WorldWideScience

Sample records for passing sight distance

  1. Analytical Model for Passing Sight Distance Design Criteria of Two-Lane Roads in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mampearachchi W. K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For a safe overtaking manoeuvre on two-lane highways, drivers need a sufficient sight distance along the roadway, but it depends on the traffic environment. To provide an adequate Passing Sight Distance (PSD, a number of models have been proposed since the initial model introduced by American Association of State Highways and Transport Officials (AASHTO in 1954. It is a current design practice in Sri Lanka as well, however, not validated for local traffic conditions. This paper will present an alternative PSD model and an evaluation of AASHTO model for national highway design. Experiment was based on GPS data collection. In conclusion, PSD demand was satisfied by AASHTO PSD under mix traffic conditions, but not the safety concerns for speeds greater than 80 km/h, while alternative model successful for all speeds.

  2. A comprehensive methodology for the analysis of highway sight distance

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Malpica, María; Santos Berbel, César de; Iglesias Martínez, Luis

    2017-01-01

    As one of the main elements of geometric design, sight distance must be considered carefully for the safe and efficient operation of highways. An application developed on geographic information systems (GIS) was con-ceived for the three-dimensional estimation of sight distance on highways, as opposed to conventional two-dimensional techniques, which may underestimate or overestimate the actual visibility conditions. It is capable of computing the available sight distance of a highway section ...

  3. Short distance line of sight laser communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudassar, A.A.; Hussain, H.; Jamil-ur-Rehman

    1998-01-01

    Communication methods based on lasers as carrier are well known. In our work we have made a two way laser based communication system for short range (<2 Km) line of sight communication. A small piece of plane mirror (100% reflector) was mounted on the centre of a speaker cone. The speaker was positioned close to the opening of laser such that He-Ne laser beam (10 mW) after reflection from the mirror is directed towards the receiver. There is a pre-amplifier and an amplifier between a microphone and the speaker. When the diagram of the speaker vibrates, it positionally modulates the laser beam. On the receiving end, there is a photo diode, a pre-amplifier, an amplifier and a head phone. So the man on the receiving end can decode the sound signal. On each stage there is a transmitter and a receiver assembled close to each other. So the two way communication is possible in the range 20 to 20 Khz. (author)

  4. Modeling drivers' passing duration and distance in a virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen Farah

    2013-07-01

    The main contribution of this paper is in the empirical models developed for passing duration and distance which highlights the factors that affect drivers' passing behavior and can be used to enhance the passing models in simulation programs.

  5. Nanomechanical characterization by double-pass force-distance mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagdas, Yavuz S; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O; Dana, Aykutlu [UNAM Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Necip Aslan, M, E-mail: aykutlu@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-07-22

    We demonstrate high speed force-distance mapping using a double-pass scheme. The topography is measured in tapping mode in the first pass and this information is used in the second pass to move the tip over the sample. In the second pass, the cantilever dither signal is turned off and the sample is vibrated. Rapid (few kHz frequency) force-distance curves can be recorded with small peak interaction force, and can be processed into an image. Such a double-pass measurement eliminates the need for feedback during force-distance measurements. The method is demonstrated on self-assembled peptidic nanofibers.

  6. Nanomechanical characterization by double-pass force-distance mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagdas, Yavuz S; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O; Dana, Aykutlu; Necip Aslan, M

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate high speed force-distance mapping using a double-pass scheme. The topography is measured in tapping mode in the first pass and this information is used in the second pass to move the tip over the sample. In the second pass, the cantilever dither signal is turned off and the sample is vibrated. Rapid (few kHz frequency) force-distance curves can be recorded with small peak interaction force, and can be processed into an image. Such a double-pass measurement eliminates the need for feedback during force-distance measurements. The method is demonstrated on self-assembled peptidic nanofibers.

  7. A New Model of Stopping Sight Distance of Curve Braking Based on Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-xia Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with straight-line braking, cornering brake has longer braking distance and poorer stability. Therefore, drivers are more prone to making mistakes. The braking process and the dynamics of vehicles in emergency situations on curves were analyzed. A biaxial four-wheel vehicle was simplified to a single model. Considering the braking process, dynamics, force distribution, and stability, a stopping sight distance of the curve braking calculation model was built. Then a driver-vehicle-road simulation platform was built using multibody dynamic software. The vehicle test of brake-in-turn was realized in this platform. The comparison of experimental and calculated values verified the reliability of the computational model. Eventually, the experimental values and calculated values were compared with the stopping sight distance recommended by the Highway Route Design Specification (JTGD20-2006; the current specification of stopping sight distance does not apply to cornering brake sight distance requirements. In this paper, the general values and limits of the curve stopping sight distance are presented.

  8. Exact Sight Distance Determination on Compound Vertical and Horizontal Curves in the Presence of Road Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu, PhD, PE, PTOE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The sight distance (SD on a three-dimensional (3-d compound curve has been studied recently in the absence of obstacles at road sides. Often, physical barriers are installed at road sides or in a roadway median for reducing potential collision severities; these rigid, semi-rigid, or even temporary cushion-type barriers can limit or reduce the driver's sight distance, depending on their horizontal offset distances away from the nearest edge of traveled way (ETW. The closer a barrier to the ETW is, the shorter the driver's sight distance would be. Since most barriers are constructed to prevent running-off road or crossing-median collisions, it is crucial to check whether the installation would reduce the driver's sight distance and potentially cause other traffic collisions such as rear-end or side swipe collisions. In this paper, an exact analytic framework is formulated with derived equations the first time to calculate the sight distance on a 3-d compound curve in the presence of a median barrier, a roadside barrier, or a temporary cushion or barrier used for construction or other maintenance purposes. This framework provides an engineer a handy tool to examine the possible change of SD in the presence of a barrier and choose the required horizontal offset/clearance of a barrier from the nearest traveled way edge to meet certain design criteria or standards. This critical offset distance determined using this framework not only reinforces the importance of having roadside clearance recovery zones on highways but also provides a method to determine its horizontal clearance from a different standpoint. This analytic framework can easily be programmed into an Excel spreadsheet to evaluate the design of a physical barrier and its potential influence on sight distance along a 3-d compound horizontal and vertical curve. Transportation engineers or practitioners may find this design tool handy and useful once the programmed spreadsheet is saved in a

  9. The Sight Distance Issues with Retrofitted Single-Lane HOV Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongren Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that obstruction inside a highway horizontal curve will lead to impaired sight distance. Highway alignment design standards in terms of the minimum horizontal curve radius are specified to allow for adequate stopping sight distance at given design speeds. For a single-lane HOV facility, inside curve obstruction may occur no matter when the facility curves to the left (per travel direction or right. A unique situation that calls for special attention is that the adjacent mixed-flow lane traffic, once queued, may become sight obstruction. Calculations indicated that such obstruction may govern the minimum curve radius design as long as the left shoulder is not less than 0.92 m, when the HOV lane is contiguous to the mixed-flow lanes. Such governance may necessitate design speed reduction, horizontal and cross-section design adjustment, or both.

  10. Deriving Sight Distance on a Compound Sag and Circular Curve in a Three Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu, PhD, PE, PTOE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient roadway sight distance (SD may become a contribution factor to traffic collisions or other unsafe traffic maneuvers. The sight distance (SD for a two-dimensional (2-d sag or circular curve has been addressed in detail in various traffic engineering literatures. Although three-dimensional (3-d compound sag and circular curves are often found along ramps, connectors, and mountain roads, the sight distances for these compound curves are yet to be analyzed on an exact analytic setting. By considering human-vehicle-roadway interaction, the formulas for computing the SD on a 3-d curve are derived the first time on a unified analytic framework. The 2-d sag curve SD can also be deduced from these derived formulas as special limiting cases. Practitioners can easily program these formulas or equations on a user-friendly Microsoft Excel spread sheet to calculate 3-d SD on most roadways with roadside clearance. This framework can be extended to estimate SD on roadways with obstacles partially blocking vehicle headlight beams. 6.

  11. Determination of Sight Distance on a Combined Crest and Circular Curve in a Three Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu, PhD, PE, PTOE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sight distance (SD on a two-dimensional (2-d curve, namely, a vertical curve or a horizontal curve, has been well understood and documented for roadway geometric design in literature. In reality, three-dimensional (3-d curves can be found along ramps, connectors, and often mountain roads. The sight distance on these 3-d curves, which may vary with driver's location, has not been tackled in literature on an exact analytic setting. By integrating human-vehicle-roadway interaction, the formulas for computing the SD on a 3-d curve are derived the first time on an analytic framework. The crest curve SD that has been used in various literatures, can be deduced from these derived formulas as special limiting cases. Practitioners can easily apply theses user-friendly formulas or equations on a Microsoft Excel spread sheet to calculate 3-d SD on a roadway with sufficient roadside clearance. In addition, this framework can be extended easily to cope with various scenarios in which obstacles partially blocking driver's sight are present in a roadway environment.

  12. Communication with diode laser: short distance line of sight communication using fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to carry audio signal from transmitting station to a short distance receiving station along line of sight and also communication through fiber optics is performed, using diode laser light as carrier. In this project optical communication system, modulation techniques, basics of laser and causes of using diode laser are discussed briefly. Transmitter circuit and receiver circuit are fully described. Communication was performed using pulse width modulation technique. Optical fiber communication have many advantages over other type of conventional communication techniques. This report contains the description of optical fiber communication and compared with other communication systems. (author)

  13. 3D GIS BASED EVALUATION OF THE AVAILABLE SIGHT DISTANCE TO ASSESS SAFETY OF URBAN ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bassani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The available sight distance (ASD in front of the driver to detect possible conflicts with unexpected obstacles is fundamental for traffic safety. In the last 20 years, road design software (RDS has been continuously updated with dedicated modules to estimate ASD, thus assessing the quality of project from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, the evaluation of ASD still represents an issue in the case of existing road, and the object of discussion in the research community. To avoid problems related to the limitation associated with the use of digital terrain models typically employed in RDS, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS software can use digital surface models (DSM which are more flexible in the modelling of sight obstruction due to vegetation, street furniture, and vertical surfaces largely diffused in urbanized areas. The paper deals with the evaluation of GIS in the estimation of ASD in a typical urban road where the density of sight obstruction along the roadside is relatively high. The work explores the case study of a collector road in the city of Turin (Italy. Results confirm the potentiality of GIS software in capturing the complex morphology of the urban environment, thus confirming that GIS could become an important analysis tool for road engineers in the field of road safety. The investigation here described is part of the Pro-VISION Project (funded in 2014 by the Regione Piemonte, Italy.

  14. Methodology for safety optimization of highway cross-sections for horizontal curves with restricted sight distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar E; Sayed, Tarek; Ismail, Karim

    2012-11-01

    Several earlier studies have noted the shortcomings with existing geometric design guides which provide deterministic standards. In these standards the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from the standards. To mitigate these shortcomings, probabilistic geometric design has been advocated where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a mechanism for risk measurement to evaluate the safety impact of deviations from design standards. This paper applies reliability analysis for optimizing the safety of highway cross-sections. The paper presents an original methodology to select a suitable combination of cross-section elements with restricted sight distance to result in reduced collisions and consistent risk levels. The purpose of this optimization method is to provide designers with a proactive approach to the design of cross-section elements in order to (i) minimize the risk associated with restricted sight distance, (ii) balance the risk across the two carriageways of the highway, and (iii) reduce the expected collision frequency. A case study involving nine cross-sections that are parts of two major highway developments in British Columbia, Canada, was presented. The results showed that an additional reduction in collisions can be realized by incorporating the reliability component, P(nc) (denoting the probability of non-compliance), in the optimization process. The proposed approach results in reduced and consistent risk levels for both travel directions in addition to further collision reductions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in kata performance time and distance from a marker for experienced Shotokan karateka under normal sighted and blindfolded conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Clive; Avenell, Leon

    2002-08-01

    10 experienced Shotokan karateka were tested on performance time and distance from a marker on the five Heian kata under normal sighted and blind-folded conditions. Whilst each kata's line of movement is different, it is the intention to start and finish at the same location. Analysis showed that despite an average of 16.8 yr. of training, whilst timing was not significantly affected on four of the kata by subjects being deprived of the visual sense, the group's mean change in distance from an original marker was significant for performances on three of the kata.

  16. Tactile-Sight: A Sensory Substitution Device Based on Distance-Related Vibrotactile Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cancar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensory substitution is a research field of increasing interest with regard to technical, applied and theoretical issues. Among the latter, it is of central interest to understand the form in which humans perceive the environment. Ecological psychology, among other approaches, proposes that we can detect higher-order informational variables (in the sense that they are defined over substantial spatial and temporal intervals that specify our interaction with the environment. When using a vibrotactile sensory substitution device, it is reasonable to ask if stimulation on the skin may be exploitable to detect higher-order variables. Motivated by this question, a portable vibrotactile sensory substitution device was built, using distance-based information as a source and driving a large number of vibrotactile actuators (72 in the reported version, 120 max. The portable device was designed to explore real environments, allowing natural unrestricted movement for the user while providing contingent real-time vibrotactile information. Two preliminary experiments were performed. In the first one, participants were asked to detect the time to contact of an approaching ball in a simulated (desktop environment. Reasonable performance was observed in all experimental conditions, including the one with only tactile stimulation. In the second experiment, a portable version of the device was used in a real environment, where participants were asked to hit an approaching ball. Participants were able to coordinate their arm movements with vibrotactile stimulation in appropriate timing. We conclude that vibrotactile flow can be generated by distance-based activation of the actuators and that this stimulation on the skin allows users to perceive time-to-contact related environmental properties.

  17. Affordances shape pass kick behavior in association football : effects of distance and social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Heijmerikx, Johan; de Poel, Harjo J.

    2011-01-01

    A prerequisite for accurate passing in association football is that a player perceives the affordances, that is, the opportunities for action, of a given situation. The present study examined how affordances shape passing in association football by comparing the performance of pass-kicks in two task

  18. Face-to-Face versus Online Tutorial Support in Distance Education: Preference, Performance, and Pass Rates in Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of students taking the same courses in the humanities by distance learning when tutorial support was provided conventionally (using limited face-to-face sessions with some contact by telephone and email) or online (using a combination of computer-mediated conferencing and email). The results showed that, given a…

  19. Integrated Sight Boresighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilstrap, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    ... (IR) pointer into an advanced weapon sight and surveillance system. The Integrated Sight is being developed as a technology demonstrator and potential future upgrade to the Land Warrior and Thermal Weapon Sight Programs...

  20. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  1. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  2. Passing excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoupikova, Daria

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes the research and development of a virtual reality visualization project "Passing excellence" about the world famous architectural ensemble "Kizhi". The Kizhi Pogost is located on an island in Lake Onega in northern Karelia in Russia. It is an authentic museum of an ancient wood building tradition which presents a unique artistic achievement. This ensemble preserves a concentration of masterpieces of the Russian heritage and is included in the List of Most Endangered Sites of the World Monuments Watch protected by World Heritage List of UNESCO. The project strives to create a unique virtual observation of the dynamics of the architectural changes of the museum area beginning from the 15th Century up to the 21st Century. The visualization is being created to restore the original architecture of Kizhi island based on the detailed photographs, architectural and geometric measurements, textural data, video surveys and resources from the Kizhi State Open-Air Museum archives. The project is being developed using Electro, an application development environment for the tiled display high-resolution graphics visualization system and can be shown on the virtual reality systems such as the GeoWall TM and the C-Wall.

  3. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.

  4. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  5. Typewriting: The Sight Method of Teaching Typewriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddle, Eleanor S.

    1970-01-01

    Research with beginning typewriting students supports the use of the sight method-looking at the fingers and keyboard during the initial learning stages. The sight method increases the rate and degree of accuracy. (CH)

  6. Sea turtles sightings in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles sightings are reported to the NMFS Beaufort Laboratory sea turtle program by the general public as they are fishing, boating, etc. These sightings...

  7. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  8. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  9. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  10. Sequential vs simultaneous encoding of spatial information: a comparison between the blind and the sighted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotolo, Francesco; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Vinciguerra, Michela; Iachini, Tina

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research is to assess whether the crucial factor in determining the characteristics of blind people's spatial mental images is concerned with the visual impairment per se or the processing style that the dominant perceptual modalities used to acquire spatial information impose, i.e. simultaneous (vision) vs sequential (kinaesthesis). Participants were asked to learn six positions in a large parking area via movement alone (congenitally blind, adventitiously blind, blindfolded sighted) or with vision plus movement (simultaneous sighted, sequential sighted), and then to mentally scan between positions in the path. The crucial manipulation concerned the sequential sighted group. Their visual exploration was made sequential by putting visual obstacles within the pathway in such a way that they could not see simultaneously the positions along the pathway. The results revealed a significant time/distance linear relation in all tested groups. However, the linear component was lower in sequential sighted and blind participants, especially congenital. Sequential sighted and congenitally blind participants showed an almost overlapping performance. Differences between groups became evident when mentally scanning farther distances (more than 5m). This threshold effect could be revealing of processing limitations due to the need of integrating and updating spatial information. Overall, the results suggest that the characteristics of the processing style rather than the visual impairment per se affect blind people's spatial mental images. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex Difference in Bottlenose Dolphin Sightings during a Long-term Bridge Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Weaver

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost nothing is known about the effect of long-term bridge construction on free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. The species’ natural history predicts that there should be sex differences in reaction to construction because bottlenose dolphins show sex differences in most of their behaviors. A 5-year bridge construction project over a narrow but important dolphin corridor at John’s Pass tidal inlet, St. Petersburg FL, brought chronic environmental changes. The purpose of this 8-year study was to determine if bridge construction was associated with changes in dolphin sightings. The sex difference hypothesis was tested with a comparison of sighting probabilities before, during and after bridge construction. Sighting probabilities were generated for 68 adults seen n = 6504 times during N = 951 small-boat surveys of the 6.5-mile estuarine study area, documented with photo identification June 2005-December 2012. The sex difference hypothesis was supported with a significant interaction between construction and gender. Female sightings showed a significant linear decline across construction. Male sightings did not change across construction. The main conclusion is that adult males and females may react differently to habitat changes associated with anthropogenic activities. Sex differences in environmental monitoring and vigilance associated with maternal behavior may have played a role. This is the first report on John’s Pass dolphins that evaluates changes in their behavior during a major construction project across a narrow but important dolphin corridor.

  12. Microwave line of sight link engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Angueira, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to the design, implementation, and operation of line of sight microwave link systems The microwave Line of Sight (LOS) transport network of any cellular operator requires at least as much planning effort as the cellular infrastructure itself. The knowledge behind this design has been kept private by most companies and has not been easy to find. Microwave Line of Sight Link Engineering solves this dilemma. It provides the latest revisions to ITU reports and recommendations, which are not only key to successful design but have changed dramatically in

  13. Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents People with glaucoma see the world through a tunnel. Glaucoma is ...

  14. Right Whale Sightings Advisory System (RWSAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Right Whale Sighting Advisory System (RWSAS) is a NOAA Fisheries program which was designed to reduce collisions between ships and the critically endangered...

  15. Spatial Memory by Blind and Sighted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Susanna

    1975-01-01

    Non-verbal recall of haptically presented spatial positions by three age groups of blind and sighted children was tested under conditions varying cuing, recall type and stimulus position in a within-subject design. (Editor)

  16. Calculation of trajectory parameters of long pass in basketball.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikova K.M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Values of a ball's flight trajectory parameters depending on a distance of long pass, a corner of a ball's start and height of a throwing point are submitted in article. Coordinates of reference points installation for training to long pass with an optimum trajectory of a ball's flight are designed. Requirements to simulators design are determined. Corners of ball's long pass performance in various game situations are recommended.

  17. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  18. Introduction: Mirrors of Passing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge; Willerslev, Rane

    How is death, time, and materiality interconnected? How to approach an understanding of the world of the dead? In this introduction, we seek to understand how the experience of material decay, of the death of those around us, makes us aware of the passing of time. Through the literary lens of Neil...... Gaiman’s The Graveyard Book, we explore how the world of the dead and the world of the living can intersect; how time and materiality shifts and changes depending on who experiences it. These revelations, based on fiction, provide a mirror through which the reader can experience the varied chapters...

  19. Passing the baton

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    It was not only in South Korea that batons were being passed last week. While the cream of the world’s athletes were competing in the World Athletics Championships, the cream of the world’s accelerator scientists were on their way to San Sebastian in Spain for the International Particle Accelerator Conference.  One of them was carrying a rather special baton for a handover of a different kind.   When Fermilab’s Vladimir Shiltsev handed the high-energy frontier baton to CERN’s Mike Lamont on Tuesday, it marked the end of an era: a time to look back on the phenomenal contribution the Tevatron has made to particle physics over its 25-year operational lifetime, and the great contribution Fermilab has made over that period to global collaboration in particle physics. There’s always a lot of emotion involved in passing the baton. In athletics, it’s the triumph of wining or the heartbreak of losing. But for this special baton, the...

  20. TRT Barrel milestones passed

    CERN Multimedia

    Ogren, H

    2004-01-01

    The barrel TRT detector passed three significant milestones this spring. The Barrel Support Structure (BSS) was completed and moved to the SR-1 building on February 24th. On March 12th the first module passed the quality assurance testing in Building 154 and was transported to the assembly site in the SR-1 building for barrel assembly. Then on April 21st the final production module that had been scanned at Hampton University was shipped to CERN. TRT Barrel Module Production The production of the full complement of barrel modules (96 plus 9 total spares) is now complete. This has been a five-year effort by Duke University, Hampton University, and Indiana University. Actual construction of the modules in the United States was completed in the first part of 2004. The production crews at each of the sites in the United States have now completed their missions. They are shown in the following pictures. Duke University: Production crew with the final completed module. Indiana University: Module producti...

  1. 375-nm ultraviolet-laser based non-line-of-sight underwater optical communication

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin

    2018-05-04

    For circumventing the alignment requirement of line-of-sight (LOS) underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC), we demonstrated a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UWOC link adequately enhanced using ultraviolet (UV) 375-nm laser. Path loss was chosen as a figure-of-merit for link performance in this investigation, which considers the effects of geometries, water turbidity, and transmission wavelength. The experiments suggest that path loss decreases with smaller azimuth angles, higher water turbidity, and shorter wavelength due in part to enhanced scattering utilizing 375-nm radiation. We highlighted that it is feasible to extend the current findings for long distance NLOS UWOC link in turbid water, such as harbor water.

  2. Deuterium pass through target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alger, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron emitting target is described for use in neutron generating apparatus including a deuteron source and an accelerator vacuum chamber. The target consists of a tritium-containing target layer, a deuteron accumulation layer, and a target support containing passages providing communication between the accumulation layer and portions of the surface of the support exposed to the accelerator vacuum chamber. With this arrangement, deuterons passing through the target layer and implanting in and diffusing through the accumulation layer, diffuse into the communicating passages and are returned to the accelerator vacuum chamber. The invention allows the continuous removal of deuterons from the target in conventional water cooled neutron generating apparatus. Preferably, the target is provided with thin barrier layers to prevent undesirable tritium diffusion out of the target layer, as well as deuteron diffusion into the target layer

  3. Clinical Characteristics and Low Vision Rehabilitation Methods for Partially Sighted School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; Çalışkan, Deniz; İdil, Aysun; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-04-01

    To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near) were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7%) of them were male and 62 (41.3%) of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36%) followed by cortical visual impairment (18%). The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3%) for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7%) and telemicroscopic systems (26.0%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation.

  4. iSIGHT-FD scalability test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, Robert L.; Shneider, Max S.

    2008-07-01

    The engineering analysis community at Sandia National Laboratories uses a number of internal and commercial software codes and tools, including mesh generators, preprocessors, mesh manipulators, simulation codes, post-processors, and visualization packages. We define an analysis workflow as the execution of an ordered, logical sequence of these tools. Various forms of analysis (and in particular, methodologies that use multiple function evaluations or samples) involve executing parameterized variations of these workflows. As part of the DART project, we are evaluating various commercial workflow management systems, including iSIGHT-FD from Engineous. This report documents the results of a scalability test that was driven by DAKOTA and conducted on a parallel computer (Thunderbird). The purpose of this experiment was to examine the suitability and performance of iSIGHT-FD for large-scale, parameterized analysis workflows. As the results indicate, we found iSIGHT-FD to be suitable for this type of application.

  5. Dust devil track survey at Elysium Planitia, Mars: Implications for the InSight landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Dennis; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2016-03-01

    The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) robotic lander is scheduled to land in Elysium Planitia on Mars in September 2016. InSight will perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation including seismic measurements. Knowledge about encounter rates of dust devils with the InSight lander are important for two main reasons: (1) dust devils will affect the scientific measurements, i.e., wind-induced seismic noise, and (2) the power-supply of the InSight lander and instruments is provided by solar arrays and previous landers and rovers on Mars were affected by a steady decline in electrical power output due to atmospheric dust deposition on the solar panels. Long term science operations were only made possible by dust clearing events of the solar arrays caused by wind gusts and dust devils. In this study we analyzed dust devil tracks (DDTs) at the final InSight landing site region in Elysium Planitia. Formation of DDTs is caused by the removal of a layer of dust by passing dust devils, hence in principle the same process as clearing of dust from solar panels. We mapped the number, size (width and length), and orientation of DDTs in repeat observations using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images covering the exact same surface area acquired within a relatively short time span (solar panel clearing recurrence interval estimate of ∼11 Mars years using the mean annual DDT formation rate, and the mean DDT width and length from all measured DDTs. Due to several uncertainties this solar panel clearing recurrence interval for the InSight landing should be seen as an upper limit estimate.

  6. Metacognitive strategies in learning sight-singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of a wider study that is based on interdisciplinary research of sight-singing (psychology and music education. Our intention was to join the psychological knowledge of cognitive processes on the one hand, and the practical approach of music teachers, based on methods, techniques and procedures of mastering sight-reading-singing skills on the other. We aimed: 1. to determine the kinds and levels of strategies that music students use in the cognitive processes involved during sight-singing; 2. to explore strategies of problem solving when difficulties appear; 3. to investigate the self-evaluation perspectives of students; and 4. to relate students' learning experience to the strategies used. The sample consisted of 89 music students from higher music education in Belgrade and The Hague. They filled in the questionnaire based on self-reports, covering general data about their music education background, different issues of sight-singing, such as planning, problem solving, monitoring and evaluation of outcomes, and three melodic examples written in different musical styles. Results showed that strategies used during sight-singing can be roughly sorted into three groups that differ according to the 'key accent' given: cognitive, intuitive and no-strategy. The music cognitive strategies involved cover three levels of musical organization and representation: a relying on smaller chunks of the musical piece, referring to existing knowledge and learning experience; b leaning on a slightly 'bigger picture' of familiar patterns; and c mental representation of melodic/rhythmic/harmonic structures. When faced with a problem, half of the students employed analytic approaches. Comparisons between sub-samples showed, for example, that future performing musicians more often used 'tone-to-tone' thinking and 'bottom-up' strategies in approaching musical structure, while music theory students had better insight into the whole and used

  7. Shaping decisions in volleyball An ecological approach to decision-making in volleyball passing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsingerhorn, Annemiek D.; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; De Poel, Harjo J.; Pepping, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    To extend research on decision-making in sport we addressed the choices volleyball-players are faced with in a simple volleyball pass-return task. We manipulated the distance that eight experienced volleyball players had to cover for successful ball passing, and mapped their passing technique (i.e.,

  8. The importance of sight for drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pas-Wyroślak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sight is the basic sense for drivers. Condition of the eye determines correct, comfortable and safe performance of the work as drivers. This article presents various factors influencing the sight condition. There are two groups of factors, external (environment, the kind and time of work, stress caused by work and internal (systemic and local disorders. All these factors can reduce significantly visual functions, such as visual acuity, field of vision, color vision, strereoscopic vision, twilight vision and glare sensitivity. There are also presented actual requirements for drivers and causes of the car accidents in various age groups. Impairments in vision functions can be dangerous for both the driver and other road users. Med Pr 2013;64(3:419–425

  9. Sight Restrictions in Maghrib Muslim Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben Hamouche

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Sight in Islamic culture is subject to legal restrictions that aim at preserving moral consciousness in Muslim societies. These restrictions have a direct impact on architecture in traditional Muslim cities. Details such as placement of doors and windows, the use of balconies and rooftops, and building heights were shaped by legal reasoning based on sight restrictions. The present study aims at highlighting this legal reasoning system by analyzing legal opinions that were continuously advocated by jurists in response to daily practices, and the legal principles on which these opinions were based. This is expected to contribute in developing a new intellectual discourse on Muslim architecture that could go beyond the present design theories.

  10. modelling distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Love

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance predicting functions may be used in a variety of applications for estimating travel distances between points. To evaluate the accuracy of a distance predicting function and to determine its parameters, a goodness-of-fit criteria is employed. AD (Absolute Deviations, SD (Squared Deviations and NAD (Normalized Absolute Deviations are the three criteria that are mostly employed in practice. In the literature some assumptions have been made about the properties of each criterion. In this paper, we present statistical analyses performed to compare the three criteria from different perspectives. For this purpose, we employ the ℓkpθ-norm as the distance predicting function, and statistically compare the three criteria by using normalized absolute prediction error distributions in seventeen geographical regions. We find that there exist no significant differences between the criteria. However, since the criterion SD has desirable properties in terms of distance modelling procedures, we suggest its use in practice.

  11. WebPASS Explorer (HR Personnel Management)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — WebPass Explorer (WebPASS Framework): USAID is partnering with DoS in the implementation of their WebPass Post Personnel (PS) Module. WebPassPS does not replace...

  12. Multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, Jean-Louis; Samartzis, Peter C.; Stamataki, Katerina; Piel, Jean-Philippe; Katsoprinakis, George E.; Papadakis, Vassilis; Schimowski, Xavier; Rakitzis, T. Peter; Loppinet, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is an established technique, particularly useful for thickness measurements of thin films. It measures polarization rotation after a single reflection of a beam of light on the measured substrate at a given incidence angle. In this paper, we report the development of multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry where the light beam reflects multiple times on the sample. We have investigated both theoretically and experimentally the effect of sample reflectivity, number of reflections (passes), angles of incidence and detector dynamic range on ellipsometric observables tanΨ and cosΔ. The multiple pass approach provides increased sensitivity to small changes in Ψ and Δ, opening the way for single measurement determination of optical thickness T, refractive index n and absorption coefficient k of thin films, a significant improvement over the existing techniques. Based on our results, we discuss the strengths, the weaknesses and possible applications of this technique. - Highlights: • We present multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry (MPSE), a multi-pass approach to ellipsometry. • Different detectors, samples, angles of incidence and number of passes were tested. • N passes improve polarization ratio sensitivity to the power of N. • N reflections improve phase shift sensitivity by a factor of N. • MPSE can significantly improve thickness measurements in thin films

  13. MiSight Assessment Study Spain (MASS). A 2-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pomeda, Alicia; Pérez-Sánchez, Belén; Valls, Isabel; Prieto-Garrido, Francisco Luis; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Ramón; Villa-Collar, César

    2018-05-01

    To compare myopia progression in children randomized to MiSight contact lenses (CLs) versus children corrected with single-vision spectacles (SV) over a 2-year period. Subjects aged 8 to 12 with myopia (-0.75 to -4.00 D sphere) and astigmatism (< -1.00 D cylinder) were assigned to the lens study group (MiSight) or the control group (single vision). Measurements of visual acuity and subjective refraction were taken at 6-month intervals, and axial length, anterior chamber, corneal power, and cycloplegic autorefraction were measured at the baseline, 12-month, and 24-month visits. Eighty-nine subjects were recruited. Forty-fix children were assigned to the MiSight group, and 33 to the single-vision spectacle group. In total, 74 children completed the clinical trial, with the following parameters at the beginning of the study: n =  41 in the MiSight group (age: 11.01 ± 1.23 years, spherical equivalent: -2.16 ± 0.94 D, gender: male: 21, female: 20) and n = 33 in the single-vision group (age: 10.12 ± 1.38 years, spherical equivalent: -1.75 ± 0.94 D, gender: male: 12, female: 21). After 2 years of follow-up, myopia progressed slowly in the MiSight group compared to the control group (0.45 D vs 0.74 D, p < 0.001) and there was less axial elongation in the MiSight group compared to the single-vision group (0.28 mm vs 0.44 mm, p < 0.001). Therefore, use of MiSight CLs produced lower myopia progression (39.32%) and lower axial growth of the eye (36.04%) at 2 years compared to spectacle use. MiSight contact lens wear reduces axial elongation and myopia progression in comparison to distance single-vision spectacles in children. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01917110.

  14. Musical Sight-Reading Expertise: Cross-Modality Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Drai-Zerbib

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is often said that experienced musicians are capable of hearing what they read (and vice versa. This suggests that they are able to process and to integrate multimodal information. The study investigates this issue with an eye-tracking technique. Two groups of musicians chosen on the basis of their level of expertise (experts, non-experts had to read excerpts of poorly-known classical piano music and play them on a keyboard. The experiment was run in two consecutive phases during which each excerpt was (1 read without playing and (2 sight-read (read and played. In half the conditions, the participants heard the music before the reading phases. The excerpts contained suggested fingering of variable difficulty (difficult, easy, or no fingering. Analyses of first-pass fixation duration, second-pass fixation duration, probability of refixations, and playing mistakes validated the hypothesized modal independence of information among expert musicians as compared to non-experts. The results are discussed in terms of amodal memory for expert musicians, and they extend clearly our previous findings (Drai-Zerbib & Baccino, 2005. The paper will demonstrate that more experienced performers are better able to transfer learning from one modality to another, which can be in support of theoretical work by Ericsson and Kintsch (1995: more experienced performers better integrate knowledge across modalities. This view relies on the general flexibility shown in the experts' behaviour. The paper will show the correspondence between our results and issues recently obtained in ERPs researches and brain imaging studies (fMRI, MEG, where cerebral structures generally associated with different perceptual modalities were shown to be interconnected or overlap.

  15. Auditory cues for orientation and postural control in sighted and congenitally blind people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, R. D.; Greene, A. J.; DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    This study assessed whether stationary auditory information could affect body and head sway (as does visual and haptic information) in sighted and congenitally blind people. Two speakers, one placed adjacent to each ear, significantly stabilized center-of-foot-pressure sway in a tandem Romberg stance, while neither a single speaker in front of subjects nor a head-mounted sonar device reduced center-of-pressure sway. Center-of-pressure sway was reduced to the same level in the two-speaker condition for sighted and blind subjects. Both groups also evidenced reduced head sway in the two-speaker condition, although blind subjects' head sway was significantly larger than that of sighted subjects. The advantage of the two-speaker condition was probably attributable to the nature of distance compared with directional auditory information. The results rule out a deficit model of spatial hearing in blind people and are consistent with one version of a compensation model. Analysis of maximum cross-correlations between center-of-pressure and head sway, and associated time lags suggest that blind and sighted people may use different sensorimotor strategies to achieve stability.

  16. THE EXTRAGALACTIC DISTANCE DATABASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Helene M.; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2009-01-01

    A database can be accessed on the Web at http://edd.ifa.hawaii.edu that was developed to promote access to information related to galaxy distances. The database has three functional components. First, tables from many literature sources have been gathered and enhanced with links through a distinct galaxy naming convention. Second, comparisons of results both at the levels of parameters and of techniques have begun and are continuing, leading to increasing homogeneity and consistency of distance measurements. Third, new material is presented arising from ongoing observational programs at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, radio telescopes at Green Bank, Arecibo, and Parkes and with the Hubble Space Telescope. This new observational material is made available in tandem with related material drawn from archives and passed through common analysis pipelines.

  17. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  18. Recent sightings of marine mammals in Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitopan Malakar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports opportunistic sightings of marine mammals between August 2013 and January 2014 in the Andaman region.  Seven sightings were recorded during this period out of which one was of a Dugong, which is significant considering its small population size in India and limited data on its distribution and abundance.  The rest were 24 dolphins (Tursiops sp..  Four sightings were of the same pod of dolphins on different days at the same location.  Two sightings occurred during regular coral reef monitoring survey and the other five during fishery resource survey by trawling operations.  These sightings are of great significance as there is a lack of studies on marine mammals from the region.  Sighting records are useful for understanding aggregation site, behaviour, habits and habitat and residency patterns and provide important information for conservation of marine mammals. 

  19. A Depth-Based Head-Mounted Visual Display to Aid Navigation in Partially Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephen L.; Wilson, Iain; Muhammed, Louwai; Worsfold, John; Downes, Susan M.; Kennard, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Independent navigation for blind individuals can be extremely difficult due to the inability to recognise and avoid obstacles. Assistive techniques such as white canes, guide dogs, and sensory substitution provide a degree of situational awareness by relying on touch or hearing but as yet there are no techniques that attempt to make use of any residual vision that the individual is likely to retain. Residual vision can restricted to the awareness of the orientation of a light source, and hence any information presented on a wearable display would have to limited and unambiguous. For improved situational awareness, i.e. for the detection of obstacles, displaying the size and position of nearby objects, rather than including finer surface details may be sufficient. To test whether a depth-based display could be used to navigate a small obstacle course, we built a real-time head-mounted display with a depth camera and software to detect the distance to nearby objects. Distance was represented as brightness on a low-resolution display positioned close to the eyes without the benefit focussing optics. A set of sighted participants were monitored as they learned to use this display to navigate the course. All were able to do so, and time and velocity rapidly improved with practise with no increase in the number of collisions. In a second experiment a cohort of severely sight-impaired individuals of varying aetiologies performed a search task using a similar low-resolution head-mounted display. The majority of participants were able to use the display to respond to objects in their central and peripheral fields at a similar rate to sighted controls. We conclude that the skill to use a depth-based display for obstacle avoidance can be rapidly acquired and the simplified nature of the display may appropriate for the development of an aid for sight-impaired individuals. PMID:23844067

  20. Distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Pucelj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning.

  1. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-03-15

    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills.

  2. Advanced mathematics communication beyond modality of sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghatjou, Mina

    2018-01-01

    This study illustrates how mathematical communication and learning are inherently multimodal and embodied; hence, sight-disabled students are also able to conceptualize visuospatial information and mathematical concepts through tactile and auditory activities. Adapting a perceptuomotor integration approach, the study shows that the lack of access to visual fields in an advanced mathematics course does not obstruct a blind student's ability to visualize, but transforms it. The goal of this study is not to compare the visually impaired student with non-visually impaired students to address the 'differences' in understanding; instead, I discuss the challenges that a blind student, named Anthony, has encountered and the ways that we tackled those problems. I also demonstrate how the proper and precisely crafted tactile materials empowered Anthony to learn mathematical functions.

  3. North Texas Sediment Budget: Sabine Pass to San Luis Pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    concrete units have been placed over sand-filled fabric tube . .......................................33 Figure 28. Sand-filled fabric tubes protecting...system UTM Zone 15, NAD 83 Longshore drift directions King (in preparation) Based on wave hindcast statistics and limited buoy data Rollover Pass...along with descriptions of the jetties and limited geographic coordinate data1 (Figure 18). The original velum or Mylar sheets from which the report

  4. Anti-TNF-alpha therapy for sight threatening uveitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Lindstedt (Eric); G.S. Baarsma (Seerp); R.W.A.M. Kuijpers (Robert); P.M. van Hagen (Martin)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAIM: To describe the effect of additional treatment with anti-TNF-alpha therapy in a case series of 13 patients with serious sight threatening uveitis. METHODS: 13 patients with serious sight threatening uveitis were included, of whom six had Behcet's disease, five had idiopathic

  5. Sight threatening retinopathy in a child with sickle cell &beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sight threatening changes in the retina are a well-recognized complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). However they usually occur in older patients with Haemoglobin SC or Sβ+thal patterns. It is rarely found under the age of 20 years in patients who are Hb SS or Sβ<°thal. This is a report of sight threatening retinopathy in ...

  6. Sight Word and Phonics Training in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Larsen, Linda; Jones, Kristy; Anandakumar, Thushara; Banales, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) compare sight word training and phonics training in children with dyslexia, and (b) determine if different orders of sight word and phonics training have different effects on the reading skills of children with dyslexia. One group of children (n = 36) did 8 weeks of phonics training (reading via grapheme-phoneme…

  7. The processing of music notation: some implications for piano sight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most piano pupils and many professional pianists find it difficult to sight-read music fluently. A major reason for this phenomenon is the complexity of the piano sight-reading process. Cognitive research reveals an intricate system of neural networks spread over all four cortical lobes of the brain, which are involved in ...

  8. The Effect of Key on Vocal Sight-Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michele L.

    2013-01-01

    At its most basic level, sight-reading can be defined as the production of accurate pitch and rhythm from a previously unseen musical score. For vocalists, sight-reading principally involves the production of pitches by determining their relationship within a tonal framework. The ability to mentally conceive tonal function and convert it into…

  9. Transfer of learning on a spatial memory task between the blind and sighted people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Selcuk; Popović, Stevo; Kirazci, Sadettin

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of two different types of feedback on a spatial memory task between the blind and blindfolded-sighted participants. Participants tried to estimate the predetermined distance by using their dominant hands. Both blind and blindfolded-sighted groups were randomly divided into two feedback subgroups as "100% frequency" and "10% bandwidth". The score of the participants was given verbally to the participants as knowledge of results (KR). The target distance was set as 60 cm. Sixty acquisition trials were performed in 4 sets each including 15 repetition afterwards immediate and delayed retention tests were undertaken. Moreover, 24 hours past the delayed retention test, the participants completed 15 no-KR trials as a transfer test (target distance was 30 cm). The results of the statistical analyses revealed no significant differences for both acquisition and retention tests. However, a significant difference was found at transfer test. 100% frequency blind group performed significantly less accurate than all other groups. As a result, it can be concluded that different types of feedback have similar effect on spatial memory task used in this study. However, types of feedback can change the performance of accuracy on transferring this skill among the blind.

  10. Statistical simulation of information transfer through non-line-of-sight atmospheric optical communication channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenkov, M. V.; Belov, V. V.; Poznakharev, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    Impulse response of non-line-of-sight atmospheric communication channels at wavelengths of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9 μm are compared for the case in which the optical axes of the receiver and laser radiation lie in the plane perpendicular to the Earth's surface. The most efficient communication channel depending on the base distance is determined. For a wavelength of 0.5 μm and a concrete variant of the transceiving part of the communication system, the limiting communication range and the limiting repetition frequency of pulses that can be transmitted through the communication channel are estimated.

  11. Connecticut church passes genetics resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, B J

    1984-11-09

    The Connecticut Conference of the United Church of Christ, which represents the largest Protestant denomination in the state, has passed a resolution affirming an ethical duty to do research on human gene therapy and is planning to form local church groups to study the scientific and ethical issues involved. The resolution is intended to counter an earlier one proposed by Jeremy Rifkin to ban all efforts at engineering specific traits into the human germline. The Rifkin proposal had been endorsed by a large number of religious leaders, including the head of the U.S. United Church of Christ, but was subsequently characterized by many of the church leaders as overly restrictive.

  12. Evaluation of the Legibility of Broken Lines for Partial Sight

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 秀之

    2000-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the legibility of broken lines for persons with partial sight. The subjects were 10 persons with simulated partial sight, and 4 persons with partial sight. The simulation was obtained using filters and convex lenses. The 30 kind of broken lines was evaluated by the original test that the subjects were read directions of the broken lines in distinction from solid lines. The thickness of lines varied from 0.1mm. to 0.7mm. in 4 steps. The results...

  13. The Swedish Blood Pass project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, B; Ekblom, B; Ekblom, E; Berglund, L; Kallner, A; Reinebo, P; Lindeberg, S

    2007-06-01

    Manipulation of the blood's oxygen carrying capacity (CaO(2)) through reinfusion of red blood cells, injections of recombinant erythropoietin or by other means results in an increased maximal oxygen uptake and concomitantly enhanced endurance performance. Therefore, there is a need to establish a system--"A Blood Pass"--through which such illegal and unethical methods can be detected. Venous blood samples were taken under standardized conditions from 47 male and female Swedish national and international elite endurance athletes four times during the athletic year of the individual sport (beginning and end of the preparation period and at the beginning and during peak performance in the competition period). In these samples, different hematological values were determined. ON(hes) and OFF(hre) values were calculated according to the formula of Gore et al. A questionnaire regarding training at altitude, alcohol use and other important factors for hematological status was answered by the athletes. There were some individual variations comparing hematological values obtained at different times of the athletic year or at the same time in the athletic year but in different years. However, the median values of all individual hematological, ON(hes) and OFF(hre), values taken at the beginning and the end of the preparation or at the beginning and the end of the competition period, respectively, as well as median values for the preparation and competition periods in the respective sport, were all within the 95% confidence limit (CI) of each comparison. It must be mentioned that there was no gender difference in this respect. This study shows that even if there are some individual variations in different hematological values between different sampling times in the athletic year, median values of important hematological factors are stable over time. It must be emphasized that for each blood sample, the 95% CI in each athlete will be increasingly narrower. The conclusion is that

  14. NWHI Basking Green Turtle Data (Turtle Sightings from Seal Surveys)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of green turtle sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) since 1982 at Lisianski Island, and since 1983 for most other...

  15. Northern Fur Seal Captures and Tag Sightings Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the capture, tagging and re-sighting of northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands and Bogoslof Island, Alaska, from 1986...

  16. Improvement in spatial imagery following sight onset late in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Tapan K; Ganesh, Suma; Sinha, Pawan

    2014-03-01

    The factors contributing to the development of spatial imagery skills are not well understood. Here, we consider whether visual experience shapes these skills. Although differences in spatial imagery between sighted and blind individuals have been reported, it is unclear whether these differences are truly due to visual deprivation or instead are due to extraneous factors, such as reduced opportunities for the blind to interact with their environment. A direct way of assessing vision's contribution to the development of spatial imagery is to determine whether spatial imagery skills change soon after the onset of sight in congenitally blind individuals. We tested 10 children who gained sight after several years of congenital blindness and found significant improvements in their spatial imagery skills following sight-restoring surgeries. These results provide evidence of vision's contribution to spatial imagery and also have implications for the nature of internal spatial representations.

  17. Artificial Sight Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Humayun, Mark S; Chader, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Artificial sight is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology combining the multidisciplinary skills of surgical ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, biological physics, and psychophysical testing. Many scientific, engineering, and surgical challenges must be surmounted before widespread practical applications can be realized. The goal of Artificial Sight is to summarize the state-of-the-art research in this exciting area, and to describe some of the current approaches and initiatives that may help patients in a clinical setting. The Editors are active researchers in the fields of artificial sight, biomedical engineering and biological physics. They have received numerous professional awards and recognition for their work. The artificial sight team at the Doheny Eye Institute, led by Dr. Mark Humayun, is a world leader in this area of biomedical engineering and clinical research. Key Features Introduces and assesses the state of the art for a broad audience of biomedical engineers, biophysicists, and clinical...

  18. Security analysis and improvements to the PsychoPass method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumen, Bostjan; Heričko, Marjan; Rozman, Ivan; Hölbl, Marko

    2013-08-13

    In a recent paper, Pietro Cipresso et al proposed the PsychoPass method, a simple way to create strong passwords that are easy to remember. However, the method has some security issues that need to be addressed. To perform a security analysis on the PsychoPass method and outline the limitations of and possible improvements to the method. We used the brute force analysis and dictionary attack analysis of the PsychoPass method to outline its weaknesses. The first issue with the Psychopass method is that it requires the password reproduction on the same keyboard layout as was used to generate the password. The second issue is a security weakness: although the produced password is 24 characters long, the password is still weak. We elaborate on the weakness and propose a solution that produces strong passwords. The proposed version first requires the use of the SHIFT and ALT-GR keys in combination with other keys, and second, the keys need to be 1-2 distances apart. The proposed improved PsychoPass method yields passwords that can be broken only in hundreds of years based on current computing powers. The proposed PsychoPass method requires 10 keys, as opposed to 20 keys in the original method, for comparable password strength.

  19. Quality of life in blind and partially sighted people

    OpenAIRE

    Vuletić, Gorka; Šarlija, Tea; Benjak, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the subjective quality of life in blind and partially sighted people in relation to the type of impairment, duration of impairment and participation in psychosocial rehabilitation. The study used a sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and the Personal Wellbeing Index for adults to examine participant satisfaction with different life domains. The results have shown that subjective quality of life in blind and partially sighted people is within the ...

  20. The PASS project architectural model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; Macfarlane, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The PASS project has as its goal the implementation of solutions to the foreseen data access problems of the next generation of scientific experiments. The architectural model results from an evaluation of the operational and technical requirements and is described in terms of an abstract reference model, an implementation model and a discussion of some design aspects. The abstract reference model describes a system that matches the requirements in terms of its components and the mechanisms by which they communicate, but does not discuss policy or design issues that would be necessary to match the model to an actual implementation. Some of these issues are discussed, but more detailed design and simulation work will be necessary before choices can be made

  1. WebPASS ICASS (HR Personnel Management)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — WebPASS Joint Administrative Support Platforms Post Administrative Software Suite - U.S. Department of State Executive Officers application suite. Web.PASS is the...

  2. Triplets pass their pressure test

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    All the LHC inner triplets have now been repaired and are in position. The first ones have passed their pressure tests with flying colours. The repaired inner triplet at LHC Point 1, right side (1R). Ranko Ostojic (on the right), who headed the team responsible for repairing the triplets, shows the magnet to Robert Zimmer, President of the University of Chicago and of Fermi Research Alliance, who visited CERN on 20th August.Three cheers for the triplets! All the LHC inner triplets have now been repaired and are in position in the tunnel. Thanks to the mobilisation of a multidisciplinary team from CERN and Fermilab, assisted by the KEK Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), a solution has been found, tested, validated and applied. At the end of March this year, one of the inner triplets at Point 5 failed to withstand a pressure test. A fault was identified in the supports of two out of the three quadruple magne...

  3. Miniaturized day/night sight in Soldato Futuro program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Alberto; Cocchi, Alessandro; Bardazzi, Riccardo; Sardelli, Mauro; Puntri, Stefano

    2013-06-01

    The market of the sights for the 5.56 mm assault rifles is dominated by mainly three types of systems: TWS (Thermal Weapon Sight), the Pocket Scope with Weapon Mount and the Clip-on. The latter are designed primarily for special forces and snipers use, while the TWS design is triggered mainly by the DRI (Detection, Recognition, Identification) requirements. The Pocket Scope design is focused on respecting the SWaP (Size, Weight and Power dissipation) requirements. Compared to the TWS systems, for the last two years there was a significant technological growth of the Pocket Scope/Weapon Mount solutions, concentrated on the compression of the overall dimensions. The trend for the assault rifles is the use of small size/light weight (SWaP) IR sights, suitable mainly for close combat operations but also for extraordinary use as pocket scopes - handheld or helmet mounted. The latest developments made by Selex ES S.p.A. are responding precisely to the above-mentioned trend, through a miniaturized Day/Night sight embedding state-of-the art sensors and using standard protocols (USB 2.0, Bluetooth 4.0) for interfacing with PDAs, Wearable computers, etc., while maintaining the "shoot around the corner" capability. Indeed, inside the miniaturized Day/Night sight architecture, a wireless link using Bluetooth technology has been implemented to transmit the video streaming of the rifle sight to an helmet mounted display. The video of the rifle sight is transmitted only to the eye-piece of the soldier shouldering the rifle.

  4. Electrophysiological correlates of mental navigation in blind and sighted people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Wood, Guilherme; Kampl, Christiane; Neuper, Christa; Ischebeck, Anja

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate functional reorganization of the occipital cortex for a mental navigation task in blind people. Eight completely blind adults and eight sighted matched controls performed a mental navigation task, in which they mentally imagined to walk along familiar routes of their hometown during a multi-channel EEG measurement. A motor imagery task was used as control condition. Furthermore, electrophysiological activation patterns during a resting measurement with open and closed eyes were compared between blind and sighted participants. During the resting measurement with open eyes, no differences in EEG power were observed between groups, whereas sighted participants showed higher alpha (8-12Hz) activity at occipital sites compared to blind participants during an eyes-closed resting condition. During the mental navigation task, blind participants showed a stronger event-related desynchronization in the alpha band over the visual cortex compared to sighted controls indicating a stronger activation in this brain region in the blind. Furthermore, groups showed differences in functional brain connectivity between fronto-central and parietal-occipital brain networks during mental navigation indicating stronger visuo-spatial processing in sighted than in blind people during mental navigation. Differences in electrophysiological parameters between groups were specific for mental navigation since no group differences were observed during motor imagery. These results indicate that in the absence of vision the visual cortex takes over other functions such as spatial navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oil price pass-through into inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shiu-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses data from 19 industrialized countries to investigate oil price pass-through into inflation across countries and over time. A time-varying pass-through coefficient is estimated and the determinants of the recent declining effects of oil shocks on inflation are investigated. The appreciation of the domestic currency, a more active monetary policy in response to inflation, and a higher degree of trade openness are found to explain the decline in oil price pass-through. (author)

  6. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Vaqar

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp is a practical, hands-on guide that contains instruction-based examples from basic to advanced level topics. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp will serve as an excellent source of information for Citrix XenApp professionals and novices alike. It is assumed that readers have experience working with Citrix products and have some sort of familiarity with monitoring.

  7. Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Springston, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Koontz, A [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Aiken, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-01-17

    The photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS) measures light absorption by aerosol particles. As the particles pass through a laser beam, the absorbed energy heats the particles and in turn the surrounding air, which sets off a pressure wave that can be detected by a microphone. The PASS instruments deployed by ARM can also simultaneously measure the scattered laser light at three wavelengths and therefore provide a direct measure of the single-scattering albedo. The Operator Manual for the PASS-3100 is included here with the permission of Droplet Measurement Technologies, the instrument’s manufacturer.

  8. Possibilities of the fish pass restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čubanová, Lea

    2018-03-01

    According to the new elaborated methodology of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic: Identification of the appropriate fish pass types according to water body typology (2015) each barrier on the river must be passable. On the barriers or structures without fish passes new ones should be design and built and on some water structures with existed but nonfunctional fish passes must be realized reconstruction or restoration of such objects. Assessment should be done in terms of the existing migratory fish fauna and hydraulic conditions. Fish fauna requirements resulting from the ichthyological research of the river section with barrier. Hydraulic conditions must than fulfil these requirements inside the fish pass body.

  9. Non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication based on DHT ACO-OFDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Chen, Gang

    2012-10-01

    Free space optical (FSO) communication has attracted tremendous research interest in the recent year. Most existing works focus only on the line-of-sight (LOS) transmission by infrared (IR) or visible light lasers/LEDs, while this article suggested a framework of non-line-of-sight (NLOS) FSO, motivated by our recent experimental results on the successful transmission of NLOS ultraviolet (UV) beams for up to kilometers, which is comparable to the typical distance a LOS FSO transmission. The NLOS provides an alternate path when the LOS path is shadowed or is highly attenuated. In order to mitigate the multipath dispersion of the NLOS FSO, a baseband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation scheme was proposed, based on Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) and asymmetric clipping to guarantee the positive-realness of the transmitted optical intensity. The proposed system could reduce the hardware complexity of transmitter and receiver. Minimum mean square error (MMSE) precoder was applied before the DHT to remove the crosstalk between subcarriers, i.e. the frequency domain orthogonality of OFDM was preserved. Performance of the BPSK modulated communication system was given under lognormal atmospheric turbulence for demonstration of the feasibility of the proposed method.

  10. Biomechanical justification of the choice of optimum mode for passing the individual pursuit race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Kolumbet

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : biomechanical justification of the choice of optimum mode of passing competitive distance of 4 km individual pursuit on track. Material : The qualified cyclists (n=14 participated in researches. The modified stationary cycle Monark was used. Cyclists performed work in two modes - A and B. Results : The mode B is physiologically more favorable. The mode B should be considered as a model of passing a distance in preliminary races of individual pursuit. Work in the mode A demands terminal mobilization of organism functions. Work in the mode A is more effective in the achievement of sports result. It can be used only once in the final race of competitions. Conclusions : The received data should be considered as a demonstration of specific features of passing a distance in the competitive modes. The tactical variant of competitive program creation is defined by the individual functional state.

  11. Megaptera Novaeangliae sightings recorder (Borowski, 1781) in the capixaba coast during marine seismic survey; Registro de avistagens de Megaptera Novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781) no litoral capixaba durante levantamento sismico maritimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Leandro Damiao S. da; Almeida, Alexandre N. Ferraz de [Okeanos Consultoria e Meio Ambiente Ltda. (Brazil); Uller, George A.; Oliveira, Joao Luiz Martinez de [CGG do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Derntl, Jose Renato; Pereira, Edisio; Silva, Camila C. da [GEOCOOP Cooperativa de Trabalho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Cristina M. de [Nautilus Cooperativa de Trabalho (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale) sightings recorded during CGG seismic survey along south of Espirito Santo coast. The seismic vessel executed transects perpendicular to the coastline between 50 and 3.200 m depth. Two environmental technicians recorded all sightings during seismic survey; They worked on the highest point of the vessel (bridge) observing the presence and behavior of the marine biota around vessel. There were recorded 38 sightings of Humpback Whales and a total of 81 organisms. 61% of the sightings were concentrated between 40 and 80 m depth. About 60,5% of the sightings were recorded females with puppies, mainly in the afternoon. There were observed no difference between sightings with the source working on and off. The results obtained suggest similarity between the number of sightings and the distance of the animals related to seismic source activity, suggesting non evasive behavior, as well as any indicative change on the behavior regarding to the presence of the Seismic Vessel. Nevertheless, we know that it's necessary to make more studies to obtain definitive conclusions about the subject. (author)

  12. Megaptera Novaeangliae sightings recorder (Borowski, 1781) in the capixaba coast during marine seismic survey; Registro de avistagens de Megaptera Novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781) no litoral capixaba durante levantamento sismico maritimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Leandro Damiao S. da; Almeida, Alexandre N. Ferraz de [Okeanos Consultoria e Meio Ambiente Ltda. (Brazil); Uller, George A; Oliveira, Joao Luiz Martinez de [CGG do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Derntl, Jose Renato; Pereira, Edisio; Silva, Camila C. da [GEOCOOP Cooperativa de Trabalho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Cristina M. de [Nautilus Cooperativa de Trabalho (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale) sightings recorded during CGG seismic survey along south of Espirito Santo coast. The seismic vessel executed transects perpendicular to the coastline between 50 and 3.200 m depth. Two environmental technicians recorded all sightings during seismic survey; They worked on the highest point of the vessel (bridge) observing the presence and behavior of the marine biota around vessel. There were recorded 38 sightings of Humpback Whales and a total of 81 organisms. 61% of the sightings were concentrated between 40 and 80 m depth. About 60,5% of the sightings were recorded females with puppies, mainly in the afternoon. There were observed no difference between sightings with the source working on and off. The results obtained suggest similarity between the number of sightings and the distance of the animals related to seismic source activity, suggesting non evasive behavior, as well as any indicative change on the behavior regarding to the presence of the Seismic Vessel. Nevertheless, we know that it's necessary to make more studies to obtain definitive conclusions about the subject. (author)

  13. Software Simulates Sight: Flat Panel Mura Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In the increasingly sophisticated world of high-definition flat screen monitors and television screens, image clarity and the elimination of distortion are paramount concerns. As the devices that reproduce images become more and more sophisticated, so do the technologies that verify their accuracy. By simulating the manner in which a human eye perceives and interprets a visual stimulus, NASA scientists have found ways to automatically and accurately test new monitors and displays. The Spatial Standard Observer (SSO) software metric, developed by Dr. Andrew B. Watson at Ames Research Center, measures visibility and defects in screens, displays, and interfaces. In the design of such a software tool, a central challenge is determining which aspects of visual function to include while accuracy and generality are important, relative simplicity of the software module is also a key virtue. Based on data collected in ModelFest, a large cooperative multi-lab project hosted by the Optical Society of America, the SSO simulates a simplified model of human spatial vision, operating on a pair of images that are viewed at a specific viewing distance with pixels having a known relation to luminance. The SSO measures the visibility of foveal spatial patterns, or the discriminability of two patterns, by incorporating only a few essential components of vision. These components include local contrast transformation, a contrast sensitivity function, local masking, and local pooling. By this construction, the SSO provides output in units of "just noticeable differences" (JND) a unit of measure based on the assumed smallest difference of sensory input detectable by a human being. Herein is the truly amazing ability of the SSO, while conventional methods can manipulate images, the SSO models human perception. This set of equations actually defines a mathematical way of working with an image that accurately reflects the way in which the human eye and mind behold a stimulus. The SSO is

  14. Analytic processing of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Galyer, Darin

    2018-01-01

    How does a human observer extract from the distance between two frontal points the component corresponding to an axis of a rectangular reference frame? To find out we had participants classify pairs of small circles, varying on the horizontal and vertical axes of a computer screen, in terms of the horizontal distance between them. A response signal controlled response time. The error rate depended on the irrelevant vertical as well as the relevant horizontal distance between the test circles with the relevant distance effect being larger than the irrelevant distance effect. The results implied that the horizontal distance between the test circles was imperfectly extracted from the overall distance between them. The results supported an account, derived from the Exemplar Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky & Palmieri, 1997), under which distance classification is based on the overall distance between the test circles, with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that the relevant and irrelevant axes are differentially weighted so as to reduce the contribution of irrelevant distance to overall distance. The results did not support an account, derived from the General Recognition Theory (Ashby & Maddox, 1994), under which distance classification is based on the relevant distance between the test circles, with the irrelevant distance effect arising because a test circle's perceived location on the relevant axis depends on its location on the irrelevant axis, and with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that this dependency is absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Six Sensational Dots: Braille Literacy for Sighted Classmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Anna M.; Cozart, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    From the moment sighted children see their first dot, teachers find that they are fascinated by the braille code. If they are fortunate enough to have a classmate who reads braille, they have daily opportunities to observe braille used for a variety of purposes, from reading chapter books to solving problems with tactile graphics. Teachers of…

  16. Silicon Graphics' IRIS InSight: An SGML Success Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushko, Robert J.; Kershner, Ken

    1993-01-01

    Offers a case history of the development of the Silicon Graphics "IRIS InSight" system, a system for viewing on-line documentation using Standard Generalized Markup Language. Notes that SGML's explicit encoding of structure and separation of structure and presentation make possible structure-based search, alternative structural views of…

  17. A Pedagogy of Sight: Microscopic Vision in Robert Hooke's "Micrographia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Jordynn

    2009-01-01

    Robert Hooke's "Micrographia" (1665) holds an important place in the history of scientific visual rhetoric. Hooke's accomplishment lies not only in a stunning array of engravings, but also in a "pedagogy of sight"--a rhetorical framework that instructs readers how to view images in accordance with an ideological or epistemic program. Hooke not…

  18. Advanced Mathematics Communication beyond Modality of Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghatjou, Mina

    2018-01-01

    This study illustrates how mathematical communication and learning are inherently multimodal and embodied; hence, sight-disabled students are also able to conceptualize visuospatial information and mathematical concepts through tactile and auditory activities. Adapting a perceptuomotor integration approach, the study shows that the lack of access…

  19. Development of nanostructured protective "sight glasses" for IR gas sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, René; Davis, Zachary James; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2011-01-01

    In this work protective "sight glasses" for infrared gas sensors showing a sub-wavelength nanostructure with random patterns have been fabricated by reactive ion etching (RIE) in an easy and comparable cheap single step mask-less process. By an organic coating, the intrinsic water repellent...

  20. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2016-01-01

    This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

  1. 375-nm ultraviolet-laser based non-line-of-sight underwater optical communication

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin; Cai, Wenqi; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ooi, Ee-Ning; He, Hongsen; Chaaban, Anas; Shen, Chao; Oubei, Hassan M.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-01-01

    For circumventing the alignment requirement of line-of-sight (LOS) underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC), we demonstrated a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UWOC link adequately enhanced using ultraviolet (UV) 375-nm laser. Path loss was chosen

  2. Training for Distance Teaching through Distance Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorath, Jill; Harris, Simon; Encinas, Fatima

    2002-01-01

    Describes a mixed-mode bachelor degree course in English language teaching at the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico) that was designed to help practicing teachers write appropriate distance education materials by giving them the experience of being distance students. Includes a course outline and results of a course evaluation. (Author/LRW)

  3. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  4. Interactive SIGHT: textual access to simple bar charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Seniz; Oliver, David; Schwartz, Edward; Elzer, Stephanie; Carberry, Sandra; Mccoy, Kathleen F.; Chester, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Information graphics, such as bar charts and line graphs, are an important component of many articles from popular media. The majority of such graphics have an intention (a high-level message) to communicate to the graph viewer. Since the intended message of a graphic is often not repeated in the accompanying text, graphics together with the textual segments contribute to the overall purpose of an article and cannot be ignored. Unfortunately, these visual displays are provided in a format which is not readily accessible to everyone. For example, individuals with sight impairments who use screen readers to listen to documents have limited access to the graphics. This article presents a new accessibility tool, the Interactive SIGHT (Summarizing Information GrapHics Textually) system, that is intended to enable visually impaired users to access the knowledge that one would gain from viewing information graphics found on the web. The current system, which is implemented as a browser extension that works on simple bar charts, can be invoked by a user via a keystroke combination while navigating the web. Once launched, Interactive SIGHT first provides a brief summary that conveys the underlying intention of a bar chart along with the chart's most significant and salient features, and then produces history-aware follow-up responses to provide further information about the chart upon request from the user. We present two user studies that were conducted with sighted and visually impaired users to determine how effective the initial summary and follow-up responses are in conveying the informational content of bar charts, and to evaluate how easy it is to use the system interface. The evaluation results are promising and indicate that the system responses are well-structured and enable visually impaired users to answer key questions about bar charts in an easy-to-use manner. Post-experimental interviews revealed that visually impaired participants were very satisfied with

  5. Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers

  6. How to pass higher English colour

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann

    2009-01-01

    How to Pass is the Number 1 revision series for Scottish qualifications across the three examination levels of Standard Grade, Intermediate and Higher! Second editions of the books present all of the material in full colour for the first time.

  7. Socio-Emotional Effects of the Transition from Sight to Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Mhairi; Thurston, Allen; McLeod, John

    2010-01-01

    The research examined the socio-emotional impact of sight loss on a sample of 18 blind and partially sighted adults from the east coast of Scotland (average age 64). The impact of sight loss in four core areas (mood, self-concept, social connectedness and loss) was explored. Data were collected using the mental health and social functioning…

  8. The Development of a String Sight-Reading Pitch Skill Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael L.; Henry, Michele L.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine a pitch skill hierarchy for string sight-reading, to determine the effects of key on string sight-reading achievement, and to determine the validity of a tonal pattern system as a measurement of melodic sight-reading skill for string players. High school string students (n = 94) obtained a mean score of 27.28…

  9. Sight-Singing Pedagogy: A Content Analysis of Choral Methods Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Eva G.; Haning, Marshall A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sight-singing pedagogy content of choral methods textbooks, with the intent of determining what elements of sight-singing pedagogy are most commonly included in these resources. A content analysis was conducted to analyze information related to sight-singing pedagogy in 10 textbooks that are commonly…

  10. Towards a Dynamic Model of Skills Involved in Sight Reading Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiez, Reinhard; Lee, Ji In

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between selected predictors of achievement in playing unrehearsed music (sight reading) and the changing complexity of sight reading tasks. The question under investigation is, how different variables gain or lose significance as sight reading stimuli become more difficult. Fifty-two piano major graduates…

  11. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2014-01-01

    This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

  12. Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorach, Henri; Goetz, Georges; Smith, Richard; Lei, Xin; Mandel, Yossi; Kamins, Theodore; Mathieson, Keith; Huie, Philip; Harris, James; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Patients with retinal degeneration lose sight due to gradual demise of photoreceptors. Electrical stimulation of the surviving retinal neurons provides an alternative route for delivery of visual information. We demonstrate that subretinal arrays with 70 μm photovoltaic pixels provide highly localized stimulation, with electrical and visual receptive fields of comparable sizes in rat retinal ganglion cells. Similarly to normal vision, retinal response to prosthetic stimulation exhibits flicker fusion at high frequencies, adaptation to static images and non-linear spatial summation. In rats with retinal degeneration, these photovoltaic arrays provide spatial resolution of 64 ± 11 μm, corresponding to half of the normal visual acuity in pigmented rats. Ease of implantation of these wireless and modular arrays, combined with their high resolution opens the door to functional restoration of sight. PMID:25915832

  13. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M; Riaz, N; Asghar, S; Malik, U A; Rehman, A

    2011-01-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  14. Aesthetics of movement with sight disabled children - pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Górny

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the aesthetics of movement in people with vision defects. This knowledge will provide tools to improve the methodology of study in the area of assessment of movement aesthetics in people with disabilities. In order to establish its level a test was used which measured its selected elements such as precision, rhythm, harmony, fluidity and speed. The aesthetics of movement was assessed using exercise tests which were to represent the components of aesthetics of movement. Individual tests were carried out on blind and partially sighted children aged 6 to 15 years and on a group of healthy children of the same age. Using the test tasks a general indicator of movement aesthetics in blind children was obtained. The participants of the study were 145 children from four School and Education Centres for Blind Children in Poland and the control group consisted of 310 children from a primary school in Poznań. The studies confirmed a lower level of movement aesthetics in children with vision defects, but the differences in groups between the partially sighted children and children with correct vision were definitely smaller. A higher level of aesthetics of movement characterised children from older groups irrespective of their sex. The best developed property in blind and partially sighted children was precision.

  15. Brownian distance covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    Distance correlation is a new class of multivariate dependence coefficients applicable to random vectors of arbitrary and not necessarily equal dimension. Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment covariance and correlation, but generalize and extend these classical bivariate measures of dependence. Distance correlation characterizes independence: it is zero if and only if the random vectors are independent. The notion of covariance with...

  16. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  17. Uncertain sightings and the extinction of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solow, Andrew; Smith, Woollcott; Burgman, Mark; Rout, Tracy; Wintle, Brendan; Roberts, David

    2012-02-01

    The extinction of a species can be inferred from a record of its sightings. Existing methods for doing so assume that all sightings in the record are valid. Often, however, there are sightings of uncertain validity. To date, uncertain sightings have been treated in an ad hoc way, either excluding them from the record or including them as if they were certain. We developed a Bayesian method that formally accounts for such uncertain sightings. The method assumes that valid and invalid sightings follow independent Poisson processes and use noninformative prior distributions for the rate of valid sightings and for a measure of the quality of uncertain sightings. We applied the method to a recently published record of sightings of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). This record covers the period 1897-2010 and contains 39 sightings classified as certain and 29 classified as uncertain. The Bayes factor in favor of extinction was 4.03, which constitutes substantial support for extinction. The posterior distribution of the time of extinction has 3 main modes in 1944, 1952, and 1988. The method can be applied to sighting records of other purportedly extinct species. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF SINGLE-PASS/DOUBLE-PASS TECHNIQUES ON FRICTION STIR WELDING OF ALUMINIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.A. Sathari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the effects of single-pass/ double-pass techniques on friction stir welding of aluminium. Two pieces of AA1100 with a thickness of 6.0 mm were friction stir welded using a CNC milling machine at rotational speeds of 1400 rpm, 1600 rpm and 1800 rpm respectively for single-pass and double-pass. Microstructure observations of the welded area were studied using an optical microscope. The specimens were tested by using a tensile test and Vickers hardness test to evaluate their mechanical properties. The results indicated that, at low rotational speed, defects such as ‘surface lack of fill’ and tunnels in the welded area contributed to a decrease in mechanical properties. Welded specimens using double-pass techniques show increasing values of tensile strength and hardness. From this investigation it is found that the best parameters of FSW welded aluminium AA1100 plate were those using double-pass techniques that produce mechanically sound joints with a hardness of 56.38 HV and 108 MPa strength at 1800 rpm compared to the single-pass technique. Friction stir welding, single-pass/ double-pass techniques, AA1100, microstructure, mechanical properties.

  19. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  20. Haptic Discrimination of Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2014-01-01

    While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

  1. Haptic discrimination of distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van Beek

    Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.

  2. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  3. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  4. Setting pass scores for clinical skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Liu, Keh-Min

    2008-12-01

    In a clinical skills assessment, the decision to pass or fail an examinee should be based on the test content or on the examinees' performance. The process of deciding a pass score is known as setting a standard of the examination. This requires a properly selected panel of expert judges and a suitable standard setting method, which best fits the purpose of the examination. Six standard setting methods that are often used in clinical skills assessment are described to provide an overview of the standard setting process.

  5. Setting Pass Scores for Clinical Skills Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a clinical skills assessment, the decision to pass or fail an examinee should be based on the test content or on the examinees' performance. The process of deciding a pass score is known as setting a standard of the examination. This requires a properly selected panel of expert judges and a suitable standard setting method, which best fits the purpose of the examination. Six standard setting methods that are often used in clinical skills assessment are described to provide an overview of the standard setting process.

  6. Single beam pass migmacell method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglich, B.C.; Nering, J.E.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Miller, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The invention provides improvements in migmacell apparatus and method by dispensing with the need for metastable confinement of injected molecular ions for multiple precession periods. Injected molecular ions undergo a 'single pass' through the reaction volume. By preconditioning the injected beam such that it contains a population distribution of molecules in higher vibrational states than in the case of a normal distribution, injected molecules in the single pass exper-ience collisionless dissociation in the migmacell under magnetic influence, i.e., so-called Lorentz dissociation. Dissociationions then form atomic migma

  7. Ultrastructural evaluation of multiple pass low energy versus single pass high energy radio-frequency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, David; Burns, A Jay; Sanner, Roth; Counters, Jeff; Zelickson, Brian

    2006-02-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) device is a system capable of volumetric heating of the mid to deep dermis and selective heating of the fibrous septa strands and fascia layer. Clinically, these effects promote dermal collagen production, and tightening of these deep subcutaneous structures. A new technique of using multiple low energy passes has been described which results in lower patient discomfort and fewer side effects. This technique has also been anecdotally described as giving more reproducible and reliable clinical results of tissue tightening and contouring. This study will compare ultrastructural changes in collagen between a single pass high energy versus up to five passes of a multiple pass lower energy treatment. Three subjects were consented and treated in the preauricular region with the RF device using single or multiple passes (three or five) in the same 1.5 cm(2) treatment area with a slight delay between passes to allow tissue cooling. Biopsies from each treatment region and a control biopsy were taken immediately, 24 hours or 6 months post treatment for electron microscopic examination of the 0-1 mm and 1-2 mm levels. Sections of tissue 1 mm x 1 mm x 80 nm were examined with an RCA EMU-4 Transmission Electron Microscope. Twenty sections from 6 blocks from each 1 mm depth were examined by 2 blinded observers. The morphology and degree of collagen change in relation to area examined was compared to the control tissue, and estimated using a quantitative scale. Ultrastructural examination of tissue showed that an increased amount of collagen fibril changes with increasing passes at energies of 97 J (three passes) and 122 J (five passes), respectively. The changes seen after five multiple passes were similar to those detected after much more painful single pass high-energy treatments. This ultrastructural study shows changes in collagen fibril morphology with an increased effect demonstrated at greater depths of the skin with multiple low-fluence passes

  8. Demonstration of a time-integrated short line of sight neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R., E-mail: raspberry@lanl.gov; Danly, C.; Fatherley, V. E.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Christensen, K.; Fittinghoff, D.; Grim, G. P.; Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Skulina, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is an important diagnostic for understanding implosions of deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. While the detectors for the existing system must be positioned 28 m from the source to produce sufficient imaging magnification and resolution, recent testing of a new short line of sight neutron imaging system has shown sufficient resolution to allow reconstruction of the source image with quality similar to that of the existing NIS on a 11.6 m line of sight. The new system used the existing pinhole aperture array and a stack of detectors composed of 2 mm thick high-density polyethylene converter material followed by an image plate. In these detectors, neutrons enter the converter material and interact with protons, which recoil and deposit energy within the thin active layer of the image plate through ionization losses. The described system produces time-integrated images for all neutron energies passing through the pinhole. We present details of the measurement scheme for this novel technique to produce energy-integrated neutron images as well as source reconstruction results from recent experiments at NIF.

  9. Comparison of DMSP cross-track ion drifts and SuperDARN line-of-sight velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Drayton

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Cross-track ion drifts measured by the DMSP satellites are compared with line-of-sight SuperDARN HF velocities in approximately the same directions. Good overall agreement is found for a data set comprising of 209 satellite passes over the field of view of nine SuperDARN radars in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The slope of the best linear fit line relating the SuperDARN and DMSP velocities is of the order of 0.7 with a tendency for SuperDARN velocities to be smaller. The agreement implies that the satellite and radar data can be merged into a common set provided that spatial and temporal variations of the velocity as measured by both instruments are smooth.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionospheric irregularities; Plasma convection; Auroral ionosphere

  10. Marine biota sightings during 3D marine seismic surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joao Luiz Martinez de; Uller, George A. [CGG do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Derntl, Jose Renato; Ribeiro, Camila Castroviejo da Silva; Pereira, Edisio [GEOCOOP Cooperativa de Trabalho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Cristina Maschio de [Nautilus Cooperativa de Trabalho (Brazil); Ferraz, Alexandre Almeida; Costa, Leandro Damiao Soares da [Okeanos Consultoria e Meio Ambiente Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work intends to make a correlation between the presence of the marine biota and the seismic source activity (air guns) during seismic surveys, in Campos (BM-C-25 and BM-C-16) and Santos (BM-S-3) Basin, since July 2003 until March 2004. Environmental data were acquired onboard of the Seismic Vessel CGG Harmattan by a team of four oceanographers (environmental technicians), working on the highest place of the Vessel to record and identify the animals whenever was possible. The data were recorded in forms where fields about the biotic and environmental aspects were filled. In 212 days of observations, 2580,1 hours of sighting's effort were recorded; the air guns worked during 37,6% of the time of the effort. These efforts were made during the daylight reaching an average value of 11,35 hours/day. Sightings were divided into the suborders Odontocetes and Mysticetes, and others (fishes, turtles and non identified mammals). 175 sightings were recorded, being 54% when the air gun was off (24% Mysticetes, 56% Odontocetes, 20% others). Similarly, when the air gun was working, 46% of the records were made (24% Mysticetes, 61% Odontocetes, 6% others); the major concentration (58%) of individuals was inside the 1000 m radius around the ship, followed by 14% of the individuals occurring between 3001-4000 m radius away from the ship. The analysis of the data suggests a non-evasive behavior related to the working of the seismic source, corroborating the results reached by other publications using the data collected onboard CGG Vessels. (author)

  11. Line-of-sight extrapolation noise in dust polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poh, Jason; Dodelson, Scott

    2017-05-19

    The B-modes of polarization at frequencies ranging from 50-1000 GHz are produced by Galactic dust, lensing of primordial E-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by intervening large scale structure, and possibly by primordial B-modes in the CMB imprinted by gravitational waves produced during inflation. The conventional method used to separate the dust component of the signal is to assume that the signal at high frequencies (e.g., 350 GHz) is due solely to dust and then extrapolate the signal down to lower frequency (e.g., 150 GHz) using the measured scaling of the polarized dust signal amplitude with frequency. For typical Galactic thermal dust temperatures of about 20K, these frequencies are not fully in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit. Therefore, deviations in the dust cloud temperatures from cloud to cloud will lead to different scaling factors for clouds of different temperatures. Hence, when multiple clouds of different temperatures and polarization angles contribute to the integrated line-of-sight polarization signal, the relative contribution of individual clouds to the integrated signal can change between frequencies. This can cause the integrated signal to be decorrelated in both amplitude and direction when extrapolating in frequency. Here we carry out a Monte Carlo analysis on the impact of this line-of-sight extrapolation noise, enabling us to quantify its effect. Using results from the Planck experiment, we find that this effect is small, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the current uncertainties. However, line-of-sight extrapolation noise may be a significant source of uncertainty in future low-noise primordial B-mode experiments. Scaling from Planck results, we find that accounting for this uncertainty becomes potentially important when experiments are sensitive to primordial B-mode signals with amplitude r < 0.0015 .

  12. BioSIGHT: Interactive Visualization Modules for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wee Ling

    1998-01-01

    Redefining science education to harness emerging integrated media technologies with innovative pedagogical goals represents a unique challenge. The Integrated Media Systems Center (IMSC) is the only engineering research center in the area of multimedia and creative technologies sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The research program at IMSC is focused on developing advanced technologies that address human-computer interfaces, database management, and high- speed network capabilities. The BioSIGHT project at IMSC is a demonstration technology project in the area of education that seeks to address how such emerging multimedia technologies can make an impact on science education. The scope of this project will help solidify NASA's commitment for the development of innovative educational resources that promotes science literacy for our students and the general population as well. These issues must be addressed as NASA marches towards the goal of enabling human space exploration that requires an understanding of life sciences in space. The IMSC BioSIGHT lab was established with the purpose of developing a novel methodology that will map a high school biology curriculum into a series of interactive visualization modules that can be easily incorporated into a space biology curriculum. Fundamental concepts in general biology must be mastered in order to allow a better understanding and application for space biology. Interactive visualization is a powerful component that can capture the students' imagination, facilitate their assimilation of complex ideas, and help them develop integrated views of biology. These modules will augment the role of the teacher and will establish the value of student-centered interactivity, both in an individual setting as well as in a collaborative learning environment. Students will be able to interact with the content material, explore new challenges, and perform virtual laboratory simulations. The BioSIGHT effort is truly cross

  13. Teaching braille letters, numerals, punctuation, and contractions to sighted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also numerals, punctuation, symbols, and contractions; we evaluated this program with 4 sighted undergraduate participants. Exposure to this program resulted in mastery of all braille-to-print relations for each participant. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Generalizing Galileo's Passe-Dix Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombas, Vassilios

    2012-01-01

    This article shows a generalization of Galileo's "passe-dix" game. The game was born following one of Galileo's [G. Galileo, "Sopra le Scoperte dei Dadi" (Galileo, Opere, Firenze, Barbera, Vol. 8). Translated by E.H. Thorne, 1898, pp. 591-594] explanations on a paradox that occurred in the experiment of tossing three fair "six-sided" dice.…

  15. Message passing with parallel queue traversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Brightwell, Ronald B [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, K Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-01

    In message passing implementations, associative matching structures are used to permit list entries to be searched in parallel fashion, thereby avoiding the delay of linear list traversal. List management capabilities are provided to support list entry turnover semantics and priority ordering semantics.

  16. TREsPASS Book 3: Creative Engagements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Hall, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this book we examine the role that creative security engagements have played in the TREsPASS project. These engagements are part of a wider creative securities approach that explores the contributions that social practices make to protection of data and information. Our most popular creative

  17. Passing the Bond Issue (with Related Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    When a bond referendum comes around for a school district, it often is the culmination of years of planning, strategizing and communicating to the public. Especially in these economic times, passing a building referendum is challenging. Complete transparency among the superintendent, school board and community is essential to communicate the…

  18. Assessing distances and consistency of kinematics in Gaia/TGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönrich, Ralph; Aumer, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We apply the statistical methods by Schönrich, Binney & Asplund to assess the quality of distances and kinematics in the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE)-Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) and Large Sky Area Multiobject Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)-TGAS samples of Solar neighbourhood stars. These methods yield a nominal distance accuracy of 1-2 per cent. Other than common tests on parallax accuracy, they directly test distance estimations including the effects of distance priors. We show how to construct these priors including the survey selection functions (SSFs) directly from the data. We demonstrate that neglecting the SSFs causes severe distance biases. Due to the decline of the SSFs in distance, the simple 1/parallax estimate only mildly underestimates distances. We test the accuracy of measured line-of-sight velocities (vlos) by binning the samples in the nominal vlos uncertainties. We find: (i) the LAMOST vlos have a ∼-5 km s-1 offset; (ii) the average LAMOST measurement error for vlos is ∼7 km s-1, significantly smaller than, and nearly uncorrelated with the nominal LAMOST estimates. The RAVE sample shows either a moderate distance underestimate, or an unaccounted source of vlos dispersion (e∥) from measurement errors and binary stars. For a subsample of suspected binary stars in RAVE, our methods indicate significant distance underestimates. Separating a sample in metallicity or kinematics to select thick-disc/halo stars, discriminates between distance bias and e∥. For LAMOST, this separation yields consistency with pure vlos measurement errors. We find an anomaly near longitude l ∼ (300 ± 60)° and distance s ∼ (0.32 ± 0.03) kpc on both sides of the galactic plane, which could be explained by either a localized distance error or a breathing mode.

  19. Traversing psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  1. The Canal da Piracema at Itaipu Dam as a fish pass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Makrakis

    Full Text Available The Canal da Piracema is the longest (nearly 10 km fish pass system in the world. The construction of this fish pass was somehow controversial, because it connected two distinct ichthyofaunistic provinces. This study evaluated the ichthyofauna present in the Canal da Piracema and the abundance and distribution of long-distance migratory fish species along this fish pass system (evaluated possible selectivity. The Canal da Piracema was shown to be difficult to sample because of its environmental heterogeneity: artificial ponds, ladders and nature-like fish pass. To solve this problem, we used several fishing gears, adequate for the several biotopes present (unstructured and structured littoral were sampled with seining nets and electrofishing; lentic were sampled with gillnets and longlines (deeper areas; and rapid water areas were sampled with cast nets. The ichthyofauna of the Canal da Piracema followed the pattern for South America and the Paraná River, with a predominance of Characiformes and Siluriformes. The most representative families were Characidae, Anostomidae, Pimelodidae and Loricariidae. We captured 116 species (17 were long-distance migratory during the period studied. Small-sized species were predominant in unstructured and structured littoral areas, especially Bryconamericus exodon and Apareiodon affinis.The most abundant species was Hypostomus spp. in lentic areas, followed by Iheringichthys labrosus. Hoplias aff. malabaricus predominated in deeper lentic areas. Long-distance migratory species were abundant in rapid waters; they were Prochilodus lineatus and Leporinus elongatus. The sharp reduction in the number of species, including migratory ones, is an indication that the Canal da Piracema is selecting the species that ascend it. Therefore, the search for information on the efficiency of the various fish passes present in the Canal da Piracema is fundamental, to facilitate upward movements of fish. If this is reached, this

  2. Multidisciplinary Optimization Branch Experience Using iSIGHT Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S. L.; Korte, J. J.; Dunn, H. J.; Salas, A. O.

    1999-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) Branch at NASA Langley is investigating frameworks for supporting multidisciplinary analysis and optimization research. A framework provides software and system services to integrate computational tasks and allows the researcher to concentrate more on the application and less on the programming details. A framework also provides a common working environment and a full range of optimization tools, and so increases the productivity of multidisciplinary research teams. Finally, a framework enables staff members to develop applications for use by disciplinary experts in other organizations. This year, the MDO Branch has gained experience with the iSIGHT framework. This paper describes experiences with four aerospace applications, including: (1) reusable launch vehicle sizing, (2) aerospike nozzle design, (3) low-noise rotorcraft trajectories, and (4) acoustic liner design. Brief overviews of each problem are provided, including the number and type of disciplinary codes and computation time estimates. In addition, the optimization methods, objective functions, design variables, and constraints are described for each problem. For each case, discussions on the advantages and disadvantages of using the iSIGHT framework are provided as well as notes on the ease of use of various advanced features and suggestions for areas of improvement.

  3. Using a Quadtree Algorithm To Assess Line of Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Joseph; Chamberlain, Robert; Tailor, Eric; Gutt, Gary

    2006-01-01

    A matched pair of computer algorithms determines whether line of sight (LOS) is obstructed by terrain. These algorithms were originally designed for use in conjunction with combat-simulation software in military training exercises, but could also be used for such commercial purposes as evaluating lines of sight for antennas or determining what can be seen from a "room with a view." The quadtree preparation algorithm operates on an array of digital elevation data and only needs to be run once for a terrain region, which can be quite large. Relatively little computation time is needed, as each elevation value is considered only one and one-third times. The LOS assessment algorithm uses that quadtree to answer LOS queries. To determine whether LOS is obstructed, a piecewise-planar (or higher-order) terrain skin is computationally draped over the digital elevation data. Adjustments are made to compensate for curvature of the Earth and for refraction of the LOS by the atmosphere. Average computing time appears to be proportional to the number of queries times the logarithm of the number of elevation data points. Accuracy is as high as is possible for the available elevation data, and symmetric results are assured. In the simulation, the LOS query program runs as a separate process, thereby making more random-access memory available for other computations.

  4. Inferring about the extinction of a species using certain and uncertain sightings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodikara, Saritha; Demirhan, Haydar; Stone, Lewi

    2018-04-07

    The sighting record of threatened species is often used to infer the possibility of extinction. Most of these sightings have uncertain validity. Solow and Beet(2014) developed two models using a Bayesian approach which allowed for uncertainty in the sighting record by formally incorporating both certain and uncertain sightings, but in different ways. Interestingly, the two methods give completely different conclusions concerning the extinction of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. We further examined these two methods to provide a mathematical explanation, and to explore in more depth, as to why the results differed from one another. It was found that the first model was more sensitive to the last uncertain sighting, while the second was more sensitive to the last certain sighting. The difficulties in choosing the appropriate model are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  6. Distance-transitive graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite

  7. Distance Education in Entwicklungslandern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…

  8. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2009-01-01

    Distance metrics and distances have become an essential tool in many areas of pure and applied Mathematics. This title offers both independent introductions and definitions, while at the same time making cross-referencing easy through hyperlink-like boldfaced references to original definitions.

  9. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  10. Distance estimation experiment for aerial minke whale surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Witting

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between aerial cue–counting and digital photography surveys for minke whales conducted in Faxaflói Bay in September 2003 is used to check the perpendicular distances estimated by the cue-counting observers. The study involved 2 aircraft with the photo plane at 1,700 feet flying above the cue–counting plane at 750 feet. The observer–based distance estimates were calculated from head angles estimated by angle-boards and declination angles estimated by declinometers. These distances were checked against image–based estimates of the perpendicular distance to the same whale. The 2 independent distance estimates were obtained for 21 sightings of minke whale, and there was a good agreement between the 2 types of estimates. The relative absolute deviations between the 2 estimates were on average 23% (se: 6%, with the errors in the observer–based distance estimates resembling that of a log-normal distribution. The linear regression of the observer–based estimates (obs on the image–based estimates (img was Obs=1.1Img (R2=0.85 with an intercept fixed at zero. There was no evidence of a distance estimation bias that could generate a positive bias in the absolute abundance estimated by cue–counting.

  11. Contact conditions in skin-pass rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kijima, Hideo; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The special contact conditions in skin-pass rolling of steel strip is analysed by studying plane strain upsetting of thin sheet with low reduction applying long narrow tools and dry friction conditions. An extended sticking region is estimated by an elasto-plastic FEM analysis of the plane strain...... upsetting. This sticking region causes a highly inhomogeneous elasto-plastic deformation with large influence of work-hardening and friction. A numerical analysis of skin-pass rolling shows the same contact conditions, i.e. an extended sticking region around the center of the contact zone. The calculated...... size of the sticking region with varying contact length and pressure/reduction is experimentally verified by plane strain upsetting tests measuring the local surface deformation of the work pieces after unloading....

  12. Two-pass greedy regular expression parsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathwohl, Niels Bjørn Bugge; Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We present new algorithms for producing greedy parses for regular expressions (REs) in a semi-streaming fashion. Our lean-log algorithm executes in time O(mn) for REs of size m and input strings of size n and outputs a compact bit-coded parse tree representation. It improves on previous algorithms...... by: operating in only 2 passes; using only O(m) words of random-access memory (independent of n); requiring only kn bits of sequentially written and read log storage, where k ... and not requiring it to be stored at all. Previous RE parsing algorithms do not scale linearly with input size, or require substantially more log storage and employ 3 passes where the first consists of reversing the input, or do not or are not known to produce a greedy parse. The performance of our unoptimized C...

  13. Single Pass Albumin Dialysis in Hepatorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ebadur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS is the most appalling complication of acute or chronic liver disease with 90% mortality rate. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD can be considered as a noble liver support technique in HRS. Here, we present a case of a young healthy patient who developed hyperacute fulminant liver failure that progressed to HRS. The patient was offered SPAD as a bridge to liver transplantation, however, it resulted in an excellent recovery.

  14. Micro-Doppler extraction of a small UAV in a non-line-of-sight urban scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Magnus; Andersson, Åsa; Johansson, Tommy; Jonsson, Rolf; Karlsson, Nils; Nilsson, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    The appearance of small UAVs on the commercial market poses a real threat to both civilian safety and to military operations. In open terrain a radar can detect and track even small UAVs at long distances. In an urban environment with limited line-of-sight and strong static and non-static background, this capability can be severely reduced. The radar cross section of these UAVs are normally small compared to the background. However, the rotors of the UAVs produce a characteristic micro-Doppler signature that can be exploited for detection and classification. In this paper, we investigate in an experimental set-up whether it is possible in the radar non-line-of-sight to retrieve the micro-Doppler signature of the UAV rotors. This is done by exploring up to three multipath bounces in the measured signal. The measurements were made with a semi-monostatic single receiver-transmitter radar system operating at X-band in a pulsed single frequency mode. The radar response of the UAV, with plastic and metallic rotors, was measured at several positions inside a 4 m wide corridor with metallic walls. In this paper, data from one line-of-sight and two non-line-ofsight positions are presented. Results show that we are able to detect the micro-Doppler of the rotors and to retrieve the number of revolutions per minute, for both rotor types. Free space Finite-Difference Time-Domain calculations have also been performed on a CAD-model of the UAV rotor to determine the optimal choice of polarization and the short-time Fourier transform filter length.

  15. Blind sensor calibration using approximate message passing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schülke, Christophe; Caltagirone, Francesco; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of approximately sparse data has led a variety of communities to take great interest in compressed sensing algorithms. Although these are very successful and well understood for linear measurements with additive noise, applying them to real data can be problematic if imperfect sensing devices introduce deviations from this ideal signal acquisition process, caused by sensor decalibration or failure. We propose a message passing algorithm called calibration approximate message passing (Cal-AMP) that can treat a variety of such sensor-induced imperfections. In addition to deriving the general form of the algorithm, we numerically investigate two particular settings. In the first, a fraction of the sensors is faulty, giving readings unrelated to the signal. In the second, sensors are decalibrated and each one introduces a different multiplicative gain to the measurements. Cal-AMP shares the scalability of approximate message passing, allowing us to treat large sized instances of these problems, and experimentally exhibits a phase transition between domains of success and failure. (paper)

  16. Double-pass quantum volume hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, Denis V.; Sokolov, Ivan V.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for parallel, spatially multimode quantum memory for light. The scheme is based on the propagation in different directions of a quantum signal wave and strong classical reference wave, like in a classical volume hologram and the previously proposed quantum volume hologram [D. V. Vasilyev et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 020302(R) (2010)]. The medium for the hologram consists of a spatially extended ensemble of cold spin-polarized atoms. In the absence of the collective spin rotation during the interaction, two passes of light for both storage and retrieval are required, and therefore the present scheme can be called a double-pass quantum volume hologram. The scheme is less sensitive to diffraction and therefore is capable of achieving a higher density of storage of spatial modes as compared to the previously proposed thin quantum hologram [D. V. Vasilyev et al., Phys. Rev. A 77, 020302(R) (2008)], which also requires two passes of light for both storage and retrieval. However, the present scheme allows one to achieve a good memory performance with a lower optical depth of the atomic sample as compared to the quantum volume hologram. A quantum hologram capable of storing entangled images can become an important ingredient in quantum information processing and quantum imaging.

  17. "Which pass is better?" Novel approaches to assess passing effectiveness in elite soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Robert; Raabe, Dominik; Memmert, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Passing behaviour is a key property of successful performance in team sports. Previous investigations however have mainly focused on notational measurements like total passing frequencies which provide little information about what actually constitutes successful passing behaviour. Consequently, this has hampered the transfer of research findings into applied settings. Here we present two novel approaches to assess passing effectiveness in elite soccer by evaluating their effects on majority situations and space control in front of the goal. Majority situations are assessed by calculating the number of defenders between the ball carrier and the goal. Control of space is estimated using Voronoi-diagrams based on the player's positions on the pitch. Both methods were applied to position data from 103 German First division games from the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2014/2015 seasons using a big data approach. The results show that both measures are significantly related to successful game play with respect to the number of goals scored and to the probability of winning a game. The results further show that on average passes from the mid-field into the attacking area are most effective. The presented passing efficiency measures thereby offer new opportunities for future applications in soccer and other sports disciplines whilst maintaining practical relevance with respect to tactical training regimes or game performances analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Path Loss Model for Non-Line-of-Sight Ultraviolet Multiple Scattering Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadler BrianM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultraviolet (UV signal transmission undergoes rich scattering and strong absorption by atmospheric particulates. We develop a path loss model for a Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS link. The model is built upon probability theory governing random migration of photons in free space, undergoing scattering, in terms of angular direction and distance. The model analytically captures the contributions of different scattering orders. Thus it relaxes the assumptions of single scattering theory and provides more realistic results. This allows us to assess the importance of high-order scattering, such as in a thick atmosphere environment, where short range NLOS UV communication is enhanced by hazy or foggy weather. By simulation, it is shown that the model coincides with a previously developed Monte Carlo model. Additional numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effects of link geometry and atmospheric conditions. The results indicate the inherent tradeoffs in beamwidth, pointing angles, range, absorption, and scattering and so are valuable for NLOS communication system design.

  19. Extended Kalman Filter Channel Estimation for Line-of-Sight Detection in WCDMA Mobile Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmonaem Lakhzouri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile positioning, it is very important to estimate correctly the delay between the transmitter and the receiver. When the receiver is in line-of-sight (LOS condition with the transmitter, the computation of the mobile position in two dimensions becomes straightforward. In this paper, the problem of LOS detection in WCDMA for mobile positioning is considered, together with joint estimation of the delays and channel coefficients. These are very challenging topics in multipath fading channels because LOS component is not always present, and when it is present, it might be severely affected by interfering paths spaced at less than one chip distance (closely spaced paths. The extended Kalman filter (EKF is used to estimate jointly the delays and complex channel coefficients. The decision whether the LOS component is present or not is based on statistical tests to determine the distribution of the channel coefficient corresponding to the first path. The statistical test-based techniques are practical, simple, and of low computation complexity, which is suitable for WCDMA receivers. These techniques can provide an accurate decision whether LOS component is present or not.

  20. Energy mergers, acquisitions and trusts : no end in sight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of Canadian export of natural gas to the U.S. and mergers in the Canadian gas industry was presented. Issues discussed included: (1) the Canadian role in U.S. gas markets, (2) growth, returns, and reinvestment rates in the Canadian gas industry, (3) current and historical mergers and acquisitions activity, (4) the driving forces of continued mergers, and (5) the role of trusts in mergers and acquisitions. It was stressed that the recent trend of energy industry mergers is reshaping the industry. Canadian gas producers are currently finding themselves in a high risk, low-return, capital intensive industry caught in a 10-year major growth trend driven by U.S. exports. Unfortunately, for the immediate future there is no end in sight. figs

  1. Guidebook to the Constellations Telescopic Sights, Tales, and Myths

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This handbook is a guide to exploring the night sky and its wonderful telescopic sights. All eighty-eight officially recognized constellations in both hemispheres are presented in natural groups, related by their origin and location. The author, a former astronomy instructor and planetarium director, has for over thirty-five years, researched myths from all over the world to identify the most memorable stories which link multiple constellations in a single story. Thus, the interested observer may discover that it will be easier to use already known constellations to locate and remember new constellations. The author has found that showing each constellation figure with a simple line drawing is helpful for remembering each constellation. He includes photographs of many of the brighter celestial objects, as well as many accompanying drawings which illustrate how the telescopic views differ from the photographs. One way to use this handbook, which is useful to beginners as well as experienced astronomers, is to ...

  2. Design and development of radiation absorber for sighting beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, R.; Shukla, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    During the commissioning of Indus-2 , it is necessary to view the synchrotron radiation that will be emanating from the dipole exit ports. The 10 0 beam line from dipole 11 was earmarked for sighting beam line. The synchrotron radiation power density would be around 340 watts on the photon absorber inside the radiation absorber module, at the specified beam power of Indus-2. The beam striking on this photon absorber produces x-rays and Bremsstrahlung radiation. These are to be stopped and absorbed by radiation absorber. The photon absorber and the radiation absorber are integrated in a single vacuum chamber and actuated by a pneumatic cylinder connected using a bellow. Radiation absorber was needed to isolate the diagnostic components and to protect them from radiation a well as heat when they were not in use. The paper describes the design, calculation and development of the dynamic photon cum radiation absorber. The ultimate vacuum performance is also described. (author)

  3. Energy mergers, acquisitions and trusts : no end in sight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiry, J. [Woodside Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    An overview of Canadian export of natural gas to the U.S. and mergers in the Canadian gas industry was presented. Issues discussed included: (1) the Canadian role in U.S. gas markets, (2) growth, returns, and reinvestment rates in the Canadian gas industry, (3) current and historical mergers and acquisitions activity, (4) the driving forces of continued mergers, and (5) the role of trusts in mergers and acquisitions. It was stressed that the recent trend of energy industry mergers is reshaping the industry. Canadian gas producers are currently finding themselves in a high risk, low-return, capital intensive industry caught in a 10-year major growth trend driven by U.S. exports. Unfortunately, for the immediate future there is no end in sight. figs.

  4. IMPACT OF THE REPEATED TRACTOR PASSES ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SILTY LOAM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Filipović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to quantify soil compaction induced by tractor traffic on untilled wet silty loam soil (Mollic Fluvisol. Changes in penetration resistance, bulk density and total porosity were measured for detecting the soil compaction. Treatments include ten passes of a four-wheel drive tractor with the engine power of 54.0 kW and weight of 3560 kg (1580 kg on the front axle and 1980 kg on the rear axle, 2.41 m distance between axles. The tyres on the tractor were cross-ply, front 11.2-24 and rear 16.9-30, with the inflation pressure of 160 kPa and 100 kPa, respectively. The speed of tractor during passes over experimental plots was 5.0 km h-1. In comparison to control, each tractor pass induced an increase in soil penetration resistance at all depths, and the average increment ratios, determined as the average of all layers, were 9.8, 18.5 and 26.1% after one, five and ten passes, respectively. The bulk density also increased with number of tractor passes, but with less percentage increasing. The increment ratios comparison to the control were 3.6, 9.5 and 12.9% after one, five and ten passes, respectively. The total porosity decreased with the number of passes, and the decrement ratios were 4.5, 16.5 and 20.8% after one, five and ten passes, respectively.

  5. Distance still matters. The hard reality of global expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghemawat, P

    2001-09-01

    Companies routinely overestimate the attractiveness of foreign markets. Dazzled by the sheer size of untapped markets, they lose sight of the difficulties of pioneering new, often very different territories. The problem is rooted in the analytic tools (the most prominent being country portfolio analysis, or CPA) that managers use to judge international investments. By focusing on national wealth, consumer income, and people's propensity to consume, CPA emphasizes potential sales, ignoring the costs and risks of doing business in a new market. Most of these costs and risks result from the barriers created by distance. "Distance," however, does not refer only to geography; its other dimensions can make foreign markets considerably more or less attractive. The CAGE framework of distance presented here considers four attributes: cultural distance (religious beliefs, race, social norms, and language that are different for the target country and the country of the company considering expansion); administrative or political distance (colony-colonizer links, common currency, and trade arrangements); geographic distance (the physical distance between the two countries, the size of the target country, access to waterways and the ocean, internal topography, and transportation and communications infrastructures); and economic distance (disparities in the two countries' wealth or consumer income and variations in the cost and quality of financial and other resources). This framework can help to identify the ways in which potential markets may be distant from existing ones. The article explores how (and by how much) various types of distance can affect different types of industries and shows how dramatically an explicit consideration of distance can change a company's picture of its strategic options.

  6. Motivation in Distance Leaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

  7. Comparison between RVG UI sensor and Kodak InSight film for detection of incipient proximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yukiko; Hanazawa, Tomomi; Seki, Kenji; Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the four combination modes of Trophy Radio Visio Graphy (RVG) UI sensor (Trex-Trophy Radiology Inc., Marne-la-Valee, France) and Kodak InSight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) for detecting proximal dental caries. Thirty extracted human upper premolars were selected. Of 60 surfaces, 25 had carious lesions in the form of small cavities, and the rest showed no evidence of caries as verified by a micro computed tomogram (micro CT; XCT Research SA+, Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). All teeth were radiographed with the paralleling technique (60 kV, 40 cm focus-to-sensor distance). Four combination modes (high-resolution caries mode-HRC; high-sensitivity caries mode-HSC; high-resolution periodontal mode-HRP; and high-resolution endo mode-HRE) were used. Exposure was set at 0.12 sec for HRC, 0.08 sec for HSC, 0.16 sec for HRP, 0.12 sec for HRE, and 0.16 sec for the Kodak InSight film. The resulting images were evaluated by three oral radiologists. The same three observers evaluated the digital images, and were allowed to use the contrast and brightness controls in doing so. Possible differences in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas among image modalities were assessed by the Friedman test. The mean ROC curve areas were 0.66±0.11 for HRC, 0.78±0.02 for HSC, 0.76±0.04 for HRE, 0.77±0.04 for HRP, and 0.71±0.09 for the Kodak InSight film. There were no statistically significant differences between HRC, HSC, HRE, HRP and the Kodak InSight film in terms of proximal caries detection. The four modes of RVG UI system are each a viable alternative to intraoral film for the detection of incipient dental caries. (author)

  8. Einstein at a distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambourne, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    This paper examines the challenges and rewards that can arise when the teaching of Einsteinian physics has to be accomplished by means of distance education. The discussion is mainly based on experiences gathered over the past 35 years at the UK Open University, where special and general relativity, relativistic cosmology and other aspects of Einsteinian physics, have been taught at a variety of levels, and using a range of techniques, to students studying at a distance.

  9. Long distance quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

  10. Pass-transistor asynchronous sequential circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R.; Maki, Gary K.

    1989-01-01

    Design methods for asynchronous sequential pass-transistor circuits, which result in circuits that are hazard- and critical-race-free and which have added degrees of freedom for the input signals, are discussed. The design procedures are straightforward and easy to implement. Two single-transition-time state assignment methods are presented, and hardware bounds for each are established. A surprising result is that the hardware realizations for each next state variable and output variable is identical for a given flow table. Thus, a state machine with N states and M outputs can be constructed using a single layout replicated N + M times.

  11. Knowledge of Dental Health and Oral Hygiene Practices of Taiwanese Visually Impaired and Sighted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.

  12. Repeated sightings of Alexandrine parakeet Psittacula eupatria in Rome (Central Italy and its likely acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Angelici

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexandrine parakeet sightings have repeatedly occurred in the city of Rome, Italy in the Caffarella valley, within the ‘Regional Park of Appia Antica’ starting from March 2010. Several other sightings have been made since December 2014 onwards. Until now, nesting has not been proven, but it is believed that this may have already occurred.

  13. Loneliness among Students with Blindness and Sighted Students in Jordan: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated loneliness among students with blindness and those who are sighted in Jordan, and examined whether loneliness levels vary according to gender. Students included 90 students with blindness and 79 sighted students selected from high schools and universities in the capital city of Amman. The instrument used to collect…

  14. A Comparative Study of the Manneristic Behaviour of Blind and Sighted Children. Research Series No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian National Inst. for the Visually Handicapped, Dehra Dun.

    Examination of the manneristic behavior (stereotyped or repetitive movement) of 542 blind and 365 sighted children was undertaken. Seventeen types of manneristic behavior were investigated, including head movement, eye poking and rubbing, body rocking, kicking, and posture distortion. Comparison of the behaviors observed in sighted and blind Ss…

  15. Posture of Twig Figures: Reactions by the Blind and the Sighted. Brief Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Domander, Ramona

    1986-01-01

    Eighteen congenitally blind adolescents and adults and 29 sighted children and adults were asked to select one of two identifying labels for six pairs of highly schematic line figures portraying simple events, relationships between people, and expressive emotional states. Blind subjects agreed with sighted interpretations on 77% of the response…

  16. Applying Sight Translation as a Means to Enhance Reading Ability of Iranian EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatollahi, Moslem

    2016-01-01

    Sight translation is the oral translation of a written text and is a mixture of translation and interpreting. Sight translation is a widely-used activity in translation training programs. Yet, this mode of translation has rarely been applied as a reading instruction technique in Iranian EFL instruction context in spite of the growing interest in…

  17. A Nationwide Overview of Sight-Singing Requirements of Large-Group Choral Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sight-singing requirements at junior and senior high school large-group ratings-based choral festivals throughout the United States. Responses to the following questions were sought from each state: (1) Are there ratings-based large-group choral festivals? (2) Is sight-singing a requirement? (3) Are there…

  18. Problem Behavior and Developmental Tasks in Adolescents with Visual Impairment and Sighted Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed associations of problem behavior with the attainment of developmental tasks in 133 adolescents with visual impairment and 449 sighted peers. Higher levels of initial problem behavior predicted less progress in the attainment of developmental tasks at the one-year follow-up only in sighted adolescents. This…

  19. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  20. Immediate Memory for Haptically-Examined Braille Symbols by Blind and Sighted Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Slater E.; And Others

    The paper reports on two experiments in Braille learning which compared blind and sighted subjects on the immediate recall of haptically-examined Braille symbols. In the first study, sighted subjects (N=64) haptically examined each of a set of Braille symbols with their preferred or nonpreferred hand and immediately recalled the symbol by drawing…

  1. Vocal Sight-Reading Assessment: Technological Advances, Student Perceptions, and Instructional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated choral singers' comfort level using computer technology for vocal sight-reading assessment. High school choral singers (N = 138) attending a summer music camp completed a computer-based sight-reading assessment and accompanying pre- and posttest surveys on their musical backgrounds and perceptions about technology. A large…

  2. GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE LINE OF SIGHT TO BACKGROUND QUASARS. III. MULTI-OBJECT SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.; Barrientos, L. F.; Padilla, N.; Lacerna, I.; López, S.; Lira, P.; Maureira, M. J.; Gilbank, D. G.; Ellingson, E.; Gladders, M. D.; Yee, H. K. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present Gemini/GMOS-S multi-object spectroscopy of 31 galaxy cluster candidates at redshifts between 0.2 and 1.0 and centered on QSO sight lines taken from López et al. The targets were selected based on the presence of an intervening Mg II absorption system at a similar redshift to that of a galaxy cluster candidate lying at a projected distance 71 -1 Mpc from the QSO sight line (a p hotometric hit ) . The absorption systems span rest-frame equivalent widths between 0.015 and 2.028 Å. Our aim was three-fold: (1) to identify the absorbing galaxies and determine their impact parameters, (2) to confirm the galaxy cluster candidates in the vicinity of each quasar sightline, and (3) to determine whether the absorbing galaxies reside in galaxy clusters. In this way, we are able to characterize the absorption systems associated with cluster members. Our main findings are as follows. (1) We identified 10 out of 24 absorbing galaxies with redshifts between 0.2509 ≤ z gal ≤ 1.0955, up to an impact parameter of 142 h 71 -1 kpc and a maximum velocity difference of 280 km s –1 . (2) We spectroscopically confirmed 20 out of 31 cluster/group candidates, with most of the confirmed clusters/groups at z –1 from galaxy clusters/groups, in addition to two new ones related to galaxy group environments. These numbers imply efficiencies of 71% in finding such systems with MOS spectroscopy. This is a remarkable result since we defined a photometric hit as those cluster-absorber pairs having a redshift difference Δz = 0.1. The general population of our confirmed absorbing galaxies have luminosities L B ∼L B * and mean rest-frame colors (R c – z') typical of S cd galaxies. From this sample, absorbing cluster galaxies hosting weak absorbers are consistent with lower star formation activity than the rest, which produce strong absorption and agree with typical Mg II absorbing galaxies found in the literature. Our spectroscopic confirmations lend support to the selection of

  3. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes by cold pilgering route using 3-pass and 2-pass schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibaba, N.

    2008-12-01

    Calandria tube is a large diameter, extremely thin walled zirconium alloy tube which has diameter to wall thickness ratio as high as 90-95. Such tubes are conventionally produced by the 'welded route', which involves extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and cold rolling passes, intermediate anneals, press forming of sheets into circular shape and closing the gap by TIG welding. Though pilgering is a well established process for the fabrication of seamless tubes, production of extremely thin walled tubes offers several challenges during pilgering. Nuclear fuel complex (NFC), Hyderabad, has successfully developed a process for the production of Zircaloy-4 calandria tubes by adopting the 'seamless route' which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three-pass pilgering or two-pass pilgering schedules. This paper deals with standardization of the seamless route processes for fabrication of calandria tubes, comparison between the tubes produced by 2-pass and 3-pass pilgering schedules, role of ultrasonic test charts for control of process parameters, development of new testing methods for burst testing and other properties.

  4. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes by cold pilgering route using 3-pass and 2-pass schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.

    2008-01-01

    Calandria tube is a large diameter, extremely thin walled zirconium alloy tube which has diameter to wall thickness ratio as high as 90-95. Such tubes are conventionally produced by the 'welded route', which involves extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and cold rolling passes, intermediate anneals, press forming of sheets into circular shape and closing the gap by TIG welding. Though pilgering is a well established process for the fabrication of seamless tubes, production of extremely thin walled tubes offers several challenges during pilgering. Nuclear fuel complex (NFC), Hyderabad, has successfully developed a process for the production of Zircaloy-4 calandria tubes by adopting the 'seamless route' which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three-pass pilgering or two-pass pilgering schedules. This paper deals with standardization of the seamless route processes for fabrication of calandria tubes, comparison between the tubes produced by 2-pass and 3-pass pilgering schedules, role of ultrasonic test charts for control of process parameters, development of new testing methods for burst testing and other properties

  5. Common pass decentered annular ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, D. A.; Waite, T. R.

    1985-04-30

    An optical resonator having an annular cylindrical gain region for use in a chemical laser or the like in which two ring-shaped mirrors having substantially conical reflecting surfaces are spaced apart along a common axis of revolution of the respective conical surfaces. A central conical mirror reflects incident light directed along said axis radially outwardly to the reflecting surface of a first one of the ring-shaped mirrors. The radial light rays are reflected by the first ring mirror to the second ring mirror within an annular cylindrical volume concentric with said common axis and forming a gain region. Light rays impinging on the second ring mirror are reflected to diametrically opposite points on the same conical mirror surfaces and back to the first ring mirror through the same annular cylindrical volume. The return rays are then reflected by the conical mirror surface of the first ring mirror back to the central conical mirror. The mirror surfaces are angled such that the return rays are reflected back along the common axis by the central mirror in a concentric annular cylindrical volume. A scraper mirror having a central opening centered on said axis and an offset opening reflects all but the rays passing through the two openings in an output beam. The rays passing through the second opening are reflected back through the first opening to provide feedback.

  6. Comparison of cryogenic low-pass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, M.; Pernau, H.-F.; Strunk, C.; Scheer, E.; Pietsch, T.

    2017-11-01

    Low-temperature electronic transport measurements with high energy resolution require both effective low-pass filtering of high-frequency input noise and an optimized thermalization of the electronic system of the experiment. In recent years, elaborate filter designs have been developed for cryogenic low-level measurements, driven by the growing interest in fundamental quantum-physical phenomena at energy scales corresponding to temperatures in the few millikelvin regime. However, a single filter concept is often insufficient to thermalize the electronic system to the cryogenic bath and eliminate spurious high frequency noise. Moreover, the available concepts often provide inadequate filtering to operate at temperatures below 10 mK, which are routinely available now in dilution cryogenic systems. Herein we provide a comprehensive analysis of commonly used filter types, introduce a novel compact filter type based on ferrite compounds optimized for the frequency range above 20 GHz, and develop an improved filtering scheme providing adaptable broad-band low-pass characteristic for cryogenic low-level and quantum measurement applications at temperatures down to few millikelvin.

  7. Comparison of cryogenic low-pass filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, M; Pernau, H-F; Strunk, C; Scheer, E; Pietsch, T

    2017-11-01

    Low-temperature electronic transport measurements with high energy resolution require both effective low-pass filtering of high-frequency input noise and an optimized thermalization of the electronic system of the experiment. In recent years, elaborate filter designs have been developed for cryogenic low-level measurements, driven by the growing interest in fundamental quantum-physical phenomena at energy scales corresponding to temperatures in the few millikelvin regime. However, a single filter concept is often insufficient to thermalize the electronic system to the cryogenic bath and eliminate spurious high frequency noise. Moreover, the available concepts often provide inadequate filtering to operate at temperatures below 10 mK, which are routinely available now in dilution cryogenic systems. Herein we provide a comprehensive analysis of commonly used filter types, introduce a novel compact filter type based on ferrite compounds optimized for the frequency range above 20 GHz, and develop an improved filtering scheme providing adaptable broad-band low-pass characteristic for cryogenic low-level and quantum measurement applications at temperatures down to few millikelvin.

  8. An experimental evaluation of multi-pass solar air heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satcunanathan, S.; Persad, P.

    1980-12-01

    Three collectors of identical dimensions but operating in the single-pass, two-pass and three-pass modes were tested simultaneously under ambient conditions. It was found that the two-pass air heater was consistently better than the single-pass air heater over the day for the range of mass flow rates considered. It was also found that at a mass flow rate of 0.0095 kg s/sup -1/ m/sup -2/, the thermal performances of the two-pass and three-pass collectors were identical, but at higher flow rates the two-pass collector was superior to the three-pass collector, the superiority decreasing with increasing mass flow rate.

  9. Preferred viewing distance and screen angle of electronic paper displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Kong-King; Lee, Der-Song

    2007-09-01

    This study explored the viewing distance and screen angle for electronic paper (E-Paper) displays under various light sources, ambient illuminations, and character sizes. Data analysis showed that the mean viewing distance and screen angle were 495 mm and 123.7 degrees. The mean viewing distances for Kolin Chlorestic Liquid Crystal display was 500 mm, significantly longer than Sony electronic ink display, 491 mm. Screen angle for Kolin was 127.4 degrees, significantly greater than that of Sony, 120.0 degrees. Various light sources revealed no significant effect on viewing distances; nevertheless, they showed significant effect on screen angles. The screen angle for sunlight lamp (D65) was similar to that of fluorescent lamp (TL84), but greater than that of tungsten lamp (F). Ambient illumination and E-paper type had significant effects on viewing distance and screen angle. The higher the ambient illumination was, the longer the viewing distance and the lesser the screen angle. Character size had significant effect on viewing distances: the larger the character size, the longer the viewing distance. The results of this study indicated that the viewing distance for E-Paper was similar to that of visual display terminal (VDT) at around 500 mm, but greater than normal paper at about 360 mm. The mean screen angle was around 123.7 degrees, which in terms of viewing angle is 29.5 degrees below horizontal eye level. This result is similar to the general suggested viewing angle between 20 degrees and 50 degrees below the horizontal line of sight.

  10. The VBB SEIS experiment of InSight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raucourt, Sebastien; Gabsi, Taoufik; Tanguy, Nebut; Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine; Banerdt, William; Tillier, Sylvain; Hurst, Kenneth

    2012-07-01

    SEIS is the core payload of InSight, one of the three missions selected for competitive phase A in the frame of the 2010 Discovery AO. It aims at providing unique observation of the interior structure of Mars and to monitor seismic activity of Mars. SEIS will provide the first seismic model from another planet than Earth. SEIS is an hybrid seismometer composed of 3 SPs and 3 VBBs axes providing ground motion measurement from Dc to 50Hz. A leveling system will ensure the coupling between the ground and the sensors as well as the horizontality of the VBB sphere. This assembly will be deployed on the ground of Mars and will be shielded by a strong thermal insulation and a wind shield. The 24 bits low noise acquisition electronics will remain in the warm electronic box of the lander with the sensors feedback and leveling system electronics. The VBB sphere enclosed three single axis sensors. Those sensors are based on an inverted leaf spring pendulum, which convert ground acceleration into mobile mass displacement. A capacitive displacement sensor monitors this mass displacement to provide a measurement. A force feedback allows transfer function and sensitivity tuning. The VBB sensor has a very strong heritage from previous project and benefits from recent work to improve its performances. Both the mechanical design and the displacement sensors have optimized to improve performances while reducing technological risk and keeping a high TRL. From those development a self-noise well below 10 ^{-9} m.s ^{-2}/sqrt Hz is expected. Environmental sensitivity of SEIS has been minimized by the design of a very efficient wind and thermal shield. Remaining noise is expected to be very close to the VBB self-noise. Associated sources and budget will be discussed. If InSight is selected to fly in 2016, this experiment will provide very high quality seismic signal measurement with a wider bandwidth, higher sensitivity and lower noise than previous Mars seismometer (Viking and Optimism

  11. Statistical variability and confidence intervals for planar dose QA pass rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Daniel W.; Nelms, Benjamin E.; Attwood, Kristopher; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Podgorsak, Matthew B. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States) and Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States) and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The most common metric for comparing measured to calculated dose, such as for pretreatment quality assurance of intensity-modulated photon fields, is a pass rate (%) generated using percent difference (%Diff), distance-to-agreement (DTA), or some combination of the two (e.g., gamma evaluation). For many dosimeters, the grid of analyzed points corresponds to an array with a low areal density of point detectors. In these cases, the pass rates for any given comparison criteria are not absolute but exhibit statistical variability that is a function, in part, on the detector sampling geometry. In this work, the authors analyze the statistics of various methods commonly used to calculate pass rates and propose methods for establishing confidence intervals for pass rates obtained with low-density arrays. Methods: Dose planes were acquired for 25 prostate and 79 head and neck intensity-modulated fields via diode array and electronic portal imaging device (EPID), and matching calculated dose planes were created via a commercial treatment planning system. Pass rates for each dose plane pair (both centered to the beam central axis) were calculated with several common comparison methods: %Diff/DTA composite analysis and gamma evaluation, using absolute dose comparison with both local and global normalization. Specialized software was designed to selectively sample the measured EPID response (very high data density) down to discrete points to simulate low-density measurements. The software was used to realign the simulated detector grid at many simulated positions with respect to the beam central axis, thereby altering the low-density sampled grid. Simulations were repeated with 100 positional iterations using a 1 detector/cm{sup 2} uniform grid, a 2 detector/cm{sup 2} uniform grid, and similar random detector grids. For each simulation, %/DTA composite pass rates were calculated with various %Diff/DTA criteria and for both local and global %Diff normalization

  12. The Pension Fund passes important milestones

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    In this column, the Chairman of the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) presents the Board's latest main decisions, initiatives and accomplishments to the Fund's members and beneficiaries.   Since my last report in October, the PFGB has passed several milestones in actuarial, technical and investment matters. The PFGB has completed an analysis of a request by the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) to reduce the increased cost of pension insurance for new ESO recruits that has been caused by the increased CHF/€ exchange ratio. Currently the staff of ESO are admitted to the CERN Pension Fund, pursuant to a co-operation agreement between CERN and ESO dating back to 1968. This analysis assessed the actuarial, financial, administrative and legal implications, and is scheduled to be presented to the CERN Council and the Finance Committee in December. After an open tendering process the PFGB has selected Buck Consultants Limited...

  13. The baton passes to the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Held in the picturesque mountain setting of La Thuile in the Italian Alps, the international conference “Rencontres de Moriond” showed how the baton of discovery in the field of high-energy physics is definitely passing to the LHC experiments. In the well-known spirit of Moriond, the conference was an important platform for young students to present their latest results. The Higgs boson might well be within reach this year and the jet-quenching phenomenon might reveal new things soon…   New physics discussed over the Italian Alps during the "Les rencontres de Moriond" conference.  (Photographer: Paul Gerritsen. Adapted by Katarina Anthony) Known by physicists as one of the most important winter conferences, “Les rencontres de Moriond” are actually a series of conferences spread over two weeks covering the main themes of electroweak interactions, QCD and high-energy interactions, cosmology, gravitation, astropar...

  14. Archiving InSight Lander Science Data Using PDS4 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T.; Guinness, E. A.; Slavney, S.

    2017-12-01

    The InSight Mars Lander is scheduled for launch in 2018, and science data from the mission will be archived in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) using the new PDS4 standards. InSight is a geophysical lander with a science payload that includes a seismometer, a probe to measure subsurface temperatures and heat flow, a suite of meteorology instruments, a magnetometer, an experiment using radio tracking, and a robotic arm that will provide soil physical property information based on interactions with the surface. InSight is not the first science mission to archive its data using PDS4. However, PDS4 archives do not currently contain examples of the kinds of data that several of the InSight instruments will produce. Whereas the existing common PDS4 standards were sufficient for most of archiving requirements of InSight, the data generated by a few instruments required development of several extensions to the PDS4 information model. For example, the seismometer will deliver a version of its data in SEED format, which is standard for the terrestrial seismology community. This format required the design of a new product type in the PDS4 information model. A local data dictionary has also been developed for InSight that contains attributes that are not part of the common PDS4 dictionary. The local dictionary provides metadata relevant to all InSight data sets, and attributes specific to several of the instruments. Additional classes and attributes were designed for the existing PDS4 geometry dictionary that will capture metadata for the lander position and orientation, along with camera models for stereo image processing. Much of the InSight archive planning and design work has been done by a Data Archiving Working Group (DAWG), which has members from the InSight project and the PDS. The group coordinates archive design, schedules and peer review of the archive documentation and test products. The InSight DAWG archiving effort for PDS is being led by the PDS Geosciences

  15. Distance Teaching on Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn J. S.; Clausen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology and the organi......The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology...

  16. Theoretical Principles of Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore);…

  17. Eliminating line of sight in elliptic guides using gravitational curving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleno, Kaspar H.; Willendrup, Peter K.; Knudsen, Erik; Lefmann, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Eliminating fast neutrons (λ<0.5A) by removing direct line of sight between the source and the target sample is a well established technique. This can be done with little loss of transmission for a straight neutron guide by horizontal curving. With an elliptic guide shape, however, curving the guide would result in a breakdown of the geometrical focusing mechanism inherent to the elliptical shape, resulting in unwanted reflections and loss of transmission. We present a new and yet untried idea by curving a guide in such a way as to follow the ballistic curve of a neutron in the gravitational field, while still retaining the elliptic shape seen from the accelerated reference frame of the neutron. Analytical calculations and ray-tracing simulations show that this method is useful for cold neutrons at guide lengths in excess of 100 m. We will present some of the latest results for guide optimization relevant for instrument design at the ESS, in particular an off-backscattering spectrometer which utilizes the gravitational curving, for 6.66 A neutrons over a guide length of 300 m.

  18. Convergent and invariant object representations for sight, sound, and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kingson; Damasio, Antonio; Meyer, Kaspar; Kaplan, Jonas T

    2015-09-01

    We continuously perceive objects in the world through multiple sensory channels. In this study, we investigated the convergence of information from different sensory streams within the cerebral cortex. We presented volunteers with three common objects via three different modalities-sight, sound, and touch-and used multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data to map the cortical regions containing information about the identity of the objects. We could reliably predict which of the three stimuli a subject had seen, heard, or touched from the pattern of neural activity in the corresponding early sensory cortices. Intramodal classification was also successful in large portions of the cerebral cortex beyond the primary areas, with multiple regions showing convergence of information from two or all three modalities. Using crossmodal classification, we also searched for brain regions that would represent objects in a similar fashion across different modalities of presentation. We trained a classifier to distinguish objects presented in one modality and then tested it on the same objects presented in a different modality. We detected audiovisual invariance in the right temporo-occipital junction, audiotactile invariance in the left postcentral gyrus and parietal operculum, and visuotactile invariance in the right postcentral and supramarginal gyri. Our maps of multisensory convergence and crossmodal generalization reveal the underlying organization of the association cortices, and may be related to the neural basis for mental concepts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Setting Sight on Role Playing: To Accommodate or to Repudiate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Apriani Fata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To set sight on role play by means to look at EFL teacher’s experience and students’ perspectives of role play (RP technique enactment in teaching speaking by using qualitative design. This research was a qualitative study. It was discharged at a Senior high school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It provided work for the instrument of observation sheet, field notes and interview guide, and also questionnaire. The methodology designated the combination of four mountainsides to expose in-depth the urgency of role play in which applied since 1936. The result of interview was exposed that the English teacher claimed that role play was a technique applied to promote speaking and it was corroborated by the result of field note. Likewise, regarding students’ perspective depicted that the students indeed agreed on themselves of the usefulness of role play to enhance their speaking skill and motivation. Thus, Students asserted that the learning was more fun and enjoyable through role play itself. It is merely found in this research study that role playing can accommodate students’ need and teacher’s side in English language teaching. Nevertheless, this article applies a small subject as the participant. Therefore, the researchers recommended to have a deep look at reasoning students’ point of view in terms of role play technique implementation in non-English class. And see ascertains how beneficial it is in terms of role play (RP in a large classroom.

  20. Fast Computing for Distance Covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Xiaoming; Szekely, Gabor J.

    2014-01-01

    Distance covariance and distance correlation have been widely adopted in measuring dependence of a pair of random variables or random vectors. If the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation is implemented directly accordingly to its definition then its computational complexity is O($n^2$) which is a disadvantage compared to other faster methods. In this paper we show that the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation of real valued random variables can be...

  1. Retail Bank Interest Rate Pass-Through; Is Chile Atypical?

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Rebucci; Marco A Espinosa-Vega

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the pass-through of money market interest rates to retail banking interest rates in Chile, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and five European countries. Overall, Chile's pass-through does not appear atypical. Based on a standard error-correction model, we find that, as in most countries considered, Chile's measured pass-through is incomplete. But Chile's pass-through is also faster than in many other countries considered and is comparable ...

  2. ESTIMATION OF DISTANCES TO STARS WITH STELLAR PARAMETERS FROM LAMOST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Newberg, Heidi Jo [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Liu, Chao; Deng, Licai; Li, Guangwei; Luo, A-Li; Wu, Yue; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Haotong [Key Lab of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Chen, Li; Hou, Jinliang; Smith, Martin C. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hou, Yonghui [Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210042 (China); Lépine, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Zheng, Zheng, E-mail: jeffreylcarlin@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    We present a method to estimate distances to stars with spectroscopically derived stellar parameters. The technique is a Bayesian approach with likelihood estimated via comparison of measured parameters to a grid of stellar isochrones, and returns a posterior probability density function for each star’s absolute magnitude. This technique is tailored specifically to data from the Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey. Because LAMOST obtains roughly 3000 stellar spectra simultaneously within each ∼5° diameter “plate” that is observed, we can use the stellar parameters of the observed stars to account for the stellar luminosity function and target selection effects. This removes biasing assumptions about the underlying populations, both due to predictions of the luminosity function from stellar evolution modeling, and from Galactic models of stellar populations along each line of sight. Using calibration data of stars with known distances and stellar parameters, we show that our method recovers distances for most stars within ∼20%, but with some systematic overestimation of distances to halo giants. We apply our code to the LAMOST database, and show that the current precision of LAMOST stellar parameters permits measurements of distances with ∼40% error bars. This precision should improve as the LAMOST data pipelines continue to be refined.

  3. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot's number of degrees of freedom. In addition

  4. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...

  5. The Euclidean distance degree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, J.; Horobet, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Sturmfels, B.; Thomas, R.R.; Zhi, L.; Watt, M.

    2014-01-01

    The nearest point map of a real algebraic variety with respect to Euclidean distance is an algebraic function. For instance, for varieties of low rank matrices, the Eckart-Young Theorem states that this map is given by the singular value decomposition. This article develops a theory of such nearest

  6. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  7. Determining average yarding distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  8. Prospect of Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Monsurur; Karim, Reza; Byramjee, Framarz

    2015-01-01

    Many educational institutions in the United States are currently offering programs through distance learning, and that trend is rising. In almost all spheres of education a developing country like Bangladesh needs to make available the expertise of the most qualified faculty to her distant people. But the fundamental question remains as to whether…

  9. 80537 based distance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1999-01-01

    A method for implementing a digital distance relay in the power system is described.Instructions are given on how to program this relay on a 80537 based microcomputer system.The problem is used as a practical case study in the course 53113: Micocomputer applications in the power system.The relay...

  10. An Exploration into Self Concept: A Comparative Analysis between the Adolescents Who Are Sighted and Blind in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Santoshi; Datta, Poulomee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the self concept of adolescents who are sighted and blind with respect to gender in India. The sample was made up of 160 participants aged 15 to 18 years: of whom 100 were sighted and 60 were blind. The results of the t-tests illustrated that sighted male adolescents scored higher in the overall…

  11. Tactile Acuity in the Blind: A Closer Look Reveals Superiority over the Sighted in Some but Not All Cutaneous Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alary, Flamine; Duquette, Marco; Goldstein, Rachel; Chapman, C. Elaine; Voss, Patrice; La Buissonniere-Ariza, Valerie; Lepore, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that blind subjects may outperform the sighted on certain tactile discrimination tasks. We recently showed that blind subjects outperformed the sighted in a haptic 2D-angle discrimination task. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of the same blind (n = 16) and sighted (n = 17, G1) subjects in three…

  12. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing... Preserve General Provisions § 13.918 Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. (a) Entry into the Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area is prohibited from May 1 to September 30 unless authorized by the Superintendent. (b...

  13. PASS Student Leader and Mentor Roles: A Tertiary Leadership Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Jane; Caney, Annaliese

    2010-01-01

    In relation to developing leadership skills during tertiary studies, this paper considers the leadership pathway afforded by a Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) program which includes the traditional PASS Leader role and a more senior PASS Mentor role. Data was collected using a structured survey with open-ended questions designed to capture the…

  14. The Effects of Computer-assisted and Distance Learning of Geometric Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Sozcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of computer-assisted and distance learning of geometric modeling and computer aided geometric design are studied. It was shown that computer algebra systems and dynamic geometric environments can be considered as excellent tools for teaching mathematical concepts of mentioned areas, and distance education technologies would be indispensable for consolidation of successfully passed topics

  15. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  16. Analysis of Biomechanical Structure and Passing Techniques in Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo E. Izzo; Luca Russo

    2011-01-01

    The basketball is a complex sport, which these days has become increasingly linked to its’ psychophysical aspects rather than to the technical ones. Therefore, it is important to make a through study of the passing techniques from the point of view of the type of the pass and its’ biomechanics. From the point of view of the type of the used passes, the most used is the two-handed chest pass with a frequency of 39.9%. This is followed, in terms of frequency, by one-handed passes – the baseball...

  17. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael Z; Dunn, Alan M; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-12-31

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch . Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider's desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users' desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly "re-anonymize" their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user.

  18. Distributed Programming via Safe Closure Passing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Haller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Programming systems incorporating aspects of functional programming, e.g., higher-order functions, are becoming increasingly popular for large-scale distributed programming. New frameworks such as Apache Spark leverage functional techniques to provide high-level, declarative APIs for in-memory data analytics, often outperforming traditional "big data" frameworks like Hadoop MapReduce. However, widely-used programming models remain rather ad-hoc; aspects such as implementation trade-offs, static typing, and semantics are not yet well-understood. We present a new asynchronous programming model that has at its core several principles facilitating functional processing of distributed data. The emphasis of our model is on simplicity, performance, and expressiveness. The primary means of communication is by passing functions (closures to distributed, immutable data. To ensure safe and efficient distribution of closures, our model leverages both syntactic and type-based restrictions. We report on a prototype implementation in Scala. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results evaluating the performance impact of a static, type-based optimization of serialization.

  19. How My Program Passed the Turing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrys, Mark

    In 1989, the author put an ELIZA-like chatbot on the Internet. The conversations this program had can be seen - depending on how one defines the rules (and how seriously one takes the idea of the test itself) - as a passing of the Turing Test. This is the first time this event has been properly written. This chatbot succeeded due to profanity, relentless aggression, prurient queries about the user, and implying that they were a liar when they responded. The element of surprise was also crucial. Most chatbots exist in an environment where people expectto find some bots among the humans. Not this one. What was also novel was the onlineelement. This was certainly one of the first AI programs online. It seems to have been the first (a) AI real-time chat program, which (b) had the element of surprise, and (c) was on the Internet. We conclude with some speculation that the future of all of AI is on the Internet, and a description of the "World- Wide-Mind" project that aims to bring this about.

  20. Musical Sight-Reading Expertise: Cross Modality Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drai-Zerbib Veronique

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is often said that expert musicians are capable of hearing what they read and vice versa. This suggests that they are able to process and to integrate multimodal information. The study investigates this issue with an eye-tracking technique. Two groups of musicians chosen on the basis of their level of expertise (expert and non-experts had to read excerpts of classical piano music and play them on a keyboard. In half the conditions, the participants heard the music before the reading phases. The excerpts contained suggested fingering of variable difficulty (difficult, easy, or no fingering. Analyses of first-pass fixation duration, second-pass fixation duration, probability of refixations, and playing mistakes validated the hypothesized modal independence of information among expert musicians as compared to non-experts. The results are discussed in terms of amodal memory for expert musicians, and they extend clearly our previous findings (Drai-Zerbib & Baccino, 2005. The talk will demonstrate that more experienced performers are better able to transfer learning from one modality to another, which can be in support of theoretical work by Ericsson and Kintsch (1995: more experienced performers better integrate knowledge across modalities. This view relies on the general flexibility shown in the experts' behaviour.

  1. Distance between images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, J. A.; Le Moigne, J.; Packer, C. V.

    1992-01-01

    Comparing two binary images and assigning a quantitative measure to this comparison finds its purpose in such tasks as image recognition, image compression, and image browsing. This quantitative measurement may be computed by utilizing the Hausdorff distance of the images represented as two-dimensional point sets. In this paper, we review two algorithms that have been proposed to compute this distance, and we present a parallel implementation of one of them on the MasPar parallel processor. We study their complexity and the results obtained by these algorithms for two different types of images: a set of displaced pairs of images of Gaussian densities, and a comparison of a Canny edge image with several edge images from a hierarchical region growing code.

  2. Notes on basis band-pass circuits; Notes sur les circuits de base passe-bande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Resistor load amplifier stages, basic band-pass RC networks, conventional single-tuned circuits, have the same transfer function. Common properties and differences because diverse magnitude of parameters with proposed problems are exposed. Next the case of several cascaded stages (or networks) is examined when there is no reaction ones to another. (author) [French] Les etages amplificateurs a resistances, les circuits passe-bande RC elementaires, le circuit resonnant classique possedent la meme fonction de transfert. On fait ressortir les proprietes communes et les differences de comportement dues aux ordres de grandeur qu'il est possible de donner aux parametres en fonction des problemes a resoudre. On examine ensuite le cas de plusieurs etages (ou de plusieurs circuits) en cascade lorsqu'ils ne reagissent pas les uns sur les autres. (auteur)

  3. Distance to Cure

    OpenAIRE

    Capachi, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Distance to Cure A three-part television series by Casey Capachi www.distancetocure.com   Abstract   How far would you go for health care? This three-part television series, featuring two introductory segments between each piece, focuses on the physical, cultural, and political obstacles facing rural Native American patients and the potential of health technology to break down those barriers to care.   Part one,Telemedici...

  4. Ultrametric Distance in Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mark D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phrase structure trees have a hierarchical structure. In many subjects, most notably in taxonomy such tree structures have been studied using ultrametrics. Here syntactical hierarchical phrase trees are subject to a similar analysis, which is much simpler as the branching structure is more readily discernible and switched. The ambiguity of which branching height to choose, is resolved by postulating that branching occurs at the lowest height available. An ultrametric produces a measure of the complexity of sentences: presumably the complexity of sentences increases as a language is acquired so that this can be tested. All ultrametric triangles are equilateral or isosceles. Here it is shown that X̅ structure implies that there are no equilateral triangles. Restricting attention to simple syntax a minimum ultrametric distance between lexical categories is calculated. A matrix constructed from this ultrametric distance is shown to be different than the matrix obtained from features. It is shown that the definition of C-COMMAND can be replaced by an equivalent ultrametric definition. The new definition invokes a minimum distance between nodes and this is more aesthetically satisfying than previous varieties of definitions. From the new definition of C-COMMAND follows a new definition of of the central notion in syntax namely GOVERNMENT.

  5. Haptic cues for orientation and postural control in sighted and blind individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeka, J. J.; Easton, R. D.; Bentzen, B. L.; Lackner, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Haptic cues from fingertip contact with a stable surface attenuate body sway in subjects even when the contact forces are too small to provide physical support of the body. We investigated how haptic cues derived from contact of a cane with a stationary surface at low force levels aids postural control in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Five sighted (eyes closed) and five congenitally blind subjects maintained a tandem Romberg stance in five conditions: (1) no cane; (2,3) touch contact (postural sway in all subjects, compared to the no-cane condition. A slanted cane was far more effective in reducing postural sway than was a perpendicular cane. Cane use also decreased head displacement of sighted subjects far more than that of blind subjects. These results suggest that head movement control is linked to postural control through gaze stabilization reflexes in sighted subjects; such reflexes are absent in congenitally blind individuals and may account for their higher levels of head displacement.

  6. Steller sea lion sightings or recaptures of previously marked animals throughout their range, 1987-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the sighting and capture of previously marked Steller sea lions from 1987 to the present. Marks are seen and documented...

  7. NanoChemistry Group at DTU uses NanoSight's NTA System for Nanoparticle Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    (Nanowerk News) NanoSight, leading manufacturers of unique nanoparticle characterization technology, describes how the Nano Chemistry group at DTU Copenhagen is utilizing nanoparticle tracking analysis, NTA, in its research and teaching programs....

  8. MGN V RSS LINE OF SIGHT ACCELERATION PROFILES V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Line of Sight Acceleration Profile Data Records (LOSAPDR) consist of data from Doppler tracking of the orbiting spacecraft. The relative motion of the spacecraft and...

  9. Coastal Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Imager Pointing Line-of-Sight Solution Development and Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A stable pointing line of sight solution is developed and tested in support of the Coastal Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Imager for the GEOstationary Coastal and Air...

  10. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Shark Predation Mitigation Shark Sightings and Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on direct sightings of large sharks around monk seal pupping sites and shark incidents on preweaned and newly weaned pups at French Frigate Shoals are entered...

  11. A Comparison of Emotion Regulation Strategies of Blind Students With Sighted Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Salimi

    2016-06-01

    Discussion: Emotion regulation is a possible influential factor in many problems that blind people suffer from, more than sighted ones, and using interventions that target emotion regulation strategies would be useful.

  12. Midcourse Guidance Law Based on High Target Acquisition Probability Considering Angular Constraint and Line-of-Sight Angle Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Random disturbance factors would lead to the variation of target acquisition point during the long distance flight. To acquire a high target acquisition probability and improve the impact precision, missiles should be guided to an appropriate target acquisition position with certain attitude angles and line-of-sight (LOS angle rate. This paper has presented a new midcourse guidance law considering the influences of random disturbances, detection distance restraint, and target acquisition probability with Monte Carlo simulation. Detailed analyses of the impact points on the ground and the random distribution of the target acquisition position in the 3D space are given to get the appropriate attitude angles and the end position for the midcourse guidance. Then, a new formulation biased proportional navigation (BPN guidance law with angular constraint and LOS angle rate control has been derived to ensure the tracking ability when attacking the maneuvering target. Numerical simulations demonstrates that, compared with the proportional navigation guidance (PNG law and the near-optimal spatial midcourse guidance (NSMG law, BPN guidance law demonstrates satisfactory performances and can meet both the midcourse terminal angular constraint and the LOS angle rate requirement.

  13. Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School (PASS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Clarence D.; Hathaway, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project (PASS) Project was granted a one-year no cost extension for 2001-2002. In year three of the project, objectives and strategies were modified based on the previous year-end evaluation. The recommendations were incorporated and the program was replicated within most of the remaining elementary schools in Portsmouth, Virginia and continued in the four middle schools. The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project is a partnership, which includes Norfolk State University, Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME), NASA Langley Research Center, and the City of Portsmouth, Virginia Public Schools. The project seeks to strengthen the knowledge of Portsmouth Public Schools students in the field of atmospheric sciences and enhance teacher awareness of hands on activities in the atmospheric sciences. The project specifically seeks to: 1) increase the interest and participation of elementary and middle school students in science and mathematics; 2) strengthen existing science programs; and 3) facilitate greater achievement in core subjects, which are necessary for math, science, and technical careers. Emphasis was placed on providing training activities, materials and resources for elementary students (grades 3 - 5) and middle school students (grades 6 - 8), and teachers through a CHROME club structure. The first year of the project focused on introducing elementary students to concepts and activities in atmospheric science. Year two of the project built on the first year's activities and utilizes advanced topics and activities appropriate for middle school students. During the third year of the project, in addition to the approaches used in years one and two, emphasis was placed on activities that enhanced the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL).

  14. Task demands affect spatial reference frame weighting during tactile localization in sighted and congenitally blind adults

    OpenAIRE

    Heed, Tobias; Roeder, Brigitte; Badde, Stephanie; Schubert, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Task demands modulate tactile localization in sighted humans, presumably through weight adjustments in the spatial integration of anatomical, skin-based, and external, posture-based information. In contrast, previous studies have suggested that congenitally blind humans, by default, refrain from automatic spatial integration and localize touch using only skin-based information. Here, sighted and congenitally blind participants localized tactile targets on the palm or back of one hand, while i...

  15. Looking at eye dominance from a different angle: is sighting strength related to hand preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David P; Hutchinson, Claire V

    2013-10-01

    Sighting dominance (the behavioural preference for one eye over the other under monocular viewing conditions) has traditionally been thought of as a robust individual trait. However, Khan and Crawford (2001) have shown that, under certain viewing conditions, eye preference reverses as a function of horizontal gaze angle. Remarkably, the reversal of sighting from one eye to the other depends on which hand is used to reach out and grasp the target. Their procedure provides an ideal way to measure the strength of monocular preference for sighting, which may be related to other indicators of hemispheric specialisation for speech, language and motor function. Therefore, we hypothesised that individuals with consistent side preferences (e.g., right hand, right eye) should have more robust sighting dominance than those with crossed lateral preferences. To test this idea, we compared strength of eye dominance in individuals who are consistently right or left sided for hand and foot preference with those who are not. We also modified their procedure in order to minimise a potential image size confound, suggested by Banks et al. (2004) as an explanation of Khan and Crawford's results. We found that the sighting dominance switch occurred at similar eccentricities when we controlled for effects of hand occlusion and target size differences. We also found that sighting dominance thresholds change predictably with the hand used. However, we found no evidence for relationships between strength of hand preference as assessed by questionnaire or by pegboard performance and strength of sighting dominance. Similarly, participants with consistent hand and foot preferences did not show stronger eye preference as assessed using the Khan and Crawford procedure. These data are discussed in terms of indirect relationships between sighting dominance, hand preference and cerebral specialisation for language and motor control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A large catalog of accurate distances to molecular clouds from PS1 photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Price, P. A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Distance measurements to molecular clouds are important but are often made separately for each cloud of interest, employing very different data and techniques. We present a large, homogeneous catalog of distances to molecular clouds, most of which are of unprecedented accuracy. We determine distances using optical photometry of stars along lines of sight toward these clouds, obtained from PanSTARRS-1. We simultaneously infer the reddenings and distances to these stars, tracking the full probability distribution function using a technique presented in Green et al. We fit these star-by-star measurements using a simple dust screen model to find the distance to each cloud. We thus estimate the distances to almost all of the clouds in the Magnani et al. catalog, as well as many other well-studied clouds, including Orion, Perseus, Taurus, Cepheus, Polaris, California, and Monoceros R2, avoiding only the inner Galaxy. Typical statistical uncertainties in the distances are 5%, though the systematic uncertainty stemming from the quality of our stellar models is about 10%. The resulting catalog is the largest catalog of accurate, directly measured distances to molecular clouds. Our distance estimates are generally consistent with available distance estimates from the literature, though in some cases the literature estimates are off by a factor of more than two.

  17. Galactic Structure in the Outer Disk: The Field in the Line of Sight to the Intermediate-Age open Cluster Tombaugh 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraro, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova Vicolo Osservatorio 3 I-35122, Padova (Italy); Silva, Joao Victor Sales [Observatorio Nacional/MCT Rua Gen. José Cristino 77 20291-400, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bidin, Christian Moni [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Catolica del Norte Av. Angamos 0610, Casilla 1280 Antofagasta (Chile); Vazquez, Ruben A., E-mail: giovanni.carraro@unipd.it [Instituto de Astrofisica de La Plata CONICET/ UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n La Plata (Argentina)

    2017-03-01

    We employ optical photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy to study a field toward the open cluster Tombaugh 1, where we identify a complex population mixture that we describe in terms of young and old Galactic thin disks. Of particular interest is the spatial distribution of the young population, which consists of dwarfs with spectral types as early as B6 and is distributed in a blue plume feature in the color–magnitude diagram. For the first time, we confirm spectroscopically that most of these stars are early-type stars and not blue stragglers or halo/thick-disk subdwarfs. Moreover, they are not evenly distributed along the line of sight but crowd at heliocentric distances between 6.6 and 8.2 kpc. We compare these results with present-day understanding of the spiral structure of the Galaxy and suggest that they trace the outer arm. This range of distances challenges current Galactic models adopting a disk cutoff at 14 kpc from the Galactic center. The young dwarfs overlap in space with an older component, which is identified as an old Galactic thin disk. Both young and old populations are confined in space since the disk is warped at the latitude and longitude of Tombaugh 1. The main effects of the warp are that the line of sight intersects the disk and entirely crosses it at the outer arm distance and that there are no traces of the closer Perseus arm, which would then be either unimportant in this sector or located much closer to the formal Galactic plane. Finally, we analyze a group of giant stars, which turn out to be located at very different distances and to possess very different chemical properties, with no obvious relation to the other populations.

  18. Hiding in plain sight: communication theory in implementation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Squires, Janet E; Davies, Barbara; Graham, Ian D

    2015-04-23

    ignoring a key contributor to implementation intervention success. When conceptualized as a transformational process, the focus of communication moves to shared understanding and is grounded in human interactions and the way we go about constructing knowledge. Instead of hiding in plain sight, we suggest explicitly acknowledging the role that communication plays in our implementation efforts. By using both paradigms, we can investigate when communication facilitates implementation, when it does not, and how to improve it so that our implementation and clinical interventions are embraced by clinicians and patients alike.

  19. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  20. Distance Metric Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    whereBψ is any Bregman divergence and ηt is the learning rate parameter. From (Hall & Willett, 2015) we have: Theorem 1. G` = max θ∈Θ,`∈L ‖∇f(θ)‖ φmax = 1...Kullback-Liebler divergence between an initial guess of the matrix that parameterizes the Mahalanobis distance and a solution that satisfies a set of...Bregman divergence and ηt is the learning rate parameter. M̂0, µ̂0 are initialized to some initial value. In [18] a closed-form algorithm for solving

  1. Chelyabinsk fireball and Dyatlov pass tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2013-09-01

    The Chelyabinsk bolide as well as the Kunashak meteorite in 1949 (Fig. 3, black square) hit ground in ectonically peculiar place in the Ural Mountains. The main explosion was followed by a series of weaker bangs. The long Uralian fold belt (Pz) separates two subsectors (1 & 2, Fig. 1) of the Eurasian sector (1+2) of the Eastern hemisphere sectoral structure (Fig. 1). At the Pamirs-Hindukush massif (the "Pamirs' cross") meet four tectonic sectors of this structure: two opposite differently uplifted (Africa-Mediterranean ++ and Asian +) and separating them two opposite differently subsided (Eurasian - and Indooceanic - -). Tectonic bisectors divide the sectors into two differently tectonically elevated subsectors. The Ural Mountains is one of these bisectors dividing the somewhat risen East-European subsector and the relatively fallen West-Siberian one. Even more important is the sharp tectonic boundary between subsided Eurasian sector and uplifted Asian one (between 2 and 3, Fig. 1). Fig. 3 shows distribution of electrophonic bolides over USSR [1]. Observations numbers are in circles. The total of 343 observations is distributed at relevant districts; accompanied meteorites were found only in 23-24 cases; in the chart are excluded background values of 1-2 observations per district. Two areas are obviously anomalous. These of the Urals, and the Eurasia-Asia sectoral contact (Novosibirsk - Yenisei R. - Tunguska). A location in the long Uralian belt is determined by its intersection with the Timan fold belt coming from the northwest (Fig. 3). The catastrophic Dyatlov pass where nine people mysteriously died at once occurs there (triangle in Fig. 3). Mancy aborigines know this place as deadly where killing white shining spheres appear. Moreover this belt intersection is well known among hunters for UFO as the Permian triangle (Fig. 2). They meet there to observe unusual atmospheric shining and other anomalous phenomena. In the Yenisei-Tunguska-Baikal region lightning

  2. Spanish validation of the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Ana; Ochoa, Susana; Baños, Iris; Dolz, Montse; Villalta-Gil, Victoria; Vilaplana, Miriam; Autonell, Jaume; Sánchez, Bernardo; Cervilla, Jorge A; Foix, Alexandrina; Obiols, Jordi E; Haro, Josep Maria; Usall, Judith

    2013-02-01

    The Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) has been the most widely used scale to quantify premorbid status in schizophrenia, coming to be regarded as the gold standard of retrospective assessment instruments. To examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the PAS (PAS-S). Retrospective study of 140 individuals experiencing a first episode of psychosis (n=77) and individuals who have schizophrenia (n=63), both adult and adolescent patients. Data were collected through a socio-demographic questionnaire and a battery of instruments which includes the following scales: PAS-S, PANSS, LSP, GAF and DAS-sv. The Cronbach's alpha was performed to assess the internal consistency of PAS-S. Pearson's correlations were performed to assess the convergent and discriminant validity. The Cronbach's alpha of the PAS-S scale was 0.85. The correlation between social PAS-S and total PAS-S was 0.85 (p<0.001); while for academic PAS-S and total PAS-S it was 0.53 (p<0.001). Significant correlations were observed between all the scores of each age period evaluated across the PAS-S scale, with a significance value less than 0.001. There was a relationship between negative symptoms and social PAS-S (0.20, p<0.05) and total PAS-S (0.22, p<0.05), but not with academic PAS-S. However, there was a correlation between academic PAS-S and general subscale of the PANSS (0.19, p<0.05). Social PAS-S was related to disability measures (DAS-sv); and academic PAS-S showed discriminant validity with most of the variables of social functioning. PAS-S did not show association with the total LSP scale (discriminant validity). The Spanish version of the Premorbid Adjustment Scale showed appropriate psychometric properties in patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis and who have a chronic evolution of the illness. Moreover, each domain of the PAS-S (social and academic premorbid functioning) showed a differential relationship to other characteristics such as psychotic symptoms, disability

  3. PERBANDINGAN EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE DENGAN CANBERRA DISTANCE PADA FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendhy Rachmat Wurdianarto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan ilmu pada dunia komputer sangatlah pesat. Salah satu yang menandai hal ini adalah ilmu komputer telah merambah pada dunia biometrik. Arti biometrik sendiri adalah karakter-karakter manusia yang dapat digunakan untuk membedakan antara orang yang satu dengan yang lainnya. Salah satu pemanfaatan karakter / organ tubuh pada setiap manusia yang digunakan untuk identifikasi (pengenalan adalah dengan memanfaatkan wajah. Dari permasalahan diatas dalam pengenalan lebih tentang aplikasi Matlab pada Face Recognation menggunakan metode Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Model pengembangan aplikasi yang digunakan adalah model waterfall. Model waterfall beriisi rangkaian aktivitas proses yang disajikan dalam proses analisa kebutuhan, desain menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language, inputan objek gambar diproses menggunakan Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Kesimpulan yang dapat ditarik adalah aplikasi face Recognation menggunakan metode euclidean Distance dan Canverra Distance terdapat kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing. Untuk kedepannya aplikasi tersebut dapat dikembangkan dengan menggunakan objek berupa video ataupun objek lainnya.   Kata kunci : Euclidean Distance, Face Recognition, Biometrik, Canberra Distance

  4. Distance collaborations with industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.

    1998-06-01

    The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.

  5. Characteristics of functional tension of qualified skiers when passing rises of different difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Khmelnytska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: studying of main functional changes in organism of qualified female skiers when passing rises of different difficulty. Materials: 12 female skiers of combined team of Ukraine of 21-34 years’ age were tested. Pedagogic observation included: speed metering (system of GPS- navigation, pulse metering (telemetric register of heart beats rate Polar RS800. In process of ski track passing we registered content of exhaled air (radio-telemetric gas-analytic complex MetaMax 3B, Cortex. Sportswomen fulfilled control passing of competition 6 km distance (2 circles, 3 km each in classic style on ski rollers. Ski track was determined by coach. In the course of track’s passing we registered indicators of speed and track profile with discreteness 1 sec. Assessment of special workability and realization of functional potentials was determined by characteristics of external breathing at the end of each rise. Results: it was found that the highest correlation belonged to the following indicators: frequency of breathing (r = 0.38; oxygen consumption (r = 0.29; ventilation equivalent by О 2(r = 0.68. We detected high interconnection between length of distance and ventilation equivalent by СО 2 (r=0.61. It was determined that factors of organism’s anaerobic efficiency change according to relief of track. They increase on rises and reduce on descends. With it increase on long rises is much higher than on middle size rises. Conclusions: effectiveness of different difficulty rises’ overcoming depends on potentials of anaerobic mechanisms and their realization that, to certain extent, influence on sport efficiency.

  6. Pass-Through to Import Prices: Evidence from Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Fuentes

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I study the pass-through of nominal exchange rate changes to the price of imported goods in four developing countries. The results indicate that 75% of changes in the exchange rate are passed-through to the domestic currency price of imported goods within one quarter. Complete pass-through is attained within one year. There is no evidence that exchange rate pass-through to the price of imported goods has declined over time even in those countries that have managed to reduce infl...

  7. Trends in anecdotal fox sightings in Tasmania accounted for by psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Clive A; Clark, Malcolm; Obendorf, David; Hall, Graham P; Soares, Inês; Pereira, Filipe

    2017-12-01

    There has been little evaluation of anecdotal sightings as a means to confirm new incursions of invasive species. This paper explores the potential for equivocal information communicated by the media to account for patterns of anecdotal reports. In 2001, it was widely reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) had been deliberately released in the island state of Tasmania (Australia), although this claim was later revealed to be baseless. Regardless, by 2013 a total of 3153 anecdotal fox sightings had been reported by members of the public, which implied their distribution was wide. For each month in 2001-2003, we defined a monthly media index (MMI) of fox-related media coverage, an index of their relative seasonal abundance (abundance), and a factor denoting claims of fox evidence (claimed evidence) regardless of its evidentiary quality. We fitted a generalized linear model with Poisson error for monthly totals of anecdotal sightings with factors of year and claimed evidence and covariates of MMI, abundance, and hours of darkness. The collective effect of psychological factors (MMI, claimed evidence, and year) relative to biophysical factors (photoperiod and abundance) was highly significant (χ 2 = 122.1, df = 6, p fox media from 2001 to 2010 was strongly associated with the yearly tally of anecdotal sightings (p = 0.018). The odds ratio of sightings ranked as reliable by the fox eradication program in any year decreased exponentially at a rate of 0.00643 as the total number of sightings increased (p < 0.0001) and was indicative of an observer-expectancy bias. Our results suggest anecdotal sightings are highly susceptible to cognitive biases and when used to qualify and quantify species presence can contribute to flawed risk assessments. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Interactive Distance Learning in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Jesse John; Murphy, Robert J.

    This paper provides an overview of distance learning activities in Connecticut and addresses the feasibility of such activities. Distance education programs have evolved from the one dimensional electronic mail systems to the use of sophisticated digital fiber networks. The Middlesex Distance Learning Consortium has developed a long-range plan to…

  9. Distance covariance for stochastic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsui, Muneya; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2017-01-01

    The distance covariance of two random vectors is a measure of their dependence. The empirical distance covariance and correlation can be used as statistical tools for testing whether two random vectors are independent. We propose an analog of the distance covariance for two stochastic processes...

  10. DISTANCES TO DARK CLOUDS: COMPARING EXTINCTION DISTANCES TO MASER PARALLAX DISTANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M.; Stead, Joseph J.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    We test two different methods of using near-infrared extinction to estimate distances to dark clouds in the first quadrant of the Galaxy using large near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey) surveys. Very long baseline interferometry parallax measurements of masers around massive young stars provide the most direct and bias-free measurement of the distance to these dark clouds. We compare the extinction distance estimates to these maser parallax distances. We also compare these distances to kinematic distances, including recent re-calibrations of the Galactic rotation curve. The extinction distance methods agree with the maser parallax distances (within the errors) between 66% and 100% of the time (depending on method and input survey) and between 85% and 100% of the time outside of the crowded Galactic center. Although the sample size is small, extinction distance methods reproduce maser parallax distances better than kinematic distances; furthermore, extinction distance methods do not suffer from the kinematic distance ambiguity. This validation gives us confidence that these extinction methods may be extended to additional dark clouds where maser parallaxes are not available.

  11. Creating a store environment that encourages buying: A study on sight atmospherics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande Hefer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available More than ever, consumers respond to more than just the physical product when making a decision to purchase a product. One of the most noteworthy features of a product is the atmosphere of the place in which the product is bought. From time to time, the store atmosphere is more powerful than the product itself. This study focused specifically on the most important atmospheric element – sight. The main research question explored the effect of sight atmospherics on consumer perceptions. Explorative research was conducted together with qualitative research by means of focus groups. Purposive sampling was deemed the most appropriate sampling method for this study. The findings indicated that sight atmospherics can influence consumers’ perceptions either subconsciously or consciously, and have a direct influence on the amount of time consumers spend in a specific store. Consumers perceived sight atmospherics as a tool to establish a ‘purchasing’ atmosphere and as a means of communication to represent the brand of the store. It was established that sight atmospherics create visual attraction and stimulation with consumers, and that they contribute to the image and the character of the store.

  12. OnSight: Multi-platform Visualization of the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, S. P.; Menzies, A.; Winter, A.; Clausen, M.; Duran, B.; Jorritsma, M.; Goddard, C.; Lidawer, A.

    2017-12-01

    A key challenge of planetary geology is to develop an understanding of an environment that humans cannot (yet) visit. Instead, scientists rely on visualizations created from images sent back by robotic explorers, such as the Curiosity Mars rover. OnSight is a multi-platform visualization tool that helps scientists and engineers to visualize the surface of Mars. Terrain visualization allows scientists to understand the scale and geometric relationships of the environment around the Curiosity rover, both for scientific understanding and for tactical consideration in safely operating the rover. OnSight includes a web-based 2D/3D visualization tool, as well as an immersive mixed reality visualization. In addition, OnSight offers a novel feature for communication among the science team. Using the multiuser feature of OnSight, scientists can meet virtually on Mars, to discuss geology in a shared spatial context. Combining web-based visualization with immersive visualization allows OnSight to leverage strengths of both platforms. This project demonstrates how 3D visualization can be adapted to either an immersive environment or a computer screen, and will discuss advantages and disadvantages of both platforms.

  13. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Lester, Henry A; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-08-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period.

  14. From perception to metacognition: Auditory and olfactory functions in early blind, late blind, and sighted individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Cornell Kärnekull

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15, late blind (n = 15, and sighted (n = 30 participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity.

  15. Mouse myocardial first-pass perfusion MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Bram F.; Moonen, Rik P. M.; Paulis, Leonie E. M.; Geelen, Tessa; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2010-01-01

    A first-pass myocardial perfusion sequence for mouse cardiac MRI is presented. A segmented ECG-triggered acquisition combined with parallel imaging acceleration was used to capture the first pass of a Gd-DTPA bolus through the mouse heart with a temporal resolution of 300-400 msec. The method was

  16. Mouse myocardial first-pass perfusion MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, B.F.; Moonen, R.P.M.; Paulis, L.E.M.; Geelen, T.; Nicolay, K.; Strijkers, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    A first-pass myocardial perfusion sequence for mouse cardiac MRI is presented. A segmented ECG-triggered acquisition combined with parallel imaging acceleration was used to capture the first pass of a Gd-DTPA bolus through the mouse heart with a temporal resolution of 300–400 msec. The method was

  17. Teaching Strategies for the Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebolt, Kevin; Zhang, Peng; Brett, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article shares teaching strategies for the forearm pass in the game of volleyball and identifies how they will help students improve their performance and development of forearm passing skills. The article also provides an assessment rubric to facilitate student understanding of the skill.

  18. Safety analysis of passing maneuvers using extreme value theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen Farah

    2017-04-01

    The results indicate that this is a promising approach for safety evaluation. On-going work of the authors will attempt to generalize this method to other safety measures related to passing maneuvers, test it for the detailed analysis of the effect of demographic factors on passing maneuvers' crash probability and for its usefulness in a traffic simulation environment.

  19. Analysis of Biomechanical Structure and Passing Techniques in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E. Izzo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The basketball is a complex sport, which these days has become increasingly linked to its’ psychophysical aspects rather than to the technical ones. Therefore, it is important to make a through study of the passing techniques from the point of view of the type of the pass and its’ biomechanics. From the point of view of the type of the used passes, the most used is the two-handed chest pass with a frequency of 39.9%. This is followed, in terms of frequency, by one-handed passes – the baseball, with 20.9 % – and by the two-handed over the head pass, with 18.2 %, and finally, one- or two-handed indirect passes (bounces, with 11.2 % and 9.8 %. Considering the most used pass in basketball, from the biomechanical point of view, the muscles involved in the correct movement consider all the muscles of the upper extremity, adding also the shoulder muscles as well as the body fixators (abdominals, hip flexors, knee extensors, and dorsal flexors of the foot. The technical and conditional analysis considers the throwing speed, the throw height and the air resistance. In conclusion, the aim of this study is to give some guidelines to improve the mechanical execution of the movements in training, without neglecting the importance of the harmony of the movements themselves.

  20. 9 CFR 381.79 - Passing of carcasses and parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passing of carcasses and parts. 381.79 Section 381.79 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Carcasses and Parts § 381.79 Passing of carcasses and parts. Each carcass and all organs and other parts of...

  1. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pass-through investments. 560.32 Section 560.32 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.32 Pass-through investments. (a) A...

  2. H0LiCOW - III. Quantifying the effect of mass along the line of sight to the gravitational lens HE 0435-1223 through weighted galaxy counts★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Cristian E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Sluse, Dominique; Hilbert, Stefan; Wong, Kenneth C.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Suyu, Sherry H.; Collett, Thomas E.; Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Leon V. E.

    2017-06-01

    Based on spectroscopy and multiband wide-field observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar HE 0435-1223, we determine the probability distribution function of the external convergence κext for this system. We measure the under/overdensity of the line of sight towards the lens system and compare it to the average line of sight throughout the Universe, determined by using the CFHTLenS (The Canada France Hawaii Lensing Survey) as a control field. Aiming to constrain κext as tightly as possible, we determine under/overdensities using various combinations of relevant informative weighting schemes for the galaxy counts, such as projected distance to the lens, redshift and stellar mass. We then convert the measured under/overdensities into a κext distribution, using ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation. We explore several limiting magnitudes and apertures, and account for systematic and statistical uncertainties relevant to the quality of the observational data, which we further test through simulations. Our most robust estimate of κext has a median value κ^med_ext = 0.004 and a standard deviation σκ = 0.025. The measured σκ corresponds to 2.5 per cent relative uncertainty on the time delay distance, and hence the Hubble constant H0 inferred from this system. The median κ^med_ext value varies by ˜0.005 with the adopted aperture radius, limiting magnitude and weighting scheme, as long as the latter incorporates galaxy number counts, the projected distance to the main lens and a prior on the external shear obtained from mass modelling. This corresponds to just ˜0.5 per cent systematic impact on H0. The availability of a well-constrained κext makes HE 0435-1223 a valuable system for measuring cosmological parameters using strong gravitational lens time delays.

  3. An analysis of initial acquisition and maintenance of sight words following picture matching and copy cover, and compare teaching methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Conley, Colleen M; Derby, K Mark; Roberts-Gwinn, Michelle; Weber, Kimberly P; McLaughlin, T E

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the copy, cover, and compare method to a picture-word matching method for teaching sight word recognition. Participants were 5 kindergarten students with less than preprimer sight word vocabularies who were enrolled in a public school in the Pacific Northwest. A multielement design was used to evaluate the effects of the two interventions. Outcomes suggested that sight words taught using the copy, cover, and compare method resulted in better maintenance of word recognition...

  4. Music Memory Following Short-term Practice and Its Relationship with the Sight-reading Abilities of Professional Pianists

    OpenAIRE

    Aiba, Eriko; Matsui, Toshie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory...

  5. Análisis del adelantamiento en carreteras convencionales y propuesta de modelos para la mejora del diseño y de la señalización de las mismas.

    OpenAIRE

    Llorca García, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    [EN] On two-lane rural roads, passing maneuvers allow faster vehicles to pass the slower ones, in order to reduce interferences and improve level of service. However, to pass a slower vehicle, it is necessary to occupy the opposing lane, which had a significant impact on road safety and road operations. For this reason, passing is only permitted at certain parts of the road, where, according to geometric design and marking guidelines, there is sufficient passing sight distance. Passing sight ...

  6. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot\\'s number of degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning, and in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1000-link multi-loop systems of varying topology in less than a second. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  7. The dialectics of vision: Oskar Kokoschka and the historiography of expressionistic sight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Timpano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal essay ‘On the Nature of Visions’, Oskar Kokoschka proposes a theory of expressionistic sight that advocates the centrality of both optical and psychological processes in the development of this sensorial construct. The present study argues that Kokoschka’s novel handling of the role of vision in the image forming process implicitly elucidates expressionistic sight as a process fashioned through the dialectical tension that arises from these two prevalent, though oppositional views of artistic vision in the early twentieth century. As such, the historiography of expressionistic sight offered by Kokoschka stands in stark contrast to other prevailing histories written by his interlocutors in fin-de-siècle Germany and Austria.

  8. A Novel Guidance Law with Line-of-Sight Acceleration Feedback for Missiles against Maneuvering Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemao Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal guidance law design and its implementation are considered for homing missiles against maneuvering targets. The lateral acceleration dynamics are taken into account in the design. In the guidance law design, the line-of-sight acceleration signals are incorporated into the acceleration reference signals to compensate for the targets’ maneuvers. Then the commanded accelerations are designed and the convergent tracking of the lateral accelerations to these signals is proven theoretically. In the guidance implementation, a linear high-gain differentiator is used to estimate the line-of-sight rates and the line-of-sight acceleration signals. To avoid the magnifying effects of higher order differentiation, a practical design of commanded accelerations is given to realize approximate tracking of the lateral accelerations to the given reference signals. Simulation is conducted for both cases with and without measurement noises. The simulation results justify the feasibility of the design and the implementation.

  9. Static balance control and lower limb strength in blind and sighted women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Amiridis, Ioannis G; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Thimara, Maria; Kouvelioti, Vassiliki; Kellis, Elefthrerios

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee and ankle muscles and to compare center of pressure (CoP) sway between blind and sighted women. A total of 20 women volunteered to participate in this study. Ten severe blind women (age 33.5 +/- 7.9 years; height 163 +/- 5 cm; mass 64.5 +/- 12.2 kg) and 10 women with normal vision (age 33.5 +/- 8.3 years; height 164 +/- 6 cm; mass 61.9 +/- 14.5 kg) performed 3 different tasks of increasing difficulty: Normal Quiet Stance (1 min), Tandem Stance (20 s), and One-Leg Stance (10 s). Participants stood barefoot on two adjacent force platforms and the CoP variations [peak-to-peak amplitude (CoPmax) and SD of the CoP displacement (CoPsd)] were analyzed. Sighted participants performed the tests in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Torque/angular velocity and torque/angular position relationships were also established using a Cybex dynamometer for knee extensors and flexors as well as for ankle plantar and dorsiflexors. The main finding of this study was that the ability to control balance in both anterior/posterior and medio/lateral directions was inferior in blind than in sighted women. However, when sighted participants performed the tests blindfolded, their CoP sway increased significantly in both directions. There were no differences in most isometric and concentric strength measurements of the lower limb muscles between the blind and sighted individuals. Our results demonstrate that vision is a more prominent indicator of performance during the postural tasks compared to strength of the lower limbs. Despite similar level of strength, blind individuals performed significantly worse in all balance tests compared to sighted individuals.

  10. Towards Mobile OCR: How To Take a Good Picture of a Document Without Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Michael; Manduchi, Roberto

    The advent of mobile OCR (optical character recognition) applications on regular smartphones holds great promise for enabling blind people to access printed information. Unfortunately, these systems suffer from a problem: in order for OCR output to be meaningful, a well-framed image of the document needs to be taken, something that is difficult to do without sight. This contribution presents an experimental investigation of how blind people position and orient a camera phone while acquiring document images. We developed experimental software to investigate if verbal guidance aids in the acquisition of OCR-readable images without sight. We report on our participant's feedback and performance before and after assistance from our software.

  11. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  12. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  13. ICRF heating of passing ions in TMX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.; Dimonte, G.; Barter, J.; Campbell, R.; Cummins, W.F.; Falabella, S.; Ferguson, S.W.; Poulsen, P.

    1986-04-01

    By placing ion-cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) antennas on both sides of a midplane gas-feed system in the central cell of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), our results have improved in the following areas: (a) The end losses out both ends show a factor of 3 to 4 increase in passing-ion temperatures and a factor of 2 to 3 decrease in passing-ion densities. (b) The passing-ion heating is consistent with Monte Carlo predictions. (c) The plasma density can be sustained by ICRF plus gas fueling as observed on other experiments

  14. Effect of passing vessels on a moored ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lean, G H; Price, W A

    1977-11-01

    The effect of passing vessels on a moored ship was investigated by a series of model tests carried out at the Hydraulics Research Station for the Esso Petroleum Co. Ltd., transportation department in connection with their oil jetty at Milford Haven. A main conclusion was that the forces appeared to be due to the pressure gradients associated with the pattern of flow that accompanies the passing ship rather than with the wave system. Slack lines are to be avoided, and some relief in maximum line loads can be achieved by increasing the pretension. The results included the effects of passing vessel speed and ship clearance and draft.

  15. Are contemporary tourists consuming distance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    2012. Background The background for this research, which explores how tourists represent distance and whether or not distance can be said to be consumed by contemporary tourists, is the increasing leisure mobility of people. Travelling for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives is increasing...... of understanding mobility at a conceptual level, and distance matters to people's manifest mobility: how they travel and how far they travel are central elements of their movements. Therefore leisure mobility (indeed all mobility) is the activity of relating across distance, either through actual corporeal...... metric representation. These representations are the focus for this research. Research Aim and Questions The aim of this research is thus to explore how distance is being represented within the context of leisure mobility. Further the aim is to explore how or whether distance is being consumed...

  16. Distance : between deixis and perspectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Meermann, Anastasia; Sonnenhauser, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Discussing exemplary applications of the notion of distance in linguistic analysis, this paper shows that very different phenomena are described in terms of this concept. It is argued that in order to overcome the problems arising from this mixup, deixis, distance and perspectivity have to be distinguished and their interrelations need to be described. Thereby, distance emerges as part of a recursive process mediating between situation-bound deixis and discourse-level perspectivity. This is i...

  17. Plea to lower English test pass marks for EEA nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Chris

    2017-08-09

    Nurses from a group campaigning for the rights of EU citizens in the UK after Brexit are meeting the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) to press for the pass mark for English language tests to be lowered.

  18. The relationships between rugby ground pass accuracy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    2 Department of Physiotherapy, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of. Health Sciences ... upper body kinematics of the players, specifically the rotations of the torso and ..... relationships between the body movements and pass accuracy ...

  19. A distributed lumped active all-pass network configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsman, L. P.; Raghunath, S.

    1972-01-01

    In this correspondence a new and interesting distributed lumped active network configuration that realizes an all-pass network function is described. A design chart for determining the values of the network elements is included.

  20. Number of Migration Scenarios Passing through each HUC (future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forest dwelling neotropical migratory birds require intact forested stopovers during migration. The number of paths that pass through a HUC highlight that huc's...

  1. Number of Migration Scenarios Passing through each HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forest dwelling neotropical migratory birds require intact forested stopovers during migration. The number of paths that pass through a HUC highlight that huc's...

  2. Axioms for behavioural congruence of single-pass instruction sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    In program algebra, an algebraic theory of single-pass instruction sequences, three congruences on instruction sequences are paid attention to: instruction sequence congruence, structural congruence, and behavioural congruence. Sound and complete axiom systems for the first two congruences were

  3. Applicability estimation of flowmeter logging for detecting hydraulic pass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kimio; Tanaka, Yasuji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Estimation of the hydraulic pass governing hydrogeological structure contributes significantly to the siting HLW repository. Flowmeter logging can detect hydraulic passes by measuring vertical flow velocity of groundwater in the borehole. We reviewed application of this logging in situ. The hydraulic pass was detected with combination of ambient flow logging, with pumping and/or injecting induced flow logging. This application showed that the flowmeter logging detected hydraulic passes conveniently and accurately compared with other hydraulic tests. Hydraulic conductivity by using flowmeter logging was assessed above 10 -6 m/sec and within one order from comparison with injection packer tests. We suggest that appropriate application of the flowmeter logging for the siting is conducted before hydraulic tests because test sections and monitoring sections are decided rationally for procurement of quantitative hydraulic data. (author)

  4. Measuring the Dust Grains and Distance to X Persei Via Its X-ray Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall

    2006-09-01

    We propose to observe the X-ray halo of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar X Per to measure interstellar dust grains along the line of sight (LOS) and to determine the distance to X Per. The X-ray halo is formed by scattering from grains along the LOS, which for X Per appear to be concentrated in one molecular cloud. Unlike many other X-ray halo observations, this low-absorption high-latitude sightline is well-characterized from absorption spectroscopy done with HST, Copernicus, and FUSE. This halo observation will measure the distance to the cloud and the dust size distribution in it. We will also be able to determine the distance to X Per by measuring the time delayed pulses in the X-ray halo.

  5. Two-pass imputation algorithm for missing value estimation in gene expression time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiporkova, Elena; Boeva, Veselka

    2007-10-01

    Gene expression microarray experiments frequently generate datasets with multiple values missing. However, most of the analysis, mining, and classification methods for gene expression data require a complete matrix of gene array values. Therefore, the accurate estimation of missing values in such datasets has been recognized as an important issue, and several imputation algorithms have already been proposed to the biological community. Most of these approaches, however, are not particularly suitable for time series expression profiles. In view of this, we propose a novel imputation algorithm, which is specially suited for the estimation of missing values in gene expression time series data. The algorithm utilizes Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance in order to measure the similarity between time expression profiles, and subsequently selects for each gene expression profile with missing values a dedicated set of candidate profiles for estimation. Three different DTW-based imputation (DTWimpute) algorithms have been considered: position-wise, neighborhood-wise, and two-pass imputation. These have initially been prototyped in Perl, and their accuracy has been evaluated on yeast expression time series data using several different parameter settings. The experiments have shown that the two-pass algorithm consistently outperforms, in particular for datasets with a higher level of missing entries, the neighborhood-wise and the position-wise algorithms. The performance of the two-pass DTWimpute algorithm has further been benchmarked against the weighted K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm, which is widely used in the biological community; the former algorithm has appeared superior to the latter one. Motivated by these findings, indicating clearly the added value of the DTW techniques for missing value estimation in time series data, we have built an optimized C++ implementation of the two-pass DTWimpute algorithm. The software also provides for a choice between three different

  6. A comparison of the technique of the football quarterback pass between high school and university athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffan, Adam; Alexander, Marion J L; Peeler, Jason

    2017-07-28

    The purpose of the study was to compare the most effective joint movements, segment velocities and body positions to perform the fastest and most accurate pass of high school and university football quarterbacks. Secondary purposes were to develop a quarterback throwing test to assess skill level, to determine which kinematic variables were different between high school and university athletes as well as to determine which variables were significant predictors of quarterback throwing test performance. Ten high school and ten university athletes were filmed for the study, performing nine passes at a target and two passes for maximum distance. Thirty variables were measured using Dartfish Team Pro 4.5.2 video analysis system, and Microsoft Excel was used for statistical analysis. University athletes scored slightly higher than the high school athletes on the throwing test, however this result was not statistically significant. Correlation analysis and forward stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed on both the high school players and the university players in order to determine which variables were significant predictors of throwing test score. Ball velocity was determined to have the strongest predictive effect on throwing test score (r = 0.900) for the high school athletes, however, position of the back foot at release was also determined to be important (r = 0.661) for the university group. Several significant differences in throwing technique between groups were noted during the pass, however, body position at release showed the greatest differences between the two groups. High school players could benefit from more complete weight transfer and decreased throw time to increase throwing test score. University athletes could benefit from increased throw time and greater range of motion in external shoulder rotation and trunk rotation to increase their throwing test score. Coaches and practitioners will be able to use the findings of this research to

  7. Upaya Meningkatkan Kemampuan Passing Bawah Bola Voli Pada

    OpenAIRE

    Irawan, Dedi

    2017-01-01

    This research uses research "Classroom Action Research" (Classroom Action Research) with variables: Improved Passing Down volleyball through media modified rubber ball. Subjects in this study were fifth grade students of State Elementary School 23 Palus Hulu subdistrict Belimbing Melawi totaling 28 students. This research technique using test and measurement, a test with a grating instrument measuring learning outcomes passing down the volleyball game. Analysis of data using percentages. Thes...

  8. Battle of Kasserine Pass: Defeat is a Matter of Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    a ga inst Germany in World War II ; some historians even go so far as to anticipate defeat in the first battles of all major Ameri can wars. Martin ...the battle of Kasserine Pass prove the conventional wisdom that America is doomed to defeat in its first battles? Martin Blumenson, a prominent...Much study of the battle of Kasserine Pass has been done since Martin Blumenson wrote the original history in 1966. The ULTRA and MAGIC intercepts

  9. Terrorismihirm sunnib muretsema kalleid mikrokiibiga passe / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2005-01-01

    Alates 1. septembrist 2006 peavad kõik EL-i liikmesriigid hakkama väljastama mikrokiibiga varustatud passe, mille hinnaks võib kujuneda kuni 1000 krooni ja kehtivus lüheneb viiele aastale. Mikrokiip sisaldab inimese biomeetrilisi andmeid - esialgu vaid näokujutist, alates 2008. aastast näpujälgi ning hiljem ka andmeid silmaiirise ja juuksevärvi kohta. Lisa: Biomeetriline pass peidab intiimseid isikuandmeid. Kommenteerib Kohtuekspertiisi ja Kriminalistika Keskuse infojuht Aivar Pau

  10. Transient analysis of the double pass photovoltaic thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfegi, Ebrahim M.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Abakr, Yousif A.

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model of a double pass photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar collector is reported in this work. It is composed of five couple unsteady nonlinear partial differential equations which are solved by using Gear implicit numerical scheme. That model was validated against experimental data and was found to accurately predict the temperature of the circulated air as well as the temperature distribution of every static elements in a two-pass PV/T solar collector.(Author)

  11. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, D. L.

    2012-02-01

    idealized calculation of the CBIS ejecta-blanket elevation profile minutes after the impact was carried out founded on well established rules for explosion and impact-generated craters. This profile is shown here to match the volume of the upland deposits ≥170 km from the crater center. Closer to the crater, much of the "postdicted" ejecta blanket has clearly been removed by erosion. Nevertheless the Shirley and fossil-free Bacons Castle Formations, located between the upland deposits and the CBIS interior and veneering the present day surface with units ∼10-20 m deep, are respectively identified as curtain- and excavation-phase ejecta. The neritic-fossil-bearing Calvert Formation external to the crater is deduced to be of Eocene age (as opposed to early Miocene as currently believed), preserved by the armoring effects of the overlying CBIS ejecta composed of the (distal) upland deposits and the (proximal) Bacons Castle Formation. The lithofacies of the in-crater Calvert Formation can only have resulted from inward mass wasting of the postdicted ejecta blanket, vestiges of which (i.e. the Bacons Castle and Shirley Formations) still overlap the crater rim and sag into its interior, consistent with this expectation. Because there appear to be a total of ∼10 000 km2 of CBIS ejecta lying on the present-day surface, future research should center the stratigraphic, lithologic, and petrologic properties of these ejecta versus both radial distance from the crater center (to identify ejecta from different ejection stages) and circumferentially at fixed radial distances (to detect possible anisotropies relating the impact angle and direction of approach of the impactor). The geological units described here may comprise the best preserved, and certainly the most accessible, ejecta blanket of a major crater on the Earth's surface and therefore promise to be a boon to the field of impact geology. As a corollary, a major revision of the current stratigraphic column of the M

  12. Validation of the one pass measure for motivational interviewing competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Fiona; Resnicow, Ken

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the psychometric properties of the OnePass coding system: a new, user-friendly tool for evaluating practitioner competence in motivational interviewing (MI). We provide data on reliability and validity with the current gold-standard: Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity tool (MITI). We compared scores from 27 videotaped MI sessions performed by student counselors trained in MI and simulated patients using both OnePass and MITI, with three different raters for each tool. Reliability was estimated using intra-class coefficients (ICCs), and validity was assessed using Pearson's r. OnePass had high levels of inter-rater reliability with 19/23 items found from substantial to almost perfect agreement. Taking the pair of scores with the highest inter-rater reliability on the MITI, the concurrent validity between the two measures ranged from moderate to high. Validity was highest for evocation, autonomy, direction and empathy. OnePass appears to have good inter-rater reliability while capturing similar dimensions of MI as the MITI. Despite the moderate concurrent validity with the MITI, the OnePass shows promise in evaluating both traditional and novel interpretations of MI. OnePass may be a useful tool for developing and improving practitioner competence in MI where access to MITI coders is limited. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Predictors of Music Sight-Reading Ability in High School Wind Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study, grounded in near-transfer theory, was to investigate relationships among music sight-reading and tonal and rhythmic audiation, visual field articulation, spatial orientation and visualization, and achievement in math concepts and reading comprehension. A regression analysis with data from four high schools (N = 98) in…

  14. The Effect of Contingent Reinforcement on the Acquisition of Sight Vocabulary. Technical Report No. 49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mary E.; And Others

    The present study is a replication of a Lahey and Drabman study (1974) which investigated the effects of contingent versus noncontingent reinforcement on the learning of sight words. The subjects in this study were 14 Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) students who composed the lowest reading group in a combined first-second grade…

  15. Blue whale sightings in Antarctica west of the Greenwich meridian, Januart 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, S.C.V.; Feij, B.; Franeker, van J.A.; Herr, H.; Janinhoff, N.; McKay, S.J.; Muller, S.; Thomisch, K.; Verdaat, J.P.; Viquerat, S.

    2015-01-01

    During the RV Polarstern PS 89 (ANT-XXX/2) expedition from Cape Town to Atka Bay and back, 20 sightings of 26 individual blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were recorded in Antarctic waters west of the Greenwich Meridian between 16-20 January 2015. These observations suggest a more westerly

  16. Proposing a Web-Based Tutorial System to Teach Malay Language Braille Code to the Sighted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Lee Lay; Keong, Foo Kok

    2010-01-01

    The "e-KodBrailleBM Tutorial System" is a web-based tutorial system which is specially designed to teach, facilitate and support the learning of Malay Language Braille Code to individuals who are sighted. The targeted group includes special education teachers, pre-service teachers, and parents. Learning Braille code involves memorisation…

  17. A Computer-Based Program to Teach Braille Reading to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors of the visually impaired need efficient braille-training methods. This study conducted a preliminary evaluation of a computer-based program intended to teach the relation between braille characters and English letters using a matching-to-sample format with 4 sighted college students. Each participant mastered matching visual depictions…

  18. Mutual Disambiguation of Eye Gaze and Speech for Sight Translation and Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkarni, Rucha; Jain, Kritika; Bansal, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    and composition of the two modalities was used for integration. F-measure for Eye-Gaze and Word Accuracy for ASR were used as metrics to evaluate our results. In reading task, we demonstrated a significant improvement in both Eye-Gaze f-measure and speech Word Accuracy. In sight translation task, significant...

  19. The Ability to Assume the Upright Position in Blind and Sighted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipsman, Sandra Curtis

    To investigate the ability of 48 blind and partially sighted children (8 to 10 and 12 to 14 years old) to assume the upright position, Ss were given six trials in which they were requested to move themselves from a tilted starting position in a specially constructed chair to an upright position. No significant differences were found between three…

  20. Tactile band : accessing gaze signals from the sighted in face-to-face communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, S.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Hu, J.

    2016-01-01

    Gaze signals, frequently used by the sighted in social interactions as visual cues, are hardly accessible for low-vision and blind people. A concept is proposed to help the blind people access and react to gaze signals in face-to-face communication. 20 blind and low-vision participants were

  1. 78 FR 77705 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activity: Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Sighting Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... invasion. The USGS provides the tools, technology, and information supporting efforts to prevent, contain..., primarily fish, in open waters of the United States. This is vital information for early detection and rapid... requested includes type of organism, date and location of sighting, photograph(s) if available, and basic...

  2. Self-Esteem and Empathy in Sighted and Visually Impaired Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Nes, Sandra L.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a study of self-esteem and empathy among 71 students with visual impairments and 88 sighted students. No significant difference was found between the two groups of students in their levels of self esteem, empathy toward others, and bonding with pets.

  3. Sight-Reading Requirements at Concert Band Festivals: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    This study, a replication and extension of work by Norris (2004), examined sight-reading requirements at middle and high school large-group band festivals across the United States. As in the earlier investigation, answers to the following questions were solicited from all 50 states: (1) Are there ratings-based large-group band festivals? (2) Is…

  4. The use of exploratory procedures by blind and sighted adults and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, A.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Vervloed, M.P.J.; Knoors, H.; Verhoeven, L.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined exploratory procedures (EPs) of congenitally blind and sighted children and adults on a haptic match-to-sample task. The aim was to examine the influence of age, visual status, and familiarity on the use of EPs when people haptically examine the object properties of weight, size,

  5. Divergent Development of Manual Skills in Children Who Are Blind or Sighted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambring, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study compared the average ages at which four children with congenital blindness acquired 32 fine motor skills with age norms for sighted children. The results indicated that the children experienced extreme developmental delays in the acquisition of manual skills and a high degree of variability in developmental delays within and…

  6. Water inSight : An exploration into landscape architectonic transformations of polder water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbink, I.; Loen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Water inSight provides insight into the ‘water machine’ that forms the basis of the Dutch polder landscape. Authors Inge Bobbink and Suzanne Loen approach the polder landscape from a landscape-architectonic point of view, using technical and spatial analysis drawings, images, plans and experiments

  7. Development of a new lines of sight analyzer while playing sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Mochiduki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Olympics will be held in Tokyo in 2020, and the training of the athlete using technology has been gaining attention. In an effort to refine the competitive ability of top athletes by evaluating their performance objectively, we have focused on eye movement and head movement. Since the field of view moves according to the athlete’s head movement, which is a problem for the conventional method of measuring eye movement, we proposed a new method of analysis of lines of sight which can record head movement during a competition and make it easier to analyze by superimposing the lines of sight on an externally recorded fixed image. With the goal of measuring the lines of sight of an athlete during an actual competition, we made a video during a competition and had an athlete observe the video in a laboratory. First we compared the video in which only the eye movement was measured and the field-of-view image moved according to the head movement with another video in which the head movement and eye movement were measured and the image did not move in spite of the occurrence of head movement. The results of the experiment, which involved baseball as the competitive sport, showed the effectiveness of our proposed system. Furthermore, we showed the difference between the lines of sight of an experienced and an inexperienced catcher.

  8. Sight Word Recognition among Young Children At-Risk: Picture-Supported vs. Word-Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.; Parette, Howard P.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the impact of Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) on sight word recognition by young children identified as "at risk" for academic and social-behavior difficulties. Ten pre-primer and 10 primer Dolch words were presented to 23 students in the intervention group and 8 students in the…

  9. ICT in Portuguese Reference Schools for the Education of Blind and Partially Sighted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sara Isabel Moca; de Andrade, António Manuel Valente

    2016-01-01

    Technology has become an essential component in our society and considering its impact in the educational system, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) cannot be dissociated from the educational process and, in particular, from pedagogical practices adopted for students who are blind or partially sighted. This study focuses on…

  10. Sight Word Reading in Prereaders: Use of Logographic vs. Alphabetic Access Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Judith Anne; Ehri, Linnea C.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates whether prereaders who knew all their letters are better at forming logographic access routes than letter-sound access routes into memory from words read by sight. Concludes that prereaders become capable of forming letter-sound access routes when they learn letters well enough to take advantage of the phonetic cues the letters…

  11. Bolide Airbursts as a Seismic Source for the 2018 Mars InSight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, J.; Teanby, N. A.; Wookey, J.; Selby, N.; Daubar, I. J.; Vaubaillon, J.; Garcia, R.

    2017-10-01

    In 2018, NASA will launch InSight, a single-station suite of geophysical instruments, designed to characterise the martian interior. We investigate the seismo-acoustic signal generated by a bolide entering the martian atmosphere and exploding in a terminal airburst, and assess this phenomenon as a potential observable for the SEIS seismic payload. Terrestrial analogue data from four recent events are used to identify diagnostic airburst characteristics in both the time and frequency domain. In order to estimate a potential number of detectable events for InSight, we first model the impactor source population from observations made on the Earth, scaled for planetary radius, entry velocity and source density. We go on to calculate a range of potential airbursts from the larger incident impactor population. We estimate there to be {˜} 1000 events of this nature per year on Mars. To then derive a detectable number of airbursts for InSight, we scale this number according to atmospheric attenuation, air-to-ground coupling inefficiencies and by instrument capability for SEIS. We predict between 10-200 detectable events per year for InSight.

  12. What kind of love is love at first sight? An empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zsok, Florian; Haucke, Matthias; de Wit, Cornelia; Barelds, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Love at first sight (LAFS) is a commonly known phenomenon, but has barely been investigated scientifically. Major psychological theories of love predict that LAFS is marked by high passion. However, it could also be a memory confabulation construed by couples to enhance their relationship. We

  13. On the language of space: Neurocognitive studies in blind and sighted individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struiksma, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1688 Molyneux asked the question whether a blind man who knew the difference between a sphere and a cube from touch, with his sight restored would be able to distinguish between them based on vision. One interpretation of Molyneux’s question is whether spatial representations are

  14. Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a) as a sequence of…

  15. The Lifestyles of Blind, Low Vision, and Sighted Youths: A Quantitative Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffe, K.; Sacks, S. Z.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of interviews and time-diary protocols with 48 students (16 blind, 16 low-vision, and 16 sighted), ages 15-21, and their parents focused on four lifestyle areas: academic involvement and performance, daily living and personal care activities, recreation and leisure activities, and work and vocational experiences. Similarities and…

  16. Observational constraints on interstellar depletion mechanisms in lines of sight exhibiting peculiar extinction curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of dust-gas interactions, which are capable of modifying the size distribution of the grains and thus causing changes in the selective extinction curve, are investigated through depletion studies. The gaseous abundances of 16 elements were determined for several lines of sight toward moderately reddened stars, each having a so called anomalous extinction curve. Four lines of sight in the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud complexes as well as several lines of sight through the diffuse interstellar medium were also analyzed for comparison. Two approaches are used to assess the strength of density dependent depletion processes. First, the depletion pattern from element-to-element for each integrated line of sight is studied with particular emphasis being given to those species that are potential discriminators between the two major competing models of grain formation and growth. In the second approach, the relative abundancies of neutral atoms, which are thought to form primarily in the densest portions of interstellar clouds, are studied. Both of these constraints are then compared to a theoretical extinction curve derived from a simple model for the size distribution of the grains based on the degree of mantling

  17. Bayesian Ranging for Radio Localization with and without Line-of-Sight Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Lishuai; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2015-01-01

    We consider Bayesian ranging methods for local- ization in wireless communication systems. Based on a channel model and given priors for the range and the line-of-sight (LOS) condition, we propose range estimators with and without LOS detection. Since the pdf of the received frequency...

  18. Colour-the-INSight : Combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.J.; Hiddema, A.C.; Vliet, S.F. van

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather)

  19. Working memory for vibrotactile frequencies: comparison of cortical activity in blind and sighted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Dixit, Sachin

    2010-11-01

    In blind, occipital cortex showed robust activation to nonvisual stimuli in many prior functional neuroimaging studies. The cognitive processes represented by these activations are not fully determined, although a verbal recognition memory role has been demonstrated. In congenitally blind and sighted (10 per group), we contrasted responses to a vibrotactile one-back frequency retention task with 5-s delays and a vibrotactile amplitude-change task; both tasks involved the same vibration parameters. The one-back paradigm required continuous updating for working memory (WM). Findings in both groups confirmed roles in WM for right hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and dorsal/ventral attention components of posterior parietal cortex. Negative findings in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex suggested task performance without subvocalization. In bilateral occipital cortex, blind showed comparable positive responses to both tasks, whereas WM evoked large negative responses in sighted. Greater utilization of attention resources in blind were suggested as causing larger responses in dorsal and ventral attention systems, right DLPFC, and persistent responses across delays between trials in somatosensory and premotor cortex. In sighted, responses in somatosensory and premotor areas showed iterated peaks matched to stimulation trial intervals. The findings in occipital cortex of blind suggest that tactile activations do not represent cognitive operations for nonverbal WM task. However, these data suggest a role in sensory processing for tactile information in blind that parallels a similar contribution for visual stimuli in occipital cortex of sighted. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Memory for Verbally Presented Routes: A Comparison of Strategies Used by Blind and Sighted People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, R. D.; Bentzen, B. L.

    1987-01-01

    Congenitally-blind (N=16) and sighted (N=16) young adults listened to descriptions of routes and then finger traced routes through a raised line matrix. Route tracing speed and accuracy revealed that spatial sentence verification interfered with route memory more than abstract/verbal sentence verification for all subjects. (Author/CB)

  1. The use of Exploratory Procedures by blind and sighted adults and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, A.J.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Vervloed, M.P.J.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined exploratory procedures (EPs) of congenitally blind and sighted children and adults on a haptic match-to-sample task. The aim was to examine the influence of age, visual status, and familiarity on the use of EPs when people haptically examine the object properties of weight, size,

  2. The effects of curvature on haptic judgments of extent in sighted and blind people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, Morton A.; Kappers, Astrid M L; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley; Riddle, Tara; Fulkerson, Erin; Wemple, Lindsay; Walk, Anne McClure; Basso, Andreana; Wanek, Crystal; Russler, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to examine the effect of curvature on haptic judgments of extent in sighted and blind individuals. Experiment 1 showed that diameters connecting the endpoints of semicircular lines were underestimated with respect to straight lines, but failed to show an

  3. Divergent Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Who Are Blind or Sighted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambring, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This empirical study compared the average ages at which four congenitally blind children acquired 29 gross motor skills with age norms for sighted children. The results indicated distinct developmental delays in the acquisition of motor skills and a high degree of variability in developmental delays within and across the six subdomains that were…

  4. An adaptive distance measure for use with nonparametric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, D. R.; Hines, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Distance measures perform a critical task in nonparametric, locally weighted regression. Locally weighted regression (LWR) models are a form of 'lazy learning' which construct a local model 'on the fly' by comparing a query vector to historical, exemplar vectors according to a three step process. First, the distance of the query vector to each of the exemplar vectors is calculated. Next, these distances are passed to a kernel function, which converts the distances to similarities or weights. Finally, the model output or response is calculated by performing locally weighted polynomial regression. To date, traditional distance measures, such as the Euclidean, weighted Euclidean, and L1-norm have been used as the first step in the prediction process. Since these measures do not take into consideration sensor failures and drift, they are inherently ill-suited for application to 'real world' systems. This paper describes one such LWR model, namely auto associative kernel regression (AAKR), and describes a new, Adaptive Euclidean distance measure that can be used to dynamically compensate for faulty sensor inputs. In this new distance measure, the query observations that lie outside of the training range (i.e. outside the minimum and maximum input exemplars) are dropped from the distance calculation. This allows for the distance calculation to be robust to sensor drifts and failures, in addition to providing a method for managing inputs that exceed the training range. In this paper, AAKR models using the standard and Adaptive Euclidean distance are developed and compared for the pressure system of an operating nuclear power plant. It is shown that using the standard Euclidean distance for data with failed inputs, significant errors in the AAKR predictions can result. By using the Adaptive Euclidean distance it is shown that high fidelity predictions are possible, in spite of the input failure. In fact, it is shown that with the Adaptive Euclidean distance prediction

  5. Behaviors of Sighted Individuals Perceived by Blind Persons as Hindrances to Self-Reliance in Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickelman, Bonnie L.; Blaylock, Jerry N.

    1983-01-01

    Situations in which sighted people behaved inappropiately toward blind individuals were recalled by 60 blind subjects, who described their reactions and feelings and offered suggestions for sighted people. A lack of knowledge and understanding of the skills, abilities, and feelings of visually impaired individuals were revealed. (SEW)

  6. Sensitivity of Chaos Measures in Detecting Stress in the Focusing Control Mechanism of the Short-Sighted Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Karen M; Cufflin, Matthew P; Mallen, Edward A H

    2017-08-01

    When fixating on a stationary object, the power of the eye's lens fluctuates. Studies have suggested that changes in these so-called microfluctuations in accommodation may be a factor in the onset and progression of short-sightedness. Like many physiological signals, the fluctuations in the power of the lens exhibit chaotic behaviour. A breakdown or reduction in chaos in physiological systems indicates stress to the system or pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the chaos in fluctuations of the power of the lens changes with refractive error, i.e. how short-sighted a subject is, and/or accommodative demand, i.e. the effective distance of the object that is being viewed. Six emmetropes (EMMs, non-short-sighted), six early-onset myopes (EOMs, onset of short-sightedness before the age of 15), and six late-onset myopes (LOMs, onset of short-sightedness after the age of 15) took part in the study. Accommodative microfluctuations were measured at 22 Hz using an SRW-5000 autorefractor at accommodative demands of 1 D (dioptres), 2 D, and 3 D. Chaos theory analysis was used to determine the embedding lag, embedding dimension, limit of predictability, and Lyapunov exponent. Topological transitivity was also tested for. For comparison, the power spectrum and standard deviation were calculated for each time record. The EMMs had a statistically significant higher Lyapunov exponent than the LOMs ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text]) and a lower embedding dimension than the LOMs ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text]). There was insufficient evidence (non-significant p value) of a difference between EOMs and EMMs or EOMs and LOMs. The majority of time records were topologically transitive. There was insufficient evidence of accommodative demand having an effect. Power spectrum analysis and assessment of the standard deviation of the fluctuations failed to discern differences based on refractive error. Chaos differences in accommodation

  7. THE DISTANCE TO M104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    M104 (NGC 4594; the Sombrero galaxy) is a nearby, well-studied elliptical galaxy included in scores of surveys focused on understanding the details of galaxy evolution. Despite the importance of observations of M104, a consensus distance has not yet been established. Here, we use newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging to measure the distance to M104 based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our measurement yields the distance to M104 to be 9.55 ± 0.13 ± 0.31 Mpc equivalent to a distance modulus of 29.90 ± 0.03 ± 0.07 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. The most discrepant previous results are due to Tully–Fisher method distances, which are likely inappropriate for M104 given its peculiar morphology and structure. Our results are part of a larger program to measure accurate distances to a sample of well-known spiral galaxies (including M51, M74, and M63) using the TRGB method.

  8. THE DISTANCE TO M51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-20

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties.

  9. The Distance to M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  10. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

  11. Social Distance and Intergenerational Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, I. Jane; Booth, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to a sample of adults to assess the extent of social distance between people of different ages. The findings suggest that the greater the age difference (younger or older) between people, the greater the social distance they feel. (Author)

  12. Quality Content in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

  13. Virtual Bioinformatics Distance Learning Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Martti; Vihinen, Mauno

    2004-01-01

    Distance learning as a computer-aided concept allows students to take courses from anywhere at any time. In bioinformatics, computers are needed to collect, store, process, and analyze massive amounts of biological and biomedical data. We have applied the concept of distance learning in virtual bioinformatics to provide university course material…

  14. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  15. Cognitive Styles and Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean

    1999-01-01

    Considers how to adapt the design of distance education to students' cognitive styles. Discusses cognitive styles, including field dependence versus independence, holistic-analytic, sensory preference, hemispheric preferences, and Kolb's Learning Style Model; and the characteristics of distance education, including technology. (Contains 92…

  16. Distance Learning: Practice and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatkovic, Nevenka; Sehanovic, Jusuf; Ruzic, Maja

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the European processes of integrated and homogeneous education, the paper presents the essential viewpoints and questions covering the establishment and development of "distance learning" (DL) in Republic of Croatia. It starts from the advantages of distance learning versus traditional education taking into account…

  17. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  18. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eFort

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.

  19. Definition of interstellar wind parameters by means of Lsub(α) background noise observations at large distances from the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgin, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Multiple scattering of solar photons on interstellar hydrogen and an exitence of galactic background lead to the fact that far from the Sun Lsub(α)-radiation intensity dependence on a distance from the Sun and on the direction of a ray of sight differs from the dependence predicted by the optically fine model. It is possible to evaluate hydrogen density in interstellar wind and galactic background intensity considering no absolute device calibration and having no proper information on a flux in Lsub(α) solar line by means of Lsub(α) background intensity measurings at sufficiently great distances from the Sun

  20. Task demands affect spatial reference frame weighting during tactile localization in sighted and congenitally blind adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T W Schubert

    Full Text Available Task demands modulate tactile localization in sighted humans, presumably through weight adjustments in the spatial integration of anatomical, skin-based, and external, posture-based information. In contrast, previous studies have suggested that congenitally blind humans, by default, refrain from automatic spatial integration and localize touch using only skin-based information. Here, sighted and congenitally blind participants localized tactile targets on the palm or back of one hand, while ignoring simultaneous tactile distractors at congruent or incongruent locations on the other hand. We probed the interplay of anatomical and external location codes for spatial congruency effects by varying hand posture: the palms either both faced down, or one faced down and one up. In the latter posture, externally congruent target and distractor locations were anatomically incongruent and vice versa. Target locations had to be reported either anatomically ("palm" or "back" of the hand, or externally ("up" or "down" in space. Under anatomical instructions, performance was more accurate for anatomically congruent than incongruent target-distractor pairs. In contrast, under external instructions, performance was more accurate for externally congruent than incongruent pairs. These modulations were evident in sighted and blind individuals. Notably, distractor effects were overall far smaller in blind than in sighted participants, despite comparable target-distractor identification performance. Thus, the absence of developmental vision seems to be associated with an increased ability to focus tactile attention towards a non-spatially defined target. Nevertheless, that blind individuals exhibited effects of hand posture and task instructions in their congruency effects suggests that, like the sighted, they automatically integrate anatomical and external information during tactile localization. Moreover, spatial integration in tactile processing is, thus, flexibly

  1. Task demands affect spatial reference frame weighting during tactile localization in sighted and congenitally blind adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Jonathan T W; Badde, Stephanie; Röder, Brigitte; Heed, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Task demands modulate tactile localization in sighted humans, presumably through weight adjustments in the spatial integration of anatomical, skin-based, and external, posture-based information. In contrast, previous studies have suggested that congenitally blind humans, by default, refrain from automatic spatial integration and localize touch using only skin-based information. Here, sighted and congenitally blind participants localized tactile targets on the palm or back of one hand, while ignoring simultaneous tactile distractors at congruent or incongruent locations on the other hand. We probed the interplay of anatomical and external location codes for spatial congruency effects by varying hand posture: the palms either both faced down, or one faced down and one up. In the latter posture, externally congruent target and distractor locations were anatomically incongruent and vice versa. Target locations had to be reported either anatomically ("palm" or "back" of the hand), or externally ("up" or "down" in space). Under anatomical instructions, performance was more accurate for anatomically congruent than incongruent target-distractor pairs. In contrast, under external instructions, performance was more accurate for externally congruent than incongruent pairs. These modulations were evident in sighted and blind individuals. Notably, distractor effects were overall far smaller in blind than in sighted participants, despite comparable target-distractor identification performance. Thus, the absence of developmental vision seems to be associated with an increased ability to focus tactile attention towards a non-spatially defined target. Nevertheless, that blind individuals exhibited effects of hand posture and task instructions in their congruency effects suggests that, like the sighted, they automatically integrate anatomical and external information during tactile localization. Moreover, spatial integration in tactile processing is, thus, flexibly adapted by top

  2. No Sensory Compensation for Olfactory Memory: Differences between Blind and Sighted People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Blindness can be a driving force behind a variety of changes in sensory systems. When vision is missing, other modalities and higher cognitive functions can become hyper-developed through a mechanism called sensory compensation. Overall, previous studies suggest that olfactory memory in blind people can be better than that of the sighted individuals. Better performance of blind individuals in other-sensory modalities was hypothesized to be a result of, among others, intense perceptual training. At the same time, if the superiority of blind people in olfactory abilities indeed results from training, their scores should not decrease with age to such an extent as among the sighted people. Here, this hypothesis was tested in a large sample of 94 blind individuals. Olfactory memory was assessed using the Test for Olfactory Memory, comprising episodic odor recognition (discriminating previously presented odors from new odors and two forms of semantic memory (cued and free identification of odors. Regarding episodic olfactory memory, we observed an age-related decline in correct hits in blind participants, but an age-related increase in false alarms in sighted participants. Further, age moderated the between-group differences for correct hits, but the direction of the observed effect was contrary to our expectations. The difference between blind and sighted individuals younger than 40 years old was non-significant, but older sighted individuals outperformed their blind counterparts. In conclusion, we found no positive effect of visual impairment on olfactory memory. We suggest that daily perceptual training is not enough to increase olfactory memory function in blind people.

  3. No Sensory Compensation for Olfactory Memory: Differences between Blind and Sighted People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Karwowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Blindness can be a driving force behind a variety of changes in sensory systems. When vision is missing, other modalities and higher cognitive functions can become hyper-developed through a mechanism called sensory compensation. Overall, previous studies suggest that olfactory memory in blind people can be better than that of the sighted individuals. Better performance of blind individuals in other-sensory modalities was hypothesized to be a result of, among others, intense perceptual training. At the same time, if the superiority of blind people in olfactory abilities indeed results from training, their scores should not decrease with age to such an extent as among the sighted people. Here, this hypothesis was tested in a large sample of 94 blind individuals. Olfactory memory was assessed using the Test for Olfactory Memory, comprising episodic odor recognition (discriminating previously presented odors from new odors) and two forms of semantic memory (cued and free identification of odors). Regarding episodic olfactory memory, we observed an age-related decline in correct hits in blind participants, but an age-related increase in false alarms in sighted participants. Further, age moderated the between-group differences for correct hits, but the direction of the observed effect was contrary to our expectations. The difference between blind and sighted individuals younger than 40 years old was non-significant, but older sighted individuals outperformed their blind counterparts. In conclusion, we found no positive effect of visual impairment on olfactory memory. We suggest that daily perceptual training is not enough to increase olfactory memory function in blind people.

  4. No Sensory Compensation for Olfactory Memory: Differences between Blind and Sighted People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Karwowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Blindness can be a driving force behind a variety of changes in sensory systems. When vision is missing, other modalities and higher cognitive functions can become hyper-developed through a mechanism called sensory compensation. Overall, previous studies suggest that olfactory memory in blind people can be better than that of the sighted individuals. Better performance of blind individuals in other-sensory modalities was hypothesized to be a result of, among others, intense perceptual training. At the same time, if the superiority of blind people in olfactory abilities indeed results from training, their scores should not decrease with age to such an extent as among the sighted people. Here, this hypothesis was tested in a large sample of 94 blind individuals. Olfactory memory was assessed using the Test for Olfactory Memory, comprising episodic odor recognition (discriminating previously presented odors from new odors) and two forms of semantic memory (cued and free identification of odors). Regarding episodic olfactory memory, we observed an age-related decline in correct hits in blind participants, but an age-related increase in false alarms in sighted participants. Further, age moderated the between-group differences for correct hits, but the direction of the observed effect was contrary to our expectations. The difference between blind and sighted individuals younger than 40 years old was non-significant, but older sighted individuals outperformed their blind counterparts. In conclusion, we found no positive effect of visual impairment on olfactory memory. We suggest that daily perceptual training is not enough to increase olfactory memory function in blind people. PMID:29276494

  5. Academic Attainment in Students with Dyslexia in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John T E

    2015-11-01

    This investigation studied attainment in students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who were taking modules by distance learning with the Open University in 2012. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had no additional disabilities were just as likely as nondisabled students to complete their modules, but they were less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had additional disabilities were less likely to complete their modules, less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed than were nondisabled students. Nevertheless, around 40% of students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties obtained good grades (i.e. those that would lead to a bachelor's degree with first-class or upper second-class honours). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Tracking frequency laser distance gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.D.; Reasenberg, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require laser distance gauges of substantially improved performance. We describe a laser gauge, based on Pound-Drever-Hall locking, in which the optical frequency is adjusted to maintain an interferometer's null condition. This technique has been demonstrated with pm performance. Automatic fringe hopping allows it to track arbitrary distance changes. The instrument is intrinsically free of the nm-scale cyclic bias present in traditional (heterodyne) high-precision laser gauges. The output is a radio frequency, readily measured to sufficient accuracy. The laser gauge has operated in a resonant cavity, which improves precision, can suppress the effects of misalignments, and makes possible precise automatic alignment. The measurement of absolute distance requires little or no additional hardware, and has also been demonstrated. The proof-of-concept version, based on a stabilized HeNe laser and operating on a 0.5 m path, has achieved 10 pm precision with 0.1 s integration time, and 0.1 mm absolute distance accuracy. This version has also followed substantial distance changes as fast as 16 mm/s. We show that, if the precision in optical frequency is a fixed fraction of the linewidth, both incremental and absolute distance precision are independent of the distance measured. We discuss systematic error sources, and present plans for a new version of the gauge based on semiconductor lasers and fiber-coupled components

  7. Reducing the distance in distance-caregiving by technology innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazelle E Benefield

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Lazelle E Benefield1, Cornelia Beck21College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; 2Pat & Willard Walker Family Memory Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USAAbstract: Family caregivers are responsible for the home care of over 34 million older adults in the United States. For many, the elder family member lives more than an hour’s distance away. Distance caregiving is a growing alternative to more familiar models where: 1 the elder and the family caregiver(s may reside in the same household; or 2 the family caregiver may live nearby but not in the same household as the elder. The distance caregiving model involves elders and their family caregivers who live at some distance, defined as more than a 60-minute commute, from one another. Evidence suggests that distance caregiving is a distinct phenomenon, differs substantially from on-site family caregiving, and requires additional assistance to support the physical, social, and contextual dimensions of the caregiving process. Technology-based assists could virtually connect the caregiver and elder and provide strong support that addresses the elder’s physical, social, cognitive, and/or sensory impairments. Therefore, in today’s era of high technology, it is surprising that so few affordable innovations are being marketed for distance caregiving. This article addresses distance caregiving, proposes the use of technology innovation to support caregiving, and suggests a research agenda to better inform policy decisions related to the unique needs of this situation.Keywords: caregiving, family, distance, technology, elders

  8. Equivalence of massive propagator distance and mathematical distance on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filk, T.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the assignment of distance according to the massive propagator method and according to the mathematical definition (length of minimal path) on arbitrary graphs with a bound on the degree leads to equivalent large scale properties of the graph. Especially, the internal scaling dimension is the same for both definitions. This result holds for any fixed, non-vanishing mass, so that a really inequivalent definition of distance requires the limit m → 0

  9. Language distance and tree reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others

  10. Language distance and tree reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2008-08-01

    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.

  11. The effect of weak lensing on distance estimates from supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mathew; Maartens, Roy [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Bacon, David J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Campbell, Heather; D' Andrea, Chris B. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Chris [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Bassett, Bruce A. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Cinabro, David [Wayne State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Finley, David A.; Frieman, Joshua A. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Galbany, Lluis [CENTRA Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Garnavich, Peter M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Olmstead, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shapiro, Charles [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, La Canada Flintridge, CA 91109 (United States); Sollerman, Jesper, E-mail: matsmith2@gmail.com [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 608 Type Ia supernovae from the SDSS-II and BOSS surveys, combined with a sample of foreground galaxies from SDSS-II, we estimate the weak lensing convergence for each supernova line of sight. We find that the correlation between this measurement and the Hubble residuals is consistent with the prediction from lensing (at a significance of 1.7σ). Strong correlations are also found between the residuals and supernova nuisance parameters after a linear correction is applied. When these other correlations are taken into account, the lensing signal is detected at 1.4σ. We show, for the first time, that distance estimates from supernovae can be improved when lensing is incorporated, by including a new parameter in the SALT2 methodology for determining distance moduli. The recovered value of the new parameter is consistent with the lensing prediction. Using cosmic microwave background data from WMAP7, H {sub 0} data from Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Baryon acoustic oscillations measurements, we find the best-fit value of the new lensing parameter and show that the central values and uncertainties on Ω {sub m} and w are unaffected. The lensing of supernovae, while only seen at marginal significance in this low-redshift sample, will be of vital importance for the next generation of surveys, such as DES and LSST, which will be systematics-dominated.

  12. Geometrical influences on multi-pass laser forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, S P; Abed, E; Bartkowiak, K; Dearden, G; Watkins, K G

    2006-01-01

    Laser forming (LF) offers the industrial promise of controlled shaping of metallic and non-metallic components for prototyping, the correction of design shape or distortion and precision adjustment applications. The potential process advantages include precise incremental adjustment, flexibility of application and no mechanical 'spring-back' effect. To date there has been a considerable amount of work carried out on two-dimensional LF, using multi-pass straight line scan strategies to produce a reasonably controlled bend angle in a number of materials, including aerospace alloys. A key area, however, where there is a limited understanding, is the variation in bend angle per pass during multi-pass LF along a single irradiation track; in particular, the decrease in bend angle per pass after many irradiations for a given set of process parameters. Understanding this is essential if the process is to be fully controlled in a manufacturing environment. The research presented in this paper highlights the current theories as to why this occurs and proposes a further reason based on the geometrical effects of the component deformation, which in turn influences the process parameters per pass. This theory is confirmed through empirical analysis of the 2D LF process

  13. A prototype for the PASS Permanent All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, H. J.; Alonso, R.; Belmonte, J. A.; Horne, K.; Alsubai, K.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, L. R.

    2004-10-01

    A prototype system for the Permanent All Sky Survey (PASS) project is presented. PASS is a continuous photometric survey of the entire celestial sphere with a high temporal resolution. Its major objectives are the detection of all giant-planet transits (with periods up to some weeks) across stars up to mag 10.5, and to deliver continuously photometry that is useful for the study of any variable stars. The prototype is based on CCD cameras with short focal length optics on a fixed mount. A small dome to house it at Teide Observatory, Tenerife, is currently being constructed. A placement at the antarctic Dome C is also being considered. The prototype will be used for a feasibility study of PASS, to define the best observing strategies, and to perform a detailed characterization of the capabilities and scope of the survey. Afterwards, a first partial sky surveying will be started with it. That first survey may be able to detect transiting planets during its first few hundred hours of operation. It will also deliver a data set around which software modules dealing with the various scientific objectives of PASS will be developed. The PASS project is still in its early phase and teams interested in specific scientific objectives, in providing technical expertise, or in participating with own observations are invited to collaborate.

  14. Regenerative beam breakup in multi-pass electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Important electron coincidence experiments in the 1 to 2 GeV range require electron beams of high intensity and high duty factor. To provide such beams, multi-pass electron accelerator systems are being developed at many laboratories. The beam current in multi-pass electron machines is limited by bean breakup which arises from interaction of the electron beam with deflection modes of the accelerator structure. Achieving high beam intensity (50 to 100 μA) will require detailed understanding and careful control of beam breakup phenomena, and is the subject of this thesis. The TM 11 -like traveling wave theory is applied to obtain a physical understanding of beam-mode interactions and the principles of focussing in simple two-pass systems, and is used as a basis for general studies of the dependence of starting current on accelerator parameters in systems of many passes. The concepts developed are applied in analyzing beam breakup in the superconducting recyclotron at Stanford. Measurements of beam interactions with selected breakup modes are incorporated in a simple model in order to estimate relative strengths of breakup modes and to predict starting currents in five-pass operation. The improvement over these predicted currents required in order to obtain 50 to 100 μA beams is shown to be achievable with a combination of increased breakup mode loading and improved beam optics

  15. A First-Order One-Pass CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2001-01-01

    We present a new transformation of λ-terms into continuation-passing style (CPS). This transformation operates in one pass and is both compositional and first-order. Previous CPS transformations only enjoyed two out of the three properties of being first-order, one-pass, and compositional......, but the new transformation enjoys all three properties. It is proved correct directly by structural induction over source terms instead of indirectly with a colon translation, as in Plotkin's original proof. Similarly, it makes it possible to reason about CPS-transformed terms by structural induction over...... source terms, directly.The new CPS transformation connects separately published approaches to the CPS transformation. It has already been used to state a new and simpler correctness proof of a direct-style transformation, and to develop a new and simpler CPS transformation of control-flow information....

  16. A First-Order One-Pass CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2002-01-01

    We present a new transformation of call-by-value lambdaterms into continuation-passing style (CPS). This transformation operates in one pass and is both compositional and first-order. Because it operates in one pass, it directly yields compact CPS programs that are comparable to what one would...... write by hand. Because it is compositional, it allows proofs by structural induction. Because it is first-order, reasoning about it does not require the use of a logical relation. This new CPS transformation connects two separate lines of research. It has already been used to state a new and simpler...... correctness proof of a direct-style transformation, and to develop a new and simpler CPS transformation of control-flow information....

  17. A First-Order One-Pass CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2003-01-01

    We present a new transformation of λ-terms into continuation-passing style (CPS). This transformation operates in one pass and is both compositional and first-order. Previous CPS transformations only enjoyed two out of the three properties of being first-order, one-pass, and compositional......, but the new transformation enjoys all three properties. It is proved correct directly by structural induction over source terms instead of indirectly with a colon translation, as in Plotkin's original proof. Similarly, it makes it possible to reason about CPS-transformed terms by structural induction over...... source terms, directly.The new CPS transformation connects separately published approaches to the CPS transformation. It has already been used to state a new and simpler correctness proof of a direct-style transformation, and to develop a new and simpler CPS transformation of control-flow information....

  18. PENINGKATAN HASIL BELAJAR PASSING SEPAK BOLA MELALUI PERMAINAN PEMBURU BINATANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Setiawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the learning outcome approach passing through playing soccer Beast Hunter on fourth grade students of SD Negeri Batuagung 1 Balapulang District of Tegal 2014. This study was conducted in PTK SD Negeri Batuagung 1 Balapulang District of Tegal, the samples in this study were fourth graders, amounting to 24 students. This research method is Classroom Action Research. This study uses 2 cycles. The results showed that the learning outcomes passing football played by using the approach of animals hunters have a positive impact as seen on mastery learning outcomes of students who exceed the predetermined KKM 75 has increased the mastery learning in the first cycle reaches 70.83%, while the second cycle mastery learning reaches 95.83%. It is concluded that learning football passing play tracker approach has a positive impact, which can improve learning outcomes, interest and motivation to learn.

  19. Future-based Static Analysis of Message Passing Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wytse Oortwijn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Message passing is widely used in industry to develop programs consisting of several distributed communicating components. Developing functionally correct message passing software is very challenging due to the concurrent nature of message exchanges. Nonetheless, many safety-critical applications rely on the message passing paradigm, including air traffic control systems and emergency services, which makes proving their correctness crucial. We focus on the modular verification of MPI programs by statically verifying concrete Java code. We use separation logic to reason about local correctness and define abstractions of the communication protocol in the process algebra used by mCRL2. We call these abstractions futures as they predict how components will interact during program execution. We establish a provable link between futures and program code and analyse the abstract futures via model checking to prove global correctness. Finally, we verify a leader election protocol to demonstrate our approach.

  20. Academy Distance Learning Tools (IRIS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — IRIS is a suite of front-end web applications utilizing a centralized back-end Oracle database. The system fully supports the FAA Academy's Distance Learning Program...

  1. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  2. Distance Education in Technological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R .C. SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor, New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode, joining hands with private initiatives and making a presence in foreign waters, are some of the hallmarks of the open and distance education (ODE institutions in developing countries. The compilation of twenty six essays on themes as applicable to ODE has resulted in the book, “Distance Education in Technological Age”. These essays follow a progressive style of narration, starting from describing conceptual framework of distance education, how the distance education was emerged on the global scene and in India, and then goes on to discuss emergence of online distance education and research aspects in ODE. The initial four chapters provide a detailed account of historical development and growth of distance education in India and State Open University and National Open University Model in India . Student support services are pivot to any distance education and much of its success depends on how well the support services are provided. These are discussed from national and international perspective. The issues of collaborative learning, learning on demand, life long learning, learning-unlearning and re-learning model and strategic alliances have also given due space by the authors. An assortment of technologies like communication technology, domestic technology, information technology, mass media and entertainment technology, media technology and educational technology give an idea of how these technologies are being adopted in the open universities. The study

  3. Moving from gamma passing rates to patient DVH-based QA metrics in pretreatment dose QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Heming; Nelms, Benjamin E.; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 and Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to explore the usefulness of the gamma passing rate metric for per-patient, pretreatment dose QA and to validate a novel patient-dose/DVH-based method and its accuracy and correlation. Specifically, correlations between: (1) gamma passing rates for three 3D dosimeter detector geometries vs clinically relevant patient DVH-based metrics; (2) Gamma passing rates of whole patient dose grids vs DVH-based metrics, (3) gamma passing rates filtered by region of interest (ROI) vs DVH-based metrics, and (4) the capability of a novel software algorithm that estimates corrected patient Dose-DVH based on conventional phan-tom QA data are analyzed. Methods: Ninety six unique ''imperfect'' step-and-shoot IMRT plans were generated by applying four different types of errors on 24 clinical Head/Neck patients. The 3D patient doses as well as the dose to a cylindrical QA phantom were then recalculated using an error-free beam model to serve as a simulated measurement for comparison. Resulting deviations to the planned vs simulated measured DVH-based metrics were generated, as were gamma passing rates for a variety of difference/distance criteria covering: dose-in-phantom comparisons and dose-in-patient comparisons, with the in-patient results calculated both over the whole grid and per-ROI volume. Finally, patient dose and DVH were predicted using the conventional per-beam planar data as input into a commercial ''planned dose perturbation'' (PDP) algorithm, and the results of these predicted DVH-based metrics were compared to the known values. Results: A range of weak to moderate correlations were found between clinically relevant patient DVH metrics (CTV-D95, parotid D{sub mean}, spinal cord D1cc, and larynx D{sub mean}) and both 3D detector and 3D patient gamma passing rate (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm) for dose-in-phantom along with dose-in-patient for both whole patient volume and filtered per-ROI. There was

  4. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bruce Albert [Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  5. Distance Education in Technological Age

    OpenAIRE

    R .C. SHARMA

    2005-01-01

    Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor), New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode...

  6. The serial message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingshan; Liu, Shanshan; Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Xue

    2015-12-01

    The conventional message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms is the so-called flooding schedule. It has the disadvantage that the updated messages cannot be used until next iteration, thus reducing the convergence speed . In this case, the Layered Decoding algorithm (LBP) based on serial message-passing schedule is proposed. In this paper the decoding principle of LBP algorithm is briefly introduced, and then proposed its two improved algorithms, the grouped serial decoding algorithm (Grouped LBP) and the semi-serial decoding algorithm .They can improve LBP algorithm's decoding speed while maintaining a good decoding performance.

  7. Delay Bound: Fractal Traffic Passes through Network Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay analysis plays a role in real-time systems in computer communication networks. This paper gives our results in the aspect of delay analysis of fractal traffic passing through servers. There are three contributions presented in this paper. First, we will explain the reasons why conventional theory of queuing systems ceases in the general sense when arrival traffic is fractal. Then, we will propose a concise method of delay computation for hard real-time systems as shown in this paper. Finally, the delay computation of fractal traffic passing through severs is presented.

  8. EXIT Chart Analysis of Binary Message-Passing Decoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lechner, Gottfried; Pedersen, Troels; Kramer, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Binary message-passing decoders for LDPC codes are analyzed using EXIT charts. For the analysis, the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. For the special case of a hard decision channel, this leads to the well know Gallager B algorithm, while the analysis can...... be extended to channels with larger output alphabets. By increasing the output alphabet from hard decisions to four symbols, a gain of more than 1.0 dB is achieved using optimized codes. For this code optimization, the mixing property of EXIT functions has to be modified to the case of binary message......-passing decoders....

  9. A double-pass interferometer for measurement of dimensional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Dongmei; Lawton, K M; Miller, J A

    2008-01-01

    A double-pass interferometer was developed for measuring dimensional changes of materials in a nanoscale absolute interferometric dilatometer. This interferometer realized the double-ended measurement of a sample using a single-detection double-pass interference system. The nearly balanced design, in which the measurement beam and the reference beam have equal optical path lengths except for the path difference caused by the sample itself, makes this interferometer have high stability, which is verified by the measurement of a quasi-zero-length sample. The preliminary experiments and uncertainty analysis show that this interferometer should be able to measure dimensional changes with characteristic uncertainty at the nanometer level

  10. Loss of European silver eel passing a hydropower station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Ingemann; Jepsen, Niels; Aarestrup, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess escapement success of silver eels, Anguilla anguilla (L.), in a lowland river while passing a reservoir and a hydropower station. It was hypothesized that passage success would be lowest at the hydropower station and that survival and migration speed would...... that within the study period, only 23% of the tagged eels reached the tidal limit, mainly due to difficulties in passing the hydropower dam. With such high loss-rates, the escapement goals set in the management plan cannot be achieved...

  11. PROBING THE ROLE OF CARBON IN ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION ALONG GALACTIC SIGHT LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvathi, V. S.; Babu, B. R. S. [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Kerala 673635 (India); Sofia, U. J. [Department of Physics, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20016 (United States); Murthy, J., E-mail: veena.makesh@gmail.com, E-mail: brsbabu@gmail.com, E-mail: sofia@american.edu, E-mail: jmurthy@yahoo.com [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India)

    2012-11-20

    We report previously undetermined interstellar gas and dust-phase carbon abundances along 15 Galactic sight lines based on archival data of the strong 1334.5323 A transition observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. These are combined with previously reported carbon measurements along six sight lines to produce a complete sample of interstellar C II measurements determined with the 1334 A transition. Our data set includes a variety of Galactic disk environments characterized by different extinctions and samples paths ranging over three orders of magnitude in average density of hydrogen ((n(H))). Our data support the idea that dust, specifically carbon-based grains, are processed in the neutral interstellar medium. We, however, do not find that the abundance of carbon in dust or the grain-size distribution is related to the strength of the 2175 A bump. This is surprising, given that many current models have polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the bump-producing dust.

  12. Marine mammal sightings around oil and gas installations in the central North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Rahbek, Malene Louise; Roesen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    288 animals were reported between May 2013 and May 2016. A total of seven marine mammal species were identified, five cetaceans: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), killer whale (Orcinus orca), pilot whales......Relatively little is known about the distribution and diversity of marine mammals around offshore anthropogenic structures. Wepresentresultsobtainedfromincidentalsightings ofmarinemammalsaroundoilandgasinstallationslocated200 kmoff the Danish coast. A total of 131 sightings corresponding to about...... (Globicephala spp.) and two species of pinnipeds: harbour (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). The most sighted species were harbour porpoise (41%) and minke whale (31%). Relative counts and biodiversity of marine mammals observed around installations corresponded well with the expected...

  13. Assessment of different models for computing the probability of a clear line of sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojin, Sorin; Paulescu, Marius; Badescu, Viorel

    2017-12-01

    This paper is focused on modeling the morphological properties of the cloud fields in terms of the probability of a clear line of sight (PCLOS). PCLOS is defined as the probability that a line of sight between observer and a given point of the celestial vault goes freely without intersecting a cloud. A variety of PCLOS models assuming the cloud shape hemisphere, semi-ellipsoid and ellipsoid are tested. The effective parameters (cloud aspect ratio and absolute cloud fraction) are extracted from high-resolution series of sunshine number measurements. The performance of the PCLOS models is evaluated from the perspective of their ability in retrieving the point cloudiness. The advantages and disadvantages of the tested models are discussed, aiming to a simplified parameterization of PCLOS models.

  14. Influence of non-line of sight luminescent emitters in visible light communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Anaranya; Walvekar, Pratik; Nayak, Shreyas; Narayan, K. S.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate concepts which utilize the non-line of sight fraction of light incident on a detector assembly in a visible-light communication (VLC) system. In addition to ambient light, realistic enclosures where VLC is implemented consist of a sizable fraction of scattered and reflected light. We present results of VLC systems with detectors responding to contributions from the light source scattered off a surface embedded with fluorescent and phosphorescent emitters besides the direct line of sight signal. Contribution from the emitters takes a form of discernible fluctuations in the detector signal. The implication of our results from noise analysis of these fluctuations indicates the possibility of utilizing smart coatings to further tailor VLC capabilities.

  15. Exploring EFL Students’ Reading Comprehension Process through Their Life Experiences and the Sight Word Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Camargo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the role language and literature play in the construction of social, economic and cultural systems, reading comprehension has become a growing challenge. This study examined how the relationship between English as a foreign language reading comprehension and life experiences while using the Sight Word Strategy could prove significant. Fifth graders at a public school in Bogotá participated in this study. Data were collected using tape recordings, field notes, archival data and students’ reflections. Analysis indicated that comprehension and construction of meaning were generated by sharing life experiences and through the interaction produced in each one of the Sight Word Strategy stages. The study suggested further research into a more encompassing definition of reading comprehension and life experiences correlation as an appropriate goal for English as a foreign language.

  16. Depression of molecular emission in the line of sight of Sgr A West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Deguchi, S.; Suzuki, H.

    1982-01-01

    The galatic center region has been mapped in the 4-mm emission lines of HCCCN (J = 8-7) and H 2 CO (JK-K+ = 1 01 -0 00 ) with a 1.5 arc min beam. The molecular lines are found to show depression in intensity in the line of sight of Sgr A West. Comparison with other molecular data indicates that NH 3 also shows a significant depression while HCN and HCO + show little sign of similar depression. Based on some density estimates we suggest that the depression means abnormally reduced abundance in HCCCN, NH 3 , and H 2 CO in the line of sight of Sgr A West. The difference in the degree of depression could be interpreted in terms of a time-dependent ion-molecule reaction scheme because HCO + and HCN are formed much more rapidly than the other molecules in the scheme

  17. Design of rapid prototype of UAV line-of-sight stabilized control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Zhao, Liting; Li, Yinlong; Yu, Fei; Lin, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    The line-of-sight (LOS) stable platform is the most important technology of UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), which can reduce the effect to imaging quality from vibration and maneuvering of the aircraft. According to the requirement of LOS stability system (inertial and optical-mechanical combined method) and UAV's structure, a rapid prototype is designed using based on industrial computer using Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) and Windows RTX to exchange information. The paper shows the control structure, and circuit system including the inertial stability control circuit with gyro and voice coil motor driven circuit, the optical-mechanical stability control circuit with fast-steering-mirror (FSM) driven circuit and image-deviation-obtained system, outer frame rotary follower, and information-exchange system on PC. Test results show the stability accuracy reaches 5μrad, and prove the effectiveness of the combined line-of-sight stabilization control system, and the real-time rapid prototype runs stable.

  18. Short-sighted evolution of virulence in parasitic honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Hepburn, H. Randall; Neumann, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The short-sighted selection hypothesis for parasite virulence predicts that winners of within-host competition are poorer at transmission to new hosts. Social parasitism by self-replicating, female-producing workers occurs in the Cape honeybee Apis mellifera capensis, and colonies of other honeybee subspecies are susceptible hosts. We found high within-host virulence but low transmission rates in a clone of social parasitic A. m. capensis workers invading the neighbouring subspecies A. m. scutellata. In contrast, parasitic workers from the endemic range of A. m. capensis showed low within-host virulence but high transmission rates. This suggests a short-sighted selection scenario for the host-parasite co-evolution in the invasive range of the Cape honeybee, probably facilitated by beekeeping-assisted parasite transmission in apiaries.

  19. Model of the lines of sight for an off-axis optical instrument Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Dominique; Gaudin-Delrieu, Catherine; Tournier, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    The future Earth observation missions aim at delivering images with a high resolution and a large field of view. These images have to be processed to get a very accurate localisation. In that goal, the individual lines of sight of each photosensitive element must be evaluated according to the localisation of the pixels in the focal plane. But, with off-axis Korsch telescope (like PLEIADES), the classical model has to be adapted. This is possible by using optical ground measurements made after the integration of the instrument. The processing of these results leads to several parameters, which are function of the offsets of the focal plane and the real focal length. All this study which has been proposed for the PLEIADES mission leads to a more elaborated model which provides the relation between the lines of sight and the location of the pixels, with a very good accuracy, close to the pixel size.

  20. On the Matching of Seen and Felt Shape by Newly Sighted Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schwenkler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available How do we recognize identities between seen shapes and felt ones? Is this due to associative learning, or intrinsic connections these sensory modalities? We can address this question by testing the capacities of newly sighted subjects to match seen and felt shapes, but only if the subjects can see the objects well enough to form adequate visual representations of their shapes. In light of this, a recent study by R. Held and colleagues fails to demonstrate that their newly sighted subjects' inability to match seen and felt shape was due to a lack of intermodal connections rather than a purely visual deficit, as the subjects may not have been able visually to represent 3D shape in the perspective-invariant manner required for intermodal matching. However, the study could be modified in any of several ways to help avoid this problem.

  1. An analysis of initial acquisition and maintenance of sight words following picture matching and copy cover, and compare teaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Colleen M; Derby, K Mark; Roberts-Gwinn, Michelle; Weber, Kimberly P; McLaughlin, T E

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the copy, cover, and compare method to a picture-word matching method for teaching sight word recognition. Participants were 5 kindergarten students with less than preprimer sight word vocabularies who were enrolled in a public school in the Pacific Northwest. A multielement design was used to evaluate the effects of the two interventions. Outcomes suggested that sight words taught using the copy, cover, and compare method resulted in better maintenance of word recognition when compared to the picture-matching intervention. Benefits to students and the practicality of employing the word-level teaching methods are discussed.

  2. Pursit-evasion game analysis in a line of sight coordinate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinar, J.; Davidovitz, A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper proposes to use line of sight coordinates for the analysis of pursuit-evasion games. The advantage of this method for two-target games is shown to be evident. As a demonstrative example the game of two identical cars is formulated and solved in such coordinate systems. A new type of singular surface, overlooked in a previous study of the same problem, is discovered as a consequence of the simplicity of the solution.

  3. My4Sight: A Human Computation Platform for Improving Flu Predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Akupatni, Vivek Bharath

    2015-01-01

    While many human computation (human-in-the-loop) systems exist in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to solve problems that can't be solved by computers alone, comparatively fewer platforms exist for collecting human knowledge, and evaluation of various techniques for harnessing human insights in improving forecasting models for infectious diseases, such as Influenza and Ebola. In this thesis, we present the design and implementation of My4Sight, a human computation system develope...

  4. InSight: Single Station Broadband Seismology for Probing Mars' Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, Mark P.; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Beucler, Eric; Boschi, Lapo; Johnson, Catherine; Lognonne, Philippe; Mocquet, Antoine; Weber, Renee C.

    2012-01-01

    InSight is a proposed Discovery mission which will deliver a lander containing geophysical instrumentation, including a heat flow probe and a seismometer package, to Mars. The aim of this mission is to perform, for the first time, an in-situ investigation of the interior of a truly Earth- like planet other than our own, with the goal of understanding the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets through investigation of the interior structure and processes of Mars.

  5. Automated measurement of bolometer line of sight alignment and characteristics for application in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzel, Florian Olivier

    2015-07-01

    The line of sight (LOS) alignment and characteristic of a bolometer camera used in a fusion experiment is a crucial parameter for the measurement accuracy of the diagnostic. A robot based LOS measurement device has been developed which allows the fully automatic measurement of the two dimensional transmission function of a bolometer camera. It has been used to optimize camera prototypes for ITER and has been successfully operated in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade in order to measure the LOS alignment.

  6. MEETING THE PENETRATING SIGHT OF THE GYPSY WOMEN SOMEWHERE IN THE MIDDLE EAST

    OpenAIRE

    BUJALSKA, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Somewhere in the Middle East during journey we can meet Gypsy women. Their penetrating sight clenches their entire existence. This stare shows their struggle with life, the everlasting roam and the mysterious knowledge contained in their nature. Who is the Gypsy woman in the Middle East? Gypsy is primarily a vagabond, a woman responsible for divination but very often the beggar and also unfortunately a thief. How we can recognize her from other women? The presence of Gypsies in the Midd...

  7. System Architecture of Small Unmanned Aerial System for Flight Beyond Visual Line-of-Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA 2011), 28-31 (August 2011) Maddalon Jeffrey M., Kelly J... SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OF SMALL UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM FOR FLIGHT BEYOND VISUAL LINE-OF-SIGHT THESIS...is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-S-047 SYSTEM

  8. Recognition memory for vibrotactile rhythms: an fMRI study in blind and sighted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert J; Dixit, Sachin; Burton, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Calcarine sulcal cortex possibly contributes to semantic recognition memory in early blind (EB). We assessed a recognition memory role using vibrotactile rhythms and a retrieval success paradigm involving learned "old" and "new" rhythms in EB and sighted. EB showed no activation differences in occipital cortex indicating retrieval success but replicated findings of somatosensory processing. Both groups showed retrieval success in primary somatosensory, precuneus, and orbitofrontal cortex. The S1 activity might indicate generic sensory memory processes.

  9. No Sensory Compensation for Olfactory Memory: Differences between Blind and Sighted People

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Sorokowska; Agnieszka Sorokowska; Maciej Karwowski

    2017-01-01

    Blindness can be a driving force behind a variety of changes in sensory systems. When vision is missing, other modalities and higher cognitive functions can become hyper-developed through a mechanism called sensory compensation. Overall, previous studies suggest that olfactory memory in blind people can be better than that of the sighted individuals. Better performance of blind individuals in other-sensory modalities was hypothesized to be a result of, among others, intense perceptual trainin...

  10. Medical Services from the Point of View of People with a Sight Handicap

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková Peršínová, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    My thesis deals with the provision of medical services to people with a severe sight handicap. My research focuses on fully blind people. The aim of my thesis is to find out the situation of these people within medical facilities. I try to reveal blind people's experience of how healthcare workers communicate with them, how well prepared healthcare professionals are and how blind people themselves are prepared. I also examine what technical obstacles are encountered by blind people in medical...

  11. Leading causes of certification for blindness and partial sight in England & Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wormald Richard

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of visual impairment is an international priority agreed at the World Health Assembly of 2002- yet many countries lack contemporary data about incidence and causes from which priorities for prevention, treatment and management can be identified. Methods Registration as blind or partially-sighted in England and Wales is voluntary and is initiated by certification by a consultant ophthalmologist. From all certificates completed during the year April 1999 to March 2000, the main cause of visual loss was ascertained where possible and here we present information on the leading causes observed and comment on changes in the three leading causes since the last analysis conducted for 1990–1991 data. Results 13788 people were certified as blind, 19107 were certified as partially sighted. The majority of certifications were in the older age groups. The most commonly recorded main cause of certifications for both blindness (57.2 % and partial sight (56 % was degeneration of the macula and posterior pole which largely comprises age-related macular degeneration. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy were the next most commonly recorded main causes. Overall, the age specific incidence of all three leading causes has increased since 1990–1991 – with changes in diabetic retinopathy being the most marked – particularly in the over 65's where figures have more than doubled. Conclusion The numbers of individuals per 100,000 population being certified blind or partially sighted due to the three leading causes – AMD, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma have increased since 1990. This may to some extent be explained by improved ascertainment. The process of registration for severe visual impairment in England and Wales is currently undergoing review. Efforts must be made to ensure that routine collection of data on causes of severe visual impairment is continued, particularly in this age of improved technology, to allow such trends

  12. Cognitive aspects of haptic form recognition by blind and sighted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, S M; Lambert, R M

    1986-11-01

    Studies using haptic form recognition tasks have generally concluded that the adventitiously blind perform better than the congenitally blind, implicating the importance of early visual experience in improved spatial functioning. The hypothesis was tested that the adventitiously blind have retained some ability to encode successive information obtained haptically in terms of a global visual representation, while the congenitally blind use a coding system based on successive inputs. Eighteen blind (adventitiously and congenitally) and 18 sighted (blindfolded and performing with vision) subjects were tested on their recognition of raised line patterns when the standard was presented in segments: in immediate succession, or with unfilled intersegmental delays of 5, 10, or 15 seconds. The results did not support the above hypothesis. Three main findings were obtained: normally sighted subjects were both faster and more accurate than the other groups; all groups improved in accuracy of recognition as a function of length of interstimulus interval; sighted subjects tended to report using strategies with a strong verbal component while the blind tended to rely on imagery coding. These results are explained in terms of information-processing theory consistent with dual encoding systems in working memory.

  13. Rapid Eye Movements (REMs) and visual dream recall in both congenitally blind and sighted subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bértolo, Helder; Mestre, Tiago; Barrio, Ana; Antona, Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate rapid eye movements (REMs) associated with visual dream recall in sighted subjects and congenital blind. During two consecutive nights polysomnographic recordings were performed at subjects home. REMs were detected by visual inspection on both EOG channels (EOG-H, EOG-V) and further classified as occurring isolated or in bursts. Dream recall was defined by the existence of a dream report. The two groups were compared using t-test and also the two-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Fisher test (for the features diagnosis (blind vs. sighted) and dream recall (yes or no) as a function of time). The average of REM awakenings per subject and the recall ability were identical in both groups. CB had a lower REM density than CS; the same applied to REM bursts and isolated eye movements. In the two-way ANOVA, REM bursts and REM density were significantly different for positive dream recall, mainly for the CB group and for diagnosis; furthermore for both features significant results were obtained for the interaction of time, recall and diagnosis; the interaction of recall and time was however, stronger. In line with previous findings the data show that blind have lower REMs density. However the ability of dream recall in congenitally blind and sighted controls is identical. In both groups visual dream recall is associated with an increase in REM bursts and density. REM bursts also show differences in the temporal profile. REM visual dream recall is associated with increased REMs activity.

  14. Analysis of local slopes at the InSight landing site on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, Robin L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Cushing, Glen; Galuszka, Donna M.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Hare, Trent M.; Howington-Kraus, Elpitha; Kipp, Devin M; Redding, Bonnie L.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the topography of the surface within the InSight candidate landing ellipses, we generated Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) at lander scales and those appropriate for entry, descent, and landing simulations, along with orthoimages of both images in each stereopair, and adirectional slope images. These products were used to assess the distribution of slopes for each candidate ellipse and terrain type in the landing site region, paying particular attention to how these slopes impact InSight landing and engineering safety, and results are reported here. Overall, this region has extremely low slopes at 1-meter baseline scales and meets the safety constraints of the InSight lander. The majority of the landing ellipse has a mean slope at 1-meter baselines of 3.2°. In addition, a mosaic of HRSC, CTX, and HiRISE DTMs within the final landing ellipse (ellipse 9) was generated to support entry, descent, and landing simulations and evaluations. Several methods were tested to generate this mosaic and the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline program dem_mosaic produced the best results. For the HRSC-CTX-HiRISE DTM mosaic, more than 99 % of the mosaic has slopes less than 15°, and the introduction of artificially high slopes along image seams was minimized.

  15. Physical exercises to improve the stability of the target sight in sport shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Miló Dubé

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport shooting stands for a highly technical sport, and a competitive art. It is the target sight one of the more important technical elements because it favors the sport performance and it must be considered in the training sessions from the junior school categories. This research meets the goals of proposing a set of physical exercises to improve the stability of the target sight technique for the Shooting athletes, category 13-16, field Standard gun pistol in the Sport School “Ormani Arenado Llonch” in Pinar del Río, Cuba. To fulfill this objective it was applied scientific observation, surveys and interviews, theoretical methods were also used in this research adjusted to 11 athletes and 3 coaches as the sample of research belonging to this school under study. Based on the diagnosed weaknesses found along the training was selected a set of physical exercise to improve the target sight empowering the pedagogical implication and without breaking the planning process of the sport.

  16. Clustering of galaxies around gamma-ray burst sight-lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudilovsky, V.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.

    2013-01-01

    -lines, as strong MgII tends to trace these sources. In this work, we test this expectation by calculating the two point angular correlation function of galaxies within 120'' (~470 h Kpc470h71-1Kpc at z ~ 0.4) of GRB afterglows. We compare the gamma-ray burst optical and near-infrared detector (GROND) GRB afterglow.......3. This result is contrary to the expectations from the MgII excess derived from GRB afterglow spectroscopy, although many confirmed galaxy counterparts to MgII absorbers may be too faint to detect in our sample-especially those at z > 1. We note that the addition of higher sensitivity Spitzer/IRAC or HST/WFC3......There is evidence of an overdensity of strong intervening MgII absorption line systems distributed along the lines of sight toward gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows relative to quasar sight-lines. If this excess is real, one should also expect an overdensity of field galaxies around GRB sight...

  17. Phonological processing skills in 6 year old blind and sighted Persian speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Momen Vaghefi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Phonological processing skills include the abilities to restore, retrieve and use memorized phonological codes. The purpose of this research is to compare and evaluate phonological processing skills in 6-7 year old blind and sighted Persian speakers in Tehran, Iran.Methods: This research is an analysis-comparison study. The subjects were 24 blind and 24 sighted children. The evaluation test of reading and writing disorders in primary school students, linguistic and cognitive abilities test, and the naming subtest of the aphasia evaluation test were used as research tools.Results: Sighted children were found to perform better on phoneme recognition of nonwords and flower naming subtests; and the difference was significant (p<0.001. Blind children performed better in words and sentence memory; the difference was significant (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in other subtests.Conclusion: Blind children's better performance in memory tasks is due to the fact that they have powerful auditory memory.

  18. Short term memory and working memory in blind versus sighted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withagen, Ans; Kappers, Astrid M L; Vervloed, Mathijs P J; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-07-01

    There is evidence that blind people may strengthen their memory skills to compensate for absence of vision. However, which aspects of memory are involved is open to debate and a developmental perspective is generally lacking. In the present study, we compared the short term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) of 10-year-old blind children and sighted children. STM was measured using digit span forward, name learning, and word span tasks; WM was measured using listening span and digit span backward tasks. The blind children outperformed their sighted peers on both STM and WM tasks. The enhanced capacity of the blind children on digit span and other STM tasks confirms the results of earlier research; the significantly better performance of the blind children relative to their sighted peers on verbal WM tasks is a new interesting finding. Task characteristics, including the verbal nature of the WM tasks and strategies used to perform these tasks, are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Which visual sight skill tested and developed the interaction between central and peripheral vision case duels dribbling soccer skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerf Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses the effects of visual keep sight to test and develop the interaction between central and peripheral vision the case of duels dribbling among soccer under 17 years. Where This research aims to propose a method evaluating and coaching this skill in the absence of laboratory tests and virtual visual exercises as a way for Algerian coaches to control the progress of their players. From the principle that the team which wins the most duels has the best chance of winning the game. [1] Our research supports the hypothesis which confirms in one hand that Dynamic visual acuity is the combine between Peripheral and Central vision to have one eye on the ball and the other on the defined [2] . While some authors confirm that the Top-class football players do not watch their steps, but dribble with their heads up [3]. Whereas Previous studies confirm estimate of distance ball foot player is the strategy to master this skill [4] which requires the involvement of the commitment of peripheral vision for information and central vision to master the ball [5]. From the proof and results statistics applied in the current study, we confirm that narrow spaces require the interaction of central vision than peripheral vision. Otherwise, free spaces require peripheral vision than the central vision. Which leaves us to confirm that peripheral vision in the limited space [6] can suffer because the player needs to pay close attention to each contact with the ball [7].

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON DOUBLE PASS SOLAR AIR HEATER WITH MESH LAYERS AS ABSORBER PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Nowzaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The double pass solar air heater is constructed and tested for thermal efficiency at a geographic location of Cyprus in the city of Famagusta. The absorber plate was replaced by fourteen steel wire mesh layers, 0.2 × 0.2 cm in cross section opening, and they were fixed in the duct parallel to the glazing. The distance between each set of wire mesh layers is 0.5cm to reduce the pressure drop. The wire mesh layers were painted with black before installing them into the collector. The obtained results show that as the mass flow rate increases, the efficiency of the system also increases. The temperature difference (ΔT between the inlet and outlet air through the system increases as the mass flow rate decreases. The maximum ΔT (53°C is achieved at the flow rate of 0.011 kg/s. The range of the mass flow rate used in this work is between 0.011 and 0.037 kg/s. It is also found that the average efficiency obtained for the double pass air collector is 53.7% for the mass flow rate of 0.037 kg/s.

  1. Continuum Mechanical Modelling of Skin-pass Rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kijima, Hideo; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The special contact conditions in skin-pass rolling of steel strip is analyzed by studying plane strain upsetting of thin sheet with low reduction applying long narrow tools and dry friction conditions. An extended sticking region is estimated by an elasto-plastic FEM analysis of the plane strain...

  2. Academic performance and pass rates: Comparison of three first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First year students' academic performance in three Life Science courses (Botany, Zoology and Bioscience) was compared. Pass rates, as well as the means and distributions of final marks were analysed. Of the three components (coursework, practical and theory examinations) contributing to the final mark of each course, ...

  3. Parallel imaging for first-pass myocardial perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irwan, Roy; Lubbers, Daniel D.; van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Kappert, Peter; Gotte, Marco J. W.; Sijens, Paul E.

    Two parallel imaging methods used for first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging were compared in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image artifacts. One used adaptive Time-adaptive SENSitivity Encoding (TSENSE) and the other used GeneRalized Autocalibrating

  4. Protocol-Based Verification of Message-Passing Parallel Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés; Eduardo R. B. Marques, Eduardo R. B.; Martins, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We present ParTypes, a type-based methodology for the verification of Message Passing Interface (MPI) programs written in the C programming language. The aim is to statically verify programs against protocol specifications, enforcing properties such as fidelity and absence of deadlocks. We develo...

  5. Variation of rolling noise during train pass-bys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Railway pass-by noise measurements on different types of tracks sometimes display a significant difference between the rise and decrease in rolling noise at the front and the back of the train. This can potentially have different causes. Whilst this may not necessarily be relevant for the total

  6. exchange rate pass-through to import and consumer prices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    degree of pass-through is estimated by the means of impulse response functions. ..... through from exchange rate fluctuations to each stage of the distribution chain ..... exclusion test (which is asymptotically chi-square distributed) and the results ...... Endogenous variables: DLWCPI YGap DLNEER DLMPI DLCPI DLM2. Root.

  7. Standardized Testing Practices: Effect on Graduation and NCLEX® Pass Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Pamela K

    The use standardized testing in pre-licensure nursing programs has been accompanied by conflicting reports of effective practices. The purpose of this project was to describe standardized testing practices in one states' nursing programs and discover if the use of a cut score or oversight of remediation had any effect on (a) first time NCLEX® pass rates, (b) on-time graduation (OTG) or (c) the combination of (a) and (b). Administrators of 38 nursing programs in one Southwest state were sent surveys; surveys were returned by 34 programs (89%). Survey responses were compared to each program's NCLEX pass rate and on-time graduation rate; t-tests were conducted for significant differences associated with a required minimum score (cut score) and oversight of remediation. There were no significant differences in NCLEX pass or on-time graduation rates related to establishment of a cut score. There was a significant difference when the NCLEX pass rate and on-time graduation rate were combined (Outcome Index "OI") with significantly higher program outcomes (P=.02.) for programs without cut-scores. There were no differences associated with faculty oversight of remediation. The results of this study do not support establishment of a cut-score when implementing a standardized testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. 78 FR 18479 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Pass Manchac, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... governing the operation of the Canadian National (CN) Railroad automated bascule span drawbridge across Pass....gov . Type the docket number in the ``SEARCH'' box and click ``SEARCH.'' Click on Open Docket Folder... Operations, telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The CN Railroad has requested a temporary...

  9. The ISO 5-pass authentication in χ-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario J.; Crazzolara, Federico; Milicia, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    We implement the ISO 5-pass authentication protocol and study its correctness using the χ-Space framework. χ-Spaces is a novel domain specific programming language designed for developing protocols and in particular security protocols. χ-Spaces programming language is an implementation of SPL...

  10. Plants profile of Malakand Pass Hills, District Malakand, Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... famous Malakand fort guards the road on both sides of the pass. Malakand is a ... Underneath Malakand Hills, the waters of the River Swat ... southern sloping faces of the hills. They speak ...... Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Antidote ...

  11. Notational analysis on tactical passing skills used by collegiate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notational analysis on tactical passing skills used by collegiate players in an indoor hockey masum tournament. K.N. Hasnor, H Hizan, M.I. Shahril, N.A. Kosni, M.R. Abdullah, A.B.H.M. Maliki, S.M. Mat-Rasid ...

  12. A New One-Pass Transformation into Monadic Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    We present a translation from the call-by-value λ-calculus to monadic normal forms that includes short-cut boolean evaluation. The translation is higher-order, operates in one pass, duplicates no code, generates no chains of thunks, and is properly tail recursive. It makes a crucial use of symbolic...

  13. Track-stitching using graphical models and message passing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, LJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to stitch tracks together, two tasks are required, namely tracking and track stitching. In this study track stitching is performed using a graphical model and message passing (belief propagation) approach. Tracks are modelled as nodes in a...

  14. Vehicle dynamic effects in the course of passing over turnouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenka J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For the quantification of vehicle dynamic effects at passing over turnouts at a higher speed there was developed a methodology for evaluating of acceleration measured on vehicle axle boxes in the year 2003. The methodology is based on statistical evaluation of lateral and vertical acceleration measured values at passing over both critical parts of a turnout (tongue, frog. The created methodology was used for investigation of vehicle dynamic effects by running at speed up to 230 km/h in the year 2004 in terms of high speed tests of tilting-body unit class 680 CD. There was found relatively high values of dynamic effects already at a speed 160 km/h. In terms of tilting-body unit class 680 tests at a higher speed in curves of chosen track lines of 1st and 2nd corridor of Czech Railways there was carried out also verification of curved turnouts state according to methodology mentioned above with a view to possibility of speed increasing at curved throats of chosen stations. Lateral vehicle dynamic effects at passing over a curved turnout frog area were evaluated. There were carried out simulation calculations of vehicle passing over a turnout based on measured geometric parameters of wheelset as well as chosen turnouts. Results of the calculations were compared with measurements. The increased vehicle dynamic effects found in pulsed beats character influence negatively the turnouts part (not only wheel contacting parts as well as operating life all unsuspended parts of vehicles.

  15. 20 CFR 416.2096 - Basic pass-along rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... residents of Medicaid facilities where Medicaid pays more than 50 percent of the cost of their care (see..., unless the State furnishes us satisfactory evidence to the contrary. (b) Meeting the pass-along... was in compliance for such preceding 12-month period. The combined Federal/State payment level for...

  16. Stream capture to form Red Pass, northern Soda Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Red Pass, a narrow cut through the Soda Mountains important for prehistoric and early historic travelers, is quite young geologically. Its history of downcutting to capture streams west of the Soda Mountains, thereby draining much of eastern Fort Irwin, is told by the contrast in alluvial fan sediments on either side of the pass. Old alluvial fan deposits (>500 ka) were shed westward off an intact ridge of the Soda Mountains but by middle Pleistocene time, intermediate-age alluvial fan deposits (~100 ka) were laid down by streams flowing east through the pass into Silurian Valley. The pass was probably formed by stream capture driven by high levels of groundwater on the west side. This is evidenced by widespread wetland deposits west of the Soda Mountains. Sapping and spring discharge into Silurian Valley over millennia formed a low divide in the mountains that eventually was overtopped and incised by a stream. Lessons include the importance of groundwater levels for stream capture and the relatively youthful appearance of this ~100-200 ka feature in the slowly changing Mojave Desert landscape.

  17. Buffels (Wes), Elsies, Sir Lowry's pass, Steenbras and Buffels (Oos)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heinecken, TJE

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of all available information on five of the smaller rivers discharging in to False bay combined as a single volume. The rivers dealt with are the Buffels (Wes), Elsies, Sir Lowry' Pass, Steenbras and Buffels (Oos). False...

  18. 48 CFR 652.237-71 - Identification/Building Pass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Information Security Programs Division, Industrial Security Branch (DS/ISP/INB) on its cleared employees..., Information Security Programs Division, Industrial Security Branch (DS/ISP/INB): (i) SF-85P, Questionnaire for... Pass (APR 2004) (a) Contractors working in domestic facilities who already possess a security clearance...

  19. A message passing algorithm for the evaluation of social influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassio, Luca; Fagnani, Fabio; Frasca, Paolo; Ozdaglar, Asuman

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we define a new measure of node centrality in social networks, the Harmonic Influence Centrality, which emerges naturally in the study of social influence over networks. Next, we introduce a distributed message passing algorithm to compute the Harmonic Influence Centrality of each

  20. 20 CFR 416.2099 - Compliance with pass-along.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance with pass-along. 416.2099 Section 416.2099 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED State Supplementation Provisions; Agreement; Payments § 416.2099 Compliance with...

  1. Note Passing and Gendered Discipline in Vietnamese Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    While researchers agree that note passing is predominantly an activity engaged in by girls, there has been relatively little consideration of why this is the case. In this article, I argue that gendered expectations about the appropriate characters of boys and girls in Vietnam are incorporated into the disciplinary framework of schools, and that…

  2. Evaluating low pass filters on SPECT reconstructed cardiac orientation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Shekhar

    2009-02-01

    Low pass filters can affect the quality of clinical SPECT images by smoothing. Appropriate filter and parameter selection leads to optimum smoothing that leads to a better quantification followed by correct diagnosis and accurate interpretation by the physician. This study aims at evaluating the low pass filters on SPECT reconstruction algorithms. Criteria for evaluating the filters are estimating the SPECT reconstructed cardiac azimuth and elevation angle. Low pass filters studied are butterworth, gaussian, hamming, hanning and parzen. Experiments are conducted using three reconstruction algorithms, FBP (filtered back projection), MLEM (maximum likelihood expectation maximization) and OSEM (ordered subsets expectation maximization), on four gated cardiac patient projections (two patients with stress and rest projections). Each filter is applied with varying cutoff and order for each reconstruction algorithm (only butterworth used for MLEM and OSEM). The azimuth and elevation angles are calculated from the reconstructed volume and the variation observed in the angles with varying filter parameters is reported. Our results demonstrate that behavior of hamming, hanning and parzen filter (used with FBP) with varying cutoff is similar for all the datasets. Butterworth filter (cutoff > 0.4) behaves in a similar fashion for all the datasets using all the algorithms whereas with OSEM for a cutoff < 0.4, it fails to generate cardiac orientation due to oversmoothing, and gives an unstable response with FBP and MLEM. This study on evaluating effect of low pass filter cutoff and order on cardiac orientation using three different reconstruction algorithms provides an interesting insight into optimal selection of filter parameters.

  3. STRUCTURE OF ECAP ALUMINIUM AFTER DIFFERENT NUMBER OF PASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ilucová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of high purity (99.99% aluminium processed by equal channel angular pressing in the as pressed state after different number of passes was examined using various stereological methods. An extreme inhomogeneity and complicated anisotropy was observed along the body of rod-like specimens.

  4. Single Pass Collider Memo: Gradient Perturbations of the SLC arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, W.T.; Sands, M.; /SLAC

    2016-12-16

    As the beam passes through the arcs, the gradient it encounters at each magnet differs from the design value. This deviation may be in part random and in part systematic. In this note we make estimates of the effects to be expected from both kinds of errors.

  5. PENGATURAN PASSING OFF DALAM PENGGUNAAN DOMAIN NAME TERKAIT DENGAN MEREK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herti Yunita Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In cyber world we often hear about domain name’s term. Domain name is a unique name to identify the server computer’s name like a web server or email server on a computer network or Internet. Passing off also make causes confusion in using merk from a famous brand or merk on the goods and services. Selected domain name in the internet media often creates the similar domain name with the other parties. This similar domain name are often used by people who are not responsible to take advantages of the domain name for themself. This can be caused by the presence of competition from Internet media business. This things called passing off. This research is a normative juridical research with a qualitative analysis. The legal materials include primary legal, secondary law and tertiary legal materials. Collection technique applied is literary study. Legal materials were analyzed to see the argument implementation of the definition of merk, the definition of domain name, definition of passing off, passing off in use related by merk and domain name and the rules of law in Indonesia related by merk, domain name and passing off. Big wishes in the future it can assist as a basic reference and legal considerations which are useful in Indonesian law practice. There are two passing off related to the merk and domain name, called Crybersquatting and Tiposquatting. Domain name rules are not regulated clearly in merk regulation named Act No. 15 of 2001. It regulated in PP 24 Year 1993 about The Class List of Goods or Services In Merk, Telecommunications are included in the goods or services in merk. Domain name are regulated in UDRP (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy with competent institutions called ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Dalam dunia maya (cyber world, kita sering mendengar istilah domain name. Domain name adalah nama unik yang diberikan untuk mengidentifikasi nama server komputer seperti web server atau email server di

  6. Measuring distances between complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Roberto F.S.; Miranda, Jose G.V.; Pinho, Suani T.R.; Lobao, Thierry Petit

    2008-01-01

    A previously introduced concept of higher order neighborhoods in complex networks, [R.F.S. Andrade, J.G.V. Miranda, T.P. Lobao, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 046101] is used to define a distance between networks with the same number of nodes. With such measure, expressed in terms of the matrix elements of the neighborhood matrices of each network, it is possible to compare, in a quantitative way, how far apart in the space of neighborhood matrices two networks are. The distance between these matrices depends on both the network topologies and the adopted node numberings. While the numbering of one network is fixed, a Monte Carlo algorithm is used to find the best numbering of the other network, in the sense that it minimizes the distance between the matrices. The minimal value found for the distance reflects differences in the neighborhood structures of the two networks that arise only from distinct topologies. This procedure ends up by providing a projection of the first network on the pattern of the second one. Examples are worked out allowing for a quantitative comparison for distances among distinct networks, as well as among distinct realizations of random networks

  7. Computing Distances between Probabilistic Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tracol

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present relaxed notions of simulation and bisimulation on Probabilistic Automata (PA, that allow some error epsilon. When epsilon is zero we retrieve the usual notions of bisimulation and simulation on PAs. We give logical characterisations of these notions by choosing suitable logics which differ from the elementary ones, L with negation and L without negation, by the modal operator. Using flow networks, we show how to compute the relations in PTIME. This allows the definition of an efficiently computable non-discounted distance between the states of a PA. A natural modification of this distance is introduced, to obtain a discounted distance, which weakens the influence of long term transitions. We compare our notions of distance to others previously defined and illustrate our approach on various examples. We also show that our distance is not expansive with respect to process algebra operators. Although L without negation is a suitable logic to characterise epsilon-(bisimulation on deterministic PAs, it is not for general PAs; interestingly, we prove that it does characterise weaker notions, called a priori epsilon-(bisimulation, which we prove to be NP-difficult to decide.

  8. Distance sampling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S

    2015-01-01

    In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

  9. Motion processing after sight restoration: No competition between visual recovery and auditory compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Davide; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Hense, Marlene; Troje, Nikolaus F; Sourav, Suddha; Röder, Brigitte

    2018-02-15

    The present study tested whether or not functional adaptations following congenital blindness are maintained in humans after sight-restoration and whether they interfere with visual recovery. In permanently congenital blind individuals both intramodal plasticity (e.g. changes in auditory cortex) as well as crossmodal plasticity (e.g. an activation of visual cortex by auditory stimuli) have been observed. Both phenomena were hypothesized to contribute to improved auditory functions. For example, it has been shown that early permanently blind individuals outperform sighted controls in auditory motion processing and that auditory motion stimuli elicit activity in typical visual motion areas. Yet it is unknown what happens to these behavioral adaptations and cortical reorganizations when sight is restored, that is, whether compensatory auditory changes are lost and to which degree visual motion processing is reinstalled. Here we employed a combined behavioral-electrophysiological approach in a group of sight-recovery individuals with a history of a transient phase of congenital blindness lasting for several months to several years. They, as well as two control groups, one with visual impairments, one normally sighted, were tested in a visual and an auditory motion discrimination experiment. Task difficulty was manipulated by varying the visual motion coherence and the signal to noise ratio, respectively. The congenital cataract-reversal individuals showed lower performance in the visual global motion task than both control groups. At the same time, they outperformed both control groups in auditory motion processing suggesting that at least some compensatory behavioral adaptation as a consequence of a complete blindness from birth was maintained. Alpha oscillatory activity during the visual task was significantly lower in congenital cataract reversal individuals and they did not show ERPs modulated by visual motion coherence as observed in both control groups. In

  10. Improving patient access to prevent sight loss: ophthalmic electronic referrals and communication (Scotland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Mustafa, M Z; Sanders, R

    2015-02-01

    With the number of people with sight loss predicted to double to four million people in the UK by the year 2050, preventable visual loss is a significant public health issue. Sight loss is associated with an increased risk of falls, accidents and depression and evidence suggests that 50% of sight loss can be avoided. Timely diagnosis is central to the prevention of sight loss. Access to care can be a limiting factor in preventable cases. By improving referrals and access to hospital eye services it is possible to treat and minimise the number of patients with preventable sight loss and the impact this has on wider society. In 2005, NHS Fife took part in a flagship pilot funded by the Scottish government e-health department to evaluate the feasibility, safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost of electronic referral with images of patients directly from community optometrists to Hospital Eye Service (HES). The pilot study showed that electronic referral was feasible, fast, safe, and obviated the need for outpatient appointments in 128 (37%) patients with a high patient satisfaction. The results of the pilot study were presented and in May 2007, the electronic referral system was rolled out regionally in southeast Scotland. Referrals were accepted at a single site with vetting by a trained team and appointments were allocated within 48 hours. Following the implementation of electronic referral, waiting times were reduced from a median of 14 to 4 weeks. Significantly fewer new patients were seen (7462 vs 8714 [p electronic communication between community optometry practices and hospital eye departments. Five electronic forms were specifically designed for cataract, glaucoma, macula, paediatric and general ophthalmic disease. A Virtual Private Network was created which enabled optometrists to connect to the Scottish clinical information gateway system and send referrals to hospital and receive referral status feedback. Numerous hurdles have been encountered and overcome

  11. Euclidean distance geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liberti, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook, the first of its kind, presents the fundamentals of distance geometry:  theory, useful methodologies for obtaining solutions, and real world applications. Concise proofs are given and step-by-step algorithms for solving fundamental problems efficiently and precisely are presented in Mathematica®, enabling the reader to experiment with concepts and methods as they are introduced. Descriptive graphics, examples, and problems, accompany the real gems of the text, namely the applications in visualization of graphs, localization of sensor networks, protein conformation from distance data, clock synchronization protocols, robotics, and control of unmanned underwater vehicles, to name several.  Aimed at intermediate undergraduates, beginning graduate students, researchers, and practitioners, the reader with a basic knowledge of linear algebra will gain an understanding of the basic theories of distance geometry and why they work in real life.

  12. Geodesic distance in planar graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the exact generating function for planar maps (genus zero fatgraphs) with vertices of arbitrary even valence and with two marked points at a fixed geodesic distance. This is done in a purely combinatorial way based on a bijection with decorated trees, leading to a recursion relation on the geodesic distance. The latter is solved exactly in terms of discrete soliton-like expressions, suggesting an underlying integrable structure. We extract from this solution the fractal dimensions at the various (multi)-critical points, as well as the precise scaling forms of the continuum two-point functions and the probability distributions for the geodesic distance in (multi)-critical random surfaces. The two-point functions are shown to obey differential equations involving the residues of the KdV hierarchy

  13. Sea turtles sightings in North Carolina from 1987-02-01 to 2015-06-16 (NCEI Accession 0161174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains sea turtle sightings reported to the NMFS Beaufort Laboratory sea turtle program by the general public as they were fishing, boating, etc. These...

  14. Music Memory Following Short-term Practice and Its Relationship with the Sight-reading Abilities of Professional Pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Eriko; Matsui, Toshie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory without any advance notice. The number of mistakes was used as an index of performance. There were no correlations in the numbers of mistakes between sight-reading and memory trial performance. Some pianists memorized almost the entire score, while others hardly remembered it despite demonstrating almost completely accurate performance just before memory trial performance. However, judging from the participants' responses to a questionnaire regarding their practice strategies, we found auditory memory was helpful for memorizing music following short-term practice.

  15. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1979-1991): Sighting and Census (F127) (NODC Accession 0014197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  16. Influence of welding passes on grain orientation – The example of a multi-pass V-weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Jing; Moysan, Joseph; Song, Sung-Jin; Kim, Hak-Joon; Chassignole, Bertrand; Gueudré, Cécile; Dupond, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The accurate modelling of grain orientations in a weld is important, when accurate ultrasonic test predictions of a welded assembly are needed. To achieve this objective, Electricité de France (EDF) and the Laboratoire de Caractérisation Non Destructive (LCND) have developed a dedicated code, which makes use of information recorded in the welding procedure. Among the welding parameters recorded, although the order in which the welding passes are made is of primary importance in the welding process, this information is not always well known or accurately described. In the present paper we analyse in greater detail the influence of the order of welding passes, using data obtained from the Centre for Advanced Non Destructive Evaluation (CANDE), derived from a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) with buttering. Comparisons are made using grain orientation measurements on a macrograph. - Highlights: ► Influence of welding process on grain structure is studied using the MINA model. ► For the first time the importance of a slight slope of the layers is evaluated. ► Two orders of passes are compared for the modelling approach. ► A major effect is observed due to a change in the order of passes.

  17. Statistics of Epidemics in Networks by Passing Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Munik Kumar

    Epidemic processes are common out-of-equilibrium phenomena of broad interdisciplinary interest. In this thesis, we show how message-passing approach can be a helpful tool for simulating epidemic models in disordered medium like networks, and in particular for estimating the probability that a given node will become infectious at a particular time. The sort of dynamics we consider are stochastic, where randomness can arise from the stochastic events or from the randomness of network structures. As in belief propagation, variables or messages in message-passing approach are defined on the directed edges of a network. However, unlike belief propagation, where the posterior distributions are updated according to Bayes' rule, in message-passing approach we write differential equations for the messages over time. It takes correlations between neighboring nodes into account while preventing causal signals from backtracking to their immediate source, and thus avoids "echo chamber effects" where a pair of adjacent nodes each amplify the probability that the other is infectious. In our first results, we develop a message-passing approach to threshold models of behavior popular in sociology. These are models, first proposed by Granovetter, where individuals have to hear about a trend or behavior from some number of neighbors before adopting it themselves. In thermodynamic limit of large random networks, we provide an exact analytic scheme while calculating the time dependence of the probabilities and thus learning about the whole dynamics of bootstrap percolation, which is a simple model known in statistical physics for exhibiting discontinuous phase transition. As an application, we apply a similar model to financial networks, studying when bankruptcies spread due to the sudden devaluation of shared assets in overlapping portfolios. We predict that although diversification may be good for individual institutions, it can create dangerous systemic effects, and as a result

  18. Adaptive Distance Protection for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    is adopted to accelerate the tripping speed of the relays on the weak lines. The protection methodology is tested on a mid-voltage microgrid network in Aalborg, Denmark. The results show that the adaptive distance protection methodology has good selectivity and sensitivity. What is more, this system also has......Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation resources, more and more microgrids can be found in distribution systems. This paper proposes a phasor measurement unit based distance protection strategy for microgrids in distribution system. At the same time, transfer tripping scheme...

  19. The subject-fixated coaxially sighted corneal light reflex: a clinical marker for centration of refractive treatments and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Daniel H; Waring, George O

    2014-11-01

    To describe the inconsistencies in definition, application, and usage of the ocular reference axes (optical axis, visual axis, line of sight, pupillary axis, and topographic axis) and angles (angle kappa, lambda, and alpha) and to propose a precise, reproducible, clinically defined reference marker and axis for centration of refractive treatments and devices. Perspective. Literature review of papers dealing with ocular reference axes, angles, and centration. The inconsistent definitions and usage of the current ocular axes, as derived from eye models, limit their clinical utility. With a clear understanding of Purkinje images and a defined alignment of the observer, light source/fixation target, and subject eye, the subject-fixated coaxially sighted corneal light reflex can be a clinically useful reference marker. The axis formed by connecting the subject-fixated coaxially sighted corneal light reflex and the fixation point, the subject-fixated coaxially sighted corneal light reflex axis, is independent of pupillary dilation and phakic status of the eye. The relationship of the subject-fixated coaxially sighted corneal light reflex axis to a refined definition of the visual axis without reference to nodal points, the foveal-fixation axis, is discussed. The displacement between the subject-fixated coaxially sighted corneal light reflex and pupil center is described not by an angle, but by a chord, here termed chord mu. The application of the subject-fixated coaxially sighted corneal light reflex to the surgical centration of refractive treatments and devices is discussed. As a clinically defined reference marker, the subject-fixated coaxially sighted corneal light reflex avoids the shortcomings of current ocular axes for clinical application and may contribute to better consensus in the literature and improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo; Kittler, J.; van den Broek, Egon; Petrou, M.; Nixon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation is introduced, starting from the inverse of the distance transformation. The prohibitive computational cost of a naive implementation of traditional Euclidean Distance Transformation, is tackled by three operations: restriction of both the number

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Structure and Event Location Using Body and Surface Wave Measurements at a Single Station: Preparation for Mars Data from the InSight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, M. P.; Banerdt, W. B.; Beucler, E.; Blanchette-Guertin, J. F.; Boese, M.; Clinton, J. F.; Drilleau, M.; James, S. R.; Kawamura, T.; Khan, A.; Lognonne, P. H.; Mocquet, A.; van Driel, M.

    2015-12-01

    An important challenge for the upcoming InSight mission to Mars, which will deliver a broadband seismic station to Mars along with other geophysical instruments in 2016, is to accurately determine event locations with the use of a single station. Locations are critical for the primary objective of the mission, determining the internal structure of Mars, as well as a secondary objective of measuring the activity of distribution of seismic events. As part of the mission planning process, a variety of techniques have been explored for location of marsquakes and inversion of structure, and preliminary procedures and software are already under development as part of the InSight Mars Quake and Mars Structure Services. One proposed method, involving the use of recordings of multiple-orbit surface waves, has already been tested with synthetic data and Earth recordings. This method has the strength of not requiring an a priori velocity model of Mars for quake location, but will only be practical for larger events. For smaller events where only first orbit surface waves and body waves are observable, other methods are required. In this study, we implement a transdimensional Bayesian inversion approach to simultaneously invert for basic velocity structure and location parameters (epicentral distance and origin time) using only measurements of body wave arrival times and dispersion of first orbit surface waves. The method is tested with synthetic data with expected Mars noise and Earth data for single events and groups of events and evaluated for errors in both location and structural determination, as well as tradeoffs between resolvable parameters and the effect of 3D crustal variations.

  2. Optical performance of multifocal soft contact lenses via a single-pass method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaraju, Ravi C; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Ho, Arthur; Papas, Eric

    2012-08-01

    A physical model eye capable of carrying soft contact lenses (CLs) was used as a platform to evaluate optical performance of several commercial multifocals (MFCLs) with high- and low-add powers and a single-vision control. Optical performance was evaluated at three pupil sizes, six target vergences, and five CL-correcting positions using a spatially filtered monochromatic (632.8 nm) light source. The various target vergences were achieved by using negative trial lenses. A photosensor in the retinal plane recorded the image point-spread that enabled the computation of visual Strehl ratios. The centration of CLs was monitored by an additional integrated en face camera. Hydration of the correcting lens was maintained using a humidity chamber and repeated instillations of rewetting saline drops. All the MFCLs reduced performance for distance but considerably improved performance along the range of distance to near target vergences, relative to the single-vision CL. Performance was dependent on add power, design, pupil, and centration of the correcting CLs. Proclear (D) design produced good performance for intermediate vision, whereas Proclear (N) design performed well at near vision (p 4 mm in diameter. Acuvue Oasys bifocal produced performance comparable with single-vision CL for most vergences. Direct measurement of single-pass images at the retinal plane of a physical model eye used in conjunction with various MFCLs is demonstrated. This method may have utility in evaluating the relative effectiveness of commercial and prototype designs.

  3. Steiner Distance in Graphs--A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    For a connected graph $G$ of order at least $2$ and $S\\subseteq V(G)$, the \\emph{Steiner distance} $d_G(S)$ among the vertices of $S$ is the minimum size among all connected subgraphs whose vertex sets contain $S$. In this paper, we summarize the known results on the Steiner distance parameters, including Steiner distance, Steiner diameter, Steiner center, Steiner median, Steiner interval, Steiner distance hereditary graph, Steiner distance stable graph, average Steiner distance, and Steiner ...

  4. Partial distance correlation with methods for dissimilarities

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Distance covariance and distance correlation are scalar coefficients that characterize independence of random vectors in arbitrary dimension. Properties, extensions, and applications of distance correlation have been discussed in the recent literature, but the problem of defining the partial distance correlation has remained an open question of considerable interest. The problem of partial distance correlation is more complex than partial correlation partly because the squared distance covari...

  5. Experience, but not distance, influences the recruitment precision in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Daniel; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Hernández, Manuel De Jesús; Vandame, Rémy

    2007-07-01

    Recruitment precision, i.e. the proportion of recruits that reach an advertised food source, is a crucial adaptation of social bees to their environment. Studies with honeybees showed that recruitment precision is not a fixed feature, but it may be enhanced by factors like experience and distance. However, little is known regarding the recruitment precision of stingless bees. Hence, in this study, we examined the effects of experience and spatial distance on the precision of the food communication system of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana. We conducted the experiments by training bees to a three-dimensional artificial patch at several distances from the colony. We recorded the choices of individual recruited foragers, either being newcomers (foragers without experience with the advertised food source) or experienced (foragers that had previously visited the feeder). We found that the average precision of newcomers (95.6 ± 2.61%) was significantly higher than that of experienced bees (80.2 ± 1.12%). While this might seem counter-intuitive on first sight, this “loss” of precision can be explained by the tendency of experienced recruits to explore nearby areas to find new rewarding food sources after they had initially learned the exact location of the food source. Increasing the distance from the colony had no significant effect on the precision of the foraging bees. Thus, our data show that experience, but not the distance of the food source, affected the patch precision of S. mexicana foragers.

  6. Gesture Interaction at a Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore, from a perspective of human behavior, which gestures are suited to control large display surfaces from a short distance away; why that is so; and, equally important, how such an interface can be made a reality. A well-known example of the type of interface that is

  7. Communication Barriers in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme; Altinay, Fahriye; Altinay, Zehra

    2003-01-01

    Communication is a key concept as being the major tool for people in order to satisfy their needs. It is an activity which refers as process and effective communication requires qualified communication with the elimination of communication barriers. As it is known, distance education is a new trend by following contemporary facilities and tools…

  8. Distance Education Technologies in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 schools ... Mobile Technology in Non-formal Distance Education 192 ..... in the design and application of e-learning strategies, the need to standardise and ...... library providing access to over 20,000 journals and thesis databases, and 6,000 ...

  9. Video surveillance using distance maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    2006-02-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors. To obtain fully controlled test environments, an artificial development center for robot navigation is introduced in which several parameters can be set (e.g., number of objects, trajectories and type and amount of noise). In the videos, for each following frame, movement of stationary objects is detected and pixels of moving objects are located from which moving objects are identified in a robust way. An Exact Euclidean Distance Map (E2DM) is utilized to determine accurately the distances between moving and stationary objects. Together with the determined distances between moving objects and the detected movement of stationary objects, this provides the input for detecting unwanted situations in the scene. Further, each intelligent object (e.g., a robot), is provided with its E2DM, allowing the object to plan its course of action. Timing results are specified for each program block of the processing chain for 20 different setups. So, the current paper presents extensive, experimentally controlled research on real-time, accurate, and robust motion detection for video surveillance, using E2DMs, which makes it a unique approach.

  10. Interaction in Distance Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine psychiatry nurses' attitudes toward the interactions in distance nursing education, and also scrunize their attitudes based on demographics and computer/Internet usage. The comparative relational scanning model is the method of this study. The research data were collected through "The Scale of Attitudes of…

  11. Student Monitoring in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Peter; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a computerized monitoring system for distance education students at Athabasca University designed to solve the problems of tracking student performance. A pilot project for tutors is described which includes an electronic conferencing system and electronic mail, and an evaluation currently in progress is briefly discussed. (LRW)

  12. Pass-band reconfigurable spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao Chi; He, Pei Hang; Gao, Xinxin; Tang, Wen Xuan; Cui, Tie Jun

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new scheme to construct the band-pass tunable filter based on the band-pass reconfigurable spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), whose cut-off frequencies at both sides of the passband can be tuned through changing the direct current (DC) bias of varactors. Compared to traditional technology (e.g. microstrip filters), the spoof SPP structure can provide more tight field confinement and more significant field enhancement, which is extremely valuable for many system applications. In order to achieve this scheme, we proposed a specially designed SPP filter integrated with varactors and DC bias feeding structure to support the spoof SPP passband reconfiguration. Furthermore, the full-wave simulated result verifies the outstanding performance on both efficiency and reconfiguration, which has the potential to be widely used in advanced intelligent systems.

  13. Testing the Turing Test — do Men Pass It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ruth; Hershberg, Uri; Schul, Yaacov; Solomon, Sorin

    We are fascinated by the idea of giving life to the inanimate. The fields of Artificial Life and Artificial Intelligence (AI) attempt to use a scientific approach to pursue this desire. The first steps on this approach hark back to Turing and his suggestion of an imitation game as an alternative answer to the question "can machines think?".1 To test his hypothesis, Turing formulated the Turing test1 to detect human behavior in computers. But how do humans pass such a test? What would you say if you would learn that they do not pass it well? What would it mean for our understanding of human behavior? What would it mean for our design of tests of the success of artificial life? We report below an experiment in which men consistently failed the Turing test.

  14. Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renes, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is a powerful tool in a wide range of disciplines from statistical physics to machine learning to computational biology, and is ubiquitous in decoding classical error-correcting codes. The algorithm works by passing messages between nodes of the factor graph associated with the code and enables efficient decoding of the channel, in some cases even up to the Shannon capacity. Here we construct the first BP algorithm which passes quantum messages on the factor graph and is capable of decoding the classical–quantum channel with pure state outputs. This gives explicit decoding circuits whose number of gates is quadratic in the code length. We also show that this decoder can be modified to work with polar codes for the pure state channel and as part of a decoder for transmitting quantum information over the amplitude damping channel. These represent the first explicit capacity-achieving decoders for non-Pauli channels. (fast track communication)

  15. Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renes, Joseph M.

    2017-07-01

    The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is a powerful tool in a wide range of disciplines from statistical physics to machine learning to computational biology, and is ubiquitous in decoding classical error-correcting codes. The algorithm works by passing messages between nodes of the factor graph associated with the code and enables efficient decoding of the channel, in some cases even up to the Shannon capacity. Here we construct the first BP algorithm which passes quantum messages on the factor graph and is capable of decoding the classical-quantum channel with pure state outputs. This gives explicit decoding circuits whose number of gates is quadratic in the code length. We also show that this decoder can be modified to work with polar codes for the pure state channel and as part of a decoder for transmitting quantum information over the amplitude damping channel. These represent the first explicit capacity-achieving decoders for non-Pauli channels.

  16. Research on optimizing pass schedule of tandem cold mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.; Wang, J.S.; Zhao, Q.L.; Liu, X.H.; Wang, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, research on pass schedule of tandem cold mill (TCM) is carried out. According to load (reduction, rolling force, motor power) balance, non-linear equations set with variables of inter-stand thickness is constructed. The pass schedule optimization is carried out by solving the non-linear equations set. As the traditional method, the Newton-Raphson method is used for solving the non-linear equations set. In this paper a new simple method is brought up. On basis of the monotone relations between thickness and load, the inter-stands thickness is adjusted dynamically. The solution of non-linear equations set can be converged by iterative calculation. This method can avoid the derivative calculation used by traditional method. So, this method is simple and calculation speed is high. It is suitable for on-line control. (author)

  17. Analysis and Design of Binary Message-Passing Decoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lechner, Gottfried; Pedersen, Troels; Kramer, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Binary message-passing decoders for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are studied by using extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts. The channel delivers hard or soft decisions and the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. A hard decision channel results...... message-passing decoders. Finally, it is shown that errors on cycles consisting only of degree two and three variable nodes cannot be corrected and a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a cycle-free subgraph is derived....... in the well-know Gallager B algorithm, and increasing the output alphabet from hard decisions to two bits yields a gain of more than 1.0 dB in the required signal to noise ratio when using optimized codes. The code optimization requires adapting the mixing property of EXIT functions to the case of binary...

  18. TM-pass polarizer based on multilayer graphene polymer waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ke-su; Li, Yue-e.; Wei, Wen-jing; Mu, Xi-jiao; Ma, A.-ning; Wang, Zhong; Song, Dan-ming

    2018-05-01

    A TM-pass polarizer based on multilayer graphene polymer waveguide is proposed and theoretically analyzed. The mode properties, the extinction ratio, the insertion loss and the bandwidth are also discussed. The results show that a TM-pass polarizer, which only guides the TM mode, can be achieved by multilayer graphene polymer waveguide. With length of 150 μm, the proposed polarizer can achieve extinction ratio of 33 dB and insertion loss of 0.5 dB at optical wavelength of 1.55 μm. This device has an excellent performance, including large extinction ratio and low insertion loss within the spectral range from 1.45 μm to 1.6 μm.

  19. A Dynamic Continuation-Passing Style for Dynamic Delimited Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin Scott

    2005-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine that accounts for dynamic delimited continuations. We prove the correctness of this new abstract machine with respect to a pre-existing, definitional abstract machine. Unlike this definitional abstract machine, the new abstract machine is in defunctionalized form......, which makes it possible to state the corresponding higher-order evaluator. This evaluator is in continuation+state passing style and threads a trail of delimited continuations and a meta-continuation. Since this style accounts for dynamic delimited continuations, we refer to it as `dynamic continuation......-passing style.' We show that the new machine operates more efficiently than the definitional one and that the notion of computation induced by the corresponding evaluator takes the form of a monad. We also present new examples and a new simulation of dynamic delimited continuations in terms of static ones....

  20. Beam dynamics simulation of a double pass proton linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilean Hwang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A recirculating superconducting linear accelerator with the advantage of both straight and circular accelerator has been demonstrated with relativistic electron beams. The acceleration concept of a recirculating proton beam was recently proposed [J. Qiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 795, 77 (2015NIMAER0168-900210.1016/j.nima.2015.05.056] and is currently under study. In order to further support the concept, the beam dynamics study on a recirculating proton linear accelerator has to be carried out. In this paper, we study the feasibility of a two-pass recirculating proton linear accelerator through the direct numerical beam dynamics design optimization and the start-to-end simulation. This study shows that the two-pass simultaneous focusing without particle losses is attainable including fully 3D space-charge effects through the entire accelerator system.

  1. Fish pass assessment by remote control: a novel framework for quantifying the hydraulics at fish pass entrances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Blackburn, Kim; Gill, Andrew; Breckon, Toby; Everard, Nick; Wright, Ros; Rivas Casado, Monica

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation of aquatic habitats can lead to the extinction of migratory fish species with severe negative consequences at the ecosystem level and thus opposes the target of good ecological status of rivers defined in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). In the UK, the implementation of the EU WFD requires investments in fish pass facilities of estimated 532 million GBP (i.e. 639 million Euros) until 2027 to ensure fish passage at around 3,000 barriers considered critical. Hundreds of passes have been installed in the past. However, monitoring studies of fish passes around the world indicate that on average less than half of the fish attempting to pass such facilities are actually successful. There is a need for frameworks that allow the rapid identification of facilities that are biologically effective and those that require enhancement. Although there are many environmental characteristics that can affect fish passage success, past research suggests that variations in hydrodynamic conditions, reflected in water velocities, velocity gradients and turbulences, are the major cues that fish use to seek migration pathways in rivers. This paper presents the first steps taken in the development of a framework for the rapid field-based quantification of the hydraulic conditions downstream of fish passes and the assessment of the attractivity of fish passes for salmonids and coarse fish in UK rivers. For this purpose, a small-sized remote control platform carrying an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), a GPS unit, a stereo camera and an inertial measurement unit has been developed. The large amount of data on water velocities and depths measured by the ADCP within relatively short time is used to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of water velocities. By matching these hydraulic features with known preferences of migratory fish, it is attempted to identify likely migration routes and aggregation areas at barriers as well as hydraulic features that

  2. Radiation of ultrarelativistic particles passing through ideal and mosaic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    When a charged particle passes through an ideal crystal, then besides the transition radiation, a new kind of radiation, connected with the periodic structure of the crystal is produced. The influence of mosaic structure of a crystal on the intensity of this radiation is considered. Simple analytical expressions for the integral intensity of this radiation for the case of an ideal crystal are obtained. The results show, that the integral radiation intensity depends weakly on the degree of crystal perfection

  3. Verification-Based Interval-Passing Algorithm for Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaofu; Yang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    We propose a verification-based Interval-Passing (IP) algorithm for iteratively reconstruction of nonnegative sparse signals using parity check matrices of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes as measurement matrices. The proposed algorithm can be considered as an improved IP algorithm by further incorporation of the mechanism of verification algorithm. It is proved that the proposed algorithm performs always better than either the IP algorithm or the verification algorithm. Simulation resul...

  4. Forest Analysis by Single-Pass Millimeterwave SAR Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Michael; Zhu, Xiao Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations show that millimeterwave SAR tomography provides an interesting means for the analysis of forested areas, especially if single-pass systems are employed. Providing very high resolutions in the decimeter domain and highly coherent data also for slightly windy conditions, even individual trees can be considered. Besides, it has been shown that a certain amount of canopy penetration is possible in spite of the short wavelength.

  5. Basic rules for various liquids passing through nuclear track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shilun; Hao Xiuhong; Wang Yulan; Fan Zhongjun; Zhao Yuhua; Zhao Chongde

    1995-01-01

    The authors describes the new understanding obtained from the studies of NTM for various liquid media, including: (1) basic rule of pure liquids passing through NTM; (2) various methods for the determination of viscosity of liquids by NTM; (3) determination of solute concentration in various solutions by NTM; (4) rapid separation of mixed liquids and chemical separation by NTM; (5) blocking phenomenon of NTM by solid particles in liquids and the blocking formula; and (6) basic rules of filtration of bacteria by NTM

  6. Endogenous trade participation with incomplete exchange rate pass-through

    OpenAIRE

    Imura, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the implications of endogenous trade participation for international business cycles, trade flow dynamics and exchange rate pass-through when price adjustments are staggered across firms. I develop a two-country dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model wherein firms make state-dependent decisions on entry and exit in the export market and the frequency of price adjustment is time-dependent. Consistent with recent empirical findings, producers of traded goods in thi...

  7. Interest Rate Pass-through in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasekara, Chandranath

    2005-01-01

    The Central Bank of Sri Lanka has increasingly been relying on interest rates as the instrument for conducting monetary policy. Changes to the key monetary policy variables, the Repo and the Reverse Repo rates, are initially expected to be reflected in the OMO rates and the call money market rates, before being passedthrough to commercial bank retail interest rates. It is important to obtain a good understanding of the speed and magnitude of the interest rate pass-through to make timely monet...

  8. Tropical field performance of dual-pass PV tray dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, A. Noor; Ya'acob, M. E.; Anuar, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    Solar Photovoltaic technology has become the preferable solution in many countries around the globe to solve the ever increasing energy demand of the consumers. In line with the consumer need, food processing technology has huge potentials of integration with the renewable energy resources especially in drying process which consumes the highest electricity loads. Traditionally, the solar dryer technology was applied in agriculture and food industries utilizing the sun's energy for drying process, but this is highly dependable on the weather condition and surrounding factors. This work shares some field performance of the new design of portable dual-pass PV tray dryer for drying crops in an enclosed system. The dual-pass PV tray dryer encompass a lightweight aluminium box structure with dimensions of 1.1m (L) x 0.6m (W) x 0.2m (H) and can hold a load capacity of 300g - 3kg of crop depending on the types of the crops. Experiments of field performance monitoring were conducted in October -November 2016 which justifies a considerable reduction in time and crops quality improvement when using the dual-pass PV tray dryer as compared to direct-sun drying.

  9. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  10. Incremental first pass technique to measure left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak, R.; Gulliford, P.; Hoggard, C.; Critchley, M.

    1980-01-01

    An incremental first pass technique was devised to assess the acute effects of any drug on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with or without a physiological stress. In particular, the effects of the vasodilater isosorbide dinitrate on LVEF before and after exercise were studied in 11 patients who had suffered cardiac failure. This was achieved by recording the passage of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate through the heart at each stage of the study using a gamma camera computer system. Consistent values for four consecutive first pass values without exercise or drug in normal subjects illustrated the reproducibility of the technique. There was no significant difference between LVEF values obtained at rest and exercise before or after oral isosorbide dinitrate with the exception of one patient with gross mitral regurgitation. The advantages of the incremental first pass technique are that the patient need not be in sinus rhythm, the effects of physiological intervention may be studied and tests may also be repeated at various intervals during long term follow-up of patients. A disadvantage of the method is the limitation in the number of sequential measurements which can be carried out due to the amount of radioactivity injected. (U.K.)

  11. A Streaming Distance Transform Algorithm for Neighborhood-Sequence Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Normand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe an algorithm that computes a “translated” 2D Neighborhood-Sequence Distance Transform (DT using a look up table approach. It requires a single raster scan of the input image and produces one line of output for every line of input. The neighborhood sequence is specified either by providing one period of some integer periodic sequence or by providing the rate of appearance of neighborhoods. The full algorithm optionally derives the regular (centered DT from the “translated” DT, providing the result image on-the-fly, with a minimal delay, before the input image is fully processed. Its efficiency can benefit all applications that use neighborhood- sequence distances, particularly when pipelined processing architectures are involved, or when the size of objects in the source image is limited.

  12. Accurate 3D Positioning for a Mobile Platform in Non-Line-of-Sight Scenarios Based on IMU/Magnetometer Sensor Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmers, Hendrik; Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Eichhorn, Andreas

    2018-01-04

    In recent years, a variety of real-time applications benefit from services provided by localization systems due to the advent of sensing and communication technologies. Since the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) enables localization only outside buildings, applications for indoor positioning and navigation use alternative technologies. Ultra Wide Band Signals (UWB), Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), ultrasonic or infrared are common examples. However, these technologies suffer from fading and multipath effects caused by objects and materials in the building. In contrast, magnetic fields are able to pass through obstacles without significant propagation errors, i.e. in Non-Line of Sight Scenarios (NLoS). The aim of this work is to propose a novel indoor positioning system based on artificially generated magnetic fields in combination with Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). In order to reach a better coverage, multiple coils are used as reference points. A basic algorithm for three-dimensional applications is demonstrated as well as evaluated in this article. The established system is then realized by a sensor fusion principle as well as a kinematic motion model on the basis of a Kalman filter. Furthermore, a pressure sensor is used in combination with an adaptive filtering method to reliably estimate the platform's altitude.

  13. Diagnostic and Treatment Challenges of Sighted Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkani, Roneil G; Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C

    2018-04-15

    To report the diagnostic and treatment challenges of sighted non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (N24SWD). We report a series of seven sighted patients with N24SWD clinically evaluated by history and sleep diaries, and when available wrist actigraphy and salivary melatonin levels, and treated with timed melatonin and bright light therapy. Most patients had a history of a delayed sleep-wake pattern prior to developing N24SWD. The typical sleep-wake pattern of N24SWD was seen in the sleep diaries (and in actigraphy when available) in all patients with a daily delay in midpoint of sleep ranging 0.8 to 1.8 hours. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was evaluated in four patients but was missed in one. The estimated phase angle from DLMO to sleep onset ranged from 5.25 to 9 hours. All six patients who attempted timed melatonin and bright light therapy were able to entrain their sleep-wake schedules. Entrainment occurred at a late circadian phase, possibly related to the late timing of melatonin administration, though the patients often preferred late sleep times. Most did not continue treatment and continued to have a non-24-hour sleep-wake pattern. N24SWD is a chronic debilitating disorder that is often overlooked in sighted people and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Tools to assess circadian pattern and timing can be effectively applied to aid the diagnosis. The progressive delay of the circadian rhythm poses a challenge for determining the most effective timing for melatonin and bright light therapies. Furthermore, once the circadian sleep-wake rhythm is entrained, long-term effectiveness is limited because of the behavioral and environmental structure that is required to maintain stable entrainment. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  14. Beyond monetary benefits of restoring sight in Vietnam: Evaluating well-being gains from cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeny, Simon; Posso, Alberto; McDonald, Lachlan; Chuyen, Truong Thi Kim; Tung, Son Thanh

    2018-01-01

    A more holistic understanding of the benefits of sight-restoring cataract surgery requires a focus that goes beyond income and employment, to include a wider array of well-being measures. The objective of this study is to examine the monetary and non-monetary benefits of cataract surgery on both patients as well as their caregivers in Vietnam. Participants were randomly recruited from a Ho-Chi-Minh City Hospital. A total of 82 cataract patients and 83 caregivers participated in the survey conducted for this study. Paired t-tests, Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests, and regression analysis are used to detect any statistically significant differences in various measures of well-being for patients and caregivers before and after surgery. There are statistically significant improvements in monetary and non-monetary measures of well-being for both patients and caregivers approximately three months after undergoing cataract surgery, compared with baseline assessments collected prior to surgery. Non-monetary measures of well-being include self-assessments of overall health, mental health, hope, self-efficacy, happiness and life satisfaction. For patients, the benefits included statistically significant improvements in earnings, mobility, self-care, the ability to undertake daily activities, self-assessed health and mental health, life satisfaction, hope, and self-efficacy (pbenefits are almost equal in their magnitude. The study has also demonstrated that many of these impacts are non-monetary in nature. It is clear that estimates of the rate of return to restoring sight that focus only on financial gains will underestimate the true returns to society of restoring sight from cataract surgeries.

  15. A comparative study of simple auditory reaction time in blind (congenitally) and sighted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Pritesh Hariprasad; Gokhale, Pradnya A; Mehta, H B; Shah, C J

    2013-07-01

    Reaction time is the time interval between the application of a stimulus and the appearance of appropriate voluntary response by a subject. It involves stimulus processing, decision making, and response programming. Reaction time study has been popular due to their implication in sports physiology. Reaction time has been widely studied as its practical implications may be of great consequence e.g., a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. To study simple auditory reaction time in congenitally blind subjects and in age sex matched sighted subjects. To compare the simple auditory reaction time between congenitally blind subjects and healthy control subjects. STUDY HAD BEEN CARRIED OUT IN TWO GROUPS: The 1(st) of 50 congenitally blind subjects and 2(nd) group comprises of 50 healthy controls. It was carried out on Multiple Choice Reaction Time Apparatus, Inco Ambala Ltd. (Accuracy±0.001 s) in a sitting position at Government Medical College and Hospital, Bhavnagar and at a Blind School, PNR campus, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Simple auditory reaction time response with four different type of sound (horn, bell, ring, and whistle) was recorded in both groups. According to our study, there is no significant different in reaction time between congenital blind and normal healthy persons. Blind individuals commonly utilize tactual and auditory cues for information and orientation and they reliance on touch and audition, together with more practice in using these modalities to guide behavior, is often reflected in better performance of blind relative to sighted participants in tactile or auditory discrimination tasks, but there is not any difference in reaction time between congenitally blind and sighted people.

  16. MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the

  17. Family of Advanced Beyond Line-of-Sight Terminals (FAB-T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-199 Family of Advanced Beyond Line-of-Sight Terminals ( FAB -T) As of FY 2017 President’s...Budget Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 21, 2016 15:24:15 UNCLASSIFIED FAB -T December 2015 SAR March 21, 2016 15:24...Operational Requirements Document OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense O&S - Operating and Support PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost FAB -T December 2015

  18. SOME METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FORMING MOTOR SKILLS NECESSARY TO SIGHT-READING PIANO LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN RUSLANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the urgent problems of forming a pianist – the development of score reading skills, in parti­cular the development of motor skills required for this aptitude. Since this ability is not innate, the formation of score reading skills becomes one of the central problems of musical education. Sight-reading is a complex process, requiring the development of complex musical abilities: skills in piano technique, musical and auditory representations, internal hearing. The article pre­sents a series of exercises that can serve as a solid basis for the formation and development of score reading skills.

  19. Line-of-Sight Path Following for Dubins Paths with Adaptive Sideslip Compensation of Drift Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, Thor Inge; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    guidance law is intended for maneuvering in the horizontal-plane at given speeds and typical applications are marine craft, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as well as other vehicles and craft where the goal is to follow a predefined parametrized curve without time......-sight (LOS) guidance principle used by ancient navigators, which is here extended to path following of Dubins paths. The unknown sideslip angle is treated as a constant parameter, which is estimated using an adaptation law. The equilibrium points of the cross-track and parameter estimation errors are proven...

  20. Gain claming in single-pass and double-pass L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S.W.; Ahmad, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gain clamping is demonstrated in single-pass and double-pass long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. A C/L-band wavelength division multiplexing coupler is used in single-pass system to generate a laser at 1566 nm. The gain for the amplifier is clamped at 15.5 dB with gain variation of less than 0.2 dB from input signal power of -40 to -14 dBm with almost negligible noise figure penalty. However, the flatness of gain spectrum is slightly degraded due to the un-optimisation of erbium-doped fiber length. The advantage of this configuration is that the oscillating light does not appear at the output of the amplifier. A highly efficient gain-clamped long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with improved noise figure characteristic is demonstrated by simply adding a broadband conventional band fiber Bragg grating in double pass system. The combination of the fiber Bragg grating and optical circulator has created laser in the cavity for gain clamping. By adjusting the power combination of pumps 1 and 2, the clamped gain level can be controlled. The amplifier gain is clamped at 28.1 dB from -40 to -25 dBm with gain variation of less than 0.5 dB by setting the pumps 1 and 2 at 59.5 and 50.6 mW, respectively. The gain is also flat from 1574 nm to 1604 nm with gain variation of less than 3 dB. The corresponding noise figure varies from 5.6 to 7.6 dB, which is 0.8 to 2.6 dB reduced compared to those of unclamped amplifier (Authors)

  1. TOWARD A NEW GEOMETRIC DISTANCE TO THE ACTIVE GALAXY NGC 4258. III. FINAL RESULTS AND THE HUBBLE CONSTANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, E. M. L.; Reid, M. J.; Moran, J. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Argon, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    We report a new geometric maser distance estimate to the active galaxy NGC 4258. The data for the new model are maser line-of-sight (LOS) velocities and sky positions from 18 epochs of very long baseline interferometry observations, and LOS accelerations measured from a 10 yr monitoring program of the 22 GHz maser emission of NGC 4258. The new model includes both disk warping and confocal elliptical maser orbits with differential precession. The distance to NGC 4258 is 7.60 ± 0.17 ± 0.15 Mpc, a 3% uncertainty including formal fitting and systematic terms. The resulting Hubble constant, based on the use of the Cepheid variables in NGC 4258 to recalibrate the Cepheid distance scale, is H 0 = 72.0 ± 3.0 km s –1 Mpc –1

  2. COMPARISON OF SOLAR SURFACE FLOWS INFERRED FROM TIME-DISTANCE HELIOSEISMOLOGY AND COHERENT STRUCTURE TRACKING USING HMI/SDO OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Švanda, Michal; Roudier, Thierry; Rieutord, Michel; Burston, Raymond; Gizon, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    We compare measurements of horizontal flows on the surface of the Sun using helioseismic time-distance inversions and coherent structure tracking of solar granules. Tracking provides two-dimensional horizontal flows on the solar surface, whereas the time-distance inversions estimate the full three-dimensional velocity flows in the shallow near-surface layers. Both techniques use Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observations as input. We find good correlations between the various measurements resulting from the two techniques. Further, we find a good agreement between these measurements and the time-averaged Doppler line-of-sight velocity, and also perform sanity checks on the vertical flow that resulted from the three-dimensional time-distance inversion.

  3. Moral distance in dictator games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Aguiar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We perform an experimental investigation using a dictator game in which individuals must make a moral decision --- to give or not to give an amount of money to poor people in the Third World. A questionnaire in which the subjects are asked about the reasons for their decision shows that, at least in this case, moral motivations carry a heavy weight in the decision: the majority of dictators give the money for reasons of a consequentialist nature. Based on the results presented here and of other analogous experiments, we conclude that dicator behavior can be understood in terms of moral distance rather than social distance and that it systematically deviates from the egoism assumption in economic models and game theory. %extit{JEL}: A13, C72, C91

  4. Managerial Distance and Virtual Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansmann, Henry; Thomsen, Steen

    Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies con......, but corporate governance and fiduciary behavior more generally....... on differences among the industrial foundations themselves. We work with a rich data set comprising 113 foundation-owned Danish companies over the period 2003-2008. We focus in particular on a composite structural factor that we term “managerial distance.” We propose this as a measure of the extent to which......-seeking outside owners of the company. Consistent with this hypothesis, our empirical analysis shows a positive, significant, and robust association between managerial distance and the economic performance of foundation owned companies. The findings appear to illuminate not just foundation governance...

  5. Determining distances using asteroseismic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Victor Silva; Casagrande, L.; Basu, Sarbina

    2013-01-01

    Asteroseismology has been extremely successful in determining the properties of stars in different evolutionary stages with a remarkable level of precision. However, to fully exploit its potential, robust methods for estimating stellar parameters are required and independent verification of the r......Asteroseismology has been extremely successful in determining the properties of stars in different evolutionary stages with a remarkable level of precision. However, to fully exploit its potential, robust methods for estimating stellar parameters are required and independent verification...... fluxes, and thus distances for field stars in a self-consistent manner. Applying our method to a sample of solar-like oscillators in the {\\it Kepler} field that have accurate {\\it Hipparcos} parallaxes, we find agreement in our distance determinations to better than 5%. Comparison with measurements...

  6. On the center of distances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, S.; Walczyńska, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2018), s. 687-698 ISSN 2199-675X R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cantorval center of distances von Neumann's theorem * set of subsums Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40879-017-0199-4

  7. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  8. Support Services for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Frieden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation and operation of a distance education support infrastructure requires the collaboration of virtually all administrative departments whose activities deal with students and faculty, and all participating academic departments. Implementation can build on where the institution is and design service-oriented strategies that strengthen institutional support and commitment. Issues to address include planning, faculty issues and concerns, policies and guidelines, approval processes, scheduling, training, publicity, information-line operations, informational materials, orientation and registration processes, class coordination and support, testing, evaluations, receive site management, partnerships, budgets, staffing, library and e-mail support, and different delivery modes (microwave, compressed video, radio, satellite, public television/cable, video tape and online. The process is ongoing and increasingly participative as various groups on campus begin to get involved with distance education activities. The distance education unit must continuously examine and revise its processes and procedures to maintain the academic integrity and service excellence of its programs. It’s a daunting prospect to revise the way things have been done for many years, but each department has an opportunity to respond to new ways of serving and reaching students.

  9. Teaching Chemistry via Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschmann, Erwin

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes a chemistry course taught at Indiana University Purdue University, Indianapolis via television, with a Web version added later. The television format is a delivery technology; the Web is an engagement technology and is preferred since it requires student participation. The distance-laboratory component presented the greatest challenge since laboratories via distance education are not a part of the U.S. academic culture. Appropriate experiments have been developed with the consultation of experts from The Open University in the United Kingdom, Athabasca University in Canada, and Monash University in Australia. The criteria used in the development of experiments are: (1) they must be credible academic experiences equal to or better than those used on campus, (2) they must be easy to perform without supervision, (3) they must be safe, and (4) they must meet all legal requirements. An evaluation of the program using three different approaches is described. The paper concludes that technology-mediated distance education students do as well as on-campus students, but drop out at a higher rate. It is very important to communicate with students frequently, and technology tools ought to be used only if good pedagogy is enhanced by their use.

  10. Pass it On – The Path is the Goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempf, Petra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our history is infused with human movement – a phenomenon that has given rise to an imperative relationship between the subject, the environment, and the journeys that unfold while moving. Passing through space is therefore one of the oldest and most practiced forms of human movement. One of our great challenges, however, is the communication and documentation of that experience. This article explores the unfolding of place through the act of mapping by employing storytelling as a means of recording our movements.

  11. Modelling of a one pass smoke tube boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Sørensen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    A nonlinear state-space model with five states describing a one pass smoke tube boiler has been formulated. By means of mass- and energy-balance the model describes the dynamics of the Furnace, the Convection Zone and the Water/Steam Part and the three sub models are merged into an overall model....... The model is further linearized for use in a linear control design. The simulations have been carried out by means of MATLAB/SIMULINK and the models have been verified with measurements from a full scale boiler plant. Parameters in the model that are difficult to calculate have been estimated and the method...

  12. Establishing Pass/Fail Criteria for Bronchoscopy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Clementsen, Paul; Larsen, Klaus Richter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several tools have been created to assess competence in bronchoscopy. However, educational guidelines still use an arbitrary number of performed procedures to decide when basic competency is acquired. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to define pass/fail scores for two...... method. In the first we compared bronchoscopy performance scores of 14 novices with the scores of 14 experienced consultants to find the score that best discriminated between the two groups. In the second we asked an expert group of 7 experienced bronchoscopists to judge how a borderline trainee would...

  13. A Calculus of Communicating Systems with Label Passing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Nielsen, Mogens

    Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) is extended with a mechanism for label passing - as an attempt to remedy some of the shortcomings of CCS w.r.t. dynamic change of agent interconnections. In the extended calculus, restriction is viewed formally as a binder, and the calculus allows...... dynamic change of scope (of label) in connection with communication. It is proved that algebraic properties of strong (and observational) equivalence for CCS are preserved by the extension. Examples illustrating the expressive power of the calculus and its methods for reasoning are given....

  14. Low-pass sequencing for microbial comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Sean

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied four extremely halophilic archaea by low-pass shotgun sequencing: (1 the metabolically versatile Haloarcula marismortui; (2 the non-pigmented Natrialba asiatica; (3 the psychrophile Halorubrum lacusprofundi and (4 the Dead Sea isolate Halobaculum gomorrense. Approximately one thousand single pass genomic sequences per genome were obtained. The data were analyzed by comparative genomic analyses using the completed Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome as a reference. Low-pass shotgun sequencing is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid approach that can readily be performed on any cultured microbe. Results As expected, the four archaeal halophiles analyzed exhibit both bacterial and eukaryotic characteristics as well as uniquely archaeal traits. All five halophiles exhibit greater than sixty percent GC content and low isoelectric points (pI for their predicted proteins. Multiple insertion sequence (IS elements, often involved in genome rearrangements, were identified in H. lacusprofundi and H. marismortui. The core biological functions that govern cellular and genetic mechanisms of H. sp. NRC-1 appear to be conserved in these four other halophiles. Multiple TATA box binding protein (TBP and transcription factor IIB (TFB homologs were identified from most of the four shotgunned halophiles. The reconstructed molecular tree of all five halophiles shows a large divergence between these species, but with the closest relationship being between H. sp. NRC-1 and H. lacusprofundi. Conclusion Despite the diverse habitats of these species, all five halophiles share (1 high GC content and (2 low protein isoelectric points, which are characteristics associated with environmental exposure to UV radiation and hypersalinity, respectively. Identification of multiple IS elements in the genome of H. lacusprofundi and H. marismortui suggest that genome structure and dynamic genome reorganization might be similar to that previously observed in the

  15. S-AMP: Approximate Message Passing for General Matrix Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Winther, Ole; Fleury, Bernard H.

    2014-01-01

    the approximate message-passing (AMP) algorithm to general matrix ensembles with a well-defined large system size limit. The generalization is based on the S-transform (in free probability) of the spectrum of the measurement matrix. Furthermore, we show that the optimality of S-AMP follows directly from its......We propose a novel iterative estimation algorithm for linear observation models called S-AMP. The fixed points of S-AMP are the stationary points of the exact Gibbs free energy under a set of (first- and second-) moment consistency constraints in the large system limit. S-AMP extends...

  16. Fault-tolerant Agreement in Synchronous Message-passing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Raynal, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The present book focuses on the way to cope with the uncertainty created by process failures (crash, omission failures and Byzantine behavior) in synchronous message-passing systems (i.e., systems whose progress is governed by the passage of time). To that end, the book considers fundamental problems that distributed synchronous processes have to solve. These fundamental problems concern agreement among processes (if processes are unable to agree in one way or another in presence of failures, no non-trivial problem can be solved). They are consensus, interactive consistency, k-set agreement an

  17. PENN PASS: a program for graduates of foreign dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, P; Lopez, N

    1994-01-01

    An increasing number of graduates of foreign dental schools who enroll in advanced standing programs to qualify for licensure calls for dental schools to be prepared to handle not only the curricular demands but also the growing cultural diversity among its student population. The "reeducation" of this student group not only meets the need of foreign dentists for an American degree but may also provide health professionals to service various ethnic populations whose language and culture they are able to understand and identify with. A survey of students and graduates of a two-year Program for Advanced Standing Students (PASS) for graduates of foreign dental schools representing 34 countries aimed to arrive at an understanding of this student group through characterization of the foreign dentists and identification of their attitudes and feelings toward various aspects of the program, the school and faculty and their experience of stress. This report includes description of the distinctive features of the program which cater to specific needs and concerns of this non-traditional group of dental students. PASS students are accepted on the basis of their grades in dental school in home country, scores in the National Dental Board Examination Part I, Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL), and ratings in personal interviews. They complete an intensive summer program consisting of didactic and laboratory courses which prepares them for integration with four-year students for the last two years of didactic and clinical curriculum. Cultural diversity seminars, a special English class, PASS class meetings and seminars are unique additions to their program and aim to assist them adjust to the educational, social and cultural systems in an American school. Results of the survey show a majority of the PASS students feel that they are part of the school and that there is someone in the school whom they can approach for problems. An understanding of their ethnic and

  18. A young solar twin in the Rosette cluster NGC 2244 line of sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jeremy M.; Kielkopf, John F.; Mengel, Matthew; Carter, Bradley D.; Ferland, Gary J.; Clark, Frank O.

    2018-05-01

    Based on prior precision photometry and cluster age analysis, the bright star GSC 00154-01819 is a possible young pre-main sequence member of the Rosette cluster, NGC 2244. As part of a comprehensive study of the large-scale structure of the Rosette and its excitation by the cluster stars, we noted this star as a potential backlight for a probe of the interstellar medium and extinction along the sight line towards a distinctive nebular feature projected on to the cluster centre. New high-resolution spectra of the star were taken with the University College London Echelle Spectrograph of the AAT. They reveal that rather than being a reddened spectral type B or A star within the Mon OB2 association, it is a nearby, largely unreddened, solar twin of spectral type G2V less than 180 Myr old. It is about 219 pc from the Sun with a barycentric radial velocity of +14.35 ± 1.99 km s-1. The spectrum of the Rosette behind it and along this line of sight shows a barycentric radial velocity of +26.0 ± 2.4 km s-1 in H α, and a full width at half-maximum velocity dispersion of 61.94 ± 1.38 km s-1.

  19. Bottom-up linking of carbon markets under far-sighted cap coordination and reversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kornek, Ulrike

    2018-03-01

    The Paris Agreement relies on nationally determined contributions to reach its targets and asks countries to increase ambitions over time, leaving open the details of this process. Although overcoming countries' myopic `free-riding' incentives requires cooperation, the global public good character of mitigation makes forming coalitions difficult. To cooperate, countries may link their carbon markets1, but is this option beneficial2? Some countries might not participate, not agree to lower caps, or not comply to agreements. While non-compliance might be deterred3, countries can hope that if they don't participate, others might still form a coalition. When considering only one coalition whose members can leave freely, the literature following the publication of refs 4,5 finds meagre prospects for effective collaboration6. Countries also face incentives to increase emissions when linking their markets without a cap agreement7,8. Here, we analyse the dynamics of market linkage using a game-theoretic model of far-sighted coalition formation. In contrast to non-dynamic models and dynamic models without far-sightedness9,10, in our model an efficient global coalition always forms eventually if players are sufficiently far-sighted or caps are coordinated immediately when markets are linked.

  20. Planned Products of the Mars Structure Service for the InSight Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, Mark P.; Lognonné, Philippe; Bruce Banerdt, W.; Garcia, Raphaël; Golombek, Matthew; Kedar, Sharon; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Mocquet, Antoine; Teanby, Nick A.; Tromp, Jeroen; Weber, Renee; Beucler, Eric; Blanchette-Guertin, Jean-Francois; Bozdağ, Ebru; Drilleau, Mélanie; Gudkova, Tamara; Hempel, Stefanie; Khan, Amir; Lekić, Vedran; Murdoch, Naomi; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Rivoldini, Atillio; Schmerr, Nicholas; Ruan, Youyi; Verhoeven, Olivier; Gao, Chao; Christensen, Ulrich; Clinton, John; Dehant, Veronique; Giardini, Domenico; Mimoun, David; Thomas Pike, W.; Smrekar, Sue; Wieczorek, Mark; Knapmeyer, Martin; Wookey, James

    2017-10-01

    The InSight lander will deliver geophysical instruments to Mars in 2018, including seismometers installed directly on the surface (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure, SEIS). Routine operations will be split into two services, the Mars Structure Service (MSS) and Marsquake Service (MQS), which will be responsible, respectively, for defining the structure models and seismicity catalogs from the mission. The MSS will deliver a series of products before the landing, during the operations, and finally to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive. Prior to the mission, we assembled a suite of a priori models of Mars, based on estimates of bulk composition and thermal profiles. Initial models during the mission will rely on modeling surface waves and impact-generated body waves independent of prior knowledge of structure. Later modeling will include simultaneous inversion of seismic observations for source and structural parameters. We use Bayesian inversion techniques to obtain robust probability distribution functions of interior structure parameters. Shallow structure will be characterized using the hammering of the heatflow probe mole, as well as measurements of surface wave ellipticity. Crustal scale structure will be constrained by measurements of receiver function and broadband Rayleigh wave ellipticity measurements. Core interacting body wave phases should be observable above modeled martian noise levels, allowing us to constrain deep structure. Normal modes of Mars should also be observable and can be used to estimate the globally averaged 1D structure, while combination with results from the InSight radio science mission and orbital observations will allow for constraint of deeper structure.