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Sample records for particulate matter sampling

  1. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  2. Nicotine Contamination in Particulate Matter Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Garshick

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We have addressed potential contamination of PM2.5 filter samples by nicotine from cigarette smoke. We collected two nicotine samples – one nicotine sampling filter was placed in-line after the collection of PM2.5 and the other stood alone. The overall correlation between the two nicotine filter levels was 0.99. The nicotine collected on the “stand-alone” filter was slightly greater than that on the “in-line” filter (mean difference = 1.10 μg/m3, but the difference was statistically significant only when PM2.5 was low (≤ 50 μg/m3. It is therefore important to account for personal and secondhand smoke exposure while assessing occupational and environmental PM.

  3. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zaiacono, T.

    1996-07-01

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory

  4. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  5. An assessment of common atmospheric particulate matter sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method detection limit was also low (0.2 to 1 μg/L) for most metals, and 50% and less standard deviation to mean ratios were obtained for Ni and Pb. Key words: Toxic metals, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry, particulate matter, ...

  6. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, G., E-mail: calzolai@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lucarelli, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M.; Nava, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giannoni, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Prati, P. [Department of Physics, University of Genoa and INFN Division of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Vecchi, R. [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN Division of Milan, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  7. Screening of various diesel particulate matter samples from various commodity mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents qualitative analysis results of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from various mining commodities in South Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the concentrations of elements in DPM samples. For this screening...

  8. CHARACTERISTIC OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM TWO SEMI INDUSTRIAL SITES IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Air particulate matter concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations in two semi industrial sites were investigated as a preliminary study for evaluation of air quality in these areas. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler and a total of 18 pairs of samples were collected. Black carbon was determined by reflectance measurement and elemental analysis was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and As were detected. Twenty four hour PM2.5 concentration at semi industrial sites Kiaracondong and Holis ranged from 4.0 to 22.2 µg m-3, while the PM10 concentration ranged from 24.5 to 77.1 µg m-3. High concentration of crustal elements, sulphur and zinc were identified in fine and coarse fractions for both sites. The fine fraction data from both sites were analyzed using a multivariate principal component analysis and for Kiaracondong site, identified factors are attributed to sea-salt with soil dust, vehicular emissions and biomass burning, non ferrous smelter, and iron/steel work industry, while for Holis site identified factors are attributed to soil dust, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions with biomass burning, and sea-salt. Although particulate samples were collected from semi industrial sites, vehicular emissions constituted with S, Zn and BC were identified in both sites.

  9. Sampling and analytical methodologies for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of the different forms of ED-XFR as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of ED-XRF to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability. Emphasis is also placed on the sources of errors affecting the sampling of airborne particulate matter. The analytical part of the document describes the different forms of ED-XRF and their potential applications. Spectrum evaluation, a key step in X-ray spectrometry, is covered in depth, including discussion on several calibration and peak fitting techniques and computer programs especially designed for this purpose. 148 refs, 25 figs, 13 tabs

  10. Sampling and analytical methodologies for instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    The IAEA supports a number of projects having to do with the analysis of airborne particulate matter by nuclear techniques. Most of this work involves the use of activation analysis in its various forms, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique has been widely used in many different countries for the analysis of airborne particulate matter, and there are already many publications in scientific journals, books and reports describing such work. The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of INAA as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of INAA to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability, although they are presented here in a way that takes account of the particular requirements arising from the use of INAA as the analytical technique. The analytical part of the document, however, is presented in a form that is applicable only to INAA. (Subsequent publications in this series are expected to deal specifically with other nuclear related techniques such as energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) and particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) analysis). Although the methods and procedures described here have been found through experience to yield acceptable results, they should not be considered mandatory. Any other procedure used should, however, be chosen to be capable of yielding results at least of equal quality to those described.

  11. Sampling and analytical methodologies for instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA supports a number of projects having to do with the analysis of airborne particulate matter by nuclear techniques. Most of this work involves the use of activation analysis in its various forms, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique has been widely used in many different countries for the analysis of airborne particulate matter, and there are already many publications in scientific journals, books and reports describing such work. The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of INAA as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of INAA to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability, although they are presented here in a way that takes account of the particular requirements arising from the use of INAA as the analytical technique. The analytical part of the document, however, is presented in a form that is applicable only to INAA. (Subsequent publications in this series are expected to deal specifically with other nuclear related techniques such as energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) and particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) analysis). Although the methods and procedures described here have been found through experience to yield acceptable results, they should not be considered mandatory. Any other procedure used should, however, be chosen to be capable of yielding results at least of equal quality to those described

  12. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 1: design, sampling and analysis for an experimental campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro E, P.

    1995-01-01

    This work describes the siting and sampling procedures of collecting airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, determining its chemical composition and daily behaviour. The airborne particulate matter was collected onto polycarbonate membranes, one of fine pore and other of coarse pore, using Pm 10 samplers. The material was analyzed using neutron activation analysis., proton induced X ray emission, X ray fluorescence, voltametry, atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography and isotope dilution. (author). 1 tab

  13. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    WP-201317) Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-volatile Particulate Matter (PM... Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) E. Corporan, M. DeWitt, C. Klingshirn, M.D. Cheng, R. Miake-Lye, J. Peck...the performance and viability of two devices to condition aircraft turbine engine exhaust to allow the accurate measurement of total (volatile and non

  14. Heavy metal analysis of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and other samples from some workplaces in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, A.M.; Gatebe, C.K.; Mangala, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution studies in Nairobi are indicating a rising trend in the particulate matter loading. The trend is mainly attributed to increased volume of motor vehicles, the physical change of the environment, agricultural and industrial activities. In this study, total suspended particulate matter sampling at the Nairobi industrial area and inside one workplace are reported. Included also are the results of analysis of water samples and effluents collected from a sugar factory, a tannery, and mercury (Hg) analysis in some beauty creams sold in Nairobi. The samples were analysed for heavy metal content using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) while the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were determined by gravimetric technique. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TRXF), atomic absorption spectrophotometry and PIXE analytical techniques plus the use of Standard and Certified Reference Materials (SRM's and CRM's) were used for quality control, analysis and evaluation of the accrued data. Air sampling in the industrial area was done twice (Wednesday and Saturday) every week for a period of two months (November and December, 1996) and twice monthly for a period of six months (January-June 1997). Each sample covering approximately 24 hours, was collected using the 'Gent' Stacked Filter Unit (SFU), for day and night times. The SPM were found to vary from 16 to 83 mgm -3 during the sampling period. The analysis of dust collected inside a workplace showed that there was poor filtration of the air pumped into the building and that there was a need for improvement of the air conditioning unit plus reduction of emissions from a neighbouring tyre factory. Beauty creams analysed showed that there is some mercury present in significant amounts (0.14 - 3.0%). The results of these mercury levels are presented for various brands of cosmetics sold in some market outlets in Nairobi. The health implications on the presence of mercury in some of these beauty

  15. Collection of size fractionated particulate matter sample for neutron activation analysis in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko; Nakamatsu, Hiroaki; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    According to the decision of the 2001 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactor (Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Section), size fractionated particulate matter collection for NAA was started from 2002 at two sites in Japan. The two monitoring sites, ''Tokyo'' and ''Sakata'', were classified into ''urban'' and ''rural''. In each site, two size fractions, namely PM 2-10 '' and PM 2 '' particles (aerodynamic particle size between 2 to 10 micrometer and less than 2 micrometer, respectively) were collected every month on polycarbonate membrane filters. Average concentrations of PM 10 (sum of PM 2-10 and PM 2 samples) during the common sampling period of August to November 2002 in each site were 0.031mg/m 3 in Tokyo, and 0.022mg/m 3 in Sakata. (author)

  16. [Sample preparation methods for chromatographic analysis of organic components in atmospheric particulate matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liang; Wu, Dapeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2014-09-01

    The determination of organic composition in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is of great importance in understanding how PM affects human health, environment, climate, and ecosystem. Organic components are also the scientific basis for emission source tracking, PM regulation and risk management. Therefore, the molecular characterization of the organic fraction of PM has become one of the priority research issues in the field of environmental analysis. Due to the extreme complexity of PM samples, chromatographic methods have been the chief selection. The common procedure for the analysis of organic components in PM includes several steps: sample collection on the fiber filters, sample preparation (transform the sample into a form suitable for chromatographic analysis), analysis by chromatographic methods. Among these steps, the sample preparation methods will largely determine the throughput and the data quality. Solvent extraction methods followed by sample pretreatment (e. g. pre-separation, derivatization, pre-concentration) have long been used for PM sample analysis, and thermal desorption methods have also mainly focused on the non-polar organic component analysis in PM. In this paper, the sample preparation methods prior to chromatographic analysis of organic components in PM are reviewed comprehensively, and the corresponding merits and limitations of each method are also briefly discussed.

  17. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of organic compounds in source samples and in atmospheric fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christopher G; Schauer, James J; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-10-15

    Source sample extracts of vegetative detritus, motor vehicle exhaust, tire dust paved road dust, and cigarette smoke have been silylated and analyzed by GC-MS to identify polar organic compounds that may serve as tracers for those specific emission sources of atmospheric fine particulate matter. Candidate molecular tracers were also identified in atmospheric fine particle samples collected in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A series of normal primary alkanols, dominated by even carbon-numbered homologues from C26 to C32, the secondary alcohol 10-nonacosanol, and some phytosterols are prominent polar compounds in the vegetative detritus source sample. No new polar organic compounds are found in the motor vehicle exhaust samples. Several hydrogenated resin acids are present in the tire dust sample, which might serve as useful tracers for those sources in areas that are heavily impacted by motor vehicle traffic. Finally, the alcohol and sterol emission profiles developed for all the source samples examined in this project are scaled according to the ambient fine particle mass concentrations attributed to those sources by a chemical mass balance receptor model that was previously applied to the San Joaquin Valley to compute the predicted atmospheric concentrations of individual alcohols and sterols. The resulting underprediction of alkanol concentrations at the urban sites suggests that alkanols may be more sensitive tracers for natural background from vegetative emissions (i.e., waxes) than the high molecular weight alkanes, which have been the best previously available tracers for that source.

  18. Elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter sampled in Goeteborg, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Annemarie [Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: wagnera@chalmers.se; Boman, Johan [Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Gatari, Michael J. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mass distribution of trace elements in aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Goeteborg, Sweden, with special focus on the impact of different air masses and anthropogenic activities. Three measurement campaigns were conducted during December 2006 and January 2007. A PIXE cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter in 9 size fractions ranging from 16 to 0.06 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter. Polished quartz carriers were chosen as collection substrates for the subsequent direct analysis by TXRF. To investigate the sources of the analyzed air masses, backward trajectories were calculated. Our results showed that diurnal sampling was sufficient to investigate the mass distribution for Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Sr and Zn, whereas a 5-day sampling period resulted in additional information on mass distribution for Cr and S. Unimodal mass distributions were found in the study area for the elements Ca, Cl, Fe and Zn, whereas the distributions for Br, Cu, Cr, K, Ni and S were bimodal, indicating high temperature processes as source of the submicron particle components. The measurement period including the New Year firework activities showed both an extensive increase in concentrations as well as a shift to the submicron range for K and Sr, elements that are typically found in fireworks. Further research is required to validate the quantification of trace elements directly collected on sample carriers.

  19. Elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter sampled in Goeteborg, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan; Gatari, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mass distribution of trace elements in aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Goeteborg, Sweden, with special focus on the impact of different air masses and anthropogenic activities. Three measurement campaigns were conducted during December 2006 and January 2007. A PIXE cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter in 9 size fractions ranging from 16 to 0.06 μm aerodynamic diameter. Polished quartz carriers were chosen as collection substrates for the subsequent direct analysis by TXRF. To investigate the sources of the analyzed air masses, backward trajectories were calculated. Our results showed that diurnal sampling was sufficient to investigate the mass distribution for Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Sr and Zn, whereas a 5-day sampling period resulted in additional information on mass distribution for Cr and S. Unimodal mass distributions were found in the study area for the elements Ca, Cl, Fe and Zn, whereas the distributions for Br, Cu, Cr, K, Ni and S were bimodal, indicating high temperature processes as source of the submicron particle components. The measurement period including the New Year firework activities showed both an extensive increase in concentrations as well as a shift to the submicron range for K and Sr, elements that are typically found in fireworks. Further research is required to validate the quantification of trace elements directly collected on sample carriers

  20. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  1. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays; Campionamenti di particolato atmosferico in area urbana per valutazioni di potenziale mutageno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zaiacomo, T. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-07-01

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory.

  2. Comparison of PIXE and XRF analysis of airborne particulate matter samples collected on Teflon and quartz fibre filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, M.; Yubero, E.; Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Crespo, J.; Galindo, N.; Nicolás, J. F.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.

    2018-02-01

    Within the framework of research projects focusing on the sampling and analysis of airborne particulate matter, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) techniques are routinely used in many laboratories throughout the world to determine the elemental concentration of the particulate matter samples. In this work an inter-laboratory comparison of the results obtained from analysing several samples (collected on both Teflon and quartz fibre filters) using both techniques is presented. The samples were analysed by PIXE (in Florence, at the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of INFN-LABEC laboratory) and by XRF (in Elche, using the ARL Quant'X EDXRF spectrometer with specific conditions optimized for specific groups of elements). The results from the two sets of measurements are in good agreement for all the analysed samples, thus validating the use of the ARL Quant'X EDXRF spectrometer and the selected measurement protocol for the analysis of aerosol samples. Moreover, thanks to the comparison of PIXE and XRF results on Teflon and quartz fibre filters, possible self-absorption effects due to the penetration of the aerosol particles inside the quartz fibre-filters were quantified.

  3. Evaluation of sampling inhalable PM10 particulate matter (≤ 10 μm) using co-located high volume samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajoy, R R S; Dias, J W C; Rego, E C P; Netto, A D Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the determination of the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), collected simultaneously by six PM10 high volume samplers from two different manufacturers installed in the same location. Fifteen samples of 24 h were obtained with each equipment at a selected urban area of Rio de Janeiro city. The concentration of PM10 ranged between 10.73 and 54.04 μg m −3 . The samplers were considered comparable to each other, as the adopted methodology presented good repeatability

  4. Determination of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Particulate Matter Samples with Low Mass Loading: An Approach to Test Method Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana García-Alonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized analytical procedure to determine selected polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs in low mass loadings (<10 mg of particulate matter (PM is evaluated. The proposed method is based on a simple sonication/agitation method using small amounts of solvent for extraction. The use of a reduced sample size of particulate matter is often limiting for allowing the quantification of analytes. This also leads to the need for changing analytical procedures and evaluating its performance. The trueness and precision of the proposed method were tested using ambient air samples. Analytical results from the proposed method were compared with those of pressurized liquid and microwave extractions. Selected PACs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD. Taking results from pressurized liquid extractions as reference values, recovery rates of sonication/agitation method were over 80% for the most abundant PAHs. Recovery rates of selected NPAHs were lower. Enhanced rates were obtained when methanol was used as a modifier. Intermediate precision was estimated by data comparison from two mathematical approaches: normalized difference data and pooled relative deviations. Intermediate precision was in the range of 10–20%. The effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated in PM aerosol samples collected with very low mass loadings (<0.2 mg during characterization studies from turbofan engine exhausts.

  5. Comparison of particulate matter exposure estimates in young children from personal sampling equipment and a robotic sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Jessica A; Shalat, Stuart L; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-05-01

    Accurate characterization of particulate matter (PM) exposure in young children is difficult, because personal samplers are often too heavy, bulky or impractical to be used. The Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler was developed to help address this problem. In this study, we measured inhalable PM exposures in 2-year-olds via a lightweight personal sampler worn in a small backpack and evaluated the use of a robotic sampler with an identical sampling train for estimating PM exposure in this age group. PM mass concentrations measured by the personal sampler ranged from 100 to almost 1,200 μg/m 3 , with a median value of 331 μg/m 3 . PM concentrations measured by PIPER were considerably lower, ranging from 14 to 513 μg/m 3 with a median value of 56 μg/m 3 . Floor cleaning habits and activity patterns of the 2-year-olds varied widely by home; vigorous play and recent floor cleaning were most associated with higher personal exposure. Our findings highlight the need for additional characterization of children's activity patterns and their effect on personal exposures.

  6. Sampling for diesel particulate matter in mines : Diesel Emissions Evaluation Program (DEEP), technology transfer initiative, October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.; Gangal, M.; Goyer, N.; McGinn, S.; Penney, J.; Vergunst, J.

    2001-10-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from exhaust gases from diesel powered mining equipment were presented along with guidelines and regulation for exposure monitoring in the workplace. The report addresses issues related to personal and direct exhaust sampling in mines and presents evidence about potential carcinogenicity of the solid fraction of diesel exhaust. The incomplete combustion of diesel fuel results in the formation of solid and liquid particles in the exhaust. DPM is defined as being the portion of diesel exhaust which is made up of solid carbon particles and the attached chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganics such as sulphate compounds. DPM is a submicron aerosol and as such, it is a respirable dust which penetrates deep into the lungs. In addition, DPMs are not easily removed from the air stream because of their small size. Control of DPM is crucial because once they are airborne, they are likely to remain that way and will affect the workplace where they are produced as well as workplaces downwind. In January 2001, the Mine Safety and Health Administration issued a ruling for U.S. metal and non-metal mines requiring that mines meet a limit of exposure of 0.40 mg/m 3 . Mines are expected to reduce exposure to meet a 0.16 mg/m 3 limit of exposure by January 2006. European mines and tunnel construction projects must also meet DPM exposure limits. DPM sampling in Canada has been regulated for nearly one decade. Sampling protocols in Canada and the United States were described with reference to equipment and procedures testing DPM filtration efficiency of after-treatment modules and to evaluate the impact of diesel equipment maintenance on gaseous particulate emissions. 23 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  7. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. M. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Santos, Erickson O. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Fernandes, Karenn S. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Neto, J. L. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo A. [Univ. of the State of Amazonas (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, is developing very rapidly. Its pollution plume contains aerosols from fossil fuel combustion mainly due to vehicular emission, industrial activity, and a thermal power plant. Soil resuspension is probably a secondary source of atmospheric particles. The plume transports from Manaus to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARM site at Manacapuru urban pollutants as well as pollutants from pottery factories along the route of the plume. Considering the effects of particulate matter on health, atmospheric particulate matter was evaluated at this site as part of the ARM Facility’s Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) field campaign. Aerosol or particulate matter (PM) is typically defined by size, with the smaller particles having more health impact. Total suspended particulate (TSP) are particles smaller than 100 μm; particles smaller than 2.5 μm are called PM2.5. In this work, the PM2.5 levels were obtained from March to December of 2015, totaling 34 samples and TSP levels from October to December of 2015, totaling 17 samples. Sampling was conducted with PM2.5 and TSP high-volume samplers using quartz filters (Figure 1). Filters were stored during 24 hours in a room with temperature (21,1ºC) and humidity (44,3 %) control, in order to do gravimetric analyses by weighing before and after sampling. This procedure followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Association for Technical Standards local norm (NBR 9547:1997). Mass concentrations of particulate matter were obtained from the ratio between the weighted sample and the volume of air collected. Defining a relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5 and TSP) and respiratory diseases of the local population is an important goal of this project, since no information exists on that topic.

  8. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS RECOVERY BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  9. Particulate Matter: a closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsman E; Beck JP; Bree L van; Cassee FR; Koelemeijer RBA; Matthijsen J; Thomas R; Wieringa K; LED; MGO

    2005-01-01

    The summary in booklet form 'Fijn stof nader bekeken' (Particulate Matter: a closer look) , published in Dutch by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the Environment and Safety Division of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), has been designed to

  10. New approach to measure soil particulate organic matter in intact samples using X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alexandra; Negassa, Wakene; Guber, Andrey; Schmidt, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    Particulate soil organic matter (POM) is biologically and chemically active fraction of soil organic matter. It is a source of many agricultural and ecological benefits, among which are POM's contribution to C sequestration. Most of conventional research methods for studying organic matter dynamics involve measurements conducted on pre-processed i.e., ground and sieved soil samples. Unfortunately, grinding and sieving completely destroys soil structure, the component crucial for soil functioning and C protection. Importance of a better understanding of the role of soil structure and of the physical protection that it provides to soil C cannot be overstated; and analysis of quantities, characteristics, and decomposition rates of POM in soil samples with intact structure is among the key elements of gaining such understanding. However, a marked difficulty hindering the progress in such analyses is a lack of tools for identification and quantitative analysis of POM in intact soil samples. Recent advancement in applications of X-ray computed micro-tomography (μ-CT) to soil science has given an opportunity to conduct such analyses. The objective of the current study is to develop a procedure for identification and quantitative characterization of POM within intact soil samples using X-ray μ-CT images and to test performance of the proposed procedure on a set of multiple intact soil macro-aggregates. We used 16 4-6 mm soil aggregates collected at 0-15 cm depth from a Typic Hapludalf soil at multiple field sites with diverse agricultural management history. The aggregates have been scanned at SIMBIOS Centre, Dundee, Scotland at 10 micron resolution. POM was determined from the aggregate images using the developed procedure. The procedure was based on combining image pre-processing steps with discriminant analysis classification. The first component of the procedure consisted of image pre-processing steps based on the range of gray values (GV) along with shape and size

  11. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  12. Screening of various diesel particulate matter samples from various commodity mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available exercise, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry was used to identify trace elements and other metal elements in the DPM samples. Most of the trace elements did not give a sufficient instrument response to warrant further evaluation. However...

  13. Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamancusa, C.; Wagstrom, K.

    2017-12-01

    As our global society develops and grows it is necessary to better understand the impacts and nuances of atmospheric chemistry, in particular those associated with atmospheric particulate matter. We have developed a source apportionment scheme for the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemical transport model. While these approaches have existed for several years in regional chemical transport models, the Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (GPSAT) represents the first incorporation into a global chemical transport model. GPSAT runs in parallel to a standard GEOS-Chem run. GPSAT uses the fact that all molecules of a given species have the same probability of undergoing any given process as a core principle. This allows GPSAT to track many different species using only the flux information provided by GEOS-Chem's many processes. GPSAT accounts for the change in source specific concentrations as a result of aqueous and gas-phase chemistry, horizontal and vertical transport, condensation and evaporation on particulate matter, emissions, and wet and dry deposition. By using fluxes, GPSAT minimizes computational cost by circumventing the computationally costly chemistry and transport solvers. GPSAT will allow researchers to address many pertinent research questions about global particulate matter including the global impact of emissions from different source regions and the climate impacts from different source types and regions. For this first application of GPSAT, we investigate the contribution of the twenty largest urban areas worldwide to global particulate matter concentrations. The species investigated include: ammonium, nitrates, sulfates, and the secondary organic aerosols formed by the oxidation of benzene, isoprene, and terpenes. While GPSAT is not yet publically available, we will incorporate it into a future standard release of GEOS-Chem so that all GEOS-Chem users will have access to this new tool.

  14. Final Report: Laser-Based Optical Trap for Remote Sampling of Interplanetary and Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stysley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Applicability to Early Stage Innovation NIAC Cutting edge and innovative technologies are needed to achieve the demanding requirements for NASA origin missions that require sample collection as laid out in the NRC Decadal Survey. This proposal focused on fully understanding the state of remote laser optical trapping techniques for capturing particles and returning them to a target site. In future missions, a laser-based optical trapping system could be deployed on a lander that would then target particles in the lower atmosphere and deliver them to the main instrument for analysis, providing remote access to otherwise inaccessible samples. Alternatively, for a planetary mission the laser could combine ablation and trapping capabilities on targets typically too far away or too hard for traditional drilling sampling systems. For an interstellar mission, a remote laser system could gather particles continuously at a safe distance; this would avoid the necessity of having a spacecraft fly through a target cloud such as a comet tail. If properly designed and implemented, a laser-based optical trapping system could fundamentally change the way scientists designand implement NASA missions that require mass spectroscopy and particle collection.

  15. Occurrence of benzothiazole, benzotriazole and benzenesulfonamide derivates in outdoor air particulate matter samples and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceira, Alba; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2018-02-01

    Benzothiazole (BTHs), benzotriazole (BTRs) and benzenesulfonamide (BSAs) derivates are high production volume chemicals and they are used in several industrial and household applications, therefore it is expected their occurrence in various environments, especially water and air. In this study we developed a method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) to simultaneously determine four BTR, five BTH and six BSA derivates in the particulate matter (PM 10 ) of outdoor air samples collected in quartz fibre filters (QFFs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these compounds have been determined in open ambient environments. Under optimised conditions, method recoveries at the lower and upper concentration levels (0.8 and 4.2 ng m -3 ) ranged from 70 to 120%, except for 1-H-benzothiazole and 2-chlorobenzothiazole, which were about 50%. The repeatability of the method was usually below 20% (n = 3, %RSD) for both concentration levels. This method enables the contaminants to be detected at pg m -3 concentration levels. Several samples from two different sites influenced by local industries showed that BTRs, followed by BTHs, were the most detected compounds, whereas BSAs were hardly found. The most frequently determined compounds were 1-H-benzothiazole, 2-chlorobenzothiazole, 1-H-benzotriazole, 2-hydroxibenzothiazole, 5,6-dimethyl-1-H-benzotriazole and the isomers 4- and 5-methyl-1-H-benzotriazole. With the concentrations found, the human exposure assessment and health risk characterization via ambient inhalation were also evaluated taking into account different subpopulation groups classified by age for the two sampling points. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Simões Amaral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission factor is a relative measure and can be used to estimate emissions from multiple sources of air pollution. For this reason, data from literature on particulate matter emission factors from different types of biomass were evaluated in this paper. Initially, the main sources of particles were described, as well as relevant concepts associated with particle measurements. In addition, articles about particle emissions were classified and described in relation to the sampling environment (open or closed and type of burned biomass (agricultural, garden, forest, and dung. Based on this analysis, a set of emission factors was presented and discussed. Important observations were made about the main emission sources of particulate matter. Combustion of compacted biomass resulted in lower particulate emission factors. PM2.5 emissions were predominant in the burning of forest biomass. Emission factors were more elevated in laboratory burning, followed by burns in the field, residences and combustors.

  17. Analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Masaaki

    2002-01-01

    An airborne particulate matter (APM) consists of many kinds of solid and liquid particles in air. APM analysis methods and the application examples are explained on the basis of paper published after 1998. Books and general remarks, sampling and the measurement of concentration and particle distribution, elemental analysis methods and the present state of analysis of species are introduced. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) method can collect continuously the integrating mass, but indicates lower concentration. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe(2), Mn, Cd, Fe(3) and Pb, the water-soluble elements, are determined by ion-chromatography after ultrasonic extraction of the aqueous solution. The detection limit of them is from 10 to 15 ppb (30 ppb Cd and 60 ppb Pb). The elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are separated by the thermal mass measurement-differential scanning calorimeter by means of keeping at 430degC for 60 min. 11 research organizations compared the results of TC (Total Carbon) and EC by NIOSH method 5040 and the thermal method and obtained agreement of TC. ICP-MS has been developed in order to determine correctly and quickly the trace elements. The determination methods for distinction of chemical forms in the environment were developed. GC/MS, LC/MS and related technologies for determination of organic substances are advanced. Online real-time analysis of APN, an ideal method, is examined. (S.Y.)

  18. Effect of sample digestion, air filter contamination, and post-adsorption on the analysis of trace elements in air particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiao Jin [Department of Environment and Climate Change, Environmental Forensic and Analytical Science Section, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China); Wan, Pingyu [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China); Foley, Roy [Department of Environment and Climate Change, Environmental Forensic and Analytical Science Section, New South Wales (Australia)

    2012-11-15

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma MS are the major analytical tools for trace elements in environmental matrices, however, the underestimate of certain trace elements in analysis of air particulate matter by these two techniques has long been observed. This has been attributed to incomplete sample digestion. Here, we demonstrate that the combined effects of sample digestion, air filter impurities, and post-adsorption of the analytes contribute to the interference of the analysis. Particular attention should be paid to post-adsorption of analytes onto air filters after acid digestion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Effect of sample digestion, air filter contamination, and post-adsorption on the analysis of trace elements in air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao Jin; Wan, Pingyu; Foley, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma MS are the major analytical tools for trace elements in environmental matrices, however, the underestimate of certain trace elements in analysis of air particulate matter by these two techniques has long been observed. This has been attributed to incomplete sample digestion. Here, we demonstrate that the combined effects of sample digestion, air filter impurities, and post-adsorption of the analytes contribute to the interference of the analysis. Particular attention should be paid to post-adsorption of analytes onto air filters after acid digestion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Sansoni, B.

    1988-11-01

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  1. The investigation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yi'ou; Zhang Yuliang; Wang Ya; Wang Pei; Tian Hailin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pollution status, vertical distribution and concentration variation within 24 hours of total suspended particles (TSPs), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤5 (PM5) and particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in major functional areas of Suzhou and the protective effect of different type masks on particulate matter. Methods: (1) The concentration of atmospheric TSPs, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 in seven functional areas in Suzhou was monitored for three consecutive days. (2) A residential building of 25 stories was chosen and the concentration of TSPs, PM10, PM5, PM2.5 was detected at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20 th and the 25th floor respectively. (3) The concentrations of the four particulate matter were detected every two-hours for three consecutive days to investigate how concentration of particulate matter varies within 24 hours. (4) The concentration of the four kinds of particulate matter was analyzed with the sampling head of monitor wrapped with disposable non-woven medical mask, fashion-type mask, gauze mask or activated carbon anti-dust mask respectively, and the protective effect of the four masks on particulate matter was compared. Results: (1) The concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the national health limit in all seven functional areas in Suzhou. (2) No significant difference in vertical distribution of particulate matter was found among different floors in residential buildings (P>0.05). (3) Two small peaks of particulate matter appeared in the morning and evening respectively while the top appeared at dawn (P< 0.05). (4) Disposable non-woven medical mask showed the best protective effect on particulate matter among the four tested masks. Conclusion: PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in Suzhou area. In addition the 4 kinds of particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 are of higher concentration in the early morning. No significant difference was detected from an altitude of less than 75 meters

  2. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  3. Temporal and spatial variations in particulate matter, particulate organic carbon and attenuation coefficient in Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.

    Nine stations over a stretch of 21 km of Periyar river estuary were sampled during January to December 1981. Particulate matter varied from 3-253 mg.1 super(1) at the surface and 24.8-257mg.1 super(1) at the bottom. Particulate organic carbon ranged...

  4. Sampling of suspended particulate matter using particle traps in the Rhône River: Relevance and representativeness for the monitoring of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, M; Angot, H; Le Bescond, C; Launay, M; Dabrin, A; Miège, C; Le Coz, J; Coquery, M

    2018-05-10

    Monitoring hydrophobic contaminants in surface freshwaters requires measuring contaminant concentrations in the particulate fraction (sediment or suspended particulate matter, SPM) of the water column. Particle traps (PTs) have been recently developed to sample SPM as cost-efficient, easy to operate and time-integrative tools. But the representativeness of SPM collected with PTs is not fully understood, notably in terms of grain size distribution and particulate organic carbon (POC) content, which could both skew particulate contaminant concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the representativeness of SPM characteristics (i.e. grain size distribution and POC content) and associated contaminants (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs; mercury, Hg) in samples collected in a large river using PTs for differing hydrological conditions. Samples collected using PTs (n = 74) were compared with samples collected during the same time period by continuous flow centrifugation (CFC). The grain size distribution of PT samples shifted with increasing water discharge: the proportion of very fine silts (2-6 μm) decreased while that of coarse silts (27-74 μm) increased. Regardless of water discharge, POC contents were different likely due to integration by PT of high POC-content phytoplankton blooms or low POC-content flood events. Differences in PCBs and Hg concentrations were usually within the range of analytical uncertainties and could not be related to grain size or POC content shifts. Occasional Hg-enriched inputs may have led to higher Hg concentrations in a few PT samples (n = 4) which highlights the time-integrative capacity of the PTs. The differences of annual Hg and PCB fluxes calculated either from PT samples or CFC samples were generally below 20%. Despite some inherent limitations (e.g. grain size distribution bias), our findings suggest that PT sampling is a valuable technique to assess reliable spatial and temporal trends of particulate

  5. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that includes curriculum standards, assessments, and lesson rubrics. Sources of Particulate Matter (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) - Information and activity on interpreting ... U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health U.S. Department ...

  6. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  7. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, California, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  8. Allegheny County Particulate Matter 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides information on the particulate matter concentration for Allegheny County that have a diameter greater or equal to...

  9. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Hawaii, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  10. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Arizona, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  11. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Nevada, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  12. Particulate matter mass concentrations produced from pavement surface abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullova Dasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest findings particulate matter belong to the most significant pollutants in Europe together with ground-level ozone O3 and nitrogen dioxide NO2. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter. Traffic volume has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and also on the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The paper deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The paper offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  13. Complexity analysis in particulate matter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Telesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the complex temporal fluctuations of particulate matter data recorded in London area by using the Fisher-Shannon (FS information plane. In the FS plane the PM10 and PM2.5 data are aggregated in two different clusters, characterized by different degrees of order and organization. This results could be related to different sources of the particulate matter.

  14. Particulate matter and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    In these years, economy of East Asian region is rapidly growing, and countries in this region are facing serious environmental problems. Neutron activation analysis is known as one of high-sensitive analytical method for multi elements. And it is a useful tool for environmental research, particularly for the study on atmospheric particulate matter that consists of various constituents. Elemental concentration represents status of air, such as emission of heavy metals from industries and municipal incinerators, transportation of soil derived elements more than thousands of kilometers, and so on. These monitoring data obtained by neutron activation analysis can be a cue to evaluate environment problems. Japanese government launched National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) employing neutron activation analysis in 1974, and the data has been accumulated at about twenty sampling sites. As a result of mitigation measure of air pollution sources, concentrations of elements that have anthropogenic sources decreased particularly at the beginning of the monitoring period. However, even now, concentrations of these anthropogenic elements reflect the characteristics of each sampling site, e.g. industrial/urban, rural, and remote. Soil derived elements have a seasonal variation because of the contribution of continental dust transported by strong westerly winds prevailing in winter and spring season. The health effects associated with trace elements in particulate matter have not been well characterized. However, there is increasing evidence that particulate air pollution, especially fine portion of particles in many different cities is associated with acute mortality. Neutron activation analysis is also expected to provide useful information to this new study field related to human exposures and health risk. (author)

  15. Determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rennan G.O., E-mail: rgoa01@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica Ambiental, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Sao Cristovao, 49.100-000, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Vignola, Fabiola; Castilho, Ivan N.B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G.; Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Smichowski, Patricia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-290, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker-Ross, Helmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V., Department Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    A study has been undertaken to assess the capability of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using direct solid sampling. The main Hg absorption line at 253.652 nm was used for all determinations. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) was used to check the accuracy of the method, and good agreement was obtained between published and determined values. The characteristic mass was 22 pg Hg. The limit of detection (3{sigma}), based on ten atomizations of an unexposed filter, was 40 ng g{sup -1}, corresponding to 0.12 ng m{sup -3} in the air for a typical air volume of 1440 m{sup 3} collected within 24 h. The limit of quantification was 150 ng g{sup -1}, equivalent to 0.41 ng m{sup -3} in the air. The repeatability of measurements was better than 17% RSD (n = 5). Mercury concentrations found in filter samples loaded with APM collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were between < 40 ng g{sup -1} and 381 {+-} 24 ng g{sup -1}. These values correspond to a mercury concentration in the air between < 0.12 ng m{sup -3} and 1.47 {+-} 0.09 ng m{sup -3}. The proposed procedure was found to be simple, fast and reliable, and suitable as a screening procedure for the determination of mercury in APM samples.

  16. Mass spectroscopic analysis of atmospheric particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wippel, R.

    1997-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere vary greatly in origin, in their physical and chemical properties and their effects on climate, atmospheric chemistry and health. Aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than two μm can enter the respiratory tract of humans when inhaled. Bulk analysis of ambient dust particles was performed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The size-fractionated collected samples were analyzed after a leaching procedure that simulates the solution reactions occurring in the lungs. A disadvantage of bulk analysis is that it gives no information about the distribution of a certain element within the particles under investigation. A Laser-Microprobe-Mass-Analyzer (LAMMA-500) was used to obtain this information. At sampling sites in Austria and in Zimbabwe, Africa, single particles were sampled using a self-made impactor. One of the final aims in environmental analysis is to successfully apply receptor models that relate the chemical and physical properties of a receptor site to a source. The knowledge of the sources of atmospheric particulate matter is essential for environmental policy makers as well as for epidemiological studies. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have a remarkable ability to handle LAMMA-data. Three ANNs were used as a pattern recognition tool for LAMMA mass spectral data: a back-propagation net, a Kohonen network,and a counter-propagation net. Standard source profiles from the United States Environmental Protection Agency were used as training and test data of the different nets. The elemental patterns of the sum of 100 mass spectra of fine dust particles were presented to the trained nets and satisfactory recognition (> 80 %) was obtained. (author)

  17. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  18. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS HOGGED FUEL BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  19. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew [Austin, TX

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  20. One year online chemical speciation of submicron particulate matter (PM1) sampled at a French industrial and coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The harbor of Dunkirk (Northern France) is surrounded by different industrial plants (metallurgy, petrochemistry, food processing, power plant, etc.), which emit gaseous and particulate pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2), and submicron particles (PM1). These emissions are poorly characterized and their impact on neighboring urban areas has yet to be assessed. Studies are particularly needed in this type of complex environments to get a better understanding of PM1sources, especially from the industrial sector, their temporal variability, and their transformation. Several instruments, capable of real-time measurements (temporal resolution ≤ 30 min), were deployed at a site located downwind from the industrial area of Dunkirk for a one-year duration (July 2013-September 2014). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer monitored the main chemical species in the non-refractory submicron particles and black carbon, respectively. Concomitant measurements of trace gases and wind speed and direction were also performed. This dataset was analyzed considering four wind sectors, characteristics of marine, industrial, industrial-urban, and urban influences, and the different seasons. We will present a descriptive analysis of PM1, showing strong variations of ambient concentrations, as well as evidences of SO2 to SO4 gas-particle conversion when industrial plumes reached the monitoring site. The organic fraction measured by ACSM (37% of the total mass on average) was analyzed using a source-receptor model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify chemical signatures of main emission sources and to quantify the contribution of each source to the PM1 budget given the wind sector. Four main factors were identified: hydrocarbon organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and cooking-like organic aerosol (COA). Overall, the total PM

  1. Mercury, trace elements and organic constituents in atmospheric fine particulate matter, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA: A combined approach to sampling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Engle, M.A.; Orem, W.H.; Bunnell, J.E.; Lerch, H.E.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Olson, M.L.; McCord, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Compliance with U.S. air quality regulatory standards for atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is based on meeting average 24 hour (35 ?? m-3) and yearly (15 ??g m-3) mass-per-unit-volume limits, regardless of PM2.5 composition. Whereas this presents a workable regulatory framework, information on particle composition is needed to assess the fate and transport of PM2.5 and determine potential environmental/human health impacts. To address these important non-regulatory issues an integrated approach is generally used that includes (1) field sampling of atmospheric particulate matter on filter media, using a size-limiting cyclone, or with no particle-size limitation; and (2) chemical extraction of exposed filters and analysis of separate particulate-bound fractions for total mercury, trace elements and organic constituents, utilising different USGS laboratories optimised for quantitative analysis of these substances. This combination of sampling and analysis allowed for a more detailed interpretation of PM2.5 sources and potential effects, compared to measurements of PM2.5 abundance alone. Results obtained using this combined approach are presented for a 2006 air sampling campaign in Shenandoah National Park (Virginia, USA) to assess sources of atmospheric contaminants and their potential impact on air quality in the Park. PM2.5 was collected at two sampling sites (Big Meadows and Pinnacles) separated by 13.6 km. At both sites, element concentrations in PM2.5 were low, consistent with remote or rural locations. However, element/Zr crustal abundance enrichment factors greater than 10, indicating anthropogenic input, were found for Hg, Se, S, Sb, Cd, Pb, Mo, Zn and Cu, listed in decreasing order of enrichment. Principal component analysis showed that four element associations accounted for 84% of the PM 2.5 trace element variation; these associations are interpreted to represent: (1) crustal sources (Al, REE); (2) coal combustion (Se, Sb), (3) metal production

  2. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  3. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    emissions demonstration . 46 6 Figure 24. T63 engine with extension pipe to direct exhaust outside of the test cell for exhaust sampling with tip...to assess their effectiveness in conditioning turbine engine exhaust for total PM emissions measurements. Both were designed to promote the... effectively control and mitigate PM emissions. Aircraft PM is formed in the engine combustor due to incomplete combustion of fuel, and in the

  4. Metal/nonmetal diesel particulate matter rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomko, D.M. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Safety and Health Technology Center; Stackpole, R.P. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Triadelphia, WV (United States). Approval and Certification Center; Findlay, C.D. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Arlington, VA (United States). Metal/Nonmetal Safety and Health; Pomroy, W.H. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Duluth, MN (United States). Metal/Nonmetal North Central District

    2010-07-01

    The American Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground metal and nonmetal mines. The rule established an interim concentration limit for DPM of 400 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon, to be followed in 2004 by a final limit of 160 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon. The 2001 rule was challenged in federal court by various mining trade associations and mining companies. The rule was subsequently amended. This paper highlighted the major provisions of the 2006 final rule and summarized MSHAs current compliance sampling procedures. The concentration limit was changed to a permissible exposure limit and the sampling surrogate was changed from total carbon to elemental carbon. The MSHA published a new rule in 2006 which based the final limit on a miner's personal exposure rather than a concentration limit. The final limit was phased in using 3 steps over 2 years. This paper also discussed engineering controls and a recent MSHA report on organic carbon, elemental carbon and total carbon emissions from a diesel engine fueled with various blends of standard diesel and biodiesel. In May 2008, about two-thirds of all underground metal/nonmetal mines achieved and maintained compliance with the rule. 20 refs.

  5. Evaluation of airborne particulate matter pollution in Kenitra City, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Benchrif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two size fractions of atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 µm and 2.5-10 µm were collected in Kenitra City from February 2007 to February 2008. The sampling was done using a Gent Stacked sampler on nuclepore polycarbonate filters and the collected filters were analyzed using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The particulate matter trends show higher concentrations during the summer as compared to other seasons. The highest concentrations were obtained for Ca in coarse particles and Fe for fine particles. However, the lowest concentrations were observed for Cd in both particulate sizes. The principal component analysis (PCA based on multivariate study enabled the identification of soil, road dust and traffic emissions as common sources for coarse and fine particles.

  6. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  7. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, P. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Spiers, G.A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring

    2007-07-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, P.; Spiers, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Identification and Characterization of Particulate Matter Concentrations at Construction Jobsites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid P. S. Araújo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of particulate matter (PM concentrations from construction site activities pose major challenges due to the diverse characteristics related to different aspects, such as concentration, particle size and particle composition. Moreover, the characterization of particulate matter is influenced by meteorological conditions, including temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed. This paper is part of a broader investigation that aims to develop a methodology for assessing the environmental impacts caused by the PM emissions that arise from construction activities. The objective of this paper is to identify and characterize the PM emissions on a construction site with different aerodynamic diameters (PM2.5, PM10, total suspended particulates (TSP, based on an exploratory study. Initially, a protocol was developed to standardize the construction site selection criteria, laboratory procedures, field sample collection and laboratory analysis. This protocol was applied on a multifamily residential building construction site during three different construction phases (earthworks, superstructure and finishings aimed at measuring and monitoring PM concentrations arising from construction activities. The particulate matter was characterized in different particle sizes. Results showed that the higher TSP emissions arising from construction activities provoked environmental impacts. Some limitations to the results were identified, especially with regards the need for a detailed investigation about the influence of different construction phases on PM emissions. The findings provided significant knowledge about various situations, serving as a basis for improving the existing methodology for particulate material collection on construction sites and the development of future studies on the specific construction site phases.

  10. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  11. Direct sampling of sub-µm atmospheric particulate organic matter in sub-ng m-3 mass concentrations by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armin, W.; Mueller, M.; Klinger, A.; Striednig, M.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative characterization of the organic fraction of atmospheric particulate matter is still challenging. Herein we present the novel modular "Chemical Analysis of Aerosol Online" (CHARON) particle inlet system coupled to a new-generation proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF 6000 X2, Ionicon Analytik, Austria) that quantitatively detects organic analytes in real-time and sub-pptV levels by chemical ionization with hydronium reagent ions. CHARON consists of a gas-phase denuder for stripping off gas-phase analytes (efficiency > 99.999%), an aerodynamic lens for particle collimation combined with an inertial sampler for the particle-enriched flow and a thermodesorption unit for particle volatilization prior to chemical analysis. With typical particle enrichment factors of around 30 for particle diameters (DP) between 120 nm and 1000 nm (somewhat reduced enrichment for 60 nm 6000) and excellent mass accuracies (< 10 ppm) chemical compositions can be assigned and included in further analyses. In addition to a detailed characterization of the CHARON PTR-TOF 6000 X2 we will present first results on the chemical composition of sub-µm particulate organic matter in the urban atmosphere in Innsbruck (Austria).

  12. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agurell, E.; Alsberg, T.; Assefaz-Redda, Y.

    1990-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  13. Validation of NAA Method for Urban Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woro Yatu Niken Syahfitri; Muhayatun; Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Natalia Adventini

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques have been applied in many countries for determination of environmental pollutant. Method of NAA (neutron activation analysis) representing one of nuclear analytical technique of that has low detection limits, high specificity, high precision, and accuracy for large majority of naturally occurring elements, and ability of non-destructive and simultaneous determination of multi-elemental, and can handle small sample size (< 1 mg). To ensure quality and reliability of the method, validation are needed to be done. A standard reference material, SRM NIST 1648 Urban Particulate Matter, has been used to validate NAA method. Accuracy and precision test were used as validation parameters. Particulate matter were validated for 18 elements: Ti, I, V, Br, Mn, Na, K, Cl, Cu, Al, As, Fe, Co, Zn, Ag, La, Cr, and Sm,. The result showed that the percent relative standard deviation of the measured elemental concentrations are found to be within ranged from 2 to 14,8% for most of the elements analyzed whereas Hor rat value in range 0,3-1,3. Accuracy test results showed that relative bias ranged from -11,1 to 3,6%. Based on validation results, it can be stated that NAA method is reliable for characterization particulate matter and other similar matrix samples to support air quality monitoring. (author)

  14. High-resolution sampling and analysis of ambient particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of southern China: source apportionment and health risk implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengzhen; Davy, Perry K.; Huang, Minjuan; Duan, Jingbo; Wang, Xuemei; Fan, Qi; Chang, Ming; Liu, Yiming; Chen, Weihua; Xie, Shanju; Ancelet, Travis; Trompetter, William J.

    2018-02-01

    Hazardous air pollutants, such as trace elements in particulate matter (PM), are known or highly suspected to cause detrimental effects on human health. To understand the sources and associated risks of PM to human health, hourly time-integrated major trace elements in size-segregated coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected at the industrial city of Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Receptor modeling of the data set by positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify six sources contributing to PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the site. Dominant sources included industrial coal combustion, secondary inorganic aerosol, motor vehicles and construction dust along with two intermittent sources (biomass combustion and marine aerosol). The biomass combustion source was found to be a significant contributor to peak PM2.5 episodes along with motor vehicles and industrial coal combustion. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was applied to estimate the source locations using the PMF-resolved source contribution coupled with the surface wind direction data. Health exposure risk of hazardous trace elements (Pb, As, Si, Cr, Mn and Ni) and source-specific values were estimated. The total hazard quotient (HQ) of PM2.5 was 2.09, higher than the acceptable limit (HQ = 1). The total carcinogenic risk (CR) was 3.37 × 10-3 for PM2.5, which was 3 times higher than the least stringent limit (1.0 × 10-4). Among the selected trace elements, As and Pb posed the highest non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to human health, respectively. In addition, our results show that the industrial coal combustion source is the dominant non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk contributor, highlighting the need for stringent control of this source. This study provides new insight for policy makers to prioritize sources in air quality management and health risk reduction.

  15. PIXE analysis of atmospheric particulate matter in glas fibre filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabacniks, M.H.; Orsini, C.Q.; Maenhaut, W.

    1993-01-01

    A 3-step extraction procedure was developed to allow particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of particulate matter in normal glass fibre filter samples. The detection limits, expressed in ng/m 3 of air, for the filter extracts were 5 to 30 times lower than those achieved by PIXE analysis or ordinary Nuclepore polycarbonate filter samples. The concentration results were compared with those obtained from routine atomic absorption spectrometry measurements and with the PIXE data from Nuclepore stacked filter unit samples taken in parallel. (orig.)

  16. Ambient particulate matter as a risk factor for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Jung, Sang Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Moon, Ki Tae; Hur, Nam Wook; Shin, Dong Chun; Suh, Il

    2010-09-01

    The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period. The association between particulate matter and suicide was determined using a time-stratified case-crossover approach in which subjects served as their own controls. All suicide cases (4,341) in 2004 that occurred in seven cities in the Republic of Korea were included. Hourly mean concentrations of particulate matter suicide risk associated with an interquartile range increase in particulate matter was determined by conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for national holidays and meteorological factors. Subgroup analysis was performed after stratification by underlying disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and psychiatric illness). The largest associations were a 9.0% increase (95% CI=2.4-16.1) and a 10.1% (95% CI=2.0-19.0) increase in suicide risk related to an interquartile range increase in particulate matter suicide) and particulate matter suicide), respectively. Among individuals with cardiovascular disease, a significant association between particulate matter suicide) and suicide was observed (18.9%; 95% CI=3.2-37.0). Conclusions: A transient increase in particulate matter was associated with increased suicide risk, especially for individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease.

  17. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  18. High-resolution sampling and analysis of air particulate matter in the Pear River Delta region of Southern China: source apportionment and health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Day, P. K.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous air pollutants, such as trace elements in particulate matters (PM), are known or highly suspected to cause detrimental effects on human health. To understand the sources and associated risks of PM to human health, hourly time-integrated major trace elements in size-segregated coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected and examined in an industrial city of Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Receptor modeling of the dataset by positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify six sources contributing to PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the site. Dominant sources included industrial coal combustion, secondary inorganic aerosol, motor vehicles and construction dust along with two intermittent sources, biomass combustion and marine aerosol. The biomass combustion source was found to be a significant contributor to peak PM2.5 episodes along with motor vehicles and industrial coal combustion. Conditional probability function (CPF) was applied to estimate the local source effects from wind direction using the PMF-resolved source contribution coupled with the surface wind direction data. Health exposure risk for hazardous trace elements (Pb, As, Cr, Ni, Zn, V, Cu, Mn, Fe) and source-specific values were estimated. The total hazard quotient (total HQ =HI) of PM2.5 was 2.09, which is two times higher than the acceptable limit (HQ = 1). The total carcinogenic risk was 3.37*10-3 for PM2.5, which was three orders higher than the acceptable limit (i.e. 1.0*10-6). Among the selected trace elements, As and Pb posed the highest non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for human health, respectively. In additional, our results showed that industrial coal combustion source was the dominant non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks contributor, highlighting the need for stringent control of this source. This study can provide new insight for policy makers to prioritize sources in air quality management and health risk reduction.

  19. High-resolution sampling and analysis of ambient particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of southern China: source apportionment and health risk implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous air pollutants, such as trace elements in particulate matter (PM, are known or highly suspected to cause detrimental effects on human health. To understand the sources and associated risks of PM to human health, hourly time-integrated major trace elements in size-segregated coarse (PM2.5–10 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter were collected at the industrial city of Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Receptor modeling of the data set by positive matrix factorization (PMF was used to identify six sources contributing to PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the site. Dominant sources included industrial coal combustion, secondary inorganic aerosol, motor vehicles and construction dust along with two intermittent sources (biomass combustion and marine aerosol. The biomass combustion source was found to be a significant contributor to peak PM2.5 episodes along with motor vehicles and industrial coal combustion. Conditional probability function (CPF analysis was applied to estimate the source locations using the PMF-resolved source contribution coupled with the surface wind direction data. Health exposure risk of hazardous trace elements (Pb, As, Si, Cr, Mn and Ni and source-specific values were estimated. The total hazard quotient (HQ of PM2.5 was 2.09, higher than the acceptable limit (HQ = 1. The total carcinogenic risk (CR was 3.37 × 10−3 for PM2.5, which was 3 times higher than the least stringent limit (1.0 × 10−4. Among the selected trace elements, As and Pb posed the highest non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to human health, respectively. In addition, our results show that the industrial coal combustion source is the dominant non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk contributor, highlighting the need for stringent control of this source. This study provides new insight for policy makers to prioritize sources in air quality management and health risk reduction.

  20. Toward Distinguishing Woodsmoke and Diesel Exhaust in Ambient Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, A.; Huggins, F.; Kubatova, A.; Wirick, S.; Maricq, M.; Mun, B.; McDonald, J.; Kelly, K.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning and diesel exhaust has distinct X-ray spectroscopic, carbon specific signatures, which can be employed for source apportionment. Characterization of the functional groups of a wide selection of PM samples (woodsmoke, diesel soot, urban air PM) was carried out using the soft X-ray spectroscopy capabilities at the synchrotron radiation sources in Berkeley (ALS) and Brookhaven (NSLS). The spectra reveal that diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) matter is made up from a semigraphitic solid core and soluble organic matter, predominantly with carboxylic functional groups. Woodsmoke PM has no or a less prevalent, graphitic signature, instead it contains carbon-hydroxyl groups. Using these features to apportion the carbonaceous PM in ambient samples we estimate that the relative contribution of DEP to ambient PM in an urban area such as Lexington, KY and St. Louis, MO is 7% and 13.5%, respectively. These values are comparable to dispersion modeling data from nonurban and urban areas in California, and with elemental carbon measurements in urban locations such as Boston, MA, Rochester, NY, and Washington, DC.

  1. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  2. INAA for the characterization of airborne particulate matter from the industrial area of Islamabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Daud, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    Air particulate matter (PM) was collected in two size fractions using stacked filter units (SFUs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the industrial area of Islamabad. Nucleopore polycarbonate filters were used for collecting from Oct 98 to Jun 99 the particulate matter in coarse and fine size fractions. The samples were characterized by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). About 33 elements were quantified using different irradiation and counting protocols. (author)

  3. The effect of composition, size, and solubility on acute pulmonary injury in rats following exposure to Mexico city ambient particulate matter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Thomas, Ronald F; Schladweiler, Mette C; McGee, John; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM)-associated metals can contribute to adverse cardiopulmonary effects following exposure to air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate how variation in the composition and size of ambient PM collected from two distinct regions in Mexico City relates to toxicity differences. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (14 wk) were intratracheally instilled with chemically characterized PM10 and PM2.5 from the north and PM10 from the south of Mexico City (3 mg/kg). Both water-soluble and acid-leachable fractions contained several metals, with levels generally higher in PM10 South. The insoluble and total, but not soluble, fractions of all PM induced pulmonary damage that was indicated by significant increases in neutrophilic inflammation, and several lung injury biomarkers including total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and γ-glutamyl transferase activity 24 and 72 h postexposure. PM10 North and PM2.5 North also significantly decreased levels of the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Elevation in lung mRNA biomarkers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α and macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-2), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase [HO]-1, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor [LOX]-1, and inducibile nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), and thrombosis (tissue factor [TF] and plasminogen activator inhibitor [PAI]-1), as well as reduced levels of fibrinolytic protein tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), further indicated pulmonary injury following PM exposure. These responses were more pronounced with PM10 South (PM10 South > PM10 North > PM2.5 North), which contained higher levels of redox-active transition metals that may have contributed to specific differences in selected lung gene markers. These findings provide evidence that surface chemistry of the PM core and not the water-soluble fraction played an important role in regulating in vivo pulmonary toxicity responses to Mexico City PM.

  4. Composition and oxidation state of sulfur in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Longo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and physical speciation of atmospheric sulfur was investigated in ambient aerosol samples using a combination of sulfur near-edge x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (S-NEXFS and X-ray fluorescence (XRF microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the composition and oxidation state of sulfur in common primary emission sources and ambient particulate matter collected from the greater Atlanta area. Ambient particulate matter samples contained two oxidation states: S0 and S+VI. Ninety-five percent of the individual aerosol particles (> 1 µm analyzed contain S0. Linear combination fitting revealed that S+VI in ambient aerosol was dominated by ammonium sulfate as well as metal sulfates. The finding of metal sulfates provides further evidence for acidic reactions that solubilize metals, such as iron, during atmospheric transport. Emission sources, including biomass burning, coal fly ash, gasoline, diesel, volcanic ash, and aerosolized Atlanta soil, and the commercially available bacterium Bacillus subtilis, contained only S+VI. A commercially available Azotobacter vinelandii sample contained approximately equal proportions of S0 and S+VI. S0 in individual aerosol particles most likely originates from primary emission sources, such as aerosolized bacteria or incomplete combustion.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  6. On the Impact of Particulate Matter Distribution on Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Particulate Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Bermúdez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wall-flow particulate filters are a required exhaust aftertreatment system to abate particulate matter emissions and meet current and incoming regulations applying worldwide to new generations of diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines. Despite the high filtration efficiency covering the whole range of emitted particle sizes, the porous substrate constitutes a flow restriction especially relevant as particulate matter, both soot and ash, is collected. The dependence of the resulting pressure drop, and hence the fuel consumption penalty, on the particulate matter distribution along the inlet channels is discussed in this paper taking as reference experimental data obtained in water injection tests before the particulate filter. This technique is demonstrated to reduce the particulate filter pressure drop without negative effects on filtration performance. In order to justify these experimental data, the characteristics of the particulate layer are diagnosed applying modeling techniques. Different soot mass distributions along the inlet channels are analyzed combined with porosity change to assess the new properties after water injection. Their influence on the subsequent soot loading process and regeneration is assessed. The results evidence the main mechanisms of the water injection at the filter inlet to reduce pressure drop and boost the interest for control strategies able to force the re-entrainment of most of the particulate matter towards the inlet channels’ end.

  7. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, US EPA Region 9, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  8. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  9. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  10. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  11. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  12. Organic speciation of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Raphael

    Particle size and composition are key factors controlling the impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. A comprehensive method to characterize size-segregated PM organic content was developed, and evaluated during two field campaigns. Size-segregated particles were collected using a cascade impactor (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a PM2.5 large volume sampler. A series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were solvent extracted and quantified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Large volume injections were performed using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet to lower detection limits. The developed analysis method was evaluated during the 2001 and 2002 Intercomparison Exercise Program on Organic Contaminants in PM2.5 Air Particulate Matter led by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ambient samples were collected in May 2002 as part of the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Florida, USA and in July and August 2004 as part of the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) in New Hampshire, USA. Morphology of the collected particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smaller particles (one micrometer or less) appeared to consist of solid cores surrounded by a liquid layer which is consistent with combustion particles and also possibly with particles formed and/or coated by secondary material like sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols. Source apportionment studies demonstrated the importance of stationary sources on the organic particulate matter observed at these two rural sites. Coal burning and biomass burning were found to be responsible for a large part of the observed PAHs during the field campaigns. Most of the measured PAHs were concentrated in particles smaller than one micrometer and linked to combustion sources

  13. Sampling/classification of gasifier particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzyn, J.

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature and pressure real time extractive sampling probe for particulate monitoring was built at Brookhaven National Laboratory and tested on Morgantown Energy Technology Center's 42 inch fixed bed gasifier. The probe was specifically designed for the conditions of highly loaded particulate and condensable streams, that exist at the outlet of a fixed bed gasifier. Some of the salient features of the probe are: porous tube gas injection, aerodynamic particle classification in the presence of condensable vapors, β gauge particle detection, and micro processor control. Three of the key design problems were the separation of the particles from the vapor without promoting condensation, the prevention of plugging, and real time monitoring. Some plugging did occur over the seven day sampling period, but by over pressurizing and back purging the clog was blown back into the process stream. The tests validate the proof of concept of the sampling probe and indicated that the particulate output from the bed came in the form of bursts (several minutes in duration) rather than in the form of a steady stream

  14. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  15. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  16. Thorium-particulate matter interaction. Thorium complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi; Tanque, Eiichiro

    1994-01-01

    The interaction between thorium and oceanic particulate matter was examined experimentally by using chemical equilibrium techniques. Thorium reacts quantitatively with the organic binding site of Particulate Matter (PM) in 0.1 mol/L HCl solution by complexation, which is equilibrated within 34 h. According to mass balance analysis, thorium forms a 1:1 complex with the organic binding site in PM, whose conditional stability constant is 10 6.6 L/mol. The Th adsorption ability is present even in 6.9 mol/L HCl solution although the amount of Th adsorption decreases with increasing acidity in the solution. Interferences to Th adsorption by Fe(III) suggests that other metals cannot react with PM in more than 0.1 mol/L HCl solutions when concentrations of other metals are the same level of Th. The competitive reaction between Th and Fe(III) occurs in higher Fe concentrations, which means that the organic binding site is nonspecific for Th. A vertical profile of Th complexing capacity of PM in the western North Pacific is characterized; that is, the Th complexing capacity shows a surface maximum and decreases rapidly with depth

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  18. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniš, Martin; Šafránek, Jiří

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5) and PM(2.5-1.0)) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM(10-2.5) 4.1-7.4 μg m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 2.0-3.3 μg m(-3)) than indoors (average PM(10-2.5) 13.6-26.7 μg m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 3.7-7.4 μg m(-3)). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM(10-2.5) and 1.4-4.8 for the PM(2.5-1.0) values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM(10-2.5)) and 19.1 (PM(2.5-1.0)). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high

  19. Particulate matter analysis at elementary schools in Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigo, Devanir; Godoi, Ana F L; Janissek, Paulo R; Makarovska, Yaroslava; Krata, Agnieszka; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Alfoldy, Balint; Van Grieken, René; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2008-06-01

    The particulate matter indoors and outdoors of the classrooms at two schools in Curitiba, Brazil, was characterised in order to assess the indoor air quality. Information concerning the bulk composition was provided by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). From the calculated indoor/outdoor ratios and the enrichment factors it was observed that S-, Cl- and Zn-rich particles are of concern in the indoor environment. In the present research, the chemical compositions of individual particles were quantitatively elucidated, including low-Z components like C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements, using automated electron probe microanalysis low Z EPMA. Samples were further analysed for chemical and morphological aspects, determining the particle size distribution and classifying them according to elemental composition associations. Five classes were identified based on major elemental concentrations: aluminosilicate, soot, organic, calcium carbonate and iron-rich particles. The majority of the respirable particulate matter found inside of the classroom was composed of soot, biogenic and aluminosilicate particles. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the human respiratory system were calculated revealing the deposition of soot at alveolar level. The results showed that on average 42% of coarse particles are deposited at the extrathoracic level, whereas 24% are deposited at the pulmonary region. The fine fraction showed a deposition rate of approximately 18% for both deposition levels.

  20. Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman, a Semi-Urban Area of Ghana, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sam-Quarcoo Dotse; Joshua Kwame Asane; F.G. Ofosu

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter and black carbon concentration levels in Ashaiman, a semi-urban area of Ghana was assessed. Using IVL PM2.5 and PM10 particle samplers, airborne particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters for a period of three months. In addition to determination of particulate mass in the two fractions by gravimetrical method, aerosol filters were analyzed to determine Black Carbon (BC) concentration levels using the black smoke method. BC fractions in fine and coarse, together with ...

  1. Inhibition of intercellular communication by airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussen, G.A.H. (Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Toxicology)

    1991-04-01

    To investigate the inhibition of gap junction mediated intercellular communication (IC) by extracts of airborne particulate matter (APM), V79 cells were incubated with extracts of APM and subsequently microinjected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow, after which the number of fluorescent (= communicating) cells was determined. To compare inhibitory effects on IC with mutagenicity, APM was also tested in the Salmonella microsome assay. Six different extracts were tested, two outdoor extracts representing a heavily polluted and a relatively clean sample, and four indoor extracts, taken either in livingrooms with or without wood combustion in an open fire place, or in a room with or without cigarette smoking. Non-cytotoxic doses of outdoor and indoor APM inhibited IC in V79 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Mutagenicity data and IC data were correlated. These results suggest that APM has tumor promoter activity in addition to mutagenic activity. (orig.).

  2. Characterisation of particulate matter on airborne pollen grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Helena; Guimarães, Fernanda; Duque, Laura; Noronha, Fernando; Abreu, Ilda

    2015-01-01

    A characterization of the physical–chemical composition of the atmospheric PM adsorbed to airborne pollen was performed. Airborne pollen was sampled using a Hirst-type volumetric spore sampler and observed using a Field Emission Electron Probe Microanalyser for PM analysis. A secondary electron image was taken of each pollen grain and EDS spectra were obtained for individually adsorbed particles. All images were analysed and the size parameters of the particles adsorbed to pollen was determined. The measured particles’ equivalent diameter varied between 0.1 and 25.8 μm, mostly in the fine fraction. The dominant particulates identified were Si-rich, Organic-rich, SO-rich, Metals & Oxides and Cl-rich. Significant daily differences were observed in the physical–chemical characteristics of particles adsorbed to the airborne pollen wall. These differences were correlated with weather parameters and atmospheric PM concentration. Airborne pollen has the ability to adsorb fine particles that may enhance its allergenicity. - Highlights: • Airborne pollen sorbs other PM found in suspension. • 84% of the particles sorbed belonged to the fine aerosol fraction. • Adsorbed PM presented daily physical–chemical variations. • Particles sorbed dominated by Si-rich, Organic-rich, SO-rich, Fe-rich and Cl-rich. - Airborne pollen is able to transport finer particulate matter, which presents daily physical–chemical variations.

  3. Analysis of atmospheric particulate matter; application of optical and selected geochemical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastalerz, M.; Glikson, M.; Simpson, R.W. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States). Indiana Geological Survey

    1998-09-01

    An increase in particulate matter in the atmosphere has been shown to be linked to increased mortality but this relationship is poorly understood. Light microscopy, electron microscopy, electron microprobe, and micro-FTIR techniques have been applied to study atmospheric particulates in Brisbane, Australia as a part of a study on asthma. The particulate matter samples were collected daily from April to August 1992, and the sampling covered the autumn period which is typically a time of high asthma incidence in Brisbane. Volumetrically, most atmospheric particulate matter is less than 2{mu}m in size. The microscopic analysis reveals that this material is composed mainly of combusted and incompletely burned hydrocarbons from motor vehicle exhaust emissions, quiescent spores of Mucorales, soil bacteria, and inorganic matter in the form of quartz and other silicates. Elemental and functional group analyses confirm microscope identification, documenting carbon-rich, aromatic exhaust material, more aliphatic pollen and spore material and inorganic matter. Fungal spores dominate bioaerosol and are very abundant from the end of April through May to mid-June. The cytoplasmic content of pollens or fungaonly regarded as allergenic. Particulates from the exhaust emissions and crustal material in a sub-micrometer size range may act as carriers or dispersive mechanisms for cytoplasmic material from fungal spores and pollens, perhaps causing periods of the highest exhaust emission to be the most allergenic. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Airborne particulate matter collection and analysis by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Esguerra, Luz V.; Pabroa, Preciosa B.; Almoneda, Rosalina

    2004-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) continues to pursue its air pollution research in support of the implementation of the 1999 Clean Air Act. The primary tool for analysis is X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) since the PPP-I is still on extended shut down. Following the workplan approved during the 1991 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactors, the PNRI collected airborne particulate matter using the Gent sampler. The sampling site selected for the program was Poveda Learning Center, located beside a major highway, the Epifanio delos Santos Avenue (EDSA) where the principal source of pollution is vehicular emissions. Samples collected up to August were analyzed by XRF using three sets of analytical parameters to allow optimized analysis of a wider range of elements including Na and Pb. Although the PNRI has no operating reactor, it has personnel who have trained in NAA but are unable to apply the technique. As mentioned in the 2001 Workshop, the PNRI is considering several options to resume reactor-related activities. Thus, it is necessary to ensure continuing availability of expertise in NAA in the PNRI. It looks forward to collaborating with other Institutes through the FNCA program for the analysis of samples by NAA and using reactor parameters from collaborating Institute, to obtain experience in the use of Ko. This would also allow validation of XRF data obtained for these samples. In return it can analyze samples for collaborating institutions to generate data on Pb and S, which are important for pollutant source apportionment. (author)

  5. Analysis of atmospheric particulate samples via instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful analytical technique for the elemental characterization of atmospheric particulate samples. It is a true multielement technique with adequate sensitivity to determine 30 to 40 elements in a sample of atmospheric particulate material. Its nondestructive nature allows sample reanalysis by the same or a different analytical technique. In this paper as an example of the applicability of INAA to the study of atmospheric particulate material, a study of the emissions from municipal incinerators is described

  6. An Automated Heart Rate Detection Platform in Wild-Type Zebrafish for Cardiotoxicity Screening of Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution-derived particulate matter (PM) causes adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, with increasing evidence implicating soluble components of PM; however, the enormous number of unique PM samples from different air sheds far exceeds the capacity of conventio...

  7. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branis, Martin, E-mail: branis@natur.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute for Environmental Studies, Prague (Czech Republic); Safranek, Jiri [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Outdoor Sports, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-15

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0}) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 4.1-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 2.0-3.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}) than indoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 13.6-26.7 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 3.7-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM{sub 10-2.5} and 1.4-4.8 for the PM{sub 2.5-1.0} values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and 19.1 (PM{sub 2.5-1.0}). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school

  8. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branis, Martin; Safranek, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5-1.0 ) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM 10-2.5 4.1-7.4 μg m -3 and PM 2.5-1.0 2.0-3.3 μg m -3 ) than indoors (average PM 10-2.5 13.6-26.7 μg m -3 and PM 2.5-1.0 3.7-7.4 μg m -3 ). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM 10-2.5 and 1.4-4.8 for the PM 2.5-1.0 values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM 10-2.5 ) and 19.1 (PM 2.5-1.0 ). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of

  9. Chemical characterization of urban air particulate matter of Kuala Lumpur 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Ab. Khalik Bin Haji Wood

    2006-01-01

    Urban air particulate samples of Kuala Lumpur ambient air have been collected characterize according to fine and coarse airborne particulates. The air filters containing particulate matter were collected using GENT stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling location site (Lat: 03deg 10'30''; Long: 101deg 43'24.2'') is approximately 1 km from the Kuala Lumpur city center. All the sampling conducted from January 2002 until October 2004 was included in the analysis and results were reported. The mass loading for finest air particulate matter (PM 2.5) in Kuala Lumpur are 199±55 μg (2002), 171±53 μg (2003), and 171±61 μg (2004), respectively. The mass loading for coarse air particulate matter (PM 10) in Kuala Lumpur were 125±29 μg (2002), 134±48 μg (2003), and 137 ± 57 μg (2004), respectively. The elemental concentration of the air filters were determined using INAA technique utilizing both short and long irradiation facilities at MINT's TRIGA MKII reactor. Upon irradiation the air filters were counted at suitable counting time using HPGe gamma-ray detectors. The elements reported for this monitoring are Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Certified reference materials were also included in the sample analysis function as quality control materials. (author)

  10. Particulate matter characterization of Cauca River water in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Marin, Juan Pablo; van Halem, D.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The particulate matter composition in the Upper Cauca River section was studied, considering the importance of this river for the water supply of Cali, Colombia, and the implications that the turbidity of this water source has had for the city's water treatment. Additionally, the upstream Palo River

  11. Deposition of Suspended Fine Particulate Matter in a Library

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila; Zíková, Naděžda; Ondráčková, Lucie; Ondráček, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, 3 April (2013) ISSN 2050-7445 R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 Keywords : fine particulate matter * deposition * brownian diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.heritagesciencejournal.com/content/1/1/7

  12. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  13. Trace metals concentration assessment in urban particulate matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and correlation of selected trace elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State and its environs. Air particulate matter was collected gravimetrically at five stations (using a high volume portable SKC air check MTXSidekickair sampler ...

  14. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to cause health hazard, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. The dose of each specific compo...

  15. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  16. Diesel particulate matter exposure in South African platinum mines: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling was conducted on nearly 300 mine workers in the diesel and non-diesel sections of three platinum mines in South Africa. Respiratory health questionnaires were administered to all of these workers...

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF POSSIBLE SOURCES OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE PERSONAL CLOUD USING SEM/EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted the Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly during the summer of 1998. The study design included PM2.5 samples obtained from elderly (65+ years of age) retirement facility ...

  18. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  19. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck

  20. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeberger, Steven R.; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants

  1. PIXE analysis of airborne particulate matter from Xalostoc, Mexico: winter to summer comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores M, J.; Aldape, F.; Diaz, R.V.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.; Garcia G, R.

    1999-01-01

    A study of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from the industrial city of Xalostoc, Estado de Mexico, was performed using PIXE. The place has a great variety of industries, it is a heavily populated, and it is a part of Mexico City's conurbation, thus contributing significantly to its atmospheric pollution. At present, there is few information available about elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from that region. In this study, two sets of samples of airborne particulate matter were collected daily during periods of four weeks in summer 1996 and winter 1997; two samples a day, 12 h each, night-time and day-time. Results revealed important information about elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from that area, especially in the respirable fraction PM 2.5 . Comparison of night and day figures showed the presence of some elements such as Cu, Zn, and Pb, attributed, as it was expected, to uninterrupted industrial processes. Appearance of some other elements was more consistent only in either day-time or night-time due to diurnal or nocturnal industrial activities, or produced by human activities such as fuel combustion of automotive vehicles. Comparison of winter to summer results showed some other important features such as higher concentrations of pollutants in winter, because of the dry and cold weather, while summer samples exhibited lower concentrations mainly due to the presence of rain showers

  2. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter in Bandung and Lembang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutisna; Achmad Hidayat; Dadang Supriatna

    2004-01-01

    ELEMENTAL QUANTIFICATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER IN BANDUNG AND LEMBANG REGION: The contaminated airborne particulates by toxic gases and elements have a potential affect to the human health. Some toxic elements related to air pollution have carcinogenic affect. The quantification of those elements is important to monitor a level of pollutant contained in the airborne particulate. The aim of this work is to analyze the air particulate sample using instrumental neutron activation analysis and other related technique. Two sampling points of Bandung and Lembang that represent and urban and rural area respectively have been chosen to collect the air particulate sample. The samplings were carried out using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler for 24 hours, and two cellulose filters of 8 μm and 0.45 μm pore size were used. Trace elements in the sample collected were determined using NAA based on a comparative method. Elemental distribution on PM 2.5 and PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate was analyzed, the enrichment factor was calculated using Al as reference elements, and the black carbons contents were determined using FEL Smoke Stain Reflectometer analyzed. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Fernanda V.F.; Ardisson, Jose Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar H.; Brito, Walter de; Macedo, Waldemar Augusto A.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area. (author)

  4. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  5. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; Torres, Victor; Miranda, Javier; Martinez, Leticia; Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia; Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter; Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel; Rosas, Irma; Nemery, Benoit; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 μm (PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 μg/cm 2 ) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL) or silica (10-160 μg/cm 2 ). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM 10 presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM 2.5 . In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  6. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto, E-mail: ealfaro.incan@gmail.com [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Torres, Victor [Departamento Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Miranda, Javier [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisca, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Martinez, Leticia [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, I.P.N. (Mexico); Rosas, Irma [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Nemery, Benoit [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 {mu}g/mL) or silica (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM{sub 10} presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM{sub 2.5}. In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  7. Behavior of secondary particles in particulate matter collected at eastern Kanagawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Tomohiro; Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao; Honda, Teruyuki

    2008-01-01

    The suspended particulate matters collected in 100 periods from 2002/10/28 to 2004/10/29 were separated into the water soluble and insoluble components and their main components were analyzed. The characteristics of atmosphere in the east part of Kagawa prefecture and of the secondary particulates were presumed. Therefore, it was considered that in the samples other than Mn the origins of water soluble and insoluble components are different each other from their behavior. The water-soluble part may be mostly ammonium salt (secondary particulate) from the measurement of NH 4 + . Furthermore, it became clear that the evolution of secondary particulate varies largely with season. Then, the variation with season was presumed by the main component analysis using the statistical software, SPSS adding to the correlation coefficient. This method has proved to be effective. (M.H.)

  8. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    The samples were analysed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. (EDXRF) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for up to 10 elements. It was found that 66% of the ..... coefficients between the various crustal elements Ca, Ti, Mn, ...

  9. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A; Després, Viviane R; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-08-04

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 microm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere.

  10. Characterizing temporal changes of agricultural particulate matter number concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docekal, G. P.; Mahmood, R.; Larkin, G. P.; Silva, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted among literature that particulate matter (PM) are of detriment to human health and the environment as a whole. These effects can vary depending on the particle size. This study examines PM size distributions and number concentrations at a poultry house. Despite much literature on PM concentrations at agricultural facilities, few studies have looked at the size distribution of particles at such facilities from the nucleation up through the coarse mode. Two optical particle counters (OPCs) were placed, one inside of a chicken house, and one on the outside of an exhaust fan to determine particle size distributions. In addition, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) sampled poultry house particles to give sizing information from a full size range of 10 nm - 20 mm. The data collected show several different types of events where observed size distributions changed. While some of these are due to expected dust generation events producing coarse mode particles, others suggest particle nucleation and accumulation events at the smaller size ranges that also occurred. The data suggest that agricultural facilities have an impact one the presence of PM in the environment beyond just generation of coarse mode dust. Data for different types of size distribution changes observed will be discussed.

  11. Comparison and trend study on acidity and acidic buffering capacity of particulate matter in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lihong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qingyue; Yang, XiaoYang; Tang, Dagang

    2011-12-01

    The acidity of about 2000 particulate matter samples from aircraft and ground-based monitoring is analyzed by the method similar to soil acidity determination. The ground-based samples were collected at about 50 urban or background sites in northern and southern China. Moreover, the acidic buffering capacity of those samples is also analyzed by the method of micro acid-base titration. Results indicate that the acidity level is lower in most northern areas than those in the south, and the acidic buffering capacity showed inverse tendency, correspondingly. This is the most important reason why the pollution of acidic-precipitation is much more serious in Southern China than that in Northern China. The acidity increases and the acidic buffering capacity drops with the decreasing of the particle sizes, indicating that fine particle is the main influencing factor of the acidification. The ionic results show that Ca salt is the main alkaline substance in particulate matter, whereas the acidification of particulate matter is due to the SO 2 and NO x emitted from the fossil fuel burning. And among of them, coal burning is the main contributor of SO 2, however the contribution of NO x that emitted from fuel burning of motor vehicles has increased in recent years. By comparison of the experimental results during the past 20 years, it can be concluded that the acid precipitation of particulate matter has not been well controlled, and it even shows an increasing tendency in China lately. The acid precipitation of particulate matter has begun to frequently attack in part of the northern areas. Multiple regression analysis indicates that coefficient value of the ions is the lowest at the urban sites and the highest at the regional sites, whereas the aircraft measurement results are intermediate between those two kinds of sites.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmospheric particulate matter in the city of Naples (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchia, Anna Maria; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Pezza, Massimo

    An investigation on PAH in the atmospheric particulate matter of the city of Naples has been carried out. Urban atmospheric particulate matter was sampled in three sampling sites (West, East and central areas of the city), whose characteristics were representative of the prevailing conditions. In each site, 24 h samplings for 7 consecutive days were performed during three sampling campaigns, in 1996-1997. The results were comparable with those reported in literature for similar investigations. Total PAH were in the range 2-130 ng m -3, with a seasonal variation (autumn/winter vs. summer) in the range 1.5-4.5. The relative contribution of diesel engines vs. gasoline fuelled engines was evidenced.

  13. Controlling particulate matter under the Clean Air Act: a menu of options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document was prepared by STAPPA and ALAPCO to help US state and local air pollution control officials understand the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health and air quality, the relative contribution of various sources to particulate emissions, and the effectiveness and costs of various approaches - including innovative ones - to minimizing these emissions. The document covers particulate matter with a nominal diameter of 10 microns ({mu}m) or less (PM{sub 10}), including `fine` PM of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}). Sections cover: the effects of particulate matter on human health; regulatory issues; characterization of particulate matter; emission control strategies for mobile sources (diesel engines, small nonroad engines, alternative fuels etc.), particulates from stationary sources (electric utilities, industry and commercial fuel combustion; mineral products industry, metallurgical industry etc.); particulates from area sources; and market-based strategies for controlling particulate matter. 2 apps.

  14. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  15. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Krupa, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. - Highlights: ► AQS for particulate matter concentrations adjusted by pressure and temperature. ► Particulate matter concentrations can be underestimated in high altitude Cities. ► Particulate matter concentrations must be compared under the same conditions. - In order to compare high altitude atmospheric PM concentrations with AQS, one must consider T and P of the sampling site.

  16. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Toro Araya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007, concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August and warm (September to February seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41% than in the warm season (44 ± 18%. On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3 and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3 for fine particulate matter.

  17. Carbonaceous aerosols in fine particulate matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G E; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002-2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m(3)) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m(3)) for fine particulate matter.

  18. Investigation of the suspended particulate matter in the Asian region for seven years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harasawa, Susumu

    1999-01-01

    Activities of the workshops for the investigation of environmental materials by NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) methods during 1992 to 1997 held in Jakarta are briefly reported. Detail of selection of the theme (investigation of the suspended particulate matter in the Asian region by NAA), the results of the inter-comparison for the analysis using NIES No. 8 reference standard samples (vehicle exhaust particulate) are presented. In conclusion, systematically accumulated data on the environmental substances and their time variations measured and analyzed by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) method give useful information on pollution problems and air movement in the Asia region. (S. Ohno)

  19. Investigation of the suspended particulate matter in the Asian region for seven years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harasawa, Susumu [Institute for Atomic Energy, Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Activities of the workshops for the investigation of environmental materials by NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) methods during 1992 to 1997 held in Jakarta are briefly reported. Detail of selection of the theme (investigation of the suspended particulate matter in the Asian region by NAA), the results of the inter-comparison for the analysis using NIES No. 8 reference standard samples (vehicle exhaust particulate) are presented. In conclusion, systematically accumulated data on the environmental substances and their time variations measured and analyzed by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) method give useful information on pollution problems and air movement in the Asia region. (S. Ohno)

  20. Method for determination of stable carbon isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moukhtar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A technique for the measurement of the stable isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter is presented. Atmospheric samples from rural and suburban areas were collected for evaluation of the procedure. Particulate matter was collected on quartz fibre filters using dichotomous high volume air samplers. Methylnitrophenols were extracted from the filters using acetonitrile. The sample was then purified using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. The final solution was then divided into two aliquots. To one aliquot, a derivatising agent, Bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, was added for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The second half of the sample was stored in a refrigerator. For samples with concentrations exceeding 1 ng μl−1, the second half of the sample was used for measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.

    The procedure described in this paper provides a method for the analysis of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter at concentrations as low as 0.3 pg m−3 and for stable isotope ratios with an accuracy of better than ±0.5‰ for concentrations exceeding 100 pg m−3.

    In all atmospheric particulate matter samples analysed, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol was found to be the most abundant methylnitrophenol, with concentrations ranging from the low pg m−3 range in rural areas to more than 200 pg m−3 in some samples from a suburban location.

  1. Study of Hydrothermal Particulate Matter from a Shallow Venting System, offshore Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Osorio, A.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Reyes, A. G.; Rubio-Ramos, M. A.; Torres-Vera, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    A shallow (30 ft) hydrothermal site named ``Cora'' (after the indigenous people thereby) was surveyed and sampled throughout direct observation with SCUBA diving during November 25 to December 4, 2000. A total of 10 dives were conducted in order to obtain representative samples from an 85oC fluid source of approximately 10 cm in diameter. Inherent difficulties to the sampling, such as poor visibility and strong bottom currents were overcome and samples of hydrothermal fluid, gas, rocks, and particulate matter were collected directly from the vent. Water samples and hydrothermal fluid were taken with a homemade 1 l cylindrical bottles of two lines by flushing in from the bottom for about ten minutes until total displacement of the seawater; similar procedure was carried out for gas samples. Particulate matter was collected with 0.4mm polycarbonate membrane filters and preserved in a desiccators at a fridge temperature until analysis onshore. Preliminary description of the rock samples suggest that pyritization is the main mineralisation process. Filters containing hydrothermal particulate matter were surveyed under the scanning electron microscope in order to identify the nature (inorganic and organic), as well as the chemistry of the particles. SEM examination revealed the presence of particles of different kind that suggests high degree of mixing and re-suspension: Planctonic organisms and organic matter appeared to be abundant; 25 micron particles of different carbonate faces and inorganic particles of silicates were also recognized. Distinctive euhedral colloidal grains were identified as the resulting process of precipitation from the solution. Microanalysis of iron and sulfur content of 10 micron particles indicate a very likely sulphide mineral face (greigite); 8 micron cinnabar particles are consistent with the mineralization conditions, observed as well in the inner walls of the vent. Analyses of dissolved and particulate trace metals are still ongoing at

  2. Airborne particulate matter in school classrooms of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P; Spinazzè, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M

    2014-01-27

    Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels.

  3. Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rovelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO. In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the

  4. Determination of lead associated with airborne particulate matter by flame atomic absorption and wave-length dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The lead content of airborne particulate matter was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) following digestion with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and also by wave-length dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The extraction procedure was checked by analyzing a standard reference material of airborne particulate matter (NIST, SRM -1648). It was concluded that lead can quantitatively (98%) be extracted from airborne particulate matter by the leaching process. A five-stage sequential extraction was performed to assess the potential mobility of lead associated with airborne particulate matter. Comparison of the airborne particulate lead measured by WDXRF to that measured by FAAS showed good agreement. The WDXRF method requires no time-consuming sample preparation or use of environmentally unfriendly solvents. The technique is suggested for direct determination of lead in airborne particulate matter in air pollution studies. (author)

  5. Ferruginous compounds in the airborne particulate matter of the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Fernanda Vasconcelos Fonseca; Ardisson, José Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo César Horta; Fabris, José Domingos; Fernandez-Outon, Luis Eugenio; Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2017-08-01

    Samples of soil, iron ore, and airborne particulate matter (size airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, are either from natural origin, as, for instance, re-suspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic activities, meaning that it would be originated from the many iron ore minings surrounding the metropolitan area. Numerical simulations were used to model the atmospheric dispersion of the airborne particulate matter emitted by iron mining located at the Iron Quadrangle geodomain, Minas Gerais. Results from these numerical simulations supported identifying the sites with the highest concentrations of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan area. Samples of these suspended materials were collected at the selected sites by using high-volume air samplers. The physicochemical features of the solid materials were assessed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, magnetometry, and 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The soil materials were found to be rich in quartz, aluminum, organic matter, and low contents of iron, mainly as low crystalline iron oxides. The samples of the iron ores, on the other hand, contain high concentration of iron, dominantly as relatively pure and crystalline hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). The samples of the airborne particulate matter are rich in iron, mainly as hematite, but contained also quartz, aluminum, and calcium. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to evaluate the hyperfine structure of 57 Fe of the hematite both from the iron ore and the soil samples. The structural characteristics of the hematite of these particulate materials were further explored. The direct influence of the iron ore mining on the composition of the airborne particulate matter was clearly evidenced based on the trace ability of hematite to its source of emission. Even the atmospheric air on regions relatively far away from the mining activities is also significantly influenced.

  6. Relationship between Particulate matter less than 10 microns exposures and health effects on humans in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Geravandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Particulate matters less than 10 microns can absorb into your lungs and reacting with the moisture and enter the circulatory system directly through the airways. The aim of this study is to assess Behavior PM 10 data in different seasons and Determination effects on human health in Ahvaz city during 2013. Materials & Methods: Data Particulate matters less than 10 microns were taken from Ahvaz Department of Environment and Meteorological Organization. Sampling was performed for 24 hours in 4 stations. Method of sampling and analysis were performed according to EPA guideline. Processing data include the instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering. Finally, health-effects of Particulate matters less than 10 exposures were calculated with impact of meteorological parameters and converted as input file to the Air Q model. Results: PM 10 concentration in winter season was maximum amount in the year 2013. According to the research findings, highest and the lowest Particulate matters less than 10 microns concentrations during 2013 had the Bureau of Meteorology “Havashenasi” and Head office of ADoE “Mohitzist”. Sum of total numbers of cardiovascular death and hospitals admission to respiratory diseases attributed to Particulate matters less than 10 microns were 923 and 2342 cases in 2013. Conclusions: Particulate matter emissions are highly regulated in most industrialized countries. Due to environmental concerns, most industries and dust storm phenomena are required to decrease in source produce particle mater and kind of dust collection system to control particulate emissions. Pollution prevention and control measures that reduce Particulate matters less than 10 microns can very useful for expected to reduce people’s exposures to Sulfur dioxide.

  7. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piniero, T.; Cerqueira Alves, L.; Reis, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this project is to search for respiratory system particular aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. The work plan under the current IAEA contract comprise a prospective study to identify particulate matter deposited in the human respiratory ducts and lung tissue and workers respiratory health status survey at a steel plant, Siderurgia Nacional (SN). So far, the selection of areas of interest at SN, workers exposed, airborne particulate monitoring sites according to the periodicity of labouring cycles, and the beginning of workers medical survey have been achieved and/or initiated. The SN selected area, where steel is processed and steel casting is achieved, involve approximately 80 workers, most of them working at that location for more than 15 years. Blood elemental content data determined by PIXE and INAA and a preliminary health status evaluation from 32 of the 80 workers included in this survey are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms of TFA adsorption by particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junyu; Zhai, Zihan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ziyuan; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the atmosphere is produced by degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons. In recent years, TFA has attracted global attention because of increased environmental concentrations, biological toxicity and accumulation in aqueous environments. This study focused on the mechanisms underlying the adsorption of TFA by particulate matter to identify the appropriate descriptive model for this process and thus improve estimation of TFA adsorption in future environmental monitoring. Onsite gas and particle phase sampling in Beijing, China, and subsequent measurement of TFA concentrations indicated that the TFA concentration in the gas phase (1396 ± 225 pg m -3 ) was much higher than that in the particle phase (62 ± 8 pg m -3 ) and that monthly concentrations varied seasonally with temperature. Based on the field results and analysis, an adsorption experiment of TFA on soot was then conducted at three different temperatures (293, 303, and 313 K) to provide parameters for kinetic and thermodynamic modelling. The proportion of atmospheric TFA concentration in the gas phase increased with temperature, indicating that temperature affected the phase distribution of TFA. The subsequent kinetic and thermodynamic modelling showed that the adsorption of TFA by soot could be described well by the Bangham kinetic model. The adsorption was controlled by diffusion, and the key mechanism was physical adsorption. The adsorption behavior can be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG° (-2.34, -1.25, and -0.15 kJ mol -1  at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively), ΔH° (-34.34 kJ mol -1 ), and ΔS° (-109.22 J mol -1  K -1 ) for TFA adsorption by soot were negative, indicating that adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawicki Kacper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February. The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 – 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 – 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method, three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3 and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  10. Spatial and temporal variability in urban fine particulate matter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Hanna, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of hot spots for urban fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations is complicated by the significant contributions from regional atmospheric transport and the dependence of spatial and temporal variability on averaging time. We focus on PM 2.5 patterns in New York City, which includes significant local sources, street canyons, and upwind contributions to concentrations. A literature synthesis demonstrates that long-term (e.g., one-year) average PM 2.5 concentrations at a small number of widely-distributed monitoring sites would not show substantial variability, whereas short-term (e.g., 1-h) average measurements with high spatial density would show significant variability. Statistical analyses of ambient monitoring data as a function of wind speed and direction reinforce the significance of regional transport but show evidence of local contributions. We conclude that current monitor siting may not adequately capture PM 2.5 variability in an urban area, especially in a mega-city, reinforcing the necessity of dispersion modeling and methods for analyzing high-resolution monitoring observations. - Highlights: →Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) hot spots are hard to identify in urban areas. → Literature conclusions about PM 2.5 hot spots depend on study design and methods. → Hot spots are more likely for short-term concentrations at high spatial density. → Statistical methods illustrate local source impacts beyond regional transport. → Dispersion models and high-resolution monitors are both needed to find hot spots. - Fine particulate matter can vary spatially within large urban areas, in spite of the significant contribution from regional atmospheric transport.

  11. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawicki, Kacper; Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February). The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 - 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 - 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method), three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3) and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  12. Trace elements in suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction of the Arno River waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capannesi, G.; Cecchi, A.; Mando, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of 46 elements along the course of the Arno River (Tuscany, Italy) have been determined by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Both suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction have been investigated. No chemical treatment has been performed on the samples, either before or after irradiation. Anticoincidence techniques have been employed in the γ spectroscopy. Results are briefly discussed also from a methodological point of view. 4 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  13. Evaluation of Pollution of Soils and Particulate Matter Around Metal Recycling Factories in Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Akinade S. Olatunji; Tesleem O. Kolawole; Moroof Oloruntola; Christina Günter

    2018-01-01

    Background. Metal recycling factories (MRFs) have developed rapidly in Nigeria as recycling policies have been increasingly embraced. These MRFs are point sources for introducing potentially toxic elements (PTEs) into environmental media. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the constituents (elemental and mineralogy) of the wastes (slag and particulate matter, (PM)) and soils around the MRFs and to determine the level of pollution within the area. Methods. Sixty samples (...

  14. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  15. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  16. A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, research on filtering of DPM(diesel particulate matter) has been carried out. Through the research, it was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Surface water, particulate matter, and sediments of inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde (BfG) since 1958 runs a system for monitoring the surface water and sediments of Federal German waterways in its capacity as a directing water monitoring centre. The data recorded over the years show that the radioactivity released by the various emission sources leads to radionuclide concentrations in water, particulate matter, or sediments that generally are below the detection limits defined in the relevant legal provisions governing monitoring and surveillance of nuclear facilities effluents. Representative examples of measuring methods and results (as for e.g. for H-3) are given. (DG) [de

  18. The filtering effect of buildings on airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.C.; Mustonen, R.

    1987-06-01

    Within the radioecological programme of the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy (NKA), the possible consequences of a major reactor accident are one of its main research branches. This study of the filtering effect of buildings on airborne particulate matter has been one part of this branch. The absorbed dose to a person from a passing radioactive cloud will be lower if he has been indoors and not ourdoors during the cloud passage. The aim of this study has been to find filtering factors for typical Finnish and Norwegian houses to use in model work

  19. Measurement and modeling of diameter distributions of particulate matter in terrestrial solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis F.; Michalzik, Beate; Bischoff, Sebastian; NäThe, Kerstin; Legates, David R.; Gruselle, Marie-Cecile; Richter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in biogeosciences, affecting biosphere-atmosphere interactions and ecosystem health. This is the first known study to quantify and model PM diameter distributions of bulk precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, and organic layer (Oa) solution. Solutions were collected from a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest during leafed and leafless periods. Following scanning electron microscopy and image analysis, PM distributions were quantified and then modeled with the Box-Cox transformation. Based on an analysis of 43,278 individual particulates, median PM diameter of all solutions was around 3.0 µm. All PM diameter frequency distributions were skewed significantly to the right. Optimal power transformations of PM diameter distributions were between -1.00 and -1.56. The utility of this model reconstruction would be that large samples having a similar probability density function can be developed for similar forests. Further work on the shape and chemical composition of particulates is warranted.

  20. Particulate organic matter predicts bacterial productivity in a river dominated estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Estuaries act as coastal filters for organic and inorganic fluvial materials in which microbial, biogeochemical, and ecological processes combine to transform organic matter and nutrients prior to export to the coastal ocean. The function of this estuarine 'bioreactor' is linked to the residence times of those materials and to rates of microbial heterotrophic activity. Our ability to forecast the impact of global change on estuarine bioreactor function requires an understanding of the basic controls on microbial community activity and diversity. In the Columbia River estuary, the microbial community undergoes a dramatic seasonal shift in species composition during which a spring bacterioplankton community, dominated by Flavobacteriaceae and Oceanospirillales, is replaced by a summer community, dominated by Rhodobacteraceae and several common marine taxa. This annual shift occurs in July, following the spring freshet, when river flow and river chlorophyll concentration decrease and when estuarine water residence time increases. Analysis of a large dataset from 17 research cruises (1990-2014) showed that the composition of particulate organic matter in the estuary changes after the freshet with decreasing organic carbon and nitrogen content, and increasing contribution of marine and autochthonous estuarine organic matter (based on PO13C and pigment ratios). Bacterial production rates (measured as leucine or thymidine incorporation rates) in the estuary respond to this change, and correlate strongly with labile particulate nitrogen concentration and temperature during individual sampling campaigns, and with the concentration of chlorophyll in the Columbia River across all seasons. Regression models suggest that the concentration of labile particulate nitrogen and the rate of bacterial production can be predicted from sensor measurements of turbidity, salinity, and temperature in the estuary and chlorophyll in the river. These results suggest that the quality of

  1. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Kuenen , Jeroen; Gschwind , Benoît; Drebszok , Kamila M.; Stetter , Daniel; Kranenburg , Richard; Hendriks , Carlijn; Lefèvre , Mireille; Blanc , Isabelle; Wyrwa , Artur; Schaap , Martijn

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin...

  2. Workbook on reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) of airborne particulate matter (APM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi

    2000-01-01

    This publication presents general aspects of reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to measurement of elemental composition of airborne particulate matter. It presents an introduction to the NAA, its' basic principles and brief history of the method and discusses its' advantages and disadvantages. This publication also presents experimental procedures of NAA including sampling and sample preparation; preparation of calibration standard samples; reactor neutron irradiation; gamma-spectroscopy of the irradiated samples; quantification and presentation of analytical results. The publication pays attention to the quality assurance and quality control procedures including internal quality control, analysis of certified reference materials, and interlaboratory and multi-method comparison studies, control charts

  3. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on particulate organic matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xueyan; Luo Lei; Ma Yibing; Zhang Shuzhen

    2010-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) is a key organic matter fraction which can influence soil fertility. Its interactions with hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOCs) have not been characterized and the mechanisms of retention of HOCs by POM remain unclear. In the present study, sorption behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and pyrene (PYR) by POMs separated from different soils were examined and the POMs were characterized by elemental analysis, solid state 13 C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that POMs were mainly composed of aliphatic components with high polarity. The different original POMs showed similar chemical composition and configuration. Sorption behaviors of PAHs indicated that there was no significant difference in sorption capacity among the POMs. Sorption of NAP and PHE by POMs displayed a nonlinear isotherm, while sorption of PYR yielded a linear isotherm. No significant hysteresis and ionic strength effect were observed for PAH desorption from the POMs.

  4. Urban particulate matter pollution: a tale of five cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Florou, Kalliopi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Hasa, Erion; Presto, Albert A

    2016-07-18

    Five case studies (Athens and Paris in Europe, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles in the United States, and Mexico City in Central America) are used to gain insights into the changing levels, sources, and role of atmospheric chemical processes in air quality in large urban areas as they develop technologically. Fine particulate matter is the focus of our analysis. In all cases reductions of emissions by industrial and transportation sources have resulted in significant improvements in air quality during the last few decades. However, these changes have resulted in the increasing importance of secondary particulate matter (PM) which dominates over primary in most cases. At the same time, long range transport of secondary PM from sources located hundreds of kilometres from the cities is becoming a bigger contributor to the urban PM levels in all seasons. "Non-traditional" sources including cooking, and residential and agricultural biomass burning contribute an increasing fraction of the now reduced fine PM levels. Atmospheric chemistry is found to change the chemical signatures of a number of these sources relatively fast both during the day and night, complicating the corresponding source apportionment.

  5. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  6. Dynamics of coarse particulate matter in the turbidity maximum zone of the Gironde Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Cid, Ana; Etcheber, Henri; Schmidt, Sabine; Abril, Gwenaël; De-Oliveira, Eric; Lepage, Mario; Sottolichio, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of studies devoted to coarse particulate matter (CPM) in estuaries, although this fraction can disturb activities that filter large volumes of water, such as industrial or fishery activities. In the macrotidal and highly-turbid Gironde Estuary, a monthly sampling of CPM was performed in 2011 and 2013 at two stations in the Turbidity Maximum Zone (TMZ) to understand its seasonal, tidal and hydrological dynamics. Regardless of the season and station, low quantities of CPM (few g m-3) were observed in comparison with suspended particulate matter (several 103 g m-3). The highest concentrations were consistently recorded in bottom waters and at the upstream station. Whereas there is no clear link between the CPM present in the column water and spring or neap tides, an increase in the CPM size has been identified at the two stations after a flood event, fact potentially critical regarding filtering functioning of estuarine activities.

  7. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice.

  8. Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ishita

    Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

  9. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Jayasekera, R.; Kniewald, G.

    2000-01-01

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  10. Characterization of particulate matter deposited on urban tree foliage: A landscape analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yan, Jingli; Ma, Keming; Zhou, Weiqi; Chen, Guojian; Tang, Rongli; Zhang, Yuxin

    2017-12-01

    Plants can mitigate ambient particulate matter by cleaning the air, which is crucial to urban environments. A novel approach was presented to quantitatively characterize particulate matter deposited on urban tree foliage. This approach could accurately quantify the number, size, shape, and spatial distribution of particles with different diameters on leaves. Spatial distribution is represented by proximity, which measures the closeness of particles. We sampled three common broadleaf species and obtained images through field emission scanning electron microscopy. We conducted the object-based method to extract particles from images. We then used Fragstats to analyze the landscape characteristics of these particles in term of selected metrics. Results reveal that Salix matsudana is more efficient than Ailanthus altissima and Fraxinus chinensis in terms of the number and area of particles per unit area and the proportion of fine particulate matter. The shape complexity of the particles increases with their size. Among the three species, S. matsudana and A. altissima particles respectively yield the highest and lowest proximity. PM1 in A. altissima and PM10 in F. chinensis and S. matsudana show the highest proximity, which may influence subsequent particle retention. S. matsudana should be generally considered to collect additional small particles. Different species and particle sizes exhibit various proximities, which should be further examined to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  11. Chemical Composition of Fine Particulate Matter and Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Correia, Andrew W.; Ezzati, Majid; Pope, C. Arden; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we provided evidence that a decline in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution during the period between 2000 and 2007 was associated with increased life expectancy in 545 counties in the United States. In this article, we investigated which chemical constituents of PM2.5 were the main drivers of the observed association. Methods We estimated associations between temporal changes in seven major components of PM2.5 (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, elemental carbon matter, organic carbon matter, sodium, and silicon) and temporal changes in life expectancy in 95 counties between 2002 and 2007. We included US counties that had adequate chemical components of PM2.5 mass data across all seasons. We fitted single pollutant and multiple pollutant linear models, controlling for available socioeconomic, demographic, and smoking variables and stratifying by urban and nonurban counties. Results In multiple pollutant models, we found that: (1) a reduction in sulfate was associated with an increase in life expectancy; and (2) reductions in ammonium and sodium ion were associated with increases in life expectancy in nonurban counties only. Conclusions Our findings suggest that recent reductions in long-term exposure to sulfate, ammonium, and sodium ion between 2002 and 2007 are associated with improved public health. PMID:25906366

  12. Hazard identification of particulate matter on vasomotor dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Mikkelsen, Lone; Vesterdal, Lise Kristine

    2011-01-01

    and inflammatory pathways. We have assessed the effect of exposure to particulate matter on progression of atherosclerosis and vasomotor function in humans, animals, and ex vivo experimental systems. The type of particles that have been tested in these systems encompass TiO(2), carbon black, fullerene C(60...... of particulate matter....

  13. Biomonitoring of toxic compounds of airborne particulate matter in urban and industriel areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter...

  14. GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE. JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

  15. The Particulate Nature of Matter in Science Education and in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Wobbe de; Verdonk, Adri H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses ideas about the particulate nature of matter and assesses the extent to which these represent a compromise between scientific and educational considerations. Analyzes relations between the particulate nature of matter in science and science education in an attempt to understand children's inclination to attribute all kinds of macroscopic…

  16. Determinants of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) for waiting passengers at bus stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Daniel Baldwin; Ray, Paul David; Stinson, Anne E.; Park, JiYoung

    2010-12-01

    This research evaluates commuter exposure to particulate matter during pre-journey commute segments for passengers waiting at bus stops by investigating 840 min of simultaneous exposure levels, both inside and outside seven bus shelters in Buffalo, New York. A multivariate regression model is used to estimate the relation between exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 measured in μg m -3) and three vectors of determinants: time and location, physical setting and placement, and environmental factors. Four determinants have a statistically significant effect on particulate matter: time of day, passengers' waiting location, land use near the bus shelter, and the presence of cigarette smoking at the bus shelter. Model results suggest that exposure to PM 2.5 inside a bus shelter is 2.63 μg m -3 (or 18 percent) higher than exposure outside a bus shelter, perhaps due in part to the presence of cigarette smoking. Morning exposure levels are 6.51 μg m -3 (or 52 percent) higher than afternoon levels. Placement of bus stops can affect exposure to particulate matter for those waiting inside and outside of shelters: air samples at bus shelters located in building canyons have higher particulate matter than bus shelters located near open space.

  17. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  18. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  19. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  20. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-06-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  1. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  2. Particulate matter emissions of different brands of mentholated cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerharz, Julia; Bendels, Michael H K; Braun, Markus; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A; Mueller, Ruth

    2018-01-09

    Inhaling particulate matter (PM) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) endangers the health of nonsmokers. Menthol, an additive in cigarettes, attenuates respiratory irritation of tobacco smoke. It reduces perceptibility of smoke and therefore passive smokers may inhale ETS unnoticed. To investigate a possible effect of menthol on PM concentrations (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 ), ETS of four mentholated cigarette brands (Elixyr Menthol, Winston Menthol, Reyno Classic, and Pall Mall Menthol Blast) with varying menthol content was analyzed. ETS was generated in a standardized way using an automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE), followed by laser aerosol spectrometry. This analysis shows that the tested cigarette brands, despite having different menthol concentrations, do not show differences with regard to PM emissions, with the exception of Reyno Classic, which shows an increased emission, although the menthol level ranged in the midfield. More than 90% of the emitted particles had a size smaller than or equal to 1 µm. Regardless of the menthol level, the count median diameter (CMD) and the mass median diameter (MMD) were found to be 0.3 µm and 0.5 µm, respectively. These results point out that there is no effect of menthol on PM emission and that other additives might influence the increased PM emission of Reyno Classic. Particulate matter (PM) in ETS endangers the health of nonsmokers and smokers. This study considers the effect of menthol, an additive in cigarettes, on PM emissions. Does menthol increase the amount of PM? Due to the exposure to secondhand smoke nearly 900,000 people die each year worldwide. The aim of the study is to measure the particle concentration (L -1 ), mass concentration (µg m -3 ), and dust mass fractions shown as PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 of five different cigarette brands, including four with different menthol concentrations and one menthol-free reference cigarette, in a well-established standardized system.

  3. Status of Suspended Particulate Matters Pollution at Traditional Markets in Makassar City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Sri; Fahrunnisa

    2018-03-01

    Research on the status of suspended particulate matters pollution in four traditional markets located in Makassar city has been done. The purpose of this research is to know the air quality in the traditional market areas, especially caused by suspended particulate matters. The background of this research is because traders who trade in traditional markets generally peddle their goods along dusty roads and suspended particulate matters in dust can be inhaled when the vehicle passes. These suspended particulate matters pollutant can cause lung diseases. The results showed that the level of suspended particulate matters pollution fluctuates every year depending on the local wind speed, humidity, and temperature. Research results also showed the values were over the standard value according to the governor of South Sulawesi regulation.

  4. Determination of trace elements in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many trace elements hazardous for human body. Tobacco samples were analyzed for their trace element contents and the results were reported earlier. This paper presents results on the trace element content analyzed in cigarette smoke using an automatic smoking machine developed in laboratory to simulate actual smoking pattern. The trace element levels in the total particulate matter samples of the cigarette smoke collected on filter papers were measured and compared with those of cigarette smoke condensate reported in the literature. Both methods of collection give comparable results. (author)

  5. PIXE and neutron activation analysis: intercomparison in the elemental concentration of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassorla, V.; Rojas, X.; Gras, N.; Chuaqui, L.; Dinator, M.I.; Morales, J.R.; Llona, F.; Romo-Kroeger, C.

    1993-01-01

    Two nuclear analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), were used to determine major and trace elements in airborne particulate matter collected during the first fortnight of June 1991 at the La Reina Nuclear Center. NAA detected the presence of 15 elements in the samples. PIXE, for the same samples, allowed the detection of 12 elements. The elements determined by both techniques were Al, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn. A good correlation between results for these elements for each of the two techniques was demonstrated. (author)

  6. INAA of airborne particulate matter collected in Bangkok 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, W.; Bunprapob, S.; Tedthong, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the summary report of the monitoring study on ambient air quality in Bangkok metropolis and its boundary covering the period from 2002 to 2004. The work performed included sampling of fine and coarse fractions of particulate matter at the sites representing urban and suburban areas; measurement of particle mass concentration and elemental concentration; and data interpretation. Instrumental neutron activation by use of research reactor facilities at Office of Atoms for Peace was carried out for multielemental analysis of all filter samples collected. Twenty elements were determined. The database of the three consecutive years are summarized and reviewed in this paper. (author)

  7. INAA of Airborne Particulate Matter Collected in Bangkok and Pathumthani 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, W.; Bunprapob, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the summary report of the monitoring study on ambient air quality in Bangkok metropolis and its boundary covering the period from 2002 to 2004. The work performed included sampling of fine and coarse fractions of particulate matter at the sites representing urban and suburban areas; measurement of particle mass concentration and elemental concentration; and data interpretation. Instrumental neutron activation by use of research reactor facilities at Office of Atoms for Peace was carried out for multielemental analysis of all filter samples collected. Twenty elements were determined. The database of the three consecutive years are summarized and reviewed in this paper

  8. Microbiota and Particulate Matter Assessment in Portuguese Optical Shops Providing Contact Lens Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Viegas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the microbiota (fungi and bacteria and particulate matter in optical shops, contributing to a specific protocol to ensure a proper assessment. Air samples were collected through an impaction method. Surface and equipment swab samples were also collected side-by-side. Measurements of particulate matter were performed using portable direct-reading equipment. A walkthrough survey and checklist was also applied in each shop. Regarding air sampling, eight of the 13 shops analysed were above the legal requirement and 10 from the 26 surfaces samples were overloaded. In three out of the 13 shops fungal contamination in the analysed equipment was not detected. The bacteria air load was above the threshold in one of the 13 analysed shops. However, bacterial counts were detected in all sampled equipment. Fungi and bacteria air load suggested to be influencing all of the other surface and equipment samples. These results reinforce the need to improve air quality, not only to comply with the legal requirements, but also to ensure proper hygienic conditions. Public health intervention is needed to assure the quality and safety of the rooms and equipment in optical shops that perform health interventions in patients.

  9. Temporal variations in C-13 and C-14 concentrations in particulate organic matter from the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, L.; Plicht, J. van der; Leeuw, J.W. de

    As a new approach for the characterization and determination of the origin of particulate organic matter (POM) in coastal waters, we measured the 14C activity and 13C/12C isotope ratios and applied molecular analysis by means of AMS, IRMS and pyrolysis-GCMS for both bulk samples and isolated

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in influents, suspended particulate matter, sediments, sewage treatment plant and effluents and biota from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Wester, P.G.; Horst, van der A.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been determined in 133 samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM), sediments, sewage treatment plant (STP) influents and effluents, fish and mussels from various locations in The Netherlands, as a part of a large Dutch national study on estrogenic

  11. Application for airborne particulate matter as a demonstration using k0-NAA method in Dalat nuclear research institute of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Truong Y; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2004-01-01

    The airborne particulate samples have been collected using two types of polycarbonate membrane filter PM 2.5 and PM 2-5-10 in two typical sites of industrial (Ho Chi Minh City) and rural (Dateh) regions in south of Vietnam. The concentration of trace elements in the samples has been determined by the k 0 -NAA procedure developed in Dalat NRI. In order to check the developed k 0 -NAA procedure for the airborne particulate matter, two standard reference materials (SRMs) Urban Particulate NIST-1648 and Vehicle Exhaust Particulates NIES-8 were analyzed and the obtained results have been compared and interpreted in term of deviation between experimental results and the certified values. (author)

  12. Analysis of trace elements in airborne particulate matters collected in Ankara, Turkey by TXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durukan I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main focus point of the presented study was the assessment of atmospheric burden of particulate matter and toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. For this purpose, outdoor samplings were accomplished in the capital city, Ankara. The types of filters, sample collection and sample preparation methods were investigated and optimized. Analyses were provided by the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF spectroscopic technique in Germany. Spatial and temporal variations of air particulate matter (APM levels in the city were examined. In some stations, APM sampled in according to their size distribution such as PM10 and PM2.5. Elemental characterization of size distributed PM were achieved and evaluated. It was detected that the elements mainly originated from soil in Beytepe station, from soil and solid fuel usage in Kayas station and from traffic and a variety of human activities in Sıhhiye station in air samplings. While the elements of natural origin observed in PM10 fraction, the elements from traffic and human activities were in PM2.5. Eventually, enrichment calculations were performed in order to identify the pollution sources.

  13. Manganese survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area at Hidalgo State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, F.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.; Flores M, J.

    1999-01-01

    A manganese (Mn) survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area located in Hidalgo State (Mexico) was performed using PIXE. Deposits of Mn ore, first discovered in 1959 and under continuous exploitation since 1962, are nowadays considered as one of the most important of their kind in the American Continent. Afterwards, local inhabitants have been under continuous overexposure to dusts and water highly enriched with Mn. Since no information was available about Mn content in airborne particulate matter in that area, especially in the respirable fraction PM 2.5 , airborne particles were collected simultaneously at two sites located on opposite sides of the rim of the mining valley, and along the line of prevailing local winds. The sample collection was performed on eight alternate days, taking two samples per day (day-time and night-time) at each sampling site, using Stacked Filter Units (SFUs) of the Davis design to separate particles into fine (PM 2.5 ) and coarse (PM 15 ) sizes. The samples were PIXE analyzed and the results of this study revealed that Mn content, in both fine and coarse fractions, were in excess of the general urban background level of 40 ng/m 3 (US Environmental Protection Agency, 1990) in more than 50% of the samples, which indicate severe environmental deterioration in the place under study

  14. Determination of inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and working areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profumo, A.; Spini, G.; Cucca, L.; Pesavento, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica Gen., Pavia (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A sequential extraction procedure for separating and determining Be(0), soluble Be(II) inorganic compounds, BeO and beryllium silicates in samples, such as particulate matter of emissions and working areas, has been developed. The proposed procedure has been tested on synthetic samples prepared with the inorganic beryllium compounds, in the presence of atmospherical particulate matter sampled in a laboratory, previously checked for the absence of beryllium. The speciation was then repeated on a sample of fly ash deriving from a solid waste incinerator and on a reference material (Coal Fly ash SRM 1633a, by NIST), followed by an evaluation of matrix spiking and recovery analyses. Performing multiple analyses of the spiked samples assessed the repeatability of the procedure. Quantitative determinations have been made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The possible interferences of the most common ions have been investigated. The selective sequential extractions allow one to separate and to determine different inorganic beryllium species, to which a different toxicity and therefore, a different risk are related: it is the case for example of metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide.

  15. Particulate organic nitrates: Sampling and night/day variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Platz, J.; Granby, K.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric day and night concentrations of particulate organic nitrates (PON) and several other air pollutants were measured in the summer 1995 over an open-land area in Denmark. The sampling of PON was evaluated comparing 24 h samples with two sets of 12 h samples. These results indicate...... that the observed low contribution of PON to NO, is real and not the result of an extensive loss during the sampling. Empirical relationships between the vapour pressure and chemical formula of organic compounds were established in order to evaluate the gas/particle distribution of organic nitrates. A positive...

  16. Determination of stable isotope ratio of lead in airborne particulate matter by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hitoshi; Ambe, Yoshinari

    1990-01-01

    ICP-MS was applied to the measurement of stable isotope ratios of lead, which are used as an indicator of the source of lead in airborne particulate matter. For the measurement of lead isotopes ratios, the influences of machine conditions, lead concentration and matrix elements to the precision and accuracy of the measurements were studied. At a scanning mode, dwell time of 40∼160 μs gave the best precision to the isotope ratio measurements; about 0.3 % of R.S.D. for 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, 0.6 % for 206 Pb/ 204 Pb. Precision of the measurement was better at a high concentration of lead in sample solution. The observed value of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio was not affected by the lead concentration, but in the cases of 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, about 1 % of the value changed in the observed ratios with the lead concentration of 100∼500 μg/l. Six matrix elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe) did not affect the observed isotope ratios up to 200 mg/l. The lead isotope ratios of reference materials {Urban Particulates (NIST) and Vehicle Exhausted Particulates (NIES)} were measured by using two kinds of sample; crude sample and lead-isolated sample from matrix elements by anodic deposition. Both cases gave the same isotope ratio values, therefore, lead isotope ratios in airborne particulate samples can be measured by ICP-MS without any separation of lead from matrix elements. (author)

  17. Analysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter in Madrid urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Mendez, J.; Bomboi, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    Levels of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been measured in the air particulate matter during six months, from January to June of 1987, in an urban area of Madrid. The hydrocarbons were collected on glass fiber filters by high volumen sampling. The extraction was carried out by Sohxlet and ultrasonic techniques. The extracts were clean-up on silicagel fractionation and the chromatographic analysis was performed by capillary column gas chromatographic. Final results are discussed as well as the immission values related to the possible emission sources. (Author)

  18. Seasonal variation of the metal composition in particulate matter (PM) in Graz determined with ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, M.; Raber, G.; Goessler, W.; Licbinsky, R.; Pongratz, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Graz, the 2 nd biggest city of Austria, is not only famous for its cultural heritage but is also well known as one of the most heavily air-polluted cities of Austria. Samples of particulate matter (PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 ), collected in Graz over a one year period, were analyzed for 36 metals by ICPMS following microwave-assisted acid digestion. Accumulation of PM in the city (Graz is located in a basin) and additional emissions (e.g. domestic combustion) during winter caused not only higher PM concentrations but also marked changes in the PM metal composition. (author)

  19. Particulate matter pollution over a Mediterranean urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, St; Assimakopoulos, V D; Maggos, Th; Fameli, K M; Kotroni, V; Vasilakos, Ch

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the aerosols' (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) spatial and temporal distribution in different types of environment in a Mediterranean urban region, the Greater Athens Area based on data from a sampling campaign that took place during the cold and warm period of 2008. The influence of the atmospheric circulation patterns, the possible local transport mechanisms, as well as the differentiation of the PM behaviour from that of the inorganic pollutants (NOx, O3), are analysed and discussed. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was applied for selected sampling dates and its results were evaluated against measurements in order to interpret qualitatively the configured picture of the air pollution above the GAA. Analysis of the measurement data show that local sources such as traffic and industry dominate over the prevailing PM loads, especially at the 'hot spot' areas. Moreover, the synoptic circulation patterns associated with calm conditions and southerly flows lead to high particulate pollution levels that also affect the urban background stations. Saharan dust outbreaks appeared to increase the particles' diameter as well as the number of E.U. limit value exceedances within the stations of our network. Without any dependence on the characteristics of the investigated atmosphere, PM1 always constituted the greatest part of the PM2.5 mass while PM10, especially during the Saharan dust episodes, was mainly constituted by the coarse fraction. The numerical modelling approach of the geographical distribution of PM10, PM2.5, NOx and O3 justified the design of the sampling campaign, indicating the need for the systematic and parallel monitoring and modelling of the pollutants' dispersion in order to understand the particulate pollution problem in the GAA and to aid to the formulation of pollution control strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Acidification on the Partitioning of Steroid Hormones among Filtrate, Filter Media, and Retained Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Sonya M; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn D C; Mieritz, Mark G; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J

    2016-09-01

    Hormone contamination of aquatic systems has been shown to have deleterious effects on aquatic biota. However, the assessment of hormone contamination of aquatic environments requires a quantitative evaluation of the potential effects of sample preservation on hormone concentrations. This study investigated the influence of acidification (pH 2) of surface water samples on the partitioning of hormones among filtrate, filter media, and filter-retained particulate matter. Hormones were spiked into unpreserved and sulfuric acid-preserved ultrapure water and surface water runoff samples. The samples were filtered, and hormones were extracted from the filter and filtrate and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Acidification did not influence the partitioning of hormones onto the filter media. For the majority of the hormones investigated in this study, the partitioning of hormones to the filter-retained particulate matter was not influenced by acidification. Acidification increased the partitioning of progesterone and melengestrol acetate onto the retained particulate matter (about 25% for both analytes). Incorporation of an isotopically labeled internal standard (ISTD) for progesterone accounted for the loss of progesterone to the filter-retained particulates and resulted in accurate concentrations of progesterone in the filtrate. The incorporation of an ISTD for melengestrol acetate, however, was unable to account for the loss of melengestrol acetate to the retained particulates and resulted in underestimations of melengestrol acetate in the filtrate. Our results indicate that the analysis of melengestrol acetate in acid preserved surface runoff samples should be conducted on the filter-retained particulates as well as the filtrate. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  2. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  3. The particulate matter dispersion studies from a local palm oil mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, L.C.; Wong, L. L.; Amnorzahira, A.; Sa'ari, M.; Abdul Rashid, M. S.; Salmiaton Ali

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of industrial emissions and the degradation of scenic vistas are two characteristics of air pollution that humans object. Reduction in visibility suggests worsening pollution levels. The emissions from mobile source and stationary source are the major source of air pollutions contribution in Malaysia. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). The consequence of increasing the particulate concentrations, the particulate matter dissolves with vapour and grows into droplets when the humidity exceeds approximately 70% and causing opaque situation know as haze. This work focuses on the dispersion particulate matter from palm oil mill. The data obtained serves the purpose of modeling the transport of particulate matter for obtaining permits and prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) to the environment. Gaussian Plume Model from a point source, subject to various atmospheric conditions is used to calculate particulate matter concentration then display the distribution of plume dispersion using geographic information system (GIS). The calculated particulate matter concentration is evaluated using Transilient Matrice function. Atmospheric Stability, mixing height, wind direction, wind speed, natural and artificial features play an important role in dispersion process. High concentration area exhibits immediately under prevailing wind direction. (Author)

  4. Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1979-05-01

    Measurements of resuspension of particulate matter from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds are described in this report. The measurements were performed in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air on to 10m 2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of silt, sprayed on to a similar grass area, were similar. The resuspension factor declined as the reciprocal of time of wind exposure and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source questions the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10 -11 m -1 . The fraction of deposited fallout resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10 per cent. (author)

  5. Trends of particulate matter in four cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, Rakesh

    Particulate matter (PM) in all the four Metropolitan cities in India are higher than the prescribed standards of Central Pollution Control Board, India as well as WHO guidelines. Over last 10 years various changes in fuel quality, vehicle technologies, industrial fuel mix and domestic fuel mix have taken place resulting in changes in air quality in these cities. A set of time series analysis methods viz. t-test adjusted for seasonality, Seasonal Kendall test and Intervention analysis have been applied to identify and estimate the trend in PM 10 and total suspended particles (TSP) levels monitored for about 10 years at three monitoring sites at each of the four cities in India. These tests have indicated that overall PM 10 levels in all four metro cities have been decreasing or stationary. The distinct trends for the monthly averages of PM 10 concentrations at Parel, Kalbadevi in Mumbai and Thiruvattiyar in Chennai for the period 1993-2003 were declining by 10%, 6% and 5% per annum, respectively. This is ascribed to a shift in the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions in the city. However, the monthly averages of TSP do not have a clear trend over the period 1991-2003.

  6. [Health evaluation of fine particulate matter in indoor air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    When evaluating the health effects of indoor air fine particulate matter, the indoor dynamics as well as the physical, chemical and biological properties of fine particles have to be considered. The indoor air fraction PM2.5 largely stems from outdoor air. Accordingly, the German Working Group on Indoor Guideline Values of the Federal Environmental Agency and the States' Health Authorities also recommends WHO's (2006) 24-hour mean guideline value of 25 microg PM2,5 per cubic meter for indoor air evaluation. In contrast to PM2.5, coarse particles (PM10) in schools, kindergartens and dwellings show much higher indoor air concentrations. Additional sources indoors have to be assumed. Because of the different composition of indoor air compared to outdoor air and due to the lack of dose-response relationships of coarse particles in indoor air, the health effects of indoor air PM10 can not be evaluated yet. Sufficient and consistent ventilation is an indispensable basis to reduce PM concentrations in indoor spaces. Furthermore, known sources of PM indoors should be detected consequently and subsequently minimized.

  7. Source strengths for indoor human activities that resuspend particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2004-03-15

    A mathematical model was applied to continuous indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) measurements to estimate source strengths for a variety of prescribed human activities that resuspend house dust in the home. Activities included folding blankets, folding clothes, dry dusting, making a bed, dancing on a rug, dancing on a wood floor, vacuuming, and walking around and sitting on upholstered furniture. Although most of the resuspended particle mass from these activities was larger than 5 microm in diameter, the resuspension of PM2.5 and PM5 was substantial, with source strengths ranging from 0.03 to 0.5 mg min(-1) for PM2.5 and from 0.1 to 1.4 mg min(-1) for PM5. Source strengths for PM > 5 microm could not be quantified due to instrument limitations. The source strengths were found to be a function of the number of persons performing the activity, the vigor of the activity, the type of activity, and the type of flooring.

  8. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Annette

    2005-01-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM 2.5 exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown

  9. Bivariate generalized Pareto distribution for extreme atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    The high particulate matter (PM10) level is the prominent issue causing various impacts to human health and seriously affecting the economics. The asymptotic theory of extreme value is apply for analyzing the relation of extreme PM10 data from two nearby air quality monitoring stations. The series of daily maxima PM10 for Johor Bahru and Pasir Gudang stations are consider for year 2001 to 2010 databases. The 85% and 95% marginal quantile apply to determine the threshold values and hence construct the series of exceedances over the chosen threshold. The logistic, asymmetric logistic, negative logistic and asymmetric negative logistic models areconsidered as the dependence function to the joint distribution of a bivariate observation. Maximum likelihood estimation is employed for parameter estimations. The best fitted model is chosen based on the Akaike Information Criterion and the quantile plots. It is found that the asymmetric logistic model gives the best fitted model for bivariate extreme PM10 data and shows the weak dependence between two stations.

  10. Protein oxidation and degradation caused by particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Chun-Nin; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, You-Lan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Wu, Sheng-Ming; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) modulates the expression of autophagy; however, the role of selective autophagy by PM remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms in protein oxidation and degradation caused by PM. Human epithelial A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust (UD), and carbon black (CB; control particles). Cell survival and proliferation were significantly reduced by DEPs and UD in A549 cells. First, benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE) protein adduct was caused by DEPs at 150 μg/ml. Methionine oxidation (MetO) of human albumin proteins was induced by DEPs, UD, and CB; however, the protein repair mechanism that converts MetO back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3) was activated by DEPs and inhibited by UD, suggesting that oxidized protein was accumulating in cells. As to the degradation of oxidized proteins, proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by CB with ubiquitin accumulation, whereas proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by DEPs without ubiquitin accumulation. The results suggest that CB-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-dependent autophagy pathway, whereas DEP-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-independent autophagy pathway. A distinct proteotoxic effect may depend on the physicochemistry of PM.

  11. Effects of ambient particulate matter on aerobic exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Wagner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Wintertime thermal inversions in narrow mountain valleys create a ceiling effect, increasing concentration of small particulate matter (PM2.5. Despite potential health risks, many people continue to exercise outdoors in thermal inversions. This study measured the effects of ambient PM2.5 exposure associated with a typical thermal inversion on exercise performance, pulmonary function, and biological markers of inflammation. Methods: Healthy, active adults (5 males, 11 females performed two cycle ergometer time trials outdoors in a counterbalanced design: 1 low ambient PM2.5 concentrations ( .05 for PM2.5 concentration and the measured variables. Conclusion: An acute bout of vigorous exercise during an AQI of “yellow” did not diminish exercise performance in healthy adults, nor did it have a negative effect on pulmonary function or biological health markers. These variables might not be sensitive to small changes from acute, mild PM2.5 exposure. Keywords: Air pollution, Cycle ergometry, Pulmonary function, Time trial, Vigorous exercise

  12. Spatial Temporal Modelling of Particulate Matter for Health Effects Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, N. A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution require estimation of individual exposure. It is not possible to obtain measurements at all relevant locations so it is necessary to predict at these space-time locations, either on the basis of dispersion from emission sources or by interpolating observations. This study used data obtained from a low-cost sensor network of 32 air quality monitoring stations in the Dutch city of Eindhoven, which make up the ILM (innovative air (quality) measurement system). These stations currently provide PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 m in diameter), aggregated to hourly means. The data provide an unprecedented level of spatial and temporal detail for a city of this size. Despite these benefits the time series of measurements is characterized by missing values and noisy values. In this paper a space-time analysis is presented that is based on a dynamic model for the temporal component and a Gaussian process geostatistical for the spatial component. Spatial-temporal variability was dominated by the temporal component, although the spatial variability was also substantial. The model delivered accurate predictions for both isolated missing values and 24-hour periods of missing values (RMSE = 1.4 μg m-3 and 1.8 μg m-3 respectively). Outliers could be detected by comparison to the 95% prediction interval. The model shows promise for predicting missing values, outlier detection and for mapping to support health impact studies.

  13. PARTICULATE MATTER IN ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN URBAN AGGLOMERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Marczak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the mass concentration of PM10 in the air in urban area. The specific objective of the research was to analyze and assess the impact of transport road emissions on the level of concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere in the Lublin agglomeration. The measuring points were located in places at different distances from the communications emission sources and, at the same time, possibly varying degrees of air pollution dust. Measuring the concentration of dust at the measuring points was performed using an indirect method using a laser photometer. In the research point which was not under direct influence of a heavy traffic road dust levels lower by 10.5% to 65.4% than in the vicinity of the transport route were reported. Small particle air pollution at all the points covered by the study increased significantly during the heating season. Based on the comparison of the obtained values of PM10 concentrations with legal standards, it was found that the air pollution exceeded the limits in all measurement points only during a series of measurements in the months of November-December. The recorded increase in air pollution during the heating season should be associated with an increased dust emissions in this period from the "low" emitters - local house boilers and detached houses.

  14. Airborne Particulate Matter Induces Nonallergic Eosinophilic Sinonasal Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Murugappan; London, Nyall R; Tharakan, Anuj; Surya, Nitya; Sussan, Thomas E; Rao, Xiaoquan; Lin, Sandra Y; Toskala, Elina; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to aggravation of respiratory symptoms, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although the health effects of PM on the lower pulmonary airway have been extensively studied, little is known regarding the impact of chronic PM exposure on the upper sinonasal airway. We sought to test the impact of chronic airborne PM exposure on the upper respiratory system in vivo. Mice were subjected, by inhalation, to concentrated fine (2.5 μm) PM 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 16 weeks. Mean airborne fine PM concentration was 60.92 μm/m 3 , a concentration of fine PM lower than that reported in some major global cities. Mice were then killed and analyzed for evidence of inflammation and barrier breakdown compared with control mice. Evidence of the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM on sinonasal health in vivo, including proinflammatory cytokine release, and macrophage and neutrophil inflammatory cell accumulation was observed. A significant increase in epithelial barrier dysfunction was observed, as assessed by serum albumin accumulation in nasal airway lavage fluid, as well as decreased expression of adhesion molecules, including claudin-1 and epithelial cadherin. A significant increase in eosinophilic inflammation, including increased IL-13, eotaxin-1, and eosinophil accumulation, was also observed. Collectively, although largely observational, these studies demonstrate the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM exposure on the sinonasal airway barrier disruption and nonallergic eosinophilic inflammation in mice.

  15. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.A.O.; Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM 2.5 and PM 10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing urban and rural nurseries considering PM fractions. • A low number of children in classrooms is enough to increase PM concentrations. • Children in urban nurseries are exposed to higher PM concentrations than in rural. • Children were mainly exposed to the finer fractions, which are worse to health. - PM levels were higher in the urban nursery than in the rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. Still concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources

  16. PIXE analysis of airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Mexico. A first survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, F.; Flores M, J.; Diaz, R.V.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.; Montoya Z, J.M.; Blanco, E.E.; Fuentes, A.F.; Torres-Martinez, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    A first survey of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was performed using PIXE. This second largest industrial city is located 715 km north of Mexico City, and counts with a population of nearly three million inhabitants in its conurbation. Air pollution in the place comes from a great variety of industries ranging from iron smelters to furniture manufacturing, as well as from fuel combustion in vehicles and industries. This study presents results of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter in two particle size fractions: PM 2.5 and PM 15 . The samples were collected during five weeks on working days, Monday-Friday, from 9 December 1996 to 14 January 1997. Two samples a day were collected, 12 h each, night-time and day-time. These first results show local pollution as typical from a large urban area in conjunction with an active industry. Thirteen elements were consistently detected in most of the samples and some episodes due to both industrial and human activities were identified. A general discussion about the results obtained is presented

  17. Emission characteristics and chemical components of size-segregated particulate matter in iron and steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Yao, Sen; Xu, Tiebing; Zhang, Tingting; Ma, Yuetao; Wang, Hongliang; Duan, Wenjiao

    2018-06-01

    As one of the highest energy consumption and pollution industries, the iron and steel industry is regarded as a most important source of particulate matter emission. In this study, chemical components of size-segregated particulate matters (PM) emitted from different manufacturing units in iron and steel industry were sampled by a comprehensive sampling system. Results showed that the average particle mass concentration was highest in sintering process, followed by puddling, steelmaking and then rolling processes. PM samples were divided into eight size fractions for testing the chemical components, SO42- and NH4+ distributed more into fine particles while most of the Ca2+ was concentrated in coarse particles, the size distribution of mineral elements depended on the raw materials applied. Moreover, local database with PM chemical source profiles of iron and steel industry were built and applied in CMAQ modeling for simulating SO42- and NO3- concentration, results showed that the accuracy of model simulation improved with local chemical source profiles compared to the SPECIATE database. The results gained from this study are expected to be helpful to understand the components of PM in iron and steel industry and contribute to the source apportionment researches.

  18. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  19. Characterisation of air particulate matter in Klang Valley by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abd Rahman; Mohd Khalid Matori; Abd Khalik Wood

    2000-01-01

    Air particulate matter is known to affect human health, impairs visibility and can cause climate change. Study on air particulate matter in term of particle size and chemical contents is very important to indicate the quality of air in a sampling area. Information on concentration of important constituents in air particles can be used to identify some of emission sources which contribute to the pollution problem. The data collected may also be, used as a basis to design a strategy in order to overcome the air pollution problem in the area. The study involved sampling of air dust at two stations, one in Bangi and the other in Kuala Lumpur using Gent Stack Sampler units. Each sampler capable of collecting air particle sizes smaller than 2.5 micron (PM 2.5) and between 2.5 - O micron on two different filters simultaneously. The filters were measured for their mass, elemental carbon and elemental concentrations using analytical equipment or techniques including reflectometer and Neutron Activation Analysis. The results of analysis on samples collected in 1997-1998 are discussed. (author)

  20. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2011-07-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  1. Bioaccessibility and Speciation of Potential Toxicants in Some Geogenic Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, S. A.; Wolf, R. E.; Plumlee, G.; Reynolds, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    The correlation of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and increased morbidity and mortality was established in the 1970's. Research focused on elucidating mechanisms of action (i.e. particle size, composition, and biodurability), has generally examined anthropogenic sources such as solid or liquid combustion byproducts of fossil fuels, byproducts from the smelting of metal ores, and commercial/industrial mineral dusts (asbestos, crystalline silica. metal dusts). While many studies exist on agricultural exposures to inorganic dust, far fewer have examined health issues related to particulate matter contributions from rural, non-agricultural dusts or other geogenic sources. Geogenic PM (produced by natural processes such as volcanic ash, volcanic fog (vog), dusts from dry lakes or glacial deposits, smoke and windborne ash from wildfires, and dusts containing various soil pathogens) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities such as dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices etc.) are increasingly recognized as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Surface sediment on some dry lake beds may contribute significant amounts of mineral dusts to the atmospheric load. For example, Owens Lake (a dry lake in southern California) has been a major source of PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometers) dust in the United States. Dusts from dry and drying saline lakes may contain high concentrations of metals, such as arsenic, with known human health toxicity. Wildfires, consuming over nine million acres in 2007, also contribute significant amounts of particulate matter in addition to their other hazards. Designed to estimate the bioaccessibility of metals in soils, dusts and other environmental materials by measuring the reactivity of the

  2. Particulate matter regulation for two-stroke two wheelers: necessity or haphazard legislation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Samaras, Z.; Ntziachristos, L.

    2005-01-01

    Although interest in particulate emissions has increased considerably during recent years, the subject of particulate matter (PM) emissions from small two-stroke engines used in road vehicles is still largely unexplored. This paper presents the results of an investigation, which examined the typical

  3. Influence of Channel Geomorphology on Retention of Dissolved and Particulate Matter in a Cascade Mountain Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary A. Lamberti; Stan V. Gregory; Linda R. Ashkenas; Randall C. Wildman; Alan G. Steinman

    1989-01-01

    Retention of particulate and dissolved nutrients in streams is a major determinant of food avail-ability to stream biota. Retention of particulate matter (leaves) and dissolved nutrients (nitrogen) was studied experimentally during summer 1987 in four 300-500 m reaches of Lookout Creek, a fifth-order stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Constrained (narrow valley...

  4. Nature’s Particulate Matter with and without Charge and Travelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, W.N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Natures and anthropogenic particulates can travel long distances on wind flows, but negative electrical charge due to friction can increase dispersion. Models for calculations of distance travelling of biological particulate matter with and without charge are never been calculated in a theoretical

  5. Characterization of urban particulate matter by diffusive gradients in thin film technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dufka, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 9698710. ISSN 2090-8865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : thin film technique * urban particulate matter * particulate air pollution Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2016

  6. Characterization of urban particulate matter by diffusive gradients in thin film technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dufka, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 9698710. ISSN 2090-8865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : thin film technique * urban particulate matter * particulate air pollution Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2016

  7. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and

  8. Measurement and analysis of ambient atmospheric particulate matter in urban and remote environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Gayle S. W.

    Atmospheric particulate matter pollution is a challenging environmental concern in both urban and remote locations worldwide. It is intrinsically difficult to control, given numerous anthropogenic and natural sources (e.g. fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, dust, and seaspray) and atmospheric transport up to thousands of kilometers after production. In urban regions, fine particulate matter (particles with diameters under 2.5 mum) is of special concern for its ability to penetrate the human respiratory system and threaten cardiopulmonary health. A second major impact area is climate, with particulate matter altering Earth's radiative balance through scattering and absorbing solar radiation, modifying cloud properties, and reducing surface reflectivity after deposition in snow-covered regions. While atmospheric particulate matter has been generally well-characterized in populated areas of developed countries, particulate pollution in developing nations and remote regions is relatively unexplored. This thesis characterizes atmospheric particulate matter in locations that represent the extreme ends of the spectrum in terms of air pollution-the rapidly-developing and heavily populated Pearl River Delta Region of China, the pristine and climate-sensitive Greenland Ice Sheet, and a remote site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. In China, fine particles were studied through a year-long field campaign at seven sites surrounding the Pearl River Delta. Fine particulate matter was analyzed for chemical composition, regional variation, and meteorological impacts. On the Greenland Ice Sheet and in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the carbonaceous fraction (organic and elemental carbon) of particulate matter was studied in the atmosphere and snow pack. Analyses included quantifying particulate chemical and optical properties, assessing atmospheric transport, and evaluating post-depositional processing of carbonaceous species in snow.

  9. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Schaap, Martijn; Gschwind, Benoit; Lefevre, Mireille; Blanc, Isabelle; Drebszok, Kamila; Wyrwa, Artur; Stetter, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin of the modelled particulate matter distributions thoughout a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated for 2007-2009. These maps were combined with a health impact calculation to estimate Lost of Life Expectancy for each fuel categories. An user friendly web client was generated to access the results and use the web mapping service in an easy manner. (orig.)

  10. SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundances of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10...

  11. Short term variation in particulate matter in the shelf waters of the Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Particulate matter collected at a single station in the shelf waters of Princess Astrid coast (70 degrees S, 11 degrees E) Antarctica, during the austral summer (Jan.-Feb. 1986) was analysed for phytoplankton biomass (Chl @ia@@), living carbon (ATP...

  12. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  13. ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases—especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

  14. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac function responses to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that show acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the data supporting these findings are increasingly more convincing, the immediate impact of PM inhala...

  15. Collection of airborne particulate matter for a subsequent analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klockenkaemper, R.; Bayer, H.; Bohlen, A. von; Schmeling, M.; Klockow, D.

    1995-01-01

    The collection of airborne particulate matter by filtration and impaction was adapted to total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). Cellulose nitrate filters were used for collecting in a Berner impactor. Single filter spots were punched out, placed on quartz-glass carriers, dissolved by tetrahydrofuran and re-precipitated prior to element determinations by TXRF. In a Battelle-type impactor, airborne dust was collected on Plexiglass carriers coated with medical Vaseline. The loaded carriers were directly analyzed by TXRF. In both cases, quantification was simply performed by the addition of an internal standard after sampling. Impactors were made of a suitable material in order to investigate high blank values, collection losses and memory effects. It could be shown that stainless steel, even coated with TiN, is less suitable and should be avoided as an impactor material. Although aluminum is partly recommendable, titanium and the polymer Makrolon are quite appropriate. By using an impactor made of these materials, a reliable multielement determination in airborne dust is made possible with low detection limits as low as 1 ng/m 3 and a satisfactory repeatability of a few %. Short sampling times of only 1 h or less can be realized. The total procedure is simple and time-saving, and can be recommended for routine investigations of airborne particulate matter. (author)

  16. Environmental studies in two communes of Santiago de Chile by the analysis of magnetic properties of particulate matter deposited on leaves of roadside trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David; Aguilar, Bertha; Fuentealba, Raúl; Préndez, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Emissions from motor vehicles are considered to be one of the main sources of airborne particulate matter in Santiago. International researchers have shown that particulate matter contains metal oxides and magnetic particles, both of which are emitted mainly from vehicles exhaust pipes. On the other hand, trees are effective in reducing such contamination, so that they act as passive collectors of particulate matter. This work presents the results obtained from the first magnetic study of the particulate matter collected in two areas of the city of Santiago de Chile. Magnetic susceptibility and Saturation Isothermic Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) were determined in leaves from abundant urban trees and from urban dust samples. Results indicate that most of the samples contain ferromagnetic minerals with magnetite (Fe3O4) as the main carrier. Values of magnetic susceptibility (SI ×10-6 m3/kg) in the range 0.04-0.24 for leaves and in the range 10-45 for urban dust were determinated. In one of the city areas studied, significant correlation between the particulate matter deposited on leaves of Platanus orientalis and measured traffic flows was obtained. In addition, it was possible to estimate that the species Platanus orientalis and Acer negundo have a better ability to capture particulate matter than the species Robinia pseudoacacia.

  17. Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Brett R; Wooten, Kimberly J; Buser, Michael D; Johnson, Bradley J; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-07-21

    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17α-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17α-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards.

  18. Oxidative Potential of ambient particulate matter in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Fang, Ting; Liakakou, Eleni; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Exposure of populations to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of chemical species present in PM is a mechanism thought to cause adverse health effects. Apart from radicals present in aerosol, species that can catalytically deplete the antioxidant buffering capacity of cells, called Oxidative Potential (OP), are thought to be particularly toxic. The variability of OP over location, particle age, source and environmental conditions is virtually unknown for most populated regions of the world. Motivated by this, we have built and deployed one of the first operational measurements of OP in Europe at the National Observatory of Athens site in downtown Athens, Greece. OP for fine and coarse mode is measured using a semi-automated dithiothreitol (DTT) assay developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology; the assay measures the oxidation rate of DTT by water-soluble aerosol constituents, and simulates the rate at which the same compounds would deplete antioxidants in-vivo. The DTT oxidation rate per unit volume of air (water-soluble "DTT activity") and aerosol size class (fine, coarse) are used as a measure of aerosol toxicity. We present continuous (24hr average) OP measurements in downtown Athens from July 2016 to January 2017, conducted through quartz fiber filter analysis. The dataset covers a broad range of aerosol sources (pollution from Europe, regional and local biomass burning, dust, marine aerosol, biogenic aerosol) and meteorological conditions. The daily water-soluble DTT activity ranges between 0.02-0.81 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.24 nmolmin-1 m-3) for fine aerosol and between 0.01-0.52 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.08 nmolmin-1 m-3) for coarse particulate matter, indicating that water-soluble fine mode aerosol components possess a significant fraction of the OP. The seasonal variability demonstrates a higher DTT activity during the coldest period of the year for both

  19. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic activities were determined for each extract.Results: This is the first study conducted in Colombia that reports the mutagenic and genotoxic activities associated with particulate matter (MP2,5 taken from vehicular emissions in Pamplona, Norte de Santander. The mutagenic assay determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 showed a high direct mutagenic activity in the analyzed extracts. On the other hand, the genotoxic activity, determined by means of the comet assay, was high too.Conclusion: Particulate material (MP2,5 present in air samples in Pamplona (northeastern Colombia is a risk factor for the exposed population because it can directly induce mutations and also cause genotoxic damage.

  20. Fitting the Probability Distribution Functions to Model Particulate Matter Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanshoury, Gh.I.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to identify the best probability distribution and the plotting position formula for modeling the concentrations of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) as well as the Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter<10 μm (PM 10 ). The best distribution provides the estimated probabilities that exceed the threshold limit given by the Egyptian Air Quality Limit value (EAQLV) as well the number of exceedance days is estimated. The standard limits of the EAQLV for TSP and PM 10 concentrations are 24-h average of 230 μg/m 3 and 70 μg/m 3 , respectively. Five frequency distribution functions with seven formula of plotting positions (empirical cumulative distribution functions) are compared to fit the average of daily TSP and PM 10 concentrations in year 2014 for Ain Sokhna city. The Quantile-Quantile plot (Q-Q plot) is used as a method for assessing how closely a data set fits a particular distribution. A proper probability distribution that represents the TSP and PM 10 has been chosen based on the statistical performance indicator values. The results show that Hosking and Wallis plotting position combined with Frechet distribution gave the highest fit for TSP and PM 10 concentrations. Burr distribution with the same plotting position follows Frechet distribution. The exceedance probability and days over the EAQLV are predicted using Frechet distribution. In 2014, the exceedance probability and days for TSP concentrations are 0.052 and 19 days, respectively. Furthermore, the PM 10 concentration is found to exceed the threshold limit by 174 days

  1. Setting ambient air quality standards for particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, Roger O.

    2002-01-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM), unspecified as to chemical composition, is of concern because of its health effects. Air quality standards for PM have been established in many countries. The earliest standards were based on threshold models and use of a margin of safety. Initially, standards were based on the mass of total suspended material. In the 1980s a shift to a size-specific standard, PM 10 , began. PM 10 is the fraction of PM captured with 50% efficiency at 10 μm and greater efficiency at smaller sizes. In the late 1990s, standards were proposed for PM 2.5 , which is captured with 50% efficiency at 2.5 μm. The standards for PM are based almost exclusively on human epidemiological data, with laboratory animal and in vitro data used in a supporting role. During the 1990s, new statistical tools began to be used and demonstrated an association between increased PM and an increase in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. The analyses are complicated by the effects of other pollutants such as ozone. Effects have been observed down to 10-20 μg of PM 10 per cubic meter, levels equal to or below background in many parts of the world. In many studies there has been no evidence of a threshold. In the absence of a threshold, a critical issue becomes how to determine how low is low enough? This paper reviews the current literature on PM health effects and suggests research avenues that may yield data which, combined with public policy considerations, may be able to address the issue of 'how low is low enough?'

  2. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Impacts of Particulate Matter on Gulf of Mexico Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Rohli, R. V.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to analyze the relationship between tropical cyclones of the Gulf of Mexico-Atlantic basin and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The daily mean PM2.5 concentration values were collected from United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Tropical cyclone data were collected from Tropical Prediction Center Best Track Reanalysis in Unisys Weather®. The GRIdded Binary (GRIB-formatted) data were downloaded from the Data Support Section of the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Through ArcGIS®, the tropical cyclone tracks were compared with the interpolated daily mean PM2.5 concentration value. Results suggest that the tracks tend to avoid areas with higher PM2.5 concentrations, and the intensity was weakened significantly after passing the PM2.5-rich area. Through simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the pressure and vertical structure of Hurricane Lili were weakened after passing the most PM2.5-rich area in Louisiana. Also, little evidence is found for the possibility of precipitation generated by the approaching tropical cyclone to cleanse the atmosphere of PM2.5 before storm passage. These results have important implications for tropical cyclone prediction as storms approach polluted areas or other places where PM2.5 particles are abundant, not only including urban environments but also in coastal areas where proscribed burns take place during tropical cyclone season, such as during sugarcane harvesting in southern Louisiana.

  4. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  5. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Freitas, M.C.; Alves, L.C.; Reis, M.; Bugalho de Almeida, A.; Moniz, D.; Monteiro, P.; Alvarez, E.

    2000-01-01

    Biological and environmental monitoring was carried out at a steel processing sector of a steel plant in Portugal. Approximately 70 workers were surveyed for their respiratory function and blood elemental contents as indicators for a long-term exposure. The characterisation of chemical elements in air at the workplace was also evaluated taking in account the separation of particles by their aerodynamic diameter. Two fractions were collected, a coarse fraction for particles below 10 μm and above 2 μm, and a fine fraction for particles below 2 μm. PIXE and INAA analytical techniques were used for the determination of blood and aerosol elemental concentrations. Up to 12 elements (Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, Hg, and Pb) were determined in blood and so far, up to 18 elements for aerosols (e.g., Na, Al Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb). The concentrations of the essential elements in blood (e.g., Fe, Zn and Se) were found to be altered relative to a reference Portuguese group constituted by non-exposed persons. Relative to the blood average elemental contents for As, Sb, Hg and Pb, the levels determined were below maximum permissible concentrations or reference values, except for Pb. Nevertheless, concentrations above maximum limit values were determined for some of the surveyed subjects. There are evidences that the levels of Se, Cu, and Sb in blood are influenced by exposure. Also, living habits (smoking and other activities) and pulmonary affections may modulate As, Pb and Zn concentrations in blood. For all the chemical elements identified in the particulate matter of the working atmosphere the limit values indicated in the Portuguese regulation were not exceeded, except for Fe. (author)

  6. Diesel-Enriched Particulate Matter Functionally Activates Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael; Karp, Matthew; Killedar, Smruti; Bauer, Stephen M.; Guo, Jia; Williams, D'Ann; Breysse, Patrick; Georas, Steve N.; Williams, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have associated exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) with exacerbations of asthma. It is unknown how different sources of PM affect innate immunity. We sought to determine how car- and diesel exhaust–derived PM affects dendritic cell (DC) activation. DC development was modeled using CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Airborne PM was collected from exhaust plenums of Fort McHenry Tunnel providing car-enriched particles (CEP) and diesel-enriched particles (DEP). DC were stimulated for 48 hours with CEP, DEP, CD40-ligand, or lipopolysaccharide. DC activation was assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and standard culture techniques. DEP increased uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (a model antigen) by DC. Diesel particles enhanced cell-surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules (e.g., CD40 [P < 0.01] and MHC class II [P < 0.01]). By contrast, CEP poorly affected antigen uptake and expression of cell surface molecules, and did not greatly affect cytokine secretion by DC. However, DEP increased production of TNF, IL-6, and IFN-γ (P < 0.01), IL-12 (P < 0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (P < 0.001). In co-stimulation assays of PM-exposed DC and alloreactive CD4+ T cells, both CEP and DEP directed a Th2-like pattern of cytokine production (e.g., enhanced IL-13 and IL-18 and suppressed IFN-γ production). CD4+ T cells were not functionally activated on exposure to either DEP or CEP. Car- and diesel-enriched particles exert a differential effect on DC activation. Our data support the hypothesis that DEP (and to a lesser extent CEP) regulate important functional aspects of human DC, supporting an adjuvant role for this material. PMID:17630318

  7. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  8. Concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter downwind during agricultural practices using air samplers in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Luis Gabriel; Limay-Rios, Victor; Xue, Yingen; Schaafsma, Arthur

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of neonicotinoid seed treatment insecticides as particulate matter in field crops occur mainly for two reasons: 1) due to abraded dust of treated seed generated during planting using vacuum planters, and 2) as a result of disturbances (tillage or wind events) in the surface of parental soils which release wind erodible soil-bound residues. In the present study, concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter were quantified under real conditions using passive and active air samplers. Average neonicotinoid concentrations in Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) using passive samplers were 0.48 ng/cm 2 , trace, trace (LOD 0.80 and 0.04 ng/cm 2 for clothianidin and thiamethoxam, respectively), and using active samplers 16.22, 1.91 and 0.61 ng/m 3 during planting, tillage and wind events, respectively. There was a difference between events on total neonicotinoid concentration collected in particulate matter using either passive or active sampling. Distance of sampling from the source field during planting of treated seed had an effect on total neonicotinoid air concentration. However, during tillage distance did not present an effect on measured concentrations. Using hypothetical scenarios, values of contact exposure for a honey bee were estimated to be in the range from 1.1% to 36.4% of the reference contact LD 50 value of clothianidin of 44 ng/bee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

    2009-04-16

    This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

  10. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

  11. PIXE Analysis and source identification of airborne particulate matter collected in Downtown Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Pinnera, I; Ramos, M; Guibert, R; Molina, E.; Martinez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Aldape, F.; Flores, M.

    2009-01-01

    A set of samples containing airborne particulate matter (in two particle size fraction PM10 and PM2,5) collected during five months from November 2006 to April 2007 in a urban area of Havana City were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique and the concentrations of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were determined consistently in both particle size fractions with minimum detection limits in the range of ng/m3. A Gent air sampler was used for the aerosol collection in PM10 and PM2,5 particles simultaneously and the PIXE elemental analysis were performed using a proton beam of 2.5 MeV from the 2 MV Van de Graff Tandetron Accelerator at the ININ PIXE Laboratory in Mexico. The analytical database provided by PIXE was statistically analyzed in order to determine the promising local pollution sources. The statistical techniques of Multivariate Factor Analysis in combination with the Principal Component Analysis methods were applied to this data and allowed identifying five main pollution sources of airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2,5) collected in this area. The main (local) identified sources were: soil dust, sea spray, industry, fossil fuel combustion from motor vehicles and burnings or incinerations of diverse materials. A general discussion about these results is presented in this work. (Author)

  12. [Distribution of airborne fungi, particulate matter and carbon dioxide in Seoul metropolitan subway stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Park, Jae Beom; Kim, Chi Nyon; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2006-07-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the level of airborne fungi and environmental factors in Seoul metropolitan subway stations and to provide fundamental data to protect the health of subway workers and passengers. The field survey was performed from November in 2004 to February in 2005. A total 22 subway stations located at Seoul subway lines 1-4 were randomly selected. The measurement points were subway workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and the passengers' activity areas (station precincts, inside train and platform). Air sampling for collecting airborne fungi was carried out using a one-stage cascade impactor. The PM and CO2 were measured using an electronic direct recorder and detecting tube, respectively. In the activity areas of the subway workers and passengers, the mean concentrations of airborne fungi were relatively higher in the workers' bedroom and station precinct whereas the concentration of particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5, were relatively higher in the platform, inside the train and driver's seat than in the other activity areas. There was no significant difference in the concentration of airborne fungi between the underground and ground activity areas of the subway. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentration in the platform located at underground was significantly higher than that of the ground (psubway line 1-4 were not serious enough to cause respiratory disease in subway workers and passengers. This indicates that there is little correlation between airborne fungi and particulate matter.

  13. Formation of Particulate Matter from the Oxidation of Evaporated Wastewater from Hydraulic Fracturing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Bean, J. K.; Bilotto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing for production of petroleum and natural gas has increased dramatically in the last decade, but the environmental impacts of this technology remain unclear. Experiments were conducted to quantify airborne emissions from twelve samples of hydraulic fracturing flowback wastewater collected in the Permian Basin, as well as the photochemical processing of these emissions leading to the formation of particulate matter. The concentration of total volatile carbon (TVC, hydrocarbons evaporating at room temperature) averaged 29 milligrams of carbon per liter (mgC/L) and the TVC evaporation rate averaged 1357 mgC/L-m2-min. After photochemical oxidation under high NOx conditions the amount of organic particulate matter formed per milliliter of wastewater evaporated averaged 24 micrograms (µg); the amount of ammonium nitrate formed averaged 262 µg. In the state of Texas, the potential formation of PM from evaporated flowback wastewater is similar to the estimated PM emissions from diesel engines used in oil rigs, emphasizing the need to quantify wastewater evaporation and atmospheric processing of these emissions.

  14. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Prasannavenkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10 and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013–January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution.

  15. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Rajadurai, Geetha; Kumar, Divya Subash; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Ponnusamy, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10) and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013-January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT) guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution.

  16. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Ilaria; Mavris, Christian; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Caprio, Emilio; Pellecchia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

  17. Distribution of lead in relation to size of airborne particulate matter in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, N; Jaffar, M; Saqib, M

    2004-02-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) collected from two sampling stations in Islamabad, Pakistan, was analyzed for lead content and size gradation. A high volume air sampler was used to trap particulates on glass fiber filters for 8-12 h on a daily basis. Lead was estimated using a nitric acid digestion based AAS method on 44 samples from station 1 and 61 samples from station 2. Particle size fractions were categorized as 100 microm. The correlation between lead concentration and particle size was investigated. The results from two stations indicated average airborne lead concentrations of 0.505 and 0.185 microg/m3. Enhanced levels of lead were measured at a maximum of 4.075 microg/m3 at station 1 and 4.000 microg/m3 at station 2. PM 100 were found to constitute the local atmosphere in comparable proportions. A comparison of the lead levels is made with the existing permissible levels of this element laid down by different international agencies.

  18. Assessment of bacterial pathogens in fresh rainwater and airborne particulate matter using Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) and in rainwater (RW) were detected using a robust and sensitive Real-Time PCR method. Both RW and PM were collected simultaneously in the tropical atmosphere of Singapore, which were then subjected to analysis for the presence of selected bacterial pathogens and potential pathogen of health concern ( Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila). These pathogens were found to be prevalent in both PM and RW samples with E. coli being the most prevalent potential pathogen in both types of samples. The temporal distribution of these pathogens in PM and RW was found to be similar to each other. Using the proposed microbiological technique, the atmospheric deposition (dry and wet deposition) of bacterial pathogens to lakes and reservoirs can be studied in view of growing concerns about the outbreak of waterborne diseases.

  19. ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC MATTER IN HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF COASTAL PLAIN FROM PERO BEACH, CABO FRIO, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Camila Silveira de Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of palynofacies along a core drilled on the coastal plain of Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro, was carried out in order to contribute to the knowledge of the paleoenvironmental evolution of the Pero Beach region. The ages obtained from 14C datings allowed to verify that the studied core records the past 6761 ± 130 yrs cal BP. Thirty samples were prepared by standard methodology for palynofacies. About three hundred particles of the particulate organic material was classified and recorded for each sample. Statistical methods were employed for the associations of particulate organic matter (R-mode cluster analysis and levels (samples; Q-mode cluster analysis analyzed along the core. Furthermore, the ratio Phytoclast - Total Organic Carbon (Phy-TOC was used to verify the proximity of the source area. The three major groups of particulate organic matter found along the studied core are Phytoclasts, Amorphous Organic Matter (AOM and Palynomorphs. The samples showed in general, a predominance of phytoclasts (73.2%, followed by AOM (18.6% and Palynomorphs (8.2%. Supported by statistical analysis, it was possible to deduce that the study area evolved since the middle Holocene from a marine environment to a paleolagoon.

  20. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  1. Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

    2009-12-01

    South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind

  2. Standard Practice for Sampling for Particulate Contamination by Tape Lift

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for sampling surfaces to determine the presence of particulate contamination, 5 m and larger. The practice consists of the application of a pressure-sensitive tape to the surface followed by the removal of particulate contamination with the removal of the tape. The tape with the adhering particles is then mounted on counting slides. Counting and measuring of particles is done by standard techniques. 1.2 This practice describes the materials and equipment required to perform sampling of surfaces for particle counting and sizing. 1.3 The criteria for acceptance or rejection of a part for conformance to surface cleanliness level requirements shall be determined by the user and are not included in this practice. 1.4 This practice is for use on surfaces that are not damaged by the application of adhesive tape. The use of this practice on any surface of any material not previously tested or for which the susceptibility to damage is unknown is not recommended. In general, metal...

  3. Environmental pollution studies. Quantitative determination of elements in the air particulate matter by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutisna; Hidayat, Achmad; Muhayatun; Supriatna, Dadang

    2006-01-01

    Regarding to the 2002 PNCA Program for the Utilization of INAA in the Environmental Study, the elemental determination of air particulate matter have been done. Two sampling site were chosen to collect a PMs samples, i.e. Lembang and Bandung that represent the rural and the urban region respectively. The period of sampling was January 2002 to November 2002. Air sample was collect by GANT Stacked air sampler using 47 mm diameter cellulose filter which have a pore size of 0.45 μm and 8 μm for fine and coarse particle respectively. Quantitative elemental determination has been done using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis based on a comparative method. The elemental distributions on fine and coarse fraction of air particulate matter have been analyzed for both sampling sites as well as the enrichment factor (EF) for all elements interest. The result shows that the average annual concentrations of fine and coarse PMs in the Lembang sampling site were 7.8 μg.m -3 and 1.6 μg.m -3 respectively. Meanwhile at Bandung sampling site, the PMs are higher than that a Lembang sampling site, i.e. 14.4 μg.m -3 and 22.5 μg.m -3 for fine and coarse PMs respectively. The fine fraction was higher than the coarse fraction at Lembang sampling site, but at Bandung sampling site the fine fraction was lower than the coarse fraction. Fifteen elements of Na, Al, V, Mn, Br, I, Cl, Sc, Co, Fe, Cr, Zn, La, Sb and Sm were analyzed for both sampling site. Among those elements concerned, Na, Al, Br, Cl and Fe were major constituent elements in all fractions that have a concentration more than 40 ng.cm -3 . Generally, the concentration of elements determined in the urban sampling site was higher than that in the rural site. Al, V, Mn, Sc, Co and Fe are relatively higher in concentration in coarse fraction of urban site. Br element concentration was not significantly different for both sampling site. The EF values of most elements concerned are generally also higher for the fine fraction

  4. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring techniques for particulate matter mass and chemical components: a synthesis of findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul A; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program to provide key stakeholders (government and private sector) with significantly improved information needed to develop effective and efficient strategies for reducing PM on urban and regional scales. All Supersites projects developed and evaluated methods and instruments, and significant advances have been made and applied within these programs to yield new insights to our understanding of PM accumulation in air as well as improved source-receptor relationships. The tested methods include a variety of continuous and semicontinuous instruments typically with a time resolution of an hour or less. These methods often overcome many of the limitations associated with measuring atmospheric PM mass concentrations by daily filter-based methods (e.g., potential positive or negative sampling artifacts). Semicontinuous coarse and ultrafine mass measurement methods also were developed and evaluated. Other semicontinuous monitors tested measured the major components of PM such as nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon, trace elements, and water content of the aerosol as well as methods for other physical properties of PM, such as number concentration, size distribution, and particle density. Particle mass spectrometers, although unlikely to be used in national routine monitoring networks in the foreseeable future because of their complex technical requirements and cost, are mentioned here because of the wealth of new information they provide on the size-resolved chemical composition of atmospheric particles on a near continuous basis. Particle mass spectrometers likely represent the greatest advancement in PM measurement technology during the last decade. The improvements in time resolution achieved by the reported semicontinuous methods have proven to be especially useful in characterizing ambient PM, and are becoming essential in allowing scientists to

  5. Respirator use and its impact on particulate matter exposure in aluminum manufacturing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sa; Noth, Elizabeth; Eisen, Ellen; Cullen, Mark R; Hammond, Katharine

    2018-05-31

    Objectives As part of a large epidemiologic study of particulate health effect, this study aimed to report respirator use among total particulate matter (TPM) samples collected in a major aluminum manufacturing company from 1966‒2013 and evaluate the impact of respirator-use adjustment on exposure estimation. Methods Descriptive analyses were performed to evaluate respirator use across facilities and by facility type and job. Protection factors were applied to TPM measurements for recorded respirator use. Estimated TPM exposure for each job ‒ before and after respirator-use adjustment ‒ were compared to assess the impact of adjustment on exposure estimation. Results Respirator use was noted for 37% of 12 402 full-shift personal TPM samples. Measured TPM concentration ranged from less than detectable to 8220 mg/m3, with arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation being 10.6, 0.87 and 130 mg/m 3 , respectively. Respirators were used more often in smelting facilities (52% of TPM measurements) than in fabricating (17%) or refinery facilities (28%) (Pfacilities were subject to respirator-use adjustment, whereas it was 20% and 70% in fabricating and refinery facilities, respectively. Applying protection factors to TPM measurements significantly reduced estimated job mean TPM exposures and changed exposure categories in these facilities, with larger impact in smelting than fabricating facilities. Conclusions Respirator use varied by time, facility and job. Adjusting respirator use resulted in differential impact in smelting and fabricating facilities, which will need to be incorporated into ongoing epidemiologic studies accordingly.

  6. Monitoring of suspended particulate matter (SPM), heavy metals and other parameters in some workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, A.M.; Gatebe, C.K.; Mangala, M.J.; Korir, A.K.; Bartilol, S.; Maina, D.M.; Mugera, W.G.; Kamau, G.N.; Chakaya, J.M.; Karama, M.; Miungu, D.M.; Kitio, V.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of measurements of sound levels, chemical analysis of air particulate matter and soil samples from two factories in Nairobi. A preliminary assessment of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a residential site and its possible impacts on acute respiratory infections (ARI) of children under five years of age is also reported. Our investigations show that for Factory A, the Soil pH measurements within the Factory were more basic (pH=8.5) than those collected near a complainant's residence (pH=7.2). The sound level measurements showed that the maximum noise level recorded was 90 dB. This was at a distance of about 0.5 m from the main exhaust vent of the Factory (20 m above ground level). There was a strong ''detergent-perfume'' odour within and outside the Factory premises especially towards the complainant's side. However, the odour fluctuated. There was also no smoke emissions noticed during the site visits when the factory was operational. For Factory B, the major source of environmental degradation was drainage and management of the factory effluents. The BOD and COD levels for effluents samples analyzed ( 3 whereas the fine particles ranged from 16.2-24.4 μm/m 3 . The prevalence of ARI cases in 1998 ranged between 29.9% in January to the highest level of 59.6% in June. The total number of children who presented themselves throughout the study period, January-December 1998, was 146. A parallel study of dust sampling was also carried out from January to December 1998 in a typical office environment. Dust levels recorded from the working office environment at the Institute of Nuclear Science was found to range from 0. 44 -1.79 μg/cm 2 /day. (author)

  7. Catalytic combustion of particulate matter Catalysts of alkaline nitrates supported on hydrous zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdeano, N.F.; Carrascull, A.L.; Ponzi, M.I.; Lick, I.D.; Ponzi, E.N.

    2004-01-01

    In order to explore a method to remove particulate matter, catalysts of different alkaline nitrates (Li, K and Cs) supported on hydrous zirconium were prepared by the method of incipient humidity and tested as catalysts for particulate matter combustion. The catalytic activity was determined by using the temperature programmed oxidation technique (TPO), utilizing two equipments, a thermogravimetric reactor and other of fixed bed. In the first case the particulate matter/catalyst mixture was milled carefully in a mortar (tight contact) while in the second case more realistic operative conditions were used, particulate matter/catalyst mixture was made with a spatula (loose contact). All prepared catalysts showed good activity for the particulate matter combustion. The cesium catalyst was the one that presented higher activity, decreasing the combustion temperature between 200 and 250 deg. C with respect to the combustion without catalyst. The catalyst with lithium nitrate became active at higher temperature than its melting point and the same occurred with the potassium catalyst. This did not occur for the catalyst containing cesium nitrate that melts at 407 deg. C and became active from 350 deg. C

  8. Assessment of occupational exposure and contamination by means of airborne particulate matter and biomonitors using k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.A. de B.C.; Pereira Maia, E.C.; Filho, S.S.; Albinati, C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to assess the elemental concentration level in a galvanizing industry and alert for the need to assess the outcome of a long-term exposure, scalp hair and toenail samples were used as bioindicators and the industry environment was evaluated through airborne particulate matter. The elemental concentration results have pointed out a high exposure to pollutant at workplaces and a high elemental concentration in biomonitors suggesting endogenous contamination. The majority of the elements determined in airborne particulate matter were also determined in hair and toenail samples. The results evidence the efficiency of these matrixes as biomonitors and the importance to carry out the airborne particulate matter sampling in parallel to these biomonitors mainly in occupational epidemiological studies. (author)

  9. Study of indoor and ambient air fungual bioaerosols and its relation with particulate matters in a hospital of khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Basiri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The climate change and particulate matter emission contented of bioaerosols is known as an important reason of increasing the allergic interactions especially in patients with defect in immunity system. The aim of this study was to investigate fungal bioaerosol concentrations in relation to particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in indoor parts and ambient air of the generd educational hospital of Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 192 samples (168 for indoor and 24 for outdoor were gathered during 6 months at the seven indoor wards and one outdoor unit using Quick Take-30 method  at an airflow rate of 28.3 L/min and sampling time of 2.5 min on to Sabouraud dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. The sampling of particulate matter was carried out by Monitor Dust-Trak 8520. Also, the relative humidity and temperature were surveyed by TES-1360 digital. Results: The results showed that infectious ward with 101.7 CFU/m3 was as the most contaminated part and operating room with 46.4 CFU/m3 was the cleanest part. Cladosporium with 36.75% and Rodotorolla with 1.3% had higher and lower of fungi rates, respectively. The rate of  I/O<1  illustrate that this contamination had an outdoor source. Conclusion: The surveys demonstrated that the increase of temperature and relative humidity have an effective influence on the pollutant accumulation. In addition, between fungi bioaerosols frequency and particulate matter ther was a significant correlation.

  10. An economic passive sampling method to detect particulate pollutants using magnetic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Hu, Shouyun; Ma, Mingming

    2015-10-01

    Identifying particulate matter (PM) emitted from industrial processes into the atmosphere is an important issue in environmental research. This paper presents a passive sampling method using simple artificial samplers that maintains the advantage of bio-monitoring, but overcomes some of its disadvantages. The samplers were tested in a heavily polluted area (Linfen, China) and compared to results from leaf samples. Spatial variations of magnetic susceptibility from artificial passive samplers and leaf samples show very similar patterns. Scanning electron microscopy suggests that the collected PM are mostly in the range of 2-25 μm; frequent occurrence of spherical shape indicates industrial combustion dominates PM emission. Magnetic properties around power plants show different features than other plants. This sampling method provides a suitable and economic tool for semi-quantifying temporal and spatial distribution of air quality; they can be installed in a regular grid and calibrate the weight of PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Review of Particulate Matter and Health: Focus on Developing Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Panyacosit

    2000-01-01

    The burden of ill human health attributable to particulate air pollution is a critical problem of growing concern. In developing countries it is not uncommon to experience today the same particulate matter levels that characterized the devastating "London fog episodes" of the 1950s which resulted in over 4000 cases of premature mortality and countless cases of exacerbated morbidity related health endpoints. This literature review gives an overview of the situation in developing countries...

  12. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  13. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    particulate nitrogen (PN)and AS concentrations and composition.The AS varied between 0.4 and 17.5 nmol/l.Concentrations were high in the surface waters and generally decreased with increasing depth.AS concentration decreased from the south to ...

  14. Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the three sites; it accounts for a mean of 61% ±20 in Ramisi, 97% ±0.7 in Shirazi and 65% ±29 in Mtwapa. These high detritus levels are expected because of the allochthonous supply of particulate material by the river in Ramisi and the contribution from mangroves, which fringe the banks of the estuary and the creeks.

  15. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansi Gold Company Limited identified an economically viable gold deposit at Nkran in the Amansie West District of Ghana. Mining of this deposit requires the disposal of waste rock materials at a proposed waste rock dump near Nkran and Koninase communities. Since particulates and noise emissions from the ...

  16. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay C.; Miller, Stanley J.

    2018-01-09

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  17. Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-López, M.; Winkel, A.; Harn, van J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of ionization in reducing particulate and gaseous emissions in broiler houses and its effect on particle size distribution. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of the tested ionization system and its influence on bird performance. The experiment was done during two

  18. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate matter (dust on hematological indices of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Ogugbuaja

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological indices of the exposed rats were examined on days 10, 20, 30, and 60 post administrations. White blood cell, red blood cell and hemoglobin counts peaked between days 20 and 30. This observation was markedly so for the higher doses, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in contrast to the 500 mg/kg dose. The platelet count however indicated a gradual increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system.

  19. Comparative analysis of elemental components in airborne particulate matter by k0-NAA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-Sam; Moon, Jong-Hwa; Cho, Hyun-Je; Kim, Young-Jin

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the analytical data obtained by three k 0 -NAA software programs was carried out using both the airborne particulate matter collected from an urban site and the certified reference materials of the air filter and urban dust to evaluate the performance of the analysis. The individual k 0 -NAA standardization methods of three countries, Korea, China and Vietnam which had been modified from the well established k 0 -program were used for the comparative analysis. The measured concentrations of 30 elements from the two kinds of air samples based on this software were in agreement with each other within about 20% analytical error except for a few elements. By contrast, the results of China and Vietnam were moderately higher than that of Korea due to a systematic error associated with the detection efficiency, gamma peak analysis and geometric effect

  20. Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling of particulate matter concentrations in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Edna; Awang, Norhashidah

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an application of a Bayesian spatio-temporal Gaussian process (GP) model on particulate matter concentrations from Peninsular Malaysia. We analyze daily PM10 concentration levels from 35 monitoring sites in June and July 2011. The spatiotemporal model set in a Bayesian hierarchical framework allows for inclusion of informative covariates, meteorological variables and spatiotemporal interactions. Posterior density estimates of the model parameters are obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Preliminary data analysis indicate information on PM10 levels at sites classified as industrial locations could explain part of the space time variations. We include the site-type indicator in our modeling efforts. Results of the parameter estimates for the fitted GP model show significant spatio-temporal structure and positive effect of the location-type explanatory variable. We also compute some validation criteria for the out of sample sites that show the adequacy of the model for predicting PM10 at unmonitored sites.

  1. Peatland use and transport of particulate organic matter in boreal headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Hannu; Karjalainen, Satu-Maaria; Nieminen, Mika; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    Peatland use can cause increased transport of particulate organic matter (POM) causing deteriorated water quality and especially siltation of stream beds. Even though topic has gained major attention among stakeholders it has received only minor efforts to solve the main sources and properties of transported particles. The development of effective management practices and evaluation of purification efficiency demands understanding of the sources of particulate matter in peat dominated catchments with various land uses and hydrological conditions. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determinate physical properties of POM in headwater brooks affected by different peatland uses, and; (2) to identity the sources of transported material by using sediment fingerprinting methods. For this purpose, two headwater catchments under peat extraction and peatland forestry land uses with 8 sampling points were monitored for 2 years using time integrated suspended sediment samplers. Data was completed by gap samples from 50 other headwater locations with different upstream land uses: pristine, peatland forestry and peat extraction. For the sources analysis, disturbed topsoil, stream bed sediment, banks of ditches and brooks, algae and various vegetation types were identified as the potential sediment sources. Stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) and C/N ratio were analyzed to discriminate between the possible sources. Results are further scaled against different land uses, landscape elements and seasonal hydrological conditions in headwaters. This paper presents the preliminary results from a two year study aiming to show various patterns in transport of POM in boreal headwater catchments. Due to strong land-water relationship in headwaters, further information on the properties of particles is needed to assess the downstream impacts of land use.

  2. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Hui; Jung, Hye-Jung; Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Kim, Boowook; Ha, Kwon-Chul; Kim, Seungwon; Yi, Gwangyong; Yoon, Chungsik

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1) the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW) workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM) using elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) as indicators; 2) the correlations among the indicators; 3) the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4) factors that influence personal exposure to DPM. A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM. The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (pemission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (pemission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure. We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  3. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  4. Fine particulate matter (PM) and organic speciation of fireplace emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, C.R.; McCrillis, R.C.; Kariher, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an ongoing project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10 microm (PM10) consist primarily of a mixture of organic compounds that have condensed into droplets; therefore, the size distribution and total mass are influenced by temperature of the sample during its collection. During the series 1 tests (15 tests), the dilution tunnel used to cool and dilute the stack gases gave an average mixed gas temperature of 47.3 C and an average dilution ration of 4.3. Averages for the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 microm) and PM10 fractions were 74 and 84%, respectively. For the series 2 tests, the dilution tunnel was modified, reducing the average mixed gas temperatures to 33.8 C and increasing the average dilution ratio to 11.0 in tests completed to date. PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 83 and 91%, respectively. Since typical winter-time mixed gas temperatures would usually be less than 10 C, these size fraction results probably represent the lower bound; the PM10 and PM2.5 size fraction results might be higher at typical winter temperatures. The particles collected on the first stage were light gray and appeared to include inorganic ash. Particles collected on the remainder of the stages were black and appeared to be condensed organics because there was noticeable lateral bleeding of the collected materials into the filter substrate. Total particulate emission rates ranged from 10.3 to 58.4 g/h; corresponding emission factors ranged from 3.3 to 14.9 g/kg of dry wood burned. A wide range of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8270 semivolatile organic compounds were found in the emissions; of the 17 target compounds quantified, major constituents are phenol, 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, and naphthalene

  5. Airborne particulate matter from livestock production systems: A review of an air pollution problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambra-Lopez, Maria; Aarnink, Andre J.A.; Zhao Yang; Calvet, Salvador; Torres, Antonio G.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock housing is an important source of emissions of particulate matter (PM). High concentrations of PM can threaten the environment, as well as the health and welfare of humans and animals. Particulate matter in livestock houses is mainly coarse, primary in origin, and organic; it can adsorb and contain gases, odorous compounds, and micro-organisms, which can enhance its biological effect. Levels of PM in livestock houses are high, influenced by kind of housing and feeding, animal type, and environmental factors. Improved knowledge on particle morphology, primarily size, composition, levels, and the factors influencing these can be useful to identify and quantify sources of PM more accurately, to evaluate their effects, and to propose adequate abatement strategies in livestock houses. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of PM in and from livestock production systems. Future research to characterize and control PM in livestock houses is discussed. - Control of particulate matter emissions, a major challenge to modern livestock production.

  6. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colls, J.J.; Micallef, A.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data

  7. Quantification of trace elements and speciation of iron in atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Nabin

    Trace metal species play important roles in atmospheric redox processes and in the generation of oxidants in cloud systems. The chemical impact of these elements on atmospheric and cloud chemistry is dependent on their occurrence, solubility and speciation. First, analytical protocols have been developed to determine trace elements in particulate matter samples collected for carbonaceous analysis. The validated novel protocols were applied to the determination of trace elements in particulate samples collected in the remote marine atmosphere and urban areas in Arizona to study air pollution issues. The second part of this work investigates on solubility and speciation in environmental samples. A detailed study on the impact of the nature and strength of buffer solutions on solubility and speciation of iron lead to a robust protocol, allowing for comparative measurements in matrices representative of cloud water conditions. Application of this protocol to samples from different environments showed low iron solubility (less than 1%) in dust-impacted events and higher solubility (5%) in anthropogenically impacted urban samples. In most cases, Fe(II) was the dominant oxidation state in the soluble fraction of iron. The analytical protocol was then applied to investigate iron processing by fogs. Field observations showed that only a small fraction (1%) of iron was scavenged by fog droplets for which each of the soluble and insoluble fraction were similar. A coarse time resolution limited detailed insights into redox cycling within fog system. Overall results suggested that the major iron species in the droplets was Fe(1I) (80% of soluble iron). Finally, the occurrence and sources of emerging organic pollutants in the urban atmosphere were investigated. Synthetic musk species are ubiquitous in the urban environment (less than 5 ng m-3) and investigations at wastewater treatment plants showed that wastewater aeration basins emit a substantial amount of these species to

  8. Evidence of molybdenum association with particulate organic matter under sulfidic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Chappaz, A.; Hoek, Joost

    2017-01-01

    , consisting of mainly Mo(IV)-sulfide compounds with molecular structures similar to Mo enzymes and to those found in natural euxinic sediments. Therefore, we propose that Mo removal in natural sulfidic waters can proceed via a non-Fe-assisted pathway that requires particulate organic matter (dead or living......The geochemical behavior of molybdenum (Mo) in the oceans is closely linked to the presence of sulfide species in anoxic environments, where Fe availability may play a key role in the Mo scavenging. Here, we show that Mo(VI) is reduced in the presence of particulate organic matter (represented...

  9. Notes on the Particulate Matter Standards in the European Union and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Priemus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM in ambient air to the PM standards, the size of the particles and spatial planning. Diverging impacts of PM standards in legal regulation are discussed. The authors present a review of the development of legal PM standards in the European Union, with a specific reference to The Netherlands.

  10. Determination of trace elements by INAA in urban air particulate matter and transplanted lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, L.; Rizzio, E.; Profumo, A.; Gallorini, M.

    2005-01-01

    Lichens as biomonitors and neutron activation analysis as analytical technique have been employed to evaluate the trace element atmospheric pollution in the metropolitan area of the city of Pavia (Northern Italy). Transplanted lichens (Parmelia sulcata and Usnea gr. hirta) and air particulate matter have been monthly collected and analyzed during the winter 2001-2002. INAA and ET-AAS have been used for the determination of 28 elements in air particulate matter and 25 elements in lichens. Trace metals concentrations as well as the corresponding enrichment factors were evaluated and compared. (author)

  11. Seasonal changes in particulate and dissolved organic matter composition and quality in the Lena River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, G.; Winterfeld, M.; Hefter, J.; Bodenstab, L.; Morgenstern, A.; Eulenburg, A.; Heim, B.; Koch, B.; Schefuss, E.; Moerth, C. M.; Rethemeyer, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic rivers are known to export large quantities of carbon by discharge of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), and in a warming and progressively moister Arctic, these exports may increase resulting in a reduction of arctic continental carbon stocks. These rivers have highly variable discharge rates with a pronounced maximum during the spring freshet associated with highest concentrations of DOC and POC. Most studies investigating the isotopic composition and quality of carbon exported by Arctic rivers rely on samples taken in summer during base flow, which is due to the logistical challenges associated with sampling in the remote Arctic permafrost regions. Here we present a record of δ13C and Δ14C of DOC and POC collected between late May during the freshet and late August 2014 in the Lena River Delta. POC Δ14C shows an initial trend towards older values in the spring samples, which is reversed in summer, associated with a shift towards more depleted δ13C values. We interpret this aging trend as reflecting progressive thawing throughout the ice-free season, resulting in mobilization of progressively older carbon from deeper thawed layers. The summer reversal indicates admixture of aquatic organic matter. DOC Δ14C, in contrast, remains at relatively modern levels with rather constant δ13C values throughout the sampling period. We furthermore analysed the biomarker composition of Lena Delta particulate OM collected in spring and summer. From spring to summer, we observe trends in abundance of individual leaf-wax derived biomarkers indicating higher abundance of algal biomass in the summer particles. Trends in soil microbial biomarkers and compound-specific δD of leaf-wax lipids suggest a shift in sources towards higher contributions from the southern catchment in summer. DOC composition investigated with FT-ICR-MS changes from spring with higher abundances of compounds with high H/C and low O/C ratios to late summer, when fewer compounds

  12. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amino sugars (AS) are important constituents of organic matter. However ... about the molecular level characterization, distri- bution and ... tion about the dynamics, nutritive value, nature and degradation state of AS containing organic matter. 2. Material ..... carbohydrates and amino acids; Marine Chemistry 96. 155–184.

  13. Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fosetyl-Aluminum in Airborne Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Buiarelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fosetyl-aluminum is a synthetic fungicide administered to plants especially to prevent diseases caused by the members of the Peronosporales and several Phytophthora species. Herein, we present a selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method to analyze residues of fosetyl-A1 in air particulate matter. This study was performed in perspective of an exposure assessment of this substance of health concern in environments where high levels of fosetly-Al, relatively to airborne particulate matter, can be found after spraying it. The cleanup procedure of the analyte, from sampled filters of atmospheric particulate matter, was optimized using a Strata X solid-phase extraction cartridge, after accelerated extraction by using water. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a polymeric column based on hydrophilic interaction in step elution with water/acetonitrile, whereas the mass spectrometric detection was performed in negative electrospray ionization. The proposed method resulted to be a simple, fast, and suitable method for confirmation purposes.

  14. Characterization and sources of air particulate matter at Kwabenya, near Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboh, I. J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Gravimetric, reflectometric and elemental analyses have been carried out on airborne particulate matter sampled in a semi-rural area of Kwabenya, near Accra-Ghana. The PM 10 aerosols were sampled using a Gent sampler, size segregating the aerosol into coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) and fine (PM 1.5 ) fractions. The data and derived information were generated from 216 days of sampling spanning a period of about 14 months, 28 th December 2005 to 12 th February 2007. The particulate matter (PM) at Kwabenya was dominated by the coarse particulates and showed low levels during the Rainy season and high levels during the Harmattan period. The levels measured during the 2006/07 Harmattan were very high. The mass concentration for the measuring period were in the following ranges; coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) fraction (0.16 - 1794.01 µg/m 3 ); PM 2.5 (fine) fraction (0.50 - 430.23 µg/m 3 ) and PM 10 (0.87 µg/m 3 to 2064.89 µg/m 3 ). Additional information about the ambient air was obtained through the subsequent determination of elemental concentration using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis and black carbon (BC) concentration through the b lack smoke method . The elements identified and quantified with the Quantitative X-ray Analysis System (QXAS) package software were: AI, Si, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in the coarse fraction. The following elements were identified and quantified in the fine fraction: AI, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Validation of the quantitative methods with the standard reference filter SRM2783 gave very good agreement (within ± 15%) for most elements analysed except for Ni (±43%)which was very close to the detection limit. The elemental concentrations in the two fractions vary from season to season. Using simple correlation analysis some elements correlate, the elemental correlations also vary from season to season, for example during the Harmattan S, CI, V, Br and Sr correlated very

  15. Effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter and metal components on mortality in the Rome longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cerza, Francesco; Davoli, Marina; Brunekreef, Bert; Forastiere, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of long-term exposure to metal components in particulate matter on mortality are still controversial. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, particulate matter components (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, silicon,

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic matter associated to particulate matter emitted from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastral, A.M.; Callen, M.S.; Garcia, T.

    1999-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the organic matter (OM) content associated with particulate matter (PM) emissions from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion have been studied. The two main aims of the work have been (a) to study OM and PAH emissions as a function of the coal fluidized bed combustion (FBC) variables in solid phase and (b) to check if there is any correlation between OM and PAH contained in the PM. The combustion was carried out in a laboratory scale plant at different combustion conditions: temperature, percentage of oxygen excess, and total air flow. PAH associated on the particulate matter have been analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy in the synchronous mode (FS) after PM extraction by sonication with dimethylformamide (DMF). It can be concluded that there is not a direct relationship between the OM content and the PAH supported in the PM emitted. In addition, neither PM or OM show dependence between themselves

  17. Difference in Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses Induced in THP1 Cells by Particulate Matter Collected on Days with and without ASIAN Dust Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The associations between particulate matter from Asian dust storms (ADS and health disorders differ among studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, ADS and non-ADS particles were tested for their potential to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with adverse respiratory effects. Particulate matter was collected in Japan during four periods in 2013 (2 × ADS periods; 2 × non-ADS. THP1 cells were exposed to this particulate matter, and the levels of various interleukins (ILs, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured. Levels of IL-2 increased significantly following exposure to all particulate matter samples (compared to levels in a solvent control. Increased levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were also observed following exposure to particles collected during three (one ADS and two non-ADS and two (one ADS and one non-ADS collection periods, respectively. Thus, the effects of particulate matter on cytokine responses differed according to collection period, and the effects of ADS particles differed for each ADS event. Additionally, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by ADS particles were not always higher than those induced by non-ADS particles.

  18. DETERMINATION OF MOBILITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF HEAVY METALS IN THE URBAN AIR PARTICULATES MATTER OF ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A KALANTARI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In addition to, Carbohyrates, Lipids, Amino acids and vitamins, some of the trace metals are known vital for biological activity. But some of them not only are not necessary, but also they are very toxic and carcinogen. In this research the rate of Mobility and Bioavailability of heavy metals associated with airborne particulates matter such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr have been measured. Methods: The sequential extraction has been used for releasing of heavy metales from solid samples as airborne particulates matter on the paper filter samples. Five stages in the sequential extraction procedure developed by Tessier, et al, was first used for extraction and determination of the concentration and percentages of heavy metals which could be released in each stage. In the 1st stage, exchangable metals were released. The sample was extracted with 10 ml of ammonium acetat, pH=7 for 1h. Then the sample was centrifuged at 2000 rpm. The solution of extraction, was analysed for Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr. In the 2nd stage, heavy metals bound to carbonates which were sensitive to pH were extracted. The residue from stage 1, with 10 ml of sodium acetate 1 M the pH was adjusted to 5 with acetic acid. Then the sample was centrifuged as stage 1. In the third stage heavy metals bound to iron and manganese oxides were extracted. The residue from stage 2 was reacted with 10 ml hydroxyl amine hydrochloride at 25% v/v. In the 4th stage metals bound to sulfides and organic compounds were extracted. The residue from stage 3 with 5 ml nitric acid and 5 ml hydrogen peroxide 30% and heated at 85° C. Finally in the 5th stage residual heavy metals were extracted. the residue from fraction 4 with 10 ml nitric acid and 3 ml hydroflouric acid were extracted. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in some fractions of sequential extraction were too low, so, we carried out preconcentration method for these two elements. Results and Discussion: The results

  19. Properties and cellular effects of particulate matter from direct emissions and ambient sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenjie; Su, Shu; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Xi; Chen, Yilin; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Wu, Shuiping; Zeng, Eddy; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-10-14

    The pollution of particulate matter (PM) is of great concern in China and many other developing countries. It is generally recognized that the toxicity of PM is source and property dependent. However, the relationship between PM properties and toxicity is still not well understood. In this study, PM samples from direct emissions of wood, straw, coal, diesel combustion, cigarette smoking and ambient air were collected and characterized for their physicochemical properties. Their expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) was measured using a RAW264.7 cell model. Our results demonstrated that the properties of the samples from different origins exhibited remarkable differences. Significant increases in ROS were observed when the cells were exposed to PMs from biomass origins, including wood, straw and cigarettes, while increases in TNF-α were found for all the samples, particularly those from ambient air. The most important factor associated with ROS generation was the presence of water-soluble organic carbon, which was extremely abundant in the samples that directly resulted from biomass combustion. Metals, endotoxins and PM size were the most important properties associated with increases in TNF-α expression levels. The association of the origins of PM particles and physicochemical properties with cytotoxic properties is illustrated using a cluster analysis.

  20. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  1. Processes and modeling of hydrolysis of particulate organic matter in aerobic wastewater tratment - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Kommedal, Roald; Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    Carbon cycling and the availability of organic carbon for nutrient removal processes are in most wastewater treatment systems restricted by the rate of hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable (particulate) organic matter. To date, the mechanisms of hydrolysis are not well understood for complex...

  2. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating... minimize the accumulation of dusty materials that have the potential to become airborne, and the prompt... materials likely to become airborne. (viii) The prompt removal from paved streets of earth or other material...

  3. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 6: elemental determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassorla, V.; Rojas, X.; Andonie, O.; Gras, N.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the chemical characterization of airborne particulate matter from some locations in the city of Santiago, Chile. The following elements were determined: Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, V y Zn. The accuracy of the experimental procedure was evaluated using a standard reference material. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyama, Beatriz Sayuri; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Herckes, Pierre; Dusek, Ulrike; Rockmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25% ethanol (called gasohol, E25), hydrated ethanol (E100), and diesel (with 5%

  5. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyama, Beatriz Sayuri; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Herckes, Pierre; Dusek, Ulrike; Rockmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, E25), hydrated ethanol (E100), and diesel (with 5 %

  6. Observations of a narrow zone of high suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations along the Dutch coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hout, C.M.; Gerkema, T.; Nauw, J.J.; Ridderinkhof, H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this paper is to localize the transport path of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Dutch coastal zone in the southern North Sea. It is known that a large mass of SPM is transported northward from the Strait of Dover, which is however mostly hidden from

  7. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  8. Contrasts in oxidative potential and other particulate matter characteristics collected near major streets and background locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Janssen, N.A.H.; Fischer, P.H.; Kos, G.P.A.; Weijers, E.P.; Cassee, F.R.; van der Zee, S.C.; Hartog, J. de; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measuring the oxidative potential of airborne particulate matter (PM) may provide a more health-based exposure measure by integrating various biologically relevant properties of PM into a single predictor of biological activity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the contrast in oxidative

  9. Contrasts in oxidative potential and other particulate matter characteristics collected near major streets and background locations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Janssen, N.A.; Fischer, P.H.; Kos, G.P.; Weijers, E.P.; Cassee, F.R.; Zee, S.C. van der; Hartog, J.J. de; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measuring the oxidative potential of airborne particulate matter (PM) may provide a more health-based exposure measure by integrating various biologically relevant properties of PM into a single predictor of biological activity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the contrast in oxidative

  10. 77 FR 31262 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... otherwise protected. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA... Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the State...

  11. Global Guidance On LCIA Indicators: Impacts Of Particulate Matter And Of Land Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter; McKone, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Improving life cycle impact assessment models is crucial. The flagship project of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative provides global guidance and consensus on environmental LCIA indicators for climate change, particulate matter impacts, land use impact on biodiversity, water scarcity and water ...

  12. Associations between particulate matter composition and childhood blood pressure - The PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilenko, Natalya; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; de Hoogh, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wang, Meng; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood blood pressure is an important predictor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Evidence for an association between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure and blood pressure is increasing, but little is known about the relevance of different PM constituents.

  13. Effect of Feeding Schedule on Fractionated Particulate Matter Distribution in Rooster House

    Science.gov (United States)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  14. Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Gruzieva, Olena; Mölter, Anna; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Custovic, Adnan; Cyrys, Josef; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Keuken, Menno; Klümper, Claudia; Kooter, Ingeborg; Krämer, Ursula; Korek, Michal; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Simpson, Angela; Smit, Henriëtte A; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Wang, Meng; Wolf, Kathrin; Pershagen, Göran; Gehring, Ulrike

    BACKGROUND: Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in 5

  15. Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, M.; Hoek, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Mölter, A.; Agius, R.; Beelen, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Custovic, A.; Cyrys, J.; Fuertes, E.; Heinrich, J.; Hoffmann, B.; De Hoogh, K.; Jedynska, A.; Keuken, M.; Klümper, C.; Kooter, I.; Krämer, U.; Korek, M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Simpson, A.; Smit, H.A.; Tsai, M.Y.; Wang, M.; Wolf, K.; Pershagen, G.; Gehring, U.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in 5

  16. Characterizing Aggregated Exposure to Primary Particulate Matter: Recommended Intake Fractions for Indoor and Outdoor Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Apte, Joshua Schulz

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM_(2.5)) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide...

  17. Integrated indoor and outdoor exposure assessment framework for fine particulate matter pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Thomas E; Hodas, Natasha; Apte, Joshua S.

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease report demonstrates that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is the major environmental contributor to mortality. Exposures outdoors (ambient) and indoors (household) contribute almost qually to this burden. Unfortunately, the health impacts from exposure t...

  18. Ambient Air Pollution and Increases in Blood Pressure: Role for biological constituents of particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets made up of a number of components including elemental carbon, organic chemicals, metals, acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), and soil and dust particles. Epidemiological studies con...

  19. Elemental constituents of particulate matter and newborn’s size in eight European cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, M.; Gehring, U.; Beelen, R.; Wang, M.; Giorgis-Allemand, L.; Andersen, A.M.N.; Basagaña, X.; Bernard, C.; Cirach, M.; Forastiere, F.; Hoogh, K. de; Gražuleviĉvienė, R.; Gruzieva, O.; Hoek, G.; Jedynska, A.; Klümper, C.; Kooter, I.M.; Krämer, U.; Kukkonen, J.; Porta, D.; Postma, D.S.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Rossem, L. van; Sunyer, J.; Sørensen, M.; Tsai, M.Y.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Wilhelm, M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Pershagen, G.; Brunekreef, B.; Kogevinas, M.; Slama, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM) may depend on its chemical composition. Associations between maternal exposure to chemical constituents of PM and newborn’s size have been little examined. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to elemental

  20. Carbonaceous material in fine particulate matter (PM10) of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocco, Domenico; Leonardi, Vittorio; Maso; Marco; Prignani, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    Total carbon (TC), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in the fine particulate matter (PM10) were measured in the urban areas of Rome and Marino (Castelli Romani) by means a thermal method with a non-dispersive infrared detector (NDIR). The results showed that carbonaceous material constitutes 30-40% of the total aerosols in Rome and about 20% in Marino [it

  1. PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH: USING HUMAN STUDIES TO UNDERSTAND SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for experiencing adverse health effects from air pollution particulate matter (PM) exposure is an important public health issue. The World Health Organization has estimated that PM contributes to the deaths of 500,000 people world-wide each year. Epidemiologic stu...

  2. Influence of particulate matter on microfouling biomass in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    ~ E :; :; 00 " " 200 '\\00 6001&. I&. Olslonc. from rne St>cre tn. miles! Leg , 0----4L~2 L~3 Leo .; Log $ Fig.3 Suspended matter (A), and particulate organic carbon (B) of surface seawater. and microfouling biomass as dry weight (C) and organic carbon...

  3. Trends and the effect of management on macronutrients in fractionated particulate matter in rooster house

    Science.gov (United States)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  4. Indoor/outdoor Particulate Matter Number and Mass Concentration in Modern Offices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chatoutsidou, S.E.; Ondráček, Jakub; Tesař, Ondřej; Tørseth, K.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Lazaridis, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, OCT 2015 (2015), s. 462-474 ISSN 0360-1323 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : modern offices * particulate matter * mechanical ventilation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.394, year: 2015

  5. Microscopic and submicron components of atmospheric particulate matter during high asthma periods in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, M.; Rutherford, S.; Simpson, R. W.; Mitchell, C. A.; Yago, A.

    The study identifies the various components contributing to atmospheric particulate matter in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, during the period from the end of April and the months of July-August in 1992, covering the autumn period which is typically the period of high asthma incidence in Brisbane. Most particulate matter is Mucorales, and soil bacteria. The contribution from pollen and fungal spores has been evaluated and quantified. Fungal spores counts dominate the bioaerosol counts in the 2-10 μm range and are very high in Brisbane from the end of April through May to mid-June. However even at peak periods the total bioaerosol count only contributes of the order of 5-10% of the total particulate mass. The results show that Pm 10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter) and nephelometer readings do not indicate peak periods of allergenic bioaerosol readings (in fact there is a negative correlation) due to the low contribution of the bioaerosol count to the total and the different influences of wind speed. However the electron microscopy results show that this does not mean there are no synergies between aerosols from anthropogenic sources and bioaerosols. The cytoplasmic content of spores and pollen was often found to be adhered to motor vehicle emission material and crustal matter. The latter may therefore act as carriers for dispersed cytoplasmic allergenic material released from pollen and fungal spores.

  6. Trace elements present in airborne particulate matter-Stressors of plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Zemanová, V.; Hnilička, F.; Urbanová, V.; Száková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, May 2012 (2012), s. 101-107 ISSN 0147-6513 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA521/09/1150 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Airborne particulate matter * Amino acids * Gas-exchange parameters Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2012

  7. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC SYSTEM OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...

  9. Floc size and aspects of flocculation processes of suspended particulate matter in the North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations on the size of suspended particulate matter in the North Sea and two adjacent estuaries were carried out using an in situ technique: image analysis of photographs from an underwater camera system. The results obtained from such an in situ method gave a new knowledge on the size

  10. Effects of Source-Apportioned Coarse Particulate Matter (PM) on Allergic Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cleveland Multiple Air Pollutant Study (CMAPS) is one of the first comprehensive studies conducted to evaluate particulate matter (PM) over local and regional scales. Cleveland and the nearby Ohio River Valley impart significant regional sources of air pollution including coa...

  11. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of particulate matter- and ozone-enhanced smog atmospheres in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to compare the cardiac effects of particulate matter (PM)-enhanced and ozone(O3)-enhanced smog atmospheres in mice. We hypothesized that O3-enhanced smog would cause greater cardiac dysfunction than PM-enhanced smog due to the higher concentrations of irr...

  12. Particulate matter emission from livestock houses: measurement methods, emission levels and abatement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Animal houses are extremely dusty environments. Airborne particulate matter (PM) poses a health threat not only to the farmer and the animals, but, as a result of emissions from ventilation systems, also to residents living in livestock farming areas. In relation to this problem, the objectives

  13. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Predict Irritant Potential of Smoke Particulate Matter from Five Biomass Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past few decades, the drying and warming trends of global climate change have increased wildland fire (WF) season length, as well as geographic area impacted. Consequently, exposures to WF fine particulate matter (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) are likely ...

  14. From concentration to dose: factors influencing airborne particulate matter deposition in humans and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-sorkina R de; Cassee FR; LBV; LBO

    2003-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) consisting of solid particles and droplets is present in the ambient air. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 micro m can be inhaled by humans. Knowledge of the tissue-specific internal dose of PM is a critical link between individual external exposure and

  15. Referential calculation of particulate matter in the air as a factor of environmental pollution in the urban area of the city of Pujilí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vallejo Choez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary investigation on the environmental quality of the city of Pujilí, made from the collection of samples of particulate matter and vehicular traffic counts on six points of the city. The methodology is based on the provisions of the Unified Text of Secondary Environmental Legislation for measuring atmospheric particulate matter, and the use of count tables for vehicle registration. The results reflect the impact of vehicular traffic, the characteristics of the rolling road layer, soil erosion, and climate on air pollution and its impact on the health of the population.

  16. Diversity and Composition of Airborne Fungal Community Associated with Particulate Matters in Beijing during Haze and Non-haze Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diversity and composition of airborne fungi associated with particulate matters (PMs) in Beijing, China, a total of 81 PM samples were collected, which were derived from PM2.5, PM10 fractions, and total suspended particles during haze and non-haze days. The airborne fungal community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina Miseq platform with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the large subunit rRNA gene. A total of 797,040 reads belonging to 1633 operational taxonomic units were observed. Of these, 1102 belonged to Ascomycota, 502 to Basidiomycota, 24 to Zygomycota, and 5 to Chytridiomycota. The dominant orders were Pleosporales (29.39%), Capnodiales (27.96%), Eurotiales (10.64%), and Hypocreales (9.01%). The dominant genera were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Sporisorium, and Aspergilus. Analysis of similarities revealed that both particulate matter sizes (R = 0.175, p = 0.001) and air quality levels (R = 0.076, p = 0.006) significantly affected the airborne fungal community composition. The relative abundance of many fungal genera was found to significantly differ among various PM types and air quality levels. Alternaria and Epicoccum were more abundant in total suspended particles samples, Aspergillus in heavy-haze days and PM2.5 samples, and Malassezia in PM2.5 samples and heavy-haze days. Canonical correspondence analysis and permutation tests showed that temperature (p airborne fungal community composition. The results suggest that diverse airborne fungal communities are associated with particulate matters and may provide reliable data for studying the responses of human body to the increasing level of air pollution in Beijing.

  17. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  18. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Using Complementary Experimental Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Hamdan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne particulate matter (PM pollutants were sampled from an urban background site in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The fine fraction (PM2.5 (particulates with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 μm was collected on 47-mm Teflon filters and analyzed using a combined set of non-destructive techniques in order to provide better understanding of the sources of pollutants and their interaction during transport in the atmosphere. These techniques included gravimetric analysis, equivalent black carbon (EBC, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Generally, the PM2.5 concentrations are within the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO and the United States (US Environmental Protection Agency. The EBC content is in the range of 10–12% of the total PM concentration (2–4 µg m−3, while S (as ammonium sulfate, Ca (as calcite, gypsum, and calcium carbonate, Si (as quartz, Fe, and Al were the major sources of PM pollution. EBC, ammonium sulfate, Zn, V, and Mn originate from anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel burning, traffic, and industrial emissions. Natural elements such as Ca, Fe, Al, Si, and Ti are due to natural sources such as crustal materials (enhanced during dust episodes and sea salts. The average contribution of natural sources in the total PM2.5 mass concentration over the sampling period is about 40%, and the contribution of the secondary inorganic compounds is about 27% (mainly ammonium sulfate in our case. The remaining 22% is assumed to be secondary organic compounds.

  19. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestiani, D.D.; Santoso, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preferred, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. (author)

  20. Comparing the NIOSH Method 5040 to a Diesel Particulate Matter Meter for Elemental Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, David Matthew

    Introduction: The sampling of elemental carbon has been associated with monitoring exposures in the trucking and mining industries. Recently, in the field of engineered nanomaterials, single wall and muti-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are being produced in ever increasing quantities. The only approved atmospheric sampling for multi-wall carbon nanotubes in NIOSH Method 5040. These results are accurate but can take up to 30 days for sample results to be received. Objectives: Compare the results of elemental carbon sampling from the NIOSH Method 5040 to a Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) Meter. Methods: MWCNTs were transferred and weighed between several trays placed on a scale. The NIOSH Method 5040 and DPM sampling train was hung 6 inches above the receiving tray. The transferring and weighing of the MWCNTs created an aerosol containing elemental carbon. Twenty-one total samples using both meters type were collected. Results: The assumptions for a Two-Way ANOVA were violated therefore, Mann-Whitney U Tests and a Kruskal-Wallis Test were performed. The hypotheses for both research questions were rejected. There was a significant difference in the EC concentrations obtained by the NIOSH Method 5040 and the DPM meter. There were also significant differences in elemental carbon level concentrations when sampled using a DPM meter versus a sampling pump based upon the three concentration levels (low, medium and high). Conclusions: The differences in the EC concentrations were statistically significant therefore, the two methods (NIOSH Method 5040 and DPM) are not the same. The NIOSH Method 5040 should continue to be the only authorized method of establishing an EC concentration for MWCNTs until a MWCNT specific method or an instantaneous meter is invented.

  1. Comparison of neutron activation analysis with other instrumental methods for elemental analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, P. de; Lievens, F.; Delespaul, I.; Monsecour, M.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of instrumental methods, including neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and emission spectrometry, for the analysis of heavy metals in airborne particulate matter is described. The merits and drawbacks of each method for the routine analysis of a large number of samples are discussed. The sample preparation technique, calibration and statistical data relevant to each method are given. Concordant results are obtained by the different methods for Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Less good agreement is obtained for Fe, Mn and V. The results are not in agreement for the elements Cd and Cr. Using data obtained on the dust sample distributed by Euratom-ISPRA within the framework of an interlaboratory comparison, the accuracy of each method for the various elements is estimated. Neutron activation analysis was found to be the most sensitive and accurate of the non-destructive analysis methods. Only atomic absorption spectrometry has a comparable sensitivity, but requires considerable preparation work. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is less sensitive and shows biases for Cr and V. Automatic emission spectrometry with simultaneous measurement of the beam intensities by photomultipliers is the fastest and most economical technique, though at the expense of some precision and sensitivity. (author)

  2. Oxidation behaviours of particulate matter emitted by a diesel engine equipped with a NTP device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jianbing; Ma, Chaochen; Xing, Shikai; Sun, Liwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Final oxidation temperatures increased for PM aggregation compared with raw PM. • Devolatilized PM aggregation exhibited similar oxidation rate constants. • DSC-based method is more accurate than TGA-based method. - Abstract: To resolve the regeneration problem of non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor, the oxidation behaviours of diesel particulate matter (PM) were investigated. Oxidation kinetic parameters were calculated using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Friedman-Reich-Levi (FRL) methods based on thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results. The DSC-based method avoided the disadvantages of TGA-based method, and the oxidation kinetic parameters calculated using the two methods were compared. The results showed that the effect of plasma on the oxidation behaviours differed greatly for PM sampled at engine loads. The TGA profiles of PM aggregation (collected on the collection plate of NTP reactor) sampled at 60% and 100% engine loads were similar although they differed significantly for raw PM. Devolatilization of raw PM led the TGA profiles to shift slightly to lower temperature, however, the TGA curves shifted to higher temperature for PM aggregation and PM treated with plasma (PM escaping from NTP reactor). The oxidation rate constants of devolatilized PM aggregation sampled at different engine loads were almost the same. DSC-based method revealed the oxidation behaviours and kinetic parameters with more accuracy than TGA-based method.

  3. Particulate Matter Sources and Composition near a Shrinking Saline Lake (Salton Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frie, A. L.; Dingle, J. H.; Garrison, A.; Ying, S.; Bahreini, R.

    2017-12-01

    Dried lake beds (playas) are large dust sources in arid regions, and with increased global water demand many large lakes are shrinking. The Salton Sea is an example of one such lake in the early stages of desiccation, with about 15,000 acres of exposed playa. To quantify the impacts of the shrinking lake on airborne particulate matter(PM) composition, PM samples were collected in August of 2015 and February of 2016 near the Salton Sea, CA. These samples were analyzed for total elemental concentration of 15 elements. For these elements, enrichment factors relative to aluminum were calculated and PMF modeling was applied to deconvolve source factors. From these data, desert-like and playa-like sources were estimated to accounted for 45% and 9% of PM10 mass during these sampling periods. PMF results also revealed that playa sources account for 70% of PM10 Na, evidencing playa-driven PM compositional changes. Additionally, PM Se displayed strong seasonal variation, which is thought to be driven by Se volatilization within Salton Sea sediments, playas, or waters.

  4. Source areas and chemical composition of fine particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) was measured for 4 months during 2002-2003 at seven sites located in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of China, an area encompassing the major cities of Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou. The 4-month average fine particulate matter concentration ranged from 37 to 71 μg m -3 in Guangdong province and from 29 to 34 μg m -3 in Hong Kong. Main constituents of fine particulate mass were organic compounds (24-35% by mass) and sulfate (21-32%). With sampling sites strategically located to monitor the regional air shed patterns and urban areas, specific source-related fine particulate species (sulfate, organic mass, elemental carbon, potassium and lead) and daily surface winds were analyzed to estimate influential source locations. The impact of transport was investigated by categorizing 13 (of 20 total) sampling days by prevailing wind direction (southerly, northerly or low wind-speed mixed flow). The vicinity of Guangzhou is determined to be a major source area influencing regional concentrations of PM 2.5, with levels observed to increase by 18-34 μg m -3 (accounting for 46-56% of resulting particulate levels) at sites immediately downwind of Guangzhou. The area near Guangzhou is also observed to heavily impact downwind concentrations of lead. Potassium levels, related to biomass burning, appear to be controlled by sources in the northern part of the Pearl River Delta, near rural Conghua and urban Guangzhou. Guangzhou appears to contribute 5-6 μg m -3 of sulfate to downwind locations. Guangzhou also stands out as a significant regional source of organic mass (OM), adding 8.5-14.5 μg m -3 to downwind concentrations. Elemental carbon is observed to be strongly influenced by local sources, with highest levels found in urban regions. In addition, it appears that sources outside of the Pearl River Delta contribute a significant fraction of overall fine particulate matter in Hong Kong and Guangdong province. This is evident

  5. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... matter. 266.105 Section 266.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... prescribed in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, methods 1 through 5, and appendix IX of this part. (b) An owner or operator meeting the requirements of § 266.109(b) for the low risk waste exemption is exempt from the...

  6. Generation of hydroxyl radicals by urban suspended particulate air matter. The role of iron ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Salika, Anastasia; Theodoropoulou, Anna

    Recent epidemiologic studies showed statistical associations between particulate air pollution in urban areas and increased morbidity and mortality, even at levels well within current national air quality standards. Inhalable particulate matter (PM 10) can penetrate into the lower airways where they can cause acute and chronic lung injury by generating toxic oxygen free radicals. We tested inhalable total suspended particulates (TSP) from the Athens area, diesel and gasoline exhaust particles (DEP and GED), and urban street dusts, by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). All particulates can generate hydroxyl radicals (HO ṡ), in aqueous buffered solutions, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Results showed that oxidant generating activity is related with soluble iron ions. Leaching studies showed that urban particulate matter can release large amounts of Fe 3+ and lesser amounts of Fe 2+, as it was shown from other studies. Direct evidence of HO ṡ was confirmed by spin trapping with DMPO and measurement of DMPO-OH adduct by EPR. Evidence was supported with the use of chelator (EDTA), which increases the EPR signal, and the inhibition of the radical generating activity by desferrioxamine or/and antioxidants ( D-mannitol, sodium benzoate).

  7. Structural Variation in the Bacterial Community Associated with Airborne Particulate Matter in Beijing, China, during Hazy and Nonhazy Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2018-05-01

    The structural variation of the bacterial community associated with particulate matter (PM) was assessed in an urban area of Beijing during hazy and nonhazy days. Sampling for different PM fractions (PM 2.5 [airborne bacterial community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq platform with bacterium-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 1,707,072 reads belonging to 6,009 operational taxonomic units were observed. The airborne bacterial community composition was significantly affected by PM fractions ( R = 0.157, P airborne bacterial community composition. Only six genera increased across PM 10 samples ( Dokdonella , Caenimonas , Geminicoccus , and Sphingopyxis ) and PM 2.5 samples ( Cellulomonas and Rhizobacter ), while a large number of taxa significantly increased in total suspended particulate samples, such as Paracoccus , Kocuria , and Sphingomonas Network analysis indicated that Paracoccus , Rubellimicrobium , Kocuria , and Arthrobacter were the key genera in the airborne PM samples. Overall, the findings presented here suggest that diverse airborne bacterial communities are associated with PM and provide further understanding of bacterial community structure in the atmosphere during hazy and nonhazy days. IMPORTANCE The results presented here represent an analysis of the airborne bacterial community associated with particulate matter (PM) and advance our understanding of the structural variation of these communities. We observed a shift in bacterial community composition with PM fractions but no significant difference with haze levels. This may be because the bacterial differences are obscured by high bacterial diversity in the atmosphere. However, we also observed that a few genera (such as Methylobacillus , Tumebacillus , and Desulfurispora ) increased significantly on heavy-haze days. In addition, Paracoccus , Rubellimicrobium , Kocuria , and Arthrobacter were the key genera in the airborne PM samples. Accurate and real

  8. Effect of fuel zinc content on toxicological responses of particulate matter from pellet combustion in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uski, O., E-mail: oskari.uski@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Jalava, P.I., E-mail: pasi.jalava@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Happo, M.S., E-mail: mikko.happo@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Torvela, T., E-mail: tiina.torvela@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Leskinen, J., E-mail: jani.leskinen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Mäki-Paakkanen, J., E-mail: jorma.maki-paakkanen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Tissari, J., E-mail: jarkko.tissari@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sippula, O., E-mail: olli.sippula@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lamberg, H., E-mail: heikki.lamberg@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Jokiniemi, J., E-mail: jorma.jokiniemi@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); and others

    2015-04-01

    Significant amounts of transition metals such as zinc, cadmium and copper can become enriched in the fine particle fraction during biomass combustion with Zn being one of the most abundant transition metals in wood combustion. These metals may have an important role in the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM). Indeed, many epidemiological studies have found associations between mortality and PM Zn content. The role of Zn toxicity on combustion PM was investigated. Pellets enriched with 170, 480 and 2300 mg Zn/kg of fuel were manufactured. Emission samples were generated using a pellet boiler and the four types of PM samples; native, Zn-low, Zn-medium and Zn-high were collected with an impactor from diluted flue gas. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed for 24 h to different doses (15, 50,150 and 300 μg ml{sup −1}) of the emission samples to investigate their ability to cause cytotoxicity, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), to altering the cell cycle and to trigger genotoxicity as well as to promote inflammation. Zn enriched pellets combusted in a pellet boiler produced emission PM containing ZnO. Even the Zn-low sample caused extensive cell cycle arrest and there was massive cell death of RAW 264.7 macrophages at the two highest PM doses. Moreover, only the Zn-enriched emission samples induced a dose dependent ROS response in the exposed cells. Inflammatory responses were at a low level but macrophage inflammatory protein 2 reached a statistically significant level after exposure of RAW 264.7 macrophages to ZnO containing emission particles. ZnO content of the samples was associated with significant toxicity in almost all measured endpoints. Thus, ZnO may be a key component producing toxicological responses in the PM emissions from efficient wood combustion. Zn as well as the other transition metals, may contribute a significant amount to the ROS responses evoked by ambient PM. - Highlights: • Zinc powder was added into the

  9. Effect of fuel zinc content on toxicological responses of particulate matter from pellet combustion in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uski, O.; Jalava, P.I.; Happo, M.S.; Torvela, T.; Leskinen, J.; Mäki-Paakkanen, J.; Tissari, J.; Sippula, O.; Lamberg, H.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2015-01-01

    Significant amounts of transition metals such as zinc, cadmium and copper can become enriched in the fine particle fraction during biomass combustion with Zn being one of the most abundant transition metals in wood combustion. These metals may have an important role in the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM). Indeed, many epidemiological studies have found associations between mortality and PM Zn content. The role of Zn toxicity on combustion PM was investigated. Pellets enriched with 170, 480 and 2300 mg Zn/kg of fuel were manufactured. Emission samples were generated using a pellet boiler and the four types of PM samples; native, Zn-low, Zn-medium and Zn-high were collected with an impactor from diluted flue gas. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed for 24 h to different doses (15, 50,150 and 300 μg ml −1 ) of the emission samples to investigate their ability to cause cytotoxicity, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), to altering the cell cycle and to trigger genotoxicity as well as to promote inflammation. Zn enriched pellets combusted in a pellet boiler produced emission PM containing ZnO. Even the Zn-low sample caused extensive cell cycle arrest and there was massive cell death of RAW 264.7 macrophages at the two highest PM doses. Moreover, only the Zn-enriched emission samples induced a dose dependent ROS response in the exposed cells. Inflammatory responses were at a low level but macrophage inflammatory protein 2 reached a statistically significant level after exposure of RAW 264.7 macrophages to ZnO containing emission particles. ZnO content of the samples was associated with significant toxicity in almost all measured endpoints. Thus, ZnO may be a key component producing toxicological responses in the PM emissions from efficient wood combustion. Zn as well as the other transition metals, may contribute a significant amount to the ROS responses evoked by ambient PM. - Highlights: • Zinc powder was added into the pure

  10. Understanding Particulate Matter Dynamics in the San Joaquin Valley during DISCOVER-AQ, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, G.; Zhang, X.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Pusede, S. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Zhang, Q.; Cappa, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Air quality in the California San Joaquin Valley (SJV) during winter continues to be the worst in the state, failing EPA's 24-hour standard for particulate matter. Despite our improved understanding of the sources of particulate matter (PM) in the valley, air-quality models are unable to predict PM concentrations accurately. We aim to characterize periods of high particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley based on ground and airborne measurements of aerosols and gaseous pollutants, during the DISCOVER-AQ campaign, 2013. A highly instrumented aircraft flew across the SJV making three transects in a repeatable pattern, with vertical spirals over select locations. The aircraft measurements were complemented by ground measurements at these locations, with extensive chemically-speciated measurements at a ground "supersite" at Fresno. Hence, the campaign provided a comprehensive three-dimensional view of the particulate and gaseous pollutants around the valley. The vertical profiles over the different sites indicate significant variability in the concentrations and vertical distribution of PM around the valley, which are most likely driven by differences in the combined effects of emissions, chemistry and boundary layer dynamics at each site. The observations suggest that nighttime PM is dominated by surface emissions of PM from residential fuel combustion, while early morning PM is strongly influenced by mixing of low-level, above-surface, nitrate-rich layers formed from dark chemistry overnight to the surface.

  11. Particulate matter in the rural settlement during winter time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyzed the variability of the ambient particulates mass concentration in an area occupied by rural development. The analysis applied daily and hourly PM2.5 and PM10 levels. Data were derived on the basis of measurement results with the application of stationary gravimetric samplers and optical dust meter. The obtained data were compared with the results from the urban air quality monitoring network in Opole. Principal Component Analysis was used for data analysis. Research hypotheses were checked using U Mann-Whitney. It was indicated that during the smog episodes, the ratio of the inhalable dust fraction in the rural aerosol is greater than for the case of the urban aerosol. It was established that the principal meteorological factors affecting the local air quality. Air temperature, atmospheric pressure, movement of air masses and occurrence of precipitation are the most important. It was demonstrated that the during the temperature inversion phenomenon, the values of the hourly and daily mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 are very improper. The decrease of the PM's concentration to a safe level is principally relative to the occurrence of wind and precipitation.

  12. Electron spin resonance of particulate soot samples from automobiles to help environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.; Matsuda, T.; Ikeya, M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of electron spin resonance (ESR) was studied for diesel soot samples and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from automobile engines. Soot samples or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) were recovered at various points: in the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine, at the dust sampler of a highway tunnel (standard DEP), on the soundproofing wall alongside a heavy traffic road, and on the filters of a dust sampler for SPM. The diesel soot samples apparently showed two ESR spectra: one was a broad spectrum at g=2.1 with a line width of ca. 80-120mT and the other was a sharp signal of a carbon radical at g=2.003 with a line width of 0.4mT. Annealing experiments with a DEP sample at 250 deg. C revealed drastic enhancement of the sharp ESR signal, which suggested a thermal process of carbonization of remnant organics. An oximetric study by ESR showed an enhancement of the broad signal in the diesel soot sample as well as in the sharp ESR signal. Therefore, the main part of the broad ESR signal would be attributed to carbon radicals, which form a different configuration, probably closely interacting aggregates. Enhancement of the sharp ESR signal was not observed in the standard DEP sample under vacuum condition, which suggested less adsorption sites on the surface of DEP samples

  13. World Trade Center fine particulate matter causes respiratory tract hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavett, Stephen H; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Highfill, Jerry W; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Costa, Daniel L

    2003-06-01

    Pollutants originating from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on 11 September 2001 have been reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter mice to contribute to the risk assessment of WTC-derived pollutants. Samples of WTC PM2.5 were derived from settled dust collected at several locations around Ground Zero on 12 and 13 September 2001. Aspirated samples of WTC PM2.5 induced mild to moderate degrees of pulmonary inflammation 1 day after exposure but only at a relatively high dose (100 microg). This response was not as great as that caused by 100 microg PM2.5 derived from residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or Washington, DC, ambient air PM [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649a]. However, this same dose of WTC PM2.5 caused airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine aerosol comparable to that from SRM 1649a and to a greater degree than that from ROFA. Mice exposed to lower doses by aspiration or inhalation exposure did not develop significant inflammation or hyperresponsiveness. These results show that exposure to high levels of WTC PM2.5 can promote mechanisms of airflow obstruction in mice. Airborne concentrations of WTC PM2.5 that would cause comparable doses in people are high (approximately 425 microg/m3 for 8 hr) but conceivable in the aftermath of the collapse of the towers when rescue and salvage efforts were in effect. We conclude that a high-level exposure to WTC PM2.5 could cause pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in people. The effects of chronic exposures to lower levels of WTC PM2.5, the persistence of any respiratory effects, and the effects of coarser WTC PM are unknown and were not examined in these studies. Degree of exposure and respiratory protection, individual differences in sensitivity to WTC PM2

  14. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Hui Lee

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1 the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM using elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, total carbon (TC, black carbon (BC, and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 as indicators; 2 the correlations among the indicators; 3 the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4 factors that influence personal exposure to DPM.A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM.The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (p<0.05. Workers of trucks meeting Euro 3 emission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (p<0.05. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the job task, European engine emission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure.We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  15. Assessment of diesel particulate matter exposure in the workplace: freight terminals†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Schauer, James J.; Smith, Thomas J.; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Marr, Linsey C.; Molina, Luisa T.

    2008-01-01

    A large study has been undertaken to assess the exposure to diesel exhaust within diesel trucking terminals. A critical component of this assessment is an analysis of the variation in carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) across trucking terminal locations; consistency in the primary sources can be effectively tracked by analyzing trends in elemental carbon (EC) and organic molecular marker concentrations. Ambient samples were collected at yard, dock and repair shop work stations in 7 terminals in the USA and 1 in Mexico. Concentrations of EC ranged from 0.2 to 12 μg m−3 among the terminals, which corresponds to the range seen in the concentration of summed hopanes (0.5 to 20.5 ng m−3). However, when chemical mass balance (CMB) source apportionment results were presented as percent contribution to organic carbon (OC) concentrations, the contribution of mobile sources to OC are similar among the terminals in different cities. The average mobile source percent contribution to OC was 75.3 ± 17.1% for truck repair shops, 65.4 ± 20.4% for the docks and 38.4 ± 9.5% for the terminal yard samples. A relatively consistent mobile source impact was present at all the terminals only when considering percentage of total OC concentrations, not in terms of absolute concentrations. PMID:18392272

  16. Water-soluble elements in atmospheric particulate matter over tropical and equatorial Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buat-Menard, Patrick; Morelli, Jacques; Chesselet, Roger

    1974-01-01

    Samples of water-soluble atmospheric particulate matter collected from R/V ''Jean Charcot'' (May to October 1971) and R/V ''James Gilliss'' (October 1972) over Tropical and Equatorial Atlantic were analyzed for Na, Mg, K and Ca by atomic absorption and for Cl and S as SO 4 by colorimetry. Data shows a strong geographical dependence of K and Ca enrichment relative to their elemental ratio to Na in sea-water. Ca enrichment is related to presence of identified soluble calcium minerals in continental dust originating from African deserts (Sahara-Kalahari). This dust does not influence amounts of K in the water-soluble phase. When observed, strong K enrichment appears tightly associated with high concentrations of surface-active organic material in the microlayer derived from high biological activity (Gulf of Guinea). Observed in same samples, SO 4 enrichment could also be controlled by the same source. This SO 4 enrichment balances the observed Cl loss in aerosols accordingly with gaseous HCl formation processes in marine atmosphere [fr

  17. Impact of banning of two-stroke engines on airborne particulate matter concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular air pollution is common in growing metropolitan areas throughout the world. Vehicular emissions of fine particles are particularly harmful because they occur near ground level, close to where people live and work. Two-stroke engines represented an important contribution to the motor vehicle emissions where they constitute approximately half of the total vehicle fleet in Dhaka city. Two-stroke engines have lower fuel efficiency than four-stroke engines, and they emit as much of an order of magnitude and more particulate matter (PM) than four-stroke engines of similar size. To eliminate their impact on air quality, the government of Bangladesh promulgated an order banning all two-stroke engines from the roads in Dhaka starting on December 31, 2002. The effect of the banning of two-stroke engines on airborne PM was studied at the Farm Gate air quality-monitoring station in Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh), a hot spot with very high-pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The samples were collected using a "Gent" stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 microm and 2.2-10 microm sizes. Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne PM collected from 2000 to 2004 were studied. It has been found that the fine PM and black carbon concentrations decreased from the previous years because of the banning of two-stroke engine baby taxies.

  18. The identification of metallic elements in airborne particulate matter derived from fossil fuels at Puertollano, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andres; Querol, Xavier; Font, Oriol [Institute of Earth Sciences ' ' Jaume Almera' ' , CSIC, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Gibbons, Wes [AP 23075, Barcelona 08080 (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    Puertollano is the largest industrial centre in central Spain, and includes fossil fuel burning power plants as well as petrochemical and fertilizer complexes. The coal-fired power plants use locally mined coal from extensive coal deposits which continue to be exploited and used locally. The coal deposits have a distinctive geochemistry, being particularly enriched in Sb and Pb, as well as several other metals/metalloids that include Zn and As. ICP-AES and ICP-MS chemical analysis of particulate matter samples (both PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}) collected at Puertollano over a 57-week period in 2004-2005 reveals enhanced levels of several metallic trace elements, especially in the finer (PM{sub 2.5}) aerosol fraction. Factor analysis applied to the data indicates that at least some of these metallic elements are likely to originate from hydrocarbon combustion: Sb and Pb are markers linked to the local coals, whereas V and Ni are, at least in the finer (PM{sub 2.5}) fraction, likely associated with other anthropogenic sources. Other factors measured are related to natural sources such as crustal/mineral and sea spray particles. Our study provides an example of how chemical analysis of large numbers of ambient PM samples, combined with statistical factor analysis and coal geochemistry, can reveal airborne emissions from the combustion of specifically identifiable fuels. (author)

  19. Heavy metals in industrially emitted particulate matter in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Lasun T; Owoade, Oyediran K; Hopke, Philip K; Olise, Felix S

    2017-07-01

    Iron and steel smelting facilities generate large quantities of airborne particulate matter (PM) through their various activities and production processes. The resulting PM that contains a variety of heavy metals has potentially detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. This study was conducted to assess the potential health effects of the pollution from the heavy metals in the airborne PM sampled in the vicinity of secondary smelting operations in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the elemental concentration of Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn, As, Fe, Cu, and Ni in the size-segregated PM samples. Pollution Indices (PI) consisting of Contamination Factor (CF), Degree of Contamination (DC) and Pollution Index Load (PLI) and Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) were employed to assess the pollution risk associated with the heavy metals in the PM. CF, DC and PLI values were 332 and >1, respectively for the three sites, indicating deterioration of the ambient air quality in the vicinity of the smelter. The heavy metals in the airborne PM pose a severe health risk to people living in vicinity of the facility and to its workers. The diminished air quality with the associated health risks directly depends on the industrial emissions from steel production and control measures are recommended to mitigate the likely risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentration and Size Distribution of Particulate Matter in a Broiler House Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Rodrigues Amador

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter (PM is an important constituent of ambient air. The determination of its concentration and size distribution in different environments is essential because of its ability to penetrate deeply into animal and human respiratory tract. In this study, air sampling was performed in a broiler house to estimate the concentration and size distribution of PM emitted along with its activities. Low-vol impactor (< 10 mm, cyclones (< 2.5 e < 1.0 mm, and Sioutas cascade impactor (> 2.5; 1.0 – 2.5; 0.50 – 1.0; 0.25 – 0.50; < 0.25 mm connected with membrane pumps were used. PM10 showed high concentration (209 - 533 mg m-3. PM2.5 and PM1.0 initially showed relatively low concentration (20.8 and 16.0 mg m-3 respectively with significantly increasing levels (412.9 and 344.8 mg m-3 respectively during the samplings. It was also possible to observe the contribution of fine particles. This was evidenced by the high correlation between PM2.5 and PM1.0 and by the profile of particle distribution in the Sioutas sampler. PM concentration levels are considered excessively high, with great potential to affect animal and human health. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i3.847 

  1. Metagenomic profiling of ARGs in airborne particulate matters during a severe smog event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jialin; Zhao, Fuzheng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Li, Kan; Li, Chaoran; Ye, Lin; Li, Mei

    2018-02-15

    Information is currently limited regarding the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in smog and their correlations with airborne bacteria. This study characterized the diversity and abundance of ARGs in the particulate matters (PMs) of severe smog based on publicly available metagenomic data, and revealed the occurrence of 205 airborne ARG subtypes, including 31 dominant ones encoding resistance to 11 antibiotic types. Among the detectable ARGs, tetracycline, β-lactam and aminoglycoside resistance genes had the highest abundance, and smog and soil had similar composition characteristics of ARGs. During the smog event, the total abundance of airborne ARGs ranged from 4.90 to 38.07ppm in PM 2.5 samples, and from 7.61 to 38.49ppm in PM 10 samples, which were 1.6-7.7 times and 2.1-5.1 times of those in the non-smog day, respectively. The airborne ARGs showed complicated co-occurrence patterns, which were heavily influenced by the interaction of bacterial community, and physicochemical and meteorological factors. Lactobacillus and sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 were determined as keystones in the co-occurrence network of microbial taxa and airborne ARGs. The results may help to understand the distribution patterns of ARGs in smog for the potential health risk evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elemental Quantification and Source Identification of Airborne Particulate Matter in Pathumwan District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, Wanna; Bunprapob, Suphamattree

    2003-10-01

    Airborne particulate matter (APM) is apparently the biggest air pollution problem found in capital and other big cities. APM has the adverse impact on human health and also on the environment. PM 10 (particle with aerodynamic diameter le ss than 10 μm), in particularly, can cause the respiratory diseases since it can penetrate the respiratory system. Furthermore, PM 25 (particle with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) is the major cause of visibility impairment. This paper reports the study of urban air pollution at Pathumwan District, a business area in Bangkok City center. Coarse and fine fractions of PM 10 (P M-2 .2 - 10 and PM 2.2 , respectively) were collected by a Gent stacked filter unit air sampler during January-December 2002. The filter samples were measured for mass and black carbon. Elemental concentrations were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results indicate the rather high level of PM 10 at the sampling site. The annual average of PM 10 is 56.6 μg/m 3 compared to the ambient air quality standard of 50 μg/m 3 . The obtained data of black carbon and elemental concentrations were used for investigation of pollution sources by applying a receptor model called Positive Matrix Factorization. It could identify that the main sources were most likely city dust, emissions from vehicle combustion, incineration and sea-salt

  3. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kerrie A; Whitelaw, Jane L; Jones, Alison L; Davies, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engines have been a mainstay within many industries since the early 1900s. Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a major issue in many industrial workplaces given the potential for serious health impacts to exposed workers; including the potential for lung cancer and adverse irritant and cardiovascular effects. Personal respiratory protective devices are an accepted safety measure to mitigate worker exposure against the potentially damaging health impacts of DPM. To be protective, they need to act as effective filters against carbon and other particulates. In Australia, the filtering efficiency of respiratory protective devices is determined by challenging test filter media with aerosolised sodium chloride to determine penetration at designated flow rates. The methodology outlined in AS/NZS1716 (Standards Australia International Ltd and Standards New Zealand 2012. Respiratory protective devices. Sydney/Wellington: SAI Global Limited/Standards New Zealand) does not account for the differences between characteristics of workplace contaminants like DPM and sodium chloride such as structure, composition, and particle size. This study examined filtering efficiency for three commonly used AS/NZS certified respirator filter models, challenging them with two types of diesel emissions; those from a diesel generator and a diesel engine. Penetration through the filter media of elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), and total suspended particulate (TSP) was calculated. Results indicate that filtering efficiency assumed by P2 certification in Australia was achieved for two of the three respirator models for DPM generated using the small diesel generator, whilst when the larger diesel engine was used, filtering efficiency requirements were met for all three filter models. These results suggest that the testing methodology specified for certification of personal respiratory protective devices by Standards Australia may not ensure adequate protection for

  4. Elemental analysis of the suspended particulate matter in the air of Tehran using INAA and AAS techniques. Appendix 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabpour, M.; Rostami, S.; Athari, M.

    1995-01-01

    A network of ten sampling stations for monitoring the elemental concentration of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the air of Tehran has been established. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques have been used for analysis of the Whatman-41 filters collected during the year 1994. Assessment of the preliminary results using the two techniques has produced the following twenty-one elements: Al, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, Zn. Various standard solutions with known concentrations of elements, together with standard reference materials, have been used for quality assurance of the measured concentrations. (author)

  5. Characteristics of particulate matter collected at an urban background site and a roadside site in Birmingham, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo, Adewale M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the compositional characteristics of particulate matter (PM) collected both at an urban background site (Elms Road observational site, EROS) and a roadside site (Bristol Road observational site, BROS). PM samples were collected at the receptor sites between March 28 and April 11, 2012. Observed parameters included water-soluble ions (Cl-, NO- 3, SO4 2-, Na+, NH4 +, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) and trace metals (V, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sb, Ba, Pb). Result...

  6. Isotopic composition of nitrate and particulate organic matter in a pristine dam reservoir of western India: Implications for biogeochemical processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bardhan, P.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Karapurkar, S.G.; Shenoy, D.M.; Kurian, S.; Naik, H.

    , 767–779, 2017 www.biogeosciences.net/14/767/2017/ doi:10.5194/bg-14-767-2017 © Author(s) 2017. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Isotopic composition of nitrate and particulate organic matter in a pristine dam reservoir of western India: implications... basis. Samples for nitrate isotopic measurements were col- lected from 2011. The facility for nitrate isotope analysis was Biogeosciences, 14, 767–779, 2017 www.biogeosciences.net/14/767/2017/ P. Bardhan et al.: Isotopic composition of nitrate and POM...

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaojun; Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian; Yang Qingshu; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution, composition, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas were examined. Total PAH concentrations varied from 189 to 637 ng/g in sediments and 422 to 1850 ng/g in SPM. PAHs were dominated by 5,6-ring compounds in sediments and by 2,3-ring compounds in SPM samples. Assessment of PAH sources suggested that biomass and coal combustion is the major PAH source to the outer part of the estuary sediments and that petroleum combustion is the major PAH source to the inner part of estuary sediments. As for SPM samples, PAH isomer pair ratios indicated multiple (petroleum, petroleum combustion, and biomass and coal combustion) PAH sources, and significant temporal variations could exist for the sources of water column PAHs in the study area. The distribution of perylene in SPM samples indicated that the river was the dominant source of perylene in SPM and that perylene could be taken as an index to assess the contribution of river inflow to the total PAHs in SPM samples. The high concentration of perylene in the sediment was indicative of an in situ biogenic origin. - PAH were determined in suspended particulate matter and sediments from Pearl River Estuary

  8. Bioaccessibility of U, Th and Pb in particulate matter from an abandoned uranium mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Geoffrey; Foulkes, Michael; Henderson, Sam; Blake, William

    2016-04-01

    Currently, there are approximately 150 uranium mines in Europe at various stages of either operation, development, decommissioning, restoration or abandonment (wise-uranium.com). The particulate matter comprising the mounds of waste rock and mill tailings poses a risk to human health through the inadvertent ingestion of particles contaminated with uranium and thorium, and their decay products, which exposes recipients to the dual toxicity of heavy elements and their radioactive emissions. We investigated the bioaccessibility of 238U, 232Th and 206,214,210Pb in particulate samples taken from a contaminated, abandoned uranium mine in South West England. Sampling included a mine shaft, dressing floor and waste heap, as well as soils from a field used for grazing. The contaminants were extracted using the in-vitro Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe Method (UBM) in order to mimic the digestion processes in the human stomach (STOM) and the combined stomach and gastrointestinal tract (STOM+INT). Analyses of concentrations of U, Th and Pb in the extracts were by ICP-MS and the activity concentrations of radionuclides were determined on the same particles, before and after extraction, using gamma spectroscopy. 'Total' concentrations of U, Th and Pb for all samples were in the range 57 to 16,200, 0.28 to 3.8 and 69 to 4750 mg kg-1, respectively. For U and Pb the concentrations in the STOM fraction were lower than the total and STOM+INT fractions were even lower. However, for Th the STOM+INT fractions were higher than the STOM due to the presence of Th carbonate species within the gastrointestinal fluid. Activity concentrations for 214Pb and 210Pb, including total, STOM and STOM+INT, were in the range 180 to samples were 39% and 8% in the STOM and STOM+INT, respectively, whereas the respective BAFs for 232Th were 3% and 9%. For stable 206Pb the STOM and STOM+INT BAFs were 16% and 3% for the most contaminated samples, whereas those from the field had 44% in the

  9. Molecular distribution and degradation status of combined aldoses in sinking particulate organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, C.; Sempéré, R.

    2003-04-01

    Particulate samples were collected by using floating sediment traps (50--300 m) and in situ pumps (30 and 200 m) in the Southern Indian Ocean (Polar Front Zone (PFZ) and Sub-Tropical Zone (STZ)), Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian and Ionian Seas) and Atlantic Ocean (Upwelling (UPW) of Agadir-Morocco). They were studied for monosaccharide composition after acid hydrolysis (HCl 0.09 M, 20 h, 100^oC) by using High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography followed by Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD). Our results indicated that higher PCHO yields (calculated as PCHO-C/POC ratios) were associated to higher C:N ratios (Med. Sea sample, PCHO yields = 12.7 ± 7.7%; C:N ratios = 8.3 ± 1.6; n = 12) whether the opposite trend was found for Southern Ocean samples (PCHO yields = 3.3 ± 0.75%; C:N ratios = 5.7 ± 0.59, n = 5) indicating significant variability in the sugar content of particles which might be due to the degradation degree of the particles as well as to the initial chemical composition of plankton. Alternatively, other processes such as high production of extracellular polysaccharides (type transparent exopolymer polysaccharides (TEP)) due to phosphorus limitation of some phytoplanktonic species may increase the sugar content in Mediterranean particles and the C/N ratio. In any case, glucose appeared to be the most abundant monosaccharide in Mediterranean Sea or UPW samples (range 23--59 wt% of the total aldoses) whereas ribose (17--39 wt%) and galactose (range 10--28 wt%) were the predominant aldoses in Southern Indian Ocean. These sugars (glucose + ribose) exhibited a strong negative relationship with C:N (r = -0.53, p >0.01; n = 30) in sediment traps (data from this study) and sediment (data from literature) particulate material which further indicates that these two monosaccharides are selectively extracted from the carbohydrate pool in sediment. In vitro biodegradation experiments performed with large particles (>60 μm) sampled using in situ pumps in

  10. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  11. Role of heavy metals in structuring the microbial community associated with particulate matter in a tropical estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeba, V.A.; Abdulaziz, Anas; Gireeshkumar, T.R.; Ram, Anirudh; Rakesh, P.S.; Jasmin, C.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    2017-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM), which are chemically and biochemically complicated particles, accommodate a plethora of microorganisms. In the present study, we report the influence of heavy metal pollution on the abundance and community structure of archaea and bacteria associated with PM samples collected from polluted and non-polluted regions of Cochin Estuary (CE), Southwest coast of India. We observed an accumulation of heavy metals in PM collected from CE, and their concentrations were in the order Fe > Zn > Mn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd > Co > Ni. Zinc was a major pollutant in the water (4.36–130.50 μgL −1 ) and in the particulate matter (765.5–8451.28 μgg −1 ). Heavy metals, Cd, Co, and Pb were recorded in the particulate matter, although they were below detectable limits in the water column. Statistical analysis showed a positive influence of particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, PM-Pb, PM-Zn and PM-Fe on the abundance of PM-archaea and PM-bacteria. The abundance of archaea and bacteria were ten times less in PM compared with planktonic ones. The abundance of PM-archaea ranged between 4.27 and 9.50 × 10 7 and 2.73 to 3.85 × 10 7 cellsL −1 respectively for the wet and dry season, while that of PM-bacteria was between 1.14 and 6.72 × 10 8 cellsL −1 for both seasons. Community structure of PM-bacteria varied between polluted and non-polluted stations, while their abundance does not show a drastic difference. This could be attributed to the selective enrichment of bacteria by heavy metals in PM. Such enrichment may only promote the growth of metal resistant archaea and bacteria, which may not participate in the processing of PM. In such cases, the PM may remain without remineralization in the system arresting the food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles. - Highlights: • Heavy metal pollution proliferated substantially in Cochin estuary. • Heavy metal pollutants are accumulated in the particulate matter. • Pollution affected

  12. Association of uranium with colloidal and suspended particulate matter in Arabian sea near the west coast of Maharashtra (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Joshi, S.N.; Hegde, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Association of natural uranium in seawater with colloidal and suspended-particulate matter was determined. The separation of suspended particulate material (>0.45 ) and colloidal fraction (as dissolved fractions) in seawater were done by suction and ultra filtration techniques. Seawater samples were collected at 1 km away from the shore and subjected to sequential fractionation in nine stages ranging from 2.7 μm to 1.1 nm. Suspended particulate matter were separated in three different size groups namely >2.7 μm, 0.45 μm and 0.22 μm by suction filtration using cellulose acetate and nitrate membranes filters. To concentrate the solution with colloidal particles <0.22 μm-1.1 nm (0.5 k Nominal Molecular Weight cut-off Limit (NMWL), the solution obtained from filtration through <0.22 μm was passed through stirred ultra-filtration cell. The pH and conductivity at different stages of fractionation (dissolved) showed minor variations. The concentration of uranium was measured in suspended and dissolved fractions by using a pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm. In order to evaluate the role of mineral colloids in various stages of filtration, concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium were measured by using ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry. The clay mineral at seawater pH (approximately 8) behave as negative ions and provides binding site for the positively charge species of uranium. Among the dissolved fraction, the maximum concentrations of colloidal uranium was observed about 4 times higher than that compared to average concentration of 6.93 ± 3.10 ppb in other fractions. In the case of suspended particulate matter, the concentration of uranium was below detection limits (<1 ppb). The maximum concentration of Ca, Mg and K in the dissolved fraction were in the <1.1 nm fraction, while for suspended particulate matter, the concentration of Ca, Mg and K decreased with the decrease in size and it is highest in the fraction of 0.22 -0.45 μm.(author)

  13. Optical properties of size fractions of suspended particulate matter in littoral waters of Québec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Gholamreza; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Larouche, Pierre; Montes-Hugo, Martin A.

    2017-11-01

    Mass-specific absorption (ai∗(λ)) and scattering (bi∗(λ)) coefficients were derived for four size fractions (i = 0.2-0.4, 0.4-0.7, 0.7-10, and > 10 µm, λ = wavelength in nm) of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and with samples obtained from surface waters (i.e., 0-2 m depth) of the Saint Lawrence Estuary and Saguenay Fjord (SLE-SF) during June of 2013. For the visible-near-infrared spectral range (i.e., λ = 400-710 nm), mass-specific absorption coefficients of total SPM (i.e., particulates > 0.2 µm) (hereafter aSPM∗) had low values (e.g., 0.05 m2 g-1 at λ = 440 nm) corresponded with locations of the upper estuary and SF where particulates were mineral-rich and/or their mean diameter was relatively small. The variability of two optical proxies (the spectral slope of particulate beam attenuation coefficient and the mass-specific particulate absorption coefficient, hereafter γ and Svis, respectively) with respect to changes in particle size distribution (PSD) and chemical composition was also examined. The slope of the PSD was correlated with bi∗(550) (Spearman rank correlation coefficient ρs up to 0.37) and ai∗(440) estimates (ρs up to 0.32) in a comparable way. Conversely, the contribution of particulate inorganic matter to total mass of SPM (FSPMPIM) had a stronger correlation with ai∗ coefficients at a wavelength of 440 nm (ρs up to 0.50). The magnitude of γ was positively related to FSPMi or the contribution of size fraction i to the total mass of SPM (ρs up to 0.53 for i = 0.2-0.4 µm). Also, the relation between γ and FSPMPIM variability was secondary (ρs = -0.34, P > 0.05). Lastly, the magnitude of Svis was inversely correlated with aSPM∗(440) (ρs = -0.55, P = 0.04) and FSPMPIM (ρs = -0.62, P = 0.018) in sampling locations with a larger marine influence (i.e., lower estuary).

  14. High-Latitude Wintertime Urban Pollution: Particulate Matter Composition and Temporal Trends in Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, W. R.; Nattinger, K.; Hooper, M.

    2017-12-01

    High latitude cities often experience severe pollution episodes during wintertime exacerbated by thermal inversion trapping of pollutant emissions. Fairbanks, Alaska is an extreme example of this problem, currently being classified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a "serious" non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). For this reason, we have studied the chemical composition of PM2.5 at multiple EPA monitoring sites in the non-attainment area from 2006 to the present. The chemical composition is dominated by organic carbon with lesser amounts of black carbon and inorganic ionic species such as ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate. We find large spatial differences in composition and amount of PM2.5 that indicate a different mix of sources in residential areas as compared to the city center. Specifically, the difference in composition is consistent with increased wood smoke source in the residential areas. The extent to which organic matter could be secondary (formed through conversion of emitted gases) is also an area needing study. Ammonium sulfate is responsible for about a fifth to a quarter of the particles mass during the darkest months, possibly indicating a non-photochemical source of sulfate, but the chemical mechanism for this possible transformation is unclear. Therefore, we quantified the relationship between particulate sulfate concentrations and gas-phase sulfur dioxide concentrations along with particulate metals and inferred particulate acidity with the hopes that these data can assist in elucidation of the mechanism of particulate sulfate formation. We also analyze temporal trends in PM2.5 composition in an attempt to understand how the problem is changing over time and find most trends are small despite regulatory changes. Improving mechanistic understanding of particulate formation under cold and dark conditions could assist in reducing air-quality-related health effects.

  15. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic

  16. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Artur Braun; Yuanzhi Chen; J. David Robertson; Joseph Kyger; Adel F. Sarofim; Ronald J. Pugmire; Henk L.C. Meuzelaar; JoAnn Lighty

    2003-07-31

    The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the

  17. Organic, elemental and inorganic carbon in particulate matter of six urban environments in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sillanpää

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 7-week sampling campaigns were conducted in urban background sites of six European cities as follows: Duisburg (autumn, Prague (winter, Amsterdam (winter, Helsinki (spring, Barcelona (spring and Athens (summer. The campaigns were scheduled to include seasons of local public health concern due to high particulate concentrations or findings in previously conducted epidemiological studies. Aerosol samples were collected in parallel with two identical virtual impactors that divide air particles into fine (PM2.5 and coarse (PM2.5-10 size ranges. From the collected filter samples, elemental (EC and organic (OC carbon contents were analysed with a thermal-optical carbon analyser (TOA; total Ca, Ti, Fe, Si, Al and K by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF; As, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS; Ca2+, succinate, malonate and oxalate by ion chromatography (IC; and the sum of levoglucosan+galactosan+mannosan (∑MA by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The campaign means of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were 8.3-29.6 µg m-3 and 5.4-28.7 µg m-3, respectively. The contribution of particulate organic matter (POM to PM2.5 ranged from 21% in Barcelona to 54% in Prague, while that to PM2.5-10 ranged from 10% in Barcelona to 27% in Prague. The contribution of EC was higher to PM2.5 (5-9% than to PM2.5-10 (1-6% in all the six campaigns. Carbonate (C(CO3, that interferes with the TOA analysis, was detected in PM2.5-10 of Athens and Barcelona but not elsewhere. It was subtracted from the OC by a simple integration method that was validated. The CaCO3 accounted for 55% and 11% of PM2.5-10 in Athens and Barcelona, respectively. It was anticipated that combustion emissions from vehicle engines affected the POM content in PM2.5 of all the six sampling campaigns, but a comparison of mass concentration ratios of the selected inorganic and organic tracers of common sources of organic material to POM suggested

  18. Characterization of respirable mine dust and diesel particulate matter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary outcomes to develop and optimize methods to characterize DPM and respirable dust samples for the following: Crystalline compounds Common mineral analyses Particle size distribution Elemental Carbon (EC...

  19. Seasonal Variability of Airborne Particulate Matter and Bacterial Concentrations in Colorado Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Clements

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol measurements were collected at fifteen homes over the course of one year in Colorado (USA to understand the temporal variability of indoor air particulate matter and bacterial concentrations and their relationship with home characteristics, inhabitant activities, and outdoor air particulate matter (PM. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations averaged (±st. dev. 8.1 ± 8.1 μg/m3 and 6.8 ± 4.5 μg/m3, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 was statistically significantly higher during summer compared to spring and winter; outdoor PM2.5 was significantly higher for summer compared to spring and fall. The PM2.5 I/O ratio was 1.6 ± 2.4 averaged across all homes and seasons and was not statistically significantly different across the seasons. Average indoor PM10 was 15.4 ± 18.3 μg/m3 and was significantly higher during summer compared to all other seasons. Total suspended particulate bacterial biomass, as determined by qPCR, revealed very little seasonal differences across and within the homes. The qPCR I/O ratio was statistically different across seasons, with the highest I/O ratio in the spring and lowest in the summer. Using one-minute indoor PM10 data and activity logs, it was observed that elevated particulate concentrations commonly occurred when inhabitants were cooking and during periods with elevated outdoor concentrations.

  20. Effect of Particulate Matter Mineral Composition on Environmentally Persistent Free Radical (EPFR) Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld-Cook, Elisabeth E; Bovenkamp-Langlois, Lisa; Lomnicki, Slawo M

    2017-09-19

    Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) are newly discovered, long-lived surface bound radicals that form on particulate matter and combustion borne particulates, such as fly ash. Human exposure to such particulates lead to translocation into the lungs and heart resulting in cardio-vascular and respiratory disease through the production of reactive oxygen species. Analysis of some waste incinerator fly ashes revealed a significant difference between their EPFR contents. Although EPFR formation occurs on the metal domains, these differences were correlated with the altering concentration of calcium and sulfur. To analyze these phenomena, surrogate fly ashes were synthesized to mimic the presence of their major mineral components, including metal oxides, calcium, and sulfur. The results of this study led to the conclusion that the presence of sulfates limits formation of EPFRs due to inhibition or poisoning of the transition metal active sites necessary for their formation. These findings provide a pathway toward understanding differences in EPFR presence on particulate matter and uncover the possibility of remediating EPFRs from incineration and hazardous waste sites.

  1. Seasonal Variability of Concentration and Air Quality of Ambient Particulate Matter in Sosnowiec City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposing the population to more than standard concentration of particulate matter (PM is a crucial factor shaping the public health on urbanized areas both in Europe and Poland. In most cases, exceeded air quality standards relate to the winter period, in which there has been the greatest amount. Many studies have indicated, that exposure to PM can cause adverse health effects. Human exposure especially to fine particles (with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, causes risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, due to daily mortality and hospital admissions. Various types of epidemiological studies have indicated, that ambient air pollution is responsible for increasing risk of lung cancer. For this reason, in 2013 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1.

  2. Satellite constraints on surface concentrations of particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford Hotmann, Bonne

    Because of the increasing evidence of the widespread adverse effects on human health from exposure to poor air quality and the recommendations of the World Health Organization to significantly reduce PM2.5 in order to reduce these risks, better estimates of surface air quality globally are required. However, surface measurements useful for monitoring particulate exposure are scarce, especially in developing countries which often experience the worst air pollution. Therefore, other methods are necessary to augment estimates in regions with limited surface observations. The prospect of using satellite observations to infer surface air quality is attractive; however, it requires knowledge of the complicated relationship between satellite-observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface concentrations. This dissertation explores how satellite observations can be used in conjunction with a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to better understand this relationship. First, we investigate the seasonality in aerosols over the Southeastern United States using observations from several satellite instruments (MODIS, MISR, CALIOP) and surface network sites (IMPROVE, SEARCH, AERONET). We find that the strong summertime enhancement in satellite-observed aerosol optical depth (factor 2-3 enhancement over wintertime AOD) is not present in surface mass concentrations (25-55% summertime enhancement). Goldstein et al. [2009] previously attributed this seasonality in AOD to biogenic organic aerosol; however, surface observations show that organic aerosol only accounts for ~35% of PM2.5 mass and exhibits similar seasonality to total surface PM2.5. The GEOS-Chem model generally reproduces these surface aerosol measurements, but under represents the AOD seasonality observed by satellites. We show that seasonal differences in water uptake cannot sufficiently explain the magnitude of AOD increase. As CALIOP profiles indicate the presence of additional aerosol in the lower troposphere

  3. Thermal stability of inorganic and organic compounds in atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Cinzia; Marconi, Elisabetta; Tofful, Luca; Farao, Carmela; Materazzi, Stefano; Canepari, Silvia

    2012-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has been investigated by using different analytical approaches to explore the added value offered by these technique in environmental studies. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), carried out on both certified material and real PM samples, has shown that several mass losses can be detected starting from 80 °C up to above 500 °C, when pyrolysis occur. Thermo-optical analysis of PM and ion chromatographic analysis of the residual have shown that the mass losses in the temperature range 80-180 °C are not justified by the release of either organic or inorganic compounds; it can be thus attributed to the release of weakly and strongly bound water. Release of water has also been evidenced in the temperature range 225-275 °C. The release of ammonium chloride and nitrate has been detected only above 80 °C. This indicates that the release of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and ammonia, which is observed downstream of the filters during the sampling of atmospheric PM at ambient temperature, cannot be reproduced off-line, after the end of the sampling. We successfully explored one of the possible explanations, that is the desorption of HNO3, HCl and NH3 adsorbed on collected particles. NH4NO3 and NH4Cl, which can be thermally released by the filter, exhibit a different thermal behaviour from NaNO3 and NaCl, which are thermally stable up to 370 °C. This different behaviour can be used to discriminate between natural and secondary sources of atmospheric inorganic salts, as the interconversion that is observed when heating mixtures of pure salts resulted to be not relevant when heating real PM samples.

  4. Fine particulate matter air pollution and cognitive function among U.S. older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer A; Clarke, Philippa

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how exposures in the residential environment relate to cognitive function in older adults. The goal of this study is to determine if neighborhood-level exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) is associated with cognitive function in a diverse, national sample of older U.S. adults. We use cross-sectional data on non-Hispanic black and white men and women aged 55 and older from the 2001/2002 Americans' Changing Lives Study (N = 780). EPA air monitoring data were linked to respondents using census tract identifiers. Cognitive function was assessed with tests of working memory and orientation. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between PM2.5 and the number of errors on the cognitive assessment. Older adults living in areas with high concentrations of PM2.5 had an error rate 1.5 times greater than those exposed to lower concentrations, net of individual and neighborhood-level demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. This study adds to a growing body of research demonstrating the importance of air pollution to cognitive function in older adults. Improvements to air quality may be an important mechanism for reducing age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Fine particulate matter air pollution and cognitive function among older US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer A; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-08-15

    Existing research on the adverse health effects of exposure to pollution has devoted relatively little attention to the potential impact of ambient air pollution on cognitive function in older adults. We examined the cross-sectional association between residential concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) and cognitive function in older adults. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we analyzed data from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study, a large, nationally representative sample of US adults aged 50 years or older. We linked participant data with 2000 US Census tract data and 2004 census tract-level annual average PM2.5 concentrations. Older adults living in areas with higher PM2.5 concentrations had worse cognitive function (β = -0.26, 95% confidence interval: -0.47, -0.05) even after adjustment for community- and individual-level social and economic characteristics. Results suggest that the association is strongest for the episodic memory component of cognitive function. This study adds to a growing body of research highlighting the importance of air pollution to cognitive function in older adults. Improving air quality in large metropolitan areas, where much of the aging US population resides, may be an important mechanism for reducing age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Fossil and nonfossil carbon in fine particulate matter: A study of five European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, Marianne; La Cour, Agnete; Lohse, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Fossil carbon in particulate matter comes from anthropogenic use and combustion of fossil fuels, while nonfossil carbon may originate from both biogenic (e.g., pollen, plant debris, fungal spores, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)) and anthropogenic sources (e.g., cooking and residential wood combustion). We investigated the relative contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to fine carbonaceous aerosols in five European cities by radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples collected at four types of sites in 2002-2004. The average fraction of nonfossil carbon was 43 ± 11%, with the lowest fraction, 36 ± 7%, at urban curbside sites and the highest fraction, 54 ± 11%, at rural background sites, farthest away from the impact of man-made emissions. Generally, fossil carbon concentrations at urban curbside sites are elevated in comparison to background sites, which is expected because of their proximity to vehicular emissions. Contrary to what might be expected, the concentration of nonfossil carbon is also higher at curbside than at background sites. This may be attributable to differences between site categories in levels of primary biological aerosols, brake and tire wear in resuspended road dust, biofuels, emissions from cooking and residential wood combustion, or processes such as anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic SOA and increased partitioning of semivolatile compounds into the aerosol phase at urban sites. The exact causes should be investigated by future detailed source analyses.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments and suspended particulate matters from the Yangtze estuary, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Cheng Shubo; Ou Dongni; Yang Yi; Liu Hualin; Hou Lijun; Gao Lei; Xu Shiyuan

    2008-01-01

    Total HCHs' and total DDTs' levels in surface sediments (SS) ranged from 0.5 to 17.5 ng g -1 and from 0.9 to 33.1 ng g -1 , averaged 6.0 and 8.2 ng g -1 , respectively. Total HCHs' and total DDTs' levels in suspended particulate matters (SPM) varied from 6.2 to 14.8 ng g -1 with a mean value of 12.3 ng g -1 and were from 3.4 to 25.7 ng g -1 with an average of 16.4 ng g -1 , respectively. Lindane is the main HCHs' source and continuing use in the Yangtze Delta areas of 'pure' γ-HCH (lindane) rather than technical HCH (a mix of largely α- and some γ-HCH). DDTs in SS are mainly accumulated in history. However, high DDT fractions in SPM are indicators of new input of typical dicofol type DDT from 2002 to 2004. It can be seen that most samples from the Yangtze estuary were in ranges where adverse biological effects are expected, either occasionally or frequently. - SPM, more polluted than SS, had similar contaminant composition. New input of lindane and typical dicofol type DDT were found and Yangtze estuary had been affected adversely

  8. Source identification of particulate matter in a semi-urban area of Malaysia using multivariate techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, N B A; Latif, M T; Suan, L S; Dominick, D; Sahani, M; Jaafar, S A; Mohd Tahir, N

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to determine the composition and sources of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in a semi-urban area. PM10 samples were collected using a high volume sampler. Heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Ni) and cations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) were detected using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while anions (SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), Cl(-) and F(-)) were analysed using Ion Chromatography. Principle component analysis and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the source apportionment of PM10. Results showed the average concentration of PM10 was 29.5 ± 5.1 μg/m(3). The heavy metals found were dominated by Fe, followed by Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cd and Ni. Na(+) was the dominant cation, followed by Ca(2+), K(+) and Mg(2+), whereas SO4 (2-) was the dominant anion, followed by NO3 (-), Cl(-) and F(-). The main sources of PM10 were the Earth's crust/road dust, followed by vehicle emissions, industrial emissions/road activity, and construction/biomass burning.

  9. Source identification and metallic profiles of size-segregated particulate matters at various sites in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Naba; Jain, V K; Srivastava, Arun

    2015-09-01

    A study of elemental composition in the ambient air of Delhi was carried out in the monsoon, winter and summer seasons at four different sites from August 2012 to April 2013 in the size ranges 10 μm using "Dekati PM10" impactor. At each site, three samples were collected and were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The presence of elements was found to be very common and highly concentrated in aerosol particles at all the sites, which are Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Zn and Ba. Total suspended particulate matters (TSPMs) of fine particles were found high in comparison to coarse particles at all seasons. The TSPM of fine particles was found to be varied in the range from 303.6 to 416.2 μg/m(3). Similarly, the range of coarse TSPM was observed from 162.9 to 262.8 μg/m(3). Correlation matrices were observed between fine (size ranges 10 μm) size particles for all elements with seasons. Source apportionments of elements were carried out using MS Excel 2010 through XLSTAT software. The source apportionments between fine and coarse particles were carried out through factor analysis and dominated sources found to be crustal re-suspension and industrial activities.

  10. Black carbon and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in New York City's subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcassim, M J Ruzmyn; Thurston, George D; Peltier, Richard E; Gordon, Terry

    2014-12-16

    The New York City (NYC) subway is the main mode of transport for over 5 million passengers on an average weekday. Therefore, airborne pollutants in the subway stations could have a significant impact on commuters and subway workers. This study looked at black carbon (BC) and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in selected subway stations in Manhattan. BC and PM2.5 levels were measured in real time using a Micro-Aethalometer and a PDR-1500 DataRAM, respectively. Simultaneous samples were also collected on quartz filters for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) analysis and on Teflon filters for gravimetric and trace element analysis. In the underground subway stations, mean real time BC concentrations ranged from 5 to 23 μg/m(3), with 1 min average peaks >100 μg/m(3), while real time PM2.5 levels ranged from 35 to 200 μg/m(3). Mean EC levels ranged from 9 to 12.5 μg/m(3). At street level on the same days, the mean BC and PM2.5 concentrations were below 3 and 10 μg/m(3), respectively. This study shows that both BC soot and PM levels in NYC's subways are considerably higher than ambient urban street levels and that further monitoring and investigation of BC and PM subway exposures are warranted.

  11. Characteristics and oxidative stress on rats and traffic policemen of ambient fine particulate matter from Shenyang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingyue; Li, Shuyin; Jin, Huanrong; Zhang, Yumin; Xu, Jia; Chen, Dongmei; Kuimin, Chen; Yuan, Zhou; Xiao, Chunling

    2015-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is becoming serious in China. This study aimed to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on DNA damage in Shenyang city. The concentration and composition of PM2.5 in traffic policemen's working sites including fields and indoor offices were obtained. Blood samples of field and office policemen were collected to detect DNA damage by Comet assay. Rats were used to further analyzing the oxidative DNA damage. The average concentration of PM2.5 in exposed group was significantly higher than that in control group. Composition analysis revealed that toxic heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon substances were main elements of this PM2.5. DNA damage in field policemen was significantly higher than those in non-field group. Moreover, animal studies confirmed the oxidative DNA damage induced by PM2.5. Taken together, high DNA damages are found in the Shenyang traffic policemen and rats exposed to high level of airborne PM2.5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments and suspended particulate matters from the Yangtze estuary, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Min [Department of Geography, Key Laboratory of Geographical Information Sciences of the State Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: mliu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn; Cheng Shubo; Ou Dongni [Department of Geography, Key Laboratory of Geographical Information Sciences of the State Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang Yi [Vienna University, Department of Environmental Geoscience (Austria); Liu Hualin [Department of Geography, Key Laboratory of Geographical Information Sciences of the State Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Hou Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Gao Lei; Xu Shiyuan [Department of Geography, Key Laboratory of Geographical Information Sciences of the State Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Total HCHs' and total DDTs' levels in surface sediments (SS) ranged from 0.5 to 17.5 ng g{sup -1} and from 0.9 to 33.1 ng g{sup -1}, averaged 6.0 and 8.2 ng g{sup -1}, respectively. Total HCHs' and total DDTs' levels in suspended particulate matters (SPM) varied from 6.2 to 14.8 ng g{sup -1} with a mean value of 12.3 ng g{sup -1} and were from 3.4 to 25.7 ng g{sup -1} with an average of 16.4 ng g{sup -1}, respectively. Lindane is the main HCHs' source and continuing use in the Yangtze Delta areas of 'pure' {gamma}-HCH (lindane) rather than technical HCH (a mix of largely {alpha}- and some {gamma}-HCH). DDTs in SS are mainly accumulated in history. However, high DDT fractions in SPM are indicators of new input of typical dicofol type DDT from 2002 to 2004. It can be seen that most samples from the Yangtze estuary were in ranges where adverse biological effects are expected, either occasionally or frequently. - SPM, more polluted than SS, had similar contaminant composition. New input of lindane and typical dicofol type DDT were found and Yangtze estuary had been affected adversely.

  13. Trends in the elemental composition of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Sonja N; Koutrakis, Petros; Rudolph, Pablo A Ruiz; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Gramsch, Ernesto; Oyola, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM(2.5) decreased only marginally, from 41.8 microg/m3 for the 1998-1999 period to 35.4 microg/m3 for the 2002-2003 period. PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard of 15 microg/m3. Also, approximately 20% of the daily samples exceeded the old standard of 65 microg/m3, whereas approximately half of the samples exceeded the new standard of 35 microg/m3 (effective in 2006). Mean PM(2.5) levels measured during the cold season (April through September) were three times higher than those measured in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed significant decreases for Pb, Br, and S concentrations and minor but still significant decreases for Ni, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented, including the removal of lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, especially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM(2.5). However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high, and it is thus

  14. Air immunogenicity in quito: activation of immune responses by particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Cevallos Bonilla, Victoria Maritza

    2016-01-01

    Urban development experienced around the world in recent years has resulted in the degradation of air quality caused by air pollutants, which are emitted mainly as a product of burning fossil fuels for transportation, in the generation of electricity, and in industrial processes. Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) affects human health, and has been linked to respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. The mechanisms underlying inflammation in these diverse diseases and to what...

  15. Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cognitive Function Among Older US Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ailshire, Jennifer A.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on the adverse health effects of exposure to pollution has devoted relatively little attention to the potential impact of ambient air pollution on cognitive function in older adults. We examined the cross-sectional association between residential concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) and cognitive function in older adults. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we analyzed data from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study, a large...

  16. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mahmud; M. Hixson; M. J. Kleeman

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for ...

  17. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mahmud; M. Hixson; M. J. Kleeman

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days ...

  18. Sensitive emission spectrometric method for the analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimae, A.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive emission spectrometric method for the routine analysis of airborne particulate matter collected on the glass fiber filter is reported. The method is a powder--dc arc technique involving no chemical pre-enrichment procedures. The elements--Ag, BA: Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, Y, Yb, and Zn--were determined. (U.S.)

  19. Characteristics of particulate matter emissions from toy cars with electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Williams, Brent J; Biswas, Pratim

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from toy cars with electric motors were characterized. Particle emission rates from the toy cars, as high as 7.47×10(7) particles/s, were measured. This emission rate is lower than other indoor sources such as smoking and cooking. The particles emitted from toy cars are generated from spark discharges inside the electric motors that power the toy cars. Size distribution measurements indicated that most particles were below 100 nm in diameter. Copper was the dominant inorganic species in these particles. By deploying aerosol mass spectrometers, high concentrations of particulate organic matter were also detected and characterized in detail. Several organic compounds were identified using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography. The mass size distribution of particulate organic matter was bimodal. The formation mechanism of particulate organic matter from toy cars was elucidated. A possible new source of indoor air pollution, particles from electric motors in toy cars, was identified. This study characterized aerosol emissions from toy cars in detail. Most of these particles have a diameter less than 100 nm. Copper and some organics are the major components of these particles. Conditions that minimize these emissions were determined.

  20. Association between exposure to particulate matter and hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Ana Cristina Gobbo; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C; de Carvalho, João Andrade

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter and hospitalization for respiratory disease. It was an ecological time series study with daily indicators of hospitalization for respiratory diseases in children up to 10 years old, living in Piracicaba, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between August 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012. A generalized additive Poisson regression model was used. The relative risks were RR = 1.008; 95%CI 1.001;1.016 for lag 1 and RR = 1.009; 95%CI 1.001;1.017 for lag 3. The increment of 10 μg/m3in particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter implies increase in relative risk of between 7.9 and 8.6 percentage points. In conclusion, exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter was associated with hospitalization for respiratory disease in children. PMID:24626559

  1. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  2. Source contributions and regional transport of primary particulate matter in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jianlin; Wu, Li; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Chang, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Fumo; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    A source-oriented CMAQ was applied to determine source sector/region contributions to primary particulate matter (PPM) in China. Four months were simulated with emissions grouped to eight regions and six sectors. Predicted elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), and PPM concentrations and source contributions agree with measurements and have significant spatiotemporal variations. Residential is a major contributor to spring/winter EC (50–80%), POC (60%–90%), and PPM (30–70%). For summer/fall, industrial contributes 30–50% for EC/POC and 40–60% for PPM. Transportation is more important for EC (20–30%) than POC/PPM ( 90% in Beijing. - Highlights: • A source-oriented CMAQ was established for primary particulate matter (PPM). • Source and region contributions to EC, POC and PPM in China were quantified. • Residential is major in spring/winter and industrial dominates in summer/fall. • Open burning is more important for southern while dust is in contrast. • Both local and Heibei emissions contribute to PPM in Beijing. - Source and region contributions to primary particulate matter in China were quantified for four months during 2012-2013. Residential and industrial are the major contributors.

  3. Air pollution and genomic instability: The role of particulate matter in lung carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santibáñez-Andrade, Miguel; Quezada-Maldonado, Ericka Marel; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; García-Cuellar, Claudia M.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we summarize and discuss the evidence regarding the interaction between air pollution, especially particulate matter (PM), and genomic instability. PM has been widely studied in the context of several diseases, and its role in lung carcinogenesis gained relevance due to an increase in cancer cases for which smoking does not seem to represent the main risk factor. According to epidemiological and toxicological evidence, PM acts as a carcinogenic factor in humans, inducing high rates of genomic alterations. Here, we discuss not only how PM is capable of inducing genomic instability during the carcinogenic process but also how our genetic background influences the response to the sources of damage. - Highlights: • Air pollution represents a worldwide problem with impact on human health. • Particulate matter (PM) has a recognized carcinogenic potential in humans. • Lung cancer susceptibility depends on gene-environment interactions. • Epidemiological and experimental evidence links PM exposure to genomic instability. • PM and genomic instability are co-dependent factors during cancer continuum. - We summarize the association between particulate matter (a component of air pollution) and genomic instability as well as discuss how new strategies to study the impact of air pollution on genomic instability and lung-cancer development could improve our understanding of the lung-cancer genome.

  4. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-09-22

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM₁ (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  5. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  6. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.

    1975-04-01

    Several trace elements are being introduced into the atmosphere from various sources. Since many of the trace elements are highly toxic, the concentrations of them should be measured and controlled continuously for public health. Concentrations of trace elements have been determined in air samples collected from seven different districts of Ankara by the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. (Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.)

  7. Multielement proton activation analysis: application to airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, P.; Devillers, M.; Desaedeleer, G.

    1980-01-01

    Proton activation analysis in the range of 25 to 30 MeV proton energies allows the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Sn and Pb in airborne particles collected by 4 to 7 stage impactors. Under normal, not limitative irradiation and counting conditions, the determination is accurate for samples collected from 1 to 10 m 3 of air in rural atmospheres

  8. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasan, Raquel C.; Pla, Rita R.; Invernizzi, Rodrigo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Grupo Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares], E-mail: jasan@cae.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: rpla@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Santos, Marina dos [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes. Lab. de Contaminacion del Aire], E-mail: mdossant@cnea.gov.ar

    2007-07-01

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  9. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasan, Raquel C.; Pla, Rita R.; Invernizzi, Rodrigo; Santos, Marina dos

    2007-01-01

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  10. NAAQS Designated Area Polygons - Fine Particulate Matter (24-Hr, PM-2.5), Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas for Particulate Matter < 2.5 microns, according to the 24-Hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas are geographic...

  11. Differential electrocardiogram efffects in normal and hypertensive rats after inhalation exposure to transition metal rich particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) associated with air pollution causes adverse effects on cardiac function including heightened associations with ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Some of these effects have been attributable to transitio...

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  13. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  14. Characterization and speciation of fine particulate matter inside the public transport buses running on bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Air pollution with respect to particulate matter was investigated in Toledo, Ohio, USA, a : city of approximately 300,000, in 2009. Two study buses were selected to reflect typical : exposure conditions of passengers while traveling in the bus. Monit...

  15. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  16. Effects of particulate matter on the pulmonary and vascular system: time course in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salonen Raimo O

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed within the scope of two multi-center European Commission-funded projects (HEPMEAP and PAMCHAR concerning source-composition-toxicity relationship for particulate matter (PM sampled in Europe. The present study aimed to optimize the design for PM in vivo toxicity screening studies in terms of dose and time between a single exposure and the determination of the biological responses in a rat model mimicking human disease resulting in susceptibility to ambient PM. Dust in thoracic PM size-range (aerodynamic diameter Results The neutrophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased tremendously after exposure to the highest RTD doses or EHC-93. Furthermore, PM exposure slightly affected blood coagulation since there was a small but significant increase in the plasma fibrinogen levels (factor 1.2. Pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress as well as changes in blood coagulation factors and circulating blood cell populations were observed within the range of 3 to 10 mg PM/kg of body weight without significant pulmonary injury. Conclusion The optimal dose for determining the toxicity ranking of ambient derived PM samples in spontaneously hypertensive rats is suggested to be between 3 and 10 mg PM/kg of body weight under the conditions used in the present study. At a lower dose only some inflammatory effects were detected, which will probably be too few to be able to discriminate between PM samples while a completely different response pattern was observed with the highest dose. In addition to the dose, a 24-hr interval from exposure to sacrifice seemed appropriate to assess the relative toxic potency of PM since the majority of the health effects were observed one day after PM exposure compared to the other times examined. The aforementioned considerations provide a good basis for conducting PM toxicity screening studies in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  17. Uncertainty associated with the gravimetric measurement of particulate matter concentration in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Ronald E; Faulkner, William Brock

    2015-07-01

    This work applied a propagation of uncertainty method to typical total suspended particulate (TSP) sampling apparatus in order to estimate the overall measurement uncertainty. The objectives of this study were to estimate the uncertainty for three TSP samplers, develop an uncertainty budget, and determine the sensitivity of the total uncertainty to environmental parameters. The samplers evaluated were the TAMU High Volume TSP Sampler at a nominal volumetric flow rate of 1.42 m3 min(-1) (50 CFM), the TAMU Low Volume TSP Sampler at a nominal volumetric flow rate of 17 L min(-1) (0.6 CFM) and the EPA TSP Sampler at the nominal volumetric flow rates of 1.1 and 1.7 m3 min(-1) (39 and 60 CFM). Under nominal operating conditions the overall measurement uncertainty was found to vary from 6.1x10(-6) g m(-3) to 18.0x10(-6) g m(-3), which represented an uncertainty of 1.7% to 5.2% of the measurement. Analysis of the uncertainty budget determined that three of the instrument parameters contributed significantly to the overall uncertainty: the uncertainty in the pressure drop measurement across the orifice meter during both calibration and testing and the uncertainty of the airflow standard used during calibration of the orifice meter. Five environmental parameters occurring during field measurements were considered for their effect on overall uncertainty: ambient TSP concentration, volumetric airflow rate, ambient temperature, ambient pressure, and ambient relative humidity. Of these, only ambient TSP concentration and volumetric airflow rate were found to have a strong effect on the overall uncertainty. The technique described in this paper can be applied to other measurement systems and is especially useful where there are no methods available to generate these values empirically. This work addresses measurement uncertainty of TSP samplers used in ambient conditions. Estimation of uncertainty in gravimetric measurements is of particular interest, since as ambient particulate

  18. Oxidative potential of particulate matter 2.5 as predictive indicator of cellular stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crobeddu, Bélinda; Aragao-Santiago, Leticia; Bui, Linh-Chi; Boland, Sonja; Baeza Squiban, Armelle

    2017-01-01

    Particulate air pollution being recognized to be responsible for short and long term health effects, regulations for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 (PM 2.5 ) are more and more restrictive. PM 2.5 regulation is based on mass without taking into account PM 2.5 composition that drives toxicity. Measurement of the oxidative potential (OP) of PM could be an additional PM indicator that would encompass the PM components involved in oxidative stress, the main mechanism of PM toxicity. We compared different methods to evaluate the intrinsic oxidative potential of PM 2.5 sampled in Paris and their ability to reflect the oxidative and inflammatory response in bronchial epithelial cells used as relevant target organ cells. The dithiothreitol depletion assay, the antioxidant (ascorbic acid and glutathione) depletion assay (OP AO ), the plasmid scission assay and the dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation assay used to characterize the OP of PM 2.5 (10–100 μg/mL) provided positive results of different magnitude with all the PM 2.5 samples used with significant correlation with different metals such as Cu and Zn as well as total polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the soluble organic fraction. The OP AO assay showed the best correlation with the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species by NCI-H292 cell line assessed by DCFH oxidation and with the expression of anti-oxidant genes (superoxide dismutase 2, heme-oxygenase-1) as well as the proinflammatory response (Interleukin 6) when exposed from 1 to 10 μg/cm 2 . The OP AO assay appears as the most prone to predict the biological effect driven by PM 2.5 and related to oxidative stress. - Highlights: • 5 Acellular assays were used to compare the intrinsic oxidative potential (OP) of PM. • The amount of ROS generation in bronchial cells is particle dependent. • Particles induce the expression of anti-oxidant and proinflammatory genes. • Biological effects correlates with OP assay

  19. Policy research programme on particulate matter. Main results and policy consequences; Beleidsgericht onderzoeksprogramma fijn stof. Resultaten op hoofdlijnen en beleidsconsequenties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthijsen, J.; Koelemeijer, R.B.A.

    2010-06-15

    The Policy-Oriented Research on Particulate Matter (BOP) programme aimed at increasing knowledge on particulate matter so that future policy can be supported adequately. The main research objectives of BOP were to improve knowledge of the PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations, composition and sources of particulate matter; Increasing the understanding of the behavior of particulate matter in the urban area; Determining the trends in concentrations of particulate matter and its components; and Clarify the impact of policies in the past and the future of PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations. The first part of this study presents the main findings of the study, discussing the (chemical) composition of particulate matter, concentration trends, expected developments, health impacts, policy implications, and how to proceed with the particulate matter dossier. In the second part of the study the underlying analysis are elaborated. [Dutch] Het Beleidsgericht Onderzoeksprogramma Particulate Matter (BOP) had als doel om de kennis over fijn stof te vergroten, zodat beleidsvorming in de toekomst adequater ondersteund kan worden. De belangrijkste onderzoeksdoelstellingen van BOP waren: Verbeteren van de kennis over de PM10- en PM2,5-concentraties, de samenstelling en de bronnen van fijn stof; Vergroten van het inzicht in het gedrag van fijn stof in het stedelijke gebied; Bepalen van de trends in fijnstofconcentraties en de bestanddelen ervan; Verduidelijken van de invloed van beleidsmaatregelen in het verleden en de toekomst op de PM10- en PM2,5-concentraties. Het eerste deel van deze studie, de Bevindingen, presenteert de belangrijkste uitkomsten van het onderzoek. Hierbij komen achtereenvolgens aan de orde: de (chemische) samenstelling van fijn stof, trends in concentraties, verwachte ontwikkelingen, gezondheidseffecten, beleidsconsequenties en hoe nu verder te gaan met het dossier fijn stof. In het tweede deel van de studie, de Verdieping, staat de verantwoording en worden de

  20. Hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of As, Bi, Sb, Se(IV) and Te(IV) in aqua regia extracts from atmospheric particulate matter using multivariate optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscoso-Perez, Carmen; Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge; Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Fernandez-Fernandez, Esther; Prada-Rodriguez, Dario

    2004-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method, based on hydride generation and atomic fluorescence detection, has been developed for the determination of As, Bi, Sb, Se(IV) and Te(IV) in aqua regia extracts from atmospheric particulate matter samples. Atmospheric particulates matter was collected on glass fiber filters using a medium volume sampler (PM1 particulate matter). Two-level factorial designs have been used to optimise the hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) procedure. The effects of several parameters affecting the hydride generation efficiency (hydrochloric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and potassium iodide concentrations and flow rates) have been evaluated using a Plackett-Burman experimental design. In addition, parameters affecting the hydride measurement (delay, analysis and memory times) have been also investigated. The significant parameters obtained (sodium tetrahydroborate concentration, sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate and analysis time for As; hydrochloric acid concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate for Se(IV); and sodium tetrahydroborate concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate for Te(IV)) have been optimized by using 2 n + star central composite design. Hydrochloric acid concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate were the significant parameters obtained for Sb and Bi determination, respectively. Using a univariate approach these parameters were optimized. The accuracy of methods have been verified by using several certified reference materials: SRM 1648 (urban particulate matter) and SRM 1649a (urban dust). Detection limits in the range of 6 x 10 -3 to 0.2 ng m -3 have been achieved. The developed methods were applied to several atmospheric particulate matter samples corresponding to A Coruna city (NW Spain)

  1. An assessment of common atmospheric particulate matter sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The first factor, which accounts for 40% of the variance contained Al, Mg, K, Na and Pb, with high loadings of Mg and K. The composition of this factor suggests road or soil dust and biomass burning as the sources of PM10. The second factor contained Mn, Zn and Ni, which suggests metal smelting as a source at site C. The.

  2. Magnesium, Iron and Aluminum in LLNL Air Particulate and Rain Samples with Reference to Magnesium in Industrial Storm Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fish, Craig [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Storm water runoff from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) main site and Site 300 periodically exceeds the Discharge Permit Numeric Action Level (NAL) for Magnesium (Mg) under the Industrial General Permit (IGP) Order No. 2014-0057-DWQ. Of particular interest is the source of magnesium in storm water runoff from the site. This special study compares new metals data from air particulate and precipitation samples from the LLNL main site and Site 300 to previous metals data for storm water from the main site and Site 300 and alluvial sediment from the main site to investigate the potential source of elevated Mg in storm water runoff. Data for three metals (Mg, Iron {Fe}, and Aluminum {Al}) were available from all media; data for additional metals, such as Europium (Eu), were available from rain, air particulates, and alluvial sediment. To attribute source, this study compared metals concentration data (for Mg, Al, and Fe) in storm water and rain; metal-metal correlations (Mg with Fe, Mg with Al, Al with Fe, Mg with Eu, Eu with Fe, and Eu with Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates, and sediments; and metal-metal ratios ((Mg/Fe, Mg/Al, Al/Fe, Mg/Eu, Eu/Fe, and Eu/Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates and sediments. The results presented in this study are consistent with a simple conceptual model where the source of Mg in storm water runoff is air particulate matter that has dry-deposited on impervious surfaces and subsequently entrained in runoff during precipitation events. Such a conceptual model is consistent with 1) higher concentrations of metals in storm water runoff than in precipitation, 2) the strong correlation of Mg with Aluminum (Al) and Iron (Fe) in both storm water and air particulates, and 3) the similarity in metal mass ratios between storm water and air particulates in contrast to the dissimilarity of metal mass ratios between storm water and precipitation or alluvial sediment. The strong correlation of Mg with Fe and Al

  3. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  4. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Erin N.; Chen, Aimin; Ryan, Patrick; Succop, Paul; Wright, John; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban–rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003–2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3–4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  5. Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of fine particulate organic carbon in Hong Kong during high particulate matter episodes in winter 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Chun; Yu, Jian Zhen; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Schauer, James J.; Yuan, Zibing; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Louie, Peter K. K.

    2013-02-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at six general stations and one roadside station in Hong Kong in two periods of high particulate matter (PM) in 2003 (27 October-4 November and 30 November-13 December). The highest PM2.5 reached 216 μg m- 3 during the first high PM period and 113 μg m- 3 during the second high PM period. Analysis of synoptic weather conditions identified individual sampling days under dominant influence of one of three types of air masses, that is, local, regional and long-range transported (LRT) air masses. Roadside samples were discussed separately due to heavy influences from vehicular emissions. This research examines source apportionment of fine organic carbon (OC) and contribution of secondary organic aerosol on high PM days under different synoptic conditions. Six primary OC (POC) sources (vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, cooking, cigarette smoke, vegetative detritus, and coal combustion) were identified on the basis of characteristic organic tracers. Individual POC source contributions were estimated using chemical mass balance model. In the roadside and the local samples, OC was dominated by the primary sources, accounting for more than 74% of OC. In the samples influenced by regional and LRT air masses, secondary OC (SOC), which was approximated to be the difference between the total measured OC and the apportioned POC, contributed more than 54% of fine OC. SOC was highly correlated with water-soluble organic carbon and sulfate, consistent with its secondary nature.

  6. Impact of fugitive sources and meteorological parameters on vertical distribution of particulate matter over the industrial agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbová, Kristína; Raclavská, Helena; Bílek, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize vertical distribution of particulate matter, in an area well known by highest air pollution levels in Europe. A balloon filled with helium with measuring instrumentation was used for vertical observation of air pollution over the fugitive sources in Moravian-Silesian metropolitan area during spring and summer. Synchronously, selected meteorological parameters were recorded together with particulate matter for exploration its relationship with particulate matter. Concentrations of particulate matter in the vertical profile were significantly higher in the spring than in the summer. Significant effect of fugitive sources was observed up to the altitude ∼255 m (∼45 m above ground) in both seasons. The presence of inversion layer was observed at the altitude ∼350 m (120-135 m above ground) at locations with major source traffic load. Both particulate matter concentrations and number of particles for the selected particle sizes decreased with increasing height. Strong correlation of particulate matter with meteorological parameters was not observed. The study represents the first attempt to assess the vertical profile over the fugitive emission sources - old environmental burdens in industrial region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emission factors of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and levoglucosan from wood combustion in south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jorge; Farias, Oscar; Quiroz, Roberto; Yañez, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    In south-central Chile, wood stoves have been identified as an important source of air pollution in populated areas. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Chilean oak (Nothofagus oblique), and mimosa (Acacia dealbata) were burned in a single-chamber slow-combustion wood stove at a controlled testing facility located at the University of Concepción, Chile. In each experiment, 2.7-3.1 kg of firewood were combusted while continuously monitoring temperature, exhaust gases, burn rate, and collecting particulate matter samples in Teflon filters under isokinetic conditions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and levoglucosan analyses. Mean particulate matter emission factors were 2.03, 4.06, and 3.84 g/kg dry wood for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. The emission factors were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency. The mean emission factors of the sums of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle phases were 1472.5, 2134.0, and 747.5 μg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene were present in the particle phase in higher proportions compared with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that were analyzed. Mean levoglucosan emission factors were 854.9, 202.3, and 328.0 mg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Since the emissions of particulate matter and other pollutants were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency, implementing more efficient technologies would help to reduce air pollutant emissions from wood combustion. Residential wood burning has been identified as a significant source of air pollution in populated areas. Local wood species are combusted for home cooking and heating, which releases several toxic air pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Air pollutant emissions depend on the type of wood and the technology and operational conditions of the wood stove. A better understanding of emissions from

  8. Analysis of Phytosterols and N-Alkanols in Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter Collected in Vancouver During the Pacific 2001 Air Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, A.; Li, S.

    2002-12-01

    As part of Pacific 2001, HiVol samples were collected from 5 sites in the Vancouver area. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ACE), concentrated with nitrogen blow down, and separated into fractions by silica gel chromatography. For this portion of the study, an aliquot of one of the polar fraction was derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The results for n-alkanols and phytosterols will be reported and discussed. Previous studies have shown that the biogenic components of particulate matter are major constituents of the total organic material in atmospheric samples. Phytosterols are present in wood smoke, epicuticular waxes of many plants and microbial sources. In addition, cholesterol has been proposed as a potential tracer for emissions from cooking. The most abundant phytosterols are cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. It has been hypothesized that the phytosterol signature may be useful in identifying particulate matter from different source areas. The phytosterol signature for these samples will be reported and compared. The n-alkanol CPI and Cmax will also be reported. N-alkanols in atmospheric samples generally show a strong even to odd predominance indicating that their main source in particulate matter is biogenic. The n-alkanol signature for each sampling site will be compared.

  9. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter by instrumental neutron activation analysis and induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, Achmad; Djojosubroto, Harjoto; Rukihati; Sutisna

    1999-01-01

    Airborne particulate were collected using Gent sampler for PM 10 and using high volume sampler for total suspended particulate (TSP). PM 10 sampling was carried out in Bandung during period of January to December 1997. Whereas TSP samples were collected at Serpong (rural area) and Jakarta (urban area) during period of May and July 1995. The concentration of the PM 10 in the air is independent to the level of the rainfall. The levels of the PM 10 and the PM 2.5 are lower than the maximum permissible levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. The element detected using short lived radioactivity measurement in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were Al, Na, V, Mn, Br and Cl. Bromine concentration in both coarse and fine fractions was high, and the enrichment factor for bromine in these fraction was found between 2,000 - 10,000. The elemental concentrations of particulate matter obtained by ICP-MS was found that the Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, In, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, V and Zn in samples from Serpong area, were lower than those in samples taken from Jakarta area. The level of Pb concentrations in TSP samples from Serpong and Jakarta area were lower than Pb concentration proposed Indonesian standard of 2 μg/m 3 . The data obtained by INAA no significant different to those obtained by ICP-MS. Therefore comparative data can be obtained by these techniques. (author)

  10. Fine Particulate Matter Predictions Using High Resolution Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Koutrakis, Petros; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Nordio, Francesco; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Jujie; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    To date, spatial-temporal patterns of particulate matter (PM) within urban areas have primarily been examined using models. On the other hand, satellites extend spatial coverage but their spatial resolution is too coarse. In order to address this issue, here we report on spatial variability in PM levels derived from high 1 km resolution AOD product of Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm developed for MODIS satellite. We apply day-specific calibrations of AOD data to predict PM(sub 2.5) concentrations within the New England area of the United States. To improve the accuracy of our model, land use and meteorological variables were incorporated. We used inverse probability weighting (IPW) to account for nonrandom missingness of AOD and nested regions within days to capture spatial variation. With this approach we can control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM(sub 2.5) relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles and ground surface reflectance among others. Out-of-sample "ten-fold" cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of model predictions. Our results show that the model-predicted PM(sub 2.5) mass concentrations are highly correlated with the actual observations, with out-of- sample R(sub 2) of 0.89. Furthermore, our study shows that the model captures the pollution levels along highways and many urban locations thereby extending our ability to investigate the spatial patterns of urban air quality, such as examining exposures in areas with high traffic. Our results also show high accuracy within the cities of Boston and New Haven thereby indicating that MAIAC data can be used to examine intra-urban exposure contrasts in PM(sub 2.5) levels.

  11. Ion beam analyses of particulate matter in exhaust gas of a ship diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Yuichi, E-mail: furuyama@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukae-Minami-Machi, Higashinada-Ku, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan); Fujita, Hirotsugu; Taniike, Akira; Kitamura, Akira [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukae-Minami-Machi, Higashinada-Ku, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    There is an urgent need to reduce emission of the particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas from ship diesel engines causing various health hazards and serious environmental pollution. Usually the heavy fuel oil (HFO) for ships is of low quality, and contains various kinds of impurities. Therefore, the emission of PM along with exhaust gas from ship diesel engines is one of the most serious environmental issues. However, the PM fundamental properties are not well known. Therefore, it is important to perform elemental analysis of the PM. The HFO contains sulfur with a relatively high concentration of a few percent. It is important to make quantitative measurements of sulfur in the PM, because this element is poisonous for the human body. In the present work, PM samples were collected from exhaust gas of a test engine, and RBS and PIXE analyses were applied successfully to quantitative analysis of the PM samples. The RBS analysis enabled quantitative analysis of sulfur and carbon in the collected PM, while heavier elements such as vanadium and iron were analyzed quantitatively with the PIXE analysis. It has been found that the concentration ratio of sulfur to carbon was between 0.007 and 0.012, and did not strongly depend on the output power of the engine. The S/C ratio is approximately equal to the original composition of the HFO used in the present work, 0.01. From the known conversion ratio 0.015 of sulfur in the HFO to sulfates, the conversion ratio of carbon in the HFO to the PM is found to be 0.01-0.02 by the RBS measurements. On the other hand, the PIXE analysis revealed a vanadium enrichment of one order of magnitude in the PM.

  12. [Comparison of atmospheric particulate matter and aerosol optical depth in Beijing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai-Feng; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Wen-Yu; Wang, Yue-Si; Liu, Zi-Rui; Chen, Chuan-Lei

    2013-03-01

    The pollution of particulate matter was serious in Beijing City from the synchronous observation of particulate matter mass concentration and aerosol optical characteristics in 2009. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were (65 +/- 14) microg x m(-3) and (117 +/- 31) microg x m(-3), respectively, which exceeded the national ambient air quality annual standards to be implemented in 2016. There were 35% and 26% days of 2009 that the daily standards were exceeded. There was a significant correlation between fine particulate (PM2.5) and inhalable particle (PM10), with a correlation coefficient (R) of approximately 0.90 (P 500 nm) and Angstrom exponent were (0.55 +/- 0.1) and (1.12 +/- 0.08), respectively. There were significant correlations between PM2.5, PM10 and AOD in the four seasons and the whole year, and the correlation coefficients were greater than or equal to 0.50. Furthermore, the correlation functions and coefficients had seasonal variations. The correlations were more significant in summer and autumn than in spring and winter. The annual correlation could cover up the seasonal systematic differences. The correlations between AOD revised by Mixed Layer Height and PM2.5 PM10 revised by Relative Humidity became stronger, and the exponential correlations were superior to the linear correlations.

  13. A comprehensive study of the characterization of particulate matter emissions from a Delmarva broiler poultry operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shannon E.

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural practices, including those from animal feeding operations (AFO's) have become an increasingly important topic, and has generated considerable interest from local and state agencies, as well as, the local community over the past decade. Because of growth in population, and an increase in commercial and residential development within close proximity to these operations, which house a large number of animals in confinement, and because of a better understanding of the effects of exposure to airborne contaminants on health, this has lead to an increase in concerns and a demand for more research to be conducted on PM from AFO's. Particulate matter generated within, and emitted from, AFO's can carry with it various components including metals and microorganisms that can negatively affect health. This research was conducted in order to verify if PM from a broiler poultry operation on Delmarva has the potential to become a health concern. The first step was to determine concentrations of two size segregated fractions of PM from indoor and outdoor sampling sites over four seasonal periods, early summer (ES), late summer (LS), Fall (F), and Winter (W). Both PM10 and PM2.5 were collected because of their classification from the Environmental Protection Agency as having the ability to cause significant health effects with short-term exposure. Next, temporal and spatial characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on PM concentrations over the four seasonal periods. Following this, the chemical composition and morphology of PM10 and PM2.5 generated from the broiler poultry operation was investigated. Finally, further detailed information was obtained on arsenic speciation and oxidation state in PM to investigate toxicity. Arsenic use in the poultry industry has been occurring for a number of decades, and is most frequently administered in the organic form. However, studies have shown that these organo

  14. Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metassan, Sofian; Routledge, Michael N; Ariens, Robert A S; Scott, D Julian

    2009-01-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed

  15. Origin and composition of particulate organic matter in a macrotidal turbid estuary: The Gironde Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, Nicolas; David, Valérie; Morisseau, François; Etcheber, Henri; Abril, Gwenaël; Billy, Isabelle; Charlier, Karine; Oggian, Georges; Derriennic, Hervé; Sautour, Benoît

    2012-08-01

    At the interface between continent and ocean, estuaries receive particles, and especially particulate organic matter (POM) originating from these two reservoirs, but also produce POM, through autochthonous primary production. The origin and composition of surface POM in the Gironde Estuary (SW France) and the environmental forcing of its variability was investigated using the data set produced by the French Coastal Monitoring Network SOMLIT (Service d'Observation en Milieu LITtoral; monthly like sampling during years 2007-2009). This estuary is considered as a model of macrotidal turbid estuaries. Using elemental and isotopic composition of the POM, we estimated that, at the inner estuary space scale and inter-annual time scale, surface particulate organic carbon (POC) was composed of terrestrial POM originated from the turbidity maximum (96.4%; refractory POC) and flood events (1.6%; labile and refractory POC), and of riverine (0.1%), estuarine (0.8%) and marine (1.1%) phytoplankton, i.e. that POC was 98% and 2% of terrestrial and phytoplankton origin, respectively. However, there was a clear spatial gradient: the phytoplankton contribution increases from ca. 1% in the upper and middle estuary to 8.5% in the lower estuary, where light condition is more favourable to plankton growth. The low contribution of phytoplankton to the POC is a characteristic of the Gironde estuary and contrast with other large temperate estuaries. Statistical analysis indicates that salinity, river flow and SPM concentration, and thus associated hydro-dynamic and sedimentary processes, were the only environmental forcings to the composition of surface POC in this system, at intra- and inter-annual time scale. In contrast, temperature and nutrient concentrations, and thus associated processes, do not force this composition of POC. By combining POC fluxes entering the inner estuary (literature data), POC loss as dissolved organic carbon and CO2 and as sediment trapping within the inner

  16. Monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity in tobacco particulate matter: Are harman and norharman the only physiologically relevant inhibitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman, Penelope; Grounds, Peter; Brennan, Katharine A

    2017-03-01

    Monoamine oxidase inhibition is significant in smokers, but it is still unclear how the inhibition that is seen in the brains and bodies of smokers is brought about. Our aim was to test the contribution of the harman and norharman in tobacco smoke to MAO-A inhibition from tobacco smoke preparations, as part of a re-examination of harman and norharman as the cause of the inhibition of MAO-A inhibition in the brain. Tobacco smoke particulate matter and cigarette smoke particulate matter were prepared and the amounts of harman and norharman measured. The results were compared with the total monoamine oxidase-A inhibitory activity. At a nicotine concentration of 0.6μM (a "physiological" concentration in blood) the total monoamine oxidase-A inhibitory activity measured in these samples was sufficient to inhibit the enzyme by approximately 10%. Of this inhibitory activity, only a small proportion of the total was found to be due to harman and norharman. These results show that harman and norharman provide only a moderate contribution to the total monoamine oxidase-A inhibitory activity of tobacco smoke, perhaps under 10%. This suggests that other inhibitors (either known or unknown) may be more significant contributors to total inhibitory activity than has yet been established, and deserve closer examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Real-time measurement of indoor particulate matter originating from environmental tobacco smoke: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; Majno, Edoardo; Rossetti, Edoardo; Paredi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Short-term measurement of suspended particulate matter has been recently made possible since the release of laser-operating portable instruments. Data of a pilot study of field evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with a portable instrument are reported. We analysed the concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP) and of the fine particles PM10, PM7, PM2.5 and PM1 released indoor from a single cigarette, and their levels inside smoking- and non-smoking-areas of a restaurant. The results indicate that ETS creates high level indoor particulate pollution, with concentrations of PM10 exceeding air quality standards. This kind of field evaluation could allow a more careful assessing of short-term exposure to ETS and its relevance to public health.

  18. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of small cyclone separator to remove fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Han Gyul; Kim, Hong Seok [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A cyclone separator has been widely used in various industrial processes for removing fine particulate matter because it is easy to fabricate, cost effective, and adaptable to extremely harsh conditions. However, owing to the complex flow field in cyclones, a complete understanding of the detailed mechanisms of particulate removal has not yet been gained. In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed for calculating the collection efficiency and cut off size in cyclones by taking into account the effects of geometrical and flow parameters. The collection efficiency and cut off size values predicted by the theoretical model showed good agreement with experimental measurements for particles with a diameter of 0.5-30{mu}m. It was also revealed that the surface friction, along with the flow and geometrical parameters, has a significant effect on the cyclone performance.

  19. Toxicologically important trace elements and organic compounds investigated in size-fractionated urban particulate matter collected near the Prague highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sysalová, Jiřina; Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Száková, Jiřina; Trejtnarová, Hana; Kotlík, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    Urban particulate matter was collected in the most exposed area of Prague, near a busy highway, in order to provide petrographic and chemical characterization useful for health impact assessment in that locality or other applications. Samples were collected from filters of the air conditioning system in two years, 2009 and 2010, and sieved into four grain-size fractions: 0.507–0.119 mm, 0.119–0.063 mm, 3 extracted solutions. A composition of inorganic and carbonaceous particles of natural and anthropogenic origin and their morphology were studied by optical and electron microscopy. Organic solvent extracts of the samples were analyzed using gas chromatography to compare the organic compound distribution in fractions. Only slight differences between 2009 and 2010 years are visible. The relatively high extractable part of most investigated elements confirms mobility and potential availability to organisms. The changes can be recognized in the petrographic and organic composition in samples from both years, which were likely the result of various inputs of source materials. Specific organic marker compounds indicate contribution from fossil fuels, plant materials and bacteria. -- Highlights: ► Uncommon urban particulate matter collected near the highway in years 2009 and 2010 was deeply characterized. ► Harmful organic compounds and toxic analytes were tested in grain-size fractions and completed with electron microscopy studies. ► Very similar concentration levels were found in elemental composition in samples from two years. ► Petrographic and organic compositions were different in both samples. ► Relatively high mobility of selected analytes was found in 2M HNO 3 extracted solutions.

  20. A study of bacteria, fungi and biomass in particulate matter in ambient air of Khorramabad during summer and autumn 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hatam Godini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Particulate matter refers to the combination of atmospheric pollutants that a portion of this particulate is bioaerosol. The aim of this study was the evaluation of bacteria, fungi and biomass in particulate matter in ambient air of Khorramabad during summer and autumn 2012. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross sectional study that conducted in Khorramabad city during summer and fall 2012. Sampling has been done via high-volume sampler. The special cultures were used for cultivation and determination of fungal and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC (and Bradford method were used to determine bacteria and protein as biomass indicator, respectively. Relationship between these variables with metrological parameters was evaluated too. Results: The highest PM10 in July (257.18 µg/m3 and lowest in September (92.45 µg/m3 had been recorded. The highest amount of bacteria and fungi were measured as monthly in November (605 No/m3 and December (120 No/m3, respectively. The highest of protein concentration was measured in August, September and December (27-30 µg/m3. With the increase in PM10, biomass concentration in the air showed a meaningful increase. Conclusion: Biomass concentration in the air increased with increasing PM10 but it had no significant effect on the concentration of bacteria and fungi in the air. Meteorological factors such as temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation and the amount of exposure time had a significant impact on bioaerosol concentrations in the air.

  1. Analysis of Parent/Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Particulate Matter 2.5 Based on Femtosecond Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itouyama, Noboru; Matsui, Taiki; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Imasaka, Tomoko; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), collected from ambient air in Fukuoka City, was analyzed by gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using an ultraviolet femtosecond laser (267 nm) as the ionization source. Numerous parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs) were observed in a sample extracted from PM2.5, and their concentrations were determined to be in the range from 30 to 190 pg/m(3) for heavy PPAHs. Standard samples of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) were examined, and the limits of detection were determined to be in the picogram range. The concentration of NPAH adsorbed on PM2.5 in the air was less than 900-1300 pg/m(3). Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. Elemental analysis of air particulate samples in Jakarta area by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumiarti; Yusuf, M.; Mellawati, June; Menry, Yulizon; Surtipanti S

    1998-01-01

    Determination of elements in air particulate samples collected from Jakarta, especially from industrial area Pulo Gadung, also from residence, office, and recreation sites had been carried out. The samples collected periodically from August through December 1996. The elements were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were done using QXAS AXIL (Quantitative X-ray Analysis System of x-ray Spectra by Iterative Least squares fitting) and QAES (Quantitative Analyses of Environmental Samples) package program. Results of the analyses showed that the content of heavy metal elements in air particulate samples from all areas studied were still below the maximum permissible concentration. (authors)

  3. Respiratory morbidity associated with exposure to particulate matter in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Martínez. L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: it is assumed that prolonged exposure to airborne pollutants in the areas where people live or work can affect their respiratory systems. In order to demand for control measures aimed at protecting the community’s health, it is necessary to provide evidence for this claim. Methods: the respiratory morbidity of people living or working in urban areas of Medellín was analyzed (high particulate matter pollution. The average of PM10 is 60 µg/m3 and then compared with the respiratory morbidity of a matched sample of inhabitants living in the municipalities located in eastern Antioquia (low pollution. The average of PM10 is 30 µg/m3. Results: the groups that were compared were similar with respect to sociodemographic and other potential confounding variables. Upon comparing the two groups, a higher risk of respiratory signs and symptoms can be observed for subjects from the urban areas of Medellín. Nasal congestion, respiratory distress, and cough are the symptoms that occur in sharper contrast with relative risk of 2.60 95% CI (1.93, 3.62; 2.22 95% CI (1.56, 3.15 and 2.14 95% CI (1.63, 2.81 respectively. Conclusion: high pm10 levels as an indicator of air pollution in urban environments where people live and work contribute to a higher risk of respiratory disease. This implies adverse consequences both in economic and social terms. The control of such a situation hence becomes a social and professional priority.

  4. Mass spectral chemical fingerprints reveal the molecular dependence of exhaust particulate matters on engine speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Zongshan; Tian, Yong; Liu, Kun; Jie, Feifan; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Huanwen

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matters (PMs) emitted by automobile exhaust contribute to a significant fraction of the global PMs. Extractive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (EAPCI-MS) was developed to explore the molecular dependence of PMs collected from exhaust gases produced at different vehicle engine speeds. The mass spectral fingerprints of the organic compounds embedded in differentially sized PMs (e.g., 0.22-0.45, 0.45-1.00, 1.00-2.00, 2.00-3.00, 3.00-5.00, and 5.00-10.00μm) generated at different engine speeds (e.g., 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000r/min) were chemically profiled in the mass range of mass to charge ratio (m/z) 50-800. Organic compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, and esters, were detected in all the PMs tested, with varied concentration levels for each individual PM sample. At relatively low engine speeds (≤1500r/min), the total amount of organic species embedded in PMs of 0.22-1.00μm was greater than in PMs of other sizes, while more organic species were found in PMs of 5.00-10.00μm at high engine speeds (≥3000r/min), indicating that the organic compounds distributed in different sizes of PMs strongly correlated with the engine speed. The experimental data showed that the EAPCI-MS technique enables molecular characterization of PMs in exhaust, revealing the chemical dependence of PMs on the engine speeds (i.e., the combustion conditions) of automobiles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Trends in analytical techniques applied to particulate matter characterization: A critical review of fundaments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Elson Silva; Santos, Jane Meri; Lima, Ana Teresa; Reis, Neyval Costa; Orlando, Marcos Tadeu D'Azeredo; Stuetz, Richard Michael

    2018-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown the association of airborne particulate matter (PM) size and chemical composition with health problems affecting the cardiorespiratory and central nervous systems. PM also act as cloud condensation nuclei (CNN) or ice nuclei (IN), taking part in the clouds formation process, and therefore can impact the climate. There are several works using different analytical techniques in PM chemical and physical characterization to supply information to source apportionment models that help environmental agencies to assess damages accountability. Despite the numerous analytical techniques described in the literature available for PM characterization, laboratories are normally limited to the in-house available techniques, which raises the question if a given technique is suitable for the purpose of a specific experimental work. The aim of this work consists of summarizing the main available technologies for PM characterization, serving as a guide for readers to find the most appropriate technique(s) for their investigation. Elemental analysis techniques like atomic spectrometry based and X-ray based techniques, organic and carbonaceous techniques and surface analysis techniques are discussed, illustrating their main features as well as their advantages and drawbacks. We also discuss the trends in analytical techniques used over the last two decades. The choice among all techniques is a function of a number of parameters such as: the relevant particles physical properties, sampling and measuring time, access to available facilities and the costs associated to equipment acquisition, among other considerations. An analytical guide map is presented as a guideline for choosing the most appropriated technique for a given analytical information required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  7. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  8. Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Xiang, X

    2015-12-01

    There is mounting evidence documenting the adverse health effects of short- and long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, but population-based evidence linking PM2.5 and health behaviour remains lacking. This study examined the relationship between ambient PM2.5 air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults 18 years of age and above. Retrospective data analysis. Participant-level data (n = 2,381,292) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2011 surveys were linked with Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research air quality data by participants' residential county and interview month/year. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to examine the effect of ambient PM2.5 air pollution on participants' leisure-time physical inactivity, accounting for various individual and county-level characteristics. Regressions were estimated on the overall sample and subsamples stratified by sex, age cohort, race/ethnicity and body weight status. One unit (μg/m(3)) increase in county monthly average PM2.5 concentration was found to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 0.46% (95% confidence interval = 0.34%-0.59%). The effect was similar between the sexes but to some extent (although not always statistically significant) larger for younger adults, Hispanics, and overweight/obese individuals compared with older adults, non-Hispanic whites or African Americans, and normal weight individuals, respectively. Ambient PM2.5 air pollution is found to be associated with a modest but measurable increase in individuals' leisure-time physical inactivity, and the relationship tends to differ across population subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicological Implications of Released Particulate Matter during Thermal Decomposition of Nano-Enabled Thermoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Wright, Christa; Singh, Dilpreet; Demokritou, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Nano-enabled thermoplastics are part of the growing market of nano-enabled products (NEPs) that have vast utility in several industries and consumer goods. The use and disposal of NEPs at their end of life has raised concerns about the potential release of constituent engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) during thermal decomposition and their impact on environmental health and safety. To investigate this issue, industrially relevant nano-enabled thermoplastics including polyurethane, polycarbonate, and polypropylene containing carbon nanotubes (0.1 and 3% w/v, respectively), polyethylene containing nanoscale iron oxide (5% w/v), and ethylene vinyl acetate containing nanoscale titania (2 and 5% w/v) along with their pure thermoplastic matrices were thermally decomposed using the recently developed lab based Integrated Exposure Generation System (INEXS). The life cycle released particulate matter (called LCPM) was monitored using real time instrumentation, size fractionated, sampled, extracted and prepared for toxicological analysis using primary small airway epithelial cells to assess potential toxicological effects. Various cellular assays were used to assess reactive oxygen species and total glutathione as measurements of oxidative stress along with mitochondrial function, cellular viability, and DNA damage. By comparing toxicological profiles of LCPM released from polymer only (control) with nano-enabled LCPM, potential nanofiller effects due to the use of ENMs were determined. We observed associations between NEP properties such as the percent nanofiller loading, host matrix, and nanofiller chemical composition and the physico-chemical properties of released LCPM, which were linked to biological outcomes. More specifically, an increase in percent nanofiller loading promoted a toxicological response independent of increasing LCPM dose. Importantly, differences in host matrix and nanofiller composition were shown to enhance biological activity and toxicity of LCPM

  10. Mobile Monitoring of Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure within Five Urban Microenvironments, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, P. J.; Bennett, B. A.; George, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a hazardous air pollutant linked to mortality and morbidity outcomes including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and adverse respiratory effects. The EPA's Air Toxics Assessment indicated that more than 50% of Oregonians are exposed to 10 times the ambient benchmark concentration (ABC) of 0.1 μgm-3 for DPM. These model estimates have not been verified with measurements, potentially limiting policy action. We developed a mobile monitoring platform to ground-truth model predictions and characterize DPM spatial variation. Using black carbon (BC) as a marker, concentrations within five urban microenvironments (a construction site, an arterial, a bus mall, a city park, and an indoor workspace) were sampled within Portland, OR. The mobile monitoring platform consisted of a bicycle and trailer equipped with an aethalometer measuring BC mass, a Data Ram 4 measuring total PM2.5 mass, and a Q-Starz GPS recording location; each instrument was monitoring in 1 second intervals. Concentrations of BC were used as an indicator of DPM. The construction site had the highest DPM concentration (7 μg m-3). The indoor workspace and the park had the lowest DPM (0.3 μg m-3). Near the construction site, DPM constituted approximately 50% of the total PM2.5. However, at the park, DPM was attributed to only 6% of the total PM2.5, while the indoor space constituted 15%. Concentrations of BC near construction sites were observed to exceed 67 times the state ABC of 0.1 μg m-3 (Figure). These results signify the need to better characterize the urban exposure to DPM, as even the cleanest microenvironments may be 3 times above the ABC. Our mobile monitoring platform will help further elucidate how local-scale sources contribute to the broader distribution of DPM within Portland, while providing a tool for both residents and DEQ to effectively mitigate the health impacts from DPM exposure.

  11. A mouse dry eye model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Tan, Gang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yahong; Wu, Anhua; Yang, Qichen; Ye, Lei; Shao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    To introduce a novel dry eye mouse model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10 (PM 10 ). A total of 60 male BALB/c mice were used in this study and divided into two groups: group A (PBS eye drops, n=30) and group B (PM 10 eye drop group, n=30). Each treatment was dosed four times a day, every time 50ul with the concentration of 5mg/ml PM10, for 14 consecutive days in the right eye. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were measured before therapy and 4, 7 and 14days post-treatment respectively, which included the tear volume, tear break-up (BUT) time, corneal fluorescein staining, rose bengal staining, Lissamine Green staining and inflammatory index. Eye samples were collected on D14 and examined by histologic light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), corneal cytokeration 10 (K10) immunnostaining, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB Western Blot analysis. At 0d, 7d and 14d, there were no statistical changes in tear volume, BUT after treatment (P>0.05) with PBS in group A. In group B, all items showed statistical differences at each time point (Plevels of K10 and reduced number of goblet cells in the conjunctival fornix in group B. PM 10 significantly increased the levels of TNF-α, NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB in the cornea. PM 10 can damage the tear film function and cause the destruction of the structural organization of ocular surface in mice. Topical administration of PM 10 in mice induces ocular surface changes that are similar to those of dry eye in humans, representing a novel model of DES. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Local and regional sources of fine and coarse particulate matter based on traffic and background monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify local and exogenous sources affecting particulate matter (PM) levels in five major cities of Northern Europe namely: London, Paris, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Stockholm. Besides local emissions, PM profile at urban and suburban areas of the European Union (EU) is also influenced by regional PM sources due to atmospheric transport, thus geographical city distribution is of a great importance. At each city, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 air pollution data from two air pollution monitoring stations of the EU network were used. Different background characteristics of the selected two sampling sites at each city facilitated comparisons, providing a more exact analysis of PM sources. Four source apportionment methods: Pearson correlations among the levels of particulates and gaseous pollutants, characterisation of primal component analysis components, long-range transport analysis and extrapolation of PM size distribution ratios were applied. In general, fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles were highly correlated, thus common sources are suggested. Combustion-originated gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2) were strongly associated to PM10 and PM2.5, primarily at areas severely affected by traffic. On the contrary, at background stations neighbouring important natural sources of particles or situated in suburban areas with rural background, natural emissions of aerosols were indicated. Series of daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed that minimum fraction values were detected during warm periods, due to higher volumes of airborne biogenic PM coarse, mainly at stations with important natural sources of particles in their vicinity. Hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model was used, in order to extract 4-day backward air mass trajectories that arrived in the five cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances. At all five cities, a significantly large fraction of those trajectories were classified

  13. Biogeochemical consequences of vertical and lateral transport of particulate organic matter in the southern North Sea: A multiproxy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Guitton, M.; Soetaert, K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical and lateral transports are of importance in continental shelf systems such as the North Sea andplay a major role in the processing of organic matter. We investigated the biogeochemical consequencesof these transports on particulate organic matter at the molecular level in the southern North

  14. Biogeochemical consequences of vertical and lateral transport of particulate organic matter in the southern North Sea: A multiproxy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Guitton, M.; Soetaert, K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical and lateral transports are of importance in continental shelf systems such as the North Sea and play a major role in the processing of organic matter. We investigated the biogeochemical consequences of these transports on particulate organic matter at the molecular level in the southern

  15. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATION AND EMISSION FACTOR IN THREE DIFFERENT LAYING HEN HOUSING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 concentration in three different laying hens houses (traditional battery cages with aerated open manure storage, aviary system and vertical tiered cages with manure belts with forced air drying and to evaluate particulate matter emission into atmosphere during one year of observation. Internal and external temperature and relative humidity, ventilation rate, PM10 concentration have been continuously monitored in order to evaluate particulate matter concentration changes during the day and the season and to define PM10 emission factors. PM10 concentration was corrected by gravimetric technique to lower measurements error. In the aviary system house, TSP and fine particulate matter (particles smaller than 2.5 micron concentration was measured. Average yearly PM10 concentration was remarkably higher in the aviary system house with 0.215 mg m-3 vs 108 mg m-3 for the ventilated belt house and vs 0.094 mg m-3 for the traditional battery cages house. In the Aviary system housing, TSP concentration was 0.444 mg m-3 and PM2.5 was 0.032 mg m-3, highlighting the existence of a severe working environment for men and animals. Recorded values for PM10 emission were 0.433 mg h-1 hen-1 for battery cages housing type, 0.081 mg h-1 hen-1 for ventilated belt cages house, values lower than those available in literature, while the aviary system housing type showed the highest PM10 emission (1.230 mg h-1 hen-1 with appreciable peaks during the morning, together with the increased animal activity and daily farmer operations, as feed administration, cleaning and droppings removal.

  16. PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L μg(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources.

  17. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity properties of particulate matter fraction 2.5 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełcik, Maciej K.; Trusz-Zdybek, Agnieszka; Zaczyńska, Ewa; Czarny, Anna; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    In the ambient is more than 2,000 chemical substances, some of them are absorbed on the surface of the particulate matter and may causes many health problems. Air pollution is responsible for more than 3.2 million premature deaths which classifies it as a second place environmental risk factor. Especially dangerous for health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro- and amino derivatives which shows mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Air pollutions were also classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer to group which carcinogenic properties on human were proved by available knowledge. Air pollutions, including particulate matter are one of the biggest problem in Polish cities. World Health Organization in report published in May 2016 set many of Polish cities on the top of the list most polluted in European Union. The article presents results of mutagenicity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity researches conducted on a particulate matter fraction 2.5 μm collected during all year long in Wroclaw agglomeration. The material were collected on filters using high-flow air aspirator and extracted using dichloromethane. Additionally it was fractionated into 2 parts containing: all pollutants and only polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dry residue of this fractions were dissolving in DMSO and tested using biological methods. Biological methods include mutagenicity properties which are investigated by Salmonella assay (Ames assay). Other biological method was comet assay and 4 parameter cytotoxicity test PAN-I assay. Results of the conducted experiments shows differences in mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties between seasons of collection and between volume of dust pollutions fractions. The worst properties shows particles collected in autumn and winter season and this containing only polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons. Results showed also some correlations in results obtained during different methods and properties.

  18. Particulate Matter Resuspension in Mississippi Bight Evaluated with CONCORDE's Synthesis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S. J.; Quas, L. M.; Miles, T. N.; Pan, C.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Soto Ramos, I. M.; Greer, A. T.; Church, I.; Wiggert, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The CONsortium for oil spill exposure pathways in COastal River-Dominated Ecosystems (CONCORDE) was established to investigate the complex fine-scale biological, chemical and physical interactions in a marine system controlled by pulsed-river plume dynamics. During CONCORDE's spring 2016 field campaign, the In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) on the R/V Point Sur and the Scanfish on the R/V Pelican comprehensively characterized the physical and biological structure in the region. Increased suspended particulate matter was observed by the ISIIS, with concentrations at depth sufficient to completely occlude the in situ images of planktonic organisms. Data was also collected on the continental shelf during the spring cruise by the RU31 glider in the proximity of the Mississippi River Delta, east of the ISIIS / Scanfish transects. Backscatter and salinity observed by the Scanfish and glider showed elevated suspended particulate matter and increased salinity, suggesting a linkage to shoreward advection from the continental shelf of oceanic waters that are sufficiently energetic to drive sediment resuspension. As part of the CONCORDE research effort, a four-dimensional biogeochemical/lower trophic level synthesis model for Mississippi Sound and Bight has been developed, based on the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System. This study utilizes CONCORDE's synthesis model to investigate the physical forcing mechanisms affecting the increased suspended particulate matter concentration observed in the Mississippi Bight during spring 2016, and advection pathways between estuarine and shelf waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results show that episodic, advection-driven resuspension is a critical aspect controlling suspended sediment distributions in Mississippi Bight, which has implications for observed spatio-temporal patterns of planktonic species.

  19. Monitoring diesel particulate matter and calculating diesel particulate densities using Grimm model 1.109 real-time aerosol monitors in underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbal, Kyle C; Pahler, Leon; Larson, Rodney; VanDerslice, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is no Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)-approved sampling method that provides real-time results for ambient concentrations of diesel particulates. This study investigated whether a commercially available aerosol spectrometer, the Grimm Portable Aerosol Spectrometer Model 1.109, could be used during underground mine operations to provide accurate real-time diesel particulate data relative to MSHA-approved cassette-based sampling methods. A subset was to estimate size-specific diesel particle densities to potentially improve the diesel particulate concentration estimates using the aerosol monitor. Concurrent sampling was conducted during underground metal mine operations using six duplicate diesel particulate cassettes, according to the MSHA-approved method, and two identical Grimm Model 1.109 instruments. Linear regression was used to develop adjustment factors relating the Grimm results to the average of the cassette results. Statistical models using the Grimm data produced predicted diesel particulate concentrations that highly correlated with the time-weighted average cassette results (R(2) = 0.86, 0.88). Size-specific diesel particulate densities were not constant over the range of particle diameters observed. The variance of the calculated diesel particulate densities by particle diameter size supports the current understanding that diesel emissions are a mixture of particulate aerosols and a complex host of gases and vapors not limited to elemental and organic carbon. Finally, diesel particulate concentrations measured by the Grimm Model 1.109 can be adjusted to provide sufficiently accurate real-time air monitoring data for an underground mining environment.

  20. Microbial Biomarkers for Native and Agricultural Soil Inputs to Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. M.; Herckes, P.; Fraser, M. P.; Collins, J.; Van Mooy, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Intense dust storms (haboobs) erode desert soils and cause dramatic short-term increases in particulate matter (PM) concentration in the atmosphere. Background atmospheric PM levels in the southwestern United States also commonly exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, so episodic haboobs and normal weather patterns both contribute to aeolian transport. We analyzed fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM>2.5) dust fractions sampled in Tempe, Arizona for molecular biomarkers indicative of dust sourced from either native or agricultural soils. We focused on pigments and intact polar lipids (IPLs) that were also in soil crusts collected in the region. The PM samples were taken during two weeks (23 July to 5 August 2014) that included two haboobs during the first week and mostly calm weather with minor rainfall during the second week. We detected scytonemin, a diagnostic pigment biomarker for cyanobacteria, in all PM>2.5 samples, but its concentration was highest in haboob dust. Similarly, scytonemin was only abundant in PM2.5 samples taken during haboobs. Scytonemin is an important component of native biological soil crusts, protecting the crust community from UV radiation, and is ca. two orders of magnitude less abundant in disturbed agricultural soils. In biological soil crusts, scytonemin is associated with extracellular polysaccharides that are produced by cyanobacteria and bind soil into cohesive crusts. The association between scytonemin and haboobs suggests that native soil erosion is facilitated by high energy, episodic events that overcome crust cohesion. IPLs were abundant in agricultural soil crusts and included phosphatidylethanolamine from soil bacteria and a glucosylceramide from fungi. These compounds had similar concentration in haboob and background dust, suggesting agricultural or otherwise disturbed soils contribute more to ambient dust. In this study, we employed a new high resolution mass spectrometric method that produces molecular formulas and

  1. Speciation of copper and zinc in size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter using total reflection mode X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osan, Janos; Meirer, Florian; Groma, Veronika; Toeroek, Szabina; Ingerle, Dieter; Streli, Christina; Pepponi, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The health effects of aerosol depend on the size distribution and the chemical composition of the particles. Heavy metals of anthropogenic origin are bound to the fine aerosol fraction (PM 2.5 ). The composition and speciation of aerosol particles can be variable in time, due to the time-dependence of anthropogenic sources as well as meteorological conditions. Synchrotron-radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) provides very high sensitivity for characterization of atmospheric particulate matter. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectrometry in conjunction with TXRF detection can deliver speciation information on heavy metals in aerosol particles collected directly on the reflector surface. The suitability of TXRF-XANES for copper and zinc speciation in size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter from a short sampling period is presented. For high size resolution analysis, atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at different urban and rural locations using a 7-stage May cascade impactor having adapted for sampling on Si wafers. The thin stripe geometry formed by the particulate matter deposited on the May-impactor plates is ideally suited to SR-TXRF. Capabilities of the combination of the May-impactor sampling and TXRF-XANES measurements at HASYLAB Beamline L to Cu and Zn speciation in size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter are demonstrated. Information on Cu and Zn speciation could be performed for elemental concentrations as low as 140 pg/m 3 . The Cu and Zn speciation in the different size fraction was found to be very distinctive for samples of different origin. Zn and Cu chemical state typical for soils was detected only in the largest particles studied (2-4 μm fraction). The fine particles, however, contained the metals of interest in the sulfate and nitrate forms.

  2. Comparison of the extraction efficiencies of different leaching agents for reliable assessment of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar A.; Limbeck A.

    2013-01-01

    In present study, an in-vitro physiologically based extraction test has been applied for extraction of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter (APM) samples collected from different urban sites in Austria and Pakistan using the leaching agents H2O, sodium chloride, ammonium acetate, ammonium citrate, synthetic gastric juice and artificial lung fluids. Obtained extracts were then measured using an ETV-ICP-OES procedure which allowed highly sensitive measurement of d...

  3. Source apportionment of carbonaceous particulate matter during haze days in Shanghai based on the radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannan Wei; Jialiang Feng; Detao Xiao

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the sources of carbonaceous particulate matter, "1"4C and biomass-burning marker (levoglucosan) were measured in the form of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM_2_._5 that was collected in five different functional districts of Shanghai during winter 2013. Spatial variations of the contemporary proportion among different districts were evident. The results of levoglucosan in Xujiahui (XH) and Chongming (CM) agreed well with those of "1"4C. The results indicate that environmental protection policies should vary for functional districts within the same city to account for their different sources of emissions. (author)

  4. Particulate Matter and Gaseous Pollutions in Three Metropolises along the Chinese Yangtze River: Situation and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mao; Zhang, Xiaolin; Yin, Yan

    2018-05-28

    The situation of criteria atmospheric pollutants, including particulate matter and trace gases (SO₂, NO₂, CO and O₃), over three metropolises (Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing), representing the upstream, midstream and downstream portions of the Yangtze River Basin from September 2015 to August 2016 were analyzed. The maximum annual mean PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations were 61.3 and 102.7 μg/m³ in Wuhan, while highest annual average gaseous pollutions occurred in Nanjing, with 49.6 and 22.9 ppb for 8 h O₃ and NO₂, respectively. Compared to a few years ago, SO₂ and CO mass concentrations have dropped to well below the qualification standards, and the O₃ and NO₂ concentrations basically meet the requirements though occasionally is still high. In contrary, about 13%, 25%, 22% for PM 2.5 , and 4%, 17%, 15% for PM 10 exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (CAAQS) Grade II. Particulate matter, especially PM 2.5 , is the most frequent major pollutant to poor air quality with 73%, 64% and 88% accounting for substandard days. Mean PM 2.5 concentrations on PM 2.5 episode days are 2⁻3 times greater than non-episode days. On the basis of calculation of PM 2.5 /PM 10 and PM 2.5 /CO ratios, the enhanced particulate matter pollution on episode days is closely related to secondary aerosol production. Except for O₃, the remaining five pollutants exhibit analogous seasonal patterns, with the highest magnitude in winter and lowest in summer. The results of back trajectories show that air pollution displays synergistic effects on local emissions and long range transport. O₃ commonly demonstrated negative correlations with other pollutants, especially during winter, while moderate to strong positive correlation between particulate matter and NO₂, SO₂, CO were seen. Compared to pollutant substandard ratios over three megacities in eastern China (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou), the situation in our studied second-tier cities are also severe. The

  5. Evaluation of total suspended particulate matter in some urban and industrial cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, M.A.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental studies are very important as the living beings depend greatly on the conditions of the environment. Air is an important component of the environment, which greatly affects the health of humans, animals and plants. Environmental problems in Pakistan are growing with the rise in total sectorial growth in population, economy and industrialization. In connection with atmospheric pollution, measurement of the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Wah Cantt. and Khanispur (background area) has been carried out and compared to that of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Standards. (author)

  6. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Some Operating Diesel Engine Variables on Emitted Particulate Matters (PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Saleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world’s goods, power much of the world’s equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population. This experimental study has been conducted with direct injection diesel engine and particulate matters (PM concentrations were measured at variable operating variables. The results show that PM concentrations influence by changing equivalence ratio, load, engine speed and injection timing

  7. Composition of airborne particulate matter in the industrial area versus mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Sýkorová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research of air pollution in two different locations on the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. These are the sites Ostrava-Radvanice, which is located in the area affected by the industry and Ostravice in the mountains (without significant effect of the industry. The dust particles collected at these locations were subjected to a wide range of analyses. The mass concentration, the mass-size distribution, mineralogical composition, the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the concentrations of selected metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Ni, Co, and Cr were observed at the particulate matter.

  8. Optical properties of size fractions of suspended particulate matter in littoral waters of Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mohammadpour

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass-specific absorption (ai∗(λ and scattering (bi∗(λ coefficients were derived for four size fractions (i =  0.2–0.4, 0.4–0.7, 0.7–10, and > 10 µm, λ = wavelength in nm of suspended particulate matter (SPM and with samples obtained from surface waters (i.e., 0–2 m depth of the Saint Lawrence Estuary and Saguenay Fjord (SLE-SF during June of 2013. For the visible–near-infrared spectral range (i.e., λ = 400–710 nm, mass-specific absorption coefficients of total SPM (i.e., particulates > 0.2 µm (hereafter aSPM∗ had low values (e.g., < 0.01 m2 g−1 at λ = 440 nm in areas of the lower estuary dominated by particle assemblages with relatively large mean grain size and high particulate organic carbon and chlorophyll a per unit of mass of SPM. Conversely, largest aSPM∗ values (i.e., > 0.05 m2 g−1 at λ = 440 nm corresponded with locations of the upper estuary and SF where particulates were mineral-rich and/or their mean diameter was relatively small. The variability of two optical proxies (the spectral slope of particulate beam attenuation coefficient and the mass-specific particulate absorption coefficient, hereafter γ and Svis, respectively with respect to changes in particle size distribution (PSD and chemical composition was also examined. The slope of the PSD was correlated with bi∗(550 (Spearman rank correlation coefficient ρs up to 0.37 and ai∗(440 estimates (ρs up to 0.32 in a comparable way. Conversely, the contribution of particulate inorganic matter to total mass of SPM (FSPMPIM had a stronger correlation with ai∗ coefficients at a wavelength of 440 nm (ρs up to 0.50. The magnitude of γ was positively related to FSPMi or the contribution of size fraction i to the total mass of SPM (ρs up to 0.53 for i = 0.2–0.4 µm. Also, the relation between γ and FSPMPIM variability was secondary (ρs = −0.34, P > 0.05. Lastly, the magnitude

  9. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of possible health impact of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djojosubroto, Harjoto; Supriatna, Dadang; Kumolowati, Endang; Widjajakusuma, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Various processes in an industry may produce gases and fine airborne particulate matters. Elements and hazardous chemicals in the fine particulate matters may enter the human body through inhalation and direct contact with the skin. Excessive inhalation and contact with the fine airborne particulate matter may lead to intoxication due to excessive intake of the hazardous chemicals and toxic elements. The elements will be accumulated in human organs, such as liver, kidneys and brain, manifest in clinical syndromes such as hypertension, renal failure and neurological symptoms and signs. The absorbed elements are excreted through the urinary tract as urine. They also can be excreted through hair and nails. Elevated blood and urinary aluminum levels have been observed after occupational exposure to various aluminum compounds. This phenomenon indicates the absorption through inhalation, as there are no data indicating significant dermal absorption for aluminum. Absorption of chromium compounds in the workplace occurs mainly through inhalation. The absorption is dependent on the valence and solubility of the particular chromium species. Some elements such as trivalent chromium ions are readily cleared from the blood, but hexavalent chromium ions are retained much longer in the blood. The aluminum compounds vary greatly in their toxic and carcinogenic effects. Although the trivalent chromium is readily excreted, continuous intake may cause the blood chromium level to be higher than normal. These elements may either have an deleterious effect on, or be considered essential for human health. In this study, the levels and health effects of airborne particulate matter in the workplace are assessed by elemental quantification of blood, hair and nail of workers in a metal industry and in airborne particulate samples that are collected at the workplace. The present report represents progress of activities following the first Research Co-ordination Meeting 1997 in Vienna

  10. PIXE characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter collected during the winter season in Shanghai city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Wang Yingsong; Li Delu; Li Aiguo; Li Yan; Zhang Guilin

    2006-01-01

    The samples of PM2.5 and PM10 inhalable particulate matter had been collected during the period of December 2002-January 2003 at nineteen representative sites of Shanghai urban and suburb area in order to investigate the chemical characterization of aerosol particle in winter. The samples were analyzed to determine the average concentrations for up to twenty elements by means of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). It was found that the average elemental concentrations in the urban center are higher than those in the suburb, except for Ti and P. The particulate mass data demonstrate that the ratio range of PM2.5/PM10 is from 0.32 to 0.85 and its average ratio is 0.6. The result of the enrichment factor shows that the inhalable particles may be divided into two categories, i.e., soil elements from the earth crust and anthropogenic pollution elements. It is noticed that toxic or harmful elements such as S, As, Pb, Ni, Mn and Se are enriched mainly in fine particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm. The fingerprints of major pollution sources such as coal (or oil) burning, vehicle exhaust emission and industry are also presented and discussed. (author)

  11. Biomass Burning Smoke Climatology of the United States: Implications for Particulate Matter Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfus, Aaron S; Nair, Udaysankar; Jaffe, Daniel; Christopher, Sundar A; Goodrick, Scott

    2017-10-17

    We utilize the NOAA Hazard Mapping System smoke product for the period of 2005 to 2016 to develop climatology of smoke occurrence over the Continental United States (CONUS) region and to study the impact of wildland fires on particulate matter air quality at the surface. Our results indicate that smoke is most frequently found over the Great Plains and western states during the summer months. Other hotspots of smoke occurrence are found over state and national parks in the southeast during winter and spring, in the Gulf of Mexico southwards of the Texas and Louisiana coastline during spring season and along the Mississippi River Delta during the fall season. A substantial portion (20%) of the 24 h federal standard for particulate pollution exceedance events in the CONUS region occur when smoke is present. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations continue to reduce anthropogenic emissions, wildland fire emissions will become the major contributor to particulate pollution and exceedance events. In this context, we show that HMS smoke product is a valuable tool for analysis of exceptional events caused by wildland fires and our results indicate that these tools can be valuable for policy and decision makers.

  12. Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

    2014-11-18

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  13. Assessment of impact distances for particulate matter dispersion: A stochastic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, S.M.; Mores, P.L.; Santa Cruz, A.S.M.; Scenna, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that pollutants can be dispersed from the emission sources by the wind, or settled on the ground. Particle size, stack height, topography and meteorological conditions strongly affect particulate matter (PM) dispersion. In this work, an impact distance calculation methodology considering different particulate sizes is presented. A Gaussian-type dispersion model for PM that handles size particles larger than 0.1 μm is used. The model considers primary particles and continuous emissions. PM concentration distribution at every affected geographical point defined by a grid is computed. Stochastic uncertainty caused by the natural variability of atmospheric parameters is taken into consideration in the dispersion model by applying a Monte Carlo methodology. The prototype package (STRRAP) that takes into account the stochastic behaviour of atmospheric variables, developed for risk assessment and safe distances calculation [Godoy SM, Santa Cruz ASM, Scenna NJ. STRRAP SYSTEM - A software for hazardous materials risk assessment and safe distances calculation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 2007;92(7):847-57] is enlarged for the analysis of the PM air dispersion. STRRAP computes distances from the source to every affected receptor in each trial and generates the impact distance distribution for each particulate size. In addition, a representative impact distance value to delimit the affected area can be obtained. Fuel oil stack effluents dispersion in Rosario city is simulated as a case study. Mass concentration distributions and impact distances are computed for the range of interest in environmental air quality evaluations (PM 2.5 -PM 10 ).

  14. Air quality in terms of particulate matter (PM10) and element components in Antananarivo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Rakotondramanana, H.T.; Rasoazanany, E.O.; Randriamanivo, L.V.; Rasolofonirina, M.; Razafy Andrianarivo, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the size distribution of toxic elements, undesirables ones and PM10 in the aerosols of Antananarivo urban areas using Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence. This work was carried out in the framework of Co-ordinated Research Program organised by the IAEA in 1998. The air sampler DICHOTOMOUS was used for sampling, with which two types of aerosols could be obtained: respirable aerosols or fine particles (aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 μm PM-2 ,5 ) and inhalable or coarse particles (aerodynamic diameter from 2.5 μm to 10μm PM 10 ). Samples were taken from six sampling sites, namely Ambohidahy tunnel, Ambanidia tunnel, Andravoahangy, Soarano, Mahamasina and Ankorondrano. Then, they were digested with acid digestion bomb. The results showed the presence of elements such as sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl), kalium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), lead (Pb) in the aerosols. Their concentrations are higher in respirable particles. For classical air pollutant components, particularly lead and PM10, the 1.8 μg.m -3 mean concentration value of lead is largely higher than 0.5μg. m -3 , which is the WHO (World Health organization) adopted value, and above the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) maximum admissible one (1.5 μg.m -3 ) as well. Regarding the size distribution of lead, the results showed that the small particles were mainly enriched in lead. The same observation can also be stated for PM10 with a 240 μg.m -3 mean concentration value , higher than 150 μg.m - 3 , adopted by the two above-mentioned organizations. Therefore, the Antananarivo urban area is classified as saturated zone for both parameters (lead and particulate matter). In addition, the results of Mason enrichment factors showed that the elements such as sulfur (S), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), bromine (Br), and lead (Pb) are from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The elements such as kalium (K), chlorine (Cl), calcium (Ca

  15. Design and laboratory testing of a new flow-through directional passive air sampler for ambient particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun; Solera Garcia, Maria Angeles; Timmis, Roger; Jones, Kevin C

    2011-03-01

    A new type of directional passive air sampler (DPAS) is described for collecting particulate matter (PM) in ambient air. The prototype sampler has a non-rotating circular sampling tray that is divided into covered angular channels, whose ends are open to winds from sectors covering the surrounding 360°. Wind-blown PM from different directions enters relevant wind-facing channels, and is retained there in collecting pools containing various sampling media. Information on source direction and type can be obtained by examining the distribution of PM between channels. Wind tunnel tests show that external wind velocities are at least halved over an extended area of the collecting pools, encouraging PM to settle from the air stream. Internal and external wind velocities are well-correlated over an external velocity range of 2.0-10.0 m s⁻¹, which suggests it may be possible to relate collected amounts of PM simply to ambient concentrations and wind velocities. Measurements of internal wind velocities in different channels show that velocities decrease from the upwind channel round to the downwind channel, so that the sampler effectively resolves wind directions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed on a computer-generated model of the sampler for a range of external wind velocities; the results of these analyses were consistent with those from the wind tunnel. Further wind tunnel tests were undertaken using different artificial particulates in order to assess the collection performance of the sampler in practice. These tests confirmed that the sampler can resolve the directions of sources, by collecting particulates preferentially in source-facing channels.

  16. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  17. Can particulate organic matter reveal emerging changes in soil organic carbon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Magnus; Kirchmann, Holger; Magid, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    different cropping systems, N fertilizer applications, and organic amendments, we found that C and N in the fine to medium sand fraction (0.063-0.600 mm, "Fraction B") showed considerably larger relative errors according to ANOVA (RMSE was 11-20% of the mean), slightly lower values of the F statistic......This study assessed whether particulate organic matter (POM) in sand fractions, isolated by wet sieving after treatment with Na hexametaphosphate, can be a sensitive indicator of incipient changes in the content and composition of soil organic matter. In five long-term field experiments including......, and slightly less contrast between treatments than total organic C and N (RMSE 3-9% of the mean). Imprecision in laboratory procedures only explained part of the increase in RMSE for C and N in Fraction B compared with total C and N; within-field spatial variability most likely had a greater influence...

  18. Assessing the Performance of a Network of Low Cost Particulate Matter Sensors Deployed in Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A. D.; Brown, S. G.; McCarthy, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    A new generation of low cost air quality sensors have the potential to provide valuable information on the spatial-temporal variability of air pollution - if the measurements have sufficient quality. This study examined the performance of a particulate matter sensor model, the AirBeam (HabitatMap Inc., Brooklyn, NY), over a three month period in the urban environment of Sacramento, California. Nineteen AirBeam sensors were deployed at a regulatory air monitoring site collocated with meteorology measurements and as a local network over an 80 km2 domain in Sacramento, CA. This study presents the methodology to evaluate the precision, accuracy, and reliability of the sensors over a range of meteorological and aerosol conditions. The sensors demonstrated a robust degree of precision during collocated measurement periods (R2 = 0.98 - 0.99) and a moderate degree of correlation against a Beta Attenuation Monitor PM2.5 monitor (R2 0.6). A normalization correction is applied during the study period so that each AirBeam sensor in the network reports a comparable value. The role of the meteorological environment on the accuracy of the sensor measurements is investigated, along with the possibility of improving the measurements through a meteorology weighted correction. The data quality of the network of sensors is examined, and the spatial variability of particulate matter through the study domain derived from the sensor network is presented.

  19. Theoretical research of probability of wedging of particulate matters at polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Molchanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of formation of mikroprofile of the polished surface is expounded taking into account influence of particulate matters, contained in lubricating-coolings liquids. Probability of wedging of abrasive particles is investigational in the area of contact of diamond-impregnated with the surface of detail. It is set that for determination of probability of event, when a particle, getting together with a liquid in the area of contact, abandons track-scratch on a superficial layer, it is necessary to take into account, that three mutual locations of hard particle are possible in the area of contact of diamond-impregnated with the surface of detail. It is set researches, that a hard particle, getting together with a liquid in the area of contact, abandons track-scratch on-the-spot in that case, when the sizes of particle are equal or a few exceed distance from the surface of detail to the ledges on-the-spot diamond-impregnated. Researches allow mathematically to define probability of wedging of particulate matters in the area of contact of diamond-impregnated with the surface of the polished detail.

  20. Results of measurements of particulate matter concentrations inside a pig fattening facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulens, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. This research note discusses the results of measurements of particulate matter concentrations inside a pig fattening facility. Objectives. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the correlations between the different size fractions of indoor particulate matter (PM inside a pig fattening facility and to investigate the evolution of particle size distribution (PSD through a fattening period and between two housing systems and two cleaning protocols. Method. Data from two consecutive fattening periods in a commercial pig barn were used. Results. Very high correlations were found between PM10 and PM2.5 indoor concentrations. Depending on the measuring instrument, high or low correlations were found between PM1 and PM10 or PM2.5 indoor concentrations. No differences in PSD could be found between the two housing systems or the two cleaning protocols. Conclusions. The results from the present study showed high correlations between the indoor concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. In the present study, no differences in PSD were found.

  1. A Prototype Sensor for In Situ Sensing of Fine Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee-Loon; Kai, Fuu-Ming; Tee, Ming-Hui; Tan, Nicholas; Hemond, Harold F

    2018-01-18

    Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic) capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2.5 from incense burning inside the chamber was measured using the AtmOptic. The weight of PM2.5 particles was collected and measured with a filter to determine their concentration and the sensor signal-to-concentration correlation. The results of the AtmOptic were also compared and found to trend well with the Dylos DC 1100 Pro air quality monitor. The absorbance spectrum of VOCs emitted from various laboratory chemicals and household products as well as a two chemical mixtures were recorded. The quantification was demonstrated, using toluene as an example, by calibrating the AtmOptic with compressed gas standards containing VOCs at different concentrations. The results demonstrated the sensor capabilities in measuring PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds.

  2. Exploration Mission Particulate Matter Filtration Technology Performance Testing in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Mccormick, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human deep space exploration missions will require advances in long-life, low maintenance airborne particulate matter filtration technology. As one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) developments in this area, a prototype of a new regenerable, multi-stage particulate matter filtration technology was tested in an International Space Station (ISS) module simulation facility. As previously reported, the key features of the filter system include inertial and media filtration with regeneration and in-place media replacement techniques. The testing facility can simulate aspects of the cabin environment aboard the ISS and contains flight-like cabin ventilation system components. The filtration technology test article was installed at the inlet of the central ventilation system duct and instrumented to provide performance data under nominal flow conditions. In-place regeneration operations were also evaluated. The real-time data included pressure drop across the filter stages, process air flow rate, ambient pressure, humidity and temperature. In addition, two video cameras positioned at the filtration technology test articles inlet and outlet were used to capture the mechanical performance of the filter media indexing operation under varying air flow rates. Recent test results are presented and future design recommendations are discussed.

  3. Temperature modifies the health effects of particulate matter in Brisbane, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cizao; Tong, Shilu

    2006-11-01

    A few epidemiological studies have examined whether there was an interactive effect between temperature and ambient particulate matter on cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality, but the results were inconsistent. The present study used three time-series approaches to explore whether maximum temperature modified the impact of ambient particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10) on daily respiratory hospital admissions, cardiovascular hospital admissions, respiratory emergency visits, cardiovascular emergency visits, non-external cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in Brisbane between 1996 and 2001. The analytical approaches included a bivariate response surface model, a non-stratification parametric model and a stratification parametric model. Results show that there existed a statistically significant interaction between PM10 and temperature on most health outcomes at various lags. PM10 exhibited more adverse health effects on warm days than cold days. The choice of the degree of freedom for smoothers to adjust for confounders and the selection of arbitrary cut-offs for temperature affected the interaction estimates to a certain extent, but did not change the overall conclusion. The results imply that it is important to control and reduce the emission of air particles in Brisbane, particularly when temperature increases.

  4. Intracerebral haemorrhage associated with hourly concentration of ambient particulate matter: case-crossover analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, S; Nitta, H; Ono, M; Green, J; Fukuhara, S

    2007-01-01

    To examine the association of hourly time lagged concentration of ambient particulate matter and death due to stroke. Mortality data for five years (January 1990 to December 1994) were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan. Data were used only if the deceased was 65 years old or older at the time of death, if death was attributed to intracerebral haemorrhage or ischaemic stroke, and if the deceased lived in one of 13 major urban areas. Hourly mean concentrations of PM7, NO2, and photochemical oxidants were measured at monitoring stations in the 13 areas. Time stratified case-crossover analysis was used to examine the data for evidence of triggering stroke mortality. The 1-hour mean concentration of PM7 measured about 2 hours before death was associated with the risk of death due to intracerebral haemorrhage from April to September (odds ratio = 2.40, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.89, for exposure to PM7 of more than 200 microg/m3 (threshold)). The higher risk was independent of the 24-hour mean concentration of PM7. PM7 was not associated with death due to ischaemic stroke. Transiently high concentrations of PM7 are associated with death due to intracerebral haemorrhage. Air quality standards or guidelines for particulate matter should be based not only on 24-hour mean concentrations, but also on hourly data.

  5. Intracerebral haemorrhage associated with hourly concentration of ambient particulate matter: case‐crossover analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, S; Nitta, H; Ono, M; Green, J; Fukuhara, S

    2007-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of hourly time lagged concentration of ambient particulate matter and death due to stroke. Methods Mortality data for five years (January 1990 to December 1994) were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan. Data were used only if the deceased was 65 years old or older at the time of death, if death was attributed to intracerebral haemorrhage or ischaemic stroke, and if the deceased lived in one of 13 major urban areas. Hourly mean concentrations of PM7, NO2, and photochemical oxidants were measured at monitoring stations in the 13 areas. Time stratified case‐crossover analysis was used to examine the data for evidence of triggering stroke mortality. Results The 1‐hour mean concentration of PM7 measured about 2 hours before death was associated with the risk of death due to intracerebral haemorrhage from April to September (odds ratio = 2.40, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.89, for exposure to PM7 of more than 200 μg/m3 (threshold)). The higher risk was independent of the 24‐hour mean concentration of PM7. PM7 was not associated with death due to ischaemic stroke. Conclusions Transiently high concentrations of PM7 are associated with death due to intracerebral haemorrhage. Air quality standards or guidelines for particulate matter should be based not only on 24‐hour mean concentrations, but also on hourly data. PMID:16847037

  6. Autoxidation as a major player in the fate of terrestrial particulate organic matter in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeron, Marie-Aimée.; Radakovitch, Olivier; Charrière, Bruno; Vaultier, Frédéric; Rontani, Jean-François

    2017-05-01

    The Rhône River plays a major role in the Mediterranean Sea, being both its main freshwater source and its major particulate matter provider. This survey of the fate of terrestrial particulate organic matter (POM) was conducted along the salinity gradient of the Rhône River plume, between 2012 and 2014. It revealed that autoxidation acts rapidly and intensely upon the POM's arrival at sea, with α-amyrin and β-amyrin autoxidation rates going from 12.9 ± 2.9% to 45.0 ± 6.4% and 10.7 ± 4.0% to 50.3 ± 4.4%, respectively, between fresh water (salinity 0) and seawater (salinity 38). These compounds, being unambiguous markers of the terrestrial origin of POM, allow us to unequivocally characterize the POM as terrestrial. While it was originally believed that a desorption of redox-active trace metal ions was the favoring factor that kick-started this intense autoxidation, this study evidences no trace metal desorption in the Rhône River mixing zone and hence no correlation between high autoxidation rates and the presence of trace metal ions. Autoxidation rates however were very well correlated with salinity levels within the river plume, with r2 reaching 0.801, 0.962, and 0.943 for sitosterol, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin, respectively, in November 2014.

  7. Composition and Sources of Particulate Matter Measured near Houston, TX: Anthropogenic-Biogenic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. Bean

    2016-05-01

    Full T