on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. From differences in binding energies of Fe, N, and O, in the shift of C-N and P-O vibration, in the reflection FTIR spectra, and in the change of P-OH and Fe-N vibration before and after film formation, it was deduced that N and O in ATMP were coordinated with Fe[sub 2+] in the film.

  15. Protective capping and surface passivation of III-V nanowires by atomic layer deposition

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    Veer Dhaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature (∼200 °C grown atomic layer deposition (ALD films of AlN, TiN, Al2O3, GaN, and TiO2 were tested for protective capping and surface passivation of bottom-up grown III-V (GaAs and InP nanowires (NWs, and top-down fabricated InP nanopillars. For as-grown GaAs NWs, only the AlN material passivated the GaAs surface as measured by photoluminescence (PL at low temperatures (15K, and the best passivation was achieved with a few monolayer thick (2Å film. For InP NWs, the best passivation (∼2x enhancement in room-temperature PL was achieved with a capping of 2nm thick Al2O3. All other ALD capping layers resulted in a de-passivation effect and possible damage to the InP surface. Top-down fabricated InP nanopillars show similar passivation effects as InP NWs. In particular, capping with a 2 nm thick Al2O3 layer increased the carrier decay time from 251 ps (as-etched nanopillars to about 525 ps. Tests after six months ageing reveal that the capped nanostructures retain their optical properties. Overall, capping of GaAs and InP NWs with high-k dielectrics AlN and Al2O3 provides moderate surface passivation as well as long term protection from oxidation and environmental attack.

  16. Protective capping and surface passivation of III-V nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhaka, Veer, E-mail: veer.dhaka@aalto.fi; Perros, Alexander; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Haggren, Tuomas; Lipsanen, Harri [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Micronova, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 (Finland); Naureen, Shagufta; Shahid, Naeem [Research School of Physics & Engineering, Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko [Department of Applied Physics and Nanomicroscopy Center, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 (Finland); Srinivasan, Anand [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, S-164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    Low temperature (∼200 °C) grown atomic layer deposition (ALD) films of AlN, TiN, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, GaN, and TiO{sub 2} were tested for protective capping and surface passivation of bottom-up grown III-V (GaAs and InP) nanowires (NWs), and top-down fabricated InP nanopillars. For as-grown GaAs NWs, only the AlN material passivated the GaAs surface as measured by photoluminescence (PL) at low temperatures (15K), and the best passivation was achieved with a few monolayer thick (2Å) film. For InP NWs, the best passivation (∼2x enhancement in room-temperature PL) was achieved with a capping of 2nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. All other ALD capping layers resulted in a de-passivation effect and possible damage to the InP surface. Top-down fabricated InP nanopillars show similar passivation effects as InP NWs. In particular, capping with a 2 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer increased the carrier decay time from 251 ps (as-etched nanopillars) to about 525 ps. Tests after six months ageing reveal that the capped nanostructures retain their optical properties. Overall, capping of GaAs and InP NWs with high-k dielectrics AlN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} provides moderate surface passivation as well as long term protection from oxidation and environmental attack.

  17. Use of the mice passive protection test to evaluate the humoral response in goats vaccinated with Sterne 34F2 live spore vaccine.

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    Phaswana, P H; Ndumnego, O C; Koehler, S M; Beyer, W; Crafford, J E; van Heerden, H

    2017-09-07

    The Sterne live spore vaccine (34F2) is the most widely used veterinary vaccine against anthrax in animals. Antibody responses to several antigens of Bacillus anthracis have been described with a large focus on those against protective antigen (PA). The focus of this study was to evaluate the protective humoral immune response induced by the live spore anthrax vaccine in goats. Boer goats vaccinated twice (week 0 and week 12) with the Sterne live spore vaccine and naive goats were used to monitor the anti-PA and toxin neutralizing antibodies at week 4 and week 17 (after the second vaccine dose) post vaccination. A/J mice were passively immunized with different dilutions of sera from immune and naive goats and then challenged with spores of B. anthracis strain 34F2 to determine the protective capacity of the goat sera. The goat anti-PA ELISA titres indicated significant sero-conversion at week 17 after the second doses of vaccine (p = 0.009). Mice receiving undiluted sera from goats given two doses of vaccine (twice immunized) showed the highest protection (86%) with only 20% of mice receiving 1:1000 diluted sera surviving lethal challenge. The in vitro toxin neutralization assay (TNA) titres correlated to protection of passively immunized A/J mice against lethal infection with the vaccine strain Sterne 34F2 spores using immune goat sera up to a 1:10 dilution (r s  ≥ 0.522, p = 0.046). This study suggests that the passive mouse protection model could be potentially used to evaluate the protective immune response in livestock animals vaccinated with the current live vaccine and new vaccines.

  18. Surface protection during plasma hydrogenation for acceptor passivation in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopata, J.; Dautremont-Smith, W.C.; Pearton, S.J.; Lee, J.W.; Ha, N.T.; Luftman, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    Various dielectric and metallic films were examined as H-permeable surface protection layers on InP during H 2 or D 2 plasma exposure for passivation of acceptors in the InP. Plasma deposited SiN x , SiO 2 , and a-Si(H) films ranging in thickness from 85 to 225 angstrom were used to protect p-InP during d 2 plasma exposure at 250 degrees C. Optimum protective layer thicknesses were determined by a trade-off between the effectiveness of the layer to prevent P loss from the wafer surface and the ability to diffuse atomic H or D at a rate greater than or equal to that in the underlying InP. SIMS and capacitance-voltage depth profiling were used to determine the extent of D in-diffusion and acceptor passivation respectively. Sputter deposited W and e-beam evaporated Ti films ∼100 Angstrom thick were also evaluated. The W coated sample yielded similar results to those with dielectric films in that acceptors in p-InP were passivated to a similar depth for the same plasma exposure. The 100 Angstrom Ti film, however, did not allow the D to diffuse into the InP substrate. It is surmised that the Ti film trapped the D, thus preventing diffusion into the substrate

  19. Experimental mouse model of optic neuritis with inflammatory demyelination produced by passive transfer of neuromyelitis optica-immunoglobulin G

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although optic neuritis (ON) is a defining feature of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), appropriate animal models of NMO ON are lacking. Most NMO patients are seropositive for immunoglobulin G autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) against the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Methods Several approaches were tested to develop a robust, passive-transfer mouse model of NMO ON, including NMO-IgG and complement delivery by: (i) retrobulbar infusion; (ii) intravitreal injection; (iii) a single intracranial injection near the optic chiasm; and (iv) 3-days continuous intracranial infusion near the optic chiasm. Results Little ON or retinal pathology was seen using approaches (i) to (iii). Using approach (iv), however, optic nerves showed characteristic NMO pathology, with loss of AQP4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, granulocyte and macrophage infiltration, deposition of activated complement, demyelination and axonal injury. Even more extensive pathology was created in mice lacking complement inhibitor protein CD59, or using a genetically modified NMO-IgG with enhanced complement effector function, including significant loss of retinal ganglion cells. In control studies, optic nerve pathology was absent in treated AQP4-deficient mice, or in wild-type mice receiving control (non-NMO) IgG and complement. Conclusion Passive transfer of NMO-IgG and complement by continuous infusion near the optic chiasm in mice is sufficient to produce ON with characteristic NMO pathology. The mouse model of NMO ON should be useful in further studies of NMO pathogenesis mechanisms and therapeutics. PMID:24468108

  20. Protection of Passive Optical Networks by Using Ring Topology and Tunable Splitters

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    Pavel Lafata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an innovative method for protecting of passive optical networks (PONs, especially the central optical unit – optical line termination (OLT. PON networks are typically used in modern high-speed access networks, but there are also several specific applications, such as in business, army or science sector, which require a complex protection and backup system against failures and malfunctions. A standard tree or star topologies, which are usually used for PON networks, are significantly vulnerable mainly against the malfunctions and failures of OLT unit or feeder optical cable. The method proposed in this paper is focused on forming PON network with ring topology using passive optical splitters. The main idea is based on the possibility of placing both OLT units (primary and secondary on the opposite sides of the ring, which can potentially increase the resistance of network. This method is described in the article and scenarios and calculations using symmetric or tunable asymmetric passive optical splitters are included as well.

  1. Appraisal of Passive and Active Fire Protection Systems in Student’s Accommodation

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    Ismail I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire protection systems are very important systems that must be included in buildings. They have a great significance in reducing or preventing the occurrences of fire. This paper presents an assessment of fire protection systems in student’s accommodation. Student accommodation is a particular type of building that provides shelter for students at University. In addition, it is also supposed to be an attractive environment, conducive to learning, and importantly, safe for occupation. The fire safety of occupants in a building, must be in accordance with the requirements of the building’s code. Therefore, the design of the building must comply with the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL 1984 of Malaysia, and provide all of the required safety features. This paper describes the findings from investigations of passive and active fire protection systems installed in buildings, based on fire safety requirements, UBBL (1984.

  2. A POSSIBLE SOLUTION WITH PASSIVE PROTECTION STRUCTURAL RESISTANCE ELEMENTS TO CARGO SHIPS

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    MUNTEANU Ildikó Renata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors are proposing an additional fire protection solution (semi-passive for cargo ships, by inserting in the tubular strength structure (hollow section, some rectangular, thin wall pipes manufactured of copper alloy, filled with cooling fluid, that, once the fire bursts, it will be activated (i.e. will be pumped into a closed circuit; this closed system contains also a well dimensioned radiator. This innovative solution could bring improvements with regard to the classic one, of intumescent paints, by extending the safe period for evacuating people and goods.

  3. ISO 15693-compatible high frequency passive RFID transponder with mixed-signal ESD protection circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, M.K.; Mohd-Yasin, F.; Reaz, M.B.I.

    2009-06-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags have long been in existence since the 1950's. But not until two decades ago have they found important usage in areas where the need for enhanced and secured data handling is highly concerned. For example, RFID tags are embedded with passports in countries like US and Malaysia since the September 11th incident. RFID tag used in smart card such as passport is constantly exposed to a lot of human touches, thus requiring a very good Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection. Normally the protection is done at the pad level, but the protection is usually small dimensioned to reduce input capacitance. Therefore, in advanced process with thinner gate oxide, internal protection is necessary. This work presents the design of an ISO 15693-compatible 13.56 MHz passive RFID tag with internal ESD protection. VDD-to-ground ESD clamp circuits are strategically placed in the chip architecture. Each clamp has a capability to sustain 2-KV Human Body Model (HBM) positive mode ESD voltage, to produce robust tag. The protection circuit adds 15.12nW to the total power consumption, which is very minimal. (author)

  4. Evaluation of a passive method for determining particle penetration through protective clothing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Peter A; Portnoff, Lee

    2017-12-01

    The risk of workers' exposure to aerosolized particles has increased with the upsurge in the production of engineered nanomaterials. Currently, a whole-body standard test method for measuring particle penetration through protective clothing ensembles is not available. Those available for respirators neglect the most common challenges to ensembles, because they use active vacuum-based filtration, designed to simulate breathing, rather than the positive forces of wind experienced by workers. Thus, a passive method that measures wind-driven particle penetration through ensemble fabric has been developed and evaluated. The apparatus includes a multidomain magnetic passive aerosol sampler housed in a shrouded penetration cell. Performance evaluation was conducted in a recirculation aerosol wind tunnel using paramagnetic Fe 3 O 4 (i.e., iron (II, III) oxide) particles for the challenge aerosol. The particles were collected on a PVC substrate and quantified using a computer-controlled scanning electron microscope. Particle penetration levels were determined by taking the ratio of the particle number collected on the substrate with a fabric (sample) to that without a fabric (control). Results for each fabric obtained by this passive method were compared to previous results from an automated vacuum-based active fractional efficiency tester (TSI 3160), which used sodium chloride particles as the challenge aerosol. Four nonwoven fabrics with a range of thicknesses, porosities, and air permeabilities were evaluated. Smoke tests and flow modeling showed the passive sampler shroud provided smooth (non-turbulent) air flow along the exterior of the sampler, such that disturbance of flow stream lines and distortion of the particle size distribution were reduced. Differences between the active and passive approaches were as high as 5.5-fold for the fabric with the lowest air permeability (0.00067 m/sec-Pa), suggesting the active method overestimated penetration in dense fabrics

  5. Passive administration of purified secretory IgA from human colostrum induces protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a murine model of progressive pulmonary infection

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    Alvarez Nadine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoglobulin A is the most abundant isotype in secretions from mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts and in external secretions such as colostrum, breast milk, tears and saliva. The high concentration of human secretory IgA (hsIgA in human colostrum strongly suggests that it should play an important role in the passive immune protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Materials and methods Human secretory IgA was purified from colostrum. The reactivity of hsIgA against mycobacterial antigens and its protective capacity against mycobacterial infection was evaluated. Results The passive administration of hsIgA reduces the pneumonic area before challenge with M. tuberculosis. The intratracheal administration of M. tuberculosis preincubated with hsIgA to mice greatly reduced the bacterial load in the lungs and diminished lung tissue injury. Conclusions HsIgA purified from colostrum protects against M. tuberculosis infection in an experimental mouse model.

  6. Passive Immunization of Anti bZP3 (Zone Pellucida3 in Wistar Rat (Rattus novergicus and Mouse (Mus musculus

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    Y. Pantiwati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the influence of anti bZP3’s passive immunization on anti-anti bZP3’s titer and pregnancy level on Wistar rats and mice. This study employed factorial design experiment with completely randomized design. The first factor was immunogenic type. The treated rats were immunized with 100 L anti bZP3 in 100 L Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA, while the treated mice were injected with 50 L anti bZP3 in 50 L CFA. Control Wistar rats and mice were immunized with CFA and Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant (IFA without anti bZP3. The second factor was animal type. The third factor was the length of serum incubation, i.e. 38, 49, 63, 86, 100, and 126 d. Dot blot on the treated Wistar rats and mice showed positive response proven by blue gradation; pre-immune mice as well as control Wistar rats and mice showed negative response proven by white gradation. The highest antibody titer in treated mouse serum was shown in 63 d incubation. The pregnancy on treated mice, control mice and Wistar rat occurred 100% until day 126; while the failure percentage on the treated mice was 4.5%. The pregnancy on treated mice occurred in 86 d incubation (1 rat, 100 d incubation (1 rat, and 126 d incubation (3 rats. Effective passive immunization on similar hospes occurred until day 63; while different hospes was ineffective. Antibodi anti-bZP3 was potential as a contraception through passive immunization on similar hospes.

  7. Passive fire protection in high density village (case study, Bustaman Semarang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukawi, Sukawi; Wahyu Firmandhani, Satriya; Hardiman, Gagoek

    2017-12-01

    Fire hazard is the disaster that always has an unpredictable process of coming. When it comes, its level scope and the magnitude of the effects cannot be predicted. Dense settlements especially in big cities, among others Bustaman Kampong Semarang never escape from physical problems such as flooding and wildfire. If both are compared in dense settlements scope, so that, wild fire is the most potentially catastrophic. It is necessary to do a research on passive fire protection in a village of high density city such as Bustaman. Qualitative research was conducted using descriptive method to conduct observations and interviews in the Bustaman. Bustaman as a high density village, with narrow roads and dense rows of houses. The terraced buildings are also encountered, and found many buildings use combustible material. That environmental conditions can facilitate the propagation of flames in case of fire. To improve the established Bustaman's environment, in terms of the application of passive fire protection systems, it is recommended to utilize the road as the dividing buildings. Need to build the separation wall fireproof in every each series in several units of too long buildings and attempted open space procurement that separates rows of buildings that are too long, and also the replacement of combustible material with a material that is more incombustible.

  8. Assessment of Integrated Pedestrian Protection Systems with Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) and Passive Safety Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mervyn; Nathanson, Andrew; Carroll, Jolyon; Wisch, Marcus; Zander, Oliver; Lubbe, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems fitted to cars for pedestrians have been predicted to offer substantial benefit. On this basis, consumer rating programs-for example, the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP)-are developing rating schemes to encourage fitment of these systems. One of the questions that needs to be answered to do this fully is how the assessment of the speed reduction offered by the AEB is integrated with the current assessment of the passive safety for mitigation of pedestrian injury. Ideally, this should be done on a benefit-related basis. The objective of this research was to develop a benefit-based methodology for assessment of integrated pedestrian protection systems with AEB and passive safety components. The method should include weighting procedures to ensure that it represents injury patterns from accident data and replicates an independently estimated benefit of AEB. A methodology has been developed to calculate the expected societal cost of pedestrian injuries, assuming that all pedestrians in the target population (i.e., pedestrians impacted by the front of a passenger car) are impacted by the car being assessed, taking into account the impact speed reduction offered by the car's AEB (if fitted) and the passive safety protection offered by the car's frontal structure. For rating purposes, the cost for the assessed car is normalized by comparing it to the cost calculated for a reference car. The speed reductions measured in AEB tests are used to determine the speed at which each pedestrian in the target population will be impacted. Injury probabilities for each impact are then calculated using the results from Euro NCAP pedestrian impactor tests and injury risk curves. These injury probabilities are converted into cost using "harm"-type costs for the body regions tested. These costs are weighted and summed. Weighting factors were determined using accident data from Germany and Great Britain and an independently

  9. Investigations on the protective role of passively transferred antibodies against avian metapneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2009-12-01

    The avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is the causative agent of an acute respiratory disease in turkeys, which causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Currently attenuated live and inactivated vaccines are widely used to control the disease, but vaccine breaks are frequently observed. For improvement of current vaccination strategies it is necessary to gain enhanced knowledge of the immune mechanisms against aMPV infection. Field observations suggest that vaccine-induced aMPV-specific antibodies are not indicative for protection. In the present study we investigated the role of antibodies in protection of turkeys against aMPV. In two experiments, commercial turkey poults received aMPV-specific antibodies by intravenous injection. The antibody transfer resulted in increased antibody levels in the sera. Virus-specific antibodies were also detected on mucosal surfaces such as the trachea, conjunctivae and gall bladder. Turkeys were subsequently challenged with a virulent aMPV subtype A strain. Development of clinical signs, virus detection by polymerase chain reaction and histopathological changes of tracheal mucosa in challenged turkeys with and without passively transferred antibodies were comparable with each other. Our results suggest that humoral immunity does not provide sufficient protection against aMPV infection. Thus, the measurement of vaccine-induced aMPV antibody response may not be considered as an adequate indicator of vaccine efficacy. Further research on the protective role of cell-mediated immune mechanisms is necessary to improve current vaccine strategies.

  10. Mitochondrial Protection by Exogenous Otx2 in Mouse Retinal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Tai Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available OTX2 (orthodenticle homeobox 2 haplodeficiency causes diverse defects in mammalian visual systems ranging from retinal dysfunction to anophthalmia. We find that the retinal dystrophy of Otx2+/GFP heterozygous knockin mice is mainly due to the loss of bipolar cells and consequent deficits in retinal activity. Among bipolar cell types, OFF-cone bipolar subsets, which lack autonomous Otx2 gene expression but receive Otx2 proteins from photoreceptors, degenerate most rapidly in Otx2+/GFP mouse retinas, suggesting a neuroprotective effect of the imported Otx2 protein. In support of this hypothesis, retinal dystrophy in Otx2+/GFP mice is prevented by intraocular injection of Otx2 protein, which localizes to the mitochondria of bipolar cells and facilitates ATP synthesis as a part of mitochondrial ATP synthase complex. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a mitochondrial function for Otx2 and suggest a potential therapeutic application of OTX2 protein delivery in human retinal dystrophy.

  11. Protective effects ofginger (Zingiberofficinale rhizomeextractonheat-induced testiculardamagein the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahram amuoghlitabrizi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a complicated problem with medical significance. Gingeras amedicinalherb is used to treata number of diseasessuch assexualweakness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger rhizome extract on heat-induced testicular damage in the mouse. Fourtymale mice were randomly divided into 4 equal groups including: 1- Control, 2- heat stressed, 3 and 4- stressed and treated with ginger extract (1/5 and 3 mg/animal/day. The scrotum of experimental mice was immersed for 20 min in a water bath at 42°C. Control mice were similarly treated except that the water bath was maintained at 23°C. Mice were euthanized after 50 days. Blood samples were collected for analysis of testosterone levels. Testes were removed for histopathological assessment and oxidant/antioxidant status. Heat stress significantly reduced blood testosterone level and increased lipid peroxidation product and decreased antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (p

  12. A parametric study on the use of passive fire protection in FPSO topside module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Friebe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a continuous threat to FPSO topside modules as large amounts of oil and gas are passing through the modules. As a conventional measure to mitigate structural failure under fire, passive fire protection (PFP coatings are widely used on main structural members. However, an excessive use of PFP coatings can cause considerable cost for material purchase, installation, inspection and maintenance. Long installation time can be a risk since the work should be done nearly at the last fabrication stage. Thus, the minimal use of PFP can be beneficial to the reduction of construction cost and the avoidance of schedule delay. This paper presents a few case studies on how different applications of PFP have influence on collapse time of a FPSO module structure. A series of heat analysis and thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis are performed for different PFP coatings and the resultant collapse time and the amount of PFP coatings are compared with each other.

  13. Passive immunization with phospho-tau antibodies reduces tau pathology and functional deficits in two distinct mouse tauopathy models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethu Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, an extensive accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intraneuronal tau tangles, along with neuronal loss, is evident in distinct brain regions. Staging of tau pathology by postmortem analysis of AD subjects suggests a sequence of initiation and subsequent spread of neurofibrillary tau tangles along defined brain anatomical pathways. Further, the severity of cognitive deficits correlates with the degree and extent of tau pathology. In this study, we demonstrate that phospho-tau (p-tau antibodies, PHF6 and PHF13, can prevent the induction of tau pathology in primary neuron cultures. The impact of passive immunotherapy on the formation and spread of tau pathology, as well as functional deficits, was subsequently evaluated with these antibodies in two distinct transgenic mouse tauopathy models. The rTg4510 transgenic mouse is characterized by inducible over-expression of P301L mutant tau, and exhibits robust age-dependent brain tau pathology. Systemic treatment with PHF6 and PHF13 from 3 to 6 months of age led to a significant decline in brain and CSF p-tau levels. In a second model, injection of preformed tau fibrils (PFFs comprised of recombinant tau protein encompassing the microtubule-repeat domains into the cortex and hippocampus of young P301S mutant tau over-expressing mice (PS19 led to robust tau pathology on the ipsilateral side with evidence of spread to distant sites, including the contralateral hippocampus and bilateral entorhinal cortex 4 weeks post-injection. Systemic treatment with PHF13 led to a significant decline in the spread of tau pathology in this model. The reduction in tau species after p-tau antibody treatment was associated with an improvement in novel-object recognition memory test in both models. These studies provide evidence supporting the use of tau immunotherapy as a potential treatment option for AD and other tauopathies.

  14. Efficacy of Primate Humoral Passive Transfer in a Murine Model of Pneumonic Plague Is Mouse Strain-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New vaccines against biodefense-related and emerging pathogens are being prepared for licensure using the US Federal Drug Administration’s “Animal Rule.” This allows licensure of drugs and vaccines using protection data generated in animal models. A new acellular plague vaccine composed of two separate recombinant proteins (rF1 and rV has been developed and assessed for immunogenicity in humans. Using serum obtained from human volunteers immunised with various doses of this vaccine and from immunised cynomolgus macaques, we assessed the pharmacokinetic properties of human and cynomolgus macaque IgG in BALB/c and the NIH Swiss derived Hsd:NIHS mice, respectively. Using human and cynomolgus macaque serum with known ELISA antibody titres against both vaccine components, we have shown that passive immunisation of human and nonhuman primate serum provides a reproducible delay in median time to death in mice exposed to a lethal aerosol of plague. In addition, we have shown that Hsd:NIHS mice are a better model for humoral passive transfer studies than BALB/c mice.

  15. Active immunizations with peptide-DC vaccines and passive transfer with antibodies protect neutropenic mice against disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong

    2016-01-04

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Active Immunizations with Peptide-DC Vaccines and Passive Transfer with Antibodies Protect Neutropenic Mice against Disseminated Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. PMID:26620842

  17. Does adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a protective effect against active and passive smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, C I; Flouris, A D; Tsatsakis, A; Kafatos, A G; Saris, W H M

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the existing evidence about whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet may have a role as an effect modifier of active and passive smoking on human health. Review. An overview of emerging evidence and published studies that cover the interaction between the Mediterranean diet and smoking. Both epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet has a protective effect against biochemical and molecular processes that lead to cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory illness. Based on the high daily intake of vitamins and antioxidants, the Mediterranean diet is comprised of a number of compounds that could alter certain outcomes related to smoking. Studies have indicated that certain diseases attributable to smoking, such as lung cancer, asthma and cardiovascular disease, are inversely associated with certain antioxidants and lipids. The literature indicates that the existence of a partial interaction between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the health effects of smoking is possible. Further research is needed to lead to a conclusive statement on this hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Melatonin protect the development of preimplantation mouse embryos from sodium fluoride-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiamin; Fu, Beibei; Peng, Wei; Mao, Tingchao; Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Recently study shows that melatonin can protect embryos from the culture environment oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of melatonin on the mouse development of preimplantation embryos under sodium fluoride (NaF) induced oxidative stress is still unclear. Here, we showed that exposure to NaF significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, decreased the blastocyst formation rates, and increased the fragmentation, apoptosis and retardation of blastocysts in the development of mouse preimplantation embryos. However, the protective of melatonin remarkable increased the of blastocyst formation rates, maintained mitochondrial function and total antioxidant capacity by clearing ROS. Importantly the data showed that melatonin improved the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, including glutathione(GSH), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA), and increased the expression levels of antioxidative genes. Taken together, our results indicate that melatonin prevent NaF-induced oxidative damage to mouse preimplantation embryo through down regulation of ROS level, stabilization of mitochondrial function and modulation of the activity of antioxidases and antioxidant genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Failure of catalase to protect against aflatoxin B1-induced mouse lung tumorigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guindon, Katherine A.; Foley, Julie F.; Maronpot, Robert R.; Massey, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    The carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) induces 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation in mouse lung, an effect that can be prevented by treatment with polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-CAT). G → T transversion mutation in K-ras, an early event in AFB 1 -induced mouse lung carcinogenesis, is thought to result from AFB 1 -8,9-exo-epoxide binding to DNA to form AFB 1 -N 7 -guanine, but may also result from formation of 8-OHdG. Therefore, oxidative DNA damage may be important in AFB 1 carcinogenicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether PEG-CAT would prevent AFB 1 tumorigenicity. Mouse lung tumorigenesis was assessed following treatment of female A/J mice with 300 kU/kg PEG-CAT ip and/or 50 mg/kg AFB 1 . Mice were killed 7 months post-treatment and tumors greater than 1 mm in diameter were excised. Unexpectedly, the mean number of tumors per mouse in the PEG-CAT + AFB 1 group (8.81 ± 3.64, n = 47) was greater than that of the group treated with AFB 1 alone (7.05 ± 3.45, n = 42) (P 1 were larger than those from mice treated with AFB 1 alone (P 1 and PEG-CAT + AFB 1 groups (P > 0.05). In vitro incubation with mouse liver catalase (CAT) resulted in conversion of [ 3 H]AFB 1 into a DNA-binding species, a possible explanation for the results observed in vivo. These results demonstrate that PEG-CAT is not protective against AFB 1 carcinogenicity in mouse lung despite preventing DNA oxidation

  20. Protection against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection through Passive Transfer of PRRSV-Neutralizing Antibodies Is Dose Dependent▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, O. J.; Oliveira, M. F.; Garcia, E. Alvarez; Kwon, B. J.; Doster, A.; Osorio, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that passive transfer of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-neutralizing antibodies (NA) protected pregnant sows against reproductive failure and conferred sterilizing immunity in sows and offspring. We report here on the dose requirement for protection by passive transfer with NA in young weaned pigs. The presence of a 1:8 titer of PRRSV-NA in serum consistently protected pigs against viremia. Nevertheless, their lungs, to...

  1. Semiconductor properties and protective role of passive films of iron base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor properties of passive films formed on the Fe-18Cr alloy in a borate buffer solution (pH = 8.4) and 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 solution were examined using a photoelectrochemical spectroscopy and an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Photo current reveals two photo action spectra that derived from outer hydroxide and inner oxide layers. A typical n-type semiconductor behaviour is observed by both photo current and impedance for the passive films formed in the borate buffer solution. On the other hand, a negative photo current generated, the absolute value of which decreased as applied potential increased in the sulfuric acid solution. This indicates that the passive film behaves as a p-type semiconductor. However, Mott-Schottky plot revealed the typical n-type semiconductor property. It is concluded that the passive film on the Fe-18Cr alloy formed in the borate buffer solution is composed of both n-type outer hydroxide and inner oxide layers. On the other hand, the passive film of the Fe-18Cr alloy in the sulphuric acid consists of p-type oxide and n-type hydroxide layers. The behaviour of passive film growth and corrosion was discussed in terms of the electronic structure in the passive film

  2. Coal fly ash-containing sprayed mortar for passive fire protection of steel sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches, L. F.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the possible use of coal fly ash as the chief component of sprayed mortars to fireproof steel structures. A pilot wet-mix gunning rig was specifically designed and built to spray different pastes on to sheet steel and sections with different surface/volume ratios. After gunning, the specimens were placed in a furnace and subjected to standard fire resistance testing. Product fire resistance was calculated from the test results. The mortar used in this study, with a high fly ash content, was found to have acceptable mechanical properties as well as afire resistance potential comparable to those of commercial passive fire protection products.

    En este artículo se estudia el posible uso de las cenizas volantes procedentes de la combustión del carbón como constituyente principal de morteros que pueden ser proyectados sobre estructuras metálicas, para protegerlas contra el fuego. Con objeto de estudiar el proceso de proyección, se ha construido una planta piloto de gunitado por vía húmeda. La pasta se ha proyectado sobre placas metálicas y perfiles metálicos con diferentes relaciones superficie/volumen. Tras el gunitado, las probetas proyectadas se colocan en un horno y se someten a un programa de calentamiento según la norma de resistencia al fuego. A partir de los datos obtenidos se ha podido realizar una estimación de la resistencia al fuego del producto. Los resultados muestran que el material proyectado usado en este estudio, que contiene una alta proporción de cenizas volantes, tiene unas propiedades mecánicas aceptables y unas características potenciales de resistencia al fuego comparables a las de otros productos comerciales utilizados en la protección pasiva contra el fuego.

  3. Lack of protection following passive transfer of polyclonal highly functional low-dose non-neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Dugast

    Full Text Available Recent immune correlates analysis from the RV144 vaccine trial has renewed interest in the role of non-neutralizing antibodies in mediating protection from infection. While neutralizing antibodies have proven difficult to induce through vaccination, extra-neutralizing antibodies, such as those that mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC, are associated with long-term control of infection. However, while several non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been tested for their protective efficacy in vivo, no studies to date have tested the protective activity of naturally produced polyclonal antibodies from individuals harboring potent ADCC activity. Because ADCC-inducing antibodies are highly enriched in elite controllers (EC, we passively transferred highly functional non-neutralizing polyclonal antibodies, purified from an EC, to assess the potential impact of polyclonal non-neutralizing antibodies on a stringent SHIV-SF162P3 challenge in rhesus monkeys. Passive transfer of a low-dose of ADCC inducing antibodies did not protect from infection following SHIV-SF162P3 challenge. Passively administered antibody titers and gp120-specific, but not gp41-specific, ADCC and antibody induced phagocytosis (ADCP were detected in the majority of the monkeys, but did not correlate with post infection viral control. Thus these data raise the possibility that gp120-specific ADCC activity alone may not be sufficient to control viremia post infection but that other specificities or Fc-effector profiles, alone or in combination, may have an impact on viral control and should be tested in future passive transfer experiments.

  4. Squalene Selectively Protects Mouse Bone Marrow Progenitors Against Cisplatin and Carboplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity In Vivo Without Protecting Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikul Das

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Squalene, an isoprenoid antioxidant is a potential cytoprotective agent against chemotherapy-induced toxicity. We have previously published that squalene protects light-density bone marrow cells against cis-diamminedichloroplatinum( II (cisplatin-induced toxicity without protecting tumor cells in vitro. Here, we developed an in vivo mouse model of cisplatin and cis-diammine (cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato platinum(II (carboplatin-induced toxicity to further investigate squalene-mediated LD-BM cytoprotection including the molecular mechanism behind selective cytoprotection. We found that squalene significantly reduced the body weight loss of cisplatin and carboplatin-treated mice. Light-density bone marrow cells from squalene-treated mice exhibited improved formation of hematopoietic colonies (colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage. Furthermore, squalene also protected mesenchymal stem cell colonies (colony-forming unit-fibroblast from cisplatin and carboplatin-induced toxicity. Squalene-induced protection was associated with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione-S-transferase. Importantly, squalene did not protect neuroblastoma, small cell carcinoma, or medulloblastoma xenografts against cisplatin-induced toxicity. These results suggest that squalene is a potential candidate for future development as a cytoprotective agent against chemotherapeutic toxicity.

  5. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants passive sampling for the protection of historic buildings and monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, F.; Fino, A.; Vazzana, C.; Allegrini, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    When considering the various possibilities to assess the effects of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} on historic buildings and monuments, a distinction can be made according to the completeness of the scope of the assessment itself. A first approach can be limited to gathering data as they become available through the official bodies established under air quality legislation. This approach is based on a single point measurement where a general purpose monitoring station is located, often quite far from the monument to protect and often without investigating local and temporal variations. A more comprehensive assessment should include a generalisation that covers the territory. This can be made on the basis of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of concentrations and the knowledge of the causes of air pollution. Passive samplers allow the measurement of air quality in numerous sites and to assess the pollutant spatial distribution over a large area with a high resolution. As an application of the method, the spatial distribution of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in the city of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy, has been studied to identify areas of high deposition fluxes in relation to the protection of buildings and monuments of the historic centre. [Italian] E' noto che gli inquinanti presenti in aria, tra questi in particolare l'SO{sub 2} e l'NO{sub 2}, sono causa di danno sui monumenti e sulle opere d'arte. La valutazione dell'impatto di questi due inquinanti viene solitamente effettuata sulla base del monitoraggio eseguito secondo la legislazione vigente ma spesso lontano dal monumento da proteggere. Cio', evidentemente, non consente di valutare correttamente il grado di rischio al quale un monumento e' esposto poiche' non fornisce informazioni sulle variazioni spaziali e temporali dei due inquinanti in prossimita' del monumento stesso. Allo scopo di raccogliere quindi informazioni complete sulla distribuzione degli inquinanti, e

  6. Primary amines protect against retinal degeneration in mouse models of retinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Akiko; Golczak, Marcin; Chen, Yu; Okano, Kiichiro; Kohno, Hideo; Shiose, Satomi; Ishikawa, Kaede; Harte, William; Palczewska, Grazyna; Maeda, Tadao; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-12-25

    Vertebrate vision is initiated by photoisomerization of the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis-retinal and is maintained by continuous regeneration of this retinoid through a series of reactions termed the retinoid cycle. However, toxic side reaction products, especially those involving reactive aldehyde groups of the photoisomerized product, all-trans-retinal, can cause severe retinal pathology. Here we lowered peak concentrations of free all-trans-retinal with primary amine-containing Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs that did not inhibit chromophore regeneration in mouse models of retinal degeneration. Schiff base adducts between all-trans-retinal and these amines were identified by MS. Adducts were observed in mouse eyes only when an experimental drug protected the retina from degeneration in both short-term and long-term treatment experiments. This study demonstrates a molecular basis of all-trans-retinal-induced retinal pathology and identifies an assemblage of FDA-approved compounds with protective effects against this pathology in a mouse model that shows features of Stargardt's disease and age-related retinal degeneration.

  7. Study of passive and active protection system for the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] R ampersand D dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.; Snitchler, G.

    1990-06-01

    A comparative study of Passive versus Active Protection Systems is made using the computer programs SSC*, designed especially for this proposal. These programs track the quench evolution of each conductor independently, the axial quench velocity is given by a modified expression which correctly fits the experimental data, the phenomenological turn-to-turn transversal quench propagation is considered as an input parameter of the programs. The results of the simulations for a 40 mm dipole indicate that a single dipole is widely self-protected, which suggests that a Cold Diode Passive Protection System is a safe method to protect the magnet (no heaters are needed), and also that two or three magnets (Conceptual Design) will be a safe Active Protection System is the heater-time-delay to cause other quenching is sufficiently brief (τ h < 50 ms). Assuming the same turn-to-turn quench propagation for the 50 mm SSC R ampersand D Dipole Magnet, the predictions for this magnet will have much lower axial quench velocity and the above results will be still valid for this new magnet. 10 refs., 30 figs

  8. Eccentric localization of catalase to protect chromosomes from oxidative damages during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seok; You, Seung Yeop; Cho, Sungrae; Jeon, Hyuk-Joon; Lee, Sukchan; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Oh, Jeong Su

    2016-09-01

    The maintenance of genomic integrity and stability is essential for the survival of every organism. Unfortunately, DNA is vulnerable to attack by a variety of damaging agents. Oxidative stress is a major cause of DNA damage because reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as by-products of normal cellular metabolism. Cells have developed eloquent antioxidant defense systems to protect themselves from oxidative damage along with aerobic metabolism. Here, we show that catalase (CAT) is present in mouse oocytes to protect the genome from oxidative damage during meiotic maturation. CAT was expressed in the nucleus to form unique vesicular structures. However, after nuclear envelope breakdown, CAT was redistributed in the cytoplasm with particular focus at the chromosomes. Inhibition of CAT activity increased endogenous ROS levels, but did not perturb meiotic maturation. In addition, CAT inhibition produced chromosomal defects, including chromosome misalignment and DNA damage. Therefore, our data suggest that CAT is required not only to scavenge ROS, but also to protect DNA from oxidative damage during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes.

  9. The Role of Quench-back in the Passive Quench Protection of Long Solenoids with Coil Sub-division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.; Guo, XingLong; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how a passive quench protection system can be applied to long superconducting solenoid magnets. When a solenoid coil is long compared to its thickness, the magnet quench process will be dominated by the time needed for uench propagation along the magnet length. Quench-back will permit a long magnet to quench more rapidly in a passive way. Quenchback from a conductive (low resistivity) mandrel is essential for spreading the quench along the length of a magnet. The andrel must be inductively coupled to the magnet circuit that is being quenched. Current induced in the mandrel by di/dt in the magnet produces heat in the mandrel, which in turn causes the superconducting coil wound on the mandrel to quench. Sub-divisions often employed to reduce the voltages to ground within the coil. This paper explores when it is possible for quench-back to be employed for passive quench protection. The role of sub-division of the coil is discussed for long magnets.

  10. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation bij passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag e.a., M. (Menso)

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protectionswas investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements

  11. Evaluation of genetically inactivated alpha toxin for protection in multiple mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Brady

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Development of a vaccine against this pathogen is an important goal. While S. aureus protective antigens have been identified in the literature, the majority have only been tested in a single animal model of disease. We wished to evaluate the ability of one S. aureus vaccine antigen to protect in multiple mouse models, thus assessing whether protection in one model translates to protection in other models encompassing the full breadth of infections the pathogen can cause. We chose to focus on genetically inactivated alpha toxin mutant HlaH35L. We evaluated the protection afforded by this antigen in three models of infection using the same vaccine dose, regimen, route of immunization, adjuvant, and challenge strain. When mice were immunized with HlaH35L and challenged via a skin and soft tissue infection model, HlaH35L immunization led to a less severe infection and decreased S. aureus levels at the challenge site when compared to controls. Challenge of HlaH35L-immunized mice using a systemic infection model resulted in a limited, but statistically significant decrease in bacterial colonization as compared to that observed with control mice. In contrast, in a prosthetic implant model of chronic biofilm infection, there was no significant difference in bacterial levels when compared to controls. These results demonstrate that vaccines may confer protection against one form of S. aureus disease without conferring protection against other disease presentations and thus underscore a significant challenge in S. aureus vaccine development.

  12. In vivo protection against ZIKV infection and pathogenesis through passive antibody transfer and active immunisation with a prMEnv DNA vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthumani, Karuppiah; Griffin, Bryan D; Agarwal, Sangya; Kudchodkar, Sagar B; Reuschel, Emma L; Choi, Hyeree; Kraynyak, Kimberly A; Duperret, Elizabeth K; Keaton, Amelia Anne; Chung, Christopher; Kim, Yinho K; Booth, Stephanie A; Racine, Trina; Yan, Jian; Morrow, Matthew P; Jiang, Jingjing; Lee, Brian; Ramos, Stephanie; Broderick, Kate E; Reed, Charles C; Khan, Amir S; Humeau, Laurent; Ugen, Kenneth E; Park, Young K; Maslow, Joel N; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Joseph Kim, J; Kobinger, Gary P; Weiner, David B

    2016-01-01

    Significant concerns have been raised owing to the rapid global spread of infection and disease caused by the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV). Recent studies suggest that ZIKV can also be transmitted sexually, further increasing the exposure risk for this virus. Associated with this spread is a dramatic increase in cases of microcephaly and additional congenital abnormalities in infants of ZIKV-infected mothers, as well as a rise in the occurrence of Guillain Barre’ syndrome in infected adults. Importantly, there are no licensed therapies or vaccines against ZIKV infection. In this study, we generate and evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a novel, synthetic, DNA vaccine targeting the pre-membrane+envelope proteins (prME) of ZIKV. Following initial in vitro development and evaluation studies of the plasmid construct, mice and non-human primates were immunised with this prME DNA-based immunogen through electroporation-mediated enhanced DNA delivery. Vaccinated animals were found to generate antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity and neutralisation activity. In mice lacking receptors for interferon (IFN)-α/β (designated IFNAR−/−) immunisation with this DNA vaccine induced, following in vivo viral challenge, 100% protection against infection-associated weight loss or death in addition to preventing viral pathology in brain tissue. In addition, passive transfer of non-human primate anti-ZIKV immune serum protected IFNAR−/− mice against subsequent viral challenge. This study in NHP and in a pathogenic mouse model supports the importance of immune responses targeting prME in ZIKV infection and suggests that additional research on this vaccine approach may have relevance for ZIKV control and disease prevention in humans. PMID:29263859

  13. Polyphenol extract from Phellinus igniarius protects against acrolein toxicity in vitro and provides protection in a mouse stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Saiki, Ryotaro; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Higashi, Kyohei; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Kazuei; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi's group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A). We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke.

  14. Wallerian degeneration slow mouse neurons are protected against cell death caused by mechanisms involving mitochondrial electron transport dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Shinji; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-01

    Ischemia elicits a variety of stress responses in neuronal cells, which result in cell death. wld(S) Mice bear a mutation that significantly delays Wallerian degeneration. This mutation also protects all neuronal cells against other types of stresses resulting in cell death, including ischemia. To clarify the types of stresses that neuronal cell bodies derived from wld(S) mice are protected from, we exposed primary cultured neurons derived from wld(S) mice to various components of hypoxic stress. We found that wld(S) mouse neurons are protected against cellular injury induced by reoxygenation following hypoxic stress. Furthermore, we found that wld(S) mouse neurons are protected against functional impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. These data suggest that Wld(S) protein expression may provide protection against neuronal cell death caused by mechanisms involving mitochondrial electron transport dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Protective Effect of Carvacrol against Gut Dysbiosis and Clostridium difficile Associated Disease in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Venkitanarayanan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of carvacrol (CR, a phytophenolic compound on antibiotic-associated gut dysbiosis and C. difficile infection in a mouse model. Five to six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into seven treatment groups (challenge and control of eight mice each. Mice were fed with irradiated feed supplemented with CR (0, 0.05, and 0.1%; the challenge groups were made susceptible to C. difficile by orally administering an antibiotic cocktail in water and an intra-peritoneal injection of clindamycin. Both challenge and control groups were infected with 105CFU/ml of hypervirulent C. difficile (ATCC 1870 spores or PBS, and observed for clinical signs for 10 days. Respective control groups for CR, antibiotics, and their combination were included for investigating their effect on mouse enteric microflora. Mouse body weight and clinical and diarrhea scores were recorded daily post infection. Fecal samples were collected for microbiome analysis using rRNA sequencing in MiSeq platform. Carvacrol supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of diarrhea and improved the clinical and diarrhea scores in mice (p < 0.05. Microbiome analysis revealed a significant increase in Proteobacteria and reduction in the abundance of protective bacterial flora in antibiotic-treated and C. difficile-infected mice compared to controls (p < 0.05. However, CR supplementation positively altered the microbiome composition, as revealed by an increased abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Firmicutes, and significantly reduced the proportion of detrimental flora such as Proteobacteria, without significantly affecting the gut microbiome diversity compared to control. Results suggest that CR could potentially be used to control gut dysbiosis and reduce C. difficile infection.

  16. Protection against photoaging in the hairless mouse by the isoflavone equol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Vivienne E; Widyarini, Sitarina; Domanski, Diane; Chew, Elaine; Barnes, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Topical application of the isoflavone equol immediately following solar-simulated UV (SSUV) radiation exposure has previously been demonstrated to have significant photoprotective effects. Equol reduced both the inflammatory edema and the systemic suppression of the contact hypersensitivity reaction in hairless mice. Furthermore, daily topical equol application immediately following irradiation during a 10-week chronic SSUV exposure regime also reduced photocarcinogenesis severity in the mouse. This study examines the potential for topical equol to prevent photoaging in response to chronic SSUV irradiation for up to 30 weeks. We did not find consistent expression of the characteristic markers of photoaging until 30 weeks, although moderate epidermal hyperplasia and a transient increase in dermal mast cell numbers were evident after 1 week. Daily application of 10 muM equol lotion significantly reduced these early changes. However after 30 weeks of SSUV exposure, photoaging was well developed, as shown histologically by markedly increased epidermal hyperplasia, increased dermal mast cell number, pronounced focal elastotic deposits, degraded dermal collagen and deposition of glycosaminoglycans in the lower dermis. Topical equol treatment protected significantly from each of these impairments, as demonstrated histologically and quantitatively. Additionally, equol was found to have strong antioxidant action against acute UVA (320-400 nm)-induced lipid peroxidation of mouse skin, this property accounting for its antiphotoaging mechanism. The evidence for equol's antiphotoaging activity, taken together with its anti-inflammatory, immunoprotective and anticarcinogenic efficacy against SSUV irradiation in the mouse, suggests that equol could be developed as a helpful topical photoprotective agent for daily use by humans.

  17. Protective Role of Royal Jelly in Oxymetholone-induced Oxidative Injury in Mouse Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Najafi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An adverse effect of oxymetholone (OXM, an anabolic-androgenic steroid used as energetic medicine, is reproductive toxicity. Royal jelly (RJ is an efficient antioxidant that has been used to treat reproductive problems. In this study, we investigated the effects of RJ on OXM-induced oxidative injuries in mouse testes. Methods: Male mice were divided into four groups. Two groups of mice were administered OXM (5 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 28 days. One of these groups received RJ (100 mg/kg/day, p.o. concurrently. A vehicle-treated control group and a RJ control group were also included. Results: The OXM-treated group showed a significant decrease in the serum testosterone concentration and spermatogenic activities, along with many histological alterations. OXM treatment also caused a significant decrease in catalase activity with an increase in lipid peroxidation in the mouse testes. The above-noted parameters were restored to near normal levels by RJ co-administration. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that RJ protects against OXM-induced reproductive toxicities.

  18. Resveratrol protects mouse embryonic stem cells from ionizing radiation by accelerating recovery from DNA strand breakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissova, Natalia G; Nasello, Cara M; Yeung, Percy L; Tischfield, Jay A; Brenneman, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol has elicited many provocative anticancer effects in laboratory animals and cultured cells, including reduced levels of oxidative DNA damage, inhibition of tumor initiation and progression and induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Use of resveratrol as a cancer-preventive agent in humans will require that its anticancer effects not be accompanied by damage to normal tissue stem or progenitor cells. In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) or early mouse embryos exposed to ethanol, resveratrol has been shown to suppress apoptosis and promote survival. However, in cells exposed to genotoxic stress, survival may come at the expense of genome stability. To learn whether resveratrol can protect stem cells from DNA damage and to study its effects on genomic integrity, we exposed mESC pretreated with resveratrol to ionizing radiation (IR). Forty-eight hours pretreatment with a comparatively low concentration of resveratrol (10 μM) improved survival of mESC >2-fold after exposure to 5 Gy of X-rays. Cells pretreated with resveratrol sustained the same levels of reactive oxygen species and DNA strand breakage after IR as mock-treated controls, but repaired DNA damage more rapidly and resumed cell division sooner. Frequencies of IR-induced mutation at a chromosomal reporter locus were not increased in cells pretreated with resveratrol as compared with controls, indicating that resveratrol can improve viability in mESC after DNA damage without compromising genomic integrity.

  19. Efficiency control of cathodic protection measured using passivation verification technique in different concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, I.; Andrade, C.; Vennesland, O.; Evensen, U.; Polder, R.B.; Leggedor, J.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that cathodic protection is the most useful method for stopping corrosion when the deterioration process has started, but the most important issue that is still missing in the cathodic protection studies is how to check its efficiency in a reliable way. This paper presents results

  20. PASSIVE CAVITATION DETECTION DURING PULSED HIFU EXPOSURES OF EX VIVO TISSUES AND IN VIVO MOUSE PANCREATIC TUMORS

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tong; Chen, Hong; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Wang, Yak-Nam; Kreider, Wayne; He, Xuemei; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) has been demonstrated to enhance vascular permeability, disrupt tumor barriers and enhance drug penetration into tumor tissue through acoustic cavitation. Monitoring of cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments and knowing the ultrasound pressure levels sufficient to reliably induce cavitation in a given tissue are therefore very important. Here, three metrics of cavitation activity induced by pHIFU and evaluated by confocal passive cavitatio...

  1. Endothelial ATP-binding cassette G1 in mouse endothelium protects against hemodynamic-induced atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shanshan [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Pediatrics, Baodi District People’s Hospital of Tianjin City, Tianjin, 301800 (China); Wang, Jiaxing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Zhang, Xu; Shi, Ying; Li, Bochuan; Bao, Qiankun [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Pang, Wei [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Ai, Ding [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Zhu, Yi [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); He, Jinlong, E-mail: hejinlong@tmu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China)

    2016-08-19

    Activated vascular endothelium inflammation under persistent hyperlipidemia is the initial step of atherogenesis. ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) is a crucial factor maintaining sterol and lipid homeostasis by transporting cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of ABCG1 in endothelial inflammation activation during early-stage atherogenesis in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific ABCG1 transgenic (EC-ABCG1-Tg) mice were generated and cross-bred with low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (Ldlr{sup −/−}) mice. After a 4-week Western-type diet, the mice were sacrificed for assessing atherosclerosis. Human umbilical vein ECs were treated with different flows, and ABCG1 was adenovirally overexpressed to investigate the mechanism in vitro. Compared with Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortas, EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} aortas showed decreased early-stage lesions. Furthermore, the lesion area in the EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortic arch but not thoracic aorta was significantly reduced, which suggests a protective role of ABCG1 under atheroprone flow. In vitro, overexpression of ABCG1 attenuated EC activation caused by oscillatory shear stress. Overexpression of ABCG1 blunted cholesterol-activated ECs in vitro. In exploring the mechanisms of ABCG1 attenuating endothelial inflammation, we found that ABCG1 inhibited oscillatory flow-activated nuclear factor kappa B and NLRP3 inflammasome in ECs. ABCG1 may play a protective role in early-stage atherosclerosis by reducing endothelial activation induced by oscillatory shear stress via suppressing the inflammatory response. - Highlights: • EC-ABCG1-Tg mice in a Ldlr{sup −/−} background showed decreased atherosclerosis. • Overexpression of ABCG1 in ECs decreased OSS-induced EC activation. • NLRP3 and NF-κB might be an underlying mechanism of ABCG1 protective role.

  2. Radiological protection effect on vanillin derivative VND3207 radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in mouse bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuangao; Wang Li; Zhou Pingkun; Wang Zhongwen; Hu Yongzhe; Jin Haiming; Zhang Xueqing; Chen Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the protection of vanillin derivative VND3207 on the cytogenetic damage of mouse bone marrow cell induced by ionizing radiation. Methods: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group, 2 Gy dose irradiation group, and three groups of 2 Gy irradiation with VND3207 protection at doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. VND3207 was given by intragastric administration once a day for five days. Two hours after the last drug administration, the mice were irradiated with 2 Gy γ-rays. The changes of polychromatophilic erythroblasts micronuclei (MN), chromosome aberration (CA) and mitosis index (MI) of mouse bone marrow cells were observed at 24 and 48 h after irradiation. Results: Under the protection of VND3207 at the dosages 10, 50, 100 μmg/kg, the yields of poly-chromatophilic erythroblasts MN and CA of bone marrow cells were significantly decreased (t=2.36-4.26, P<0.05), and the marrow cells MI remained much higher level compared with the irradiated mice without drug protection (t=2.58, 2.01, P<0.05). The radiological protection effect was drug dose-dependent, and the administration of VND3207 at the dosage of 100 mg/kg resulted in reduction by 50 % and 65% in the yields of MN and CA, respectively. Conclusions: VND3207 had a good protection effect of on γ-ray induced cytogentic damage of mouse bone marrow cells. (authors)

  3. Topical Bixin Confers NRF2-Dependent Protection Against Photodamage and Hair Graying in Mouse Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Zhang, Donna D.; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes acute photodamage, premature aging, and skin cancer, attributable to UV-induced genotoxic, oxidative, and inflammatory stress. The transcription factor NRF2 [nuclear factor erythroid 2 (E2)-related factor 2] is the master regulator of the cellular antioxidant response protecting skin against various environmental stressors including UV radiation and electrophilic pollutants. NRF2 in epidermal keratinocytes can be activated using natural chemopreventive compounds such as the apocarotenoid bixin, an FDA-approved food additive and cosmetic ingredient from the seeds of the achiote tree (Bixa orellana). Here, we tested the feasibility of topical use of bixin for NRF2-dependent skin photoprotection in two genetically modified mouse models [SKH1 and C57BL/6J (Nrf2+/+ versus Nrf2-/-)]. First, we observed that a bixin formulation optimized for topical NRF2 activation suppresses acute UV-induced photodamage in Nrf2+/+ but not Nrf2-/- SKH1 mice, a photoprotective effect indicated by reduced epidermal hyperproliferation and oxidative DNA damage. Secondly, it was demonstrated that topical bixin suppresses PUVA (psoralen + UVA)-induced hair graying in Nrf2+/+ but not Nrf2-/- C57BL/6J mice. Collectively, this research provides the first in vivo evidence that topical application of bixin can protect against UV-induced photodamage and PUVA-induced loss of hair pigmentation through NRF2 activation. Topical NRF2 activation using bixin may represent a novel strategy for human skin photoprotection, potentially complementing conventional sunscreen-based approaches. PMID:29636694

  4. Lipoproteins from Clostridium perfringens and their protective efficacy in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Pratistha; Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Kumar, Om; Kumar, Ravi Bhushan

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an obligately anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium and etiological agent for several diseases in humans and animals. The pathogen has been listed as Validated Biological Agent and warrants development of medical countermeasures. The homologs of some of the lipoproteins identified from various fractions of C. perfringens in our previous studies were observed to be virulence determinants in other pathogenic bacteria. Three putative virulence associated lipoproteins; polysaccharide deacetylase family protein, probable ion-uptake ABC transporter, and a putative lipoprotein of no known function are reported here with respect to their immuno-protective potentials. The three proteins were over expressed and purified to near homogeneity. The lipoproteins were shown to be exposed on the C. perfringens surface and, hence, accessible to antibodies and potentially visible to the host immune system. Immunization of mice with purified recombinant proteins elicited protective immunity against challenge with C. perfringens in mouse gas gangrene model. Distribution and relationship of orthologous proteins across other bacterial select agents especially among the members of Firmicutes, was carried out to look for conserved antigenic determinants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Meta-analysis of variables affecting mouse protection efficacy of whole organism Brucella vaccines and vaccine candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccine protection investigation includes three processes: vaccination, pathogen challenge, and vaccine protection efficacy assessment. Many variables can affect the results of vaccine protection. Brucella, a genus of facultative intracellular bacteria, is the etiologic agent of brucellosis in humans and multiple animal species. Extensive research has been conducted in developing effective live attenuated Brucella vaccines. We hypothesized that some variables play a more important role than others in determining vaccine protective efficacy. Using Brucella vaccines and vaccine candidates as study models, this hypothesis was tested by meta-analysis of Brucella vaccine studies reported in the literature. Results Nineteen variables related to vaccine-induced protection of mice against infection with virulent brucellae were selected based on modeling investigation of the vaccine protection processes. The variable "vaccine protection efficacy" was set as a dependent variable while the other eighteen were set as independent variables. Discrete or continuous values were collected from papers for each variable of each data set. In total, 401 experimental groups were manually annotated from 74 peer-reviewed publications containing mouse protection data for live attenuated Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates. Our ANOVA analysis indicated that nine variables contributed significantly (P-value Brucella vaccine protection efficacy: vaccine strain, vaccination host (mouse) strain, vaccination dose, vaccination route, challenge pathogen strain, challenge route, challenge-killing interval, colony forming units (CFUs) in mouse spleen, and CFU reduction compared to control group. The other 10 variables (e.g., mouse age, vaccination-challenge interval, and challenge dose) were not found to be statistically significant (P-value > 0.05). The protection level of RB51 was sacrificed when the values of several variables (e.g., vaccination route, vaccine viability, and

  6. Preparation and thermal performance of paraffin/Nano-SiO2 nanocomposite for passive thermal protection of electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yaqin; Gao, Xuenong; Chen, Peng; Huang, Zhaowen; Xu, Tao; Fang, Yutang; Zhang, Zhengguo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three types of paraffin/nano-SiO 2 nanocomposites were prepared and characterized. • Thermo-physical properties of these composites were determined and compared. • One composite with lower thermal conductivity showed better thermal insulation properties. • This composite was identified as thermal insulation material for electronic components. - Abstract: In this paper, three grades of nano silicon dioxide (nano-SiO 2 ), NS1, NS2 and NS3, were mixed into paraffin to prepare nanocomposites as novel insulation materials for electronic passive thermal protection applications. The optimal mass percentages of paraffin for the three composites, NS1P, NS2P and NS3P, were determined to be 75%, 70% and 65%, respectively. Investigations by means of scanning electron micrographs (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), hot disk analyzer and thermal protection performance tests were devoted to the morphology, thermal properties and thermal protection performance analysis of composites. Experimental results showed that paraffin uniformly distributed into the pores and on the surface of nano-SiO 2 . Melting points of composites declined and experimental latent heat became lower than the calculated values with the decrease of nano-SiO 2 pore size. The NS1P composite had larger thermal storage capacity, better reliability and stability compared with NS2P and NS3P. In addition, compared with 90% wt.% paraffin/EG composite, the incorporation of NS1 (25 wt.%) into paraffin caused not only 63.2% reduction in thermal conductivity, but also 21.8% increase in thermal protection time affected by the ambient temperature. Thus those good properties confirmed that NS1P (75 wt.%) composite was a viable candidate for protecting electronic devices under high temperature environment.

  7. A GSK-3β Inhibitor Protects Against Radiation Necrosis in Mouse Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Perez-Torres, Carlos J. [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Thotala, Dinesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Engelbach, John A. [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Yuan, Liya [Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Cates, Jeremy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gao, Feng [Division of Biostatistics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Drzymala, Robert E.; Rich, Keith M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Schmidt, Robert E. [Department of Neuropathology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Ackerman, Joseph J.H. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Hallahan, Dennis E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Garbow, Joel R., E-mail: garbow@wustl.edu [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To quantify the effectiveness of SB415286, a specific inhibitor of GSK-3β, as a neuroprotectant against radiation-induced central nervous system (brain) necrosis in a mouse model. Methods and Materials: Cohorts of mice were treated with SB415286 or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prior to irradiation with a single 45-Gy fraction targeted to the left hemisphere (brain) using a gamma knife machine. The onset and progression of radiation necrosis (RN) were monitored longitudinally by noninvasive in vivo small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) beginning 13 weeks postirradiation. MRI-derived necrotic volumes for SB415286- and DMSO-treated mice were compared. MRI results were supported by correlative histology. Results: Mice treated with SB415286 showed significant protection from radiation-induced necrosis, as determined by in vivo MRI with histologic validation. MRI-derived necrotic volumes were significantly smaller at all postirradiation time points in SB415286-treated animals. Although the irradiated hemispheres of the DMSO-treated mice demonstrated many of the classic histologic features of RN, including fibrinoid vascular necrosis, vascular telangiectasia, hemorrhage, and tissue loss, the irradiated hemispheres of the SB415286-treated mice consistently showed only minimal tissue damage. These studies confirmed that treatment with a GSK-3β inhibitor dramatically reduced delayed time-to-onset necrosis in irradiated brain. Conclusions: The unilateral cerebral hemispheric stereotactic radiation surgery mouse model in concert with longitudinal MRI monitoring provided a powerful platform for studying the onset and progression of RN and for developing and testing new neuroprotectants. Effectiveness of SB415286 as a neuroprotectant against necrosis motivates potential clinical trials of it or other GSK-3β inhibitors.

  8. A GSK-3β Inhibitor Protects Against Radiation Necrosis in Mouse Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Perez-Torres, Carlos J.; Thotala, Dinesh; Engelbach, John A.; Yuan, Liya; Cates, Jeremy; Gao, Feng; Drzymala, Robert E.; Rich, Keith M.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Garbow, Joel R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effectiveness of SB415286, a specific inhibitor of GSK-3β, as a neuroprotectant against radiation-induced central nervous system (brain) necrosis in a mouse model. Methods and Materials: Cohorts of mice were treated with SB415286 or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prior to irradiation with a single 45-Gy fraction targeted to the left hemisphere (brain) using a gamma knife machine. The onset and progression of radiation necrosis (RN) were monitored longitudinally by noninvasive in vivo small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) beginning 13 weeks postirradiation. MRI-derived necrotic volumes for SB415286- and DMSO-treated mice were compared. MRI results were supported by correlative histology. Results: Mice treated with SB415286 showed significant protection from radiation-induced necrosis, as determined by in vivo MRI with histologic validation. MRI-derived necrotic volumes were significantly smaller at all postirradiation time points in SB415286-treated animals. Although the irradiated hemispheres of the DMSO-treated mice demonstrated many of the classic histologic features of RN, including fibrinoid vascular necrosis, vascular telangiectasia, hemorrhage, and tissue loss, the irradiated hemispheres of the SB415286-treated mice consistently showed only minimal tissue damage. These studies confirmed that treatment with a GSK-3β inhibitor dramatically reduced delayed time-to-onset necrosis in irradiated brain. Conclusions: The unilateral cerebral hemispheric stereotactic radiation surgery mouse model in concert with longitudinal MRI monitoring provided a powerful platform for studying the onset and progression of RN and for developing and testing new neuroprotectants. Effectiveness of SB415286 as a neuroprotectant against necrosis motivates potential clinical trials of it or other GSK-3β inhibitors

  9. Pharmacologic induction of epidermal melanin and protection against sunburn in a humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Vanover, Jillian C; Scott, Timothy L; D'Orazio, John A

    2013-09-07

    Fairness of skin, UV sensitivity and skin cancer risk all correlate with the physiologic function of the melanocortin 1 receptor, a Gs-coupled signaling protein found on the surface of melanocytes. Mc1r stimulates adenylyl cyclase and cAMP production which, in turn, up-regulates melanocytic production of melanin in the skin. In order to study the mechanisms by which Mc1r signaling protects the skin against UV injury, this study relies on a mouse model with "humanized skin" based on epidermal expression of stem cell factor (Scf). K14-Scf transgenic mice retain melanocytes in the epidermis and therefore have the ability to deposit melanin in the epidermis. In this animal model, wild type Mc1r status results in robust deposition of black eumelanin pigment and a UV-protected phenotype. In contrast, K14-Scf animals with defective Mc1r signaling ability exhibit a red/blonde pigmentation, very little eumelanin in the skin and a UV-sensitive phenotype. Reasoning that eumelanin deposition might be enhanced by topical agents that mimic Mc1r signaling, we found that direct application of forskolin extract to the skin of Mc1r-defective fair-skinned mice resulted in robust eumelanin induction and UV protection (1). Here we describe the method for preparing and applying a forskolin-containing natural root extract to K14-Scf fair-skinned mice and report a method for measuring UV sensitivity by determining minimal erythematous dose (MED). Using this animal model, it is possible to study how epidermal cAMP induction and melanization of the skin affect physiologic responses to UV exposure.

  10. Intranasal IFNγ extends passive IgA antibody protection of mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis lung infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reljic, R; Clark, S O; Williams, A; Falero-Diaz, G; Singh, M; Challacombe, S; Marsh, P D; Ivanyi, J

    2006-01-01

    Intranasal inoculation of mice with monoclonal IgA against the α-crystallin (acr1) antigen can diminish the tuberculous infection in the lungs. As this effect has been observed only over a short-term, we investigated if it could be extended by inoculation of IFNγ 3 days before infection, and further coinoculations with IgA, at 2 h before and 2 and 7 days after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. This treatment reduced the lung infection at 4 weeks more than either IgA or IFNγ alone (i.e. 17-fold, from 4·2 × 107 to 2·5 × 106 CFU, P = 0·006), accompanied also by lower granulomatous infiltration of the lungs. IFNγ added prior to infection of mouse peritoneal macrophages with IgA-opsonized bacilli resulted in a synergistic increase of nitric oxide and TNFα production and a 2–3 fold decrease in bacterial counts. Our improved results suggest, that combined treatment with IFNγ and IgA could be developed towards prophylactic treatment of AIDS patients, or as an adjunct to chemotherapy. PMID:16487246

  11. Do high sound pressure levels of crowing in roosters necessitate passive mechanisms for protection against self-vocalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Raf; Muyshondt, Pieter G G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Aerts, Peter

    2018-02-01

    High sound pressure levels (>120dB) cause damage or death of the hair cells of the inner ear, hence causing hearing loss. Vocalization differences are present between hens and roosters. Crowing in roosters is reported to produce sound pressure levels of 100dB measured at a distance of 1m. In this study we measured the sound pressure levels that exist at the entrance of the outer ear canal. We hypothesize that roosters may benefit from a passive protective mechanism while hens do not require such a mechanism. Audio recordings at the level of the entrance of the outer ear canal of crowing roosters, made in this study, indeed show that a protective mechanism is needed as sound pressure levels can reach amplitudes of 142.3dB. Audio recordings made at varying distances from the crowing rooster show that at a distance of 0.5m sound pressure levels already drop to 102dB. Micro-CT scans of a rooster and chicken head show that in roosters the auditory canal closes when the beak is opened. In hens the diameter of the auditory canal only narrows but does not close completely. A morphological difference between the sexes in shape of a bursa-like slit which occurs in the outer ear canal causes the outer ear canal to close in roosters but not in hens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Passive immunization targeting the N-terminal projection domain of tau decreases tau pathology and improves cognition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease and tauopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chun-ling; Chen, Xia; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    Intraneuronal accumulation of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain is a histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and a family of related neurodegenerative disorders collectively called tauopathies. At present there is no effective treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases which are clinically characterized by dementia in mid to old-age. Here we report the treatment of 14-17-months-old 3xTg-AD mice with tau antibodies 43D (tau 6-18) and 77E9 (tau 184-195) to the N-terminal projection domain of tau or mouse IgG as a control by intraperitoneal injection once a week for 4 weeks, and the effects of the passive immunization on reduction of hyperphosphorylated tau, Aβ accumulation and cognitive performance in these animals. We found that treatment with tau antibodies 43D and 77E9 reduced total tau level, decreased tau hyperphosphorylated at Ser199, Ser202/Thr205 (AT8), Thr205, Ser262/356 (12E8), and Ser396/404 (PHF-1) sites, and a trend to reduce Aβ pathology. Most importantly, targeting N-terminal tau especially by 43D (tau 6-18) improved reference memory in the Morris water maze task in 3xTg-AD mice. We did not observe any abnormality in general physical characteristics of the treated animals with either of the two antibodies during the course of this study. Taken together, our studies demonstrate for the first time (1) that passive immunization targeting normal tau can effectively clear the hyperphosphorylated protein and possibly reduce Aβ pathology from the brain and (2) that targeting N-terminal projection domain of tau containing amino acid 6-18 is especially beneficial. Thus, targeting selective epitopes of N-terminal domain of tau may present a novel effective therapeutic opportunity for Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies.

  13. Topical Bixin Confers NRF2-Dependent Protection Against Photodamage and Hair Graying in Mouse Skin

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    Montserrat Rojo de la Vega

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV radiation causes acute photodamage, premature aging, and skin cancer, attributable to UV-induced genotoxic, oxidative, and inflammatory stress. The transcription factor NRF2 [nuclear factor erythroid 2 (E2-related factor 2] is the master regulator of the cellular antioxidant response protecting skin against various environmental stressors including UV radiation and electrophilic pollutants. NRF2 in epidermal keratinocytes can be activated using natural chemopreventive compounds such as the apocarotenoid bixin, an FDA-approved food additive and cosmetic ingredient from the seeds of the achiote tree (Bixa orellana. Here, we tested the feasibility of topical use of bixin for NRF2-dependent skin photoprotection in two genetically modified mouse models [SKH1 and C57BL/6J (Nrf2+/+ versus Nrf2-/-]. First, we observed that a bixin formulation optimized for topical NRF2 activation suppresses acute UV-induced photodamage in Nrf2+/+ but not Nrf2-/- SKH1 mice, a photoprotective effect indicated by reduced epidermal hyperproliferation and oxidative DNA damage. Secondly, it was demonstrated that topical bixin suppresses PUVA (psoralen + UVA-induced hair graying in Nrf2+/+ but not Nrf2-/- C57BL/6J mice. Collectively, this research provides the first in vivo evidence that topical application of bixin can protect against UV-induced photodamage and PUVA-induced loss of hair pigmentation through NRF2 activation. Topical NRF2 activation using bixin may represent a novel strategy for human skin photoprotection, potentially complementing conventional sunscreen-based approaches.

  14. Protective effects of long-term lithium administration in a slowly progressive SMA mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Francesca; Ferrucci, Michela; Ryskalin, Larisa; Fulceri, Federica; Lazzeri, Gloria; Calierno, Maria Teresa; Busceti, Carla L; Ruffoli, Riccardo; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of lithium administration to a knock-out double transgenic mouse model (Smn-/-; SMN1A2G+/-; SMN2+/+) of Spinal Muscle Atrophy type III (SMA-III). This model is characterized by very low levels of the survival motor neuron protein, slow disease progression and motor neuron loss, which enables to detect disease-modifying effects at delayed time intervals. Lithium administration attenuates the decrease in motor activity and provides full protection from motor neuron loss occurring in SMA-III mice, throughout the disease course. In addition, lithium prevents motor neuron enlargement and motor neuron heterotopy and suppresses the occurrence of radial-like glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining in the ventral white matter of SMA-III mice. In SMA-III mice long-term lithium administration determines a dramatic increase of survival motor neuron protein levels in the spinal cord. These data demonstrate that long-term lithium administration during a long-lasting motor neuron disorder attenuates behavioural deficit and neuropathology. Since low level of survival motor neuron protein is bound to disease severity in SMA, the robust increase in protein level produced by lithium provides solid evidence which calls for further investigations considering lithium in the long-term treatment of spinal muscle atrophy.

  15. Flavocoxid, a Natural Antioxidant, Protects Mouse Kidney from Cadmium-Induced Toxicity

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    Antonio Micali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium (Cd, a diffused environmental pollutant, has adverse effects on urinary apparatus. The role of flavocoxid, a natural flavonoid with antioxidant activity, on the morphological and biochemical changes induced in vivo by Cd in mice kidney was evaluated. Methods. C57 BL/6J mice received 0.9% NaCl alone, flavocoxid (20 mg/kg/day i.p. alone, Cd chloride (CdCl2 (2 mg/kg/day i.p. alone, or CdCl2 plus flavocoxid (2 mg/kg/day i.p. plus 20 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days. The kidneys were processed for biochemical, structural, ultrastructural, and morphometric evaluation. Results. Cd treatment alone significantly increased urea nitrogen and creatinine, iNOS, MMP-9, and pERK 1/2 expression and protein carbonyl; reduced GSH, GR, and GPx; and induced structural and ultrastructural changes in the glomeruli and in the tubular epithelium. After 14 days of treatment, flavocoxid administration reduced urea nitrogen and creatinine, iNOS, MMP-9, and pERK 1/2 expression and protein carbonyl; increased GSH, GR, and GPx; and showed an evident preservation of the glomerular and tubular structure and ultrastructure. Conclusions. A protective role of flavocoxid against Cd-induced oxidative damages in mouse kidney was demonstrated for the first time. Flavocoxid may have a promising antioxidant role against environmental Cd harmful effects on glomerular and tubular lesions.

  16. Clostridium difficile chimeric toxin receptor binding domain vaccine induced protection against different strains in active and passive challenge models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing-Hui; Glenn, Gregory; Flyer, David; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Ye; Sullivan, Eddie; Wu, Hua; Cummings, James F; Elllingsworth, Larry; Smith, Gale

    2017-07-24

    Clostridium difficile is the number one cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed countries. Historically, pathogenesis was attributed two homologous glucosylating toxins, toxin-A (TcdA) and toxin-B (TcdB). Over the past decade, however, highly virulent epidemic strains of C. difficile (B1/NAP1/027) have emerged and are linked to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Increased virulence is attributed to multiple factors including: increased production of A- and B-toxins; production of binary toxin (CDT); and the emergence of more toxic TcdB variants (TcdB (027) ). TcdB (027) is more cytotoxicity to cells; causes greater tissue damage and toxicity in animals; and is antigenically distinct from historical TcdB (TcdB (003) ). Broadly protective vaccines and therapeutic antibody strategies, therefore, may target TcdA, TcdB variants and CDT. To facilitate the generation of multivalent toxin-based C. difficile vaccines and therapeutic antibodies, we have generated fusion proteins constructed from the receptor binding domains (RBD) of TcdA, TcdB (003) , TcdB (027) and CDT. Herein, we describe the development of a trivalent toxin (T-toxin) vaccine (CDTb/TcdB (003) /TcdA) and quadravalent toxin (Q-toxin) vaccine (CDTb/TcB (003) /TcdA/TcdB (027) ) fusion proteins that retain the protective toxin neutralizing epitopes. Active immunization of mice or hamsters with T-toxin or Q-toxin fusion protein vaccines elicited the generation of toxin neutralizing antibodies to each of the toxins. Hamsters immunized with the Q-toxin vaccine were broadly protected against spore challenge with historical C. difficile 630 (toxinotype 0/ribotype 003) and epidemic NAP1 (toxinotype III/ribotype 027) strains. Fully human polyclonal antitoxin IgG was produced by immunization of transgenic bovine with these fusion proteins. In passive transfer studies, mice were protected against lethal toxin challenge. Hamsters treated with human antitoxin IgG were completely protected when

  17. Acute Hendra virus infection: Analysis of the pathogenesis and passive antibody protection in the hamster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Vanessa; Wong, K. Thong; Looi, R.Y.; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Barrot, Laura; Buckland, Robin; Wild, T. Fabian; Horvat, Branka

    2009-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are recently-emerged, closely related and highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses. We have analysed here the pathogenesis of the acute HeV infection using the new animal model, golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), which is highly susceptible to HeV infection. HeV-specific RNA and viral antigens were found in multiple organs and virus was isolated from different tissues. Dual pathogenic mechanism was observed: parenchymal infection in various organs, including the brain, with vasculitis and multinucleated syncytia in many blood vessels. Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies specific for the NiV fusion protein neutralized HeV in vitro and efficiently protected hamsters from HeV if given before infection. These results reveal the similarities between HeV and NiV pathogenesis, particularly in affecting both respiratory and neuronal system. They demonstrate that hamster presents a convenient novel animal model to study HeV infection, opening new perspectives to evaluate vaccine and therapeutic approaches against this emergent infectious disease.

  18. Active and passive fire protection system in academic building KH. Mas Mansur, Islamic University of Indonesia

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    Suryoputro M. Ragil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of fire triangle, the existence of combustible materials, heat, and oxygen can cause fire disaster. KH. Mas Mansur building, Islamic University of Indonesia has a fire protection, but rarely to be checked regularly and the number of equipment is less standard as well as the lack of an evacuation route map to facilitate the evacuation process. Inside the building also does not provide safety signs such as the evacuation directions, exit, and warning in case of fire. Therefore, researchers analysed the infrastructure of prevention and control in the building KH. Mas Mansur. Researchers used the method of observation, interviews, and checklist to know the condition directly, and compare with the standard regulations. Results concordance rate of existing infrastructure is 67% fire extinguisher, hydrant box 56%, 71% alarms, sprinkler 0%, 40% detectors, emergency doors 71%, 50% emergency stairs, assembly point 0% and directions 0%. The current results were below the standard of at least 80%. As for recommendations, researchers create a new evacuation map then put the existing infrastructure according to standard regulations, and it had consulted with the specialist of Occupational Safety and Health in the field of fire.

  19. Structurally designed attenuated subunit vaccines for S. aureus LukS-PV and LukF-PV confer protection in a mouse bacteremia model.

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    Hatice Karauzum

    Full Text Available Previous efforts towards S. aureus vaccine development have largely focused on cell surface antigens to induce opsonophagocytic killing aimed at providing sterile immunity, a concept successfully applied to other Gram-positive pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, these approaches have largely failed, possibly in part due to the remarkable diversity of the staphylococcal virulence factors such as secreted immunosuppressive and tissue destructive toxins. S. aureus produces several pore-forming toxins including the single subunit alpha hemolysin as well as bicomponent leukotoxins such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, gamma hemolysins (Hlg, and LukED. Here we report the generation of highly attenuated mutants of PVL subunits LukS-PV and LukF-PV that were rationally designed, based on an octameric structural model of the toxin, to be deficient in oligomerization. The attenuated subunit vaccines were highly immunogenic and showed significant protection in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 sepsis. Protection against sepsis was also demonstrated by passive transfer of rabbit immunoglobulin raised against LukS-PV. Antibodies to LukS-PV inhibited the homologous oligomerization of LukS-PV with LukF-PV as well heterologous oligomerization with HlgB. Importantly, immune sera from mice vaccinated with the LukS mutant not only inhibited the PMN lytic activity produced by the PVL-positive USA300 but also blocked PMN lysis induced by supernatants of PVL-negative strains suggesting a broad protective activity towards other bicomponent toxins. These findings strongly support the novel concept of an anti-virulence, toxin-based vaccine intended for prevention of clinical S. aureus invasive disease, rather than achieving sterile immunity. Such a multivalent vaccine may include attenuated leukotoxins, alpha hemolysin, and superantigens.

  20. Adiponectin protects against development of metabolic disturbances in a PCOS mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrick, Anna; Chanclón, Belén; Micallef, Peter; Wu, Yanling; Hadi, Laila; Shelton, John M; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid

    2017-08-22

    Adiponectin, together with adipocyte size, is the strongest factor associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigates the causal relationship between adiponectin levels and metabolic and reproductive functions in PCOS. Prepubertal mice overexpressing adiponectin from adipose tissue (APNtg), adiponectin knockouts (APNko), and their wild-type (WT) littermate mice were continuously exposed to placebo or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to induce PCOS-like traits. As expected, DHT exposure led to reproductive dysfunction, as judged by continuous anestrus, smaller ovaries with a decreased number of corpus luteum, and an increased number of cystic/atretic follicles. A two-way between-groups analysis showed that there was a significant main effect for DHT exposure, but not for genotype, indicating adiponectin does not influence follicle development. Adiponectin had, however, some protective effects on ovarian function. Similar to in many women with PCOS, DHT exposure led to reduced adiponectin levels, larger adipocyte size, and reduced insulin sensitivity in WTs. APNtg mice remained metabolically healthy despite DHT exposure, while APNko-DHT mice were even more insulin resistant than their DHT-exposed littermate WTs. DHT exposure also reduced the mRNA expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways in gonadal adipose tissue of WT and APNko, but this effect of DHT was not observed in APNtg mice. Moreover, APNtg-DHT mice displayed increased pancreatic mRNA levels of insulin receptors, Pdx1 and Igf1R , suggesting adiponectin stimulates beta cell viability/hyperplasia in the context of PCOS. In conclusion, adiponectin improves metabolic health but has only minor effects on reproductive functions in this PCOS-like mouse model.

  1. PASSIVE CAVITATION DETECTION DURING PULSED HIFU EXPOSURES OF EX VIVO TISSUES AND IN VIVO MOUSE PANCREATIC TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Chen, Hong; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Wang, Yak-Nam; Kreider, Wayne; He, Xuemei; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) has been demonstrated to enhance vascular permeability, disrupt tumor barriers and enhance drug penetration into tumor tissue through acoustic cavitation. Monitoring of cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments and knowing the ultrasound pressure levels sufficient to reliably induce cavitation in a given tissue are therefore very important. Here, three metrics of cavitation activity induced by pHIFU and evaluated by confocal passive cavitation detection were introduced: cavitation probability, cavitation persistence and the level of the broadband acoustic emissions. These metrics were used to characterize cavitation activity in several ex vivo tissue types (bovine tongue and liver and porcine adipose tissue and kidney) and gel phantoms (polyacrylamide and agarose) at varying peak-rarefactional focal pressures (1–12 MPa) during the following pHIFU protocol: frequency 1.1 MHz, pulse duration 1 ms, pulse repetition frequency 1 Hz. To evaluate the relevance of the measurements in ex vivo tissue, cavitation metrics were also investigated and compared in the ex vivo and in vivo murine pancreatic tumors that develop spontaneously in transgenic KPC mice and closely recapitulate human disease in their morphology. The cavitation threshold, defined at 50 % cavitation probability, was found to vary broadly among the investigated tissues (within 2.5–10 MPa), depending mostly on the water-lipid ratio that characterizes the tissue composition. Cavitation persistence and the intensity of broadband emissions depended both on tissue structure and lipid concentration. Both the cavitation threshold and broadband noise emission level were similar between ex vivo and in vivo pancreatic tumor tissue. The largest difference between in vivo and ex vivo settings was found in the pattern of cavitation occurrence throughout pHIFU exposure: it was sporadic in vivo, but ex vivo it decreased rapidly and stopped over the first few pulses

  2. Passive cavitation detection during pulsed HIFU exposures of ex vivo tissues and in vivo mouse pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Chen, Hong; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Wang, Yak-Nam; Kreider, Wayne; He, Xuemei; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2014-07-01

    Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) has been shown to enhance vascular permeability, disrupt tumor barriers and enhance drug penetration into tumor tissue through acoustic cavitation. Monitoring of cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments and knowing the ultrasound pressure levels sufficient to reliably induce cavitation in a given tissue are therefore very important. Here, three metrics of cavitation activity induced by pHIFU and evaluated by confocal passive cavitation detection were introduced: cavitation probability, cavitation persistence and the level of the broadband acoustic emissions. These metrics were used to characterize cavitation activity in several ex vivo tissue types (bovine tongue and liver and porcine adipose tissue and kidney) and gel phantoms (polyacrylamide and agarose) at varying peak-rare factional focal pressures (1-12 MPa) during the following pHIFU protocol: frequency 1.1 MHz, pulse duration 1 ms and pulse repetition frequency 1 Hz. To evaluate the relevance of the measurements in ex vivo tissue, cavitation metrics were also investigated and compared in the ex vivo and in vivo murine pancreatic tumors that develop spontaneously in transgenic KrasLSL.G12 D/+; p53 R172 H/+; PdxCretg/+ (KPC) mice and closely re-capitulate human disease in their morphology. The cavitation threshold, defined at 50% cavitation probability, was found to vary broadly among the investigated tissues (within 2.5-10 MPa), depending mostly on the water-lipid ratio that characterizes the tissue composition. Cavitation persistence and the intensity of broadband emissions depended both on tissue structure and lipid concentration. Both the cavitation threshold and broadband noise emission level were similar between ex vivo and in vivo pancreatic tumor tissue. The largest difference between in vivo and ex vivo settings was found in the pattern of cavitation occurrence throughout pHIFU exposure: it was sporadic in vivo, but it decreased rapidly and stopped

  3. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection.

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    Andrew D Brown

    Full Text Available Hearing protection devices (HPDs such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1 sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2 speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3 tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive, including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions.

  4. Immunization with cholera toxin B subunit induces high-level protection in the suckling mouse model of cholera.

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    Gregory A Price

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin (CT is the primary virulence factor responsible for severe cholera. Vibrio cholerae strains unable to produce CT show severe attenuation of virulence in animals and humans. The pentameric B subunit of CT (CTB contains the immunodominant epitopes recognized by antibodies that neutralize CT. Although CTB is a potent immunogen and a promising protective vaccine antigen in animal models, immunization of humans with detoxified CT failed to protect against cholera. We recently demonstrated however that pups reared from mice immunized intraperitoneally (IP with 3 doses of recombinant CTB were well protected against a highly lethal challenge dose of V. cholerae N16961. The present study investigated how the route and number of immunizations with CTB could influence protective efficacy in the suckling mouse model of cholera. To this end female mice were immunized with CTB intranasally (IN, IP, and subcutaneously (SC. Serum and fecal extracts were analyzed for anti-CTB antibodies by quantitative ELISA, and pups born to immunized mothers were challenged orogastrically with a lethal dose of V. cholerae. Pups from all immunized groups were highly protected from death by 48 hours (64-100% survival. Cox regression showed that percent body weight loss at 24 hours predicted death by 48 hours, but we were unable to validate a specific amount of weight loss as a surrogate marker for protection. Although CTB was highly protective in all regimens, three parenteral immunizations showed trends toward higher survival and less weight loss at 24 hours post infection. These results demonstrate that immunization with CTB by any of several routes and dosing regimens can provide protection against live V. cholerae challenge in the suckling mouse model of cholera. Our data extend the results of previous studies and provide additional support for the inclusion of CTB in the development of a subunit vaccine against V. cholerae.

  5. Retrotransposon-centered analysis of piRNA targeting shows a shift from active to passive retrotransposon transcription in developing mouse testes

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    Mourier Tobias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs bind transcripts from retrotransposable elements (RTE in mouse germline cells and seemingly act as guides for genomic methylation, thereby repressing the activity of RTEs. It is currently unknown if and how Piwi proteins distinguish RTE transcripts from other cellular RNAs. During germline development, the main target of piRNAs switch between different types of RTEs. Using the piRNA targeting of RTEs as an indicator of RTE activity, and considering the entire population of genomic RTE loci along with their age and location, this study aims at further elucidating the dynamics of RTE activity during mouse germline development. Results Due to the inherent sequence redundancy between RTE loci, assigning piRNA targeting to specific loci is problematic. This limits the analysis, although certain features of piRNA targeting of RTE loci are apparent. As expected, young RTEs display a much higher level of piRNA targeting than old RTEs. Further, irrespective of age, RTE loci near protein-coding coding genes are targeted to a greater extent than RTE loci far from genes. During development, a shift in piRNA targeting is observed, with a clear increase in the relative piRNA targeting of RTEs residing within boundaries of protein-coding gene transcripts. Conclusions Reanalyzing published piRNA sequences and taking into account the features of individual RTE loci provide novel insight into the activity of RTEs during development. The obtained results are consistent with some degree of proportionality between what transcripts become substrates for Piwi protein complexes and the level by which the transcripts are present in the cell. A transition from active transcription of RTEs to passive co-transcription of RTE sequences residing within protein-coding transcripts appears to take place in postnatal development. Hence, the previously reported increase in piRNA targeting of SINEs in postnatal testis development

  6. Influence of caffeine on the protective activity of gabapentin and topiramate in a mouse model of generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargiełło-Baszak, Małgorzata; Chrościńska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Andres-Mach, Marta; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine may interact with classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), reducing their anticonvulsant effects in basic seizure models. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether intraperitoneal caffeine (acute or chronic for 15 days) could attenuate the anticonvulsant effect of some newer AEDs: gabapentin (GBP) and topiramate (TPM) against electroconvulsions in mice. Maximal electroshock (MES)-induced mouse seizure model was used for the estimation of the anticonvulsant activity of TPM whilst the protective activity of GBP was evaluated in the threshold test for maximal (tonic) convulsions. Adverse effects were evaluated by measurement of long-term memory (the step-through passive avoidance task) and motor coordination (chimney test). Plasma AED concentrations were also measured to determinate any pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed effects. Caffeine (both acute and chronic at 23.1 and 46.2mg/kg) significantly reduced the protective effects of TPM against MES. As regards GBP, caffeine (acutely at 46.2mg/kg and chronically at 23.1 or 46.2mg/kg) significantly diminished the GBP-induced increases in the electroconvulsive threshold. In addition, caffeine did not affect the free plasma concentrations of TPM or GBP. Acute and chronic caffeine (23.1 and 46.2mg/kg) enhanced the impairment of motor coordination in mice pretreated with GBP whilst an opposite effect was observed in TPM injected mice and pretreated with chronic caffeine at 46.2mg/kg. The results indicate that newer AEDs, GBP or TPM behave in the exactly same way as classical antiepileptics in mice challenged with caffeine. This hazardous effect of caffeine is not subject to tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemically-induced photoreceptor degeneration and protection in mouse iPSC-derived three-dimensional retinal organoids

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    Shin-ichiro Ito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which can be differentiated into various tissues and cell types, have been used for clinical research and disease modeling. Self-organizing three-dimensional (3D tissue engineering has been established within the past decade and enables researchers to obtain tissues and cells that almost mimic in vivo development. However, there are no reports of practical experimental procedures that reproduce photoreceptor degeneration. In this study, we induced photoreceptor cell death in mouse iPSC-derived 3D retinal organoids (3D-retinas by 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT, which induces photoreceptor degeneration in mouse retinal explants, and then established a live-cell imaging system to measure degeneration-related properties. Furthermore, we quantified the protective effects of representative ophthalmic supplements for treating the photoreceptor degeneration. This drug evaluation system enables us to monitor drug effects in photoreceptor cells and could be useful for drug screening.

  8. Protection from lethal infection is determined by innate immune responses in a mouse model of Ebola virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Gupta, Manisha; Paragas, Jason; Bray, Mike; Ahmed, Rafi; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2003-01-01

    A mouse-adapted strain of Ebola Zaire virus produces a fatal infection when BALB/cj mice are infected intraperitoneally (ip) but subcutaneous (sc) infection with the same virus fails to produce illness and confers long-term protection from lethal ip rechallenge. To identify immune correlates of protection in this model, we compared viral replication and cytokine/chemokine responses to Ebola virus in mice infected ip (10 PFU/mouse), or sc (100 PFU/mouse) and sc 'immune' mice rechallenged ip (10 6 PFU/mouse) at several time points postinfection (pi). Ebola viral antigens were detected in the serum, liver, spleen, and kidneys of ip-infected mice by day 2 pi, increasing up to day 6. Sc-infected mice and immune mice rechallenged ip had no detectable viral antigens until day 6 pi, when low levels of viral antigens were detected in the livers of sc-infected mice only. TNF-α and MCP-1 were detected earlier and at significantly higher levels in the serum and tissues of ip-infected mice than in sc-infected or immune mice challenged ip. In contrast, high levels of IFN-α and IFN-γ were found in tissues within 2 days after challenge in sc-infected and immune mice but not in ip-infected mice. Mice became resistant to ip challenge within 48 h of sc infection, coinciding with the rise in tissue IFN-α levels. In this model of Ebola virus infection, the nonlethal sc route of infection is associated with an attenuated inflammatory response and early production of antiviral cytokines, particularly IFN-α, as compared with lethal ip infection

  9. Monitoring the habitat use of common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus using passive acoustics in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. LA MANNA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Tursiops truncatus subpopulation has been classified as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because of its decline. This species in coastal areas is exposed to a wide variety of threats: directed kills, bycatch, reduced prey availability caused by environmental degradation and overfishing, habitat degradation including disturbances from boat traffic and noise. Despite the increase in boat traffic in the Mediterranean Sea, the effect on T. truncatus’ habitat use has been studied in little detail and few data have been published. This study represents the first attempt to characterise spatial and temporal habitat use by T. truncatus and its relation to boat traffic in the Isole Pelagie Marine Protected Area (Italy on the basis of an originally developed passive acoustic monitoring system (PAM. The devices were deployed in 2 areas in the southern waters of Lampedusa, during 2 separate years (2006 and 2009, each time for 3 months (from July to September and in 6 time slots (3 diurnal and 3 nocturnal. Acoustic analysis showed that T. truncatus used the Southern coastal area of Lampedusa independently of the year, primarily during the early summer, a period coinciding with the peak of calving season. Dolphin occurrences appeared independent of boat traffic, with the exception of the smallest temporal scale (time slots: dolphin occurrences were more prevalent during the night when the level of boat traffic was lower. This study provides evidence on T. truncatus habitat use in the Mediterranean Sea and reveals that boat traffic could be one of the factors influencing it, thus stressing the need for further detailed investigation regarding this topic.

  10. Ultrathin protective films of two-dimensional polymers on passivated iron against corrosion in 0.1M NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramaki, Kunitsugu; Shimura, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    Prevention of iron corrosion in an aerated 0.1M NaCl solution was investigated by polarization and mass-loss measurements of a passivated iron electrode covered with ultrathin and ordered films of two-dimensional polymers. The films were prepared on the passivated electrode by modification of a 16-hydroxyhexadecanoate ion HO(CH 2 ) 15 CO 2 - self-assembled monolayer with 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (C 2 H 5 O) 3 Si(CH 2 ) 2 Si(OC 2 H 5 ) 3 and alkyltriethoxysilane C n H 2n+1 Si(OC 2 H 5 ) 3 (n=8 or 18). Because crevice corrosion occurred at the initial stage of immersion in the solution preferentially, the edge of electrode covered with the polymer film was coated with epoxy resin. The open-circuit potentials of the covered electrodes in the solution were maintained high, more than -0.2V/SCE for several hours, indicating that no breakdown of the passive film occurred on the surface. The protective efficiencies of the films were extremely high, more than 99.9% unless the passive film was broken down. The efficiencies after immersion for 24h almost agreed with those obtained by mass-loss measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron-probe microanalysis of the passivated surface covered with the polymer film after immersion in the solution for 4h revealed that pit initiation on the passive film was suppressed by coverage with the polymer film completely

  11. Protective effects of black rice bran against chemically-induced inflammation of mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of black rice (cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1) bran against 12-O-tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema and 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in inflammatory mouse models. We also determined the effects of the bran...

  12. Investigation of a redox-sensitive predictive model of mouse embryonic stem cells differentiation using quantitative nuclease protection assays and glutathione redox status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation of a redox-sensitive predictive model of mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation via quantitative nuclease protection assays and glutathione redox status Chandler KJ,Hansen JM, Knudsen T,and Hunter ES 1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  13. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY-Encapsulated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp.

  14. 'Passive fire protection in nuclear power plants' - German technologies of the company svt Brandschutz in future as well in Korean NPPs? -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, Joerg; Kim, Duill; Wendt, Ruediger

    2002-01-01

    Fires in NPPs are unfortunately not avoidable and to consider during the planning and operation period of the plants. The multitude of combustible materials which are used especially cables, oils and other building materials describe a potential source of danger. In Germany recently a new planning guideline for the fire protection field in NPPs has been adopted: the nuclear guideline KTA 1401. This document certainly is one of the most progressive guidelines for the fire protection field and has united · structural engineering elements of fire protection · electrotechnical and machine components · as well as questions of fire alarm and organisation measures. Passive and active fire protection measures are explained and layed down in their complexity within this document. Our group of companies has realised quit a lot of fire protection projects in Europe during the last years, especially within retrofitting measures for NPPs in Germany, Switzerland, Russia, the Ukraine and Lithuania, the Czech and Slovak Republic as well as within decommissioning projects of NPPs. We have carried out international fire protection projects of the EBRD, London, and within the framework of TACIS projects of the European Commission, i. a. linked with the working out of fire protection analyses for NPPs realised in close co-operation with the Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg. We especially have wide experiences in improving the fire protection of cable installations where a 100% separation of the different safety systems is not any longer possible

  15. Passive immunization with a polyclonal antiserum to the hemoglobin receptor of Haemophilus ducreyi confers protection against a homologous challenge in the experimental swine model of chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Isabelle; Fusco, William G; Choudhary, Neelima; Routh, Patty A; Cholon, Deborah M; Hobbs, Marcia M; Almond, Glen W; Orndorff, Paul E; Elkins, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has an obligate requirement for heme. Heme is acquired by H. ducreyi from its human host via TonB-dependent transporters expressed at its bacterial surface. Of 3 TonB-dependent transporters encoded in the genome of H. ducreyi, only the hemoglobin receptor, HgbA, is required to establish infection during the early stages of the experimental human model of chancroid. Active immunization with a native preparation of HgbA (nHgbA) confers complete protection in the experimental swine model of chancroid, using either Freund's or monophosphoryl lipid A as adjuvants. To determine if transfer of anti-nHgbA serum is sufficient to confer protection, a passive immunization experiment using pooled nHgbA antiserum was conducted in the experimental swine model of chancroid. Pigs receiving this pooled nHgbA antiserum were protected from a homologous, but not a heterologous, challenge. Passively transferred polyclonal antibodies elicited to nHgbA bound the surface of H. ducreyi and partially blocked hemoglobin binding by nHgbA, but were not bactericidal. Taken together, these data suggest that the humoral immune response to the HgbA vaccine is protective against an H. ducreyi infection, possibly by preventing acquisition of the essential nutrient heme.

  16. Passive Immunization with a Polyclonal Antiserum to the Hemoglobin Receptor of Haemophilus ducreyi Confers Protection against a Homologous Challenge in the Experimental Swine Model of Chancroid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Isabelle; Fusco, William G.; Choudhary, Neelima; Routh, Patty A.; Cholon, Deborah M.; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Almond, Glen W.; Orndorff, Paul E.; Elkins, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has an obligate requirement for heme. Heme is acquired by H. ducreyi from its human host via TonB-dependent transporters expressed at its bacterial surface. Of 3 TonB-dependent transporters encoded in the genome of H. ducreyi, only the hemoglobin receptor, HgbA, is required to establish infection during the early stages of the experimental human model of chancroid. Active immunization with a native preparation of HgbA (nHgbA) confers complete protection in the experimental swine model of chancroid, using either Freund's or monophosphoryl lipid A as adjuvants. To determine if transfer of anti-nHgbA serum is sufficient to confer protection, a passive immunization experiment using pooled nHgbA antiserum was conducted in the experimental swine model of chancroid. Pigs receiving this pooled nHgbA antiserum were protected from a homologous, but not a heterologous, challenge. Passively transferred polyclonal antibodies elicited to nHgbA bound the surface of H. ducreyi and partially blocked hemoglobin binding by nHgbA, but were not bactericidal. Taken together, these data suggest that the humoral immune response to the HgbA vaccine is protective against an H. ducreyi infection, possibly by preventing acquisition of the essential nutrient heme. PMID:21646451

  17. Study on the protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on mouse models of sepsis-induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ti Dongdong; Deng Zihui; Xue Hui; Wang Luhuan; Lin Ji; Yan Guangtao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective role of ethyl pyruvate on mouse models of lung injury from sepsis. Methods: Mouse sepsis models were established by cecal ligation-perforation. Four enzyme parameters related to synthesis of free radicals in lung homogenized fluids namely malonaldehyde (MDA), pyruvate acid, lactic acid and total anti-oxidative capacity (TAOC) were determined with spectrophotometry, and serum leptin levels were detected with radioimmunoassay at 3, 6, 9, 12h after operation in these models. Half of the models were treated with intraperitoneal injection of ethyl pyruvate (EP) (75mg/kg). Results: In the models treated with ethyl pyruvate injection, the activity of malonaldehyde, pyruvate acid, lactic acid and total anti-oxidative capacity were affected to certain extent, at some time frames but the results were not unanimously inhibitive or promotive. Serum leptin levels in EP injection models at 6h and 12h after sepsis were significantly higher than those in non-treated models. Conclusion: Ethyl pyruvate perhaps exerted its protective effect on sepsis-induced lung injury through increase of leptin levels in the models. (authors)

  18. Sodium phenylbutyrate controls neuroinflammatory and antioxidant activities and protects dopaminergic neurons in mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avik; Ghosh, Anamitra; Jana, Arundhati; Liu, Xiaojuan; Brahmachari, Saurav; Gendelman, Howard E; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders. Here we demonstrate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), an FDA-approved therapy for reducing plasma ammonia and glutamine in urea cycle disorders, can suppress both proinflammatory molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in activated glial cells. Interestingly, NaPB also decreased the level of cholesterol but involved only intermediates, not the end product of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway for these functions. While inhibitors of both geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTI) and farnesyl transferase (FTI) inhibited the activation of NF-κB, inhibitor of GGTI, but not FTI, suppressed the production of ROS. Accordingly, a dominant-negative mutant of p21(rac), but not p21(ras), attenuated the production of ROS from activated microglia. Inhibition of both p21(ras) and p21(rac) activation by NaPB in microglial cells suggests that NaPB exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects via inhibition of these small G proteins. Consistently, we found activation of both p21(ras) and p21(rac)in vivo in the substantia nigra of acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Oral administration of NaPB reduced nigral activation of p21(ras) and p21(rac), protected nigral reduced glutathione, attenuated nigral activation of NF-κB, inhibited nigral expression of proinflammatory molecules, and suppressed nigral activation of glial cells. These findings paralleled dopaminergic neuronal protection, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Consistently, FTI and GGTI also protected nigrostriata in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Furthermore, NaPB also halted the disease progression in a chronic MPTP mouse model. These results identify novel mode of action of NaPB and suggest that NaPB may be of therapeutic benefit for neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Sodium phenylbutyrate controls neuroinflammatory and antioxidant activities and protects dopaminergic neurons in mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik Roy

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders. Here we demonstrate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB, an FDA-approved therapy for reducing plasma ammonia and glutamine in urea cycle disorders, can suppress both proinflammatory molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS in activated glial cells. Interestingly, NaPB also decreased the level of cholesterol but involved only intermediates, not the end product of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway for these functions. While inhibitors of both geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTI and farnesyl transferase (FTI inhibited the activation of NF-κB, inhibitor of GGTI, but not FTI, suppressed the production of ROS. Accordingly, a dominant-negative mutant of p21(rac, but not p21(ras, attenuated the production of ROS from activated microglia. Inhibition of both p21(ras and p21(rac activation by NaPB in microglial cells suggests that NaPB exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects via inhibition of these small G proteins. Consistently, we found activation of both p21(ras and p21(racin vivo in the substantia nigra of acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Oral administration of NaPB reduced nigral activation of p21(ras and p21(rac, protected nigral reduced glutathione, attenuated nigral activation of NF-κB, inhibited nigral expression of proinflammatory molecules, and suppressed nigral activation of glial cells. These findings paralleled dopaminergic neuronal protection, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Consistently, FTI and GGTI also protected nigrostriata in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Furthermore, NaPB also halted the disease progression in a chronic MPTP mouse model. These results identify novel mode of action of NaPB and suggest that NaPB may be of therapeutic benefit for neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Sodium Phenylbutyrate Controls Neuroinflammatory and Antioxidant Activities and Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mouse Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Arundhati; Liu, Xiaojuan; Brahmachari, Saurav; Gendelman, Howard E.; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders. Here we demonstrate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), an FDA-approved therapy for reducing plasma ammonia and glutamine in urea cycle disorders, can suppress both proinflammatory molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in activated glial cells. Interestingly, NaPB also decreased the level of cholesterol but involved only intermediates, not the end product of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway for these functions. While inhibitors of both geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTI) and farnesyl transferase (FTI) inhibited the activation of NF-κB, inhibitor of GGTI, but not FTI, suppressed the production of ROS. Accordingly, a dominant-negative mutant of p21rac, but not p21ras, attenuated the production of ROS from activated microglia. Inhibition of both p21ras and p21rac activation by NaPB in microglial cells suggests that NaPB exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects via inhibition of these small G proteins. Consistently, we found activation of both p21ras and p21rac in vivo in the substantia nigra of acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Oral administration of NaPB reduced nigral activation of p21ras and p21rac, protected nigral reduced glutathione, attenuated nigral activation of NF-κB, inhibited nigral expression of proinflammatory molecules, and suppressed nigral activation of glial cells. These findings paralleled dopaminergic neuronal protection, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Consistently, FTI and GGTI also protected nigrostriata in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Furthermore, NaPB also halted the disease progression in a chronic MPTP mouse model. These results identify novel mode of action of NaPB and suggest that NaPB may be of therapeutic benefit for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22723850

  1. Passive safety; Passive Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, J. [Skoda Auto a.s., Mlada Boleslav (Czech Republic). Interieurentwicklung und Versuche; Hau, M. [Skoda Auto a.s., Mlada Boleslav (Czech Republic). Koordination der Fahrzeugsicherung

    2004-05-01

    The specifications for passive safety are partly based on the legal requirements for all export markets combined with the strict internal standards of Volkswagen Group. The Euro NCAP tests and their precisely defined testing methods using the new point assessment are very important. (orig.)

  2. Curcumin Protects against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Ion- and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytotoxicities in the Mouse Mesencephalic Astrocyte via Inhibiting the Cytochrome P450 2E1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Gui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is extracted from the rhizomes of the ginger family plant Curcuma longa L., which has a good protection for liver, kidney, and immune system. However, there is little information about its contribution in protection of astrocytes recently. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the protective effect of curcumin, an herbal antioxidant, on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion- (MPP+- and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced cytotoxicities, as well as the underlying mechanisms by using primary mouse mesencephalic astrocytes. The results showed that curcumin protected the mesencephalic astrocytes from MPP+- and LPS-induced toxicities along with reducing reactive oxygen species (P<0.05 and maleic dialdehyde (P<0.05 sufficiently. Moreover, curcumin significantly inhibited the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1 expression (P<0.01 at mRNA level, P<0.05 at protein level and its activity (P<0.05 sufficiently induced by MPP+ and LPS in the mouse mesencephalic astrocytes. And curcumin as well as diallyl sulphide, a CYP2E1 positive inhibitor, ameliorated MPP+- and LPS-induced mouse mesencephalic astrocytes damage. Accordingly, curcumin protects against MPP+- and LPS-induced cytotoxicities in the mouse mesencephalic astrocyte via inhibiting the CYP2E1 expression and activity.

  3. Protective effects of cultured and fermented ginseng extracts against scopolamine-induced memory loss in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Hee; Kim, Sung-June; Yun, Young Won; Nam, Sang Yoon; Lee, Hu-Jang; Lee, Beom-Jun

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of a concentrate of fermented wild ginseng root culture (HLJG0701) on memory improvement in the scopolamine (SPL)-induced memory-deficient mouse model. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were used to evaluate the protective effect of HLJG0701 against the SPL-induced memory loss animal model. The Morris water maze test, which measures hippocampus-dependent learning ability, and the Y-maze test, a short-term memory assessment test, were performed and related markers were analyzed. HLJG0701-treated groups displayed significantly reduced acetylcholinesterase activity and increased acetylcholine level compared with the SPL-administered group (SPL-G) ( P memory loss by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity and preventing acetylcholine deficiency.

  4. Lycopene Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury by Alleviating ER Stress Induced Apoptosis in Neonatal Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqian; Hu, Houxiang; Chen, Bin; Yue, Rongchuan; Zhou, Zhou; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Shuang; Xu, Lei; Wang, Huan; Yu, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced apoptosis plays a pivotal role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. Inhibiting ER stress is a major therapeutic target/strategy in treating cardiovascular diseases. Our previous studies revealed that lycopene exhibits great pharmacological potential in protecting against the I/R-injury in vitro and vivo, but whether attenuation of ER stress (and) or ER stress-induced apoptosis contributes to the effects remains unclear. In the present study, using neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes to establish an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) to mimic myocardium I/R in vivo, we aimed to explore the hypothesis that lycopene could alleviate the ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in H/R-injury. We observed that lycopene alleviated the H/R injury as revealed by improving cell viability and reducing apoptosis, suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and improved the phosphorylated AMPK expression, attenuated ER stress as evidenced by decreasing the expression of GRP78, ATF6 mRNA, sXbp-1 mRNA, eIF2α mRNA and eIF2α phosphorylation, alleviated ER stress-induced apoptosis as manifested by reducing CHOP/GADD153 expression, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-12 and caspase-3 activity in H/R-treated cardiomyocytes. Thapsigargin (TG) is a potent ER stress inducer and used to elicit ER stress of cardiomyocytes. Our results showed that lycopene was able to prevent TG-induced ER stress as reflected by attenuating the protein expression of GRP78 and CHOP/GADD153 compared to TG group, significantly improve TG-caused a loss of cell viability and decrease apoptosis in TG-treated cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that the protective effects of lycopene on H/R-injury are, at least in part, through alleviating ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. PMID:26291709

  5. Taurine Protects Mouse Spermatocytes from Ionizing Radiation-Induced Damage Through Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjun; Huang, Jinfeng; Xiao, Bang; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yiqing; Wang, Fang; Sun, Shuhan

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of ionizing radiation exposure has inevitably raised public concern over the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation on male reproductive system function. The detection of drug candidates to prevent reproductive system from damage caused by ionizing radiation is urgent. We aimed to investigate the protective role of taurine on the injury of mouse spermatocyte-derived cells (GC-2) subjected to ionizing radiation. mouse spermatocytes (GC-2 cells) were exposed to ionizing radiation with or without treatment of Taurine. The effect of ionizing radiation and Taurine treatment on GC-2 cells were evaluated by cell viability assay (CCK8), cell cycle and apoptosis. The relative protein abundance change was determined by Western blotting. The siRNA was used to explore whether Nrf2 signaling was involved in the cytoprotection of Taurine. Taurine significantly inhibited the decrease of cell viability, percentage of apoptotic cells and cell cycle arrest induced by ionizing radiation. Western blot analysis showed that taurine significantly limited the ionizing radiation-induced down-regulation of CyclinB1 and CDK1, and suppressed activation of Fas/FasL system pathway. In addition, taurine treatment significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in GC-2 cells exposed to ionizing radiation, two components in antioxidant pathway. The above cytoprotection of Taurine was blocked by siNrf2. Our results demonstrate that taurine has the potential to effectively protect GC-2 cells from ionizing radiation- triggered damage via upregulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Protective effects of vitamins C and E against γ-ray-induced chromosomal damage in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, L.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of vitamins C and E on bone marrow chromosomes of the mouse exposed to 1 Gy of whole-body γ-irradiation were studied. These vitamins, dissolved in water/peanut oil, were administered orally as acute doses, either 2 h before, immediately after, or 2 h after irradiation. Both vitamins significantly reduced the frequencies of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells; radioprotection by vitamin E was, however, appreciably greater than that afforded by vitamin C. Administration of the vitamins to mice immediately after irradiation was as effective as that 2 h before irradiation. A sequential treatment consisting of both the vitamins did not result in additional radioprotection over that afforded by vitamin E alone. The probable mechanisms of radioprotection are discussed. (author)

  7. Chimeric Hemagglutinin Constructs Induce Broad Protection against Influenza B Virus Challenge in the Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermler, Megan E; Kirkpatrick, Ericka; Sun, Weina; Hai, Rong; Amanat, Fatima; Chromikova, Veronika; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2017-06-15

    Seasonal influenza virus epidemics represent a significant public health burden. Approximately 25% of all influenza virus infections are caused by type B viruses, and these infections can be severe, especially in children. Current influenza virus vaccines are an effective prophylaxis against infection but are impacted by rapid antigenic drift, which can lead to mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Here, we describe a broadly protective vaccine candidate based on chimeric hemagglutinins, consisting of globular head domains from exotic influenza A viruses and stalk domains from influenza B viruses. Sequential vaccination with these constructs in mice leads to the induction of broadly reactive antibodies that bind to the conserved stalk domain of influenza B virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated mice are protected from lethal challenge with diverse influenza B viruses. Results from serum transfer experiments and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays indicate that this protection is antibody mediated and based on Fc effector functions. The present data suggest that chimeric hemagglutinin-based vaccination is a viable strategy to broadly protect against influenza B virus infection. IMPORTANCE While current influenza virus vaccines are effective, they are affected by mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Furthermore, the antiviral drug oseltamivir is less effective for treating influenza B virus infections than for treating influenza A virus infections. A vaccine that induces broad and long-lasting protection against influenza B viruses is therefore urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. A protective effect of epidermal powder immunization in a mouse model of equine herpesvirus-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takashi; McGregor, Martha; Chu, Qili; Chen, Dexiang; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of epidermal powder immunization (EPI) against equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection, we prepared a powder vaccine in which formalin-inactivated virions were embedded in water-soluble, sugar-based particles. A PowderJect device was used to immunize mice with the powder vaccine via their abdominal skin. We found that twice-immunized mice were protected against challenge with the wild-type virus. This protective effect was equivalent to or better than that observed in mice immunized with other types of vaccines, including a gene gun-mediated DNA vaccine containing the glycoprotein D (gD) gene or conventional inactivated virus vaccines introduced via intramuscular or intranasal injections. These findings indicate that the powder vaccine is a promising approach for the immunological control of EHV-1 infection, either alone or as a part of prime-boost vaccination strategies

  9. Pancreatic protective and hypoglycemic effects of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruit hydroalcoholic extract in D-galactose-induced aging mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Najimi, Seyedeh Asma

    2017-01-01

    D-galactose induces pancreatic disorder along with aging mouse model. Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) has potential pancreatic protective effect. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas protective effects of VAC hydroalcoholic extract in D-galactose-induced aging female mice. In the present experimental study, 72 adult female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (weighing 30–35 g) were divided into 6 groups of control, VAC hydroalcoholic extract, D-galactose,...

  10. Stabilization of influenza vaccine enhances protection by microneedle delivery in the mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Shi Quan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple and effective vaccine administration is particularly important for annually recommended influenza vaccination. We hypothesized that vaccine delivery to the skin using a patch containing vaccine-coated microneedles could be an attractive approach to improve influenza vaccination compliance and efficacy.Solid microneedle arrays coated with inactivated influenza vaccine were prepared for simple vaccine delivery to the skin. However, the stability of the influenza vaccine, as measured by hemagglutination activity, was found to be significantly damaged during microneedle coating. The addition of trehalose to the microneedle coating formulation retained hemagglutination activity, indicating stabilization of the coated influenza vaccine. For both intramuscular and microneedle skin immunization, delivery of un-stabilized vaccine yielded weaker protective immune responses including viral neutralizing antibodies, protective efficacies, and recall immune responses to influenza virus. Immunization using un-stabilized vaccine also shifted the pattern of antibody isotypes compared to the stabilized vaccine. Importantly, a single microneedle-based vaccination using stabilized influenza vaccine was found to be superior to intramuscular immunization in controlling virus replication as well as in inducing rapid recall immune responses post challenge.The functional integrity of hemagglutinin is associated with inducing improved protective immunity against influenza. Simple microneedle influenza vaccination in the skin produced superior protection compared to conventional intramuscular immunization. This approach is likely to be applicable to other vaccines too.

  11. Pan-ebolavirus and Pan-filovirus Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies: Protection against Ebola and Sudan Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Howell, Katie A; Patel, Sonal J; Gunn, Bronwyn; Karim, Marcus; Lai, Jonathan R; Frei, Julia C; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Zeitlin, Larry; Douglas, Robin; Fusco, Marnie L; Froude, Jeffrey W; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Herbert, Andrew S; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Lear-Rooney, Calli M; Alter, Galit; Dye, John M; Glass, Pamela J; Warfield, Kelly L; Aman, M Javad

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the need for effective therapeutics against filoviruses. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails have shown great potential as EVD therapeutics; however, the existing protective MAbs are virus species specific. Here we report the development of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus antibodies generated by repeated immunization of mice with filovirus glycoproteins engineered to drive the B cell responses toward conserved epitopes. Multiple pan-ebolavirus antibodies were identified that react to the Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. A pan-filovirus antibody that was reactive to the receptor binding regions of all filovirus glycoproteins was also identified. Significant postexposure efficacy of several MAbs, including a novel antibody cocktail, was demonstrated. For the first time, we report cross-neutralization and in vivo protection against two highly divergent filovirus species, i.e., Ebola virus and Sudan virus, with a single antibody. Competition studies indicate that this antibody targets a previously unrecognized conserved neutralizing epitope that involves the glycan cap. Mechanistic studies indicated that, besides neutralization, innate immune cell effector functions may play a role in the antiviral activity of the antibodies. Our findings further suggest critical novel epitopes that can be utilized to design effective cocktails for broad protection against multiple filovirus species. Filoviruses represent a major public health threat in Africa and an emerging global concern. Largely driven by the U.S. biodefense funding programs and reinforced by the 2014 outbreaks, current immunotherapeutics are primarily focused on a single filovirus species called Ebola virus (EBOV) (formerly Zaire Ebola virus). However, other filoviruses including Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Marburg viruses have caused human outbreaks with mortality rates as high as 90%. Thus, cross-protective

  12. Protective effects of positive lysosomal modulation in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David; Hwang, Jeannie; Estick, Candice; Nishiyama, Akiko; Kumar, Saranya Santhosh; Baveghems, Clive; Young-Oxendine, Hollie B; Wisniewski, Meagan L; Charalambides, Ana; Bahr, Ben A

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative pathology in which defects in proteolytic clearance of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) likely contribute to the progressive nature of the disorder. Lysosomal proteases of the cathepsin family exhibit up-regulation in response to accumulating proteins including Aβ(1-42). Here, the lysosomal modulator Z-Phe-Ala-diazomethylketone (PADK) was used to test whether proteolytic activity can be enhanced to reduce the accumulation events in AD mouse models expressing different levels of Aβ pathology. Systemic PADK injections in APP(SwInd) and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice caused 3- to 8-fold increases in cathepsin B protein levels and 3- to 10-fold increases in the enzyme's activity in lysosomal fractions, while neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme remained unchanged. Biochemical analyses indicated the modulation predominantly targeted the active mature forms of cathepsin B and markedly changed Rab proteins but not LAMP1, suggesting the involvement of enhanced trafficking. The modulated lysosomal system led to reductions in both Aβ immunostaining as well as Aβ(x-42) sandwich ELISA measures in APP(SwInd) mice of 10-11 months. More extensive Aβ deposition in 20-22-month APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice was also reduced by PADK. Selective ELISAs found that a corresponding production of the less pathogenic Aβ(1-38) occurs as Aβ(1-42) levels decrease in the mouse models, indicating that PADK treatment leads to Aβ truncation. Associated with Aβ clearance was the elimination of behavioral and synaptic protein deficits evident in the two transgenic models. These findings indicate that pharmacologically-controlled lysosomal modulation reduces Aβ(1-42) accumulation, possibly through intracellular truncation that also influences extracellular deposition, and in turn offsets the defects in synaptic composition and cognitive functions. The selective modulation promotes clearance at different levels of Aβ pathology and provides proof

  13. Double protection passive pour les equipages de l'helicoptere d'attaque "Tigre" : Concept et etude experimentale (Design and Experimental Study of the Passive Double Hearing Protection for the Crew of the Attack Helicopter "Tiger")

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baudou, J; Reynaud, G; Poussin, G; Leger, A

    2005-01-01

    .... Par sa simplicite de mise en oeuvre, sans impact sur le casque, son faible cout et son efficacite d'attenuation propre, la protection complementaire offerte par les bouchons d'oreille passifs s'est...

  14. Passive therapy with humanized anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B antibodies attenuates systemic inflammatory response and protects from lethal pneumonia caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin B-producing Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karau, Melissa J; Tilahun, Mulualem E; Krogman, Ashton; Osborne, Barbara A; Goldsby, Richard A; David, Chella S; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2017-10-03

    Drugs such as linezolid that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis may be beneficial in treating infections caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus. As protein synthesis inhibitors have no effect on preformed toxins, neutralization of pathogenic exotoxins with anti-toxin antibodies may be beneficial in conjunction with antibacterial therapy. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of human-mouse chimeric high-affinity neutralizing anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) antibodies in the treatment of experimental pneumonia caused by SEB-producing S. aureus. Since HLA class II transgenic mice mount a stronger systemic immune response following challenge with SEB and are more susceptible to SEB-induced lethal toxic shock than conventional mice strains, HLA-DR3 transgenic mice were used. Lethal pneumonia caused by SEB-producing S. aureus in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice was characterized by robust T cell activation and elevated systemic levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Prophylactic administration of a single dose of linezolid 30 min prior to the onset of infection attenuated the systemic inflammatory response and protected from mortality whereas linezolid administered 60 min after the onset of infection failed to confer significant protection. Human-mouse chimeric high-affinity neutralizing anti-SEB antibodies alone, but not polyclonal human IgG, mitigated this response and protected from death when administered immediately after initiation of infection. Further, anti-SEB antibodies as well as intact polyclonal human IgG, but not its Fab or Fc fragments, protected from lethal pneumonia when followed with linezolid therapy 60 min later. In conclusion, neutralization of superantigens with high-affinity antibodies may have beneficial effects in pneumonia.

  15. MicroRNA-150 protects the mouse heart from ischaemic injury by regulating cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaoping; Wang, Yongchao; Park, Kyoung-mi; Hu, Qiuping; Teoh, Jian-peng; Broskova, Zuzana; Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Li, Jie; Su, Huabo; Tang, Yaoliang; Ramesh, Ganesan; Kim, Il-man

    2015-01-01

    Aims Cardiac injury is accompanied by dynamic changes in the expression of microRNAs (miRs). For example, miR-150 is down-regulated in patients with acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, dilated and ischaemic cardiomyopathy as well as in various mouse heart failure (HF) models. Circulating miR-150 has been recently proposed as a better biomarker of HF than traditional clinical markers such as brain natriuretic peptide. We recently showed using the β-arrestin-biased β-blocker, carvedilol that β-arrestin1-biased β1-adrenergic receptor cardioprotective signalling stimulates the processing of miR-150 in the heart. However, the potential role of miR-150 in ischaemic injury and HF is unknown. Methods and results Here, we show that genetic deletion of miR-150 in mice causes abnormalities in cardiac structural and functional remodelling after MI. The cardioprotective roles of miR-150 during ischaemic injury were in part attributed to direct repression of the pro-apoptotic genes egr2 (zinc-binding transcription factor induced by ischaemia) and p2x7r (pro-inflammatory ATP receptor) in cardiomyocytes. Conclusion These findings reveal a pivotal role for miR-150 as a regulator of cardiomyocyte survival during cardiac injury. PMID:25824147

  16. Immunization with Recombinant TcdB-Encapsulated Nanocomplex Induces Protection against Clostridium difficile Challenge in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is considered to be one of the major cause of infectious diarrhea in healthcare systems worldwide. Symptoms of C. difficile infection are caused largely by the production of two cytotoxins: toxin A (TcdA and toxin B (TcdB. Vaccine development is considered desirable as it would decrease the mounting medical costs and mortality associated with C. difficile infections. Biodegradable nanoparticles composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA and chitosan have proven to be a safe and effective antigen delivery system for many viral vaccines. However, few studies have used this efficient antigen carrier for bacterial vaccine development. In this study, we eliminated the toxin activity domain of toxin B by constructing a recombinant protein rTcdB consists of residues 1852-2363 of TcdB receptor binding domain. The rTcdB was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of γ-PGA and chitosan. Three rounds of intraperitoneal vaccination led to high anti-TcdB antibody responses and afforded mice full protection mice from lethal dose of C. difficile spore challenge. Protection was associated with high levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies, and the rTcdB-encapsulated NPs elicited a longer-lasting antibody titers than antigen with the conventional adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide. Significant reductions in the level of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed in vaccinated mouse. These results suggested that polymeric nanocomplex-based vaccine design can be useful in developing vaccine against C. difficile infections.

  17. Protective effects of organoselenium compounds against methylmercury-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain mitochondrial-enriched fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Meinerz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of 1-100 µM of four organoselenium compounds: diphenyl diselenide, 3’3-ditri-fluoromethyldiphenyl diselenide, p-methoxy-diphenyl diselenide, and p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide, against methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in mitochondrial-enriched fractions from adult Swiss mouse brain. Methylmercury (10-100 µM significantly decreased mitochondrial activity, assessed by MTT reduction assay, in a dose-dependent manner, which occurred in parallel with increased glutathione oxidation, hydroperoxide formation (xylenol orange assay and lipid peroxidation end-products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS. The co-incubation with diphenyl diselenide (100 µM completely prevented the disruption of mitochondrial activity as well as the increase in TBARS levels caused by methylmercury. The compound 3’3-ditrifluoromethyldiphenyl diselenide provided a partial but significant protection against methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction (45.4 ± 5.8% inhibition of the methylmercury effect. Diphenyl diselenide showed a higher thiol peroxidase activity compared to the other three compounds. Catalase blocked methylmercury-induced TBARS, pointing to hydrogen peroxide as a vector during methylmercury toxicity in this model. This result also suggests that thiol peroxidase activity of organoselenium compounds accounts for their protective actions against methylmercury-induced oxidative stress. Our results show that diphenyl diselenide and potentially other organoselenium compounds may represent important molecules in the search for an improved therapy against the deleterious effects of methylmercury as well as other mercury compounds.

  18. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rotavirus VP8* fused to cholera toxin B subunit in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Miaoge; Yu, Linqi; Jia, Lianzhi; Li, Yijian; Zeng, Yuanjun; Li, Tingdong; Ge, Shengxiang; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-11-01

    In attempts to develop recombinant subunit vaccines against rotavirus disease, it was previously shown that the N-terminal truncated VP8* protein, VP8-1 (aa26-231), is a good vaccine candidate when used for immunization in combination with Freund's adjuvant. However, this protein stimulated only weak immune response when aluminum hydroxide was used as an adjuvant. In this study, the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) was employed as intra-molecular adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of VP8-1. Both, the N-terminal and C-terminal fusion proteins, were purified to homogeneity, at which stage they formed pentamers, and showed significantly higher immunogenicity and protective efficacy than a VP8-1/aluminum hydroxide mixture in a mouse model. Compared to VP8-1-CTB, CTB-VP8-1 showed higher binding activity to both, GM1 and the conformation sensitive neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific to VP8. More importantly, CTB-VP8-1 elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibodies and conferred higher protective efficacy than VP8-1-CTB. Therefore, the protein CTB-VP8-1, with enhanced immunogenicity and immunoprotectivity, could be considered as a viable candidate for further development of an alternative, replication-incompetent, parenterally administered vaccine against rotavirus disease.

  19. Chimeric Hemagglutinin Constructs Induce Broad Protection against Influenza B Virus Challenge in the Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ermler, Megan E.; Kirkpatrick, Ericka; Sun, Weina; Hai, Rong; Amanat, Fatima; Chromikova, Veronika; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal influenza virus epidemics represent a significant public health burden. Approximately 25% of all influenza virus infections are caused by type B viruses, and these infections can be severe, especially in children. Current influenza virus vaccines are an effective prophylaxis against infection but are impacted by rapid antigenic drift, which can lead to mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Here, we describe a broadly protective vaccine candidate based on chimeri...

  20. Chronic Caffeine Treatment Protects Against α-Synucleinopathy by Reestablishing Autophagy Activity in the Mouse Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Yanan; Ren, Xiangpeng; Zheng, Wu; Zeng, Zhenhai; Guo, Yingzi; Hou, Zhidong; Guo, Wei; Chen, Xingjun; Li, Fei; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2018-01-01

    Despite converging epidemiological evidence for the inverse relationship of regular caffeine consumption and risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) with animal studies demonstrating protective effect of caffeine in various neurotoxin models of PD, whether caffeine can protect against mutant α-synuclein (α-Syn) A53T-induced neurotoxicity in intact animals has not been examined. Here, we determined the effect of chronic caffeine treatment using the α-Syn fibril model of PD by intra-striatal injection of preformed A53T α-Syn fibrils. We demonstrated that chronic caffeine treatment blunted a cascade of pathological events leading to α-synucleinopathy, including pSer129α-Syn-rich aggregates, apoptotic neuronal cell death, microglia, and astroglia reactivation. Importantly, chronic caffeine treatment did not affect autophagy processes in the normal striatum, but selectively reversed α-Syn-induced defects in macroautophagy (by enhancing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, and reducing the receptor protein sequestosome 1, SQSTM1/p62) and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA, by enhancing LAMP2A). These findings support that caffeine-a strongly protective environment factor as suggested by epidemiological evidence-may represent a novel pharmacological therapy for PD by targeting autophagy pathway.

  1. Vaccination with Recombinant Cryptococcus Proteins in Glucan Particles Protects Mice against Cryptococcosis in a Manner Dependent upon Mouse Strain and Cryptococcal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Specht

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of a vaccine to protect against cryptococcosis is a priority given the enormous global burden of disease in at-risk individuals. Using glucan particles (GPs as a delivery system, we previously demonstrated that mice vaccinated with crude Cryptococcus-derived alkaline extracts were protected against lethal challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. The goal of the present study was to identify protective protein antigens that could be used in a subunit vaccine. Using biased and unbiased approaches, six candidate antigens (Cda1, Cda2, Cda3, Fpd1, MP88, and Sod1 were selected, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and loaded into GPs. Three mouse strains (C57BL/6, BALB/c, and DR4 were then vaccinated with the antigen-laden GPs, following which they received a pulmonary challenge with virulent C. neoformans and C. gattii strains. Four candidate vaccines (GP-Cda1, GP-Cda2, GP-Cda3, and GP-Sod1 afforded a significant survival advantage in at least one mouse model; some vaccine combinations provided added protection over that seen with either antigen alone. Vaccine-mediated protection against C. neoformans did not necessarily predict protection against C. gattii. Vaccinated mice developed pulmonary inflammatory responses that effectively contained the infection; many surviving mice developed sterilizing immunity. Predicted T helper cell epitopes differed between mouse strains and in the degree to which they matched epitopes predicted in humans. Thus, we have discovered cryptococcal proteins that make promising candidate vaccine antigens. Protection varied depending on the mouse strain and cryptococcal species, suggesting that a successful human subunit vaccine will need to contain multiple antigens, including ones that are species specific.

  2. A pandemic influenza H1N1 live vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara is highly immunogenic and protects mice in active and passive immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Hessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of novel influenza vaccines inducing a broad immune response is an important objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate live vaccines which induce both strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against the novel human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and to show protection in a lethal animal challenge model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this purpose, the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1 strain (CA/07 were inserted into the replication-deficient modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus--a safe poxviral live vector--resulting in MVA-H1-Ca and MVA-N1-Ca vectors. These live vaccines, together with an inactivated whole virus vaccine, were assessed in a lung infection model using immune competent Balb/c mice, and in a lethal challenge model using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice after passive serum transfer from immunized mice. Balb/c mice vaccinated with the MVA-H1-Ca virus or the inactivated vaccine were fully protected from lung infection after challenge with the influenza H1N1 wild-type strain, while the neuraminidase virus MVA-N1-Ca induced only partial protection. The live vaccines were already protective after a single dose and induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies and of interferon-gamma-secreting (IFN-gamma CD4- and CD8 T-cells in lungs and spleens. In the lungs, a rapid increase of HA-specific CD4- and CD8 T cells was observed in vaccinated mice shortly after challenge with influenza swine flu virus, which probably contributes to the strong inhibition of pulmonary viral replication observed. In addition, passive transfer of antisera raised in MVA-H1-Ca vaccinated immune-competent mice protected SCID mice from lethal challenge with the CA/07 wild-type virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The non-replicating MVA-based H1N1 live vaccines induce a broad protective immune response and are promising vaccine candidates for

  3. Stanniocalcin-1 Protects a Mouse Model from Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Affecting ROS-Mediated Multiple Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dajun; Shang, Huiping; Liu, Ying

    2016-07-12

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI). However, the molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. STC-1 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas most ROS-mediated pathways are associated with ischemic injury. Therefore, to explore the mechanism, the effects of STC-1 on ROS-medicated pathways were studied. Non-traumatic vascular clamps were used to establish RIRI mouse models. The serum levels of STC-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon (IFN) γ, P53, and capase-3 were measured by ELISA kits. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by fluorescence spectrofluorometer. All these molecules changed significantly in a RIRI model mouse when compared with those in a sham control. Kidney cells were isolated from sham and model mice. STC-1 was overexpressed or knockout in these kidney cells. The molecules in ROS-medicated pathways were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results showed that STC-1 is an effective ROS scavenger. The serum levels of STC-1, MDA and SOD activity were increased while the serum levels of IL-6, iIFN-γ, P53, and capase-3 were decreased in a model group when compared with a sham control (p ROS-mediated molecules. Therefore, STC-1 maybe improve anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis activities by affecting ROS-mediated pathways, especially the phospho-modifications of the respective proteins, resulting in the increase of SOD and reduce of capase-3, p53, IL-6 and IFN-γ.

  4. Genetically engineered Lactococcus lactis protect against house dust mite allergy in a BALB/c mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqing Ai

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccine based on lactic acid bacteria is an attractive concept for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, but their mechanisms of action in vivo are poorly understood. Therefore, we sought to investigate how recombinant major dust mite allergen Der p2-expressing Lactococcus lactis as a mucosal vaccine induced the immune tolerance against house dust mite allergy in a mouse model.Three strains of recombinant L. lactis producing Der p2 in different cell components (extracellular, intracellular and cell wall were firstly constructed. Their prophylactic potential was evaluated in a Der p2-sensitised mouse model, and immunomodulation properties at the cellular level were determined by measuring cytokine production in vitro.Der p2 expressed in the different recombinant L. lactis strains was recognized by a polyclonal anti-Der p2 antibody. Oral treatment with the recombinant L. lactis prior sensitization significantly prevented the development of airway inflammation in the Der p2-sensitized mice, as determined by the attenuation of inflammatory cells infiltration in the lung tissues and decrease of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage. In addition, the serum allergen-specific IgE levels were significantly reduced, and the levels of IL-4 in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes cell cultures were also markedly decreased upon allergen stimulation in the mice fed with the recombinant L. lactis strains. These protective effects correlated with a significant up-regulation of regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes.Oral pretreatment with live recombinant L. lactis prevented the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation primarily by the induction of specific mucosal immune tolerance.

  5. Brahmarasayana protects against Ethyl methanesulfonate or Methyl methanesulfonate induced chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruprasad Kanive

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Rasayana is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda which refers to rejuvenant therapy. It has been reported that rasayanas have immuno-modulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions, however, the genotoxic potential and modulation of DNA repair of many rasayanas have not been evaluated. Methods The present study assessed the role of Brahmarasayana (BR on Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS-and Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS-induced genotoxicity and DNA repair in in vivo mouse test system. The mice were orally fed with BR (5 g or 8 mg / day for two months and 24 h later EMS or MMS was given intraperitoneally. The genotoxicity was analyzed by chromosomal aberrations, sperm count, and sperm abnormalities. Results The results have revealed that BR did not induce significant chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of the control animals (p >0.05. On the other hand, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (240 mg / kg body weight or MMS (125 mg / kg body weight were significantly higher (p Conclusion The effect of BR, as it relates to antioxidant activity was not evident in liver tissue however rasayana treatment was observed to increase constitutive DNA base excision repair and reduce clastogenicity. Whilst, the molecular mechanisms of such repair need further exploration, this is the first report to demonstrate these effects and provides further evidence for the role of brahmarasayana in the possible improvement of quality of life.

  6. Chronic hydroxychloroquine improves endothelial dysfunction and protects kidney in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Jiménez, Rosario; Romero, Miguel; Sánchez, Manuel; Zarzuelo, María José; Gómez-Morales, Mercedes; O'Valle, Francisco; López-Farré, Antonio José; Algieri, Francesca; Gálvez, Julio; Pérez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Sabio, José Mario; Duarte, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Hydroxychloroquine has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus. Hydroxychloroquine-treated lupus patients showed a lower incidence of thromboembolic disease. Endothelial dysfunction, the earliest indicator of the development of cardiovascular disease, is present in lupus. Whether hydroxychloroquine improves endothelial function in lupus is not clear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of hydroxychloroquine on hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and renal injury in a female mouse model of lupus. NZBWF1 (lupus) and NZW/LacJ (control) mice were treated with hydroxychloroquine 10 mg/kg per day by oral gavage, or with tempol and apocynin in the drinking water, for 5 weeks. Hydroxychloroquine treatment did not alter lupus disease activity (assessed by plasma double-stranded DNA autoantibodies) but prevented hypertension, cardiac and renal hypertrophy, proteinuria, and renal injury in lupus mice. Aortae from lupus mice showed reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and enhanced contraction to phenylephrine, which were normalized by hydroxychloroquine or antioxidant treatments. No differences among all experimental groups were found in both the relaxant responses to acetylcholine and the contractile responses to phenylephrine in rings incubated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. Vascular reactive oxygen species content and mRNA levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits NOX-1 and p47(phox) were increased in lupus mice and reduced by hydroxychloroquine or antioxidants. Chronic hydroxychloroquine treatment reduced hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and organ damage in severe lupus mice, despite the persistent elevation of anti-double-stranded DNA, suggesting the involvement of new additional mechanisms to improve cardiovascular complications. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Andrographolide protects mouse astrocytes against hypoxia injury by promoting autophagy and S100B expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Du

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (ANDRO has been studied for its immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotection effects. Because brain hypoxia is the most common factor of secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury, we studied the role and possible mechanism of ANDRO in this process using hypoxia-injured astrocytes. Mouse cortical astrocytes C8-D1A (astrocyte type I clone from C57/BL6 strains were subjected to 3 and 21% of O2 for various times (0–12 h to establish an astrocyte hypoxia injury model in vitro. After hypoxia and ANDRO administration, the changes in cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using CCK-8 and flow cytometry. Expression changes in apoptosis-related proteins, autophagy-related proteins, main factors of JNK pathway, ATG5, and S100B were determined by western blot. Hypoxia remarkably damaged C8-D1A cells evidenced by reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Hypoxia also induced autophagy and overproduction of S100B. ANDRO reduced cell apoptosis and promoted cell autophagy and S100B expression. After ANDRO administration, autophagy-related proteins, S-100B, JNK pathway proteins, and ATG5 were all upregulated, while autophagy-related proteins and s100b were downregulated when the jnk pathway was inhibited or ATG5 was knocked down. ANDRO conferred a survival advantage to hypoxia-injured astrocytes by reducing cell apoptosis and promoting autophagy and s100b expression. Furthermore, the promotion of autophagy and s100b expression by ANDRO was via activation of jnk pathway and regulation of ATG5.

  8. Protective Effects of Butyrate-based Compounds on a Mouse Model for Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchbach, Matthew E. R.; Lumpkin, Casey J.; Harris, Ashlee W.; Saieva, Luciano; Edwards, Jonathan D.; Workman, Eileen; Simard, Louise R.; Pellizzoni, Livio; Burghes, Arthur H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a childhood-onset degenerative disease resulting from the selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord. SMA is caused by the loss of SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1) but retention of SMN2. The number of copies of SMN2 modifies disease severity in SMA patients as well as in mouse models, making SMN2 a target for therapeutics development. Sodium butyrate (BA) and its analogue (4PBA) have been shown to increase SMN2 expression in SMA cultured cells. In this study, we examined the effects of BA, 4PBA as well as two BA prodrugs—glyceryl tributyrate (BA3G) and VX563—on the phenotype of SMNΔ7 SMA mice. Treatment with 4PBA, BA3G and VX563 but not BA beginning at PND04 significantly improved the lifespan and delayed disease end stage, with administration of VX563 also improving the growth rate of these mice. 4PBA and VX563 improved the motor phenotype of SMNΔ7 SMA mice and prevented spinal motor neuron loss. Interestingly, neither 4PBA nor VX563 had an effect on SMN expression in the spinal cords of treated SMNΔ7 SMA mice; however, they inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and restored the normal phosphorylation states of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, both of which are altered by SMN deficiency in vivo. These observations show that BA-based compounds with favourable pharmacokinetics ameliorate SMA pathology possibly by modulating HDAC and Akt signaling. PMID:26892876

  9. SIRT1 signalling protects mouse oocytes against oxidative stress and is deregulated during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Emidio, Giovanna; Falone, Stefano; Vitti, Maurizio; D'Alessandro, Anna Maria; Vento, Marilena; Di Pietro, Cinzia; Amicarelli, Fernanda; Tatone, Carla

    2014-09-01

    Is SIRT1 involved in the oxidative stress (OS) response in mouse oocytes? SIRT1 plays a pivotal role in the adaptive response of mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes to OS and promotes a signalling cascade leading to up-regulation of the MnSod gene. OS is known to continuously threaten acquisition and maintenance of oocyte developmental potential during in vivo processes and in vitro manipulations. Previous studies in somatic cells have provided strong evidence for the role of SIRT1 as a sensor of the cell redox state and a protector against OS and aging. GV oocytes obtained from young (4-8 weeks) and reproductively old (48-52 weeks) CD1 mice were blocked in the prophase stage by 0.5 µM cilostamide. Groups of 30 oocytes were exposed to 25 µM H2O2 and processed following different times for the analysis of intracellular localization of SIRT1 and FOXO3A, and evaluation of Sirt1, miRNA-132, FoxO3a and MnSod gene expression. Another set of oocytes was cultured in the presence or absence of the SIRT1-specific inhibitor Ex527, and exposed to H2O2 in order to assess the involvement of SIRT1 in the activation of a FoxO3a-MnSod axis and ROS detoxification. In the last part of this study, GV oocytes were maturated in vitro in the presence of different Ex527 concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 µM) and assessed for maturation rates following 16 h. Effects of Ex527 on spindle morphology and ROS levels were also evaluated. SIRT1 and FOXO3A intracellular distribution in response to OS was investigated by immunocytochemistry. Real-time RT-PCR was employed to analyse Sirt1, miR-132, FoxO3a and MnSod gene expression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated by in vivo measurement of carboxy-H2DCF diacetate labelling. Spindle and chromosomal distribution in in vitro matured oocytes were analysed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fluorescent labelling, respectively. Specific changes in the intracellular localization of SIRT1 and up-regulation of Sirt1 gene were detected in

  10. Differences in susceptibility among mouse strains to infection with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA clone) sporozoites and its relationship to protection by gamma-irradiated sporozoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, R.I.; Lowell, G.H.; Gordon, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Three inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 (H-2b), A/J (H-2a), and BALB/c (H-2d), and 1 outbred strain, CD-1, demonstrated differences in susceptibility to iv challenge with the ANKA clone of Plasmodium berghei. Mice were challenged with 100, 1,000, or 10,000 sporozoites, then evaluated daily beginning on day 4 for patency. CD-1 mice were further evaluated at challenge doses of 12,500, 25,000, and 50,000 sporozoites. C57BL/6 mice were the easiest to infect, with 90% becoming infected with 100 sporozoites. The outbred strain CD-1 was the most difficult to infect, requiring a challenge dose of 25,000 sporozoites/mouse in order to achieve a 100% infection rate. Mouse strains also demonstrated differences in their ability to be protected by intravenous immunization with gamma-irradiated sporozoites. A/J mice needed a minimum of 3 doses of irradiated sporozoites for protection against a challenge with 10,000 sporozoites. In contrast, BALB/c mice immunized with a single dose of 1,000 irradiated sporozoites are protected against a 10,000 sporozoite challenge. These data suggest that both infectivity and protection are genetically restricted and that susceptibility to infection may be inversely related to protection

  11. Progranulin gene delivery protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackalina M Van Kampen

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity and akinesia/bradykinesia resulting from the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. To date, only symptomatic treatment is available for PD patients, with no effective means of slowing or stopping the progression of the disease. Progranulin (PGRN is a 593 amino acid multifunction protein that is widely distributed throughout the CNS, localized primarily in neurons and microglia. PGRN has been demonstrated to be a potent regulator of neuroinflammation and also acts as an autocrine neurotrophic factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. Thus, enhancing PGRN expression may strengthen the cells resistance to disease. In the present study, we have used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP model of PD to investigate the possible use of PGRN gene delivery as a therapy for the prevention or treatment of PD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene was an effective means of elevating PGRN expression in nigrostriatal neurons. When PGRN expression was elevated in the SNC, nigrostriatal neurons were protected from MPTP toxicity in mice, along with a preservation of striatal dopamine content and turnover. Further, protection of nigrostriatal neurons by PGRN gene therapy was accompanied by reductions in markers of MPTP-induced inflammation and apoptosis as well as a complete preservation of locomotor function. We conclude that PGRN gene therapy may have beneficial effects in the treatment of PD.

  12. Dexamethasone Protects Against Tourniquet-Induced Acute Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mouse Hindlimb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Corrick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extremity injuries with hemorrhage have been a significant cause of death in civilian medicine and on the battlefield. The use of a tourniquet as an intervention is necessary for treatment to an injured limb; however, the tourniquet and subsequent release results in serious acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in the skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction (NMJ. Much evidence demonstrates that inflammation is an important factor to cause acute IR injury. To find effective therapeutic interventions for tourniquet-induced acute IR injuries, our current study investigated effect of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, on tourniquet-induced acute IR injury in mouse hindlimb. In C57/BL6 mice, a tourniquet was placed on unilateral hindlimb (left hindlimb at the hip joint for 3 h, and then released for 24 h to induce IR. Three hours of tourniquet and 24 h of release (24-h IR caused gastrocnemius muscle injuries including rupture of the muscle sarcolemma and necrosis (42.8 ± 2.3% for infarct size of the gastrocnemius muscle. In the NMJ, motor nerve terminals disappeared, and endplate potentials were undetectable in 24-h IR mice. There was no gastrocnemius muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. Western blot data showed that inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-1β were increased in the gastrocnemius muscle after 24-h IR. Treatment with dexamethasone at the beginning of reperfusion (1 mg/kg, i.p. significantly inhibited expression of TNFα and IL-1β, reduced rupture of the muscle sarcolemma and infarct size (24.8 ± 2.0%, and improved direct muscle stimulation-induced gastrocnemius muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. However, this anti-inflammatory drug did not improve NMJ morphology and function, and sciatic nerve-stimulated skeletal muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. The data suggest that one-time treatment with dexamethasone at the beginning of reperfusion only reduced structural and functional impairments of the skeletal muscle but not the

  13. MMP9 is protective against lethal inflammatory mass lesions in the mouse colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Andreas; Rønø, Birgitte; Melander, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    of individual members of the MMP family in animal models have been shown to have little effect. It has been speculated that this results from a functional overlap between individual MMPs and (as-yet-unclassified) functional overlaps between MMPs and other protease systems. We here present genetic data showing......, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, decreased thymus size and altered populations of circulating immune cells. A time-course study provided evidence that the massive lymphoid hyperplasia and reactive changes were secondary to discrete fibrinous lesions also observed in mice only deficient for plasminogen (Plg......), the zymogen for plasmin. These data demonstrate a non-appreciated vital protective role for MMP9 in the absence of Plg....

  14. Sunscreen protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers in mouse epidermal DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces a number of pathologic conditions of mammalian skin including erythema, oedema, hyperplasia, sunburn cell formation and skin cancer. Consequently, UVR-induced DNA damage has been implicated as one of the photochemical events that results in the formation of these pathological changes. The ability of sunscreens to protect against UVR-induced DNA damage has not been well characterized especially with UVA (320-400 nm) wavelengths and UVA absorbers. In this paper we present results of a study aimed at determining the efficacy of two sunscreens at preventing the induction of pyrmidine dimers in basal cell DNA of mice exposed to solar-simulated UVR (SSUV) wavelengths (290-400 nm) or to UVA (320-400 nm). (author)

  15. Sunscreen protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers in mouse epidermal DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, R.D. [The Lovelace Institutes, Albuqeurque, NM (United States). Photomdecine Program; Fourtanier, A. [L`Oreal, Advanced Research, Clichy (France)

    1997-06-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces a number of pathologic conditions of mammalian skin including erythema, oedema, hyperplasia, sunburn cell formation and skin cancer. Consequently, UVR-induced DNA damage has been implicated as one of the photochemical events that results in the formation of these pathological changes. The ability of sunscreens to protect against UVR-induced DNA damage has not been well characterized especially with UVA (320-400 nm) wavelengths and UVA absorbers. In this paper we present results of a study aimed at determining the efficacy of two sunscreens at preventing the induction of pyrmidine dimers in basal cell DNA of mice exposed to solar-simulated UVR (SSUV) wavelengths (290-400 nm) or to UVA (320-400 nm). (author).

  16. Ultra Low Dose Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Protects Mouse Liver from Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Hochhauser

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is the main cause of both primary graft dysfunction and primary non-function of liver allografts. Cannabinoids has been reported to attenuate myocardial, cerebral and hepatic I/R oxidative injury. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, a cannabinoid agonist, is the active components of marijuana. In this study we examined the role of ultralow dose THC (0.002mg/kg in the protection of livers from I/R injury. This extremely low dose of THC was previously found by us to protect the mice brain and heart from a variety of insults. Methods: C57Bl Mice were studied in in vivo model of hepatic segmental (70% ischemia for 60min followed by reperfusion for 6 hours. Results: THC administration 2h prior to the induction of hepatic I/R was associated with significant attenuated elevations of: serum liver transaminases ALT and AST, the hepatic oxidative stress (activation of the intracellular signaling CREB pathway, the acute proinflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-10 and c-FOS hepatic mRNA levels, and ERK signaling pathway activation. This was followed by cell death (the cleavage of the pro-apoptotic caspase 3, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL after 6 hours of reperfusion. Significantly less hepatic injury was detected in the THC treated I/R mice and fewer apoptotic hepatocytes cells were identified by morphological criteria compared with untreated mice. Conclusion: A single ultralow dose THC can reduce the apoptotic, oxidative and inflammatory injury induced by hepatic I/R injury. THC may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hepatic I/R injury during liver transplantation, liver resection and trauma.

  17. Protection from diclofenac-induced liver injury by Yulangsan polysaccharide in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianchun; Nguyen, Vanphuc; Tang, Xiaojun; Wei, Jinbin; Lin, Xing; Lai, Zefeng; Doan, Vanminh; Xie, Qiuqiao; Huang, Renbin

    2016-12-04

    Millettia pulchra Kurz var-laxior (Dunn) Z. Wei, a wild-growing plant of the family Fabaceae is known to possess multifarious medicinal properties. Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSPS) is a chief ingredient of its root, which has been used in Chinese traditional medicine with a long history for remedy of acute or chronic hepatitis and jaundice. To investigate the ability of the YLSPS to protect against diclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Mice were orally treated with YLSPS daily 1h after the injection of diclofenac for 2 weeks. Dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate was used as a reference drug. YLSPS effectively reduced the elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase and enhanced the reduction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver. Moreover, the content of malondialdehyde was reduced by treatment with YLSPS, and histological findings also confirmed the anti-hepatotoxic activity. In addition, YLSPS significantly inhibited proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1 beta. YLSPS also enhanced mitochondrial antioxidants and inhibited cell death by preventing the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and the up-regulation and release of Bax along with caspase 9 and 3 activity; thus, these findings confirm the involvement of mitochondria in diclofenac-induced apoptosis. The results indicate that protective effects of YLSPS against diclofenac-induced acute hepatic injury may rely on its effect on reducing oxidative stress, suppressing inflammatory responses, and improving drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in the liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New gorilla adenovirus vaccine vectors induce potent immune responses and protection in a mouse malaria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, Keith; Stefaniak, Maureen; Chen, Ping; Patterson, Noelle B; Liao, Grant; Weng, Shaojie; Krepkiy, Svetlana; Ekberg, Greg; Torano, Holly; Ettyreddy, Damodar; Gowda, Kalpana; Sonawane, Sharvari; Belmonte, Arnel; Abot, Esteban; Sedegah, Martha; Hollingdale, Michael R; Moormann, Ann; Vulule, John; Villasante, Eileen; Richie, Thomas L; Brough, Douglas E; Bruder, Joseph T

    2017-07-03

    A DNA-human Ad5 (HuAd5) prime-boost malaria vaccine has been shown to protect volunteers against a controlled human malaria infection. The potency of this vaccine, however, appeared to be affected by the presence of pre-existing immunity against the HuAd5 vector. Since HuAd5 seroprevalence is very high in malaria-endemic areas of the world, HuAd5 may not be the most appropriate malaria vaccine vector. This report describes the evaluation of the seroprevalence, immunogenicity and efficacy of three newly identified gorilla adenoviruses, GC44, GC45 and GC46, as potential malaria vaccine vectors. The seroprevalence of GC44, GC45 and GC46 is very low, and the three vectors are not efficiently neutralized by human sera from Kenya and Ghana, two countries where malaria is endemic. In mice, a single administration of GC44, GC45 and GC46 vectors expressing a murine malaria gene, Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein (PyCSP), induced robust PyCSP-specific T cell and antibody responses that were at least as high as a comparable HuAd5-PyCSP vector. Efficacy studies in a murine malaria model indicated that a prime-boost regimen with DNA-PyCSP and GC-PyCSP vectors can protect mice against a malaria challenge. Moreover, these studies indicated that a DNA-GC46-PyCSP vaccine regimen was significantly more efficacious than a DNA-HuAd5-PyCSP regimen. These data suggest that these gorilla-based adenovectors have key performance characteristics for an effective malaria vaccine. The superior performance of GC46 over HuAd5 highlights its potential for clinical development.

  19. Brucella abortus ΔrpoE1 confers protective immunity against wild type challenge in a mouse model of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jonathan W; Herrou, Julien; Czyz, Daniel M; Cheng, Jason X; Crosson, Sean

    2016-09-30

    The Brucella abortus general stress response (GSR) system regulates activity of the alternative sigma factor, σ(E1), which controls transcription of approximately 100 genes and is required for persistence in a BALB/c mouse chronic infection model. We evaluated the host response to infection by a B. abortus strain lacking σ(E1) (ΔrpoE1), and identified pathological and immunological features that distinguish ΔrpoE1-infected mice from wild-type (WT), and that correspond with clearance of ΔrpoE1 from the host. ΔrpoE1 infection was indistinguishable from WT in terms of splenic bacterial burden, inflammation and histopathology up to 6weeks post-infection. However, Brucella-specific serum IgG levels in ΔrpoE1-infected mice were 5 times higher than WT by 4weeks post-infection, and remained significantly higher throughout the course of a 12-week infection. Total IgG and Brucella-specific IgG levels peaked strongly in ΔrpoE1-infected mice at 6weeks, which correlated with reduced splenomegaly and bacterial burden relative to WT-infected mice. Given the difference in immune response to infection with wild-type and ΔrpoE1, we tested whether ΔrpoE1 confers protective immunity to wild-type challenge. Mice immunized with ΔrpoE1 completely resisted WT infection and had significantly higher serum titers of Brucella-specific IgG, IgG2a and IFN-γ after WT challenge relative to age-matched naïve mice. We conclude that immunization of BALB/c mice with the B. abortus GSR pathway mutant, ΔrpoE1, elicits an adaptive immune response that confers significant protective immunity against WT infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunization with lipopolysaccharide-deficient whole cells provides protective immunity in an experimental mouse model of Acinetobacter baumannii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell García-Quintanilla

    Full Text Available The increasing clinical importance of infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii warrants the development of novel approaches for prevention and treatment. In this context, vaccination of certain patient populations may contribute to reducing the morbidity and mortality caused by this pathogen. Vaccines against Gram-negative bacteria based on inactivated bacterial cells are highly immunogenic and have been shown to produce protective immunity against a number of bacterial species. However, the high endotoxin levels present in these vaccines due to the presence of lipopolysaccharide complicates their use in human vaccination. In the present study, we used a laboratory-derived strain of A. baumannii that completely lacks lipopolysaccharide due to a mutation in the lpxD gene (IB010, one of the genes involved in the first steps of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, for vaccination. We demonstrate that IB010 has greatly reduced endotoxin content (<1.0 endotoxin unit/106 cells compared to wild type cells. Immunization with formalin inactivated IB010 produced a robust antibody response consisting of both IgG1 and IgG2c subtypes. Mice immunized with IB010 had significantly lower post-infection tissue bacterial loads and significantly lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 compared to control mice in a mouse model of disseminated A. baumannii infection. Importantly, immunized mice were protected from infection with the ATCC 19606 strain and an A. baumannii clinical isolate. These data suggest that immunization with inactivated A. baumannii whole cells deficient in lipopolysaccharide could serve as the basis for a vaccine for the prevention of infection caused by A. baumannii.

  1. The anti-diabetic drug metformin protects against chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Liang Mao-Ying

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN characterized by loss of sensory sensitivity and pain in hands and feet is the major dose-limiting toxicity of many chemotherapeutics. At present, there are no FDA-approved treatments for CIPN. The anti-diabetic drug metformin is the most widely used prescription drug in the world and improves glycemic control in diabetes patients. There is some evidence that metformin enhances the efficacy of cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that metformin protects against chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain and sensory deficits. Mice were treated with cisplatin together with metformin or saline. Cisplatin induced increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation (mechanical allodynia as measured using the von Frey test. Co-administration of metformin almost completely prevented the cisplatin-induced mechanical allodynia. Co-administration of metformin also prevented paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia. The capacity of the mice to detect an adhesive patch on their hind paw was used as a novel indicator of chemotherapy-induced sensory deficits. Co-administration of metformin prevented the cisplatin-induced increase in latency to detect the adhesive patch indicating that metformin prevents sensory deficits as well. Moreover, metformin prevented the reduction in density of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (IENFs in the paw that develops as a result of cisplatin treatment. We conclude that metformin protects against pain and loss of tactile function in a mouse model of CIPN. The finding that metformin reduces loss of peripheral nerve endings indicates that mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of metformin includes a neuroprotective activity. Because metformin is widely used for treatment of type II diabetes, has a broad safety profile, and is currently being tested as an adjuvant drug in cancer treatment, clinical translation of these findings could be rapidly achieved.

  2. The alpha(2a)-adrenergic receptor plays a protective role in mouse behavioral models of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, N L; McDonald, M P; Limbird, L E

    2001-07-01

    The noradrenergic system is involved in the regulation of many physiological and psychological processes, including the modulation of mood. The alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2)-ARs) modulate norepinephrine release, as well as the release of serotonin and other neurotransmitters, and are therefore potential targets for antidepressant and anxiolytic drug development. The current studies were undertaken to examine the role of the alpha(2A) subtype of alpha(2)-AR in mouse behavioral models of depression and anxiety. We have observed that the genetic knock-out of the alpha(2A)-AR makes mice less active in a modified version of Porsolt's forced swim test and insensitive to the antidepressant effects of the tricyclic drug imipramine in this paradigm. Furthermore, alpha(2A)-AR knock-out mice appear more anxious than wild-type C57 Bl/6 mice in the rearing and light-dark models of anxiety after injection stress. These findings suggest that the alpha(2A)-AR may play a protective role in some forms of depression and anxiety and that the antidepressant effects of imipramine may be mediated by the alpha(2A)-AR.

  3. PML-RARA-targeted DNA vaccine induces protective immunity in a mouse model of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Rose Ann; Larghero, Jerome; Robin, Marie; le Pogam, Carol; Schlageter, Marie-Helene; Muszlak, Sacha; Fric, Jan; West, Robert; Rousselot, Philippe; Phan, Thi Hai; Mudde, Liesbeth; Teisserenc, Helene; Carpentier, Antoine F; Kogan, Scott; Degos, Laurent; Pla, Marika; Bishop, J Michael; Stevenson, Freda; Charron, Dominique; Chomienne, Christine

    2003-11-01

    Despite improved molecular characterization of malignancies and development of targeted therapies, acute leukemia is not curable and few patients survive more than 10 years after diagnosis. Recently, combinations of different therapeutic strategies (based on mechanisms of apoptosis, differentiation and cytotoxicity) have significantly increased survival. To further improve outcome, we studied the potential efficacy of boosting the patient's immune response using specific immunotherapy. In an animal model of acute promyelocytic leukemia, we developed a DNA-based vaccine by fusing the human promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor-alpha (PML-RARA) oncogene to tetanus fragment C (FrC) sequences. We show for the first time that a DNA vaccine specifically targeted to an oncoprotein can have a pronounced effect on survival, both alone and when combined with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The survival advantage is concomitant with time-dependent antibody production and an increase in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). We also show that ATRA therapy on its own triggers an immune response in this model. When DNA vaccination and conventional ATRA therapy are combined, they induce protective immune responses against leukemia progression in mice and may provide a new approach to improve clinical outcome in human leukemia.

  4. Wheel-running in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: protection or symptom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Helene; Ambrée, Oliver; Lewejohann, Lars; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Paulus, Werner; Palme, Rupert; Touma, Chadi; Schäbitz, Wolf-Rüdiger; Sachser, Norbert

    2008-06-26

    Several studies on both humans and animals reveal benefits of physical exercise on brain function and health. A previous study on TgCRND8 mice, a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease, reported beneficial effects of premorbid onset of long-term access to a running wheel on spatial learning and plaque deposition. Our study investigated the effects of access to a running wheel after the onset of Abeta pathology on behavioural, endocrinological, and neuropathological parameters. From day 80 of age, the time when Abeta deposition becomes apparent, TgCRND8 and wildtype mice were kept with or without running wheel. Home cage behaviour was analysed and cognitive abilities regarding object recognition memory and spatial learning in the Barnes maze were assessed. Our results show that, in comparison to Wt mice, Tg mice were characterised by impaired object recognition memory and spatial learning, increased glucocorticoid levels, hyperactivity in the home cage and high levels of stereotypic behaviour. Access to a running wheel had no effects on cognitive or neuropathological parameters, but reduced the amount of stereotypic behaviour in transgenics significantly. Furthermore, wheel-running was inversely correlated with stereotypic behaviour, suggesting that wheel-running may have stereotypic qualities. In addition, wheel-running positively correlated with plaque burden. Thus, in a phase when plaques are already present in the brain, it may be symptomatic of brain pathology, rather than protective. Whether or not access to a running wheel has beneficial effects on Alzheimer-like pathology and symptoms may therefore strongly depend on the exact time when the wheel is provided during development of the disease.

  5. CD47 Promotes Protective Innate and Adaptive Immunity in a Mouse Model of Disseminated Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Stein, Erica V.; Lessey-Morillon, Elizabeth C.; Nayak, Debasis; Martin-Manso, Gema; Roberts, David D.

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is a widely expressed receptor that regulates immunity by engaging its counter-receptor SIRPα on phagocytes and its secreted ligand thrombospondin-1. Mice lacking CD47 can exhibit enhanced or impaired host responses to bacterial pathogens, but its role in fungal immunity has not been examined. cd47 -/- mice on a C57BL/6 background showed significantly increased morbidity and mortality following Candida albicans infection when compared with wild-type mice. Despite normal fungal colonization at earlier times, cd47 -/- mice at four days post-infection had increased colonization of brain and kidneys accompanied by stronger inflammatory reactions. Neutrophil and macrophage numbers were significantly elevated in kidneys and neutrophils in the brains of infected cd47 -/- mice. However, no defect in phagocytic activity towards C. albicans was observed in cd47 -/- bone-marrow-derived macrophages, and neutrophil and macrophage killing of C. albicans was not impaired. CD47-deficiency did not alter the early humoral immune response to C. albicans. Th1, Th2, and Th17 population of CD4+ T cells were expanded in the spleen, and gene expression profiles of spleen and kidney showed stronger pro-inflammatory signaling in infected cd47 -/- mice. The chemoattractant chemokines MIP-2α and MIP-2β were highly expressed in infected spleens of cd47 -/- mice. G-CSF, GM-CSF, and the inflammasome component NLRP3 were more highly expressed in infected cd47 -/- kidneys than in infected wild-type controls. Circulating pro- (TNF-α, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) were significantly elevated, but IL-17 was decreased. These data indicate that CD47 plays protective roles against disseminated candidiasis and alters pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive pathways known to regulate innate and T cell immunity. PMID:26010544

  6. CANDU passive shutdown systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R S; Olmstead, R A [AECL CANDU, Sheridan Park Research Community, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    CANDU incorporates two diverse, passive shutdown systems, independent of each other and from the reactor regulating system. Both shutdown systems function in the low pressure, low temperature, moderator which surrounds the fuel channels. The shutdown systems are functionally different, physically separate, and passive since the driving force for SDS1 is gravity and the driving force for SDS2 is stored energy. The physics of the reactor core itself ensures a degree of passive safety in that the relatively long prompt neutron generation time inherent in the design of CANDU reactors tend to retard power excursions and reduces the speed required for shutdown action, even for large postulated reactivity increases. All passive systems include a number of active components or initiators. Hence, an important aspect of passive systems is the inclusion of fail safe (activated by active component failure) operation. The mechanisms that achieve the fail safe action should be passive. Consequently the passive performance of the CANDU shutdown systems extends beyond their basic modes of operation to include fail safe operation based on natural phenomenon or stored energy. For example, loss of power to the SDS1 clutches results in the drop of the shutdown rods by gravity, loss of power or instrument air to the injection valves of SDS2 results in valve opening via spring action, and rigorous self checking of logic, data and timing by the shutdown systems computers assures a fail safe reactor trip through the collapse of a fluctuating magnetic field or the discharge of a capacitor. Event statistics from operating CANDU stations indicate a significant decrease in protection system faults that could lead to loss of production and elimination of protection system faults that could lead to loss of protection. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the passive shutdown systems employed by CANDU. (author). 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  7. Transport of a passive scalar across a protective wall-jet in a pipe. Part I: Data acquisition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4A (2011), s. 436-445 ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499; GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : protective fluid film * wall-jet * heat transfer Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.968, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263876210002108

  8. A recombinant bivalent fusion protein rVE confers active and passive protection against Yersinia enterocolitica infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kingston, Joseph Jeyabalaji; Murali, Harishchandra Sripathy; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-03-05

    In the present study, a bivalent chimeric protein rVE comprising immunologically active domains of Yersinia pestis LcrV and YopE was assessed for its prophylactic abilities against Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 infection in murine model. Mice immunized with rVE elicited significantly higher antibody titers with substantial contribution from the rV component (3:1 ratio). Robust and significant resistance to Y. enterocolitica infection with 100% survival (Penterocolitica O:8 against the 75%, 60% and 75% survival seen in mice immunized with rV, rE, rV+rE, respectively. Macrophage monolayer supplemented with anti-rVE polysera illustrated efficient protection (89.41% survival) against challenge of Y. enterocolitica O:8. In contrast to sera from sham-immunized mice, immunization with anti-rVE polysera provided complete protection to BALB/c mice against I.P. challenge with 10(8)CFU of Y. enterocolitica O:8 and developed no conspicuous signs of infection in necropsy. The histopathological analysis of microtome sections confirmed significantly reduced lesion size or no lesion in liver and intestine upon infection in anti-rVE immunized mice. The findings from this study demonstrated the fusion protein rVE as a potential candidate subunit vaccine and showed the functional role of antibodies in protection against Y. enterocolitica infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. II. Active and passive immunization as protection against a lethal bacterial dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1990-01-01

    Immunization against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in athymic and thymus-bearing LEW rats. Active immunization was performed with formalin-killed whole cell vaccine or sublethal infection prior to the lethal infection. After vaccination with killed bacteria the euthymic...... from immunized thymus grafted animals provided only limited protective effect, and treatment with cells from athymic animals had no effect. The study shows that although isogeneic thymus-grafted nude rats become resistent to reinfection with S. typhimurium, only large doses of spleen cells from...

  10. Pan-Influenza A Protection by Prime-Boost Vaccination with Cold-Adapted Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yo Han; Kim, Joo Young; Byun, Young Ho; Son, Ahyun; Lee, Jeong-Yoon; Lee, Yoon Jae; Chang, Jun; Seong, Baik Lin

    2018-01-01

    Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses. Using a mouse model, we tested different prime-boost combinations of CAIVs for their ability to induce humoral and T-cell responses, and protective efficacy against H1 and H5 (HA group 1) as well as H3 and H7 (HA group 2) influenza viruses. Notably, even in the absence of antibody-mediated neutralizing activity or HA inhibitory activity in vitro , CAIVs provided a potent protection against heterologous and heterosubtypic lethal challenges in vivo . Heterologous combination of prime (H1)-boost (H5) vaccine strains showed the most potent cross-protection efficacy. In vivo depletion experiments demonstrated not only that T cells and natural killer cells contributed to the cross-protection, but also the involvement of antibody-dependent mechanisms for the cross-protection. Vaccination-induced antibodies did not enhance the infectivity of heterologous viruses, and prime vaccination did not interfere with neutralizing antibody generation by the boost vaccination, allaying vaccine safety concerns associated with heterogeneity between the vaccines and challenge strains. Our data show that CAIV-based strategy can serve as a simple but powerful option for developing a "truly" universal influenza vaccine providing pan-influenza A protection, which has not been achieved yet by other vaccine strategies. The promising results

  11. Pan-Influenza A Protection by Prime–Boost Vaccination with Cold-Adapted Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yo Han; Kim, Joo Young; Byun, Young Ho; Son, Ahyun; Lee, Jeong-Yoon; Lee, Yoon Jae; Chang, Jun; Seong, Baik Lin

    2018-01-01

    Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses. Using a mouse model, we tested different prime–boost combinations of CAIVs for their ability to induce humoral and T-cell responses, and protective efficacy against H1 and H5 (HA group 1) as well as H3 and H7 (HA group 2) influenza viruses. Notably, even in the absence of antibody-mediated neutralizing activity or HA inhibitory activity in vitro, CAIVs provided a potent protection against heterologous and heterosubtypic lethal challenges in vivo. Heterologous combination of prime (H1)–boost (H5) vaccine strains showed the most potent cross-protection efficacy. In vivo depletion experiments demonstrated not only that T cells and natural killer cells contributed to the cross-protection, but also the involvement of antibody-dependent mechanisms for the cross-protection. Vaccination-induced antibodies did not enhance the infectivity of heterologous viruses, and prime vaccination did not interfere with neutralizing antibody generation by the boost vaccination, allaying vaccine safety concerns associated with heterogeneity between the vaccines and challenge strains. Our data show that CAIV-based strategy can serve as a simple but powerful option for developing a “truly” universal influenza vaccine providing pan-influenza A protection, which has not been achieved yet by other vaccine strategies. The promising

  12. Protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain and memory in a mouse model of apnea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslama, Myriam; Adla-Biassette, Homa; Ramanantsoa, Nelina; Bourgeois, Thomas; Bollen, Bieke; Brissaud, Olivier; Matrot, Boris; Gressens, Pierre; Gallego, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is considered a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders in children based on epidemiological studies. This idea is supported by studies in newborn rodents in which exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) as a model of AOP significantly impairs development. However, the severe IH used in these studies may not fully reflect the broad spectrum of AOP severity. Considering that hypoxia appears neuroprotective under various conditions, we hypothesized that moderate IH would protect the neonatal mouse brain against behavioral stressors and brain damage. On P6, each pup in each litter was randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group exposed to IH while separated from the mother (IH group), a control group exposed to normoxia while separated from the mother (AIR group), and a group of untreated unmanipulated pups left continuously with their mother until weaning (UNT group). Exposure to moderate IH (8% O2) consisted of 20 hypoxic events/hour, 6 h per day from postnatal day 6 (P6) to P10. The stress generated by maternal separation in newborn rodents is known to impair brain development, and we expected this effect to be smaller in the IH group compared to the AIR group. In a separate experiment, we combined maternal separation with excitotoxic brain lesions mimicking those seen in preterm infants. We analyzed memory, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and brain lesion size. In non-lesioned mice, IH stimulated hippocampal angiogenesis and neurogenesis and improved short-term memory indices. In brain-lesioned mice, IH decreased lesion size and prevented memory impairments. Contrary to common perception, IH mimicking moderate apnea may offer neuroprotection, at least in part, against brain lesions and cognitive dysfunctions related to prematurity. AOP may therefore have beneficial effects in some preterm infants. These results support the need for stratification based on AOP severity in clinical trials of treatments for AOP, to determine whether in

  13. Protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain and memory in a mouse model of apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam eBouslama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is considered a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders in children based on epidemiological studies. This idea is supported by studies in newborn rodents in which exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH as a model of AOP significantly impairs development. However, the severe IH used in these studies may not fully reflect the broad spectrum of AOP severity. Considering that hypoxia appears neuroprotective under various conditions, we hypothesized that moderate IH would protect the neonatal mouse brain against behavioral stressors and brain damage. On P6, each pup in each litter was randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group exposed to IH while separated from the mother (IH group, a control group exposed to normoxia while separated from the mother (AIR group, and a group of untreated unmanipulated pups left continuously with their mother until weaning (UNT group. Exposure to moderate IH consisted of 20 hypoxic events/hour, 6 hours per day from postnatal day 6 (P6 to P10. The stress generated by maternal separation in newborn rodents is known to impair brain development, and we expected this effect to be smaller in the IH group compared to the AIR group. In a separate experiment, we combined maternal separation with excitotoxic brain lesions mimicking those seen in preterm infants. We analyzed memory, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and brain lesion size. In non-lesioned mice, IH stimulated hippocampal angiogenesis and neurogenesis and improved short-term memory indices. In brain-lesioned mice, IH decreased lesion size and prevented memory impairments. Contrary to common perception, IH mimicking moderate apnea may offer neuroprotection, at least in part, against brain lesions and cognitive dysfunctions related to prematurity. AOP may therefore have beneficial effects in some preterm infants. These results support the need for stratification based on AOP severity in clinical trials of treatments for AOP, to determine

  14. Lack of passive transfer of renal tubulointerstitial disease by serum or monoclonal antibody specific for renal tubular antigens in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B D; Dilwith, R L; Balaban, S L; Rudofsky, U H

    1988-01-01

    Mice immunized with rabbit renal basement membranes form autoantibodies to their kidney glomerular and tubular basement membranes (GBM/TBM). Development of renal tubular disease (RTD) consists of deposition of autoantibodies along the GBM/TBM with the inter- and intratubular accumulation of lymphocytes and macrophages and destruction of the TBM. Transfer of this disease in mice with either serum or monoclonal antibodies, however, has been difficult to demonstrate and, therefore, attempts were made to confirm a report that RTD is passively transferred by anti-TBM autoantibodies. Using the revised protocol in this later report, we found that 12 weeks after transfer autoantibodies were deposited along the GBM and/or TBM of the recipients, yet RTD was not observed. Although qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the antibody may play a role in the pathogenesis in the murine model of RTD, we could not obtain evidence to support and confirm this study.

  15. Passive Immunoprophylaxis for the Protection of the Mother and Her Baby: Insights from In Vivo Models of Antibody Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqun Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are at high risk for infection by pathogens. Vertical transmission of infectious agents, such as Zika, hepatitis B, and cytomegalovirus during pregnancy, remains a public health problem, associated with dire outcomes for the neonate. Thus, a safe prophylactic and therapeutic approach for protecting the mother and the neonate from infections remains a high priority. Our work is focused on better understanding the safety and efficacy determinants of IgG antibody preparations when used during pregnancy to benefit the mother and her baby. Using pregnant guinea pigs, we demonstrated that biodistribution of administered IgG to the fetus increases with gestation and results in lower maternal and higher fetal antibody concentrations as pregnancy progresses. Data suggests that partition of antibody immunotherapy to the fetal compartment may contribute to a lower maternal exposure (as measured by the AUC and a shorter mean residence time of the IgG therapeutic at the end of pregnancy compared to nonpregnant age-matched controls, irrespective of the administered dose. Our studies provide insights on the importance of selecting an efficacious dose in pregnancy that takes into account IgG biodistribution to the fetus. The use of appropriate animal models of placental transfer and infectious disease during pregnancy would facilitate pharmacokinetic modeling to derive a starting dose in clinical trials.

  16. Passive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Emile

    2018-01-01

    This paper does not present an advocacy of a passive education as opposed to an active education nor does it propose that passive education is in any way 'better' or more important than active education. Through readings of Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida and B.S. Johnson, and gentle critiques of Jacques Rancière and John Dewey, passive…

  17. Immunization of Mice with a Live Transconjugant Shigella Hybrid Strain Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Confirmed Passive Protection Against Heterologous Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, D; Koley, H; Sinha, R; Mukherjee, P; Sarkar, C; Withey, J H; Gachhui, R

    2016-02-01

    An avirulent, live transconjugant Shigella hybrid (LTSHΔstx) strain was constructed in our earlier study by introducing a plasmid vector, pPR1347, into a Shiga toxin gene deleted Shigella dysenteriae 1. Three successive oral administrations of LTSHΔstx to female adult mice produced comprehensive passive heterologous protection in their offspring against challenge with wild-type shigellae. Production of NO and different cytokines such asIL-12p70, IL-1β and IL-23 in peritoneal mice macrophages indicated that LTSHΔstx induced innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Furthermore, production of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 in LTSH-primed splenic CD4+ T cell suggested that LTSHΔstx may induce Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses. Exponential increase of the serum IgG and IgA titre against whole shigellae was observed in immunized adult mice during and after the immunization with the highest peak on day 35. Antigen-specific sIgA was also determined from intestinal lavage of immunized mice. The stomach extracts of neonates from immunized mice, mainly containing mother's milk, contained significant levels of anti-LTSHΔstx immunoglobulin. These studies suggest that the LTSHΔstx could be a new live oral vaccine candidate against shigellosis in the near future. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  18. VSVΔG/EBOV GP-induced innate protection enhances natural killer cell activity to increase survival in a lethal mouse adapted Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kinola J N; Qiu, Xiangguo; Fernando, Lisa; Jones, Steven M; Alimonti, Judie B

    2015-02-01

    Members of the species Zaire ebolavirus cause severe hemorrhagic fever with up to a 90% mortality rate in humans. The VSVΔG/EBOV GP vaccine has provided 100% protection in the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate (NHP) models, and has also been utilized as a post-exposure therapeutic to protect mice, guinea pigs, and NHPs from a lethal challenge of Ebola virus (EBOV). EBOV infection causes rapid mortality in human and animal models, with death occurring as early as 6 days after infection, suggesting a vital role for the innate immune system to control the infection before cells of the adaptive immune system can assume control. Natural killer (NK) cells are the predominant cell of the innate immune response, which has been shown to expand with VSVΔG/EBOV GP treatment. In the current study, an in vivo mouse model of the VSVΔG/EBOV GP post-exposure treatment was used for a mouse adapted (MA)-EBOV infection, to determine the putative VSVΔG/EBOV GP-induced protective mechanism of NK cells. NK depletion studies demonstrated that mice with NK cells survive longer in a MA-EBOV infection, which is further enhanced with VSVΔG/EBOV GP treatment. NK cell mediated cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion was significantly higher with VSVΔG/EBOV GP treatment. Cell mediated cytotoxicity assays and perforin knockout mice experiments suggest that there are perforin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved. Together, these data suggest that NK cells play an important role in VSVΔG/EBOV GP-induced protection of EBOV by increasing NK cytotoxicity, and IFN-γ secretion.

  19. Passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimola, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a containment system that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is prevented from over-heating by a high containment back-pressure and a reactor vessel refill system. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high sub-atmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means. 20 claims, 14 figures

  20. 125I-Fibrin deposition in contact sensitivity reactions in the mouse. Sensitivity of the assay for quantitating reactions after active or passive sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekori, Y.A.; Dvorak, H.F.; Galli, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The clotting associated with delayed hypersensitivity (DH) responses in the mouse by sensitizing the animals to the contactant oxazolone (Ox), and then administering 125 I-guinea pig fibrinogen i.v. 10 to 30 min before antigen challenge 5 days later. Early (4 to 8 hr) contact sensitivity (CS) responses in immunized mice were barely detectable by three conventional measures of CS, but the total 125 I-cpm in ears challenged with hapten was 3.6 to 4.5 x that in control ears challenged with vehicle alone; moreover, the amount of urea-insoluble cpm (cross-linked 125 I-fibrin-associated cpm) in the reactions to Ox was 6.5-fold to 8.2-fold that present in the control reactions. In 24 hr reactions that were near peak intensity by measurements of ear swelling, ear weight ratios, and ratios of 125 I-5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-labeled leukocyte infiltration, the cpm in antigen-challenged ears exceeded that in control ears by 13-fold to 53-fold. In addition, antigen-challenged ears contained 27 to 300 x the urea-insoluble cpm present in control ears. 125 I-Fibrin deposition was not a specific characteristic of CS reactions, because a small amount of urea-insoluble reactivity was also detected in some reactions to Ox in native mice. Nevertheless, the assay was exquisitely sensitive and readily detected quantitative differences between the immunologically specific and nonspecific reactions at very early intervals after challenge or with suboptimal doses of antigen

  1. Protective effect of enterovirus‑71 (EV71) virus‑like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Mao, Fengfeng; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; Meng, Qingling; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-08-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine.

  2. Passivation Of High-Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Surfaces of high-temperature superconductors passivated with native iodides, sulfides, or sulfates formed by chemical treatments after superconductors grown. Passivating compounds nearly insoluble in and unreactive with water and protect underlying superconductors from effects of moisture. Layers of cuprous iodide and of barium sulfate grown. Other candidate passivating surface films: iodides and sulfides of bismuth, strontium, and thallium. Other proposed techniques for formation of passivating layers include deposition and gas-phase reaction.

  3. 7, 8, 3′-Trihydroxyflavone Promotes Neurite Outgrowth and Protects Against Bupivacaine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haohong; Luo, Xingjing

    2016-01-01

    Background 7, 8, 3′-trihydroxyflavone (THF) is a novel pro-neuronal small molecule that acts as a TrkB agonist. In this study, we examined the effect of THF on promoting neuronal growth and protecting anesthetics-induced neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro. Material/Methods Neonatal mouse DRG neurons were cultured in vitro and treated with various concentrations of THF. The effect of THF on neuronal growth was investigated by neurite outgrowth assay and Western blot. In addition, the protective effects of THF on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity were investigated by apoptosis TUNEL assay, neurite outgrowth assay, and Western blot, respectively. Results THF promoted neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons in dose-dependent manner, with an EC50 concentration of 67.4 nM. Western blot analysis showed THF activated TrkB signaling pathway by inducing TrkB phosphorylation. THF also rescued bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity by reducing apoptosis and protecting neurite retraction in DRG neurons. Furthermore, the protection of THF in bupivacaine-injured neurotoxicity was directly associated with TrkB phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner in DRG neurons. Conclusions THF has pro-neuronal effect on DRG neurons by promoting neurite growth and protecting against bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity, likely through TrkB activation. PMID:27371503

  4. The inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on Fc and C3 receptors on mouse and human leukocytes, and the protective potential of human albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M.A.; Diaz-Perches, R.; Gutierrez, M.; Gamminio, E.; Liera, C.; Nieto, P.; Weiss-Steider, B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect that ionizing radiation has in vitro on Fc and C3 receptors was evaluated at various doses and measured by means of erythrocytes coated with antibody (EA) and erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement (EAC) rosettes on human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and on mouse bone marrow cells (BMC) and PBL. We found that the number of cells with either EA and EAC rosettes decreased as the radiation doses increased, and that they were almost absent when the highest doses were employed. We obtained evidence that albumin is a natural source of radio-protection for Fc and C3 receptors, and we showed that by increasing the amount of this molecule we could completely protect receptors for EA and EAC in vitro. Finally, the possible therapeutic value of the administration of human albumin to patients undergoing radiotherapy is discussed

  5. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water fabrication plants. Control of iron content at the final stage of passivation. Pt. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is part of a series which corresponds to the carbon steel behaviour as construction material for Girlder sulfide (G.S.) heavy water plants. The present work analyses the iron concentration study during passivation in the passivating fluid. At the beginning, during the formation of the most soluble sulfide -that is the mackinawite-, the iron concentration reaches more than 10 ppm. After some days, this iron concentration begins to decrease up to its stabilization under 0.1 ppm. This process, which occurs in the 9th. and 11th days, indicates that passivation is over, and that a pyrite and pyrrhotite-pyrite layer exists on the iron. Some differences exist between the results obtained and those previsible for the iron sulfides solubilities. In spite of these difficulties, the procedure is perfectly adequate to judge the passivation final stage. (Author) [es

  6. Protective Effects of Mouse Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Soup on Staurosporine Induced Cell Death in PC12 and U87 Cell Lines

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    Hossein Zhaleh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs soup is promising tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. mBMSCs soup is easily obtained and is capable of transplantation without rejection. We investigated the effects of mBMSC soup on staurosporine-induced cell death in PC12 and U87 cells lines. The percentage of cell viability, cell death, NO concentration, total neurite length (TNL and fraction of cell differentiation (f% were assessed. Viability assay showed that mBM soup (24 and 48h in time dependent were increased cell viability (p<0.05 and also cell death assay showed that cell death in time dependent were decreased, respectively (p<0.05. TNL and fraction of cell differentiation significantly were increased compared with treatment1 (p<0.05. Our data showed that mBM Soup protects cells, increases cell viability, suppresses cell death and improvement the neurite elongation. We concluded that Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell soup plays an important protective role in staurosporine-induced cell death in PC12 and U87 cell lines.

  7. Protective Effects of Polysaccharides from Soybean Meal Against X-ray Radiation Induced Damage in Mouse Spleen Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective effect of the polysaccharides from soybean meal (SMP against X-ray radiation-induced damage in mouse spleen lymphocytes. MTT and comet assay were performed to evaluate SMP’s ability to prevent cell death and DNA damage induced by radiation. The results show that, X-ray radiation (30 KV, 10 mA, 8 min (4 Gy can significantly increase cell death and DNA fragmentation of mouse spleen lymphocytes. Pretreatment with SMP for 2 h before radiation could increase cell viability, moreover, the SMP can reduce X-ray radiation-induced DNA damage. The percentage of tail DNA and the tail moment of the SMP groups were significantly lower than those of the radiation alone group (p < 0.05. These results suggest SMP may be a good candidate as a radioprotective agent.

  8. Intranasal immunization of baculovirus displayed hemagglutinin confers complete protection against mouse adapted highly pathogenic H7N7 reassortant influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subaschandrabose Rajesh Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A H7N7 virus poses a pandemic threat to human health because of its ability for direct transmission from domestic poultry to humans and from human to human. The wide zoonotic potential of H7N7 combined with an antiviral immunity inhibition similar to pandemic 1918 H1N1 and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses is disconcerting and increases the risk of a putative H7N7 pandemic in the future, underlining the urgent need for vaccine development against this virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we developed a recombinant vaccine by expressing the H7N7-HA protein on the surface of baculovirus (Bac-HA. The protective efficacy of the live Bac-HA vaccine construct was evaluated in a mouse model by challenging mice immunized intranasally (i.n. or subcutaneously (s.c. with high pathogenic mouse adapted H7N7 reassorted strain. Although s.c. injection of live Bac-HA induced higher specific IgG than i.n. immunization, the later resulted in an elevated neutralization titer. Interestingly, 100% protection from the lethal viral challenge was only observed for the mice immunized intranasally with live Bac-HA, whereas no protection was achieved in any other s.c. or i.n. immunized mice groups. In addition, we also observed higher mucosal IgA as well as increased IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in the splenocytes of the surviving mice coupled with a reduced viral titer and diminished histopathological signs in the lungs. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that protection from high pathogenic H7N7 (NL/219/03 virus requires both mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice. The balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines is also required for the protection against the H7N7 pathogen. Intranasal administration of live Bac-HA induced all these immune responses and protected the mice from lethal viral challenge. Therefore, live Bac-HA is an effective vaccine candidate against H7N7 viral infections.

  9. Anthocyanins protect against LPS-induced oxidative stress-mediated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Tahir; Kim, Min Woo; Jo, Myeung Hoon; Jo, Min Gi; Badshah, Haroon; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-11-01

    Several studies provide evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of various neurological disorders. Anthocyanins are polyphenolic compounds and are well known for their anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of anthocyanins (extracted from black soybean) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ROS-mediated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS (250 μg/kg) for 7 days triggers elevated ROS and oxidative stress, which induces neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex. Treatment with 24 mg/kg/day of anthocyanins for 14 days in LPS-injected mice (7 days before and 7 days co-treated with LPS) attenuated elevated ROS and oxidative stress compared to mice that received LPS-injection alone. The immunoblotting results showed that anthocyanins reduced the level of the oxidative stress kinase phospho-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 1 (p-JNK). The immunoblotting and morphological results showed that anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced-ROS-mediated neuroinflammation through inhibition of various inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β, TNF-α and the transcription factor NF- k B. Anthocyanins treatment also reduced activated astrocytes and microglia in the cortex of LPS-injected mice, as indicated by reductions in GFAP and Iba-1, respectively. Anthocyanins also prevent overexpression of various apoptotic markers, i.e., Bax, cytosolic cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP-1. Immunohistochemical fluoro-jade B (FJB) and Nissl staining indicated that anthocyanins prevent LPS-induced neurodegeneration in the mouse cortex. Our results suggest that dietary flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, have antioxidant and neuroprotective activities that could be beneficial to various neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Roles of adjuvant and route of vaccination in antibody response and protection engendered by a synthetic matrix protein 2-based influenza A virus vaccine in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cudic Mare

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The M2 ectodomain (M2e of influenza A virus (IAV strains that have circulated in humans during the past 90 years shows remarkably little structural diversity. Since M2e-specific antibodies (Abs are capable of restricting IAV replication in vivo but are present only at minimal concentration in human sera, efforts are being made to develop a M2e-specific vaccine. We are exploring a synthetic multiple antigenic peptide (MAP vaccine and here report on the role of adjuvants (cholera toxin and immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide and route of immunization on Ab response and strength of protection. Results Independent of adjuvants and immunization route, on average 87% of the M2e-MAP-induced Abs were specific for M2e peptide and a variable fraction of these M2e(pep-specific Abs (average 15% cross-reacted with presumably native M2e expressed by M2-transfected cells. The titer of these cross-reactive M2e(pep-nat-specific Abs in sera of parenterally immunized mice displayed a sigmoidal relation to level of protection, with EC50 of ~20 μg Ab/ml serum, though experiments with passive M2e(pep-nat Abs indicated that serum Abs did not fully account for protection in parenterally vaccinated mice, particularly in upper airways. Intranasal vaccination engendered stronger protection and a higher proportion of G2a Abs than parenteral vaccination, and the strength of protection failed to correlate with M2e(pep-nat-specific serum Ab titers, suggesting a role of airway-associated immunity in protection of intranasally vaccinated mice. Intranasal administration of M2e-MAP without adjuvant engendered no response but coadministration with infectious IAV slightly enhanced the M2e(pep-nat Ab response and protection compared to vaccination with IAV or adjuvanted M2e-MAP alone. Conclusion M2e-MAP is an effective immunogen as ~15% of the total M2e-MAP-induced Ab response is of desired specificity. While M2e(pep-nat-specific serum Abs have an important

  11. Evaluation of cross-protection by immunization with an experimental trivalent companion animal periodontitis vaccine in the mouse periodontitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardham, John; Sfintescu, Cornelia; Evans, Richard T

    2008-03-01

    Companion animal periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent diseases seen by veterinarians. The goal of this study was to evaluate the vaccine performance of a trivalent canine periodontitis vaccine in the mouse oral challenge model of periodontitis. Mice vaccinated subcutaneously with an inactivated, whole-cell vaccine preparation of Porphyromonas denticanis, Porphyromonas gulae, and Porphyromonas salivosa displayed significantly reduced alveolar bone loss in response to heterologous and cross-species challenges as compared to sham vaccinated animals. Based on the results of these studies, a periodontitis vaccine may be a useful tool in preventing the initiation and progression of periodontitis caused by the most commonly isolated pigmenting anaerobic bacteria in animals.

  12. Passive films at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, Vincent; Marcus, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoscale data on growth, structure and local properties of passive films reviewed. ► Preferential role of defects of passive films on the corrosion resistance emphasized. ► Effect of grain boundaries on local electronic properties shown by new data. ► Use of atomistic modeling to test mechanistic hypotheses illustrated. - Abstract: The nanometer scale chemical and structural aspects of ultrathin oxide passive films providing self-protection against corrosion to metals and alloys in aqueous environments are reviewed. Data on the nucleation and growth of 2D anodic oxide films, details on the atomic structure and nanostructure of 3D passive films, the preferential role of surface step edges in dissolution in the passive state and the preferential role of grain boundaries of the passive films in passivity breakdown are presented. Future perspectives are discussed, and exemplified by new data obtained on the relationship between the nanostructure of oxide passive films and their local electronic properties. Atomistic corrosion modeling by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) is illustrated by the example of interactions of chloride ions with hydroxylated oxide surfaces, including the role of surface step edges. Data obtained on well-defined substrate surfaces with surface analytical techniques are emphasized.

  13. Overexpression of the long noncoding RNA TUG1 protects against cold-induced injury of mouse livers by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Song; Liu, Jiang; He, Kai; Zhang, Mengyu; Feng, Chunhong; Peng, Fangyi; Li, Bo; Xia, Xianming

    2016-04-01

    Hepatic injury provoked by cold storage is a major problem affecting liver transplantation, as exposure to cold induces apoptosis in hepatic tissues. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly understood to regulate apoptosis, but the contribution of lncRNAs to cold-induced liver injury remains unknown. Using RNA-seq, we determined the differential lncRNA expression profile in mouse livers after cold storage and found that expression of the lncRNA TUG1 was significantly down-regulated. Overexpression of TUG1 attenuated cold-induced apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells LSECs, in part by blocking mitochondrial apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. Moreover, TUG1 attenuated apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in vivo in livers subjected to cold storage. Overexpression of TUG1 also improved hepatocyte function and prolonged hepatic graft survival rates in mice. These results suggest that the lncRNA TUG1 exerts a protective effect against cold-induced liver damage by inhibiting apoptosis in mice, and suggests a potential role for TUG1 as a target for the prevention of cold-induced liver damage in liver transplantation. RNA-seq data are available from GEO using accession number GSE76609. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis by anti-retrovirals raltegravir and maraviroc protects against HIV-1 vaginal transmission in a humanized mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Preston Neff

    Full Text Available Sexual HIV-1 transmission by vaginal route is the most predominant mode of viral transmission, resulting in millions of new infections every year. In the absence of an effective vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop other alternative methods of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP. Many novel drugs that are currently approved for clinical use also show great potential to prevent viral sexual transmission when administered systemically. A small animal model that permits rapid preclinical evaluation of potential candidates for their systemic PrEP efficacy will greatly enhance progress in this area of investigation. We have previously shown that RAG-hu humanized mouse model permits HIV-1 mucosal transmission via both vaginal and rectal routes and displays CD4 T cell loss typical to that seen in the human. Thus far systemic PrEP studies have been primarily limited to RT inhibitors exemplified by tenofovir and emtricitabine. In these proof-of-concept studies we evaluated two new classes of clinically approved drugs with different modes of action namely, an integrase inhibitor raltegravir and a CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc as potential systemically administered chemo-prophylactics. Our results showed that oral administration of either of these drugs fully protects against vaginal HIV-1 challenge in the RAG-hu mouse model. Based on these results both these drugs show great promise for further development as orally administered PrEPs.

  15. Indirect application of near infrared light induces neuro-protection in a mouse model of parkinsonism - an abscopal neuro-protective effective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, D.M.; Spana, S.; Purushothuman, S.; Stone, J.; Mitrofanis, J.; Johnstone, D.M.; Spana, S.; Purushothuman, S.; Stone, J.; El Massri, N.; Mitrofanis, J.; Moro, C.; Torres, N.; Chabrol, C.; De Jaeger, X.; Reinhart, F.; Benabid, A.L.; Wang, X.S.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown near infrared light (NIr), directed transcranially, mitigates the loss of dopaminergic cells in MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-treated mice, a model of parkinsonism. These findings complement others suggesting NIr treatment protects against damage from various insults. However one puzzling feature of NIr treatment is that unilateral exposure can lead to a bilateral healing response, suggesting NIr may have 'indirect' protective effects. We investigated whether remote NIr treatment is neuro-protective by administering different MPTP doses (50-, 75-, 100-mg/kg) to mice and treating with 670-nm light directed specifically at either the head or body. Our results show that, despite no direct irradiation of the damaged tissue, remote NIr treatment produces a significant rescue of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta at the milder MPTP dose of 50-mg/kg (30% increase vs sham-treated MPTP mice, p≤ 0.05). However this protection did not appear as robust as that achieved by direct irradiation of the head (50% increase vs sham-treated MPTP mice, p ≤0.001). There was no quantifiable protective effect of NIr at higher MPTP doses, irrespective of the delivery mode. Astrocyte and microglia cell numbers in substantia nigra pars compacta were not influenced by either mode of NIr treatment. In summary, the findings suggest that treatment of a remote tissue with NIr is sufficient to induce protection of the brain, reminiscent of the 'abscopal effect' sometimes observed in radiation treatment of metastatic cancer. This discovery has implications for the clinical translation of light-based therapies, providing an improved mode of delivery over trans-cranial irradiation. (authors)

  16. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorandeu, F; Taysse, L; Boudry, I; Foquin, A; Hérodin, F; Mathieu, J; Daulon, S; Cruz, C; Lallement, G

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to lethal chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is no longer only a military issue due to the terrorist threat. Among the CWAs of concern are the organophosphorus nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX) and the vesicant sulfur mustard (SM). Although efficient means of decontamination are available, most of them lose their efficacy when decontamination is delayed after exposure of the bare skin. Alternatively, CWA skin penetration can be prevented by topical skin protectants. Active research in skin protection and decontamination is thus paramount. In vivo screening of decontaminants or skin protectants is usually time consuming and may be expensive depending on the animal species used. We were thus looking for a suitable, scientifically sound and cost-effective model, which is easy to handle. The euthymic hairless mouse Crl: SKH-1 (hr/hr) BR is widely used in some skin studies and has previously been described to be suitable for some experiments involving SM or SM analogs. To evaluate the response of this species, we studied the consequences of exposing male anaesthetized SKH-1 mice to either liquid VX or to SM, the latter being used in liquid form or as saturated vapours. Long-term effects of SM burn were also evaluated. The model was then used in the companion paper (Taysse et al.(1)).

  17. Protective effects of compound FLZ on β-amyloid peptide-(25-35)-induced mouse hippocampal injury and learning and memory impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang FANG; Geng-tao LIU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the protective effects of compound FLZ, a novel synthetic analogue of natural squamosamide, on learning and memory impairment and lesions of the hippocampus caused by icv injection of β-amyloid25-35 (Aβ25-35) in mice. Methods: Mice were icv injected with the Aβ25-35 (15 nmol/mouse), and then treated with oral administration of 75 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg of FLZ once daily for 16 consecutive days. The impairment of learning and memory in mice were tested using step-down test and Morris water maze test. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the expressions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Bax, and Bcl-2 in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus were measured by biochemical and immu-nohistochemical analysis, respectively. The pathological damages of hippocampus were observed using a microscope. Results: FLZ (75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg) significantly attenuated Aβ25-35-induced impairment of learning and memory in the step-down test and Morris water maze test. FLZ also reduced pathological damages to the hippocampus induced by Aβ25-35 Furthermore, FLZ prevented the increase of AChE and Bax, and the decrease of Bcl-2 immunoreactive cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, and reduced the increase of MDA content in the hippocampus in mice injected with Aβ25-35. Conclusion: FLZ has protective action against the impairment of learning and memory and pathological damage to the hippocampus induced by icv injection of Aβ25-35 in mice.

  18. Tbc1d1 mutation in lean mouse strain confers leanness and protects from diet-induced obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadt, Alexandra; Leicht, Katja; Deshmukh, Atul

    2008-01-01

    We previously identified Nob1 as a quantitative trait locus for high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in genome-wide scans of outcross populations of obese and lean mouse strains. Additional crossbreeding experiments indicated that Nob1 represents an obesity suppressor from the lean Swiss Jim...... Lambert (SJL) strain. Here we identify a SJL-specific mutation in the Tbc1d1 gene that results in a truncated protein lacking the TBC Rab-GTPase-activating protein domain. TBC1D1, which has been recently linked to human obesity, is related to the insulin signaling protein AS160 and is predominantly...... and reduced glucose uptake in isolated skeletal muscle. Our data strongly suggest that mutation of Tbc1d1 suppresses high-fat diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid use in skeletal muscle....

  19. Insights into the mechanisms of protective immunity against Cryptococcus neoformans infection using a mouse model of pulmonary cryptococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Wozniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening pneumonia and meningoencephalitis in immune compromised individuals. Previous studies have shown that immunization of BALB/c mice with an IFN-gamma-producing C. neoformans strain, H99gamma, results in complete protection against a second pulmonary challenge with an otherwise lethal cryptococcal strain. The current study evaluated local anamnestic cell-mediated immune responses against pulmonary cryptococcosis in mice immunized with C. neoformans strain H99gamma compared to mice immunized with heat-killed C. neoformans (HKC.n.. Mice immunized with C. neoformans strain H99gamma had significantly reduced pulmonary fungal burden post-secondary challenge compared to mice immunized with HKC.n. Protection against pulmonary cryptococcosis was associated with increased pulmonary granulomatous formation and leukocyte infiltration followed by a rapid resolution of pulmonary inflammation, which protected the lungs from severe allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM-pathology that developed in the lungs of mice immunized with HKC.n. Pulmonary challenge of interleukin (IL-4 receptor, IL-12p40, IL-12p35, IFN-gamma, T cell and B cell deficient mice with C. neoformans strain H99gamma demonstrated a requirement for Th1-type T cell-mediated immunity, but not B cell-mediated immunity, for the induction of H99gamma-mediated protective immune responses against pulmonary C. neoformans infection. CD4(+ T cells, CD11c(+ cells, and Gr-1(+ cells were increased in both proportion and absolute number in protected mice. In addition, significantly increased production of Th1-type/pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and conversely, reduced Th2-type cytokine production was observed in the lungs of protected mice. Interestingly, protection was not associated with increased production of cytokines IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha in lungs of protected mice. In conclusion, immunization with C

  20. Mps1 kinase-dependent Sgo2 centromere localisation mediates cohesin protection in mouse oocyte meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yakoubi, Warif; Buffin, Eulalie; Cladière, Damien; Gryaznova, Yulia; Berenguer, Inés; Touati, Sandra A; Gómez, Rocío; Suja, José A; van Deursen, Jan M; Wassmann, Katja

    2017-09-25

    A key feature of meiosis is the step-wise removal of cohesin, the protein complex holding sister chromatids together, first from arms in meiosis I and then from the centromere region in meiosis II. Centromeric cohesin is protected by Sgo2 from Separase-mediated cleavage, in order to maintain sister chromatids together until their separation in meiosis II. Failures in step-wise cohesin removal result in aneuploid gametes, preventing the generation of healthy embryos. Here, we report that kinase activities of Bub1 and Mps1 are required for Sgo2 localisation to the centromere region. Mps1 inhibitor-treated oocytes are defective in centromeric cohesin protection, whereas oocytes devoid of Bub1 kinase activity, which cannot phosphorylate H2A at T121, are not perturbed in cohesin protection as long as Mps1 is functional. Mps1 and Bub1 kinase activities localise Sgo2 in meiosis I preferentially to the centromere and pericentromere respectively, indicating that Sgo2 at the centromere is required for protection.In meiosis I centromeric cohesin is protected by Sgo2 from Separase-mediated cleavage ensuring that sister chromatids are kept together until their separation in meiosis II. Here the authors demonstrate that Bub1 and Mps1 kinase activities are required for Sgo2 localisation to the centromere region.

  1. Effect of the deletion of genes encoding proteins of the extracellular virion form of vaccinia virus on vaccine immunogenicity and protective effectiveness in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available Antibodies to both infectious forms of vaccinia virus, the mature virion (MV and the enveloped virion (EV, as well as cell-mediated immune response appear to be important for protection against smallpox. EV virus particles, although more labile and less numerous than MV, are important for dissemination and spread of virus in infected hosts and thus important in virus pathogenesis. The importance of the EV A33 and B5 proteins for vaccine induced immunity and protection in a murine intranasal challenge model was evaluated by deletion of both the A33R and B5R genes in a vaccine-derived strain of vaccinia virus. Deletion of either A33R or B5R resulted in viruses with a small plaque phenotype and reduced virus yields, as reported previously, whereas deletion of both EV protein-encoding genes resulted in a virus that formed small infection foci that were detectable and quantifiable only by immunostaining and an even more dramatic decrease in total virus yield in cell culture. Deletion of B5R, either as a single gene knockout or in the double EV gene knockout virus, resulted in a loss of EV neutralizing activity, but all EV gene knockout viruses still induced a robust neutralizing activity against the vaccinia MV form of the virus. The effect of elimination of A33 and/or B5 on the protection afforded by vaccination was evaluated by intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of either vaccinia virus WR or IHD-J, a strain of vaccinia virus that produces relatively higher amounts of EV virus. The results from multiple experiments, using a range of vaccination doses and virus challenge doses, and using mortality, morbidity, and virus dissemination as endpoints, indicate that the absence of A33 and B5 have little effect on the ability of a vaccinia vaccine virus to provide protection against a lethal intranasal challenge in a mouse model.

  2. Myeloid protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B deficiency protects against atherosclerotic plaque formation in the ApoE−/− mouse model of atherosclerosis with alterations in IL10/AMPKα pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thompson

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Here we demonstrate that inhibiting the activity of PTP1B specifically in myeloid lineage cells protects against atherosclerotic plaque formation, under atherogenic conditions, in an ApoE−/− mouse model of atherosclerosis. Our findings suggest for the first time that macrophage PTP1B targeting could be a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis treatment and reduction of CVD risk.

  3. Mps1 kinase-dependent Sgo2 centromere localisation mediates cohesin protection in mouse oocyte meiosis I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakoubi, W. El; Buffin, E.; Cladiere, D.; Gryaznova, Y.; Berenguer, I.; Touati, S.A.; Gomez, R.; Suja, J.A.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Wassmann, K.

    2017-01-01

    A key feature of meiosis is the step-wise removal of cohesin, the protein complex holding sister chromatids together, first from arms in meiosis I and then from the centromere region in meiosis II. Centromeric cohesin is protected by Sgo2 from Separase-mediated cleavage, in order to maintain sister

  4. Gynostemma pentaphyllum Ethanolic Extract Protects Against Memory Deficits in an MPTP-Lesioned Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease Treated with L-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Zhao, Ting Ting; Shin, Keon Sung; Park, Hyun Jin; Cho, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Seung Hwan; Lee, Myung Koo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ethanol extract from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP-EX) on memory deficits in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) (MPTP-lesioned mice). MPTP (30 mg/kg/day, 5 days)-lesioned mice showed deficits of habit learning memory and spatial memory, which were further aggravated by treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (25 mg/kg, 21 days). However, treatment with GP-EX (50 mg/kg, 21 days) ameliorated memory deficits in MPTP-lesioned mice treated with L-DOPA (25 mg/kg): GP-EX prevented the decreases in retention latency time in the passive avoidance test and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatum. GP-EX also reduced increases in retention transfer latency time of the elevated plus-maze test and expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and improved decreases in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus in the same models. By contrast, L-DOPA treatment (10 mg/kg, 21 days) ameliorated memory deficits in MPTP-lesioned mice, which were further improved by GP-EX treatment. These results suggest that GP-EX ameliorates habit learning memory deficits by activating dopaminergic neurons and spatial memory deficits by modulating NMDA receptor-ERK1/2-CREB system in MPTP-lesioned mice treated with L-DOPA. GP-EX may serve as an adjuvant phytonutrient for memory deficits in PD.

  5. Biofilm Formation Protects Salmonella from the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin In Vitro and In Vivo in the Mouse Model of chronic Carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan F; Alberts, Halley; Lee, Joel; Doolittle, Lauren; Gunn, John S

    2018-01-09

    Typhoid fever is caused by the human-restricted pathogen Salmonella enterica sv. Typhi. Approximately 5% of people that resolve the disease become chronic carriers, with the gallbladder as the main reservoir of the bacteria. Of these, about 90% present with gallstones, on which Salmonella form biofilms. Because S. Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen, these carriers are the main source of dissemination of the disease; unfortunately, antibiotic treatment has shown to be an ineffective therapy. This is believed to be caused by the inherent antibiotic resistance conferred by Salmonella biofilms growing on gallstones. The gallstone mouse model with S. Typhimurium has proven to be an excellent surrogate for S. Typhi chronic infection. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the biofilm state confers Salmonella with the increased resistance to antibiotics observed in cases of chronic carriage. We found that, in the biofilm state, Salmonella is significantly more resistant to ciprofloxacin, a common antibiotic used for the treatment of Salmonella, both in vitro (p < 0.001 for both S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium with respect to planktonic cells) and in vivo (p = 0.0035 with respect to control mice).

  6. Protective effects of ethanol extracts of Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. on ageing-induced deterioration in mouse oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyuk-Joon; You, Seung Yeop; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeon, Hong Bae; Oh, Jeong Su

    2017-08-01

    Following ovulation, oocytes undergo a time-dependent deterioration in quality referred to as post-ovulatory ageing. Although various factors influence the post-ovulatory ageing of oocytes, oxidative stress is a key factor involved in deterioration of oocyte quality. Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. has been widely used in East Asia as a food ingredient and traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, and microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that A. asiatica exhibits antioxidative effects. In this study, we investigated whether A. asiatica has the potential to attenuate deterioration in oocyte quality during post-ovulatory ageing. Freshly ovulated mouse oocytes were cultured with 0, 50, 100 or 200 μg/ml ethanol extracts of A. asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. After culture for up to 24 h, various ageing-induced oocyte abnormalities, including morphological changes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, apoptosis, chromosome and spindle defects, and mitochondrial aggregation were determined. Treatment of oocytes with A. asiatica extracts reduced ageing-induced morphological changes. Moreover, A. asiatica extracts decreased ROS generation and the onset of apoptosis by preventing elevation of the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio during post-ovulatory ageing. Furthermore, A. asiatica extracts attenuated the ageing-induced abnormalities including spindle defects, chromosome misalignment and mitochondrial aggregation. Our results demonstrate that A. asiatica can relieve deterioration in oocyte quality and delay the onset of apoptosis during post-ovulatory ageing.

  7. Hyperthermic treatment at 56 °C induces tumour-specific immune protection in a mouse model of prostate cancer in both prophylactic and therapeutic immunization regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Francesco; Sandri, Sara; Martini, Matteo; Mazzocco, Marta; Fiore, Alessandra; Trovato, Rosalinda; Garetto, Stefano; Brusa, Davide; Ugel, Stefano; Sartoris, Silvia

    2018-06-14

    Most active cancer immunotherapies able to induce a long-lasting protection against tumours are based on the activation of tumour-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Cell death by hyperthermia induces apoptosis followed by secondary necrosis, with the production of factors named "danger associated molecular pattern" (DAMP) molecules (DAMPs), that activate dendritic cells (DCs) to perform antigen uptake, processing and presentation, followed by CTLs cross priming. In many published studies, hyperthermia treatment of tumour cells is performed at 42-45 °C; these temperatures mainly promote cell surface expression of DAMPs. Treatment at 56 °C of tumour cells was shown to induce DAMPs secretion rather than their cell surface expression, improving DC activation and CTL cross priming in vitro. Thus we tested the relevance of this finding in vivo on the generation of a tumour-specific memory immune response, in the TRAMP-C2 mouse prostate carcinoma transplantable model. TRAMP-C2 tumour cells treated at 56 °C were able not only to activate DCs in vitro but also to trigger a tumour-specific CTL-dependent immune response in vivo. Prophylactic vaccination with 56 °C-treated TRAMP-C2 tumour cells alone provided protection against TRAMP-C2 tumour growth in vivo, whilst in the therapeutic regimen, control of tumour growth was achieved combining immunization with adjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protection of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by a preparation of herb mixture (hemoHIM) against whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W. H.; Park, H. R.; Oh, H.; Jung, I. Y.; Cho, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    A preparation of herb mixture (HemoHIM) was designed from three medicinal herbs including Angelica gigantis Radix to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effects of HemoHIM on hematopoietic stem cells in γ-irradiated mice and the underlying mechanisms. The administration of HemoHIM significantly increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony and reduced apoptosis of bone marrow cells in γ-irradiated mice. These results showed that HemoHIM protected hematopoietic stem cells from irradiation. To investigate the mechanism of the protection, the effects of HemoHIM on expression of radioprotective cytokines was examined. HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, SCF and IL-6 in bone marrow cells and peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In vivo administration of HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α in spleen. The examination of radical scavenging activity of HemoHIM as another mechanism revealed that HemoHIM was effective at scavenging DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals. From these results, it is suggested that HemoHIM exerts these radioprotective effects through the induction of radioprotective cytokines and/or through directly scavenging radicals produced by γ-irradiation

  9. Protection of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by a preparation of herb mixture (hemoHIM) against whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W. H.; Park, H. R.; Oh, H.; Jung, I. Y.; Cho, S. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    A preparation of herb mixture (HemoHIM) was designed from three medicinal herbs including Angelica gigantis Radix to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effects of HemoHIM on hematopoietic stem cells in {gamma}-irradiated mice and the underlying mechanisms. The administration of HemoHIM significantly increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony and reduced apoptosis of bone marrow cells in {gamma}-irradiated mice. These results showed that HemoHIM protected hematopoietic stem cells from irradiation. To investigate the mechanism of the protection, the effects of HemoHIM on expression of radioprotective cytokines was examined. HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha}, SCF and IL-6 in bone marrow cells and peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In vivo administration of HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha} in spleen. The examination of radical scavenging activity of HemoHIM as another mechanism revealed that HemoHIM was effective at scavenging DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals. From these results, it is suggested that HemoHIM exerts these radioprotective effects through the induction of radioprotective cytokines and/or through directly scavenging radicals produced by {gamma}-irradiation.

  10. A humanized monoclonal antibody neutralizes yellow fever virus strain 17D-204 in vitro but does not protect a mouse model from disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Amanda E; Dixon, Kandice L; Piper, Joseph; Bennett, Susan L; Thibodeaux, Brett A; Barrett, Alan D T; Roehrig, John T; Blair, Carol D

    2016-07-01

    The yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D-204 is considered safe and effective, yet rare severe adverse events (SAEs), some resulting in death, have been documented following vaccination. Individuals exhibiting post-vaccinal SAEs are ideal candidates for antiviral monoclonal antibody (MAb) therapy; the time until appearance of clinical signs post-exposure is usually short and patients are quickly hospitalized. We previously developed a murine-human chimeric monoclonal antibody (cMAb), 2C9-cIgG, reactive with both virulent YFV and 17D-204, and demonstrated its ability to prevent and treat YF disease in both AG129 mouse and hamster models of infection. To counteract possible selection of 17D-204 variants that escape neutralization by treatment with a single MAb (2C9-cIgG), we developed a second cMAb, 864-cIgG, for use in combination with 2C9-cIgG in post-vaccinal therapy. MAb 864-cIgG recognizes/neutralizes only YFV 17D-204 vaccine substrain and binds to domain III (DIII) of the viral envelope protein, which is different from the YFV type-specific binding site of 2C9-cIgG in DII. Although it neutralized 17D-204 in vitro, administration of 864-cIgG had no protective capacity in the interferon receptor-deficient AG129 mouse model of 17D-204 infection. The data presented here show that although DIII-specific 864-cIgG neutralizes virus infectivity in vitro, it does not have the ability to abrogate disease in vivo. Therefore, combination of 864-cIgG with 2C9-cIgG for treatment of YF vaccination SAEs does not appear to provide an improvement on 2C9-cIgG therapy alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular mechanisms underlying protective effects of quercetin against mitochondrial dysfunction and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in cell culture and MitoPark transgenic mouse models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Muhammet; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-06-01

    Quercetin, one of the major flavonoids in plants, has been recently reported to have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative processes. However, since the molecular signaling mechanisms governing these effects are not well clarified, we evaluated quercetin's effect on the neuroprotective signaling events in dopaminergic neuronal models and further tested its efficacy in the MitoPark transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin significantly induced the activation of two major cell survival kinases, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and Akt in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PKD1 blocked the activation of Akt, suggesting that PKD1 acts as an upstream regulator of Akt in quercetin-mediated neuroprotective signaling. Quercetin also enhanced cAMP response-element binding protein phosphorylation and expression of the cAMP response-element binding protein target gene brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Results from qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, mtDNA content analysis, and MitoTracker assay experiments revealed that quercetin augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. Quercetin also increased mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity and protected MN9D cells against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. To further evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of quercetin against the mitochondrial dysfunction underlying PD, we used the progressive dopaminergic neurodegenerative MitoPark transgenic mouse model of PD. Oral administration of quercetin significantly reversed behavioral deficits, striatal dopamine depletion, and TH neuronal cell loss in MitoPark mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that quercetin activates the PKD1-Akt cell survival signaling axis and suggest that further exploration of quercetin as a promising neuroprotective agent for treating PD may offer clinical benefits. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. The tumor suppressor gene Trp53 protects the mouse lens against posterior subcapsular cataracts and the BMP receptor Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A. Wiley

    2011-07-01

    We previously found that lenses lacking the Acvr1 gene, which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP receptor, had abnormal proliferation and cell death in epithelial and cortical fiber cells. We tested whether the tumor suppressor protein p53 (encoded by Trp53 affected this phenotype. Acvr1 conditional knockout (Acvr1CKO mouse fiber cells had increased numbers of nuclei that stained for p53 phosphorylated on serine 15, an indicator of p53 stabilization and activation. Deletion of Trp53 rescued the Acvr1CKO cell death phenotype in embryos and reduced Acvr1-dependent apoptosis in postnatal lenses. However, deletion of Trp53 alone increased the number of fiber cells that failed to withdraw from the cell cycle. Trp53CKO and Acvr1;Trp53DCKO (double conditional knockout, but not Acvr1CKO, lenses developed abnormal collections of cells at the posterior of the lens that resembled posterior subcapsular cataracts. Cells from human posterior subcapsular cataracts had morphological and molecular characteristics similar to the cells at the posterior of mouse lenses lacking Trp53. In Trp53CKO lenses, cells in the posterior plaques did not proliferate but, in Acvr1;Trp53DCKO lenses, many cells in the posterior plaques continued to proliferate, eventually forming vascularized tumor-like masses at the posterior of the lens. We conclude that p53 protects the lens against posterior subcapsular cataract formation by suppressing the proliferation of fiber cells and promoting the death of any fiber cells that enter the cell cycle. Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens. Enhancing p53 function in the lens could contribute to the prevention of steroid- and radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataracts.

  13. Platelet CLEC-2 protects against lung injury via effects of its ligand podoplanin on inflammatory alveolar macrophages in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Siân; Rayes, Julie; Wichaiyo, Surasak; Haining, Elizabeth J; Lowe, Kate; Grygielska, Beata; Laloo, Ryan; Flodby, Per; Borok, Zea; Crandall, Edward D; Thickett, David R; Watson, Steve P

    2017-12-01

    There is no therapeutic intervention proven to prevent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Novel mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of ARDS are therefore required. Platelets are implicated in regulating many of the pathogenic processes that occur during ARDS; however, the mechanisms remain elusive. The platelet receptor CLEC-2 has been shown to regulate vascular integrity at sites of acute inflammation. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish the role of CLEC-2 and its ligand podoplanin in a mouse model of ARDS. Platelet-specific CLEC-2-deficient, as well as alveolar epithelial type I cell (AECI)-specific or hematopoietic-specific podoplanin deficient, mice were established using cre-loxP strategies. Combining these with intratracheal (IT) instillations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we demonstrate that arterial oxygen saturation decline in response to IT-LPS in platelet-specific CLEC-2-deficient mice is significantly augmented. An increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophils and protein was also observed 48 h post-IT-LPS, with significant increases in pro-inflammatory chemokines detected in BAL of platelet-specific CLEC-2-deficient animals. Deletion of podoplanin from hematopoietic cells but not AECIs also reduces lung function and increases pro-inflammatory chemokine expression following IT-LPS. Furthermore, we demonstrate that following IT-LPS, platelets are present in BAL in aggregates with neutrophils, which allows for CLEC-2 interaction with podoplanin expressed on BAL inflammatory alveolar macrophages. Taken together, these data suggest that the platelet CLEC-2-podoplanin signaling axis regulates the severity of lung inflammation in mice and is a possible novel target for therapeutic intervention in patients at risk of developing ARDS. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Utility of a mouse model of osteoarthritis to demonstrate cartilage protection by IFNγ-primed equine mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Maumus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from adipose tissue (ASC have been shown to influence the course of osteoarthritis (OA in different animal models and are promising in veterinary medicine for horses involved in competitive sport. The aim of this study was to characterize equine ASCs (eASC and investigate the role of interferon-gamma (IFNγ-priming on their therapeutic effect in a murine model of OA, which could be relevant to equine OA.Methods. ASC were isolated from subcutaneous fat. Expression of specific markers was tested by cytometry and RT-qPCR. Differentiation potential was evaluated by histology and RT-qPCR. For functional assays, naïve or IFNγ-primed eASCs were cocultured with PBMC or articular cartilage explants. Finally, the therapeutic effect of eASCs was tested in the model of collagenase-induced OA in mice (CIOA.Results. The immunosuppressive function of eASCs on equine T cell proliferation and their chondroprotective effect on equine cartilage explants were demonstrated in vitro. Both cartilage degradation and T cell activation were reduced by naïve and IFNγ-primed eASCs but IFNγ-priming enhanced these functions. In CIOA, intra-articular injection of eASCs prevented articular cartilage from degradation and IFNγ-primed eASCs were more potent than naïve cells. This effect was related to the modulation of eASC secretome by IFNγ-priming.Conclusion. IFNγ-priming of eASCs potentiated their antiproliferative and chondroprotective functions. We demonstrated that the immunocompetent mouse model of CIOA was relevant to test the therapeutic efficacy of xenogeneic eASCs for OA and confirmed that IFNγ-primed eASCs may have a therapeutic value for musculoskeletal diseases in veterinary medicine.

  15. Protective Effects of Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Nutrients in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Shengyuan Wang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of intervention with a combination of nutrients in the amyloid precursor protein-presenilin (APP-PSN C57BL/6J double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD.A total of 72 2-month-old APP-PSN mice were randomly assigned to three groups. The model group (MG was fed regular, unsupplemented chow, while the low- and high-dose treatment groups (LG and HG, respectively were given a combination of nutrients that included phosphatidylserine, blueberry extracts, docosahexaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid as part of their diet. An additional 24 wild-type littermates that were fed unsupplemented chow served as the negative control group (NG. After 3 and 7 months of treatment, the cognitive performance was assessed with the Morris water maze and the shuttle box escape/avoidance task, and the biochemical parameters and oxidative stress were evaluated in both the blood and brain.An improvement in antioxidant capacity was observed in the treatment groups relative to the MG at 3 months, while superior behavioral test results were observed in the mice of the HG and NG groups. In the MG, pycnosis was detected in neuronal nuclei, and a loss of neurons was observed in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. At 7 months, the β-amyloid1-42 peptide accumulation was significantly elevated in the MG but was markedly lower in the mice fed the nutrient combination. The antioxidant capacity and behavioral test scores were also higher in these mice.Early intervention with a combination of nutrients should be considered as a strategy for preventing cognitive decline and other symptoms associated with AD.

  16. Pancreatic protective and hypoglycemic effects of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruit hydroalcoholic extract in D-galactose-induced aging mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Najimi, Seyedeh Asma

    2017-04-01

    D-galactose induces pancreatic disorder along with aging mouse model. Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) has potential pancreatic protective effect. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas protective effects of VAC hydroalcoholic extract in D-galactose-induced aging female mice. In the present experimental study, 72 adult female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (weighing 30-35 g) were divided into 6 groups of control, VAC hydroalcoholic extract, D-galactose, D-galactose + VAC hydroalcoholic extract, aged, aged + VAC hydroalcoholic extract. The aged model was prepared by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose for 45 days and, VAC hydroalcoholic extract was gavaged twice a day in the last 7 days. 24 h after the last drug and extract administrations, serum samples and pancreatic tissues were removed to evaluate experimental and histological determinations. Serum glucose level decreased in VAC, D-galactose and, aged-treated groups compared to the control ( P < 0.05). Insulin level increased in VAC and decreased in D-galactose and aged VAC-treated mice compared to the control ( P < 0.05). Homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) increased in D-galactose, aging, and VAC hydroalcoholic extract groups ( P < 0.05) and, administration of VAC hydroalcoholic extract improved HOMA-IR in D-galactose and aging treated animals. Despite the size of pancreatic islets decreased in aged and D-galactose groups, VAC administration recovered it. Present data showed that VAC hydroalcoholic extract has hypoglycemic and pancreatic protective effects in natural aged and aging model mice.

  17. Compositional properties of passivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    The classical passivity theorem states that the negative feedback interconnection of passive systems is again passive. The converse statement, - passivity of the interconnected system implies passivity of the subsystems -, turns out to be equally valid. This result implies that among all feasible

  18. In vivo islet protection by a nuclear import inhibitor in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.

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    Daniel J Moore

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-dependent Type 1 diabetes (T1D is a devastating autoimmune disease that destroys beta cells within the pancreatic islets and afflicts over 10 million people worldwide. These patients face life-long risks for blindness, cardiovascular and renal diseases, and complications of insulin treatment. New therapies that protect islets from autoimmune destruction and allow continuing insulin production are needed. Increasing evidence regarding the pathomechanism of T1D indicates that islets are destroyed by the relentless attack by autoreactive immune cells evolving from an aberrant action of the innate, in addition to adaptive, immune system that produces islet-toxic cytokines, chemokines, and other effectors of islet inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that targeting nuclear import of stress-responsive transcription factors evoked by agonist-stimulated innate and adaptive immunity receptors would protect islets from autoimmune destruction.Here we show that a first-in-class inhibitor of nuclear import, cSN50 peptide, affords in vivo islet protection following a 2-day course of intense treatment in NOD mice, which resulted in a diabetes-free state for one year without apparent toxicity. This nuclear import inhibitor precipitously reduces the accumulation of islet-destructive autoreactive lymphocytes while enhancing activation-induced cell death of T and B lymphocytes derived from autoimmune diabetes-prone, non-obese diabetic (NOD mice that develop T1D. Moreover, in this widely used model of human T1D we noted attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in immune cells.These results indicate that a novel form of immunotherapy that targets nuclear import can arrest inflammation-driven destruction of insulin-producing beta cells at the site of autoimmune attack within pancreatic islets during the progression of T1D.

  19. Curcumin Protects against UVB-Induced Skin Cancers in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse: Analysis of Early Molecular Markers in Carcinogenesis

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    Kuen-Daw Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin (CUR has been shown to possess a preventive effect against various cancers and interfere with multiple-cell signaling pathways. We evaluated the protective effects of CUR in regression of UVB-induced skin tumor formation in SKH-1 hairless mice and its underlying early molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis. Mice irradiated with UVB at 180 mJ/cm2 twice per week elicited 100% tumor incidence at 20 weeks. Topical application of CUR prior to UVB irradiation caused delay in tumor appearance, multiplicity, and size. Topical application of CUR prior to and immediately after a single UVB irradiation (180 mJ/cm2 resulted in a significant decrease in UVB-induced thymine dimer-positive cells, expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, and apoptotic sunburn cells together with an increase in p53 and p21/Cip1-positive cell population in epidermis. Simultaneously, CUR also significantly inhibited NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and nitric oxide (NO levels. The results suggest that the protective effect of CUR against photocarcinogenesis is accompanied by downregulation of cell proliferative controls, involving thymine dimer, PCNA, apoptosis, transcription factors NF-κB, and of inflammatory responses involving COX-2, PGE2, and NO, while upregulation of p53 and p21/Cip1 to prevent DNA damage and facilitate DNA repair.

  20. The protective effect of autophagy on mouse spermatocyte derived cells exposure to 1800MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaijun; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yong; Dong, Jianyun; Dong, Xiaomei; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia; Ao, Lin; Zhang, Shaoxiang

    2014-08-04

    The increasing exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone use has raised public concern regarding the biological effects of RF exposure on the male reproductive system. Autophagy contributes to maintaining intracellular homeostasis under environmental stress. To clarify whether RF exposure could induce autophagy in the spermatocyte, mouse spermatocyte-derived cells (GC-2) were exposed to 1800MHz Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals in GSM-Talk mode at specific absorption rate (SAR) values of 1w/kg, 2w/kg or 4w/kg for 24h, respectively. The results indicated that the expression of LC3-II increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner with RF exposure, and showed a significant change at the SAR value of 4w/kg. The autophagosome formation and the occurrence of autophagy were further confirmed by GFP-LC3 transient transfection assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II was enhanced by co-treatment with Chloroquine (CQ), indicating autophagic flux could be enhanced by RF exposure. Intracellular ROS levels significantly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after cells were exposed to RF. Pretreatment with anti-oxidative NAC obviously decreased the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and attenuated the degradation of p62 induced by RF exposure. Meanwhile, phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) significantly increased after RF exposure at the SAR value of 2w/kg and 4w/kg. Moreover, we observed that RF exposure did not increase the percentage of apoptotic cells, but inhibition of autophagy could increase the percentage of apoptotic cells. These findings suggested that autophagy flux could be enhanced by 1800MHz GSM exposure (4w/kg), which is mediated by ROS generation. Autophagy may play an important role in preventing cells from apoptotic cell death under RF exposure stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective role of Nrf2 against mechanical-stretch-induced apoptosis in mouse fibroblasts: a potential therapeutic target of mechanical-trauma-induced stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiannan; Li, Bingshu; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Linlin; Tang, Jianming; Hong, Li

    2018-01-10

    We investigated the protective effect and underlying molecular mechanism of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) against mechanical-stretch-induced apoptosis in mouse fibroblasts. Normal cells, Nrf2 silencing cells, and Nrf2 overexpressing cells were respectively divided into two groups-nonintervention and cyclic mechanical strain (CMS)-subjected to CMS of 5333 μ (1.0 Hz for 4 h), six groups in total (control, CMS, shNfe212, shNfe212 + CMS, LV-shNfe212, and LV-shNfe212 + CMS). After treatment, cell apoptosis; cell-cycle distribution; expressions of Nrf2, Bax, Bcl-2, Cyt-C, caspase-3, caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-3, and cleaved-caspase-9; mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm); reactive oxygen species (ROS); and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Thirty virgin female C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups: control (without intervention) and vaginal distension (VD) groups, which underwent VD for 1 h with an 8-mm dilator (0.3 ml saline). Leak-point pressure (LPP) was tested on day 7 after VD; Nrf2 expression, apoptosis, and MDA levels were then measured in urethra and anterior vaginal wall. Mechanical stretch decreased Nrf2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions. Overexpression of Nrf2 alleviated mechanical-stretch-induced cell apoptosis; S-phase arrest of cell cycle; up-regulation of Bax, cytochrome C (Cyt-C), ROS, MDA, ratio of cleaved-caspase-3/caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-9/caspase-9; and exacerbated the decrease of Bcl2 and ΔΨm in L929 cells. On the contrary, silencing of Nrf2 showed opposite effects. Besides, VD reduced LPP levels and Nrf2 expression and increased cell apoptosis and MDA generation in the urethra and anterior vaginal wall. Nrf2 exhibits a protective role against mechanical-stretch -induced apoptosis on mouse fibroblasts, which might indicate a potential therapeutic target of mechanical-trauma-induced stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

  2. Hydrogen-rich Water Exerting a Protective Effect on Ovarian Reserve Function in a Mouse Model of Immune Premature Ovarian Failure Induced by Zona Pellucida 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tong; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a disease that affects female fertility but has few effective treatments. Ovarian reserve function plays an important role in female fertility. Recent studies have reported that hydrogen can protect male fertility. Therefore, we explored the potential protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on ovarian reserve function through a mouse immune POF model. Methods: To set up immune POF model, fifty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control (mice consumed normal water, n = 10), hydrogen (mice consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 10), model (mice were immunized with zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 [ZP3] and consumed normal water, n = 15), and model-hydrogen (mice were immunized with ZP3 and consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 15) groups. After 5 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, granulosa cell (GC) apoptotic index (AI), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) expression were examined. Analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Immune POF model, model group exhibited markedly reduced serum AMH levels compared with those of the control group (5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml vs. 16.23 ± 1.97 ng/ml, P = 0.033) and the hydrogen group (19.65 ± 7.82 ng/ml, P = 0.006). The model-hydrogen group displayed significantly higher AMH concentrations compared with that of the model group (15.03 ± 2.75 ng/ml vs. 5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml, P = 0.021). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model group (21.30 ± 1.74%) than those in the control (7.06 ± 0.27%), hydrogen (5.17 ± 0.41%), and model-hydrogen groups (11.24 ± 0.58%) (all P hydrogen group compared with that of the hydrogen group (11.24 ± 0.58% vs. 5.17 ± 0.41%, P = 0.021). Compared with those of the model group, ovarian tissue Bcl-2 levels increased (2.18 ± 0.30 vs. 3.01 ± 0.33, P = 0.045) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decreased in the model-hydrogen group

  3. Growth hormone secretagogues protect mouse cardiomyocytes from in vitro ischemia/reperfusion injury through regulation of intracellular calcium.

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    Yi Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of mortality. To study this disease, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R models are widely used to mimic the process of transient blockage and subsequent recovery of cardiac coronary blood supply. We aimed to determine whether the presence of the growth hormone secretagogues, ghrelin and hexarelin, would protect/improve the function of heart from I/R injury and to examine the underlying mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isolated hearts from adult male mice underwent 20 min global ischemia and 30 min reperfusion using a Langendorff apparatus. Ghrelin (10 nM or hexarelin (1 nM was introduced into the perfusion system either 10 min before or after ischemia, termed pre- and post-treatments. In freshly isolated cardiomyocytes from these hearts, single cell shortening, intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+](i transients and caffeine-releasable sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+ were measured. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blots were used to examine the expression level of GHS receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a, and phosphorylated phospholamban (p-PLB, respectively. Ghrelin and hexarelin pre- or post-treatments prevented the significant reduction in the cell shortening, [Ca(2+](i transient amplitude and caffeine-releasable SR Ca(2+ content after I/R through recovery of p-PLB. GHS-R1a antagonists, [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (200 nM and BIM28163 (100 nM, completely blocked the effects of GHS on both cell shortening and [Ca(2+](i transients. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Through activation of GHS-R1a, ghrelin and hexarelin produced a positive inotropic effect on ischemic cardiomyocytes and protected them from I/R injury probably by protecting or recovering p-PLB (and therefore SR Ca(2+ content to allow the maintenance or recovery of normal cardiac contractility. These observations provide supporting evidence for the potential therapeutic application of ghrelin and hexarelin in patients with cardiac I/R injury.

  4. Efficacy of rabies vaccines in dogs and cats and protection in a mouse model against European bat lyssavirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, Tiina; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Sihvonen, Liisa

    2017-10-02

    Rabies is preventable by pre- and/or post-exposure prophylaxis consisting of series of rabies vaccinations and in some cases the use of immunoglobulins. The success of vaccination can be estimated either by measuring virus neutralising antibodies or by challenge experiment. Vaccines based on rabies virus offer cross-protection against other lyssaviruses closely related to rabies virus. The aim was to assess the success of rabies vaccination measured by the antibody response in dogs (n = 10,071) and cats (n = 722), as well as to investigate the factors influencing the response to vaccination when animals failed to reach a rabies antibody titre of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml. Another aim was to assess the level of protection afforded by a commercial veterinary rabies vaccine against intracerebral challenge in mice with European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) and classical rabies virus (RABV), and to compare this with the protection offered by a vaccine for humans. A significantly higher proportion of dogs (10.7%, 95% confidence interval CI 10.1-11.3) than cats (3.5%; 95% CI 2.3-5.0) had a vaccination antibody titre of  60 cm or larger resulted in a higher risk of failing to reach an antibody level of at least 0.5 IU/ml. When challenged with EBLV-2 and RABV, 80 and 100% of mice vaccinated with the veterinary rabies vaccine survived, respectively. When mice were vaccinated with the human rabies vaccine and challenged with EBLV-2, 75-80% survived, depending on the booster. All vaccinated mice developed sufficient to high titres of virus-neutralising antibodies (VNA) against RABV 21-22 days post-vaccination, ranging from 0.5 to 128 IU/ml. However, there was significant difference between antibody titres after vaccinating once in comparison to vaccinating twice (P lyssaviruses. Booster vaccination is recommended for dogs and cats if exposed to infected bats.

  5. Protective Effect of Water Extracted Spirulina maxima on Glutamate-induced Neuronal Cell Death in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Ryu, Ga Hee; Choi, Woon Yong; Yang, Woo Seung; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Ma, Choong Je

    2018-01-01

    Spirulina maxima was used as important nutritional source in the Aztec civilization because it is rich in proteins and vitamins. It contains various antioxidants such as phycocyanin and flavonoids. Based on abundant antioxidants, S. maxima is known to possess anti-inflammatory effect, especially on neuronal cells. S. maxima was extracted in water and contain of phycocyanin was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability test was performed with treatment of S. maxima extract. After, oxidative stress-related mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ influx, and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level. Then, the glutathione (GSH) related assays were conducted. The water extracted S. maxima exerted the neuroprotective activity by attenuating the ROS and Ca 2+ formation, maintaining the MMP level, and protecting the activity of the antioxidant enzymes by increasing reduced GSH against oxidative stress compared to control. The results suggested that water extracted S. maxima showed powerful neuroprotective effect through the mechanism related to antioxidant activity, able to preventing the radical-mediated cell death. Water extracted Spirulina maxima contains C-phycocyaninWater extracted Spirulina maxima exerts neuroprotective effect on HT22 cellTo investigate the protective mechanisms, reactive oxygen species, Ca 2+ , mitochondrial membrane potential, Glutathione-related assays were performed. Abbreviations used: ROS: Reactive oxygen species; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential; GSH: Glutathione; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide, oxidized glutathione; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; GR: Glutathione reductase; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; DCF-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; PBS: Phosphate buffered serum; Rho 123: Rhodamine 123; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; DTNB: 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, Ellman

  6. Inherent/passive safety for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1986-06-01

    The concept of inherent or passive passive safety for fusion energy is explored, defined, and partially quantified. Four levels of safety assurance are defined, which range from true inherent safety to passive safety to protection via active engineered safeguard systems. Fusion has the clear potential for achieving inherent or passive safety, which should be an objective of fusion research and design. Proper material choice might lead to both inherent safety and high mass power density, improving both safety and economics. When inherent safety is accomplished, fusion will be well on the way to achieving its ultimate potential and to be truly different and superior

  7. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muizzuddin, N.; Shakoori, A.R. [Univ. of the Punjab, Dept. of Zoology, Cell and Molecular Biology Lab., Lahore (Pakistan); Marenus, K.D. [SUNY at Stonybrook, Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Background/aims: Within the past three decades, there has emerged a greater awareness of the molecular effects of solar rays especially ultraviolet radiation (UV-R), to the extent that the harmful effects of solar radiation are recognized not only by molecular biologists and physicians, but also by the general public. Various sunscreen molecules that effectively block the UVB component of the sun are available; however, a large part of Western populations elicits adverse reactions against chemical sunscreens. This study was designed to observe the protective effect of antioxidants against the damaging effects of chronic UVB exposure of skin in an attempt to introduce antioxidants and free radical scavengers as topical sun protective agents. Methods: Jackson hairless mice were exposed to suberythemal doses of UVB, three times a week, and topically treated with a cream containing the anti-oxidants vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, nordihydroguaradinic acid and vitamin C. Results: Treatment with vehicle alone along with UVB exposure resulted in an increase in epidermal thickness showing a 38%, 77% and 112% increase after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Chronic UVB exposed skin treated with the material containing free radical scavengers and antioxidants mix (AO mix) exhibited 39%, 73% and 124% thicker epidermis than the untreated control after, respectively, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment. The vehicle did not appear to protect skin against UV irradiation, since there appeared to be more (16%) sunburn cells in vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin after 4 weeks of treatment. After 8 weeks and 12 weeks, there were 33% and 36% less sunburn cells in the vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin. The antioxidant mix was significantly effective (P=<0.001) in protecting against UVB irradiation, having 63%, 71% and 79% fewer sunburn cells than the untreated, UV exposed skin af after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of

  8. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muizzuddin, N.; Shakoori, A.R.; Marenus, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Background/aims: Within the past three decades, there has emerged a greater awareness of the molecular effects of solar rays especially ultraviolet radiation (UV-R), to the extent that the harmful effects of solar radiation are recognized not only by molecular biologists and physicians, but also by the general public. Various sunscreen molecules that effectively block the UVB component of the sun are available; however, a large part of Western populations elicits adverse reactions against chemical sunscreens. This study was designed to observe the protective effect of antioxidants against the damaging effects of chronic UVB exposure of skin in an attempt to introduce antioxidants and free radical scavengers as topical sun protective agents. Methods: Jackson hairless mice were exposed to suberythemal doses of UVB, three times a week, and topically treated with a cream containing the anti-oxidants vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, nordihydroguaradinic acid and vitamin C. Results: Treatment with vehicle alone along with UVB exposure resulted in an increase in epidermal thickness showing a 38%, 77% and 112% increase after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Chronic UVB exposed skin treated with the material containing free radical scavengers and antioxidants mix (AO mix) exhibited 39%, 73% and 124% thicker epidermis than the untreated control after, respectively, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment. The vehicle did not appear to protect skin against UV irradiation, since there appeared to be more (16%) sunburn cells in vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin after 4 weeks of treatment. After 8 weeks and 12 weeks, there were 33% and 36% less sunburn cells in the vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin. The antioxidant mix was significantly effective (P=<0.001) in protecting against UVB irradiation, having 63%, 71% and 79% fewer sunburn cells than the untreated, UV exposed skin af after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of

  9. Genome-wide mouse mutagenesis reveals CD45-mediated T cell function as critical in protective immunity to HSV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Caignard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE is a lethal neurological disease resulting from infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1. Loss-of-function mutations in the UNC93B1, TLR3, TRIF, TRAF3, and TBK1 genes have been associated with a human genetic predisposition to HSE, demonstrating the UNC93B-TLR3-type I IFN pathway as critical in protective immunity to HSV-1. However, the TLR3, UNC93B1, and TRIF mutations exhibit incomplete penetrance and represent only a minority of HSE cases, perhaps reflecting the effects of additional host genetic factors. In order to identify new host genes, proteins and signaling pathways involved in HSV-1 and HSE susceptibility, we have implemented the first genome-wide mutagenesis screen in an in vivo HSV-1 infectious model. One pedigree (named P43 segregated a susceptible trait with a fully penetrant phenotype. Genetic mapping and whole exome sequencing led to the identification of the causative nonsense mutation L3X in the Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C gene (Ptprc(L3X, which encodes for the tyrosine phosphatase CD45. Expression of MCP1, IL-6, MMP3, MMP8, and the ICP4 viral gene were significantly increased in the brain stems of infected Ptprc(L3X mice accounting for hyper-inflammation and pathological damages caused by viral replication. Ptprc(L3X mutation drastically affects the early stages of thymocytes development but also the final stage of B cell maturation. Transfer of total splenocytes from heterozygous littermates into Ptprc(L3X mice resulted in a complete HSV-1 protective effect. Furthermore, T cells were the only cell population to fully restore resistance to HSV-1 in the mutants, an effect that required both the CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells and could be attributed to function of CD4⁺ T helper 1 (Th1 cells in CD8⁺ T cell recruitment to the site of infection. Altogether, these results revealed the CD45-mediated T cell function as potentially critical for infection and viral spread to the

  10. Mast cell-dependent IL-33/ST2 signaling is protective against the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in a house dust mite mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowska Nilsson, A M; Lei, Y; Adner, M; Nilsson, G P

    2018-03-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its receptor ST2 have been influentially associated with the pathophysiology of asthma. Due to the divergent roles of IL-33 in regulating mast cell functions, there is a need to further characterize IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell responses and their significance in the context of asthma. This study aimed to investigate how IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell responses contribute to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation in a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma. Mast cell-deficient C57BL/6-Kit W-sh (Wsh) mice engrafted with either wild-type (Wsh + MC-WT) or ST2-deficient bone marrow-derived mast cells (Wsh + MC-ST2KO) were exposed to HDM delivered intranasally. An exacerbated development of AHR in response to HDM was seen in Wsh + MC-ST2KO compared with Wsh + MC-WT mice. The contribution of this IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell response to AHR seems to reside within the smaller airways in the peripheral parts of the lung, as suggested by the isolated yet marked effect on tissue resistance. Considering the absence of a parallel increase in cellular inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung, the aggravated AHR in Wsh + MC-ST2KO mice seems to be independent of cellular inflammation. We observed an association between the elevated AHR and reduced PGE 2 levels in BALF . Due to the protective properties of PGE 2 in airway responses, it is conceivable that IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell induction of PGE 2 could be responsible for the dampening effect on AHR. In conclusion, we reveal that IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell responses can have a protective, rather than causative role, in the development of AHR.

  11. Mobile phone radiation induces mode-dependent DNA damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line: a protective role of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Gao, Peng; Xu, Shang-Cheng; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Chun-Hai; He, Min-Di; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate whether exposure to mobile phone radiation (MPR) can induce DNA damage in male germ cells. A mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was exposed to a commercial mobile phone handset once every 20 min in standby, listen, dialed or dialing modes for 24 h. DNA damage was determined using an alkaline comet assay. The levels of DNA damage were significantly increased following exposure to MPR in the listen, dialed and dialing modes. Moreover, there were significantly higher increases in the dialed and dialing modes than in the listen mode. Interestingly, these results were consistent with the radiation intensities of these modes. However, the DNA damage effects of MPR in the dialing mode were efficiently attenuated by melatonin pretreatment. These results regarding mode-dependent DNA damage have important implications for the safety of inappropriate mobile phone use by males of reproductive age and also suggest a simple preventive measure: Keeping mobile phones as far away from our body as possible, not only during conversations but during 'dialed' and 'dialing' operation modes. Since the 'dialed' mode is actually part of the standby mode, mobile phones should be kept at a safe distance from our body even during standby operation. Furthermore, the protective role of melatonin suggests that it may be a promising pharmacological candidate for preventing mobile phone use-related reproductive impairments.

  12. Hydrogen-rich medium protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts from oxidative stress by activating LKB1-AMPK-FoxO1 signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Young-Joo; Tran, Quynh Hoa; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2017-09-23

    Persistent oxidative stress is recognized as a major cause of many pathological conditions as well as ageing. However, most clinical trials of dietary antioxidants have failed to produce successful outcomes in treating oxidative stress-induced diseases. Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) has recently received considerable attention as a therapeutic agent owing to its novel antioxidant properties, a selective scavenger of hydroxyl and peroxynitrite radicals. Beyond this, numerous reports support that H 2 can modulate the activity of various cellular signal pathways. However, its effect on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal pathway, a central regulator of energy hemostasis, has remained almost elusive. Here, we report that hydrogen-rich medium activated LKB1-AMPK signal pathway without ATP depletion, which in turn induced FoxO1-dependent transcription of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Moreover, hydrogen-rich media effectively reduced the level of reactive oxygen species in cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and protected these cells from apoptosis in an AMPK-dependent manner. These results suggest that the LKB1-AMPK-FoxO1 signaling pathway is a critical mediator of the antioxidant properties of H 2 , further supporting the idea that H 2 acts as a signaling molecule to serve various physiological functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Superior induction and maintenance of protective CD8 T cells in mice infected with mouse cytomegalovirus vector expressing RAE-1γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trsan, Tihana; Busche, Andreas; Abram, Maja; Wensveen, Felix M; Lemmermann, Niels A; Arapovic, Maja; Babic, Marina; Tomic, Adriana; Golemac, Mijo; Brinkmann, Melanie M; Jäger, Wiebke; Oxenius, Annette; Polic, Bojan; Krmpotic, Astrid; Messerle, Martin; Jonjic, Stipan

    2013-10-08

    Due to a unique pattern of CD8 T-cell response induced by cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), live attenuated CMVs are attractive candidates for vaccine vectors for a number of clinically relevant infections and tumors. NKG2D is one of the most important activating NK cell receptors that plays a role in costimulation of CD8 T cells. Here we demonstrate that the expression of CD8 T-cell epitope of Listeria monocytogenes by a recombinant mouse CMV (MCMV) expressing the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early-inducible protein 1-gamma (RAE-1γ) dramatically enhanced the effectiveness and longevity of epitope-specific CD8 T-cell response and conferred protection against a subsequent challenge infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Unexpectedly, the attenuated growth in vivo of the CMV vector expressing RAE-1γ and its capacity to enhance specific CD8 T-cell response were preserved even in mice lacking NKG2D, implying additional immune function for RAE-1γ beyond engagement of NKG2D. Thus, vectors expressing RAE-1γ represent a promising approach in the development of CD8 T-cell-based vaccines.

  14. Protective effects of resveratrol on ethanol-induced apoptosis in embryonic stem cells and disruption of embryonic development in mouse blastocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, L.-H.; Shiao, N.-H.; Hsuuw, Y.-D.; Chan, W.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have established that ethanol induces apoptosis, but the precise molecular mechanisms are currently unclear. Here, we show that 0.3-1.0% (w/v) ethanol induces apoptosis in mouse blastocysts and that resveratrol, a grape-derived phytoalexin with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, prevents ethanol-induced apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, ethanol-treated blastocysts show normal levels of implantation on culture dishes in vitro but a reduced ability to reach the later stages of embryonic development. Pretreatment with resveratrol prevented ethanol-induced disruption of embryonic development in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro cell-based assay, we further found that ethanol increases the production of reactive oxygen species in ESC-B5 embryonic stem cells, leading to an increase in the intracellular concentrations of cytoplasmic free Ca 2+ and NO, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and apoptosis. These changes were blocked by pretreatment with resveratrol. Based on these results, we propose a model for the protective effect of resveratrol on ethanol-induced cell injury in blastocysts and ESC-B5 cells

  15. The Protective Effect of Antarctic Krill Oil on Cognitive Function by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Senescence-Accelerated Prone Mouse Strain 8 (SAMP8) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wu, Fengjuan; Wen, Min; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Changhu; Zhang, Tiantian; Wang, Yuming

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, and oxidative stress plays a vital role in its progression. Antarctic krill oil (AKO) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has various biological activities, such as improving insulin sensitivity, alleviating inflammation and ameliorating oxidative stress. In this study, the protective effect of AKO against AD were investigated in senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) mice. Results showed that treatment with AKO could effectively ameliorate learning and memory deficits and ease the anxiety in SAMP8 mice by Morris water maze, Barnes maze test and open-field test. Further analysis indicated that AKO might reduce β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in hippocampus through decreasing the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G), increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the brain of SAMP8 mice. The results of Morris water maze, Barnes maze test and open-field test indicated that Antarctic krill oil (AKO) improved the cognitive function and anxiety of SAMP8 mice. AKO reduced the Aβ 42 level in hippocampus of SAMP8 mice. AKO ameliorated oxidative stress in brain rather than in serum and liver of SAMP8 mice. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Protective effects of a composition of Chinese herbs-Gurigumu-13 on retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in DBA/2J glaucoma mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Li Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the concrete mechanism of a Mongolian compound medicine-Gurigumu-13 (GRGM for glaucoma treatment. METHODS: DBA/2J mice, as glaucoma models, were intragastric administrated with GRGM to study the effect of GRGM on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. The loss of RGCs was evaluated with the number of RGCs and axons. The expression of the target protein of RGCs or mouse retinas was determined by Western blot. The relative content of malondialdehyde (MDA was examined by ELISA assay. RESULTS: GRGM distinctly improved retina damage via increasing the number of neurons, RGCs and axons in a concentration dependent manner. Meanwhile, GRGM obviously decreased the high level of MDA and the expression of oxidative stress-related proteins in retinas of DBA/2J mice, but promoted the expression of antioxidant proteins. Additionally, GRGM also significantly inhibited the protein expression of Bip and Chop, which were markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: GRGM have obvious protective effects on RGCs in DBA/2J mice, and increase the number of RGCs and axons via inhibiting oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  17. Immunity against mouse thymus-leukemia antigen (TL) protects against development of lymphomas induced by a chemical carcinogen, N-butyl-N-nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Kunio; Obata, Yuichi; Matsudaira, Yasue; Ozeki, Satoshi; Taguchi, Osamu; Nishida, Keiko; Okanami, Yuko; Akatsuka, Yoshiki; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Toshitada

    2004-11-01

    Mouse thymus-leukemia antigens (TL) are aberrantly expressed on T lymphomas in C57BL/6 (B6) and C3H/He (C3H) mice, while they are not expressed on normal T lymphocytes in these strains. When N-butyl-N-nitrosourea (NBU), a chemical carcinogen, was administered orally to B6 and C3H strains, lymphoma development was slower than in T3(b)-TL gene-transduced counterpart strains expressing TL ubiquitously as self-antigens, suggesting that anti-TL immunity may play a protective role. In addition, the development of lymphomas was slightly slower in C3H than in B6, which seems to be in accordance with the results of skin graft experiments indicating that both cellular and humoral immunities against TL were stronger in C3H than B6 mice. The interesting finding that B lymphomas derived from a T3(b)-TL transgenic strain (C3H background) expressing a very high level of TL were rejected in C3H, but not in H-2K(b) transgenic mice (C3H background), raises the possibility that TL-specific effector T cell populations are eliminated and/or energized to a certain extent by interacting with H-2K(b) molecules.

  18. Toll-like receptor 2 signaling protects mice from tumor development in a mouse model of colitis-induced cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Lowe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a disorder of chronic inflammation with increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer. The etiology of IBD is unclear but thought to result from a dysregulated adaptive and innate immune response to microbial products in a genetically susceptible host. Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling induced by intestinal commensal bacteria plays a crucial role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, innate immunity and the enhancement of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC integrity. However, the role of TLR2 in the development of colorectal cancer has not been studied. We utilized the AOM-DSS model for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC in wild type (WT and TLR2(-/- mice. Colons harvested from WT and TLR2(-/- mice were used for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and cytokine analysis. Mice deficient in TLR2 developed significantly more and larger colorectal tumors than their WT controls. We provide evidence that colonic epithelium of TLR2(-/- mice have altered immune responses and dysregulated proliferation under steady-state conditions and during colitis, which lead to inflammatory growth signals and predisposition to accelerated neoplastic growth. At the earliest time-points assessed, TLR2(-/- colons exhibited a significant increase in aberrant crypt foci (ACF, resulting in tumors that developed earlier and grew larger. In addition, the intestinal microenvironment revealed significantly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-17A concomitant with increased phospho-STAT3 within ACF. These observations indicate that in colitis, TLR2 plays a protective role against the development of CAC.

  19. Inhibition of microglial activation protects hippocampal neurogenesis and improves cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaro, Barbara; Lindvall, Olle; Tesco, Giuseppina; Ekdahl, Christine T; Nitsch, Roger M

    2012-01-01

    Activated microglia with macrophage-like functions invade and surround β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly contributing to the turnover of Aβ, but they can also secrete proinflammatory factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Microglia are known to modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. To determine the role of microglia on neurogenesis in brains with Aβ pathology, we inhibited microglial activation with the tetracycline derivative minocycline in doubly transgenic mice expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and mutant human presenilin-1 (PS1). Minocycline increased the survival of new dentate granule cells in APP/PS1 mice indicated by more BrdU+/NeuN+ cells as compared to vehicle-treated transgenic littermates, accompanied by improved behavioral performance in a hippocampus-dependent learning task. Both brain levels of Aβ and Aβ-related morphological deficits in the new neurons labeled with GFP-expressing retrovirus were unaffected in minocycline-treated mice. These results suggest a role for microglia in Aβ-related functional deficits and in suppressing the survival of new neurons, and show that modulation of microglial function with minocycline can protect hippocampal neurogenesis in the presence of Aβ pathology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Protective effects of erythropoietin against cuprizone-induced oxidative stress and demyelination in the mouse corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Ragerdi Kashani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Increasing evidence in both experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. The aim of the present work is to investigate the protective effects of erythropoietin against cuprizone-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were fed a chow containing 0.2 % cuprizone for 6 weeks. After 3 weeks, mice were simultaneously treated with erythropoietin (5,000 IU/ kg body weight by daily intraperitoneal injections. Results: Our results showed that cuprizone induced oxidative stress accompanied with down-regulation of subunits of the respiratory chain complex and demyelination of corpus callosum. Erythropoietin antagonized these effects. Biochemical analysis showed that oxidative stress induced by cuprizone was regulated by erythropoietin. Similarly, erythropoietin induced the expression of subunits of the respiratory chain complex over normal control values reflecting a mechanism to compensate cuprizone-mediated down-regulation of these genes. Conclusion: The data implicate that erythropoietin abolishes destructive cuprizone effects in the corpus callosum by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity.

  1. Inhibiting TGFβ1 has a protective effect on mouse bone marrow suppression following ionizing radiation exposure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Heng; Yan Hao; Wang Xinzhuo; Niu Jingxiu; Wang Hui; Wang Yingai; Meng Aimin; Li Jin

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes not only acute tissue damage but also residual bone marrow (BM) suppression. The induction of residual BM injury is primarily attributable to the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) pressure in hematopoietic cells. In this study, we examined if SB431542, a transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) inhibitor, can mitigate IR-induced BM suppression in vitro. Our results showed that treatment with SB431542 protected mice bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from IR-induced suppression using cell viability assays, clonogenic assays and competitive repopulation assays. Moreover, expression of gene-related ROS production in hematopoietic cells was analyzed. The expression of NADPH oxidative 1 (NOX1), NOX2 and NOX4 was increased in irradiated BMMNCs, and that of NOX2 and NOX4 was reduced by SB431542 treatment. Therefore, the results from this study suggest that SB431542, a TGFβ1 inhibitor, alleviates IR-induced BM suppression at least in part via inhibiting IR-induced NOX2 and NOX4 expression. (author)

  2. Prophylactic pamidronate partially protects from glucocorticoid-induced bone loss in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Hee; Chen, Jinghan; Grynpas, Marc D; Mitchell, Jane

    2016-09-01

    Glucocorticoids are extensively used to treat patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy because of their ability to delay muscle damage, prolong ambulation and extend life. However, use of glucocorticoids significantly increases bone loss, fragility and fractures. To determine if antiresorptive bisphosphonates could prevent the effects of glucocorticoids on bone quality, we used dystrophic mdx mice treated with the glucocorticoid prednisone during 8weeks of rapid bone growth from 5 to 13weeks of age and treated some mice with the bisphosphonate pamidronate during the first two weeks of prednisone administration. Prednisone reduced long bone growth, decreased cortical bone thickness and area and decreased the strength of the femurs. Pamidronate treatment protected mice from cortical bone loss but did not increase bone strength. The combination of prednisone and pamidronate inhibited remodeling of metaphyseal trabecular bone with large numbers of trabeculae containing remnants of calcified cartilage. Prednisone improved muscle strength in the mdx mice and decreased serum creatine kinase with evidence of improved muscle histology and these effects were maintained in mice treated with pamidronate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Contribution of IL-1RI Signaling to Protection against Cryptococcus neoformans 52D in a Mouse Model of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Shourian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β are pro-inflammatory cytokines that are induced after Cryptococcus neoformans infection and activate the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI. To establish the role of IL-1RI signaling in protection against cryptococcal infection, we analyzed wild-type (WT and IL-1RI-deficient (IL-1RI−/− mice on the BALB/c background. IL-1RI−/− mice had significantly reduced survival compared to WT mice after intratracheal challenge with C. neoformans 52D. Microbiological analysis showed a significant increase in the lung and brain fungal burden of IL-1RI−/− compared to WT mice beginning at weeks 1 and 4 postinfection, respectively. Histopathology showed that IL-1RI−/− mice exhibit greater airway epithelial mucus secretion and prominent eosinophilic crystals that were absent in WT mice. Susceptibility of IL-1RI−/− mice was associated with significant induction of a Th2-biased immune response characterized by pulmonary eosinophilia, M2 macrophage polarization, and recruitment of CD4+ IL-13+ T cells. Expression of pro-inflammatory [IL-1α, IL-1β, TNFα, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1], Th1-associated (IFNγ, and Th17-associated (IL-17A cytokines was significantly reduced in IL-1RI−/− lungs compared to WT. WT mice also had higher expression of KC/CXCL1 and sustained neutrophil recruitment to the lung; however, antibody-mediated depletion of these cells showed that they were dispensable for lung fungal clearance. In conclusion, our data indicate that IL-1RI signaling is required to activate a complex series of innate and adaptive immune responses that collectively enhance host defense and survival after C. neoformans 52D infection in BALB/c mice.

  4. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Sapra, Geeta; Patterson, Natalie L; Cemerlang, Nelly; Kiriazis, Helen; Ueyama, Tomomi; Febbraio, Mark A; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC). Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions.

  5. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca C Bernardo

    Full Text Available Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF. AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC. Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions.

  6. Sustained Expression of Negative Regulators of Myelination Protects Schwann Cells from Dysmyelination in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Francesca; Ferri, Cinzia; Scapin, Cristina; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; D'Antonio, Maurizio

    2018-05-02

    Schwann cell differentiation and myelination in the PNS are the result of fine-tuning of positive and negative transcriptional regulators. As myelination starts, negative regulators are downregulated, whereas positive ones are upregulated. Fully differentiated Schwann cells maintain an extraordinary plasticity and can transdifferentiate into "repair" Schwann cells after nerve injury. Reactivation of negative regulators of myelination is essential to generate repair Schwann cells. Negative regulators have also been implicated in demyelinating neuropathies, although their role in disease remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1B (CMT1B), the P0S63del mouse characterized by ER stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response, to show that adult Schwann cells are in a partial differentiation state because they overexpress transcription factors that are normally expressed only before myelination. We provide evidence that two of these factors, Sox2 and Id2, act as negative regulators of myelination in vivo However, their sustained expression in neuropathy is protective because ablation of Sox2 or/and Id2 from S63del mice of both sexes results in worsening of the dysmyelinating phenotype. This is accompanied by increased levels of mutant P0 expression and exacerbation of ER stress, suggesting that limited differentiation may represent a novel adaptive mechanism through which Schwann cells counter the toxic effect of a mutant terminal differentiation protein. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In many neuropathies, Schwann cells express high levels of early differentiation genes, but the significance of these altered expression remained unclear. Because many of these factors may act as negative regulators of myelination, it was suggested that their misexpression could contribute to dysmyelination. Here, we show that the transcription factors Sox2 and Id2 act as negative regulators of myelination in vivo , but that their sustained

  7. Functional Intestinal Bile Acid 7α-Dehydroxylation by Clostridium scindens Associated with Protection from Clostridium difficile Infection in a Gnotobiotic Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Nicolas; Desharnais, Lyne; Beutler, Markus; Brugiroux, Sandrine; Terrazos, Miguel A; Menin, Laure; Schürch, Christian M; McCoy, Kathy D; Kuehne, Sarah A; Minton, Nigel P; Stecher, Bärbel; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids, important mediators of lipid absorption, also act as hormone-like regulators and as antimicrobial molecules. In all these functions their potency is modulated by a variety of chemical modifications catalyzed by bacteria of the healthy gut microbiota, generating a complex variety of secondary bile acids. Intestinal commensal organisms are well-adapted to normal concentrations of bile acids in the gut. In contrast, physiological concentrations of the various intestinal bile acid species play an important role in the resistance to intestinal colonization by pathogens such as Clostridium difficile . Antibiotic therapy can perturb the gut microbiota and thereby impair the production of protective secondary bile acids. The most important bile acid transformation is 7α-dehydroxylation, producing deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA). The enzymatic pathway carrying out 7α-dehydroxylation is restricted to a narrow phylogenetic group of commensal bacteria, the best-characterized of which is Clostridium scindens . Like many other intestinal commensal species, 7-dehydroxylating bacteria are understudied in vivo . Conventional animals contain variable and uncharacterized indigenous 7α-dehydroxylating organisms that cannot be selectively removed, making controlled colonization with a specific strain in the context of an undisturbed microbiota unfeasible. In the present study, we used a recently established, standardized gnotobiotic mouse model that is stably associated with a simplified murine 12-species "oligo-mouse microbiota" (Oligo-MM 12 ). It is representative of the major murine intestinal bacterial phyla, but is deficient for 7α-dehydroxylation. We find that the Oligo-MM 12 consortium carries out bile acid deconjugation, a prerequisite for 7α-dehydroxylation, and confers no resistance to C. difficile infection (CDI). Amendment of Oligo-MM 12 with C. scindens normalized the large intestinal bile acid composition by reconstituting 7

  8. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  9. Inducible protective processes in animal systems XIV: Cytogenetic adaptive response induced by EMS or MMS in bone marrow cells of diabetic mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Dada Khalandar

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: (1 Methylating agents are a more effective inducer of adaptive response than ethylating agents in diabetic mouse. (2 Further, it is interesting to note that the percentage reduction of chromosomal breaks in diabetics is comparatively much less than in non diabetic mouse, inferring that there is variation in adaptive response between diseased and non diseased condition.

  10. Immunoglobulin with High-Titer In Vitro Cross-Neutralizing Hepatitis C Virus Antibodies Passively Protects Chimpanzees from Homologous, but Not Heterologous, Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens; Engle, Ronald E.; Faulk, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in protection against hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains controversial. We infused a chimpanzee with H06 immunoglobulin from a genotype 1a HCV-infected patient and challenged with genotype strains efficiently neutralized by H06 in vitro. Genotype 1a...

  11. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  12. Pharmacological doses of daily ascorbate protect tumours from radiation damage after a single dose of radiation in an intracranial mouse glioma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole eGrasso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological ascorbate is currently used as an anti-cancer treatment, potentially in combination with radiation therapy, by integrative medicine practitioners. In the acidic, metal-rich tumour environment, ascorbate acts as a pro-oxidant, with a mode of action similar to that of ionising radiation; both treatments kill cells predominantly by free radical-mediated DNA damage. The brain tumour, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, is very resistant to radiation; radiosensitising GBM cells will improve survival of GBM patients. Here we demonstrate that a single fraction (6 Gy of radiation combined with a one hour exposure to ascorbate (5 mM sensitised murine glioma GL261cells to radiation in survival and colony-forming assays in vitro. In addition, we report the effect of a single fraction (4.5 Gy of whole brain radiation combined with daily intra-peritoneal injections of ascorbate (1 mg/kg in an intra-cranial GL261 glioma mouse model. Tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: one group received a single dose of 4.5 Gy to the brain eight days after tumour implantation, a second group received daily intra-peritoneal injections of ascorbate (day 8-45 after implantation, a third group received both treatments and a fourth control group received no treatment. While radiation delayed tumour progression, intra-peritoneal ascorbate alone had no effect on tumour progression. Tumour progression was faster in tumour-bearing mice treated with radiation and daily ascorbate than those treated with radiation alone. Histological analysis showed less necrosis in tumours treated with both radiation and ascorbate, consistent with a radio-protective effect of ascorbate in vivo. Discrepancies between our in vitro and in vivo results may be explained by differences in the tumour micro-environment which determines whether ascorbate remains outside the cell, acting as a pro-oxidant or whether it enters the cells and acts as an anti-oxidant.

  13. Pharmacological doses of daily ascorbate protect tumors from radiation damage after a single dose of radiation in an intracranial mouse glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Carole; Fabre, Marie-Sophie; Collis, Sarah V; Castro, M Leticia; Field, Cameron S; Schleich, Nanette; McConnell, Melanie J; Herst, Patries M

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological ascorbate is currently used as an anti-cancer treatment, potentially in combination with radiation therapy, by integrative medicine practitioners. In the acidic, metal-rich tumor environment, ascorbate acts as a pro-oxidant, with a mode of action similar to that of ionizing radiation; both treatments kill cells predominantly by free radical-mediated DNA damage. The brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is very resistant to radiation; radiosensitizing GBM cells will improve survival of GBM patients. Here, we demonstrate that a single fraction (6 Gy) of radiation combined with a 1 h exposure to ascorbate (5 mM) sensitized murine glioma GL261 cells to radiation in survival and colony-forming assays in vitro. In addition, we report the effect of a single fraction (4.5 Gy) of whole brain radiation combined with daily intraperitoneal injections of ascorbate (1 mg/kg) in an intracranial GL261 glioma mouse model. Tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: one group received a single dose of 4.5 Gy to the brain 8 days after tumor implantation, a second group received daily intraperitoneal injections of ascorbate (day 8-45) after implantation, a third group received both treatments and a fourth control group received no treatment. While radiation delayed tumor progression, intraperitoneal ascorbate alone had no effect on tumor progression. Tumor progression was faster in tumor-bearing mice treated with radiation and daily ascorbate than in those treated with radiation alone. Histological analysis showed less necrosis in tumors treated with both radiation and ascorbate, consistent with a radio-protective effect of ascorbate in vivo. Discrepancies between our in vitro and in vivo results may be explained by differences in the tumor microenvironment, which determines whether ascorbate remains outside the cell, acting as a pro-oxidant, or whether it enters the cells and acts as an anti-oxidant.

  14. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ''point defects models'' (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies

  15. Immunostimulatory mouse granuloma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, E; Fauve, R M; Hevin, B; Jusforgues, H

    1983-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that from subcutaneous talc-induced granuloma in mice, a fraction could be extracted that fully protected mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Using standard biochemical procedures--i.e., ammonium sulfate fractionation, preparative electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis--we have now purified an active factor to homogeneity. A single band was obtained in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel with an apparent Mr of 55,000. It migrated with alpha 1-globulins and the isoelectric point was 5 +/- 0.1. The biological activity was destroyed with Pronase but not with trypsin and a monospecific polyclonal rabbit antiserum was obtained. The intravenous injection of 5 micrograms of this "mouse granuloma protein" fully protects mice against a lethal inoculum of L. monocytogenes. Moreover, after their incubation with 10 nM mouse granuloma protein, mouse peritoneal cells became cytostatic against Lewis carcinoma cells.

  16. N-Acetyl cysteine protects diabetic mouse derived mesenchymal stem cells from hydrogen-peroxide-induced injury: A novel hypothesis for autologous stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ali

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential benefits of pharmacological preconditioning of diabetic-mouse-derived MSCs with NAC for amelioration of apoptosis and oxidative stress in H2O2 induced injury.

  17. Passive systems for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.; Noviello, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the most original concepts that have been considered in Italy for the back-fitting of the nuclear power plants in order to reduce the probability and the importance of the release to the environment in case of a core melt. With reference either to BWR or PWR, passive concepts have been considered for back-fitting in the following areas: pump seals damage prevention and ECCS passive operation; reactor passive depressurization; molten reactor core passive cooling; metal containment passive water cooling through a water tank located at high level; containment isolation improvement through a sealing system; containment leaks control and limitation of environmental release. In addition some considerations will be made on the protection against external events introduced from the beginning on the PUN design either on building and equipment lay-out either on structure design. (author). 5 figs

  18. Coenzyme Q10 instilled as eye drops on the cornea reaches the retina and protects retinal layers from apoptosis in a mouse model of kainate-induced retinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Witort, Ewa; Papucci, Laura; Torre, Eugenio; Schipani, Christian; Bergamini, Christian; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2012-12-17

    To evaluate if coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) can protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from apoptosis and, when instilled as eye drops on the cornea, if it can reach the retina and exert its antiapoptotic activity in this area in a mouse model of kainate (KA)-induced retinal damage. Rat primary or cultured RGCs were subjected to glutamate (50 μM) or chemical hypoxia (Antimycin A, 200 μM) or serum withdrawal (FBS, 0.5%) in the presence or absence of CoQ10 (10 μM). Cell viability was evaluated by light microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. Apoptosis was evaluated by caspase 3/7 activity and mitochondrion depolarization tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester analysis. CoQ10 transfer to the retina following its instillation as eye drops on the cornea was quantified by HPLC. Retinal protection by CoQ10 (10 μM) eye drops instilled on the cornea was then evaluated in a mouse model of KA-induced excitotoxic retinal cell apoptosis by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistofluorescence, caspase 3/7 activity assays, and quantification of inhibition of RGC loss. CoQ10 significantly increased viable cells by preventing RGC apoptosis. Furthermore, when topically applied as eye drops to the cornea, it reached the retina, thus substantially increasing local CoQ10 concentration and protecting retinal layers from apoptosis. The ability of CoQ10 eye drops to protect retinal cells from apoptosis in the mouse model of KA-induced retinal damage suggests that topical CoQ10 may be evaluated in designing therapies for treating apoptosis-driven retinopathies.

  19. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  20. BNN-20, a synthetic microneurotrophin, strongly protects dopaminergic neurons in the "weaver" mouse, a genetic model of dopamine-denervation, acting through the TrkB neurotrophin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsakis, Konstantinos; Mourtzi, Theodora; Panagiotakopoulou, Vasiliki; Vreka, Malamati; Stathopoulos, Georgios T; Pediaditakis, Iosif; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Gravanis, Achilleas; Delis, Foteini; Antoniou, Katerina; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios; Georgiou, Christos D; Panagopoulos, Nikolaos T; Matsokis, Nikolaos; Angelatou, Fevronia

    2017-07-15

    Neurotrophic factors are among the most promising treatments aiming at slowing or stopping and even reversing Parkinson's disease (PD). However, in most cases, they cannot readily cross the human blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Herein, we propose as a therapeutic for PD the small molecule 17-beta-spiro-[5-androsten-17,2'-oxiran]-3beta-ol (BNN-20), a synthetic analogue of DHEA, which crosses the BBB and is deprived of endocrine side-effects. Using the "weaver" mouse, a genetic model of PD, which exhibits progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the Substantia Nigra (SN), we have shown that long-term administration (P1-P21) of BNN-20 almost fully protected the dopaminergic neurons and their terminals, via i) a strong anti-apoptotic effect, probably mediated through the Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) neurotrophin receptor's PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway, ii) by exerting an efficient antioxidant effect, iii) by inducing significant anti-inflammatory activity and iv) by restoring Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels. By intercrossing "weaver" with NGL mice (dual GFP/luciferase-NF-κΒ reporter mice, NF-κΒ.GFP.Luc), we obtained Weaver/NGL mice that express the NF-κB reporter in all somatic cells. Acute BNN-20 administration to Weaver/NGL mice induced a strong NF-κB-dependent transcriptional response in the brain as detected by bioluminescence imaging, which was abolished by co-administration of the TrkB inhibitor ANA-12. This indicates that BNN-20 exerts its beneficial action (at least in part) through the TrkB-PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway. These results could be of clinical relevance, as they suggest BNN-20 as an important neuroprotective agent acting through the TrkB neurotrophin receptor pathway, mimicking the action of the endogenous neurotrophin BDNF. Thus BNN-20 could be proposed for treatment of PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  2. Inherent/passive safety in fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Crocker, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of inherent or passive safety for fusion energy is explored, defined, and partially quantified. Four levels of safety assurance are defined, which range from true inherent safety to passive safety to protection via active engineered safeguard systems. Fusion has the clear potential for achieving inherent or passive safety, which should be an objective of fusion research and design. Proper material choice might lead to both inherent/passive safety and high mass power density, improving both safety and economics. When inherent or passive safety is accomplished, fusion will be well on the way to achieving its ultimate potential and to be a truly superior energy source for the future

  3. Combined active-passive immunisation of horses against tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefman, C E

    1980-03-01

    The protection afforded by active, passive and combined active-passive methods of immunisation against tetanus was examined in previously unimmunised horses. Three groups of horses were injected; one with tetanus toxoid alone, one with tetanus antitoxin alone and one in which the tetanus toxoid and tetanus antitoxin were injected simultaneously. The protection afforded was determined by monitoring the levels of antitoxin achieved in the horses by each of these methods. The results obtained demonstrated the effectiveness of the combined active-passive method in affording rapid and prolonged protection and enabled the examination of some of the factors involved in active and in passive immunisation when used alone. The advantages obtained by the use of the combined active-passive method in protecting unimmunised horses suddenly placed at risk to infection are outlined.

  4. beta(2)-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS PROTECT AXONS DURING ENERGETIC STRESS BUT DO NOT INFLUENCE BASAL GLIO-AXONAL LACTATE SHUTTLING IN MOUSE WHITE MATTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laureys, G.; Valentino, M.; Demol, F.; Zammit, C.; Muscat, R.; Cambron, M.; Kooijman, R.; De Keyser, J.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that beta 2-adrenergic receptor activation stimulates glycogen degradation in astrocytes, generating lactate as a potential energy source for neurons. Using in vivo microdialysis in mouse cerebellar white matter we demonstrate continuous axonal lactate uptake and

  5. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  6. Mechanism of protection induced by group A Streptococcus vaccine candidate J8-DT: contribution of B and T-cells towards protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pandey

    Full Text Available Vaccination with J8-DT, a leading GAS vaccine candidate, results in protective immunity in mice. Analysis of immunologic correlates of protection indicated a role of J8-specific antibodies that were induced post-immunization. In the present study, several independent experimental approaches were employed to investigate the protective immunological mechanisms involved in J8-DT-mediated immunity. These approaches included the passive transfer of mouse or rabbit immune serum/antibodies in addition to selective depletion of T-cell subsets prior to bacterial challenge. Passive transfer of J8-DT antiserum/antibodies from mice and rabbits conferred significant resistance against challenge to mice. To exclude the possibility of involvement of other host immune factors, the studies were repeated in SCID mice, which highlighted the need for an ongoing immune response for long-lived protection. Depletion of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cell subsets confirmed that an active de novo immune response, involving CD4(+ T-helper cells, is required for continued synthesis of antibodies resulting in protection against GAS infection. Taken together these results indicate an involvement of CD4(+ T-cells in J8-DT-mediated protection possibly via an ability to maintain antibody levels. These results have considerable relevance to the development of a broad spectrum passive immunotherapy for GAS disease.

  7. Evaluation of a Low-Cost Volatile Organic Compound Passive Sampling Method and Laboratory Intercomparison

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This project “fenceline Passive Sampler and Sensor Studies” contains information on several related field efforts that examine use of passive sorbent tubes and...

  8. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  9. Mouse adhalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W

    1997-01-01

    . To analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin...... was specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation...

  10. Protective effect of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 on ovalbumin-induced airway asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced intestinal food allergy mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Yun; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Dai, Wen-Kui; Huang, Jian-Qiong; Li, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Juan; Qiu, Chuang-Zhao; Wei, Chun; Zhou, Qian; Sun, Xin; Feng, Xin; Li, Dong-Fang; Wang, He-Ping; Zheng, Yue-Jie

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether oral administration of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 (B. infantis CGMCC313-2) inhibits allergen-induced airway inflammation and food allergies in a mouse model. METHODS Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced food allergy mouse models were used in this study. Following oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization, histopathologic changes in the lung and intestine were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. In the allergic asthma mouse model, we evaluated the proportion of lung-infiltrating inflammatory cells. OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also assessed. In the food allergy mouse model, the levels of total IgE and cytokines in serum were measured. RESULTS Oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization suppressed allergic inflammation in lung and intestinal tissues, while the proportion of infiltrating inflammatory cells was significantly decreased in the BALF of allergic asthma mice. Moreover, B. infantis CGMCC313-2 decreased the serum levels of total IgE in food allergy mice, and reductions in IgE and IgG1 were also observed in OVA-induced allergic asthma mice. The expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in both serum and BALF was suppressed following the administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2, while an effect on serum IL-10 levels was not observed. CONCLUSION B. infantis CGMCC313-2 inhibits the secretion of allergen-induced IgE, IL-4 and IL-13, and attenuates allergic inflammation. PMID:28405142

  11. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  12. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulware, Stephen; Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L.; Vasquez, Karen M.; MacLeod, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  13. Improving Protection Agains Intruders Using Passive Sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, L.; Hunter, A.J.; Zampolli, M.; Clarijs, M.C.; Verolme, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Divers and small vessels are increasingly recognized as a potential threat to high value assets. Harbour and waterside surveillance systems that are used to counter the threat of divers are usually based on active sonar, whose performance can be limited by reverberation in a harbour environment.

  14. The status of work in the USSR on using inherent self-protection features of fast reactors, of passive and active means of shutdown and decay heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksha, Yu.K.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive studies on fast reactor safety, aimed to increase intrinsic safety features and introduce passive safety means, are under way in the USSR. Design of the BN-800 reactor core with a close-to-zero sodium void effect of reactivity has been developed, complementary reactivity control means, based on passive principles are being implemented. As a whole, after the Chernobyl accident, the preference is given to the 'passive' full proof methods of safety. This approach may possibly seem excessive and may result in some losses concerning reactor economic characteristics

  15. Passive infrared motion sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    In the last 10 years passive IR based (8--12 microns) motion sensing has matured to become the dominant method of volumetric space protection and surveillance. These systems currently cost less than $25 to produce and yet use traditionally expensive IR optics, filters, sensors and electronic circuitry. This IR application is quite interesting in that the volumes of systems produced and the costs and performance level required prove that there is potential for large scale commercial applications of IR technology. This paper will develop the basis and principles of operation of a staring motion sensor system using a technical approach. A model for the motion of the target is developed and compared to the background. The IR power difference between the target and the background as well as the optical requirements are determined from basic principles and used to determine the performance of the system. Low cost reflective and refractive IR optics and bandpass IR filters are discussed. The pyroelectric IR detector commonly used is fully discussed and characterized. Various schemes for ''false alarms'' have been developed and are also explained. This technology is also used in passive IR based motion sensors for other applications such as lighting control. These applications are also discussed. In addition the paper will discuss new developments in IR surveillance technology such as the use of linear motion sensing arrays. This presentation can be considered a ''primer'' on the art of Passive IR Motion Sensing as applied to Surveillance Technology

  16. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  17. Recent Developments in SOBEK Passive Sonar Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, A.J.; Fillinger, L.; Zampolli, M.; Clarijs, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance of waterside locations for protection against threats from small fast surface vessels and underwater intruders is a very relevant but challenging problem. For this reason, the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is developing SOBEK – a family of passive sonar

  18. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  19. Melatonin attenuates scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment via protecting against demyelination through BDNF-TrkB signaling in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai Hui; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Song, Minah; Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Jae Chul; Kim, Young-Myeong; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Hwang, In Koo; Kang, Il Jun; Yan, Bing Chun; Won, Moo-Ho; Ahn, Ji Hyeon

    2018-04-01

    Animal models of scopolamine-induced amnesia are widely used to study underlying mechanisms and treatment of cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have identified that melatonin improves cognitive dysfunction in animal models. In this study, using a mouse model of scopolamine-induced amnesia, we assessed spatial and short-term memory functions for 4 weeks, investigated the expression of myelin-basic protein (MBP) in the dentate gyrus, and examined whether melatonin and scopolamine cotreatment could keep cognitive function and MBP expression. In addition, to study functions of melatonin for keeping cognitive function and MBP expression, we examined expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomycin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the mouse dentate gyrus. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg) and melatonin (10 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally treated for 2 and 4 weeks. Two and 4 weeks after scopolamine treatment, mice showed significant cognitive impairment; however, melatonin and scopolamine cotreatment recovered cognitive impairment. Two and 4 weeks of scopolamine treatment, the density of MBP immunoreactive myelinated nerve fibers was significantly decreased in the dentate gyrus; however, scopolamine and melatonin cotreatment significantly increased the scopolamine-induced reduction of MBP expression in the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, the cotreatment of scopolamine and melatonin significantly increased the scopolamine-induced decrease of BDNF and TrKB immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. Taken together, our results indicate that melatonin treatment exerts anti-amnesic effect and restores the scopolamine-induced reduction of MBP expression through increasing BDNF and TrkB expressions in the mouse dentate gyrus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrochemical passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline Fe80Si20 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline coating (Fe80Si20) obtained by in situ mechanical alloying route .... is controlled by the iron oxide film in case of alloys with ..... the surface is covered, thus, producing effective protection of.

  1. Passive Safety Features for Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in the size and complexity of commercial nuclear power plants in the 1970s spawned an interest in smaller, simpler designs that are inherently or intrinsically safe through the use of passive design features. Several designs were developed, but none were ever built, although some of their passive safety features were incorporated into large commercial plant designs that are being planned or built today. In recent years, several reactor vendors are actively redeveloping small modular reactor (SMR) designs with even greater use of passive features. Several designs incorporate the ultimate in passive safety they completely eliminate specific accident initiators from the design. Other design features help to reduce the likelihood of an accident or help to mitigate the accidents consequences, should one occur. While some passive safety features are common to most SMR designs, irrespective of the coolant technology, other features are specific to water, gas, or liquid-metal cooled SMR designs. The extensive use of passive safety features in SMRs promise to make these plants highly robust, protecting both the general public and the owner/investor. Once demonstrated, these plants should allow nuclear power to be used confidently for a broader range of customers and applications than will be possible with large plants alone.

  2. Active versus passive screening for entrance control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The benefits of different entrance control actions are quantitatively assessed by defining a relative improvement index for the screening activity. Three classes of entrance control measures are investigated: the use of a purely active screening measure (such as a portal monitor), the use of a purely passive screening measure (such as personality typing), and the combined use of active and passive measures. Active entrance control measures have been studied previously [McCormick and Erdmann, Nucl. Mat. Manag. 4, (1975)] where it was determined that the relative improvement index is approximately related to the nondetection probability factor r for the protective system by (1-r + r ln r). It is shown here that the relative improvement index for a purely passive screening system also can be approximately expressed in a convenient manner. Because the probability is very small that a sabotage or diversion action would be attempted, the result for passive screening, multiplied by r, may be combined with the factor (1-r + r ln r) to give the relative improvement index for a combined, active-and-passive entrance control system. Results from simple example calculations indicate that passive screening of nuclear plant personnel or applicants for such positions is orders-of-magnitude less effective than portal monitors or reasonable improvements in them. 5 tables

  3. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu; Shamma, Jeff S.; Martins, Nuno C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  4. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu

    2018-03-21

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  5. AAV-PHP.B-Mediated Global-Scale Expression in the Mouse Nervous System Enables GBA1 Gene Therapy for Wide Protection from Synucleinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Giuseppe; Giannelli, Serena G; Ordazzo, Gabriele; Bido, Simone; Castoldi, Valerio; Indrigo, Marzia; Cabassi, Tommaso; Cattaneo, Stefano; Luoni, Mirko; Cancellieri, Cinzia; Sessa, Alessandro; Bacigaluppi, Marco; Taverna, Stefano; Leocani, Letizia; Lanciego, José L; Broccoli, Vania

    2017-12-06

    The lack of technology for direct global-scale targeting of the adult mouse nervous system has hindered research on brain processing and dysfunctions. Currently, gene transfer is normally achieved by intraparenchymal viral injections, but these injections target a restricted brain area. Herein, we demonstrated that intravenous delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B viral particles permeated and diffused throughout the neural parenchyma, targeting both the central and the peripheral nervous system in a global pattern. We then established multiple procedures of viral transduction to control gene expression or inactivate gene function exclusively in the adult nervous system and assessed the underlying behavioral effects. Building on these results, we established an effective gene therapy strategy to counteract the widespread accumulation of α-synuclein deposits throughout the forebrain in a mouse model of synucleinopathy. Transduction of A53T-SCNA transgenic mice with AAV-PHP.B-GBA1 restored physiological levels of the enzyme, reduced α-synuclein pathology, and produced significant behavioral recovery. Finally, we provided evidence that AAV-PHP.B brain penetration does not lead to evident dysfunctions in blood-brain barrier integrity or permeability. Altogether, the AAV-PHP.B viral platform enables non-invasive, widespread, and long-lasting global neural expression of therapeutic genes, such as GBA1, providing an invaluable approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases with diffuse brain pathology such as synucleinopathies. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aktiv kontra passiv forvaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2017-01-01

    Fordele og ulemper ved aktiv og passiv forvaltning har fået fornyet opmærksomhed blandt andet i forbindelse med den forestående implementering af MiFID II. Som bidrag til denne diskussion indeholder dette nummer af Finans/Invest tre artikler, der behandler aktiv og passiv forvaltning fra...... forskellige vinkler. Denne leder forklarer, hvorfor valget mellem aktiv og passiv forvaltning er mere kompliceret, end hvad man kunne tro ved første øjekast, og konkluderer, at der vil være plads til - og behov for - begge typer forvaltning....

  7. Most energetic passive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Huber, Marcus; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Tura, Jordi; Acín, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Passive states are defined as those states that do not allow for work extraction in a cyclic (unitary) process. Within the set of passive states, thermal states are the most stable ones: they maximize the entropy for a given energy, and similarly they minimize the energy for a given entropy. Here we find the passive states lying in the other extreme, i.e., those that maximize the energy for a given entropy, which we show also minimize the entropy when the energy is fixed. These extremal properties make these states useful to obtain fundamental bounds for the thermodynamics of finite-dimensional quantum systems, which we show in several scenarios.

  8. Homeostatic Proliferation and IL-7R Alpha Expression Do Not Correlate with Enhanced T Cell Proliferation and Protection in Chronic Mouse Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Robin; Seddon, Benedict; Langhorne, Jean

    2011-01-01

    While chronic infection has been shown to enhance protection from disease caused by several pathogens, the mechanisms are not known. The gamma-c family of cytokines IL-7, IL-2, and IL-15 are implicated in homeostatic proliferation, which is thought to maintain T cell memory. However in chronic infection, prolonged antigen exposure itself may contribute to lymphocyte survival. We have previously observed that chronic malaria infection enhances protection to re-infection, as well as enhancing B...

  9. Passive containment system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimola, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A containment system is described that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is continuously maintained submerged in liquid. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high subatmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means

  10. Complete protection of a passive film on iron from breakdown in a borate buffer containing 0.1M of Cl- by coverage with an ultrathin film of two-dimensional polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramaki, Kunitsugu; Shimura, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    An ultrathin film of two-dimensional polymer was prepared on a passivated iron electrode by modification of a 16-hydroxyhexadecanoate ion HO(CH 2 ) 15 CO 2 - self-assembled monolayer with 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (C 2 H 5 O) 3 Si(CH 2 ) 2 Si(OC 2 H 5 ) 3 and octadecyltriethoxysilane C 18 H 37 Si(OC 2 H 5 ) 3 . This film prevented passive film breakdown examined by potentiodynamic anodic polarization of the coated electrode in the borate buffer solution containing 0.1M of Cl - . Neither current spikes nor the pitting potential was observed in the passive and transpassive regions of polarization curve. The anodic current density was decreased in these regions markedly, implying hindrance to permeation of Cl - and water through the film. Structure of the film was clarified by X-ray photoelectron and FTIR reflection spectroscopies and contact angle measurement with a drop of water. Electron-probe microanalysis of the passivated surface coated with the film after anodic polarization scanning up to the transpassive region revealed that the polymer film prevents pit initiation by an attack on the passive film with Cl -

  11. Techniques for active passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  12. Passive radon daughter dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.G.C.; Johnson, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    On the basis of an extensive review of the recent literature concerning passive radon daughter dosimeters, we have reached the following conclusions: 1) Passive dosimeters for measuring radon are available and reliable. 2) There does not presently exist an acceptable passive dosimeter for radon daughters. There is little if any hope for the development of such a device in the foreseeable future. 3) We are pessimistic about the potential of 'semi-passive dosimeters' but are less firm about stating categorically that these devices cannot be developed into a useful radon daughter dosimeter. This report documents and justifies these conclusions. It does not address the question of the worker's acceptance of these devices because at the present time, no device is sufficiently advanced for this question to be meaningful. 118 refs

  13. Passive Mixing inside Microdroplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengmin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Droplet-based micromixers are essential units in many microfluidic devices for widespread applications, such as diagnostics and synthesis. The mixers can be either passive or active. When compared to active methods, the passive mixer is widely used because it does not require extra energy input apart from the pump drive. In recent years, several passive droplet-based mixers were developed, where mixing was characterized by both experiments and simulation. A unified physical understanding of both experimental processes and simulation models is beneficial for effectively developing new and efficient mixing techniques. This review covers the state-of-the-art passive droplet-based micromixers in microfluidics, which mainly focuses on three aspects: (1 Mixing parameters and analysis method; (2 Typical mixing element designs and the mixing characters in experiments; and, (3 Comprehensive introduction of numerical models used in microfluidic flow and diffusion.

  14. Protective effects of seahorse extracts in a rat castration and testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia model and mouse oligospermatism model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Hui; Wang, Li-Hong; Mei, Xue-Ting; Li, Bing-Ji; Lv, Jun-Li; Xu, Shi-Bo

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of seahorse (Hippocampus spp.) extracts in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and mouse model of oligospermatism. Compared to the sham operated group, castration and testosterone induced BPH, indicated by increased penile erection latency; decreased penis nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity; reduced serum acid phosphatase (ACP) activity; increased prostate index; and epithelial thickening, increased glandular perimeter, increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index and upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the prostate. Seahorse extracts significantly ameliorated the histopathological changes associated with BPH, reduced the latency of penile erection and increased penile NOS activity. Administration of seahorse extracts also reversed epididymal sperm viability and motility in mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Seahorse extracts have potential as a candidate marine drug for treating BPH without inducing the side effects of erectile dysfunction (ED) or oligospermatism associated with the BPH drug finasteride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells through Attenuating Oxidative Stress and the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in a Mouse Model of d-Galactose-induced Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cai, Dachuan; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Linbo; Jing, Pengwei; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yaping

    2016-06-09

    Stem cell senescence is an important and current hypothesis accounting for organismal aging, especially the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). Ginsenoside Rg1 is the main active pharmaceutical ingredient of ginseng, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. This study explored the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on Sca-1⁺ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPCs) in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging. The mimetic aging mouse model was induced by continuous injection of d-gal for 42 days, and the C57BL/6 mice were respectively treated with ginsenoside Rg1, Vitamin E or normal saline after 7 days of d-gal injection. Compared with those in the d-gal administration alone group, ginsenoside Rg1 protected Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs by decreasing SA-β-Gal and enhancing the colony forming unit-mixture (CFU-Mix), and adjusting oxidative stress indices like reactive oxygen species (ROS), total anti-oxidant (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 decreased β-catenin and c-Myc mRNA expression and enhanced the phosphorylation of GSK-3β. Moreover, ginsenoside Rg1 down-regulated advanced glycation end products (AGEs), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), phospho-histone H2A.X (r-H2A.X), 8-OHdG, p16(Ink4a), Rb, p21(Cip1/Waf1) and p53 in senescent Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs. Our findings indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve the resistance of Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging through the suppression of oxidative stress and excessive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and reduction of DNA damage response, p16(Ink4a)-Rb and p53-p21(Cip1/Waf1) signaling.

  16. Liposome delivery of Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein primes a Th1 response that protects against genital chlamydial infection in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Follmann, Frank

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunity to chlamydia is thought to rely on interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting T helper cells type 1 (Th1) with an additional effect of secreted antibodies. A need for Th1-polarizing adjuvants in experimental chlamydia vaccines has been demonstrated, and antigen conformation has also been......-alpha and a profoundly reduced vaginal chlamydial load, compared with control mice. The protection was CD4(+) T cell dependent and was not dependent on MOMP conformation. CONCLUSION: CAF01 adjuvant facilitates a protective anti-MOMP CD4(+) T cell response independent of MOMP conformation....

  17. Telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, partially through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ-dependent activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Kensuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Kataoka, Keiichiro; Yasuda, Osamu; Fukuda, Masaya; Tokutomi, Yoshiko; Dong, Yi-Fei; Ogawa, Hisao; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, acts as a partial PPARγ agonist. → The protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular injury were associated with attenuation of vascular NFκB activation and TNF α. → PPARγ activity of telmisartan was involved in the normalization of vascular PPARγ downregulation in diabetic mice. → We provided the first evidence indicating that PPARγ activity of telmisartan contributed to the protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular complication. -- Abstract: Experimental and clinical data support the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation is associated with anti-atherosclerosis as well as anti-diabetic effect. Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), acts as a partial PPARγ agonist. We hypothesized that telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications, through PPARγ activation. We compared the effects of telmisartan, telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist), and losartan with no PPARγ activity on vascular injury in obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Compared to losartan, telmisartan significantly ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction, downregulation of phospho-eNOS, and coronary arterial remodeling in db/db mice. More vascular protective effects of telmisartan than losartan were associated with greater anti-inflammatory effects of telmisartan, as shown by attenuation of vascular nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation and tumor necrosis factor α. Coadministration of GW9662 with telmisartan abolished the above mentioned greater protective effects of telmisartan against vascular injury than losartan in db/db mice. Thus, PPARγ activity appears to be involved in the vascular protective effects of telmisartan in db/db mice. Moreover, telmisartan, but not losartan, prevented the downregulation of vascular PPARγ in db/db mice and this effect of telmisartan was cancelled by the coadministration

  18. Telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, partially through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma}-dependent activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Kensuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Kataoka, Keiichiro [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Yasuda, Osamu [Department of Cardiovascular Clinical and Translational Research, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan); Fukuda, Masaya; Tokutomi, Yoshiko; Dong, Yi-Fei [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Ogawa, Hisao [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei, E-mail: kimmitsu@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. {yields} The protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular injury were associated with attenuation of vascular NF{kappa}B activation and TNF {alpha}. {yields} PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan was involved in the normalization of vascular PPAR{gamma} downregulation in diabetic mice. {yields} We provided the first evidence indicating that PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan contributed to the protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular complication. -- Abstract: Experimental and clinical data support the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) activation is associated with anti-atherosclerosis as well as anti-diabetic effect. Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. We hypothesized that telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications, through PPAR{gamma} activation. We compared the effects of telmisartan, telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPAR{gamma} antagonist), and losartan with no PPAR{gamma} activity on vascular injury in obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Compared to losartan, telmisartan significantly ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction, downregulation of phospho-eNOS, and coronary arterial remodeling in db/db mice. More vascular protective effects of telmisartan than losartan were associated with greater anti-inflammatory effects of telmisartan, as shown by attenuation of vascular nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation and tumor necrosis factor {alpha}. Coadministration of GW9662 with telmisartan abolished the above mentioned greater protective effects of telmisartan against vascular injury than losartan in db/db mice. Thus, PPAR{gamma} activity appears to be involved in the vascular protective effects of telmisartan in db/db mice. Moreover, telmisartan, but not losartan, prevented the downregulation of

  19. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L.

    2013-01-01

    The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. This procedure results in the formation of a metal oxide layer to prevent corrosion. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid which exhibits excellent corrosion performance; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. The longtime military specification for the passivation of stainless steel was cancelled in favor of newer specifications which allow for the use of citric acid in place of nitric acid. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits that include increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and reduced operational costs. There have been few studies, however, to determine whether citric acid is an acceptable alternative for NASA and DoD. This paper details activities to date including development of the joint test plan, on-going and planned testing, and preliminary results.

  20. Reversible lacrimal gland-protective regulatory T-cell dysfunction underlies male-specific autoimmune dacryoadenitis in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of Sjögren syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Scott M; Kreiger, Portia A; Koretzky, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are required to maintain immunological tolerance; however, defects in specific organ-protective Treg cell functions have not been demonstrated in organ-specific autoimmunity. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop lacrimal and salivary gland autoimmunity and are a well-characterized model of Sjögren syndrome. Lacrimal gland disease in NOD mice is male-specific, but the role of Treg cells in this sex-specificity is not known. This study aimed to determine if male-specific autoimmune dacryoadenitis in the NOD mouse model of Sjögren syndrome is the result of lacrimal gland-protective Treg cell dysfunction. An adoptive transfer model of Sjögren syndrome was developed by transferring cells from the lacrimal gland-draining cervical lymph nodes of NOD mice to lymphocyte-deficient NOD-SCID mice. Transfer of bulk cervical lymph node cells modelled the male-specific dacryoadenitis that spontaneously develops in NOD mice. Female to female transfers resulted in dacryoadenitis if the CD4+ CD25+ Treg-enriched population was depleted before transfer; however, male to male transfers resulted in comparable dacryoadenitis regardless of the presence or absence of Treg cells within the donor cell population. Hormone manipulation studies suggested that this Treg cell dysfunction was mediated at least in part by androgens. Surprisingly, male Treg cells were capable of preventing the transfer of dacryoadenitis to female recipients. These data suggest that male-specific factors promote reversible dysfunction of lacrimal gland-protective Treg cells and, to our knowledge, form the first evidence for reversible organ-protective Treg cell dysfunction in organ-specific autoimmunity. PMID:25581706

  1. Studies on a transplantable C57BL/6 mouse lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    A C57BL/6 mouse lymphoma was demonstrated to be of T cell origin by treating the lymphoma cells with anti-Thy 1.2 antisera in a complement-dependent cytotoxicity test. The lymphoma's growth pattern was described using flow microfluorometric determinations and spleen weight progression. C-type particles were identified in electron micrographs of the lymphoma. C57BL/6 mice were immunized against the lymphoma by injecting x-ray inactivated lymphoma cells into the mice. Protection of immunized mice against live lymphoma cells demonstrated tumor antigens on the lymphoma cells. The success of immunization was found to depend on: route of injection, antigen dosage, state of the antigen, number of injections and the vaccination-challenge interval. Attempts were made to passively transfer immunity from immunized C57BL/6 mice which had survived lymphoma challenge to non-treated, syngeneic mice. The route of immunization in the donors influenced the success of passively transferred immunity in the recipients. Serum from days 1 to 3 and days 11 to death (day 17) had an enhancing effect on lymphoma growth. However, sera from days 5 to 9 retarded lymphoma growth. The C57BL/6 lymphoma cells were injected into rabbits and other strains of mice to demonstrate tumor specificity. The lymphoma did not grow in rabbits and only grew in one mouse strain. This strain had the same major histocompatibility loci as C57BL/6 mice. Crosses were made between C57BL/6 mice and a resistant strain of mice (DBA/2 mice). The F 1 hybrids were found to be less susceptible to the lymphoma than the C57BL/6 strain. Sublethal x-irradiation of the F 1 mice decreased its ability to resist the C57BL/6 lymphoma. Immunization with x-ray inactivated C57BL/6 lymphoma cells increased survival after challenge with lymphoma in the F 1 mice

  2. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  3. Protective Effects of Sonic Hedgehog Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mouse Skeletal Muscle via AKT/mTOR/p70S6K Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Skeletal muscle ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is a common and severe disease. Sonic hedgehog (Shh plays a critical role in post-natal skeletal muscle regeneration. In the present study, the role of Shh in skeletal muscle I/R injury and the mechanisms involved were investigated. Methods: The expression of Shh, AKT/mTOR/p70S6K and apoptosis pathway components were evaluated following tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle I/R injury. Then, mice were subjected to systemic administration of cyclopamine or one-shot treatment of a plasmid encoding the human Shh gene (phShh to examine the effects of Shh on I/R injury. Moreover, mice were subjected to systemic administration of NVP-BEZ235 to investigate the role of the AKT/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in Shh-triggered skeletal muscle protection. Results: We found that the levels of Shh, AKT/mTOR/p70S6K pathway components and Cleaved Caspase 3 and the Bax/Bcl2 ratio initially increased and then decreased at different time points post-I/R injury. Moreover, Shh protected skeletal muscle against I/R injury by alleviating muscle destruction, reducing interstitial fibrosis and inhibiting apoptosis, and these protective effects were abrogated when the AKT/mTOR/p70S6K pathway was inhibited. Conclusion: Collectively, these data suggest that Shh signaling exerts a protective role through the AKT/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway during skeletal muscle I/R injury. Thus, Shh signaling may be a therapeutic target for protecting skeletal muscle from I/R injury.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of MPL and delivery route on immunogenicity and protectivity of different formulations of FimH and MrpH from uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in a UTI mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis are an important cause of morbidity and with the high rate of relapse and spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens, pose a significant public health challenge worldwide. Lack of an efficacious commercial vaccine targeting both uropathogens makes development of a combined vaccine highly desirable. In this study the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of different formulations of FimH of UPEC, MrpH of P. mirabilis and their fusion protein (MrpH.FimH) subcutaneously administered with and without Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant were evaluated. Our data showed that the subcutaneously administered proteins induced both serum and mucosal IgG, which MPL significantly improved developing a mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response. However, the preparations induced a higher systemic and mucosal IgG and IL-2 levels by this route compared to the intranasal. Immunization of mice with MrpH.FimH fusion with MPL or a mixture of FimH, MrpH and MPL conferred the highest protection of the bladder and kidneys when challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis in a UTI mouse model. Therefore considering these results MrpH.FimH fusion with MPL administered subcutaneously or intranasally could be a promising vaccine candidate for elimination of UTIs caused by UPEC and P. mirabilis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Measure Guideline: Passive Vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, David [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Neri, Robin [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-05

    This document addresses the use of passive vents as a source of outdoor air in multifamily buildings. The challenges associated with implementing passive vents and the factors affecting performance are outlined. A comprehensive design methodology and quantified performance metrics are provided. Two hypothetical design examples are provided to illustrate the process. This document is intended to be useful to designers, decision-makers, and contractors implementing passive ventilation strategies. It is also intended to be a resource for those responsible for setting high-performance building program requirements, especially pertaining to ventilation and outdoor air. To ensure good indoor air quality, a dedicated source of outdoor air is an integral part of high-performance buildings. Presently, there is a lack of guidance pertaining to the design and installation of passive vents, resulting in poor system performance. This report details the criteria necessary for designing, constructing, and testing passive vent systems to enable them to provide consistent and reliable levels of ventilation air from outdoors.

  6. Comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy of two formulations of a recombinant Chlamydia abortus subunit candidate vaccine in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Pais, Roshan; Ohandjo, Adaugo; He, Cheng; He, Qing; Omosun, Yusuf; Igietseme, J U; Eko, F O

    2015-04-08

    Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) is the causative agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) and poses a zoonotic risk to pregnant women. Current live attenuated 1B vaccines are efficacious but cause disease in vaccinated animals and inactivated vaccines are only marginally protective. We tested the ability of a new C. abortus subunit vaccine candidate based on the conserved and immunogenic polymorphic membrane protein D (Pmp18D) formulated in CpG1826+FL (Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 Ligand; Flt3L) or Vibrio cholerae ghosts (VCG) to induce innate and cross protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection. We found that delivery of rPmp18D with VCG was more effective than with CpG+FL in up-regulating the expression of molecules critically involved in T cell activation and differentiation, including MHC II, CD40, CD80, and CD86, activation of TLRs and NLRP3 inflammasome engagement, and secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α but not IL-10 and IL-4. rVCG-Pmp18D-immunized mice elicited more robust antigen-specific IFN-γ, IgA and IgG2c antibody responses compared to CpG+FL-delivered rPmp18D. Based on the number of mice with positive vaginal cultures, length of vaginal shedding, and number of inclusion forming units recovered following challenge with the heterologous C. abortus strain B577, vaccine delivery with VCG induced superior protective immunity than delivery with a combination of CpG1826 and FL, a nasal DC-targeting adjuvant. These results demonstrate that the ability of VCG to enhance protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection is superior to that of CpG+FL adjuvants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protection against RAGE-mediated neuronal cell death by sRAGE-secreting human mesenchymal stem cells in 5xFAD transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myeongjoo; Oh, Seyeon; Park, Hyunjin; Ahn, Hyosang; Choi, Junwon; Kim, Hyungho; Lee, Hye Sun; Lee, Sojung; Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Seung U; Lee, Bonghee; Byun, Kyunghee

    2017-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the most commonly encountered neurodegenerative disease, causes synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss due to various pathological processes that include tau abnormality and amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation. Aβ stimulates the secretion and the synthesis of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) ligand by activating microglial cells, and has been reported to cause neuronal cell death in Aβ 1-42 treated rats and in mice with neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is known to reduce inflammation, and to decrease microglial cell activation and Aβ deposition, and thus, it protects from neuronal cell death in AD. However, sRAGE protein has too a short half-life for therapeutic purposes. We developed sRAGE-secreting umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (sRAGE-MSCs) to enhance the inhibitory effects of sRAGE on Aβ deposition and to reduce the secretion and synthesis of RAGE ligands in 5xFAD mice. In addition, these cells improved the viability of injected MSCs, and enhanced the protective effects of sRAGE by inhibiting the binding of RAGE and RAGE ligands in 5xFAD mice. These findings suggest sRAGE protein from sRAGE-MSCs has better protection against neuronal cell death than sRAGE protein or single MSC treatment by inhibiting the RAGE cell death cascade and RAGE-induce inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  9. Constructing passive houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehler, S. [Oehler Faigle Archkom Solar Architektur, Bretten (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Everybody can learn to build energy-efficient. It needs theoretical and practical experience. 1997 we built the first freestanding Passive House in Europe, the Passive House Oehler. There had been a lot of questions, starting with the insecurity, whether the calculation program of the Passive House Institute, the PHPP, is working properly in our case. Nobody knew at that time because nobody tried it out before. It took us a lot of time to find out and every detail of the construction hat to be invented to meet the very high demand of thermal quality. All the following houses needed less time and had fewer open questions, adding one piece of experience with every building. 2002 we realised the biggest Passive House, the office building Energon Ulm with 420 working spaces. In the meantime we have learned a lot like how to produce prefabricated timber elements for the facades, providing good insulation, air tightness and avoiding serious thermal bridges. We have proofed, that any kind of building type can be a Passive House. And with increasing experience the freedom of design and construction is growing. Even the economical efficiency increased. The Energon Ulm is providing a much better indoor climate than any other office building and was build 10 % cheaper than an average German office building. At present the Passive House Standard is the most efficient solution for the user to live in the desired comfort zone between 20 C and 25 C. This zone of individual feeling-well can be described with the term ''operative temperature''. This term is defined by factors like air temperature, radiation temperature of warm and cold surfaces, air speed and humidity. The result of all these factors has to be within 18 C to 25 C without accepting one of the factors getting extreme.

  10. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, including acetaminophen (APAP, have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST and multidrug resistance (MDR1 proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM, a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems.

  11. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  12. Engineered safeguards and passive safety features (safety analysis detailed report no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-15

    The Safety-Analysis Summary lists the reactor's safety aspects for passive and active prevention of severe accidents and mitigation of accident consequences, i.e., intrinsic and passive protections of the plant; intrinsic and passive protections of the core; inherent decay-heat removal systems; rapid-shutdown systems; four physical containment barriers. This report goes into further details regarding some of this aspects.

  13. Passive and engineered safety features of the prototype fast reactor (PFR), Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    Prototype fast reactor (PFR) combines passive and engineered safety features. Natural convection, a strong negative power coefficient, the decay heat removal system, and a fuel design able to operate beyond failure are all inherent and passive safety features of the PFR. The reliable shutdown system and the protection provided against SGU leaks are example of engineered protection. Experience at PFR demonstrates the worth and potential of a range of passive and engineered safeguards

  14. Human anti-plague monoclonal antibodies protect mice from Yersinia pestis in a bubonic plague model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xiao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague that has killed more than 200 million people throughout the recorded history of mankind. Antibiotics may provide little immediate relief to patients who have a high bacteremia or to patients infected with an antibiotic resistant strain of plague. Two virulent factors of Y. pestis are the capsid F1 protein and the low-calcium response (Lcr V-protein or V-antigen that have been proven to be the targets for both active and passive immunization. There are mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against the F1- and V-antigens that can passively protect mice in a murine model of plague; however, there are no anti-Yersinia pestis monoclonal antibodies available for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in humans. We identified one anti-F1-specific human mAb (m252 and two anti-V-specific human mAb (m253, m254 by panning a naïve phage-displayed Fab library against the F1- and V-antigens. The Fabs were converted to IgG1s and their binding and protective activities were evaluated. M252 bound weakly to peptides located at the F1 N-terminus where a protective mouse anti-F1 mAb also binds. M253 bound strongly to a V-antigen peptide indicating a linear epitope; m254 did not bind to any peptide from a panel of 53 peptides suggesting that its epitope may be conformational. M252 showed better protection than m253 and m254 against a Y, pestis challenge in a plague mouse model. A synergistic effect was observed when the three antibodies were combined. Incomplete to complete protection was achieved when m252 was given at different times post-challenge. These antibodies can be further studied to determine their potential as therapeutics or prophylactics in Y. pestis infection in humans.

  15. Radiation protection of male fertility in mouse and rat by a combination of 5-hydroxyl-L-tryptophan and a thiol compound (AET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, S.; Chuttani, K.; Basu, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Sperm abnormalities and fall in total sperm count following different doses (4 Gy, 5 Gy and 6 Gy) of whole body gamma irradiation (WBGR) were studied in adult male Swiss strain A mice. The protecting ability of a combination of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP, 100 mg/kg) and 2-aminoethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET, 20 mg/kg) was also investigated. Pretreatment with a 5-HTP + AET formulation i.p., 30 min before irradiation modified the fall in sperm counts significantly. Exposures to 4 Gy, 5 Gy and 6 Gy WBGR caused marked increase of sperm abnormalities which could be significantly reduced by pretreatment with 5-HTP-AET. WBGR with 4 Gy, 5 Gy and 6 Gy produced a short period of sterility associated with oligospermia but these abnormalities were corrected by pretreatment with 5-HTP + AET. This finding was supported by breeding experiments in pretreated adult male Sprague-Dawley rats which showed delivery of normal offsprings in drug-protected irradiated groups in contrast to irradiated controls. (orig.)

  16. Pancreatic Tissue Transplanted in TheraCyte Encapsulation Devices Is Protected and Prevents Hyperglycemia in a Mouse Model of Immune-Mediated Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, Tobias; Schneider, Darius; Cheng, Yang; Kadoya, Kuniko; Brandon, Eugene P; Martinson, Laura; von Herrath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by destruction of glucose-responsive insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells and exhibits immune infiltration of pancreatic islets, where CD8 lymphocytes are most prominent. Curative transplantation of pancreatic islets is seriously hampered by the persistence of autoreactive immune cells that require high doses of immunosuppressive drugs. An elegant approach to confer graft protection while obviating the need for immunosuppression is the use of encapsulation devices that allow for the transfer of oxygen and nutrients, yet prevent immune cells from making direct contact with the islet grafts. Here we demonstrate that macroencapsulation devices (TheraCyte) loaded with neonatal pancreatic tissue and transplanted into RIP-LCMV.GP mice prevented disease onset in a model of virus-induced diabetes mellitus. Histological analyses revealed that insulin-producing cells survived within the device in animal models of diabetes. Our results demonstrate that these encapsulation devices can protect from an immune-mediated attack and can contain a sufficient amount of insulin-producing cells to prevent overt hyperglycemia.

  17. Passiv-Sammler

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsche, U.

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to a passive collector for air pollution for the determination of emission rates for dry and wet deposits on construction materials such as natural stone, whereby the collector has a surrogate surface of the stone under investigation, the surrogate surface being linked to a collecting vessel such that any dry or wet contamination occurring can be collected.

  18. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  19. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  20. Passive THz metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present our activities in the fabrication and characterization of passive THz metamaterials. We use two fabrication processes to develop metamaterials either as free-standing metallic membranes or patterned metallic multi-layers on the substrates to achieve different functionalities...

  1. Expression of the neuronal adaptor protein X11alpha protects against memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C

    2010-01-01

    X11alpha is a neuronal-specific adaptor protein that binds to the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP). Overexpression of X11alpha reduces Abeta production but whether X11alpha also protects against Abeta-related memory dysfunction is not known. To test this possibility, we crossed X11alpha transgenic mice with AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice. AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice produce high levels of brain Abeta and develop age-related defects in memory function that correlate with increasing Abeta load. Overexpression of X11alpha alone had no detectable adverse effect upon behavior. However, X11alpha reduced brain Abeta levels and corrected spatial reference memory defects in aged X11alpha\\/AbetaPP double transgenics. Thus, X11alpha may be a therapeutic target for Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  2. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 10(7) TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10(-4). The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor 21 protects mouse brain against D-galactose induced aging via suppression of oxidative stress response and advanced glycation end products formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinhang; Bai, Fuliang; Wang, Wenfei; Liu, Yaonan; Yuan, Qingyan; Qu, Susu; Zhang, Tong; Tian, Guiyou; Li, Siming; Li, Deshan; Ren, Guiping

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone secreted predominantly in the liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. Recently, it has been reported that FGF21-Transgenic mice can extend their lifespan compared with wild type counterparts. Thus, we hypothesize that FGF21 may play some roles in aging of organisms. In this study d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging mice were used to study the mechanism that FGF21 protects mice from aging. The three-month-old Kunming mice were subcutaneously injected with d-gal (180mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 8weeks and administered simultaneously with FGF21 (1, 2 or 5mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)). Our results showed that administration of FGF21 significantly improved behavioral performance of d-gal-treated mice in water maze task and step-down test, reduced brain cell damage in the hippocampus, and attenuated the d-gal-induced production of MDA, ROS and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). At the same time, FGF21 also markedly renewed the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total anti-oxidation capability (T-AOC), and decreased the enhanced total cholinesterase (TChE) activity in the brain of d-gal-treated mice. The expression of aldose reductase (AR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and member-anchored receptor for AGEs (RAGE) declined significantly after FGF21 treatment. Furthermore, FGF21 suppressed inflamm-aging by inhibiting IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, decreased significantly. In conclusion, these results suggest that FGF21 protects the aging mice brain from d-gal-induced injury by attenuating oxidative stress damage and decreasing AGE formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intrinsically Passive Handling and Grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Khodabandehloo, Koorosh

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a control philosophy called Intrinsically Passive Control, which has the feature to properly behave during interaction with any passive objects. The controlled robot will never become unstable due to the physical structure of the controller.

  5. Novel para-phenyl substituted diindolylmethanes protect against MPTP neurotoxicity and suppress glial activation in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miranda, Briana R; Popichak, Katriana A; Hammond, Sean L; Miller, James A; Safe, Stephen; Tjalkens, Ronald B

    2015-02-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 (Nurr1) constitutively regulates inflammatory gene expression in glial cells by suppressing DNA binding activity of NF-κB. We recently reported that novel 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methane (C-DIM) compounds that activate NR4A family nuclear receptors in cancer lines also suppress inflammatory gene expression in primary astrocytes and prevent loss of dopaminergic neurons in mice exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and probenecid (MPTPp). In this study, we postulated that the basis for this neuroprotection involves blockade of glial activation and subsequent expression of NF-κB-regulated inflammatory genes. To examine this mechanism, we treated transgenic NF-κB/EGFP reporter mice with MPTPp for 7 days (MPTPp7d) followed by daily oral gavage with either vehicle (corn oil; MPTPp14d) or C-DIMs containing p-methoxyphenyl (C-DIM5), p-hydroxyphenyl (C-DIM8), or p-chlorophenyl (C-DIM12) groups. Each compound conferred significant protection against progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), even when given after 7 days of dosing with MPTPp. C-DIM12 had the greatest neuroprotective activity in MPTPp-treated mice, and was also the most potent compound in suppressing activation of microglia and astrocytes, expression of cytokines and chemokines in quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array studies, and in reducing expression of NF-κB/EGFP in the SN. C-DIM12 prevented nuclear export of Nurr1 in dopaminergic neurons and enhanced expression of the Nurr1-regulated proteins tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. These data indicate that NR4A-active C-DIM compounds protect against loss of dopamine neurons in the MPTPp model of PD by preventing glial-mediated neuronal injury and by supporting a dopaminergic phenotype in TH-positive neurons in the SNpc. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology

  6. High-anxious individuals show increased chronic stress burden, decreased protective immunity, and increased cancer progression in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus S Dhabhar

    Full Text Available In spite of widespread anecdotal and scientific evidence much remains to be understood about the long-suspected connection between psychological factors and susceptibility to cancer. The skin is the most common site of cancer, accounting for nearly half of all cancers in the US, with approximately 2-3 million cases of non-melanoma cancers occurring each year worldwide. We hypothesized that a high-anxious, stress-prone behavioral phenotype would result in a higher chronic stress burden, lower protective-immunity, and increased progression of the immuno-responsive skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma. SKH1 mice were phenotyped as high- or low-anxious at baseline, and subsequently exposed to ultraviolet-B light (1 minimal erythemal dose (MED, 3 times/week, 10-weeks. The significant strengths of this cancer model are that it uses a normal, immunocompetent, outbred strain, without surgery/injection of exogenous tumor cells/cell lines, and produces lesions that resemble human tumors. Tumors were counted weekly (primary outcome, and tissues collected during early and late phases of tumor development. Chemokine/cytokine gene-expression was quantified by PCR, tumor-infiltrating helper (Th, cytolytic (CTL, and regulatory (Treg T cells by immunohistochemistry, lymph node T and B cells by flow cytometry, adrenal and plasma corticosterone and tissue vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF by ELISA. High-anxious mice showed a higher tumor burden during all phases of tumor development. They also showed: higher corticosterone levels (indicating greater chronic stress burden, increased CCL22 expression and Treg infiltration (increased tumor-recruited immuno-suppression, lower CTACK/CCL27, IL-12, and IFN-γ gene-expression and lower numbers of tumor infiltrating Th and CTLs (suppressed protective immunity, and higher VEGF concentrations (increased tumor angiogenesis/invasion/metastasis. These results suggest that the deleterious effects of high trait anxiety

  7. Myeloid protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) deficiency protects against atherosclerotic plaque formation in the ApoE-/- mouse model of atherosclerosis with alterations in IL10/AMPKα pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Morrice, N; Grant, L; Le Sommer, S; Ziegler, K; Whitfield, P; Mody, N; Wilson, H M; Delibegović, M

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent cause of mortality among patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Recent evidence suggests a strong link between atherosclerosis and insulin resistance due to impaired insulin receptor (IR) signaling. Moreover, inflammatory cells, in particular macrophages, play a key role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance in humans. We hypothesized that inhibiting the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), the major negative regulator of the IR, specifically in macrophages, would have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects and lead to protection against atherosclerosis and CVD. We generated novel macrophage-specific PTP1B knockout mice on atherogenic background (ApoE -/- /LysM-PTP1B). Mice were fed standard or pro-atherogenic diet, and body weight, adiposity (echoMRI), glucose homeostasis, atherosclerotic plaque development, and molecular, biochemical and targeted lipidomic eicosanoid analyses were performed. Myeloid-PTP1B knockout mice on atherogenic background (ApoE -/- /LysM-PTP1B) exhibited a striking improvement in glucose homeostasis, decreased circulating lipids and decreased atherosclerotic plaque lesions, in the absence of body weight/adiposity differences. This was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of aortic Akt, AMPKα and increased secretion of circulating anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ), without measurable alterations in IR phosphorylation, suggesting a direct beneficial effect of myeloid-PTP1B targeting. Here we demonstrate that inhibiting the activity of PTP1B specifically in myeloid lineage cells protects against atherosclerotic plaque formation, under atherogenic conditions, in an ApoE -/- mouse model of atherosclerosis. Our findings suggest for the first time that macrophage PTP1B targeting could be a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis treatment and reduction of CVD risk.

  8. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D'Andrea, Alan; Niedernhofer, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  9. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D' Andrea, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Niedernhofer, Laura J., E-mail: niedernhoferl@upmc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion 2.6, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  10. Exceptionally High Protection of Photocarcinogenesis by Topical Application of (--Epi gal locatechin-3-Gal late in Hydrophilic Cream in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse Model: Relationship to Inhibition of UVB-Induced Global DNA Hypomethylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Mittal

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available (--Epigallocatechin-3-gal late (EGCG has been shown to have potent antiphotocarcinogenic activity, but it was required to develop a cream-based formulation for topical application. For topical application, we tested hydrophilic cream as a vehicle for EGCG. Treatment with EGCG (≈ 1 mg/cm2 skin area in hydrophilic cream resulted in exceptionally high protection against photocarcinogenesis when determined in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor size in a SKI-11-11 hairless mouse model. EGCG also inhibited malignant transformation of ultraviolet B (UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas. In order to determine the mechanism of prevention of photocarcinogenesis, we determined the effect of EGCG on global DNA methylation pattern using monoclonal antibodies against 5-methyl cytosine and DNA methyltransferase in the long-term UV-irradiated skin because altered DNA methylation silencing is recognized as a molecular hallmark of human cancer. We found that treatment with EGCG resulted in significant inhibition of UVBinduced global DNA hypomethylation pattern. Longterm application of EGCG did not show any apparent sign of toxicity in mice when determined in terms of skin appearance, lean mass, total bone mineral content, and total bone mineral density but showed reduction in fat mass when analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. These data suggest that hydrophilic cream could be a suitable vehicle for topical application of EGCG, and that EGCG is a promising candidate for future cancer therapies based on its influence on the epigenetic pathway.

  11. Surface Defect Passivation and Reaction of c-Si in H2S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiang-Yu; Das, Ujjwal K; Birkmire, Robert W

    2017-12-26

    A unique passivation process of Si surface dangling bonds through reaction with hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is demonstrated in this paper. A high-level passivation quality with an effective minority carrier lifetime (τ eff ) of >2000 μs corresponding to a surface recombination velocity of passivation by monolayer coverage of S on the Si surface. However, S passivation of the Si surface is highly unstable because of thermodynamically favorable reaction with atmospheric H 2 O and O 2 . This instability can be eliminated by capping the S-passivated Si surface with a protective thin film such as low-temperature-deposited amorphous silicon nitride.

  12. Passive solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, K

    1981-11-10

    The present work treats the possibilities for heating according to the passive solar heating method. Problems of 'spatial organization in an energy-saving society' are distinguished from among other social problems. The final delimination of the actual problems under investigation consists of the use of passive solar heating and especially the 'consequences of such solar heating exploitation upon the form and structures' of planning and construction. In the concluding chapter an applied example shows how this method can be used in designing an urban area and what are its limitations. The results indicate the possibilities and difficulties in attempting to transfer this ideal and general method into models and directives for form and structure from which examples of the actual possibilities in practical planning can be given.

  13. Qademah Fault Passive Data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this field trip we collect passive data to 1. Convert passive to surface waves 2. Locate Qademah fault using surface wave migration INTRODUCTION: In this field trip we collected passive data for several days. This data will be used to find the surface waves using interferometry and then compared to active-source seismic data collected at the same location. A total of 288 receivers are used. A 3D layout with 5 m inline intervals and 10 m cross line intervals is used, where we used 12 lines with 24 receivers at each line. You will need to download the file (rec_times.mat), it contains important information about 1. Field record no 2. Record day 3. Record month 4. Record hour 5. Record minute 6. Record second 7. Record length P.S. 1. All files are converted from original format (SEG-2) to matlab format P.S. 2. Overlaps between records (10 to 1.5 sec.) are already removed from these files

  14. Concept research on general passive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xu; Yang Yanhua; Zheng Mingguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarized the current passive techniques used in nuclear power plants. Through classification and analysis, the functional characteristics and inherent identification of passive systems were elucidated. By improving and extending the concept of passive system, the general passive concept was proposed, and space and time relativity was discussed and assumption of general passive system were illustrated. The function of idealized general passive system is equivalent with the current passive system, but the design of idealized general passive system is more flexible. (authors)

  15. Overexpression of microRNA-26a protects against deficient β-cell function via targeting phosphatase with tensin homology in mouse models of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yingli; Jin, Di; Jiang, Xiaoshu; Lv, Chunmei; Zhu, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increased rapidly in the world. The development of β-cell dysfunction is the quintessential defects in T2DM patients However, the pathogenesis of β-cell dysfunction is still unclear. MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs and has been reported to be involved in pathogenesis of β-cell dysfunction and T2DM. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which miR-26a regulate β-cell function and insulin signaling pathway in high fat diet (HFD) fed and db/db T2DM mice model. The expression of miR-26a was down-regulated dramatically in the serum and islets of both HFD and db/db mice model. miR-26a overexpression protected against HFD-induced diabetes and maintained prolonged normoglycemic time in HFD fed mice. Overexpression of miR-26a improved β-cell dysfunction in T2DM mice. Further, we identified that PTEN is a direct target gene of miR-26a. Overexpression of miR-26a significantly inhibited the luciferase activity of hPTEN 3'-UTR, while the effect of miR-26a disappeared when the miR-26a potential binding site within the PTEN 3'-UTR was mutated. Overexpression of miR-26a reduced both the mRNA and protein levels of PTEN in vitro and in vivo. We also found that miR-26a overexpression increased the expression of p-Akt and p-FoxO-1, while the effect of miR-26a was blocked by PTEN overexpression. In conclusion, our data indicated that miR-26a potentially contributes to the β-cell dysfunction in T2DM, and miR-26a may be a new therapeutic strategy against T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transgenic Parasites Stably Expressing Full-Length Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein as a Model for Vaccine Down-Selection in Mice Using Sterile Protection as an Endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael D.; Nicki, Jennifer; Pool, Christopher D.; DeBot, Margot; Illam, Ratish M.; Brando, Clara; Bozick, Brooke; De La Vega, Patricia; Angra, Divya; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea; Murphy, Jittawadee R.; Bennett, Jason W.; Schwenk, Robert J.; Ockenhouse, Christian F.

    2013-01-01

    Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum is a protective human malaria vaccine candidate. There is an urgent need for models that can rapidly down-select novel CSP-based vaccine candidates. In the present study, the mouse-mosquito transmission cycle of a transgenic Plasmodium berghei malaria parasite stably expressing a functional full-length P. falciparum CSP was optimized to consistently produce infective sporozoites for protection studies. A minimal sporozoite challenge dose was established, and protection was defined as the absence of blood-stage parasites 14 days after intravenous challenge. The specificity of protection was confirmed by vaccinating mice with multiple CSP constructs of differing lengths and compositions. Constructs that induced high NANP repeat-specific antibody titers in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were protective, and the degree of protection was dependent on the antigen dose. There was a positive correlation between antibody avidity and protection. The antibodies in the protected mice recognized the native CSP on the parasites and showed sporozoite invasion inhibitory activity. Passive transfer of anti-CSP antibodies into naive mice also induced protection. Thus, we have demonstrated the utility of a mouse efficacy model to down-select human CSP-based vaccine formulations. PMID:23536694

  17. A Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) and Studies Supporting the Medical Chemical Defense Program. Evaluation of the Passive Protection Against Five Serotypes of Botulinum Toxin Provided by Botulinum Human Immune Globulin in an Animal Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Pentavalent (ABCDE) botulinum toxoid vaccine is intended for use as a prophylactic measure to protect combat troops against the lethal effects of botulinum toxins A-E, a group of toxins considered to be a serious biological warfare threat...

  18. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  19. Passive energy standard in building as a perspective of sustainable development - first passive houses in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscevic, Lj.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the projects and implementation of the first passive family houses in Croatia. The Croatian Solar House (CSH) is a national technological-development project by a group of authors, which is based on passive house standard as an energy-terms point of departure. The House EV1 is a wood-made passive house under construction, while the House M4 is the first passive house in Croatia made in poro-concrete and reinforced concrete made ceiling slabs. Both houses comply with the heating energy consumption requirements under the passive house definition, i.e., the annual consumption does not exceed 15 kWh/m2. These houses are also referred to as 'houses without heating', 'houses with thermal comfort without heating' or 'one-liter houses' because their consumption is equivalent to one liter of fuel oil by one square meter a year. Assuming the high-value thermal protection, passive house is equipped with an installation system which houses a heat pump and ventilation system for continuous introduction of fresh air indoors. The use of renewable energy sources enabled the accomplishment by far the biggest energy savings in the construction industry, ensuring optimal conditions for healthy living without harmful gas emissions. Since 1990 there is an exponential growth of constructed passive houses in Europe. Germany is leading this trend with total of 150,000 free-standing houses, house raw units or residential units in small multi-apartment buildings. The research project-program of the European Union: Cost Efficiency Passive Houses as European Union Standard (CEPHEUS) has confirmed, by scientific monitoring during several years, the energy- and cost-efficiency of such architecture and construction model in more than 250 units in Germany, France, Austria and Switzerland. Therefore the passive house is proposed as a standard for residential architecture and construction, but also for general construction of all functional types of non-residential architecture

  20. Expansion of passive safety function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko; Nei, Hiromichi; Kumada, Toshiaki.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of the use of passive safety functions is proposed. Two notions are presented. One is that, in the design of passive safety nuclear reactors where aversion of active components is stressed, some active components are purposely introduced, by which a system is built in such a way that it behaves in an apparently passive manner. The second notion is that, instead of using a passive safety function alone, a passive safety function is combined with some active components, relating the passivity in the safety function with enhanced controllability in normal operation. The nondormant system which the authors propose is one example of the first notion. This is a system in which a standby safety system is a portion of the normal operation system. An interpretation of the nondormant system via synergetics is made. As an example of the second notion, a PIUS density lock aided with active components is proposed and is discussed

  1. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  2. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  3. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameter...

  4. Illegal Passive Smoking at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Lesage

    2011-01-01

    Results. Ninety-five percent of a total group of 172 OP of Champagne county filled the postal questionnaire. More than 80% of OP's replies identified illegal PSW. The average prevalence of PSW exposure was 0.7% of the total working population. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS levels were considered between low and medium for most passive smokers (71%. Main features exposure to ETS at work for non-smokers was associated with female gender (69.5%, age between 40 and 49 years (41.2% and belonging to tertiary sector (75.6%. Environmental tobacco smoke exposures at work was firstly in the office for 49.7% of the subjects and secondly in the restroom for 18% of them. Main medical symptoms encountered by non-smokers were respiratory tractus irritation (81.7%. Eighty-three percent of OPs indicated solution to eradicate PSW. Illegal PSW is really weaker than fifteen years ago. However, the findings support a real ban on smoking in the workplace in order to protect all workers.

  5. Passive Cooling of Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Ronald; Matic, Peter; Mott, David

    2013-03-01

    Warfighter performance can be adversely affected by heat load and weight of equipment. Current tactical vest designs are good insulators and lack ventilation, thus do not provide effective management of metabolic heat generated. NRL has undertaken a systematic study of tactical vest thermal management, leading to physics-based strategies that provide improved cooling without undesirable consequences such as added weight, added electrical power requirements, or compromised protection. The approach is based on evaporative cooling of sweat produced by the wearer of the vest, in an air flow provided by ambient wind or ambulatory motion of the wearer. Using an approach including thermodynamic analysis, computational fluid dynamics modeling, air flow measurements of model ventilated vest architectures, and studies of the influence of fabric aerodynamic drag characteristics, materials and geometry were identified that optimize passive cooling of tactical vests. Specific architectural features of the vest design allow for optimal ventilation patterns, and selection of fabrics for vest construction optimize evaporation rates while reducing air flow resistance. Cooling rates consistent with the theoretical and modeling predictions were verified experimentally for 3D mockups.

  6. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  7. Surface passivation of high purity granular metals: zinc, cadmium, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirozhenko L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the high purity metals (99.9999%, such as zinc, cadmium, and lead, which are widely used as initial components in growing semiconductor and scintillation crystals (CdTe, CdZnTe, ZnSe, (Cd, Zn, Pb WO4, (Cd, Zn, Pb MoO4 et al., it is very important to ensure reliable protection of the surface from oxidation and adsorption of impurities from the atmosphere. The specific features of surface passivation of high purity cadmium, lead and zinc are not sufficiently studied and require specific methodologies for further studies. The use of organic solutions in the schemes of chemical passivation of the investigated metals avoids hydrolysis of the obtained protective films. The use of organic solvents with pure cation and anion composition as the washing liquid prevents chemisorption of ions present in the conventionally used distilled water. This keeps the original purity of the granular metals. Novel compositions of etchants and etching scheme providing simultaneous polishing and passivation of high purity granular Zn, Cd and Pb are developed. Chemical passivation allows storing metals in the normal atmospheric conditions for more than half a year for Zn and Cd and up to 30 days for Pb without changing the state of the surface. The use of the glycerol-DMF solution in the processes for obtaining Pb granules provides self-passivation of metal surfaces and eliminates the additional chemical processing while maintaining the quality of corrosion protection.

  8. Passivation of Black Phosphorus via Self-Assembled Organic Monolayers by van der Waals Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Zhou, Qionghua; Li, Qiang; Yao, Xiaojing; Wang, Jinlan

    2017-02-01

    An effective passivation approach to protect black phosphorus (BP) from degradation based on multi-scale simulations is proposed. The self-assembly of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride monolayers via van der Waals epitaxy on BP does not break the original electronic properties of BP. The passivation layer thickness is only 2 nm. This study opens up a new pathway toward fine passivation of BP. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  10. Passive magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  11. Passive safety systems for integral reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuul, V.S.; Samoilov, O.B.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a wide range of passive safety systems intended for use on integral reactors is considered. The operation of these systems relies on natural processes and does not require external power supplies. Using these systems, there is the possibility of preventing serious consequences for all classes of accidents including reactivity, loss-of-coolant and loss of heat sink as well as severe accidents. Enhancement of safety system reliability has been achieved through the use of self-actuating devices, capable of providing passive initiation of protective and isolation systems, which respond immediately to variations in the physical parameters of the fluid in the reactor or in a guard vessel. For beyond design base accidents accompanied by complete loss of heat removal capability, autonomous self-actuated ERHR trains have been proposed. These trains are completely independent of the secondary loops and need no action to isolate them from the steam turbine plant. Passive safety principles have been consistently implemented in AST-500, ATETS-200 and VPBER 600 which are new generation NPPs developed by OKBM. Their main characteristic is enhanced stability over a wide range of internal and external emergency initiators. (author). 10 figs

  12. A passive radon dosemeter suitable for workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, C.; Orlando, P.; Patrizii, L.; Tommasino, L.; Tonnarini, S.; Trevisi, R.; Viola, P.

    2002-01-01

    The results obtained in different international intercomparisons on passive radon monitors have been analysed with the aim of identifying a suitable radon monitoring device for workplaces. From this analysis, the passive radon device, first developed for personal dosimetry in mines by the National Radiation Protection Board, UK (NRPB), has shown the most suitable set of characteristics. This radon monitor consists of a diffusion chamber, made of conductive plastic with less than 2 cm height, containing a CR-39 film (Columbia Resin 1939), as track detector. Radon detectors in workplaces may be exposed only during the working hours, thus requiring the storage of the detectors in low-radon zones when not exposed. This paper describes how this problem can be solved. Since track detectors are also efficient neutron dosemeters, care should be taken when radon monitors are used in workplaces, where they may be exposed to neutrons, such as on high altitude mountains, in the surroundings of high energy X ray facilities (where neutrons are produced by (gamma, n) reactions) or around high energy particle accelerators. To this end, the response of these passive radon monitors to high energy neutron fields has been investigated. (author)

  13. Passive safety systems for integral reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuul, V S; Samoilov, O B [OKB Mechanical Engineering (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    In this paper, a wide range of passive safety systems intended for use on integral reactors is considered. The operation of these systems relies on natural processes and does not require external power supplies. Using these systems, there is the possibility of preventing serious consequences for all classes of accidents including reactivity, loss-of-coolant and loss of heat sink as well as severe accidents. Enhancement of safety system reliability has been achieved through the use of self-actuating devices, capable of providing passive initiation of protective and isolation systems, which respond immediately to variations in the physical parameters of the fluid in the reactor or in a guard vessel. For beyond design base accidents accompanied by complete loss of heat removal capability, autonomous self-actuated ERHR trains have been proposed. These trains are completely independent of the secondary loops and need no action to isolate them from the steam turbine plant. Passive safety principles have been consistently implemented in AST-500, ATETS-200 and VPBER 600 which are new generation NPPs developed by OKBM. Their main characteristic is enhanced stability over a wide range of internal and external emergency initiators. (author). 10 figs.

  14. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in

  15. Udviklingen i bilers passive sikkerhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    man mellem aktiv og passiv sikkerhed, det vil sige faktorer, der nedsætter • risikoen for, at der sker et uheld (aktiv sikkerhed), henholdsvis • graden af alvorlighed, givet at uheldet er sket (passiv sikkerhed). Rapporten begrænser sig til at undersøge, om der kan påvises en generel sammenhæng mellem...

  16. The Passive in Singapore English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhiming; Wee, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the two passive (or passive-like) constructions in Singapore English which exhibit substrate influence from Malay and Chinese. The paper shows that while substrate languages contribute to the grammar of Singapore English, the continued prestige of standard English exerts normative pressure and mitigates the effect of…

  17. Evidence that radio-sensitive cells are central to skin-phase protective immunity in CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni as well as in naive mice protected with vaccine serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, V.S.; McLaren, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Naive CBA/Ca mice and CBA/ca mice vaccinated 4 weeks previously with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were subjected to 550 rad of whole body (gamma) irradiation and then challenged 3 days later with normal cercariae. The perfusion recovery data showed that this procedure reduced the primary worm burden in naive mice by 22% and the challence worm burden in vaccinated mice by 82%. Irradiation also ablated the peripheral blood leucocytes of both mouse groups by 90-100% at the time of challenge. Histological data revealed that such treatment caused a dramatic change in number, size and leucocyte composition of cutaneous inflammatory skin reactions that characterize challenged vacccinated mice and are known to entrap invading larvae; cutaneous eosinophils were preferentially abolished by this treatment. Polyvaccine mouse serum that conferred protection passively upon naive recipient mice, failed to protect naive/irradiated mice when administered by the same protocol. Distraction of macrophages by treatment of mice with silica did not affect the establishment of a primary worm burden and reduced the protection exhibited by vaccinated mice by only 16%. These data indicade that radio-sensitive cells are important to both innate and specific acquired resistance in this mouse model and that macrophages contribute only marginally to the expression of vaccine immunity. (author)

  18. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  19. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  20. The Delphinus array for passive marine mammal detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheldon-Robert, M.K.; Beerens, S.P.; Lam, F.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    To protect marine mammals from potential negative impacts of high-power sound from tactical sonar, the use of passive acoustic monitoring prior and during sonar exercises is a possible non-intrusive solution for the monitoring requirements for naval forces. Particularly deep-diving beaked whales

  1. Passive-aggressive resistance against apartheid at the Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The passive aggressive behaviour theory of de Angelis (2009) combined with the “hidden transcript” theory of Scott (1985, 1990) and the racial conflict theory of Himes (1971) provide a theoretical framework for understanding resistance to apartheid in South Africa as a protective mechanism. The specific focus of this paper ...

  2. Antireflection/Passivation Step For Silicon Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Gerald T.; Kachare, Akaram H.; Daud, Taher

    1988-01-01

    New process excludes usual silicon oxide passivation. Changes in principal electrical parameters during two kinds of processing suggest antireflection treatment almost as effective as oxide treatment in passivating cells. Does so without disadvantages of SiOx passivation.

  3. The behavior of dissolution/passivation and the transformation of passive films during electrocoagulation: Influences of initial pH, Cr(VI) concentration, and alternating pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhao-hui; Xu, Hai-yin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Luo, Yuan-ling; Yang, Xia; Huang, Jing; Wang, Li-ke; Song, Pei-pei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Initial pH, Cr(VI) and APC could affect the behavior of dissolution/passivation in Fe-EC. • A dissolution/passivation region was constructed with different initial pH-Cr(VI). • The film was rich in Fe and Cr at high Cr(VI), whereas with lots of Fe but negligible of Cr at low Cr(VI). • The film was non-protective at long T APC , but became more stable and protective at short T APC . • Behavior of dissolution/passivation and passive film transformation in Fe-EC was elucidated. - Abstract: The passivation behavior of an iron anode for electrocoagulation (EC) was first investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Tested initial pH range, Cr(VI) concentration and alternating pulsed current (APC) were 4.0 to 8.0, 52 to 520 mg L −1 and 10 to 590 s, respectively. The distance between electrodes was 25 mm, and K 2 SO 4 (1 g L −1 ) was used as the supporting electrolyte in a 2.5 L EC reactor. Results confirmed that initial pH, Cr(VI) concentration, and APC significantly influence the extent of passivation. Then, based on the interaction effect on passivation behavior between initial pH and Cr(VI) in RSM, a pH-Cr(VI)-dissolution/passivation diagram was constructed with galvanostatic measurements. The diagram showed an optimal dissolution region for EC operation. This optimum was characterized by a reasonable final pH for extended precipitation and little passivation. Results of the cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a significant difference in the composition and stability of oxide films in the region with more pronounced passivation. Interestingly, the APC had both positive and negative effect on the passivation behavior. Long period of APC (T APC = 590 s) produced a non-protective film, which favored the Fe 0 dissolution. However, a more stable and protective passive film with a uniform structure of Fe and Cr oxides was formed by short T APC (10 s). Based on the above results, this study elucidated the

  4. Monospecific antibody against Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase protects from Pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faiz Kazi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acellular pertussis vaccines has been largely accepted world-wide however, there are reports about limitedantibody response against these vaccines suggesting that multiple antigens should be included in acellular vaccinesto attain full protection. The aim of present study was to evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase as aprotective antigen.Materials and methods: Highly mono-specific antibody against adenylate cyclase (AC was raised in rabbits usingnitrocellulose bound adenylate cyclase and the specificity was assessed by immuoblotting. B.pertussis 18-323, wasincubated with the mono-specific serum and without serum as a control. Mice were challenged intra-nasally and pathophysiolgicalresponses were recorded.Results: The production of B.pertussis adenylate cyclase monospecific antibody that successfully recognized on immunoblotand gave protection against fatality (p< 0.01 and lung consolidation (p <0.01. Mouse weight gain showedsignificant difference (p< 0.05.Conclusion: These preliminary results highlight the role of the B.pertussis adenylate cyclase as a potential pertussisvaccine candidate. B.pertussis AC exhibited significant protection against pertussis in murine model. J Microbiol InfectDis 2012; 2(2: 36-43Key words: Pertussis; monospecific; antibody; passive-protection

  5. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.; Serret, M.

    1990-01-01

    N 4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  6. Effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Author's abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors for youth alcohol enforcement conducted as part of normal or typical police operations. Three municipal police departments of 100 or more sworn ...

  7. Passive heat removal in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    CANDU has a tradition of incorporating passive systems and passive components whenever they are shown to offer performance that is equal to or better than that of active systems, and to be economic. Examples include the two independent shutdown systems that employ gravity and stored energy respectively, the dousing subsystem of the CANDU 6 containment system, and the ability of the moderator to cool the fuel in the event that all coolant is lost from the fuel channels. CANDU 9 continues this tradition, incorporating a reserve water system (RWS) that increases the inventory of water in the reactor building and profiles a passive source of makeup water and/or heat sinks to various key process systems. The key component of the CANDU 9 reserve water system is a large (2500 cubic metres) water tank located at a high elevation in the reactor building. The reserve water system, while incorporating the recovery system functions, and the non-dousing functions of the dousing tank in CANDU 6, embraces other key systems to significantly extend the passive makeup/heat sink capability. The capabilities of the reserve water system include makeup to the steam generators secondary side if all other sources of water are lost; makeup to the heat transport system in the event of a leak in excess of the D 2 O makeup system capability; makeup to the moderator in the event of a moderator leak when the moderator heat sink is required; makeup to the emergency core cooling (ECC) system to assure NPSH to the ECC pumps during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), and provision of a passive heat sink for the shield cooling system. Other passive designs are now being developed by AECL. These will be incorporated in future CANDU plants when their performance has been fully proven. This paper reviews the passive heat removal systems and features of current CANDU plants and the CANDU 9, and briefly reviews some of the passive heat removal concepts now being developed. (author)

  8. Key issues for passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ''review paper'' as such and only record the highlights. (author)

  9. Key issues for passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayns, M R [AEA Technology, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom). European Institutions; Hicken, E F [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ``review paper`` as such and only record the highlights. (author).

  10. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft 3 /min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft 3 /min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  11. Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćanović Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  12. The summarize of the technique about proactive network security protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoxu; Li Xueying; Cao Aijuan; Yu Chuansong; Xu Rongsheng

    2003-01-01

    The proactive protection measures and the traditional passive security protection tools are complementarities each other. It also can supply the conventional network security protection system and enhance its capability of the security protection. Based upon sorts of existing network security technologies, this article analyses and summarizes the technologies, functions and the development directions of some key proactive network security protection tools. (authors)

  13. Preservation of FFTF Data Related to Passive Safety Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). A key area deserving special attention for preservation is the data relating to passive safety testing that was conducted in FFTF and EBR-II during the 1980's. Accidents at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Station and Unit 2 at Three Mile Island changed the safety paradigm of the nuclear power industry. New emphasis was placed on assured safety based on intrinsic plant characteristics that protect not only the public, but the significant investment in the plant as well. Plants designated to perform in this manner are considered to be passively safe since no active sensor/alarm system or human intervention is required to bring the reactor to a safe shutdown condition. The liquid metal reactor (LMR) has several key characteristics needed for a passively safe reactor: reactor coolant with superior heat transfer capability and very high boiling point, low (atmospheric) system pressures, and reliable negative reactivity feedback. The credibility of the design for a passively safe LMR rests on two issues: the validity of analytic methods used to predict passive safety performance and the availability of relevant test data to calibrate design tools. Safety analysis methods used to analyze LMRs under the old safety paradigm were focused on calculating the source term for the Core Disruptive Accident. Passive safety design requires refined analysis methods for transient events because treatment of the detailed reactivity feedbacks is important in predicting the response of the reactor. Similarly, analytic tools should be calibrated against actual test experience in existing LMR facilities. The principal objectives of the combined FFTF natural circulation and Passive Safety Testing program were: (1) to verify natural circulation as a reliable means to safely remove decay heat, (2) to extend passive safety

  14. Materials for passively safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, T.

    1993-01-01

    Future nuclear power capacity will be based on reactor designs that include passive safety features if recent progress in advanced nuclear power developments is realized. There is a high potential for nuclear systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the current generation of reactors, especially when passive or intrinsic characteristics are applied to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction and to minimize the burden on equipment and operating personnel. Taylor, has listed the following common generic technical features as the most important goals for the principal reactor development systems: passive stability, simplification, ruggedness, case of operation, and modularity. Economic competitiveness also depends on standardization and assurance of licensing. The performance of passively safe reactors will be greatly influenced by the successful development of advanced fuels and materials that will provide lower fuel-cycle costs. A dozen new designs of advanced power reactors have been described recently, covering a wide spectrum of reactor types, including pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, heavy-water reactors, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs), and fast breeder reactors. These new designs address the need for passive safety features as well as the requirement of economic competitiveness

  15. Effects of anodic passivation on the constitution, stability and resistance to corrosion of passive film formed on an Fe-24Mn-4Al-5Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.S.; Zhu, X.M.; Liu, M.; Che, R.X.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of anodic aging time and potential on the corrosion resistance, stability and constitution of the passive film formed on an Fe-24Mn-4Al-5Cr alloy in 50% HNO 3 solution were studied by using combined electrochemical measurements and Auger electron spectroscopic (AES)/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. In the anodic passive region, prolonged anodic aging time or increased passivating potential can induce better protective and stable properties of the passive film and better resistance to corrosion. With increasing aging time from 15 min to 5 h, the time required for the potential decay from the passive to active state increases from about 300 up to above 12,000 s, and the corrosion resistance in 1 mol l -1 Na 2 SO 4 solution of Fe-24Mn-4Al-5Cr alloy, characterized by polarization curves, is superior to that of Fe-13% Cr-0.1% C stainless steel. AES and XPS analyses of the aging passive film show that these improvements of properties are related to modifications of the passive layer with time. The increase of resistance to corrosion is attributed to Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 enrichment and oxides of Fe and Mn depletion in the passive film and a thickening of the effective barrier layer of oxides

  16. 1,4-Anhydro-4-seleno-d-talitol (SeTal) protects endothelial function in the mouse aorta by scavenging superoxide radicals under conditions of acute oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Hooi Hooi; Leo, Chen Huei; O'Sullivan, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    and decreased basal nitric oxide (NO) availability. SeTal (1mM) co-treatment prevented high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the mouse aorta. The presence of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin significantly improved the sensitivity to ACh in high glucose-treated aortae......, but had no effect in SeTal-treated aortae. Our data show that SeTal has potent antioxidant activity in isolated mouse aortae and prevents high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction by decreasing superoxide levels, increasing basal NO availability and normalising the contribution of vasoconstrictor......Hyperglycaemia increases the generation of reactive oxidants in blood vessels and is a major cause of endothelial dysfunction. A water-soluble selenium-containing sugar (1,4-Anhydro-4-seleno-d-talitol, SeTal) has potent antioxidant activity in vitro and is a promising treatment to accelerate wound...

  17. The corrosion and passivity of sputtered Mg–Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Guang-Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, Harry; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A supersaturated single phase Mg–Ti alloy can be obtained by magnetron sputtering. • The anodic dissolution of Mg–Ti alloy is inhibited by Ti addition. • The alloy becomes passive when Ti content is high and the alloy has become Ti based. • The formation of a continuous thin passive film is responsible for the passivation of the alloy. - Abstract: This study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. The surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide film was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.

  18. Passivation of black phosphorus saturable absorbers for reliable pulse formation of fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Dongsoo; Park, Kichul; Park, Ki-Hwan; Song, Yong-Won

    2017-11-24

    Black phosphorus (BP) has attracted increasing attention due to its unique electrical properties. In addition, the outstanding optical nonlinearity of BP has been demonstrated in various ways. Its functionality as a saturable absorber, in particular, has been validated in demonstrations of passive mode-locked lasers. However, normally, the performance of BP is degraded eventually by both thermal and chemical damage in ambient conditions. The passivation of BP is the critical issue to guarantee a stable performance of the optical devices. We quantitatively characterized the mode-locked lasers operated by BP saturable absorbers with diversified passivation materials such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or Al 2 O 3 , considering the atomic structure of the materials, and therefore the hydro-permeability of the passivation layers. Unlike the BP layers without passivation, we demonstrated that the Al 2 O 3 -passivated BP layer was protected from the surface oxidation reaction in the long-term, and the PDMS-passivated one had a short-term blocking effect. The quantitative analysis showed that the time-dependent characteristics of the pulsed laser without passivation were changed with respect to the pulse duration, spectral width, and time-bandwidth product displaying 550 fs, 2.8 nm, and 0.406, respectively. With passivation, the changes were limited to <43 fs, <0.3 nm, and <0.012, respectively.

  19. Passivation of black phosphorus saturable absorbers for reliable pulse formation of fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Dongsoo; Park, Kichul; Park, Ki-Hwan; Song, Yong-Won

    2017-11-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) has attracted increasing attention due to its unique electrical properties. In addition, the outstanding optical nonlinearity of BP has been demonstrated in various ways. Its functionality as a saturable absorber, in particular, has been validated in demonstrations of passive mode-locked lasers. However, normally, the performance of BP is degraded eventually by both thermal and chemical damage in ambient conditions. The passivation of BP is the critical issue to guarantee a stable performance of the optical devices. We quantitatively characterized the mode-locked lasers operated by BP saturable absorbers with diversified passivation materials such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or Al2O3, considering the atomic structure of the materials, and therefore the hydro-permeability of the passivation layers. Unlike the BP layers without passivation, we demonstrated that the Al2O3-passivated BP layer was protected from the surface oxidation reaction in the long-term, and the PDMS-passivated one had a short-term blocking effect. The quantitative analysis showed that the time-dependent characteristics of the pulsed laser without passivation were changed with respect to the pulse duration, spectral width, and time-bandwidth product displaying 550 fs, 2.8 nm, and 0.406, respectively. With passivation, the changes were limited to <43 fs, <0.3 nm, and <0.012, respectively.

  20. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B; Mason, P A; Moffat, A C; King, L J; Marks, V

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  1. Active Versus Passive Academic Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goel, Rajeev K.; Grimpe, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of networking by academics. Using information from a unique large survey of German researchers, the key contribution focuses on the active versus passive networking distinction. Is active networking by researchers a substitute or a complement to passive networking......? Other contributions include examining the role of geographic factors in networking and whether research bottlenecks affect a researcher's propensity to network. Are the determinants of European conference participation by German researchers different from conferences in rest of the world? Results show...... that some types of passive academic networking are complementary to active networking, while others are substitute. Further, we find differences in factors promoting participation in European conferences versus conferences in rest of the world. Finally, publishing bottlenecks as a group generally do...

  2. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.; Bosselaar, L.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  3. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...

  4. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  5. Investigations on passive containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Cheng, X.; Neitzel, H.J.; Erbacher, F.J.; Hofmann, F.

    1997-01-01

    The composite containment design for advanced LWRs that has been examined under the PASCO project is a promising design concept for purely passive decay heat removal after a severe accident. The passive cooling processes applied are natural convection and radiative heat transfer. Heat transfer through the latter process removes at an emission coefficient of 0.9 about 50% of the total heat removed via the steel containment, and thus is an essential factor. The heat transferring surfaces must have a high emission coefficient. The sump cooling concept examined under the SUCO project achieves a steady, natural convection-driven flow from the heat source to the heat sink. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Passive solar offices: integrated design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, B

    1992-05-06

    Passive solar design in out-of-town offices can remove the need for air-conditioning by making greater use of daylight and natural ventilation. To promote the use of passive solar energy a series of design studies are being run by the Energy Technology Support Unit on behalf of the Department of Energy. The three reported here are designs for out-of-town business buildings. Each is a hypothetical building designed to a realistic brief for an organisation taking the role of real client. (author).

  7. The Danish Reportive Passive as a Non-Canonical Passive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Danish passive utterance and cognitive verbs allow a construction where the subject of an infinitival complement is raised: Peter siges at være bortrejst (‘Peter is said to be out of town’). Contrary to English, these verbs are not ECM-verbs or subject-to-object raising verbs in the active...

  8. Mouse allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4 and risk of mouse skin test sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, E. C.; Diette, G. B.; Krop, E. J. M.; Aalberse, R. C.; Smith, A. L.; Eggleston, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    High serum levels of cat-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with protection against allergic sensitization to cat, but whether this association applies to other animal allergens remains unclear. To determine if high levels of mouse-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with a decreased risk of

  9. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan

  10. Active and passive immunity, vaccine types, excipients and licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, David

    2007-12-01

    Abstract Immunity is the state of protection against infectious disease conferred either through an immune response generated by immunization or previous infection or by other non-immunological factors. This article reviews active and passive immunity and the differences between them: it also describes the four different commercially available vaccine types (live attenuated, killed/inactivated, subunit and toxoid): it also looks at how these different vaccines generate an adaptive immune response.

  11. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  12. A Survivable Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network with Both Point-to-Point Service and Broadcast Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuejiao; Gan, Chaoqin; Deng, Shiqi; Huang, Yan

    2011-11-01

    A survivable wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network enabling both point-to-point service and broadcast service is presented and demonstrated. This architecture provides an automatic traffic recovery against feeder and distribution fiber link failure, respectively. In addition, it also simplifies the protection design for multiple services transmission in wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks.

  13. Parylene-C passivation and effects on rectennas' wireless power transfer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Camille; Eldridge, Keisharra; Kim, Min H.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the effect of Parylene-C coated as a passivation layer on various rectennas is investigated in terms of their wireless power transfer performance. A passivation has been used for protection of rectenna circuits and their packaging in order for protection of the circuit elements and electrical insulation. Especially, wireless power receiving rectennas attached on sensors or on moving vehicles such as airship needs proper protection while they are exposed to harsh environment. In this research, a layer of Parylene-C thin film is used for passivation on rectennas and electromagnetic coupling by the coating is assessed by the measurement of receiving power levels. In this research, an electrochemical analysis method will also be introduced to measure the degree of water protection by a Parylene-C layer.

  14. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-01-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis in mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model

  15. Semiconducting behavior of the anodically passive films formed on AZ31B alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fattah-alhosseini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work includes determination of the semiconductor character and estimation of the dopant levels in the passive film formed on AZ31B alloy in 0.01 M NaOH, as well as the estimation of the passive film thickness as a function of the film formation potential. Mott–Schottky analysis revealed that the passive films displayed n-type semiconductive characteristics, where the oxygen vacancies and interstitials preponderated. Based on the Mott–Schottky analysis, it was shown that the calculated donor density increases linearly with increasing the formation potential. Also, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results indicated that the thickness of the passive film was decreased linearly with increasing the formation potential. The results showed that decreasing the formation potential offer better conditions for forming the passive films with higher protection behavior, due to the growth of a much thicker and less defective films.

  16. Discovery of molecular pathways mediating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 protection against cytokine-induced inflammation and damage of human and male mouse islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolden-Kirk, Heidi; Rondas, D; Bugliani, M

    2014-01-01

    Protection against insulitis and diabetes by active vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), in nonobese diabetic mice has until now mainly been attributed to its immunomodulatory effects, but also protective effects of this hormone on inflammation-induced β-cell death have been reporte...

  17. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  18. Thermal limits for passive safety of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, M.S.; Massidda, J.E.; Oshima, M.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal response of the first wall and blanket due to power/cooling mismatch in the absence of operation action is examined. The analyses of coolant and power transients are carried out on six reference blanket designs representing a broad range of fusion first wall and blanket technology. It is concluded that the requirement of plant protection will impose sufficiently stringent peak neutron wall loading limits to avoid a serious threat to the public. It is found that for the D-T design,s the operating wall loading may have to be limited to 3 - 8 MW/m/sup 2/ for passive plant protection, depending on the plant design

  19. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2016-03-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameters. This method is applied to a Si quantum well and a Si ultra-thin body transistor oxidized with SiO2 in several oxidation configurations. Comparison with ab-initio results and experiments verifies the presented method. Oxidation configurations that severely hamper the transistor performance are identified. It is also shown that the commonly used implicit H atom passivation overestimates the transistor performance.

  20. Passive Cushiony Biomechanics of Head Protection in Falling Geckos

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Wenbo; Song, Yi; Cai, Lei; Dai, Zhendong

    2018-01-01

    Gekko geckos are capable to crawl on the steep even on upside-down surfaces. Such movement, especially at great altitude, puts them at high risks of incidentally dropping down and inevitable body or head impactions, though they may trigger air-righting reaction (ARR) to attenuate the landing shocks. However, the air-righting ability (ARA) in Gekko geckos is not fully developed. The implementation of ARR in some geckos is quite slow; and for those without tails, the ARR is even unobservable. S...

  1. Passive Scalar Evolution in Peripheral Region

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedev, V. V.; Turitsyn, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider evolution of a passive scalar (concentration of pollutants or temperature) in a chaotic (turbulent) flow. A universal asymptotic behavior of the passive scalar decay (homogenization) related to peripheral regions (near walls) is established. The passive scalar moments and its pair correlation function in the peripheral region are analyzed. A special case investigated in our paper is the passive scalar decay along a pipe.

  2. Probable variations of a passive safety containment for a 1700 MWe class PWR with passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Fujiki, Yasunobu; Oikawa, Hirohide; Ofstun, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents probable variations of a passive safety containment for a PWR. The passive safety containment is named Mark P containment tentatively. It is a pressure suppression type containment for a large scale PWR with a BWR type passive containment cooling system (PCCS). More than 3-day grace period can be achieved even for a 1700 MWe class large scale PWR owing to the PCCS. The containment is a reinforced concrete containment vessel (RCCV). The design pressure of the RCCV can be low owing to the suppression pool (S/P) and no prestressed tendon is necessary. It is a single barrier CV that can withstand a large airplane crash by itself. This simple configuration results in good economy and short construction term. The BWR type passive safety systems also include the Passive Cooling and Depressurization System (PCDS). The PCDS has 3-day grace period for the SBO induced by a giant earthquake and can practically eliminate the residual risk of a giant earthquake beyond the design basis earthquake of Ss. It also has a safety function to automatically depressurize the primary system at accidents such as SGTR and eliminate the need for operator actions. It is a large 1700 MWe passive safety PWR that has more than 3-day grace period for extremely severe natural disasters including a giant earthquake, a mega hurricane, tsunami and so on; no containment failure at a SA establishing a no evacuation plant; protection for a large airplane crash with the RCCV single barrier; good economy and short construction term. (author)

  3. Two or three decades of passive directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the direction of passive solar architecture. The topics of the paper include design temperatures for buildings, active vs passive, fuel vs philosophy, engineering vs architecture, the thermal scale: heating vs cooling, fuel subsidies, divergent practices, sustainability, lighting, health, the place of passive technology

  4. Active house concept versus passive House

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Vehler, R.; Verhoeven, M.; Fremouw, M.

    2009-01-01

    The passive house concept is the present trend in energy efficient sustainable dwellings. Within the passive house concept every effort is made to minimize the energy use. Substantial savings can be achieved by passive energy systems, especially natural ventilation, summer shading and winter solar

  5. Innovative solutions in passive house details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Hilderson, W.

    2008-01-01

    For the realization of the first passive house demonstration projects in Belgium, passive houses were requested by convinced clients, designed by architects with experience in low energy building, and built by contractors with a feeling for working in building teams. These first passive house

  6. A Lexical Approach to Passive in ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Fred

    Dissatisfaction with the standard transformational grammar approach to teaching passive voice sentences gave rise to the method developed. It is based on the framework of a lexical-functional grammar, which claims that both active and passive sentences are base-generated, and that both active and passive verb forms occur in the lexicon. It would…

  7. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  8. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  9. EP 1000 -The European Passive Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, Ed; Oyarzabal, Mariano; Saiu, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    margins such as lager volumes of water inventory, lower power density, and negative power and temperature coefficients to limit system challenges. The EP 1000 uses passive safety systems to further enhance plant safety to satisfy U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission safety criteria and the EUR. The use of passive systems has provided significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, safety, reliability, and investment protection. Phase 2 of the EPP program is focused on developing design details and performing supporting analyses to produce a Standard Safety Analysis Report for submittal to European safety authorities. The first part of Phase 2 is concentrating on definition and design of important systems and structures, and the second part will include the analyses and evaluations required to demonstrate the adequacy of the design. Results and conclusions of the EPP program are discussed in this paper, and an overview of the EP 1000 plant is provided. (author)

  10. Acute Pre-/Post-Treatment with 8th Day SOD-Like Supreme (a Free Radical Scavenging Health Product Protects against Oxidant-Induced Injury in Cultured Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes In Vitro as Well as in Mouse Myocardium and Liver In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pou Kuan Leong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available 8th Day superoxide dismutase (SOD-Like Supreme (SOD-Like Supreme, a free radical scavenging health product is an antioxidant-enriched fermentation preparation with free radical scavenging properties. In the present study, the cellular/tissue protective actions of SOD-Like Supreme against menadione toxicity in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in AML12 hepatocytes as well as oxidant-induced injury in the mouse myocardium and liver were investigated. SOD-Like Supreme was found to possess potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro as assessed by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Incubation with SOD-Like Supreme (0.5–3% (v/v was shown to protect against menadione-induced toxicity in H9c2 and AML12 cells, as evidenced by increases in cell viability. The ability of SOD-Like Supreme to protect against menadione cytotoxicity was associated with an elevation in the cellular reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG ratio in menadione-challenged cells. Consistent with the cell-based studies, pre-/post-treatment with SOD-Like Supreme (0.69 and 2.06 mL/kg, three intermittent doses per day for two consecutive days was found to protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice. The cardio/hepatoprotection afforded by SOD-Like Supreme was also paralleled by increases in myocardial/hepatic mitochondrial GSH/GSSG ratios in the SOD-Like Supreme-treated/oxidant-challenged mice. In conclusion, incubation/treatment with SOD-Like Supreme was found to protect against oxidant-induced injury in vitro and in vivo, presumably by virtue of its free radical scavenging activity.

  11. Alternative to Nitric Acid for Passivation of Stainless Steel Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L.; Kolody, Mark; Curran, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. Consequently, it is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The DoD and NASA have numerous structures and equipment that are fabricated from stainless steel. The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits including increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and reduced operational cost. DoD and NASA agreed to collaborate to validate citric acid as an acceptable passivating agent for stainless steel. This paper details our investigation of prior work developing the citric acid passivation process, development of the test plan, optimization of the process for specific stainless steel alloys, ongoing and planned testing to elucidate the process' resistance to corrosion in comparison to nitric acid, and preliminary results.

  12. Development of a passive sampler for gaseous mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, M. S.; Lyman, S. N.; Kilner, P.; Prestbo, E.

    2011-10-01

    Here we describe work toward development of the components of a cost effective passive sampling system for gaseous Hg that could be broadly deployed by nontechnical staff. The passive sampling system included an external shield to reduce turbulence and exposure to precipitation and dust, a diffusive housing that directly protects the collection surface during deployment and handling, and a collection surface. A protocol for cleaning and deploying the sampler and an analytical method were developed. Our final design consisted of a polycarbonate external shield enclosing a custom diffusive housing made from expanded PTFE tubing. Two collection surfaces were investigated, gold sputter-coated quartz plates and silver wires. Research showed the former would require extensive quality control for use, while the latter had interferences with other atmosphere constituents. Although the gold surface exhibited the best performance over space and time, gradual passivation would limit reuse. For both surfaces lack of contamination during shipping, deployment and storage indicated that the handling protocols developed worked well with nontechnical staff. We suggest that the basis for this passive sampling system is sound, but further exploration and development of a reliable collection surface is needed.

  13. Traffic classification with passive measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hoang Phong

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This is a master thesis from a collaboration between Oslo University College and Uninett Research. Uninett have a passive monitoring device on a 2.5 Gbps backbone link between Trondheim and Narvik. They uses measurement with optical splitters and specialized measuring interfaces to trace traffic with Gigabit speed. We would like to investigate the structure and patterns in these data. It is of special interest to classify the traffic belonging to different services and protocols. ...

  14. EP1000 passive plant description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiu, G.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, a group of European Utilities, together with Westinghouse and its Industrial Partner GENESI (an Italian consortium including ANSALDO and FIAT), initiated a program designated EPP (European Passive Plant) to evaluate Westinghouse Passive Nuclear Plant Technology for application in Europe. In Phase I of the European Passive Plant Program which was completed in 1996, a 1000 MWe passive plant reference design (EP1000) was established which conforms to the European Utility Requirements (EUR) and is expected to meet the European Safety Authorities requirements. Phase 2 of the program was initiated in 1997 with the objective of developing the Nuclear Island design details and performing supporting analyses to start development of Safety Case Report (SCR) for submittal to European Licensing Authorities. The first part of Phase 2, 'Design Definition' phase (Phase 2A) will be completed at the end of 1998, the main efforts being design definition of key systems and structures, development of the Nuclear Island layout, and performing preliminary safety analyses to support design efforts. The second part, 'Phase 2B', includes both the analyses and evaluations required to demonstrate the adequacy of the design, and to support the preparation of Safety Case Report. The second part of Phase 2 of the program will start at the beginning of 1999 and will be completed in the 2001. Incorporation of the EUR has been a key design requirement for the EP1000 from the beginning of the program. Detailed design solutions to meet the EUR have been defined and the safety approach has also been developed based on the EUR guidelines. This paper integrates and updates the plant description reported in the IAEA TECDOC-968. The most significant developments of the EP1000 plant design during Phase 2A of the EPP program are described and reference is made to the key design requirements set by the EUR Rev. B document. (author)

  15. Active and Passive Hybrid Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid ocean wind sensor (HOWS) can map ocean vector wind in low to hurricane-level winds, and non-precipitating and precipitating conditions. It can acquire active and passive measurements through a single aperture at two wavelengths, two polarizations, and multiple incidence angles. Its low profile, compact geometry, and low power consumption permits installation on air craft platforms, including high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

  16. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  17. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  18. Interior design for passive solar homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  19. Interior design for passive solar homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building from incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitably of various interior elements.

  20. Degradation of materials and passivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, W.

    1997-01-01

    Demanding for a reduction in materials degradation is a serious problem all over the world. Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) is, among others, a very valuable tool to follow many degradation processes. Evidently, Fe is the most important Moessbauer element considering the overall presence of iron in everyday life. MS may contribute to our knowledge about nearly all fields of materials degradation, chemical, mechanical, thermal, irradiative, etc. Following some general lines, corrosion is considered in particular. MS is applicable to investigate the bulk of materials as well as their surface layers with an information depth of ca. 250 nm. In general, it has to be applied as a surface sensitive method in combination with other relevant methods in order to get a detailed insight into ongoing processes. Some examples have been selected to elucidate the application of MS in this field. Another class of examples concerns attempts to prevent corrosion, i.e., the application of coatings and transforming chemicals. A very effective and most natural way to reduce corrosion is the passivation of materials. The effect of passive layers and their destruction by environmental influences are discussed using results of MS and related methods. It is outlined that passivity is not restricted to chemically treated metals but can be considered as a general concept for preventing different kinds of materials from degradation. (orig.)

  1. Engineered Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG expressing IgG-binding domains of protein G: Capture of hyperimmune bovine colostrum antibodies and protection against diarrhea in a mouse pup rotavirus infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydın, Gökçe; Zhang, Ran; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold

    2014-01-16

    Rotavirus-induced diarrhea causes more than 500,000 deaths annually in the world, and although vaccines are being made available, new effective treatment strategies should still be considered. Purified antibodies derived from hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC), from cows immunized with rotavirus, were previously used for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children. A combination of HBC antibodies and a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus (L. rhamnosus GG) was also found to be more effective than HBC alone in reducing diarrhea in a mouse model of rotavirus infection. In order to further improve this form of treatment, L. rhamnosus GG was engineered to display surface expressed IgG-binding domains of protein G (GB1, GB2, and GB3) which capture HBC-derived IgG antibodies (HBC-IgG) and thus target rotavirus. The expression of IgG-binding domains on the surface of the bacteria as well as their binding to HBC-IgG and to rotavirus (simian strain RRV) was demonstrated by Western blot, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy. The prophylactic effect of engineered L. rhamnosus GG and anti-rotaviral activity of HBC antibodies was evaluated in a mouse pup model of RRV infection. The combination therapy with engineered L. rhamnosus GG (PG3) and HBC was significantly more effective in reducing the prevalence, severity, and duration of diarrhea in comparison to HBC alone or a combination of wild-type L. rhamnosus GG and HBC. The new therapy reduces the effective dose of HBC between 10 to 100-fold and may thus decrease treatment costs. This antibody capturing platform, tested here for the first time in vivo, could potentially be used to target additional gastrointestinal pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlíf Árnadóttir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tímarit.is. Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  3. The Stability of Magnetite and its Significance as a Passivating Film in the Repository Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, Hans-Peter

    2004-01-01

    A literature review was made in order to highlight if magnetite could be formed as a passivating film on iron in the expected repository environment. The possibility to form other types of passivating films has also been regarded, e.g. other iron oxides or mixed oxides of iron and copper and also sulfides. The conditions for the formation of different types of films have been discussed as well as their compositions and properties. It is concluded that magnetite could certainly be formed on iron at repository combinations of Eh and pH in the absence of sulphide and chloride. However, magnetite could easily be outnumbered by other solid phases that could be formed at the simultaneous presence of copper. CuFeO 2 is such a phase that could appear in a simple Fe-Cu-O-H system. As soon as sulphide and chloride are present other phases like CuFeS 2 could also be responsible for the passivation of iron. The probability that magnetite is the passivating film on cast iron at the actual conditions is therefore not very large. It is more likely that the passivating film instead consists of CuFeO 2 and/or CuFeS 2 , the latter depending on the concentration of sulphur in the system. The protective ability of the alternate compounds as passivating films could be discussed. A suggested ranking order of the protective ability is given in the discussion part. If magnetite is not stable, the integrity of the cast iron insert could therefore in such cases be dependent on the protection by less effective passivating substances. The hypothesis of the formation and nature of alternative passivating films should be tested at relevant conditions in laboratory experiments

  4. Passive Strategy with Integrated Passive Safety System (IPSS) for DBAs in SBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jihee; Choi, Jae Young; Jeon, Inseop; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the strategies of coping with DBAs in SBO were proposed by the design with IPSS. Current nuclear power plants adopt emergency strategies using fire truck as a provision of steam generator cooling. However, it has a lot of limitation like water inventory, preparedness and accessibility. In the case of passive strategy by the application of IPSS, faster actions and more efficient performances can be achieved. The application of IPSS implies the preparedness of big water tank which can be used as water supplier, heat sink and filtering medium. The proposed strategies are set under the conservative conditions without AC power. In order to set more realistic and acceptable strategy, the proposed passive strategy has to be combined with the current strategies. The combined strategies can avoid the reiteration and complexity in accidents. Accordingly, the set of operation mode considering action priority with estimating specific conditions is the further work of this research. Removing decay heat is one of the most important issues in safety of nuclear engineering. In the Fukushima accidents, the initial problem was an occurrence of tsunami. It was connected into a station black out (SBO) which lost AC power in site. Finally, SBO with human error induced the failure of decay heat removal. The occurrence of SBO and the failure of decay heat removal imply the questions for solving them. In order to prevent and mitigate SBO, some solutions have been proposed after the Fukushima accident. First of all, physical protection is enhanced to prevent external risks. For example, the tsunami barrier was modified to be higher from 7.5 m to 10 m. The second is to add electrical redundancy to prevent a total loss of electrical power. AAC diesel generators and movable diesel generators are examples for emergency conditions to supply AC power in site. Bunker concept which was proposed in Europe is a representative example. The bunker concept was analyzed to be applied in

  5. Coupled analysis of passive safety injection and containment filtered venting for passive decay heat removal - 15140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Ham, J.H.; Jeong, Y.H.; Chang, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Lots of interests for the safety of nuclear power plants have risen these days. The safety has to be continuously reviewed and enhanced in nuclear power plants currently operating as well as those designed and constructed in future. After the Fukushima accidents, many additional safety systems which can be applied to nuclear power plants in operation have been proposed. Those include alternating power source such as movable diesel generators and DC batteries in non-safety grade. Also, emergency preparedness for the prevention of a core damage accident was proposed to cope with the extended-SBO (station blackout) by using fire protection systems. In order to prevent the release of radioactive materials, safety systems for preserving the integrity of containment were proposed in two views of cooling and venting containment. Two approaches are effective for mitigating a severe accident. The design concept installing big water tanks besides containment at high level was proposed for various safety functions. One of the functions in the system is to inject the coolant from the elevated tank into a reactor vessel in the case of loss of coolant accident. When the pressure in reactor coolant system is sufficiently low, the coolant can be injected by gravity. If not, the depressurization in reactor vessel would be needed considering the containment pressure. Containment cooling in conventional pressurized water reactors is dependent on containment cooling pumps and sprays. Additional containment cooling systems cannot be simply and easily applied in the current nuclear power plants without major modifications. Therefore, for the operation of passive safety injection system, containment filtered venting system can be adopted for the depressurization of containment. In the design and operation of the passive safety injection system and the containment filtered venting system, main operating points related with open and close pressures in the filtered venting system were

  6. Passive film growth on carbon steel and its nanoscale features at various passivating potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Imaged the topography of passivated steel at various film-forming potentials. • Characterized the nanoscale features of passive films. • Determined the composition of passive films formed at various potentials. - Abstract: In this work, the passivation and topographic sub-structure of passive films on a carbon steel in a carbonate/bicarbonate solution was characterized by electrochemical measurements, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When passivating at a potential near the active-passive transition, the film contains the mixture of Fe_3O_4, Fe_2O_3 and FeOOH, with numerous nanoscale features. As the film-forming potential shifts positively, the passive film becomes more compact and the nanoscale features disappear. When the film is formed at a passive potential where the oxygen evolution is enabled, the content of FeOOH in the film increases, resulting in an amorphous topography and reduced corrosion resistance.

  7. Italy: Analysis of Solutions for Passively Actuated Safety Shutdown Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, L.

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at different special shutdown systems specifically engineered for prevention of severe accidents, to be implemented on Fast Reactors, with main focus on the investigation of the performance of the self-actuated shutdown systems in Sodium Fast Reactors. The passive shut-down systems are designed to shut-down system only by inherent passive reactivity feedback mechanism, under unprotected accident conditions, implying failure of reactor protection system. They are conceived to be self-actuated without any signal elaboration, since the actuation of the system is triggered by the effects induced by the transient like material dilatation, in case of overheating of the coolant for instance, according to Fast Reactor design to meet the safety requirements

  8. Passivation layer of Si/Li ionizing radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidra, M.; Reznicek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The proposed passivating layer of Si/Li ionizing radiation detectors ensures a good long-time stability of their volt-ampere characteristics and noise properties. The layer can be applied to protect the detector junction surface in systems cyclically cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature, and in preamplifier feedback optoelectronics to prevent light from entering into the detector. The passivating layer is obtained by evaporating solvent from a cured suspension of boron nitride or aluminium oxide powder in a solution containing piceine and a nonpolar solvent such as toluene. The weight proportions are 1 to 8 parts of piceine, 3 to 9 parts of boron nitride or aluminium oxide, and 1 to 10 parts of the nonpolar solvent. (Z.S.)

  9. The passive-aggressive organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress.

  10. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  11. Architectural Qualities in Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    that it is possible to build this type of houses, but the knowledge and discussion about the architectural quality in the buildings is hardly present. The question is if the strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment collide with the architectural qualities of buildings. This paper brings forth...... this discussion based in literature and four case studies. The paper highlights cases on how passive strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment affect, restrict, inspire or create possibilities for the architectural expression and there through the architectural quality of the building....

  12. Passive Containment DataSet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data is for Figures 6 and 7 in the journal article. The data also includes the two EPANET input files used for the analysis described in the paper, one for the looped system and one for the block system.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Grayman, W., R. Murray , and D. Savic. Redesign of Water Distribution Systems for Passive Containment of Contamination. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION. American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, USA, 108(7): 381-391, (2016).

  13. Passive longitudinal phase space linearizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Craievich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the possibility to passively linearize the bunch compression process in electron linacs for the next generation x-ray free electron lasers. This can be done by using the monopole wakefields in a dielectric-lined waveguide. The optimum longitudinal voltage loss over the length of the bunch is calculated in order to compensate both the second-order rf time curvature and the second-order momentum compaction terms. Thus, the longitudinal phase space after the compression process is linearized up to a fourth-order term introduced by the convolution between the bunch and the monopole wake function.

  14. Plantarflexion Contracture in the mdx Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Michael W.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Dorsey, Lisa L.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Contractures are a major clinical issue for patients with muscular dystrophies. However, it is unknown whether contractures are present in the widely used mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop methods to measure muscle contractures in mice, to determine whether plantarflexion contractures are present in mdx mice, and to analyze the composition of the major muscles involved. Design Hindlimbs of eight wild type and six mdx mice were assessed every 2 wks during the course of a 12-wk study. Assessments included range of motion and in vivo torques about the ankle. At the end of the study, mice were euthanized, and muscles were analyzed for composition. Results The mdx mice had ~10 degrees less dorsiflexion, increased passive torque moving the ankle into dorsiflexion, and an increased passive-to-active torque ratio relative to wild type mice. Gastrocnemius muscle composition alterations included increased wet mass, decreased protein content, and increased collagen. Conclusions The results indicate that mdx mice have plantarflexion contractures similar to those seen in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In future studies, these measures can be used to assess strategies to slow the progression of contractures that occur with muscular dystrophies. PMID:21403594

  15. The effects of passivation parameters on pitting potential of biomedical stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Dušan Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passivation is a chemical process in which the electrochemical condition of passivity is gained on the surface of metal alloys. Biomedical AISI 316LVM stainless steel (SS can be passivized by means of nitric acid immersion in order to improve a protective oxide layer on the surface and consequently increase corrosion resistance of the SS in the physiological solutions. In this study, multiple regression analysis and artificial neural network (ANN were employed for mathematical modeling of the AISI 316LVM SS passivation process after immersion in the nitric acid solution. The pitting potential, which represents the mea-sure of pitting corrosion resistance, was chosen as the response, while the passivation parameters were nitric acid concentration, temperature and passivation time. The comparison between experimental results and models predictions showed that only the ANN model provided statistically accurate predictions with a high coefficient of determination and a low mean relative error. Finally, based on the derived ANN equation, the effects of the passivation parameters on pitting potential were examined. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON174004 and Grant no. TR35034

  16. Measurement and Treatment of Passive Muscle Stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Henrik

    , which aimed to investigate: 1) The development of a clinical method to evaluate and distinguish neural (reflex mediated stiffness) and non-neural (passive muscle stiffness) components of muscle stiffness in adults with CP by objective and reliable measurements. 2) The association between increased...... and reliability of the method, and argue for the use of the method in the clinical practice. The device is able to distinguish between passive muscle stiffness and reflex-mediated stiffness in subjects with CP. It shows good high intrarater and interrater reliability in evaluation of passive muscle stiffness...... to measure muscle stiffness, and distinguish between passive muscle stiffness and reflex-mediated stiffness. Furthermore, it is a reliable device to measure changes in passive ROM. Treatment of passive muscle stiffness should be directed towards intense training, comprising many repetitions with a functional...

  17. Forekomsten af passiv rygning i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T S; Møller, L; Holstein, B E

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of passive smoking in the adult population in Denmark has not been described previously. This article publishes data from three investigations all of which were carried out in 1987. One was an interview investigation of a random section of the Danish population carried out by the D...... inconvenienced by passive smoking at work and a corresponding fraction had taken steps to reduce the extent of passive smoking in their daily life. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-Aug-27...... showed consistent results as regards the occurrence of passive smoking among adult Danes. About 12% of non-smokers were exposed to passive smoking for at least eight hours and 40% for at least one hour daily. Altogether 73% were exposed to passive smoking daily. About one third of the non-smokers were...

  18. Passivation behavior of a ferritic stainless steel in concentrated alkaline solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Fattah-alhosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The passivation behavior of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel was investigated in concentrated alkaline solutions in relation to several test parameters, using electrochemical techniques. Increasing solution pH (varying from 11.5 to 14.0 leads to an increase in the corrosion rate of the alloy. Mott–Schottky analysis revealed that passive films formed on AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel behave as n-type semiconductor and the donor densities increased with pH. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results showed that the reciprocal capacitance of the passive film is directly proportional to its thickness, which decreases with pH increase. The results revealed that for this ferritic stainless steel in concentrated alkaline solutions, decreasing the solution pH offers better conditions for forming passive films with higher protection behavior, due to the growth of a much thicker and less defective film.

  19. Analysis and comparison of the breakdown performance of semi- insulator and dielectric passivated Si strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2002-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment in future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments like LHC provides a challenging task to the performance of Si microstrip detectors. Normal operating condition for silicon detectors in HEP experiments are in most cases not as favourable as for experiments in nuclear physics. In HEP experiments the detector may be exposed to moisture and other adverse atmospheric environment. It is therefore utmost important to protect the sensitive surfaces against such poisonous effects. These instabilities can be nearly eliminated and the performance of Si detectors can be improved by implementing suitably passivated metal-overhang structures. This paper presents the influence of the relative permittivity of the passivant on the breakdown performance of the Si detectors using computer simulations. The semi-insulator and the dielectric passivated metal-overhang structures are compared under optimal conditions. The influence of various parameters such as passivation layer thickness, junction dep...

  20. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation: Parameter Optimization of Citric Acid Passivation for Stainless Steel Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Headquarters chartered the Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM) to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objectives of NASA TEERM are to: Reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials or hazardous processes at manufacturing, remanufacturing, and sustainment locations. Avoid duplication of effort in actions required to reduce or eliminate hazardous materials through joint center cooperation and technology sharing. Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The damaging effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. Consequently, it is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. NASA and ESA have numerous structures and equipment that are fabricated from stainless steel. The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. Passivation is defined by The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language as to treat or coat (a metal) in order to reduce the chemical reactivity of its surface. Passivation works by forming a shielding outer (metal oxide) layer that reduces the impact of destructive environmental factors such as air or water. Consequently, this process necessitates a final product that is very clean and free of iron and other contaminants. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. Citric acid is an alternative to nitric acid for the passivation of stainless steels. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits including increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and

  1. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    Columbia County Habitat for Humanity (CCHH) (New York, Climate Zone 5A) built a pair of townhomes to Passive House Institute U.S. (PHIUS+ 2015) criteria to explore approaches for achieving Passive House performance (specifically with respect to exterior wall, space-conditioning, and ventilation strategies) within the labor and budget context inherent in a Habitat for Humanity project. CCHH’s goal is to eventually develop a cost-justified Passive House prototype design for future projects.

  2. Passive Nuclear Plants Program (UPDATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimeno, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    The light water passive plants program (PCNP), today Advanced Nuclear Power Plants Program (PCNA), was constituted in order to reach the goals of the Spanish Electrical Sector in the field of advanced nuclear power plants, optimize the efforts of all Spanish initiatives, and increase joint presence in international projects. The last update of this program, featured in revision 5th of the Program Report, reflects the consolidation of the Spanish sector's presence in International programs of the advanced power plants on the basis of the practically concluded American ALWR program. Since the beginning of the program , the PCNP relies on financing from the Electrical sector, Ocide, SEPI-Endesa, Westinghouse, General Electric, as well as from the industrial cooperators, Initec, UTE (Initec- Empresarios Agrupados), Ciemat, Enusa, Ensa and Tecnatom. The program is made up of the following projects, already concluded: - EPRI's Advanced Light Water Plants Certification Project - Westinghouse's AP600 Project - General Electric's SBWR Project (presently paralyzed) and ABWR project Currently, the following project are under development, at different degrees of advance: - EPP project (European Passive Plant) - EBWR project (European Advanced Boiling Water Reactor)

  3. A Portable Passive Physiotherapeutic Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheek Naidu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The public healthcare system in South Africa is in need of urgent attention in no small part because there has been an escalation in the number of stroke victims which could be due to the increase in hypertension in this urbanizing society. There is a growing need for physiotherapists and occupational therapists in the country, which is further hindered by the division between urban and rural areas. A possible solution is a portable passive physiotherapeutic exoskeleton device. The exoskeleton device has been formulated to encapsulate methodologies that enable the anthropomorphic integration between a biological and mechatronic limb. A physiotherapeutic mechanism was designed to be portable and adjustable, without limiting the spherical motion and workspace of the human arm. The exoskeleton was designed to be portable in the sense that it could be transported geographically. It is a complete device allowing for motion in the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand joints. The inverse kinematics was solved iteratively via the Damped Least Squares (DLS method. The electronic and computer system allowed for professional personnel to either change an individual joint or a combination of joints angles via the kinematic models. A ramp PI controller was established to provide a smooth response to simulate the passive therapy motion.

  4. Liberal theory of passive citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatić Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this seminar paper I will focus on the analysis of liberal theory of citizenship. The focus of the study will be on the liberal-communitarian dispute in the theory of citizenship, with main ideas of the most important representatives of liberal discourse in the field of citizenship also being discussed. I will look more closely at the ideas of T.H. Marshall, as the most significant writer of liberal orthodoxy in the second half of the twentieth century, his contribution to liberal theory of passive citizenship, but I will also deal with the ideas of his biggest critics, both from the aspect of liberalism and from the aspect of communitarianism, including Anthony Giddens, Claus Offe, Michael Mann, Barrington Moore and Brian Turner. The emphasis will be on Marshall's term 'conquest of citizenship', as well as on the derivation of various theories of state from the obtained rights achieved through the expansion of the concept of citizenship. Finally, I will say something about modern obstacles to theories of passive citizenship derived from the communitarian school.

  5. Passive propulsion in vortex wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, D. N.; Hover, F. S.; Triantafyllou, M. S.; Liao, J. C.; Lauder, G. V.

    A dead fish is propelled upstream when its flexible body resonates with oncoming vortices formed in the wake of a bluff cylinder, despite being well outside the suction region of the cylinder. Within this passive propulsion mode, the body of the fish extracts sufficient energy from the oncoming vortices to develop thrust to overcome its own drag. In a similar turbulent wake and at roughly the same distance behind a bluff cylinder, a passively mounted high-aspect-ratio foil is also shown to propel itself upstream employing a similar flow energy extraction mechanism. In this case, mechanical energy is extracted from the flow at the same time that thrust is produced. These results prove experimentally that, under proper conditions, a body can follow at a distance or even catch up to another upstream body without expending any energy of its own. This observation is also significant in the development of low-drag energy harvesting devices, and in the energetics of fish dwelling in flowing water and swimming behind wake-forming obstacles.

  6. Mouse in Vivo Neutralization of Escherichia coli Shiga Toxin 2 with Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry H. Stanker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC food contaminations pose serious health concerns, and have been the subject of massive food recalls. STEC has been identified as the major cause of the life-threatening complication of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. Besides supportive care, there currently are no therapeutics available. The use of antibiotics for combating pathogenic E. coli is not recommended because they have been shown to stimulate toxin production. Clearing Stx2 from the circulation could potentially lessen disease severity. In this study, we tested the in vivo neutralization of Stx2 in mice using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. We measured the biologic half-life of Stx2 in mice and determined the distribution phase or t1/2 α to be 3 min and the clearance phase or t1/2 β to be 40 min. Neutralizing mAbs were capable of clearing Stx2 completely from intoxicated mouse blood within minutes. We also examined the persistence of these mAbs over time and showed that complete protection could be passively conferred to mice 4 weeks before exposure to Stx2. The advent of better diagnositic methods and the availability of a greater arsenal of therapeutic mAbs against Stx2 would greatly enhance treatment outcomes of life threatening E. coli infections.

  7. Chemical passivation as a method of improving the electrochemical corrosion resistance of Co-Cr-based dental alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylska, Dorota; Sokołowski, Grzegorz; Sokołowski, Jerzy; Łukomska-Szymańska, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate corrosion resistance of Wirobond C® alloy after chemical passivation treatment. The alloy surface undergone chemical passivation treatment in four different media. Corrosion studies were carried out by means of electrochemical methods in saline solution. Corrosion effects were determined using SEM. The greatest increase in the alloy polarization resistance was observed for passive layer produced in Na2SO4 solution with graphite. The same layer caused the highest increase in corrosion current. Generally speaking, the alloy passivation in Na2SO4 solution with graphite caused a substantial improvement of the corrosion resistance. The sample after passivation in Na2SO4 solution without graphite, contrary to others, lost its protective properties along with successive anodic polarization cycles. The alloy passivation in Na3PO4 solution with graphite was the only one that caused a decrease in the alloy corrosion properties. The SEM studies of all samples after chemical passivation revealed no pit corrosion - in contrast to the sample without any modification. Every successive polarization cycle in anodic direction of pure Wirobond C® alloy enhances corrosion resistance shifting corrosion potential in the positive direction and decreasing corrosion current value. The chemical passivation in solutions with low pH values decreases susceptibility to electrochemical corrosion of Co-Cr dental alloy. The best protection against corrosion was obtained after chemical passivation of Wirobond C® in Na2SO4 solution with graphite. Passivation with Na2SO4 in solution of high pH does not cause an increase in corrosion resistance of WIROBOND C. Passivation process increases alloy resistance to pit corrosion.

  8. Fault discovery protocol for passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduczenia, Marek; Fonseca, Daniel; da Silva, Henrique J. A.; Monteiro, Paulo P.

    2007-06-01

    All existing flavors of passive optical networks (PONs) provide an attractive alternative to legacy copper-based access lines deployed between a central office (CO) of the service provider (SP) and a customer site. One of the most challenging tasks for PON network planners is the reduction of the overall cost of employing protection schemes for the optical fiber plant while maintaining a reasonable level of survivability and reducing the downtime, thus ensuring acceptable levels of quality of service (QoS) for end subscribers. The recently growing volume of Ethernet PONs deployment [Kramer, IEEE 802.3, CFI (2006)], connected with low-cost electronic and optical components used in the optical network unit (ONU) modules, results in the situation where remote detection of faulty/active subscriber modules becomes indispensable for proper operation of an EPON system. The problem of the remote detection of faulty ONUs in the system is addressed where the upstream channel is flooded with the cw transmission from one or more damaged ONUs and standard communication is severed, providing a solution that is applicable in any type of PON network, regardless of the operating protocol, physical structure, and data rate.

  9. Utility requirements for advanced LWR passive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedidia, J.M.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    LWR Passive Plants are becoming an increasingly attractive and prominent option for future electric generating capacity for U.S. utilities. Conceptual designs for ALWR Passive Plants are currently being developed by U.S. suppliers. EPRI-sponsored work beginning in 1985 developed preliminary conceptual designs for a passive BWR and PWR. DOE-sponsored work from 1986 to the present in conjunction with further EPRI-sponsored studies has continued this development to the point of mature conceptual designs. The success to date in developing the ALWR Passive Plant concepts has substantially increased utility interest. The EPRI ALWR Program has responded by augmenting its initial scope to develop a Utility Requirements Document for ALWR Passive Plants. These requirements will be largely based on the ALWR Utility Requirements Document for Evolutionary Plants, but with significant changes in areas related to the passive safety functions and system configurations. This work was begun in late 1988, and the thirteen-chapter Passive Plant Utility Requirements Document will be completed in 1990. This paper discusses the progress to date in developing the Passive Plant requirements, reviews the top-level requirements, and discusses key issues related to adaptation of the utility requirements to passive safety functions and system configurations. (orig.)

  10. Multiple mechanisms quench passive spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin; Dolley, Tim; Bonne, Nicolas J.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the properties of a sample of 35 nearby passive spiral galaxies in order to determine their dominant quenching mechanism(s). All five low-mass (M⋆ environments. We postulate that cluster-scale gas stripping and heating mechanisms operating only in rich clusters are required to quench low-mass passive spirals, and ram-pressure stripping and strangulation are obvious candidates. For higher mass passive spirals, while trends are present, the story is less clear. The passive spiral bar fraction is high: 74 ± 15 per cent, compared with 36 ± 5 per cent for a mass, redshift and T-type matched comparison sample of star-forming spiral galaxies. The high mass passive spirals occur mostly, but not exclusively, in groups, and can be central or satellite galaxies. The passive spiral group fraction of 74 ± 15 per cent is similar to that of the comparison sample of star-forming galaxies at 61 ± 7 per cent. We find evidence for both quenching via internal structure and environment in our passive spiral sample, though some galaxies have evidence of neither. From this, we conclude no one mechanism is responsible for quenching star formation in passive spiral galaxies - rather, a mixture of mechanisms is required to produce the passive spiral distribution we see today.

  11. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the preliminary development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors for NASA application to distributed...

  12. Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A; Datta, Saurabh; Holland, Christy K; Mast, T Douglas

    2009-12-01

    A method is presented for passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions using an ultrasound array, with potential application in real-time monitoring of ultrasound ablation. To create such images, microbubble emissions were passively sensed by an imaging array and dynamically focused at multiple depths. In this paper, an analytic expression for a passive image is obtained by solving the Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral, under the Fresnel approximation, and passive images were simulated. A 192-element array was used to create passive images, in real time, from 520-kHz ultrasound scattered by a 1-mm steel wire. Azimuthal positions of this target were accurately estimated from the passive images. Next, stable and inertial cavitation was passively imaged in saline solution sonicated at 520 kHz. Bubble clusters formed in the saline samples were consistently located on both passive images and B-scans. Passive images were also created using broadband emissions from bovine liver sonicated at 2.2 MHz. Agreement was found between the images and source beam shape, indicating an ability to map therapeutic ultrasound beams in situ. The relation between these broadband emissions, sonication amplitude, and exposure conditions are discussed.

  13. Hybrid Active-Passive Radiation Shielding System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A radiation shielding system is proposed that integrates active magnetic fields with passive shielding materials. The objective is to increase the shielding...

  14. Universality in passively advected hydrodynamic fields : the case of a passive vector with pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzi, R.; Biferale, L.; Toschi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Universality of statistical properties of passive quantities advected by turbulent velocity fields at changing the passive forcing mechanism is discussed. In particular, we concentrate on the statistical properties of an hydrodynamic system with pressure. We present theoretical arguments and

  15. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  16. Passive vaccination with a human monoclonal antibody: generation of antibodies and studies for efficacy in Bacillus anthracis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vor dem Esche, Ulrich; Huber, Maria; Zgaga-Griesz, Andrea; Grunow, Roland; Beyer, Wolfgang; Hahn, Ulrike; Bessler, Wolfgang G

    2011-07-01

    A major difficulty in creating human monoclonal antibodies is the lack of a suitable myeloma cell line to be used for fusion experiments. In order to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization, the human mouse heteromyeloma cell line CB-F7 was evaluated. Using this cell line, we generated human monoclonal antibodies against Bacillus anthracis toxin components. Antibodies against protective antigen (PA) and against lethal factor (LF) were obtained using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from persons vaccinated with the UK anthrax vaccine. PBL were fused with the cell line CB-F7. We obtained several clones producing PA specific Ig and one clone (hLF1-SAN) producing a monoclonal antibody (hLF1) directed against LF. The LF binding antibody was able to neutralize Anthrax toxin activity in an in vitro neutralization assay, and preliminary in vivo studies in mice also indicated a trend towards protection. We mapped the epitope of the antibody binding to LF by dot blot analysis and ELIFA using 80 synthetic LF peptides of 20 amino acid lengths with an overlapping range of 10 amino acids. Our results suggest the binding of the monoclonal antibody to the peptide regions 121-150 or 451-470 of LF. The Fab-fragment of the antibody hLF1 was cloned in Escherichia coli and could be useful as part of a fully human monoclonal antibody for the treatment of Anthrax infections. In general, our studies show the applicability of the CB-F7 line to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for vaccination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Specialists' meeting on passive and active safety features of LMFRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    The objective of the meeting was to discuss and exchange information on passive and active safety concepts and to find some reasonable coupling of these concept, aiming at firmer establishment of plant safety and at the same time of plant cost reduction. The following main topical areas were discussed by delegates: (1) Overview - review of national status on the safety design approaches of LMFRs (2) Safety characteristics of decay heat removal system (DHRS) (3) Safety characteristics of reactor protection system (RPS) and reactor shutdown system (RSS) (4) Core safety characteristics.

  18. Specialists' meeting on passive and active safety features of LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the meeting was to discuss and exchange information on passive and active safety concepts and to find some reasonable coupling of these concept, aiming at firmer establishment of plant safety and at the same time of plant cost reduction. The following main topical areas were discussed by delegates: (1) Overview - review of national status on the safety design approaches of LMFRs (2) Safety characteristics of decay heat removal system (DHRS) (3) Safety characteristics of reactor protection system (RPS) and reactor shutdown system (RSS) (4) Core safety characteristics

  19. An Adjuvanted A(H5N1) Subvirion Vaccine Elicits Virus-Specific Antibody Response and Improves Protection Against Lethal Influenza Viral Challenge in Mouse Model of Protein Energy Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Enitra N; Amoah, Samuel; Cao, Weiping; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Gangappa, Shivaprakash

    2017-09-15

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including influenza infection, but no studies have addressed the potential influences of PEM on the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of avian influenza A(H5N1) vaccine. We investigated the role of PEM on vaccine-mediated protection after a lethal challenge with recombinant A(H5N1) virus using isocaloric diets providing either adequate protein (AP; 18% protein) or very low protein (VLP; 2% protein) in an established murine model of influenza vaccination. We demonstrated that mice maintained on a VLP diet succumb to lethal challenge at greater rates than mice maintained on an AP diet, despite comparable immunization regimens. Importantly, there was no virus-induced mortality in both VLP and AP groups of mice when either group was immunized with adjuvanted low-dose A(H5N1) subvirion vaccine. Our results suggest that adjuvanted vaccination in populations where PEM is endemic may be one strategy to boost vaccination-promoted immunity and improve outcomes associated with highly pathogenic A(H5N1). Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Health risks of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, C M; Stellman, S D

    1986-01-01

    Passive or involuntary smoking is the inhalation of smoke which escapes directly into the air from the lit end of a burning cigarette. This unfiltered smoke contains the same toxic components of the mainstream smoke inhaled directly by the smoker, including numerous carcinogens, many in greater concentrations. It has long been known that exposure to this type of smoke leads to increased respiratory and other adverse health conditions in non-smokers, especially children. During the past five years, evidence has been accumulating that risk of lung cancer is also higher, particularly in non-smoking women whose husbands smoke. Despite uncertainties and differences in interpretation of various cancer studies, there is ample justification for public health measures now in place or proposed, such as restriction or elimination of smoking in the workplace and in public places.

  1. Integrated Passive And Wireless Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-04-30

    A passive and wireless sensor is provided for sensing at least one of magnetic field, temperature or humidity. The sensor can provide only one of the sensing functions, individually or any combination of them simultaneously. It can be used for various applications where magnetic field changes, temperature and/or humidity need to be measured. In one or more embodiments, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor is provided that can measure one or more of a magnetic field (or current that generates the magnetic field), temperature and humidity. In one or more embodiments, a magnetoimpedence (MI) sensor (for example a thin film giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor), a thermally sensitive (for example a Lithium Niobite (LiNbO.sub.3)) substrate, and a humidity sensitive film (for example a hydrogel film) can be used as sensing elements.

  2. Integrated Passive And Wireless Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    A passive and wireless sensor is provided for sensing at least one of magnetic field, temperature or humidity. The sensor can provide only one of the sensing functions, individually or any combination of them simultaneously. It can be used for various applications where magnetic field changes, temperature and/or humidity need to be measured. In one or more embodiments, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor is provided that can measure one or more of a magnetic field (or current that generates the magnetic field), temperature and humidity. In one or more embodiments, a magnetoimpedence (MI) sensor (for example a thin film giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor), a thermally sensitive (for example a Lithium Niobite (LiNbO.sub.3)) substrate, and a humidity sensitive film (for example a hydrogel film) can be used as sensing elements.

  3. Design of the inboard passive stabilizer for TPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.; Boonstra, R.; Baxi, C.B.; Chin, E.; Drees, L.; Lee, W.; Redler, K.L.; Reis, E.E.; Bialek, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Inboard Passive Stabilizer (IPS) is part of the plasma stabilizing system built into the TPX. Its purpose is to provide passive stabilization of the plasma vertical instability on short time scales. With carbon fiber composite (CFC) armor tiles it serves as a startup limiter, protects the vacuum vessel from radiation heat load during steady state operation and also functions as Neutral Beam armor. The inboard passive stabilizer is a saddle coil, constructed of a ring of copper plates, armored with CFC tiles, that surrounds the inner vacuum vessel at the midplane. The design of the plates, the support structure, cooling lines, CFC tiles and tile attach method is described. Tiles that experience only the normal heat load of 0.4 MW/m 2 are attached with mechanical fasteners. Tiles in the neutral beam shine through area are exposed to as much as 1.7 MW/m 2 and are brazed to the IPS. Significant forces are generated in the plates by the stabilization currents as well as during the frequent bakeout cycles. These plates are required to be fully remotely handled, including tile replacement, and the influence of this requirement on the design is discussed

  4. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  5. Protective efficacy of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in a nonhuman primate model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Yoshida, Reiko; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Ishijima, Mari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Higuchi, Megumi; Matsuyama, Yukie; Igarashi, Manabu; Nakayama, Eri; Kuroda, Makoto; Saijo, Masayuki; Feldmann, Friederike; Brining, Douglas; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2012-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever in primates, with human case fatality rates up to 90%. Today, there is neither a licensed vaccine nor a treatment available for Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF). Single monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) have been successfully used in passive immunization experiments in rodent models, but have failed to protect nonhuman primates from lethal disease. In this study, we used two clones of human-mouse chimeric MAbs (ch133 and ch226) with strong neutralizing activity against ZEBOV and evaluated their protective potential in a rhesus macaque model of EHF. Reduced viral loads and partial protection were observed in animals given MAbs ch133 and ch226 combined intravenously at 24 hours before and 24 and 72 hours after challenge. MAbs circulated in the blood of a surviving animal until virus-induced IgG responses were detected. In contrast, serum MAb concentrations decreased to undetectable levels at terminal stages of disease in animals that succumbed to infection, indicating substantial consumption of these antibodies due to virus replication. Accordingly, the rapid decrease of serum MAbs was clearly associated with increased viremia in non-survivors. Our results indicate that EBOV neutralizing antibodies, particularly in combination with other therapeutic strategies, might be beneficial in reducing viral loads and prolonging disease progression during EHF.

  6. Protective efficacy of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in a nonhuman primate model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marzi

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV is the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever in primates, with human case fatality rates up to 90%. Today, there is neither a licensed vaccine nor a treatment available for Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF. Single monoclonal antibodies (MAbs specific for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV have been successfully used in passive immunization experiments in rodent models, but have failed to protect nonhuman primates from lethal disease. In this study, we used two clones of human-mouse chimeric MAbs (ch133 and ch226 with strong neutralizing activity against ZEBOV and evaluated their protective potential in a rhesus macaque model of EHF. Reduced viral loads and partial protection were observed in animals given MAbs ch133 and ch226 combined intravenously at 24 hours before and 24 and 72 hours after challenge. MAbs circulated in the blood of a surviving animal until virus-induced IgG responses were detected. In contrast, serum MAb concentrations decreased to undetectable levels at terminal stages of disease in animals that succumbed to infection, indicating substantial consumption of these antibodies due to virus replication. Accordingly, the rapid decrease of serum MAbs was clearly associated with increased viremia in non-survivors. Our results indicate that EBOV neutralizing antibodies, particularly in combination with other therapeutic strategies, might be beneficial in reducing viral loads and prolonging disease progression during EHF.

  7. Identification and characterization of a novel protective antigen, Sec_205 of Streptococcus equi ssp. Zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huihuang; Tang, Bin; Zhao, Pengpeng; Deng, Mingyong; Yan, Lili; Zhai, Pan; Wei, Zigong

    2018-02-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is an important pathogen of swine streptococcal diseases and can infect a wide range of animals as well as human beings. The absence of effective vaccine confounds the control of SEZ infection. Sec_205, a novel protein identified in the previous study, was inducibly over-expressed in Escherichia coli in the present study. The purified recombinant protein could elicit a significant humoral antibody response and provide efficient protection against lethal challenge of SEZ C55138 in mouse model. The protection against SEZ infection was mediated by specific antibodies to Sec_205 to some extent and was identified by the passive protection assay. The Sec_205 was an in vivo-induced antigen confirmed by the real-time PCR and could adhere to the Hep-2 cells by the inhibition assay. These suggest that Sec_205 may play a vital role in pathogenicity and serve as a new vaccine candidate against SEZ infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Passive immunization of guinea-pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Solt, van C.B.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Keulen, van L.; Rosalia, R.A.; Weerdmeester, K.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Eble, P.L.; Dekker, A.

    2007-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that occasionally causes outbreaks in Europe. There is a need for therapies that provide rapid protection against FMD in outbreak situations. We aim to provide such rapid protection by passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody

  9. Influence of passivation process on chip performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the performance of CMOS chips before and after a low temperature post-processing step. In order to prevent damage to the IC chips by the post-processing steps, a first passivation layers is needed on top of the IC chips. Two different passivation layer deposition

  10. Passive and Portable Polymer Optical Fiber Cleaver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-Rodriguez, D.; Min, R.; Ortega, B.

    2016-01-01

    opening up the possibility of an electrically passive cleaver. In this letter, we describe the implementation and testing of a high quality cleaver based on a mechanical system formed by a constant force spring and a damper, which leads to the first reported electrical passive and portable cleaver....

  11. Passive house networks : How can they deliver?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines experiences with the diffusion of the passive house concept, applied to the situation of ‘emerging’ countries like Belgium and the Netherlands. Adopter categories considering the passive house concept are defined. A marketing study based on Rogers’ theory of diffusion of

  12. Passive Solar Construction--Design and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented is a list of books and reports intended to serve as technical sources of information for the building professional interested in energy conservation. These publications are grouped under these headings: (1) energy-conserving building design; (2) passive systems/design; (3) passive systems/performance; and (4) proceedings (of the American…

  13. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  14. Considerations on nuclear reactor passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After having indicated some passive safety systems present in electronuclear reactors (control bars, safety injection system accumulators, reactor cooling after stoppage, hydrogen recombination systems), this report recalls the main characteristics of passive safety systems, and discusses the main issues associated with the assessment of new passive systems (notably to face a sustained loss of electric supply systems or of cold water source) and research axis to be developed in this respect. More precisely, the report comments the classification of safety passive systems as it is proposed by the IAEA, outlines and comments specific aspects of these systems regarding their operation and performance. The next part discusses the safety approach, the control of performance of safety passive systems, issues related to their reliability, and the expected contribution of R and D (for example: understanding of physical phenomena which have an influence of these systems, capacities of simulation of these phenomena, needs of experimentations to validate simulation codes)

  15. The Mouse That Soared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Astronomers have used an X-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. The image, from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the X-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. It gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. "A few dozen pulsar wind nebulae are known, including the spectacular Crab Nebula, but none have the Mouse's combination of relatively young age and incredibly rapid motion through interstellar space," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and lead author of a paper on the Mouse that will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "We effectively are seeing a supersonic cosmic wind tunnel, in which we can study the effects of a pulsar's motion on its pulsar wind nebula, and test current theories." Illustration of the Mouse System Illustration of the Mouse System Pulsars are known to be rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron stars -- objects so dense that a mass equal to that of the Sun is packed into a

  16. Passive safety features for next generation CANDU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hart, R.S.; Lipsett, J.J.; Soedijono, P.; Dick, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    CANDU offers an evolutionary approach to simpler and safer reactors. The CANDU 3, an advanced CANDU, currently in the detailed design stage, offers significant improvements in the areas of safety, design simplicity, constructibility, operability, maintainability, schedule and cost. These are being accomplished by retaining all of the well known CANDU benefits, and by relying on the use of proven components and technologies. A major safety benefit of CANDU is the moderator system which is separate from the coolant. The presence of a cold moderator reduces the consequences arising from a LOCA or loss of heat sink event. In existing CANDU plants even the severe accident - LOCA with failure of the emergency core cooling system - is a design basis event. Further advances toward a simpler and more passively safe reactor will be made using the same evolutionary approach. Building on the strength of the moderator system to mitigate against severe accidents, a passive moderator cooling system, depending only on the law of gravity to perform its function, will be the next step of development. AECL is currently investigating a number of other features that could be incorporated in future evolutionary CANDU designs to enhance protection against accidents, and to limit off-site consequences to an acceptable level, for even the worst event. The additional features being investigated include passive decay heat removal from the heat transport system, a simpler emergency core cooling system and a containment pressure suppression/venting capability for beyond design basis events. Central to these passive decay heat removal schemes is the availability of a short-term heat sink to provide a decay heat removal capability of at least three days, without any station services. Preliminary results from these investigations confirm the feasibility of these schemes. (author)

  17. Use of passive sampling for atmospheric tritium monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira Ideias, P.; Pierrard, O.; Tournieux, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Tenailleau, L. [Marine nationale (France)

    2014-07-01

    Tritium is one of the most important radionuclide in environmental radiological monitoring. In French civil and military nuclear facilities, the releases levels are between 100 to 100 000 higher than any other radionuclide (rare gas excluded). Moreover these levels will probably increase in the next decades. With an average energy of 6 keV, the beta particle from tritium radioactive decay is difficult to detect and quantify within the environmental levels. To monitor the tritium in the air, French actors (authorities, operator, and experts) commonly use atmospheric bubblers and water vapour condensers. This type of sampling approach is time-consuming and very costly. To simplify and complete these methods, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), had developed an atmospheric tritium monitoring device based on passive sampling. The passive sampler developed consists in a small container designed with a patented specific geometry and filled with 13X molecular sieve. This system is based on free diffusion flow principle (Fick's law). The driving force is the partial pressure gradient existing between the environmental atmosphere and the passive sampler. The constancy of the sampling rate for different moisture conditions assures the representativeness of the proposed device. The desorption bench developed specifically allows the recovery of 99% of the water vapour sampled in the molecular sieve. More than 99% of the sampled tritium (HTO) activity is recovered in the range between 0 and 100 Bq.L{sup -1}. Above 100 Bq.L{sup -1} to 25 k Bq.L{sup -1} (max tested activity), it was verified that no more than 3% of the tritium remains in the molecular sieve.. Thus, the use of passive sampler provides: - a representative sampling method, - a good detection limit (0,01 Bq.m{sup -3}), - no electric power supply needs, - a wide range of sampling duration (1 day to 1 month), - a low-cost method for monitoring. Different performance tests were

  18. Passivity-based design of robust passive damping for LCL-filtered voltage source converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Passive damping is proven as a robust stabilizing technique for LCL-filtered voltage source converters. However, conventional design methods of passive dampers are based on the passive components only, while the inherent damping effect of time delay in the digital control system is overlooked....... In this paper, a frequency-domain passivity-based design approach is proposed, where the passive dampers are designed to eliminate the negative real part of the converter output admittance with closed-loop current control, rather than shaping the LCL-filter itself. Thus, the influence of time delay...... in the current control is included, which allows a relaxed design of the passive damper with the reduced power loss and improved stability robustness against grid parameters variations. Design procedures of two commonly used passive dampers with LCL-filtered VSCs are illustrated. Experimental results validate...

  19. Whistleblower Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 (WPA) and the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 Enhanced by the Act of 2012 provides protection rights for Federal employees against retaliation for whistleblowing activities.

  20. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  1. Self Passivating W-based Alloys as Plasma Facing Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.; Koeppl, S.; Bolt, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten (W) is presently the main candidate material for the plasma-facing protection of future fusion power reactors due to the low sputter erosion under bombardment by energetic D, T and He ions. Thus a W-based protection material may provide a wall erosion lifetime of the order of five years which is a pre-requisite for economic fusion reactor operation. A potential problem with the use of pure W in a fusion reactor is the formation of radioactive and highly volatile WO 3 compounds and their potential release under accidental conditions. A loss-of-coolant event in a He-cooled reactor would lead to a temperature rise to 1100 deg. C after approx. 10 to 30 days due to the nuclear decay heat of the in-vessel components. In such a situation additional accidental intense air ingress into the reactor vessel would lead to the formation of WO 3 and subsequent evaporation of radioactive (WO 3 ) x -clusters. The use of self passivating W alloys either as bulk material or as thick coating on the steel wall may be a passively safe alternative for the plasma-facing protection. The use of this material would eliminate the above mentioned concern related to pure W. To enable the formation of a protective film in oxidizing atmosphere which seals the tungsten surface from further oxidation, different elements have been investigated as corrosion protection additives. Therefore binary and ternary tungsten alloys were synthesised using magnetron sputtering. The oxidation behaviour of films deposited on inert substrates was measured with a thermo-balance set up under synthetic air at temperatures up to 1000 deg. C. Binary alloys of W-Si showed good self passivation properties by forming a SiO 2 film at the surface. The oxidation rate of a compound containing 11 wt.% Si was reduced by a factor of 10 2 compared to pure tungsten between 800 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Using ternary alloys the oxidation behaviour could be further improved. A compound of W

  2. Polydatin (PD) inhibits IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice by stabilizing mast cells through modulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Meichun [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Department of Physiology, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan (China); Li, Jianjie [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Lv, Jingzhang [Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Shenzhen 518045 (China); Mo, Xucheng; Yang, Chengbin [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Chen, Xiangdong [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Zhigang [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Jie, E-mail: ljljz@yahoo.com [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2012-11-01

    Mast cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and are a promising target for therapeutic intervention in asthma. This study investigated the effects of polydatin (PD), a resveratrol glucoside, on mast cell degranulation upon cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI), as well as the anti-allergic activity of PD in vivo. Herein, we demonstrated that PD treatment for 30 min suppressed FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, PD significantly decreased FcεRI-mediated Ca{sup 2+} increase in mast cells. The suppressive effects of PD on FcεRI-mediated Ca{sup 2+} increase were largely inhibited by using LaCl{sub 3} to block the Ca{sup 2+} release-activated Ca{sup 2+} channels (CRACs). Furthermore, PD significantly inhibited Ca{sup 2+} entry through CRACs evoked by thapsigargin (TG). Knocking down protein expression of Orai1, the pore-forming subunit of CRACs, significantly decreased PD suppression of FcεRI-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx and mast cell degranulation. In a mouse model of mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), in vivo PD administration suppressed mast cell degranulation and inhibited anaphylaxis. Taken together, our data indicate that PD stabilizes mast cells by suppressing FcεRI-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization mainly through inhibiting Ca{sup 2+} entry via CRACs, thus exerting a protective effect against PCA. -- Highlights: ► Polydatin can prevent the pathogenesis of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. ► Polydatin stabilizes mast cells by decreasing FcεRI-mediated degranulation. ► Polydatin suppresses Ca{sup 2+} entry through CRAC channels in mast cells.

  3. Polydatin (PD) inhibits IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice by stabilizing mast cells through modulating Ca2+ mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Meichun; Li, Jianjie; Lv, Jingzhang; Mo, Xucheng; Yang, Chengbin; Chen, Xiangdong; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and are a promising target for therapeutic intervention in asthma. This study investigated the effects of polydatin (PD), a resveratrol glucoside, on mast cell degranulation upon cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI), as well as the anti-allergic activity of PD in vivo. Herein, we demonstrated that PD treatment for 30 min suppressed FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, PD significantly decreased FcεRI-mediated Ca 2+ increase in mast cells. The suppressive effects of PD on FcεRI-mediated Ca 2+ increase were largely inhibited by using LaCl 3 to block the Ca 2+ release-activated Ca 2+ channels (CRACs). Furthermore, PD significantly inhibited Ca 2+ entry through CRACs evoked by thapsigargin (TG). Knocking down protein expression of Orai1, the pore-forming subunit of CRACs, significantly decreased PD suppression of FcεRI-induced intracellular Ca 2+ influx and mast cell degranulation. In a mouse model of mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), in vivo PD administration suppressed mast cell degranulation and inhibited anaphylaxis. Taken together, our data indicate that PD stabilizes mast cells by suppressing FcεRI-induced Ca 2+ mobilization mainly through inhibiting Ca 2+ entry via CRACs, thus exerting a protective effect against PCA. -- Highlights: ► Polydatin can prevent the pathogenesis of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. ► Polydatin stabilizes mast cells by decreasing FcεRI-mediated degranulation. ► Polydatin suppresses Ca 2+ entry through CRAC channels in mast cells.

  4. Magnesium Counteracts Vascular Calcification: Passive Interference or Active Modulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Braake, Anique D; Shanahan, Catherine M; de Baaij, Jeroen H F

    2017-08-01

    Over the last decade, an increasing number of studies report a close relationship between serum magnesium concentration and cardiovascular disease risk in the general population. In end-stage renal disease, an association was found between serum magnesium and survival. Hypomagnesemia was identified as a strong predictor for cardiovascular disease in these patients. A substantial body of in vitro and in vivo studies has identified a protective role for magnesium in vascular calcification. However, the precise mechanisms and its contribution to cardiovascular protection remain unclear. There are currently 2 leading hypotheses: first, magnesium may bind phosphate and delay calcium phosphate crystal growth in the circulation, thereby passively interfering with calcium phosphate deposition in the vessel wall. Second, magnesium may regulate vascular smooth muscle cell transdifferentiation toward an osteogenic phenotype by active cellular modulation of factors associated with calcification. Here, the data supporting these major hypotheses are reviewed. The literature supports both a passive inorganic phosphate-buffering role reducing hydroxyapatite formation and an active cell-mediated role, directly targeting vascular smooth muscle transdifferentiation. However, current evidence relies on basic experimental designs that are often insufficient to delineate the underlying mechanisms. The field requires more advanced experimental design, including determination of intracellular magnesium concentrations and the identification of the molecular players that regulate magnesium concentrations in vascular smooth muscle cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives. This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Approach/Activities. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation were measured and 19 of these investigations provided direct comparisons relating passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation. Polymers compared included low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and organisms ranged from polychaetes and oligochaetes to bivalves, aquatic insects, and gastropods. Regression equations correlating bioaccumulation (CL) and passive sampler uptake (CPS) were used to assess the strength of observed relationships. Results/Lessons Learned. Passive sampling based concentrations resulted in strong logarithmic regression relationships, most of which were within one to two orders of magnitude of measured bioaccumulation. Mean coefficients of determination (r2) for LDPE, PDMS and POM were 0.68, 0.76 and 0.58, respectively. For the available raw data, the mean ratio of CL and CPS was 10.8 ± 18.4 (n = 609). Passive sampler uptake and bioaccumulation were not found to be identical (i.e., CPS ≠ CL) but the logarithmic-based relationships between these values were consistently linear and predictive. This review concludes that in many applications passive sampling may serve as a

  6. Effect of aluminium on the passivation of zinc–aluminium alloys in artificial seawater at 80 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewmaneekul, Tanapat; Lothongkum, Gobboon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pure Zn and Zn–Al alloys passivate and depassivate in artificial seawater. ► Al retards passivation of Zn–Al alloys. ► Passive film composes of the inner film and the outer charge transfer layers. ► Al increases current density but decreases corrosion resistance of passive films. ► Al increases the electrical conductivity and the capacitance of the films. - Abstract: The effect of Al (0.15, 0.3 and 1.0 wt.%) on the passivation of Zn–Al alloys in artificial seawater at 80 °C is investigated by electrochemical measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the presence of Al in Zn–Al alloys can retard passivation. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements show that Al increases the current density but decreases the corrosion resistance of passive films, respectively. Mott-Schottky analysis reveals that Al increases the electrical conductivity and the capacitance of the films. Passivation of Zn–Al alloys occurs in artificial seawater when the immersion time is between 120 and 288 h, due to the presence of various Zn and Al protective compounds at the surfaces. Depassivation occurs when the immersion time is between 288 and 720 h, probably due to the decrease of solution pH and the Cl − penetration mechanism.

  7. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurko, Yu.M.; Kuznetsov, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs

  8. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurko, Yu M; Kuznetsov, L A [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs.

  9. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  10. [Passive euthanasia and living will].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-07-06

    This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital.

  11. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  12. Passive fault current limiting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  13. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiederhirn, G.; Nucci, J.; Richter, G.; Arzt, E.; Balk, T. J.; Dehm, G.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the influence of a 10 nm AlxOy passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 μm thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm film; however, its effect on the 1 μm film is negligible. At high temperatures, the opposite behavior is observed; while the passivation does not change the 100 nm film behavior, it strengthens the 1 μm film by driving it deeper into compression. These observations are explained in light of a combination of constrained diffusional creep and dislocation dynamics unique to ultra-thin films

  14. Python passive network mapping P2NMAP

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, Chet

    2015-01-01

    Python Passive Network Mapping: P2NMAP is the first book to reveal a revolutionary and open source method for exposing nefarious network activity. The ""Heartbleed"" vulnerability has revealed significant weaknesses within enterprise environments related to the lack of a definitive mapping of network assets. In Python Passive Network Mapping, Chet Hosmer shows you how to effectively and definitively passively map networks. Active or probing methods to network mapping have traditionally been used, but they have many drawbacks - they can disrupt operations, crash systems, and - most important

  15. Non-Chromate Passivation of Zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1993-01-01

    Phos). The treatments are within the same concentration region, and they have a mutual pat-ent pending. Although some tests still need to be conducted, the following aspects are clear at the present time: The general appearance of the passivated zinc surface is very similar to a standard yellow chromate treatment...... successfully. The corrosion resistance against white rust on zinc and zinc alloys is just as good as that of yellow chromate, although the result de-pends on the corrosion test method as well as on the nature of the zinc substrate pas-sivated. The passivation procedure is simply a dip for approxi-mately 2...

  16. Prevention of passive film breakdown on iron in a borate buffer solution containing chloride ion by coverage with a self-assembled monolayer of hexadecanoate ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramaki, Kunitsugu; Shimura, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    Breakdown of a passive film on iron in a borate buffer solution (pH 8.49) containing 0.1 M of Cl - was suppressed by coverage of the passive film surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of hexadecanoate ion C 15 H 31 CO 2 - (C 16 A - ). The pitting potential of an iron electrode previously passivated in the borate buffer at 0.50 V/SCE increased by treatment in an aqueous solution of sodium hexadecanoate for many hours, indicating protection of the passive film from breakdown caused by an attack on defects of the film with Cl - . No breakdown occurred over the potential range of the passive region by coverage with the SAM of C 16 A - in some cases. Structures of the passive film and the monolayer were characterized by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopies and contact angle measurement with a drop of water

  17. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers for the in-situ passivation of GaN-based HEMT structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunin, P. A., E-mail: yunin@ipmras.ru; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Drozdov, M. N.; Korolev, S. A.; Okhapkin, A. I.; Khrykin, O. I.; Shashkin, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    A method for the in situ passivation of GaN-based structures with silicon nitride in the growth chamber of a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor is described. The structural and electrical properties of the obtained layers are investigated. The in situ and ex situ passivation of transistor structures with silicon nitride in an electron-beam-evaporation device are compared. It is shown that ex situ passivation changes neither the initial carrier concentration nor the mobility. In situ passivation makes it possible to protect the structure surface against uncontrollable degradation upon the finishing of growth and extraction to atmosphere. In the in situ passivated structure, the carrier concentration increases and the mobility decreases. This effect should be taken into account when manufacturing passivated GaN-based transistor structures.

  18. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  19. Diplomatic Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Režná, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Final thesis Topic: Diplomatic protection Thesis supervisor: JUDr. Vladimír Balaš, CSc. Student: Marek Čermák Thesis on the topic of diplomatic protection deals with the granting of exercise of diplomatic protection by the states and is divided into seven chapters which follow each other. The first chapter describes the diplomatic protection and its historical foundations. The second chapter focuses on the possibility of exercise of diplomatic protection in respect of natural persons and the ...

  20. From passive house to a plus-energy building; Vom Passivhaus zum Plusenergiehaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Frank Peter [Redaktionsbuero Archikontext, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Towards the energy policy turnaround buildings have a particular emphasis because buildings consume nearly 40% of the primary energy in Germany. However, these climate protection targets of the policy cannot be achieved by means of individual highly efficient buildings. Thus, the bureau Deimel Oelschlaeger (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) is specialized on an ecologic construction of multifamily residential buildings in cities and hopes to implement the total know-how in large urban scale. Its actual passive house in the Boyen Street in Berlin is a passive house of the new generation.

  1. Lipid-Based Passivation in Nanofluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Stretching DNA in nanochannels is a useful tool for direct, visual studies of genomic DNA at the single molecule level. To facilitate the study of the interaction of linear DNA with proteins in nanochannels, we have implemented a highly effective passivation scheme based on lipid bilayers. We demonstrate virtually complete long-term passivation of nanochannel surfaces to a range of relevant reagents, including streptavidin-coated quantum dots, RecA proteins, and RecA–DNA complexes. We show that the performance of the lipid bilayer is significantly better than that of standard bovine serum albumin-based passivation. Finally, we show how the passivated devices allow us to monitor single DNA cleavage events during enzymatic degradation by DNase I. We expect that our approach will open up for detailed, systematic studies of a wide range of protein–DNA interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:22432814

  2. Hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria and passive sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bokai; Ding, Yang; Xu, Xinliang

    2017-11-01

    Understanding hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria and passive sphere is important for identifying rheological properties of bacterial and colloidal suspension. Over the past few years, scientists mainly focused on bacterial influences on tracer particle diffusion or hydrodynamic capture of a bacteria around stationary boundary. Here, we use superposition of singularities and regularized method to study changes in bacterial swimming velocity and passive sphere diffusion, simultaneously. On this basis, we present a simple two-bead model that gives a unified interpretation of passive sphere diffusion and bacterial swimming. The model attributes both variation of passive sphere diffusion and changes of speed of bacteria to an effective mobility. Using the effective mobility of bacterial head and tail as an input function, the calculations are consistent with simulation results at a broad range of tracer diameters, incident angles and bacterial shapes.

  3. Decision Support on Small size Passive Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Popukaylo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A construction technique of adequate mathematical models for small size passive samples, in conditions when classical probabilistic-statis\\-tical methods do not allow obtaining valid conclusions was developed.

  4. Experiments, Passive Observation and Scenario Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoover, Kevin D.; Juselius, Katarina

    The paper provides a careful, analytical account of Trygve Haavelmo's unsystematic, but important, use of the analogy between controlled experiments common in the natural sciences and econometric techniques. The experimental analogy forms the linchpin of the methodology for passive observation...

  5. Thermophysiological adaptations to passive mild heat acclimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallubinsky, H; Schellen, L; Kingma, B R M; Dautzenberg, B; van Baak, M A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    Passive mild heat acclimation (PMHA) reflects realistic temperature challenges encountered in everyday life. Active heat acclimation, combining heat exposure and exercise, influences several important thermophysiological parameters; for example, it decreases core temperature and enhances heat

  6. Passive water and ion transport by cotransporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, D D; Hirayama, B A; Meinild, A K

    1999-01-01

    the Lp of control oocytes. Passive Na+ transport (Na+ leak) was obtained from the blocker-sensitive Na+ currents in the absence of substrates (glucose and GABA). 2. Passive Na+ and water transport through SGLT1 were blocked by phlorizin with the same sensitivity (inhibitory constant (Ki), 3-5 micro......1. The rabbit Na+-glucose (SGLT1) and the human Na+-Cl--GABA (GAT1) cotransporters were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and passive Na+ and water transport were studied using electrical and optical techniques. Passive water permeabilities (Lp) of the cotransporters were determined from......M). When Na+ was replaced with Li+, phlorizin also inhibited Li+ and water transport, but with a lower affinity (Ki, 100 microM). When Na+ was replaced by choline, which is not transported, the SGLT1 Lp was indistinguishable from that in Na+ or Li+, but in this case water transport was less sensitive...

  7. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Graham S. [Building Science Corp., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Building Science Corp., Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-07-29

    In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the value of performance-based passive building standards when it joined with Passive House Institute US (PHIUS) to promote DOE’s Challenge Home program in tandem with the PHIUS+ Certification program. Since then, the number of passive building projects that have been certified under the partnership has grown exponentially because of some synergy. Passive building represents a well-developed approach to arrive at the envelope basis for zero energy and energy-positive projects by employing performance-based criteria and maximizing cost-effective savings from conservation before implementing renewable energy technologies. The Challenge Home program evolved into the Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program in a move toward 1) attaining zero energy and 2) including active renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics (PV)—toward the zero energy goal.

  8. Passive accumulation of Au nanoparticles in tumours in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempson, I.M.; Wang, C.H.; Lai, S.F.; Cai, X.; Hwu, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Margaritondo, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Enhance biocompatibility and passive accumulation of gold nanoparticles into tumours in vivo. Improved biocompatible nanoparticles synthesized by radical synthesis in solution by X-ray irradiation (5,000 Gy/sec). As an alternative to the use of chemical reducing agents, irradiation solutions can cause the reduction of dissolved ions to form nuclei form in sub-second times and growth is easily controlled by physically the X-ray intensity. The intensity can be used to manipulate growth rates for different applications and in the information of spherical and rod-structures. Size is easily controlled by exposure time and capping agents and provides high reproducibility with small size distributions. Resulting body burden in subcutaneous tumour mouse models was determined in various organs with ICP-MS. Cellular distributions were analysed with transmission x-ray Microscopy and conventional histology. The resulting nanoparticle sols were highly concentrated. naturally sterile, have high temperature stability and synthesised with fewer chemical reactants; providing greater chemical and biological adaptability. The results demonstrated that a passivated biocompatible surface, minimizing physiological clearance from the animal allows non-specific accumulation of large concentrations of nanoparticles into tumour tissues and significant penetration and circumnavigation of the binding site barrier effect. Concentrations of gold reached ∼ 25 times greater than surrounding muscle tissue and were retained for many hours. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles impart significant influence on their ability to penetrate and accumulate in tumour tissues. Effective synthesis enables high concentrations of gold nanoparticles to accumulate in tumour tissues which could be applied to development in radiation oncology applications.

  9. Symmetry Breaking in a random passive scalar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Zeliha; McLaughlin, Richard; Camassa, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    We consider the evolution of a decaying passive scalar in the presence of a gaussian white noise fluctuating shear flow. We focus on deterministic initial data and establish the short, intermediate, and long time symmetry properties of the evolving point wise probability measure for the random passive scalar. Analytical results are compared directly to Monte Carlo simulations. Time permitting we will compare the predictions to experimental observations.

  10. Comprehensive Planning for Passive Solar Architectural Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    technical information, and the natural environ- ment. Since the Air Force Energy plan stresses Passive Solar (Architecture) before using Active Solar...retrofitted by-1990, and the Air Force Energy Plan stresses Passive Solar Applications. Bdcause of this requirement, you must consider the following retrofit...OF THI SUN AT NOON ON O CUMIN 21 EXAWMKU[ AT 3M. AN I S - W Figure 12-4 12-3 Skylight- use a reflector ,with horizontal skylights to ,iincrease solar

  11. An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Li; Wang, Jian; Varghese, Leo T.; Shen, Hao; Niu, Ben; Xuan, Yi; Weiner, Andrew M.; Qi, Minghao

    2011-01-01

    A passive optical diode effect would be useful for on-chip optical information processing but has been difficult to achieve. Using a method based on optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate a forward-backward transmission ratio of up to 28 decibels within telecommunication wavelengths. Our device, which uses two silicon rings 5 micrometers in radius, is passive yet maintains optical nonreciprocity for a broad range of input power levels, and it performs equally well even if the backward input pow...

  12. Technical - Economic Research for Passive Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniotaite, Ruta

    2017-10-01

    A newly constructed passive house must save 80 % of heat resources; otherwise it is not a passive house. The heating energy demand of a passive building is less than 15 kWh/m2 per year. However, a passive house is something more than just an energy-saving house. This concept involves sustainable, high-quality, valuable, healthy and durable construction. Features of a passive house: high insulation of envelope components, high-quality windows, good tightness of the building, regenerative ventilation system and elimination of thermal bridges. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 61 requires all new public buildings to become near-zero energy buildings by 2019 and will be extended to all new buildings by 2021. This concept involves sustainable, high-quality, valuable, healthy and durable construction. Foundation, walls and roofs are the most essential elements of a house. The type of foundation for a private house is selected considering many factors. The article examines technological and structural solutions for passive buildings foundation, walls and roofs. The technical-economic comparison of the main structures of a passive house revealed that it is cheaper to install an adequately designed concrete slab foundation than to build strip or pile foundation and the floor separately. Timber stud walls are the cheapest wall option for a passive house and 45-51% cheaper compared to other options. The comparison of roofs and ceilings showed that insulation of the ceiling is 25% more efficient than insulation of the roof. The comparison of the main envelope elements efficiency by multiple-criteria evaluation methods showed that it is economically feasible to install concrete slab on ground foundation, stud walls with sheet cladding and a pitched roof with insulated ceiling.

  13. Active and passive cooling methods for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2018-01-01

    In this document a review of three active as well as ten passive cooling methods suitable for residential buildings is carried out. The review firstly addresses how the various technologies cool the space according to the terms of the building heat balance, under what technical conditions...... ventilation, controlled ventilation, roof coating and eco-evaporative cooling are the most suitable passive methods for an extensive use in this country....

  14. New Frontiers in Passive and Active Nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    The articles included in this special section focus on several recent advances in the field of passive and active nanoantennas that employ not only traditional based realizations but also their new frontiers.......The articles included in this special section focus on several recent advances in the field of passive and active nanoantennas that employ not only traditional based realizations but also their new frontiers....

  15. Uncertainty Prediction in Passive Target Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Number 15/152,696 Filing Date 12 May 2016 Inventor John G. Baylog et al Address any questions concerning this matter to the Office of...300118 1 of 25 UNCERTAINTY PREDICTION IN PASSIVE TARGET MOTION ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein...at an unknown location and following an unknown course relative to an observer 12. Observer 12 has a sensor array such as a passive sonar or radar

  16. Feasibility of passive heat removal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurko, Yu M [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a review of decay heat removal systems (DHRSs) used in liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Advantages and the disadvantages of these DHRSs, extent of their passivity and prospects for their use in advanced fast reactor projects are analyzed. Methods of extending the limitations on the employment of individual systems, allowing enhancement in their effectiveness as safety systems and assuring their total passivity are described. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs.

  17. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  18. Brookfield Homes Passive House Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    In 2012-2013, IBACOS worked with a builder, Brookfield Homes in Denver, Colorado, to design and construct a Passive House certified model home. IBACOS used several modeling programs and calculation methods to complete the final design package along with Brookfield's architect KGA Studio. This design package included upgrades to the thermal enclosure, basement insulation, windows, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Short-term performance testing in the Passive House was done during construction and after construction.

  19. PRIVACY PROTECTION PROBLEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    OKUR, M. Cudi

    2011-01-01

    Protecting privacy has become a major concern for most social network users because of increased difficulties of controlling the online data. This article presents an assessment of the common privacy related risks of social networking sites. Open and hidden privacy risks of active and passive online profiles are examined and increasing share of social networking in these phenomena is dis