WorldWideScience

Sample records for particulate matter emissions

  1. Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Simões Amaral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission factor is a relative measure and can be used to estimate emissions from multiple sources of air pollution. For this reason, data from literature on particulate matter emission factors from different types of biomass were evaluated in this paper. Initially, the main sources of particles were described, as well as relevant concepts associated with particle measurements. In addition, articles about particle emissions were classified and described in relation to the sampling environment (open or closed and type of burned biomass (agricultural, garden, forest, and dung. Based on this analysis, a set of emission factors was presented and discussed. Important observations were made about the main emission sources of particulate matter. Combustion of compacted biomass resulted in lower particulate emission factors. PM2.5 emissions were predominant in the burning of forest biomass. Emission factors were more elevated in laboratory burning, followed by burns in the field, residences and combustors.

  2. A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, research on filtering of DPM(diesel particulate matter) has been carried out. Through the research, it was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  3. Particulate matter emissions of different brands of mentholated cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerharz, Julia; Bendels, Michael H K; Braun, Markus; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A; Mueller, Ruth

    2018-01-09

    Inhaling particulate matter (PM) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) endangers the health of nonsmokers. Menthol, an additive in cigarettes, attenuates respiratory irritation of tobacco smoke. It reduces perceptibility of smoke and therefore passive smokers may inhale ETS unnoticed. To investigate a possible effect of menthol on PM concentrations (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 ), ETS of four mentholated cigarette brands (Elixyr Menthol, Winston Menthol, Reyno Classic, and Pall Mall Menthol Blast) with varying menthol content was analyzed. ETS was generated in a standardized way using an automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE), followed by laser aerosol spectrometry. This analysis shows that the tested cigarette brands, despite having different menthol concentrations, do not show differences with regard to PM emissions, with the exception of Reyno Classic, which shows an increased emission, although the menthol level ranged in the midfield. More than 90% of the emitted particles had a size smaller than or equal to 1 µm. Regardless of the menthol level, the count median diameter (CMD) and the mass median diameter (MMD) were found to be 0.3 µm and 0.5 µm, respectively. These results point out that there is no effect of menthol on PM emission and that other additives might influence the increased PM emission of Reyno Classic. Particulate matter (PM) in ETS endangers the health of nonsmokers and smokers. This study considers the effect of menthol, an additive in cigarettes, on PM emissions. Does menthol increase the amount of PM? Due to the exposure to secondhand smoke nearly 900,000 people die each year worldwide. The aim of the study is to measure the particle concentration (L -1 ), mass concentration (µg m -3 ), and dust mass fractions shown as PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 of five different cigarette brands, including four with different menthol concentrations and one menthol-free reference cigarette, in a well-established standardized system.

  4. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  5. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  6. Particulate matter emission from livestock houses: measurement methods, emission levels and abatement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Animal houses are extremely dusty environments. Airborne particulate matter (PM) poses a health threat not only to the farmer and the animals, but, as a result of emissions from ventilation systems, also to residents living in livestock farming areas. In relation to this problem, the objectives

  7. Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-López, M.; Winkel, A.; Harn, van J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of ionization in reducing particulate and gaseous emissions in broiler houses and its effect on particle size distribution. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of the tested ionization system and its influence on bird performance. The experiment was done during two

  8. Emission Sectoral Contributions of Foreign Emissions to Particulate Matter Concentrations over South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.; Cho, J. H.; Woo, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the contributions of major emission source categories located upwind of South Korea to Particulate Matter (PM) in South Korea. In general, air quality in South Korea is affected by anthropogenic air pollutants emitted from foreign countries including China. Some studies reported that foreign emissions contributed 50 % of annual surface PM total mass concentrations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea in 2014. Previous studies examined PM contributions of foreign emissions from all sectors considering meteorological variations. However, little studies conducted to assess contributions of specific foreign source categories. Therefore, we attempted to estimate sectoral contributions of foreign emissions from China to South Korea PM using our air quality forecasting system. We used Model Inter-Comparison Study in Asia 2010 for foreign emissions and Clean Air Policy Support System 2010 emission inventories for domestic emissions. To quantify contributions of major emission sectors to South Korea PM, we applied the Community Multi-scale Air Quality system with brute force method by perturbing emissions from industrial, residential, fossil-fuel power plants, transportation, and agriculture sectors in China. We noted that industrial sector was pre-dominant over the region except during cold season for primary PMs when residential emissions drastically increase due to heating demand. This study will benefit ensemble air quality forecasting and refined control strategy design by providing quantitative assessment on seasonal contributions of foreign emissions from major source categories.

  9. Fine particulate matter (PM) and organic speciation of fireplace emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, C.R.; McCrillis, R.C.; Kariher, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an ongoing project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10 microm (PM10) consist primarily of a mixture of organic compounds that have condensed into droplets; therefore, the size distribution and total mass are influenced by temperature of the sample during its collection. During the series 1 tests (15 tests), the dilution tunnel used to cool and dilute the stack gases gave an average mixed gas temperature of 47.3 C and an average dilution ration of 4.3. Averages for the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 microm) and PM10 fractions were 74 and 84%, respectively. For the series 2 tests, the dilution tunnel was modified, reducing the average mixed gas temperatures to 33.8 C and increasing the average dilution ratio to 11.0 in tests completed to date. PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 83 and 91%, respectively. Since typical winter-time mixed gas temperatures would usually be less than 10 C, these size fraction results probably represent the lower bound; the PM10 and PM2.5 size fraction results might be higher at typical winter temperatures. The particles collected on the first stage were light gray and appeared to include inorganic ash. Particles collected on the remainder of the stages were black and appeared to be condensed organics because there was noticeable lateral bleeding of the collected materials into the filter substrate. Total particulate emission rates ranged from 10.3 to 58.4 g/h; corresponding emission factors ranged from 3.3 to 14.9 g/kg of dry wood burned. A wide range of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8270 semivolatile organic compounds were found in the emissions; of the 17 target compounds quantified, major constituents are phenol, 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, and naphthalene

  10. Characteristics of particulate matter emissions from toy cars with electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Williams, Brent J; Biswas, Pratim

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from toy cars with electric motors were characterized. Particle emission rates from the toy cars, as high as 7.47×10(7) particles/s, were measured. This emission rate is lower than other indoor sources such as smoking and cooking. The particles emitted from toy cars are generated from spark discharges inside the electric motors that power the toy cars. Size distribution measurements indicated that most particles were below 100 nm in diameter. Copper was the dominant inorganic species in these particles. By deploying aerosol mass spectrometers, high concentrations of particulate organic matter were also detected and characterized in detail. Several organic compounds were identified using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography. The mass size distribution of particulate organic matter was bimodal. The formation mechanism of particulate organic matter from toy cars was elucidated. A possible new source of indoor air pollution, particles from electric motors in toy cars, was identified. This study characterized aerosol emissions from toy cars in detail. Most of these particles have a diameter less than 100 nm. Copper and some organics are the major components of these particles. Conditions that minimize these emissions were determined.

  11. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  12. Air emission in France. Metropolitan area particulate matter; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole poussieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Substances and index currently in survey are: Particulate matter: Total suspended particulates (TSP), Fine particulates with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}), 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}) and 1.0 {mu}m (PM{sub 1.0}). Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Annual emissions are provided for each substance since 1990. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. Results are provisional for 2001. (author)

  13. Sensitive emission spectrometric method for the analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimae, A.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive emission spectrometric method for the routine analysis of airborne particulate matter collected on the glass fiber filter is reported. The method is a powder--dc arc technique involving no chemical pre-enrichment procedures. The elements--Ag, BA: Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, Y, Yb, and Zn--were determined. (U.S.)

  14. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  15. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  16. An evaluation of fuels and retrofit diesel particulate filters to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions in an underground mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wattrus, MC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an industry wide collaborative project, this paper explores what potential exists for South African underground mines to reduce diesel particulate emissions, where the starting point is a mine using older engine technology (Tier 1 emission...

  17. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATION AND EMISSION FACTOR IN THREE DIFFERENT LAYING HEN HOUSING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 concentration in three different laying hens houses (traditional battery cages with aerated open manure storage, aviary system and vertical tiered cages with manure belts with forced air drying and to evaluate particulate matter emission into atmosphere during one year of observation. Internal and external temperature and relative humidity, ventilation rate, PM10 concentration have been continuously monitored in order to evaluate particulate matter concentration changes during the day and the season and to define PM10 emission factors. PM10 concentration was corrected by gravimetric technique to lower measurements error. In the aviary system house, TSP and fine particulate matter (particles smaller than 2.5 micron concentration was measured. Average yearly PM10 concentration was remarkably higher in the aviary system house with 0.215 mg m-3 vs 108 mg m-3 for the ventilated belt house and vs 0.094 mg m-3 for the traditional battery cages house. In the Aviary system housing, TSP concentration was 0.444 mg m-3 and PM2.5 was 0.032 mg m-3, highlighting the existence of a severe working environment for men and animals. Recorded values for PM10 emission were 0.433 mg h-1 hen-1 for battery cages housing type, 0.081 mg h-1 hen-1 for ventilated belt cages house, values lower than those available in literature, while the aviary system housing type showed the highest PM10 emission (1.230 mg h-1 hen-1 with appreciable peaks during the morning, together with the increased animal activity and daily farmer operations, as feed administration, cleaning and droppings removal.

  18. The effect of diesel properties on the emissions of particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, A; Torres, J; Herrera, J; Sarmiento, J

    2000-01-01

    An evaluation was carried out on the effect that modifying some properties of Colombian diesel fuel, such as final boiling point (FBP), density and sulfur content, has on the emissions of particulate matter (PM). Four diesel engines with different technologies and work capacity were used for the evaluation. Different alternatives to modify the properties of commercial diesel fuel, from the fuel treatment viewpoint, as well as that of the incorporation or segregation of some of the streams from the pool at the Barrancabermeja refinery were studied. The particulate matter was measured using a partial flow (AVL-SPC472) Constant volume sampler (CVS) with following the 13-step steady state European cycle and the ECE-R49 European guideline. The tests were performed at the Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo. (ICP) test cell in the city of Bucaramanga, Colombia. General tendencies show reductions of up to 25% in PM emissions when final boiling point and sulfur content are reduced. But levels of reduction vary from one engine to another depending on technology and working time. As a baseline, the emission levels of the commercial diesel fuel for each engine are used, and as a reference the results obtained are compared with the EURO I and II European standards defined for the emission levels of heavy duty engines

  19. Particulate Matter from the Road Surface Abrasion as a Problem of Non-Exhaust Emission Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Penkała

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with house heating and industry, emissions from road traffic (exhaust and tire, brake, car body or road surface abrasions are one of the primary sources of particulate matter (PM in the atmosphere in urban areas. Though numerous regulations and vehicle-control mechanisms have led to a significant decline of PM emissions from vehicle exhaust gases, other sources of PM remain related to road and car abrasion are responsible for non-exhaust emissions. Quantifying these emissions is a hard problem in both laboratory and field conditions. First, we must recognize the physicochemical properties of the PM that is emitted by various non-exhaust sources. In this paper, we underline the problem of information accessibility with regards to the properties and qualities of PM from non-exhaust sources. We also indicate why scarce information is available in order to find the possible solution to this ongoing issue.

  20. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    WP-201317) Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-volatile Particulate Matter (PM... Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) E. Corporan, M. DeWitt, C. Klingshirn, M.D. Cheng, R. Miake-Lye, J. Peck...the performance and viability of two devices to condition aircraft turbine engine exhaust to allow the accurate measurement of total (volatile and non

  1. Review, improvement and harmonisation of the Nordic particulate matter air emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M; Boll Illerup, J [Aarhus Univ. National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) (Denmark); Kindbom, K; Sjodin, AA [Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) (Sweden); Saarinen, K; Mikkola-Pusa, J [Finlands Miljoecentral (SYKE) (Finland); Aasestad, K [Statistisk Sentralbyraa (SSB) (Norway); Hallsdottir, B [Environmental and Food Agency Iceland (IS); Makela, K [Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland)

    2010-12-15

    In this study the Nordic particulate matter (PM) emission inventories are compared and for the most important sources - residential wood burning and road transport - a quality analysis is carried out based on PM measurements conducted and models used in the Nordic countries. All the institutions in charge of the work on emission inventories in the Nordic countries have participated in this project together with researchers performing PM measurements in the residential and transport sectors in the Nordic countries in order to increase the quality of the PM national inventories. The ratio between the reported emissions of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} was calculated for each country. Norway has the largest share of PM{sub 2.5} compared to PM{sub 10} (88 %), whereas Finland has the lowest (66 %). Denmark and Sweden are right in the middle with 73 and 76 %, respectively. The completeness of the inventories was assessed with particular emphasis on the categories where emissions were reported by one or more countries, while the other categories reported notation keys. It is found that the PM emission inventories generally are complete and that the sources reported as not estimated only are expected to have minor contributions to the total PM emissions. The variability of emission factors for residential wood combustion is discussed and it is illustrated that the emission factors can vary by several orders of magnitude. (Author)

  2. Determination of inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and working areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profumo, A.; Spini, G.; Cucca, L.; Pesavento, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica Gen., Pavia (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A sequential extraction procedure for separating and determining Be(0), soluble Be(II) inorganic compounds, BeO and beryllium silicates in samples, such as particulate matter of emissions and working areas, has been developed. The proposed procedure has been tested on synthetic samples prepared with the inorganic beryllium compounds, in the presence of atmospherical particulate matter sampled in a laboratory, previously checked for the absence of beryllium. The speciation was then repeated on a sample of fly ash deriving from a solid waste incinerator and on a reference material (Coal Fly ash SRM 1633a, by NIST), followed by an evaluation of matrix spiking and recovery analyses. Performing multiple analyses of the spiked samples assessed the repeatability of the procedure. Quantitative determinations have been made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The possible interferences of the most common ions have been investigated. The selective sequential extractions allow one to separate and to determine different inorganic beryllium species, to which a different toxicity and therefore, a different risk are related: it is the case for example of metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide.

  3. Emissions from residential energy use dominate exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conibear, L.; Butt, E. W.; Knote, C. J.; Arnold, S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) is a leading cause of disease burden in India. Information on the source contributions to the burden of disease attributable to ambient PM2.5 exposure is critical to support the national and sub-national control of air pollution. Previous studies analysing the contributions of different emission sectors to disease burden in India have been limited by coarse model resolutions and a lack of extensive PM2.5 observations before 2016. We use a regional numerical weather prediction model online-coupled with chemistry, evaluated against extensive surface observations, to make the first high resolution study of the contributions of seven emission sectors to the disease burden associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. We find that residential energy use is the dominant contributing emission sector. Removing air pollution emissions from residential energy use would reduce population-weighted annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations by 52%, reducing the number of premature mortalities caused by exposure to ambient PM2.5 by 26%, equivalent to 268,000 (95% uncertainty interval (95UI): 167,000-360,000) lives every year. The smaller fractional reduction in mortality burden is due to the non-linear exposure-response relationship at the high PM2.5 concentrations observed across India and consequently large reductions in emissions are required to reduce the health burden from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. Keywords: ambient air quality, India, residential energy use, health impact, particulate matter, WRF-Chem

  4. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

  5. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  7. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerosol emissions from prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States were measured and compared to emissions from laboratory burns with fuels collected from the site. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, and aerosol light scattering and absorption were characte...

  8. Particulate matter emissions from biochar-amended soils as a potential tradeoff to the negative emission potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sujith; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Li, Junran; Olshevski, Stuart; Meng, Zhongju; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, the particulate matter emission potential of a sand and two agriculturally important soils amended with different concentrations of biochar, in comparison to control soils. Our results indicate that biochar application considerably increases particulate emissions possibly by two mechanisms-the accelerated emission of fine biochar particles and the generation and emission of fine biochar particles resulting from abrasion of large biochar particles by sand grains. Our study highlights the importance of considering the background soil properties (e.g., texture) and geomorphological processes (e.g., aeolian transport) for biochar-based carbon sequestration programs.

  9. Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Jalkanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust emissions of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS, which enable the positioning of ship emissions with a high spatial resolution (typically a few tens of metres. The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2. This paper addresses a substantial extension of the modelling system, to allow also for the mass-based emissions of particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO. The presented Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model (STEAM2 allows for the influences of accurate travel routes and ship speed, engine load, fuel sulphur content, multiengine setups, abatement methods and waves. We address in particular the modeling of the influence on the emissions of both engine load and the sulphur content of the fuel. The presented methodology can be used to evaluate the total PM emissions, and those of organic carbon, elemental carbon, ash and hydrated sulphate. We have evaluated the performance of the extended model against available experimental data on engine power, fuel consumption and the composition-resolved emissions of PM. We have also compared the annually averaged emission values with those of the corresponding EMEP inventory, As example results, the geographical distributions of the emissions of PM and CO are presented for the marine regions of the Baltic Sea surrounding the Danish Straits.

  10. Power plant emissions: particulate matter-related health damages and the benefits of alternative emission reduction scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, C.

    2004-06-15

    This report estimates the avoidable health effects of each of a series of alternative regulatory scenarios for power plants, focusing on the adverse human health effects due to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) This report uses the same analytical methods that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used in 2003 to prepare an analysis of the potential health effects of the proposed Clear Skies Act (EPA 2003). This report conducts an analysis of the impacts in 2010 and 2020 of three policy alternatives to the proposed Clear Skies Act, The Jeffords/Lieberman/Collins 'The Clean Power Act', S. 366, and the EPA August 2001 Straw Proposal (one of several alternatives EPA analyzed prior to the announcement of the Clear Skies Initiative in 2002). The report also examines the health impacts associated with the total emissions from coal fired electricity generating units in 2010. Chapter 2 describes the emissions inventory estimates, and the changes in the emissions associated with each scenario analyzed. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to estimate changes in particulate matter concentrations. Chapter 4 describes general issues arising in estimating and valuing changes in adverse health effects associated with changes in particulate matter. Chapter 5 describes in some detail the methods used for estimating and valuing adverse health effects, and Chapter 6 presents the results of these analyses. Chapter 7 presents estimates of the impact of these alternative policy options on the PM non-attainment status. 117 refs., 21 figs., 32 tabs., 3 apps.

  11. Particulate matter emission modelling based on soot and SOF from direct injection diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, P.Q.; Hu, Z.Y.; Deng, K.Y.; Lu, J.X.; Lou, D.M.; Wan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emission is one of the major pollutants from diesel engines, and it is harmful for human health and influences the atmospheric visibility. In investigations for reducing PM emission, a simulation model for PM emission is a useful tool. In this paper, a phenomenological, composition based PM model of direct injection (DI) diesel engines has been proposed and formulated to simulate PM emission. The PM emission model is based on a quasi-dimensional multi-zone combustion model using the formation mechanisms of the two main compositions of PM: soot and soluble organic fraction (SOF). First, the quasi-dimensional multi-zone combustion model is given. Then, two models for soot and SOF emissions are established, respectively, and after that, the two models are integrated into a single PM emission model. The soot emission model is given by the difference between a primary formation model and an oxidation model of soot. The soot primary formation model is the Hiroyasu soot formation model, and the Nagle and Strickland-Constable model is adopted for soot oxidation. The SOF emission model is based on an unburned hydrocarbons (HC) emission model, and the HC emission model is given by the difference between a HC primary formation model and a HC oxidation model. The HC primary formation model considers fuel injected and mixed beyond the lean combustion limit during ignition delay and fuel effusing from the nozzle sac volume at low pressure and low velocity. In order to validate the PM emission model, experiments were performed on a six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled DI diesel engine. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, which indicates the validity of the PM emission model. The calculation results show that the distinctions between PM and soot formation rates are mainly in the early combustion stage. The SOF formation has an important influence on the PM formation at lower loads, and soot formation dominates the

  12. Emission characteristics and chemical components of size-segregated particulate matter in iron and steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Yao, Sen; Xu, Tiebing; Zhang, Tingting; Ma, Yuetao; Wang, Hongliang; Duan, Wenjiao

    2018-06-01

    As one of the highest energy consumption and pollution industries, the iron and steel industry is regarded as a most important source of particulate matter emission. In this study, chemical components of size-segregated particulate matters (PM) emitted from different manufacturing units in iron and steel industry were sampled by a comprehensive sampling system. Results showed that the average particle mass concentration was highest in sintering process, followed by puddling, steelmaking and then rolling processes. PM samples were divided into eight size fractions for testing the chemical components, SO42- and NH4+ distributed more into fine particles while most of the Ca2+ was concentrated in coarse particles, the size distribution of mineral elements depended on the raw materials applied. Moreover, local database with PM chemical source profiles of iron and steel industry were built and applied in CMAQ modeling for simulating SO42- and NO3- concentration, results showed that the accuracy of model simulation improved with local chemical source profiles compared to the SPECIATE database. The results gained from this study are expected to be helpful to understand the components of PM in iron and steel industry and contribute to the source apportionment researches.

  13. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pozzer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5, with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3 released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by  ∼ 250 000 people yr−1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  14. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, Andrea; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; de Meij, Alexander; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-10-01

    A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3) released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by ˜ 250 000 people yr-1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  15. A Comparison of the Health Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution from Five Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J. Hime

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly reviews evidence of health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution from five common outdoor emission sources: traffic, coal-fired power stations, diesel exhaust, domestic wood combustion heaters, and crustal dust. The principal purpose of this review is to compare the evidence of health effects associated with these different sources with a view to answering the question: Is exposure to PM from some emission sources associated with worse health outcomes than exposure to PM from other sources? Answering this question will help inform development of air pollution regulations and environmental policy that maximises health benefits. Understanding the health effects of exposure to components of PM and source-specific PM are active fields of investigation. However, the different methods that have been used in epidemiological studies, along with the differences in populations, emission sources, and ambient air pollution mixtures between studies, make the comparison of results between studies problematic. While there is some evidence that PM from traffic and coal-fired power station emissions may elicit greater health effects compared to PM from other sources, overall the evidence to date does not indicate a clear ‘hierarchy’ of harmfulness for PM from different emission sources. Further investigations of the health effects of source-specific PM with more advanced approaches to exposure modeling, measurement, and statistics, are required before changing the current public health protection approach of minimising exposure to total PM mass.

  16. Final report for measurement of primary particulate matter emissions from light-duty motor vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbeck, J. M.; Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of a particulate emissions study conducted at the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) from September of 1996 to August of 1997. The goal of this program was to expand the database of particulate emissions measurements from motor vehicles to include larger numbers of representative in-use vehicles. This work was co-sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was part of a larger study of particulate emissions being conducted in several states under sponsorship by CRC. For this work, FTP particulate mass emission rates were determined for gasoline and diesel vehicles, along with the fractions of particulates below 2.5 and 10 microns aerodynamic diameter. A total of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel-fueled vehicles were tested as part of the program.

  17. Impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on the simulated response of ozone and fine particulate matter to anthropogenic emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Christian; Isukapalli, Sastry S; Tang, Xiaogang; Georgopoulos, Panos G; He, Shan; Zalewsky, Eric E; Hao, Winston; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Key, Tonalee; Sistla, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    The role of emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitric oxide from biogenic sources is becoming increasingly important in regulatory air quality modeling as levels of anthropogenic emissions continue to decrease and stricter health-based air quality standards are being adopted. However, considerable uncertainties still exist in the current estimation methodologies for biogenic emissions. The impact of these uncertainties on ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels for the eastern United States was studied, focusing on biogenic emissions estimates from two commonly used biogenic emission models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS). Photochemical grid modeling simulations were performed for two scenarios: one reflecting present day conditions and the other reflecting a hypothetical future year with reductions in emissions of anthropogenic oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For ozone, the use of MEGAN emissions resulted in a higher ozone response to hypothetical anthropogenic NOx emission reductions compared with BEIS. Applying the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on regulatory air quality modeling in conjunction with typical maximum ozone concentrations, the differences in estimated future year ozone design values (DVF) stemming from differences in biogenic emissions estimates were on the order of 4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to approximately 5% of the daily maximum 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb. For PM2.5, the differences were 0.1-0.25 microg/m3 in the summer total organic mass component of DVFs, corresponding to approximately 1-2% of the value of the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3. Spatial variations in the ozone and PM2.5 differences also reveal that the impacts of different biogenic emission estimates on ozone and PM2.5 levels are dependent on ambient levels of anthropogenic emissions.

  18. Impact of Agricultural Emission Reductions on Fine Particulate Matter and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, A.; Tsimpidi, A.; Karydis, V.; De Meij, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2017-12-01

    A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, South and East Asia. Hypothetical reduction of agricultural emission of 50%, 66% and 100% have been simulated and compared with the reference simulation. The simulations results reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, and this effect can almost be exclusively explain by the reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions, released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases, although the relative reduction is very low (below 13% for a full removal of agricultural emissions) . Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not directly limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically and an ammonia limited regions of aerosol growth is reached. Further, our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. It is calculated that ammonia emission controls could reduce the particle pH up to 1.5 pH-units in East Asia during winter, and more than 1.7 pH-units in South Asia, theoretically assuming complete agricultural emission removal, which could have repercussions for the reactive uptake of gases from the gas phase and the outgassing of relative weak acids. It is finally shown that a 50% reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by 250 thousands people per year worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30%, 19% , 8% and 3% over North America, Europe and South Asia and East Asia, respectively

  19. Testing the near field/far field model performance for prediction of particulate matter emissions in a paint factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, A.J.; Jensen, A.C.Ø.; Levin, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    A Near Field/Far Field (NF/FF) model is a well-accepted tool for precautionary exposure assessment but its capability to estimate particulate matter (PM) concentrations is not well studied. The main concern is related to emission source characterization which is not as well defined for PM emitters...

  20. Cost-effective reduction of fine primary particulate matter emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvosenoja, Niko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Tohka, Antti; Johansson, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Policies to reduce adverse health impacts of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) require information on costs of abatement and associated costs. This paper explores the potential for cost-efficient control of anthropogenic primary PM 2.5 emissions in Finland. Based on a Kyoto-compliant energy projection, two emission control scenarios for 2020 were developed. 'Baseline' assumes implementation of PM controls in compliance with existing legislation. 'Reduction' assumes ambitious further reductions. Emissions for 2020 were estimated at 26 and 18.6 Gg a -1 for 'Baseline' and 'Reduction', respectively. The largest abatement potential, 3.0 Gg a -1 , was calculated for power plants and industrial combustion. The largest potential with marginal costs below 5000 Euro MG(PM 2.5 ) -1 was for domestic wood combustion, 1.7 Gg a -1 . For traffic the potential was estimated at 1.0 Gg a -1 , but was associated with high costs. The results from this paper are used in the policy-driven national integrated assessment modeling that explores cost-efficient reductions of the health impacts of PM

  1. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Roger L; Fleming, Gregg G; Lovinelli, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented human health and welfare impacts. Stricter federal standards are expected to impede capacity and limit aviation growth if regulatory mandated emission reductions occur as for other non-aviation sources (i.e., automobiles, power plants, etc.). In addition, strong interest exists as to the role aviation emissions play in air quality and climate change issues. These reasons underpin the need to quantify and understand PM emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines, which has led to the need for a methodology to predict these emissions. Standardized sampling techniques to measure volatile and nonvolatile PM emissions from aircraft engines do not exist. As such, a first-order approximation (FOA) was derived to fill this need based on available information. FOA1.0 only allowed prediction of nonvolatile PM. FOA2.0 was a change to include volatile PM emissions on the basis of the ratio of nonvolatile to volatile emissions. Recent collaborative efforts by industry (manufacturers and airlines), research establishments, and regulators have begun to provide further insight into the estimation of the PM emissions. The resultant PM measurement datasets are being analyzed to refine sampling techniques and progress towards standardized PM measurements. These preliminary measurement datasets also support the continued refinement of the FOA methodology. FOA3.0 disaggregated the prediction techniques to allow for independent prediction of nonvolatile and volatile emissions on a more theoretical basis. The Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil

  2. Factors influencing mobile source particulate matter emissions-to-exposure relationships in the Boston urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Susan L; Wilson, Andrew M; Hanna, Steven R; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-11-15

    Benefit-cost and regulatory impact analyses often use atmospheric dispersion models with coarse resolution to estimate the benefits of proposed mobile source emission control regulations. This approach may bias health estimates or miss important intra-urban variability for primary air pollutants. In this study, we estimate primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) intake fractions (iF; the fraction of a pollutant emitted from a source that is inhaled by the population) for each of 23 398 road segments in the Boston Metro Core area to evaluate the potential for intra-urban variability in the emissions-to-exposure relationship. We estimate iFs using the CAL3QHCR line source model combined with residential populations within 5000 m of each road segment. The annual average values for the road segments range from 0.8 to 53 per million, with a mean of 12 per million. On average, 46% of the total exposure is realized within 200 m of the road segment, though this varies from 0 to 93% largely due to variable population patterns. Our findings indicate the likelihood of substantial intra-urban variability in mobile source primary PM2.5 iF that accounting for population movement with time, localized meteorological conditions, and street-canyon configurations would likely increase.

  3. EPA Supersites Program-related emissions-based particulate matter modeling: initial applications and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Armistead G

    2008-02-01

    One objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Supersite Program was to provide data that could be used to more thoroughly evaluate and improve air quality models, and then have those models used to address both scientific and policy-related issues dealing with air quality management. In this direction, modeling studies have used Supersites-related data and are reviewed here. Fine temporal resolution data have been used both to test model components (e.g., the inorganic thermodynamic routines) and air quality modeling systems (in particular, Community Multiscale Air Quality [CMAQ] and Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions [CAMx] applications). Such evaluations suggest that the inorganic thermodynamic approaches being used are accurate, as well as the description of sulfate production, although there are significant uncertainties in production of nitric acid, biogenic and ammonia emissions, secondary organic aerosol formation, and the ability to follow the formation and evolution of ultrafine particles. Model applications have investigated how PM levels will respond to various emissions controls, suggesting that nitrate will replace some of the reductions in sulfate particulate matter (PM), although the replacement is small in the summer. Although not part of the Supersite program, modeling being conducted by EPA, regional planning organizations, and states for policy purposes has benefited from the detailed data collected, and the PM models have advanced by their more widespread use.

  4. Particulate matters from diesel heavy duty trucks exhaust versus cigarettes emissions: a new educational antismoking instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Ogliari, Anna Chiara; Mazza, Roberto; Boffi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Indoor smoking in public places and workplaces is forbidden in Italy since 2003, but some health concerns are arising from outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for non-smokers. One of the biggest Italian Steel Manufacturer, with several factories in Italy and abroad, the Marcegaglia Group, recently introduced the outdoor smoking ban within the perimeter of all their factories. In order to encourage their smoker employees to quit, the Marcegaglia management decided to set up an educational framework by measuring the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from heavy duty trucks and to compare them with the emissions of cigarettes in an indoor controlled environment under the same conditions. The exhaust pipe of two trucks powered by a diesel engine of about 13.000/14.000 cc(3) were connected with a flexible hose to a hole in the window of a container of 36 m(3) volume used as field office. The trucks operated idling for 8 min and then, after adequate office ventilation, a smoker smoked a cigarette. Particulate matter emission was thereafter analyzed. Cigarette pollution was much higher than the heavy duty truck one. Mean of the two tests was: PM1 truck 125.0(47.0), cigarettes 231.7(90.9) p = 0.002; PM2.5 truck 250.8(98.7), cigarettes 591.8(306.1) p = 0.006; PM10 truck 255.8(52.4), cigarettes 624.0(321.6) p = 0.002. Our findings may be important for policies that aim reducing outdoor SHS exposure. They may also help smokers to quit tobacco dependence by giving them an educational perspective that rebuts the common alibi that traffic pollution is more dangerous than cigarettes pollution.

  5. Alignment of policies to maximize the climate benefits of diesel vehicles through control of particulate matter and black carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minjares, Ray; Blumberg, Kate; Posada Sanchez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Diesel vehicles offer greater fuel-efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions at a time when national governments seek to reduce the energy and climate impacts of the vehicle fleet. Policies that promote diesels like preferential fuel taxes, fuel economy standards and greenhouse gas emission standards can produce higher emissions of diesel particulate matter if diesel particulate filters or equivalent emission control technology is not in place. This can undermine the expected climate benefits of dieselization and increase impacts on public health. This paper takes a historical look at Europe to illustrate the degree to which dieselization and lax controls on particulate matter can undermine the potential benefits sought from diesel vehicles. We show that countries on the dieselization pathway can fully capture the value of diesels with the adoption of tailpipe emission standards equivalent to Euro 6 or Tier 2 for passenger cars, and fuel quality standards that limit the sulfur content of diesel fuel to no greater than 15 ppm. Adoption of these policies before or in parallel with adoption of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas standards can avert the negative impacts of dieselization. - Highlights: ► Preferential tax policies have increased the dieselization of some light-duty vehicle fleets. ► Dieselization paired with lax emission standards produces large black carbon emissions. ► Diesel black carbon undermines the perceived climate benefits of diesel vehicles. ► Stringent controls on diesel particulate emissions will also reduce black carbon. ► Euro 6/VI equivalent emission standards can preserve the climate benefits of diesel vehicles

  6. The effects of biodiesels on semivolatile and nonvolatile particulate matter emissions from a light-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Shao-Meng; Liggio, John; Hayden, Katherine; Han, Yuemei; Stroud, Craig; Chan, Tak; Poitras, Marie-Josée

    2017-11-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) represent a dominant category of secondary organic aerosol precursors that are increasingly included in air quality models. In the present study, an experimental system was developed and applied to a light-duty diesel engine to determine the emission factors of particulate SVOCs (pSVOCs) and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) components at dilution ratios representative of ambient conditions. The engine was tested under three steady-state operation modes, using ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), three types of pure biodiesels and their blends with ULSD. For ULSD, the contribution of pSVOCs to total particulate organic matter (POM) mass in the engine exhaust ranged between 21 and 85%. Evaporation of pSVOCs from the diesel particles during dilution led to decreases in the hydrogen to carbon ratio of POM and the PM number emission factor of the particles. Substituting biodiesels for ULSD could increase pSVOCs emissions but brought on large reductions in black carbon (BC) emissions. Among the biodiesels tested, tallow/used cooking oil (UCO) biodiesel showed advantages over soybean and canola biodiesels in terms of both pSVOCs and nonvolatile PM emissions. It is noteworthy that PM properties, such as particle size and BC mass fraction, differed substantially between emissions from conventional diesel and biodiesels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating... minimize the accumulation of dusty materials that have the potential to become airborne, and the prompt... materials likely to become airborne. (viii) The prompt removal from paved streets of earth or other material...

  8. Properties and cellular effects of particulate matter from direct emissions and ambient sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenjie; Su, Shu; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Xi; Chen, Yilin; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Wu, Shuiping; Zeng, Eddy; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-10-14

    The pollution of particulate matter (PM) is of great concern in China and many other developing countries. It is generally recognized that the toxicity of PM is source and property dependent. However, the relationship between PM properties and toxicity is still not well understood. In this study, PM samples from direct emissions of wood, straw, coal, diesel combustion, cigarette smoking and ambient air were collected and characterized for their physicochemical properties. Their expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) was measured using a RAW264.7 cell model. Our results demonstrated that the properties of the samples from different origins exhibited remarkable differences. Significant increases in ROS were observed when the cells were exposed to PMs from biomass origins, including wood, straw and cigarettes, while increases in TNF-α were found for all the samples, particularly those from ambient air. The most important factor associated with ROS generation was the presence of water-soluble organic carbon, which was extremely abundant in the samples that directly resulted from biomass combustion. Metals, endotoxins and PM size were the most important properties associated with increases in TNF-α expression levels. The association of the origins of PM particles and physicochemical properties with cytotoxic properties is illustrated using a cluster analysis.

  9. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  10. Brand Cigarillos — A Cheap and Less Harmful Alternative to Cigarettes? Particulate Matter Emissions Suggest Otherwise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gerber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS-associated particulate matter (PM constitutes a considerable health risk for passive smokers. It ought to be assessed separately from the other known toxic compounds of tobacco smoke. Brand-specific differences between cigarettes and particularly between cigarettes and favorably taxed cigarillos, are of public interest and therefore worth being investigated. Methods: An automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE was developed to generate cigarette and cigarillo smoke in a reliable and reproducible way. John Player Special (JPS Red cigarettes, JPS filter cigarillos and 3R4F standard research cigarettes were smoked automatically in a 2.88 m3 glass chamber according to a standardized protocol until 5 cm from the top were burned down. Results: Mean concentrations (Cmean and area of the curve (AUC of PM2.5 were measured and compared. Cmean PM2.5 were found to be 804 µg/m3 for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 1633 µg/m3 for JPS cigarettes, and 1059 µg/m3 for JPS filter cigarillos. AUC PM2.5-values are 433,873 µg/m3×s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 534,267 µg/m3×s for JPS Red cigarettes and 782,850 µg/m3×s for JPS filter cigarillos. Conclusion: Potential brand-specific differences of ETS-associated PM emissions among brands of cigarettes, and between cigarettes and cigarillos of the same brand and size should be investigated and published. Information about relative PM-emissions should be printed on the package.

  11. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmann, T. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Worton, D. R.; Fortner, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as d...

  12. Molecular composition of particulate matter emissions from dung and brushwood burning household cookstoves in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lauren T.; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Weltman, Robert; Edwards, Rufus D.; Arora, Narendra K.; Yadav, Ankit; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R.; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Smith, Kirk R.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2018-02-01

    Emissions of airborne particles from biomass burning are a significant source of black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) in rural areas of developing countries where biomass is the predominant energy source for cooking and heating. This study explores the molecular composition of organic aerosols from household cooking emissions with a focus on identifying fuel-specific compounds and BrC chromophores. Traditional meals were prepared by a local cook with dung and brushwood-fueled cookstoves in a village in Palwal district, Haryana, India. Cooking was done in a village kitchen while controlling for variables including stove type, fuel moisture, and meal. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions were collected on filters, and then analyzed via nanospray desorption electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry (nano-DESI-HRMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-HRMS) techniques. The nano-DESI-HRMS analysis provided an inventory of numerous compounds present in the particle phase. Although several compounds observed in this study have been previously characterized using gas chromatography methods a majority of the species in the nano-DESI spectra were newly observed biomass burning compounds. Both the stove (chulha or angithi) and the fuel (brushwood or dung) affected the composition of organic aerosols. The geometric mean of the PM2.5 emission factor and the observed molecular complexity increased in the following order: brushwood-chulha (7.3 ± 1.8 g kg-1 dry fuel, 93 compounds), dung-chulha (21.1 ± 4.2 g kg-1 dry fuel, 212 compounds), and dung-angithi (29.8 ± 11.5 g kg-1 dry fuel, 262 compounds). The mass-normalized absorption coefficient (MACbulk) for the organic-solvent extractable material for brushwood PM2.5 was 3.7 ± 1.5 and 1.9 ± 0.8 m2 g-1 at 360 and 405 nm, respectively, which was approximately a factor of two higher than that for dung PM2.5. The HPLC-PDA-HRMS analysis

  13. Laboratory Validation of Four Black Carbon Measurement Methods for Determination of the Nonvolatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) Mass Emissions from Commercial Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four candidate black carbon (BC) measurement techniques have been identified by the SAE International E-31 Committee for possible use in determining nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) mass emissions during commercial aircraft engine certification. These techniques are carbon b...

  14. Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamancusa, C.; Wagstrom, K.

    2017-12-01

    As our global society develops and grows it is necessary to better understand the impacts and nuances of atmospheric chemistry, in particular those associated with atmospheric particulate matter. We have developed a source apportionment scheme for the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemical transport model. While these approaches have existed for several years in regional chemical transport models, the Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (GPSAT) represents the first incorporation into a global chemical transport model. GPSAT runs in parallel to a standard GEOS-Chem run. GPSAT uses the fact that all molecules of a given species have the same probability of undergoing any given process as a core principle. This allows GPSAT to track many different species using only the flux information provided by GEOS-Chem's many processes. GPSAT accounts for the change in source specific concentrations as a result of aqueous and gas-phase chemistry, horizontal and vertical transport, condensation and evaporation on particulate matter, emissions, and wet and dry deposition. By using fluxes, GPSAT minimizes computational cost by circumventing the computationally costly chemistry and transport solvers. GPSAT will allow researchers to address many pertinent research questions about global particulate matter including the global impact of emissions from different source regions and the climate impacts from different source types and regions. For this first application of GPSAT, we investigate the contribution of the twenty largest urban areas worldwide to global particulate matter concentrations. The species investigated include: ammonium, nitrates, sulfates, and the secondary organic aerosols formed by the oxidation of benzene, isoprene, and terpenes. While GPSAT is not yet publically available, we will incorporate it into a future standard release of GEOS-Chem so that all GEOS-Chem users will have access to this new tool.

  15. Emission factors of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and levoglucosan from wood combustion in south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jorge; Farias, Oscar; Quiroz, Roberto; Yañez, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    In south-central Chile, wood stoves have been identified as an important source of air pollution in populated areas. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Chilean oak (Nothofagus oblique), and mimosa (Acacia dealbata) were burned in a single-chamber slow-combustion wood stove at a controlled testing facility located at the University of Concepción, Chile. In each experiment, 2.7-3.1 kg of firewood were combusted while continuously monitoring temperature, exhaust gases, burn rate, and collecting particulate matter samples in Teflon filters under isokinetic conditions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and levoglucosan analyses. Mean particulate matter emission factors were 2.03, 4.06, and 3.84 g/kg dry wood for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. The emission factors were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency. The mean emission factors of the sums of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle phases were 1472.5, 2134.0, and 747.5 μg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene were present in the particle phase in higher proportions compared with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that were analyzed. Mean levoglucosan emission factors were 854.9, 202.3, and 328.0 mg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Since the emissions of particulate matter and other pollutants were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency, implementing more efficient technologies would help to reduce air pollutant emissions from wood combustion. Residential wood burning has been identified as a significant source of air pollution in populated areas. Local wood species are combusted for home cooking and heating, which releases several toxic air pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Air pollutant emissions depend on the type of wood and the technology and operational conditions of the wood stove. A better understanding of emissions from

  16. A comprehensive study of the characterization of particulate matter emissions from a Delmarva broiler poultry operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shannon E.

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural practices, including those from animal feeding operations (AFO's) have become an increasingly important topic, and has generated considerable interest from local and state agencies, as well as, the local community over the past decade. Because of growth in population, and an increase in commercial and residential development within close proximity to these operations, which house a large number of animals in confinement, and because of a better understanding of the effects of exposure to airborne contaminants on health, this has lead to an increase in concerns and a demand for more research to be conducted on PM from AFO's. Particulate matter generated within, and emitted from, AFO's can carry with it various components including metals and microorganisms that can negatively affect health. This research was conducted in order to verify if PM from a broiler poultry operation on Delmarva has the potential to become a health concern. The first step was to determine concentrations of two size segregated fractions of PM from indoor and outdoor sampling sites over four seasonal periods, early summer (ES), late summer (LS), Fall (F), and Winter (W). Both PM10 and PM2.5 were collected because of their classification from the Environmental Protection Agency as having the ability to cause significant health effects with short-term exposure. Next, temporal and spatial characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on PM concentrations over the four seasonal periods. Following this, the chemical composition and morphology of PM10 and PM2.5 generated from the broiler poultry operation was investigated. Finally, further detailed information was obtained on arsenic speciation and oxidation state in PM to investigate toxicity. Arsenic use in the poultry industry has been occurring for a number of decades, and is most frequently administered in the organic form. However, studies have shown that these organo

  17. Measurement of emissions of fine particulate organic matter from Chinese cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yan; Hu, Min; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Ben-De; Zhang, Yuan-Hang; Liu, De-Quan

    Cooking emissions may contribute significantly to atmospheric organic particles in urban environment in China, and thus need to be examined first for its chemical compositions and characteristics. The particulate organic emissions of the two cooking styles of Chinese cuisine, that is, Hunan Cooking and Cantonese Cooking, were characterized in Shenzhen. More than half of the PM 2.5 mass is due to organic compounds, and over 90 species of organic compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 26.1% of bulk organic particle mass and 20.7% of PM 2.5. Fatty acids, diacids and steroids were the major organic compounds emitted from both styles of cooking. Of the quantified organic mass, over 90% was fatty acids. The mass of organic species, and the molecular distribution of n-alkanes and PAHs indicated the dissimilarities between the two different cooking styles, but generally the major parts of the organic particulate emissions of the two restaurants were similar, showing less difference than between Chinese and American cooking.

  18. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Duling, Matthew G.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M. Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m3 chamber and in a small room (32.7 m3) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color. PMID:27196745

  19. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F; Duling, Matthew G; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m(3) chamber and in a small room (32.7 m(3)) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color.

  20. Evaluation of manure drying tunnels to serve as dust filters in the exhaust of laying hen houses: Emissions of particulate matter, ammonia, and odour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Aarnink, André J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.; Ogink, Nico W.M.

    2017-01-01

    IAgrE Poultry houses are important emission sources of ammonia, odour, and particulate matter (PM). Manure drying tunnels (MDTs) might act as ‘end of pipe’ PM filters, but might also emit additional ammonia and odour. This study aimed to gain insight into this matter (parts A and B) and into the

  1. New Tropical Peatland Gas and Particulate Emissions Factors Indicate 2015 Indonesian Fires Released Far More Particulate Matter (but Less Methane than Current Inventories Imply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Wooster

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and draining of the peatlands in equatorial SE Asia has greatly increased their flammability, and in September–October 2015 a strong El Niño-related drought led to further drying and to widespread burning across parts of Indonesia, primarily on Kalimantan and Sumatra. These fires resulted in some of the worst sustained outdoor air pollution ever recorded, with atmospheric particulate matter (PM concentrations exceeding those considered “extremely hazardous to health” by up to an order of magnitude. Here we report unique in situ air quality data and tropical peatland fire emissions factors (EFs for key carbonaceous trace gases (CO2, CH4 and CO and PM2.5 and black carbon (BC particulates, based on measurements conducted on Kalimantan at the height of the 2015 fires, both at locations of “pure” sub-surface peat burning and spreading vegetation fires atop burning peat. PM2.5 are the most significant smoke constituent in terms of human health impacts, and we find in situ PM2.5 emissions factors for pure peat burning to be 17.8 to 22.3 g·kg−1, and for spreading vegetation fires atop burning peat 44 to 61 g·kg−1, both far higher than past laboratory burning of tropical peat has suggested. The latter are some of the highest PM2.5 emissions factors measured worldwide. Using our peatland CO2, CH4 and CO emissions factors (1779 ± 55 g·kg−1, 238 ± 36 g·kg−1, and 7.8 ± 2.3 g·kg−1 respectively alongside in situ measured peat carbon content (610 ± 47 g-C·kg−1 we provide a new 358 Tg (± 30% fuel consumption estimate for the 2015 Indonesian fires, which is less than that provided by the GFEDv4.1s and GFASv1.2 global fire emissions inventories by 23% and 34% respectively, and which due to our lower EFCH4 produces far less (~3× methane. However, our mean in situ derived EFPM2.5 for these extreme tropical peatland fires (28 ± 6 g·kg−1 is far higher than current emissions inventories assume, resulting in our total

  2. A large source of dust missing in Particulate Matter emission inventories? Wind erosion of post-fire landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Wagenbrenner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire contributes substantial particulate matter (PM in the form of dust to the atmosphere, but the magnitude of this dust source is largely unknown. It is important to accurately quantify dust emissions because they can impact human health, degrade visibility, exacerbate dust-on-snow issues (including snowmelt timing, snow chemistry, and avalanche danger, and affect ecological and biogeochemical cycles, precipitation regimes, and the Earth’s radiation budget. We used a novel modeling approach in which local-scale winds were used to drive a high-resolution dust emission model parameterized for burned soils to provide a first estimate of post-fire PM emissions. The dust emission model was parameterized with dust flux measurements from a 2010 fire scar. Here we present a case study to demonstrate the ability of the modeling framework to capture the onset and dynamics of a post-fire dust event and then use the modeling framework to estimate PM emissions from burn scars left by wildfires in U.S. western sagebrush landscapes during 2012. Modeled emissions from 1.2 million ha of burned soil totaled 32.1 Tg (11.7–352 Tg of dust as PM10 and 12.8 Tg (4.68–141 Tg as PM2.5. Despite the relatively large uncertainties in these estimates and a number of underlying assumptions, these first estimates of annual post-fire dust emissions suggest that post-fire PM emissions could substantially increase current annual PM estimates in the U.S. National Emissions Inventory during high fire activity years. Given the potential for post-fire scars to be a large source of PM, further on-site PM flux measurements are needed to improve emission parameterizations and constrain these first estimates.

  3. Contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of ozone and particulate matter in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Betty K; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Seigneur, Christian

    2002-08-15

    As anthropogenic emissions of ozone (O3) precursors, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 precursors continue to decrease in the United States, the fraction of O3 and PM2.5 attributable to natural sources may become significant in some locations, reducing the efficacy that can be expected from future controls of anthropogenic sources. Modeling studies were conducted to estimate the contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of O3 and PM2.5 in Nashville/TN and the northeastern United States. Two approaches were used to bound the estimates. In an anthropogenic simulation, biogenic emissions and their influence at the domain boundaries were eliminated. Contributions of biogenic compounds to the simulated concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 were determined by the deviation of the concentrations in the anthropogenic case from those in the base case. A biogenic simulation was used to assess the amounts of O3 and PM2.5 produced in an environment free from anthropogenic influences in emissions and boundary conditions. In both locations, the contribution of biogenic emissions to O3 was small (production of O3 was much more sensitive to biogenic emissions in urban areas (22-34%). Therefore, the effects of biogenic emissions on O3 manifested mostly via their interaction with anthropogenic emissions of NOx. In the anthropogenic simulations, the average contribution of biogenic and natural sources to PM2.5 was estimated at 9% in Nashville/TN and 12% in the northeast domain. Because of the long atmospheric lifetimes of PM2.5, the contribution of biogenic/natural PM2.5 from the boundary conditions was higher than the contribution of biogenic aerosols produced within the domain. The elimination of biogenic emissions also affected the chemistry of other secondary PM2.5 components. Very little PM2.5 was formed in the biogenic simulations.

  4. Clean heating with wood. An electrostatic separator reduces particulate matter emissions from biomass boilers; Sauber heizen mit Holz. Ein elektrostatischer Abscheider senkt die Feinstaub-Emissionen von Biomassekesseln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Franz

    2016-08-01

    Despite considerable advances in firing technology, harmful particulate matter is produced when wood is combusted. Electrostatic precipitators, however, filter up to 90 per cent of particulate emissions from biomass boilers. These therefore enable wood burners to use a wider range of fuel and still meet the tightened requirements of Germany's 1st Ordinance on the Implementation of the Federal Immission Control Act. The major advantage: Both new and old heating plants can benefit from the new system.

  5. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Chinese megacities: the implication for emission control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Elser, Miriam; Wang, Qiyuan Wang; Bozzetti, Carlo; Wolf, Robert; Wang, Yichen; Ni, Haiyan; Wang, Meng; Ho, Kin-Fai; Han, Yongming; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay; El Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Cao, Junji; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. A quantitative understanding of these effects has proven extremely challenging due to spatial and temporal variability in the sources of aerosols and their precursors, the complexity of particle composition, and uncertainties associated with the atmospheric aging of existing particles (Pöschl 2005; Hallquist et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2014). Nowadays the average PM2.5 concentrations in China are approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher than those observed in urban areas in the US and European countries (Cao 2012). This has forced the Chinese government to announce its first national environmental standard for PM2.5 in 2012 and to make highly ambitious plans for emission control. The Chinese aim to reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by up to 25% of the 2012 levels by 2017, backed by 277 billion investments from the central government. To achieve this ambitious aim, a better understanding of the aerosol composition, sources, and atmospheric processing is required. In this study, we present the results from intensive field measurement campaigns carried out in Chinese megacities in 2013/2014. The sources of PM2.5 and the organic aerosol (OA) were investigated by applying the multi-linear engine (ME-2) receptor model (Canonaco et al., 2013) to a comprehensive dataset. Primary sources including vehicle emissions, biomass burning, coal burning, and dust-related emissions were identified and quantified. The contributions from secondary aerosol formation processes to total PM2.5 mass and OA mass were evaluated. Detailed results will be presented and discussed. References Cao, J. J. (2012) J. Earth Environ., 3, 1030

  6. Evaluation of solid particle number and black carbon for very low particulate matter emissions standards in light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-C Oliver; Shields, J Erin

    2017-06-01

    To reliably measure at the low particulate matter (PM) levels needed to meet California's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV III) 3- and 1-mg/mile particulate matter (PM) standards, various approaches other than gravimetric measurement have been suggested for testing purposes. In this work, a feasibility study of solid particle number (SPN, d50 = 23 nm) and black carbon (BC) as alternatives to gravimetric PM mass was conducted, based on the relationship of these two metrics to gravimetric PM mass, as well as the variability of each of these metrics. More than 150 Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) or Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) tests were conducted on 46 light-duty vehicles, including port-fuel-injected and direct-injected gasoline vehicles, as well as several light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particle filters (LDD/DPF). For FTP tests, emission variability of gravimetric PM mass was found to be slightly less than that of either SPN or BC, whereas the opposite was observed for US06 tests. Emission variability of PM mass for LDD/DPF was higher than that of both SPN and BC, primarily because of higher PM mass measurement uncertainties (background and precision) near or below 0.1 mg/mile. While strong correlations were observed from both SPN and BC to PM mass, the slopes are dependent on engine technologies and driving cycles, and the proportionality between the metrics can vary over the course of the test. Replacement of the LEV III PM mass emission standard with one other measurement metric may imperil the effectiveness of emission reduction, as a correlation-based relationship may evolve over future technologies for meeting stringent greenhouse standards. Solid particle number and black carbon were suggested in place of PM mass for the California LEV III 1-mg/mile FTP standard. Their equivalence, proportionality, and emission variability in comparison to PM mass, based on a large light-duty vehicle fleet examined, are dependent on engine

  7. Comparative study for hardwood and softwood forest biomass: chemical characterization, combustion phases and gas and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Simone Simões; de Carvalho, João Andrade; Costa, Maria Angélica Martins; Soares Neto, Turíbio Gomes; Dellani, Rafael; Leite, Luiz Henrique Scavacini

    2014-07-01

    Two different types of typical Brazilian forest biomass were burned in the laboratory in order to compare their combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions. Approximately 2 kg of Amazon biomass (hardwood) and 2 kg of Araucaria biomass (softwood) were burned. Gaseous emissions of CO2, CO, and NOx and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were evaluated in the flaming and smoldering combustion phases. Temperature, burn rate, modified combustion efficiency, emissions factor, and particle diameter and concentration were studied. A continuous analyzer was used to quantify gas concentrations. A DataRam4 and a Cascade Impactor were used to sample PM2.5. Araucaria biomass (softwood) had a lignin content of 34.9%, higher than the 23.3% of the Amazon biomass (hardwood). CO2 and CO emissions factors seem to be influenced by lignin content. Maximum concentrations of CO2, NOx and PM2.5 were observed in the flaming phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Particulate matter emissions, and metals and toxic elements in airborne particulates emitted from biomass combustion: The importance of biomass type and combustion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosima, Angela T; Tsakanika, Lamprini-Areti V; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, Maria Th

    2017-05-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of biomass combustion with respect to burning conditions and fuel types on particulate matter emissions (PM 10 ) and their metals as well as toxic elements content. For this purpose, different lab scale burning conditions were tested (20 and 13% O 2 in the exhaust gas which simulate an incomplete and complete combustion respectively). Furthermore, two pellet stoves (8.5 and 10 kW) and one open fireplace were also tested. In all cases, 8 fuel types of biomass produced in Greece were used. Average PM 10 emissions ranged at laboratory-scale combustions from about 65 to 170 mg/m 3 with flow oxygen at 13% in the exhaust gas and from 85 to 220 mg/m 3 at 20% O 2 . At pellet stoves the emissions were found lower (35 -85 mg/m 3 ) than the open fireplace (105-195 mg/m 3 ). The maximum permitted particle emission limit is 150 mg/m 3 . Metals on the PM 10 filters were determined by several spectrometric techniques after appropriate digestion or acid leaching of the filters, and the results obtained by these two methods were compared. The concentration of PM 10 as well as the total concentration of the metals on the filters after the digestion procedure appeared higher at laboratory-scale combustions with flow oxygen at 20% in the exhaust gas and even higher at fireplace in comparison to laboratory-scale combustions with 13% O 2 and pellet stoves. Modern combustion appliances and appropriate types of biomass emit lower PM 10 emissions and lower concentration of metals than the traditional devices where incomplete combustion conditions are observed. Finally, a comparison with other studies was conducted resulting in similar results.

  9. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  10. Emission Rate of Particulate Matter and Its Removal Efficiency by Precipitators in Under-Fired Charbroiling Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bok Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the potent role of meat cooking processes as the emission sources of particulate matter (PM, emission rates and the associated removal efficiency by precipitators were estimated based on the on-site measurements made at five under-fired charbroiling (UFC restaurants. The emission patterns of PM for these five restaurants were compared after having been sorted into the main meat types used for cooking: beef (B, chicken (C, intestines (I, and pork (P: two sites. The mass concentrations (μg m-3 of three PM fractions (PM2.5/PM10/TSP measured from these restaurants were 15,510/15,701/17,175 (C; 8,525/10,760/12,676 (B; 11,027/13,249/13,488 (P; and 22,409/22,412/22,414 (I. Emission factors (g kg-1 for those PM fractions were also estimated as 3.23/4.08/4.80 (B, 3.07/3.82/3.87 (P, 8.12/8.22/8.99 (C, and 6.59/6.59/6.59 (I. If the annual emission rate of PM10 is extrapolated by combining its emission factor, population, activity factor, etc., it is estimated as 500 ton year-1, which corresponds to 2.4% of the PM10 budget in Seoul, Korea. Removal efficiencies of PM10 via precipitators, such as an electrostatic precipitator (ESP, bag filter (BF, and the combination system (ESP + catalyst, installed in those UFC restaurants ranged between 54.76 and 98.98%. The removal efficiency of PM by this control system was the least effective for particles with <0.4 μm, although those in the range of 0.4–10 μm were the most effective.

  11. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  12. Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Ireland, J. C.; Zigler, B. T.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Knoll, K. E.; Alleman, T. L.; Tester, J. T.

    2011-02-01

    The influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a GM 2.0L turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production ECU with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. US federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at ten selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low speed / low load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At engine load higher than 6 bar NMEP, accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions. In this paper, the issues related to PM measurement using FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be operated under careful maintenance procedures in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.

  13. Externality costs by emission. E. Particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fossil-fuel-fired electricity generating systems, particularly coal and oil-fired facilities, are significant emitters of particulate matter. The major components of particulate emissions from a power plant include ash, which is made up of heavy metals, radioactive isotopes and hydrocarbons, and sulfates (SO 4 ) and nitrates (NO 3 ), which are formed by reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in the atmosphere. The smallest ash particulates (including sulfates and nitrates) cause human respiratory effects and impaired visibility. Other effects may include materials damage due to soiling and possibly corrosion, damage to domestic and wild flora through deposition of particulates on foliage, and possible health effects on domestic animals and wild fauna. Several studies focus on the direct effects of high ambient levels of small particulates. This chapter reviews the available literature on the effects of particulate emissions on humans and their environment, and attempts to assign a cost figure to the environmental effects and human health impairments associated with particulate matter emissions. Specifically, this report focuses on the effects of particulates related to human health, visibility, flora, fauna and materials

  14. Sampling for diesel particulate matter in mines : Diesel Emissions Evaluation Program (DEEP), technology transfer initiative, October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.; Gangal, M.; Goyer, N.; McGinn, S.; Penney, J.; Vergunst, J.

    2001-10-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from exhaust gases from diesel powered mining equipment were presented along with guidelines and regulation for exposure monitoring in the workplace. The report addresses issues related to personal and direct exhaust sampling in mines and presents evidence about potential carcinogenicity of the solid fraction of diesel exhaust. The incomplete combustion of diesel fuel results in the formation of solid and liquid particles in the exhaust. DPM is defined as being the portion of diesel exhaust which is made up of solid carbon particles and the attached chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganics such as sulphate compounds. DPM is a submicron aerosol and as such, it is a respirable dust which penetrates deep into the lungs. In addition, DPMs are not easily removed from the air stream because of their small size. Control of DPM is crucial because once they are airborne, they are likely to remain that way and will affect the workplace where they are produced as well as workplaces downwind. In January 2001, the Mine Safety and Health Administration issued a ruling for U.S. metal and non-metal mines requiring that mines meet a limit of exposure of 0.40 mg/m 3 . Mines are expected to reduce exposure to meet a 0.16 mg/m 3 limit of exposure by January 2006. European mines and tunnel construction projects must also meet DPM exposure limits. DPM sampling in Canada has been regulated for nearly one decade. Sampling protocols in Canada and the United States were described with reference to equipment and procedures testing DPM filtration efficiency of after-treatment modules and to evaluate the impact of diesel equipment maintenance on gaseous particulate emissions. 23 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  15. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma on particulate matter, ozone and CO2 correlation for diesel exhaust emission reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaie, Meisam; Davari, Pooya; Talebizadeh, Poyan

    2015-01-01

    This study is seeking to investigate the effect of non-thermal plasma technology in the abatement of particulate matter (PM) from the actual diesel exhaust. Ozone (O3) strongly promotes PM oxidation, the main product of which is carbon dioxide (CO2). PM oxidation into the less harmful product (CO2...

  16. Characterizing and Quantifying Local and Regional Particulate Matter Emissions from Department of Defense Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillies, J. A; Arnott, W. P; Etyemezian, V; Kuhns, H; Moosmueller, H; Schwemmer, Geary; Gillette, D. A; Nickling, W. G; Wilkerson, T; Varma, R

    2005-01-01

    ...) Develop a dust emission factor database for military vehicles traveling on unpaved surfaces that reflects the influence of the surface over which the travel takes place and the speed of the vehicles; 3...

  17. Locomotive emissions test stand with particulate matter measurement integration : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This project builds upon previous research efforts, in which a complete instruction manual and bill of materials was developed for : a blueprint that allows any organization in the railroad industry to build their own locomotive emissions measurement...

  18. Effect of Fuel Composition on Particulate Matter Emissions from a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Bryden Alexander

    The effects of fuel composition on reducing PM emissions were investigated using a Ford Focus wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine (GDI). Initial results with a 65% isooctane and 35% toluene blend showed significant reductions in PM emissions. Further experiments determined that this decrease was due to a lack of light-end components in that fuel blend. Tests with pentane content lower than 15% were found to have PN concentrations 96% lower than tests with 20% pentane content. This indicates that there is a shift in mode of soot production. Pentane significantly increases the vapour pressure of the fuel blend, potentially resulting in surface boiling, less homogeneous mixtures, or decreased fuel rebound from the piston. PM mass measurements and PN Index values both showed strong correlations with the PN concentration emissions. In the gaseous exhaust, THC, pentane, and 1,3 butadiene showed strong correlations with the PM emissions.

  19. Source apportionment of traffic emissions of particulate matter using tunnel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mao, Hongjun; Prain, Hunter Douglas; Bull, Ian D.

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to quantify exhaust/non-exhaust emissions and the uncertainties associated with them by combining innovative motorway tunnel sampling and source apportionment modelling. Analytical techniques ICP-AES and GC-MS were used to identify the metallic and organic composition of PM10, respectively. Good correlation was observed between Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Sb and change in traffic volume. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organics varies significantly at the entrance and exit site of the tunnel, with fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and benzothiazole having the highest incremented concentrations. The application of Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis helped to identify the emission sources for 82% of the total PM10 mass inside the tunnel. Identified sources include resuspension (27%), diesel exhaust emissions (21%), petrol exhaust emissions (12%), brake wear emissions (11%) and road surface wear (11%). This study shows that major health related chemical species of PM10 originate from non-exhaust sources, further signifying the need for legislation to reduce these emissions.

  20. Comparison between particulate matter and ultrafine particle emission by electronic and normal cigarettes in real-life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; De Marco, Cinzia; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Mazza, Roberto; Angellotti, Giorgia; Turla, Francesca; Boffi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes may be safer than conventional cigarettes as they generate less indoor pollution in terms of particulate matter (PM); however, recent findings in experimental conditions demonstrated that secondhand exposure to PM may be expected from e-cigarette smoking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emission of PM generated by e-cigarettes and normal cigarettes under real-life conditions. Real-time measurement and comparison of PM and ultrafine particles (UFP) generated by electronic cigarettes with and without nicotine and by normal cigarettes in a 50 m3 office of an Italian comprehensive cancer center was performed. PM mass as PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, total suspended particles (TSP) in μg/m³ and UFP in number of particles per cubic centimeter from 10 to 1,000 nanometers were measured. Outdoor concentrations were measured contemporaneously to compensate for urban background changes. Regardless of their nicotine content, e-cigarettes generated lower PM levels than conventional cigarettes. Notably, nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes produced lower PM levels than their nicotine-free counterparts. E-cigarettes appear to generate less indoor pollution than normal cigarettes and may therefore be safer. Further studies are required to investigate the long-term health-related effects of secondhand e-cigarette exposure.

  1. Field testing of particulate matter continuous emission monitors at the DOE Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator. Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James E; Davis, Wayne T; Calcagno, James A; Allen, Marshall W

    2002-01-01

    A field study to evaluate the performance of three commercially available particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitors (CEMs) was conducted in 1999-2000 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. This study offers unique features that are believed to enhance the collective US experience with PM CEMs. The TSCA Incinerator is permitted to treat PCB-contaminated RCRA hazardous low-level radioactive wastes. The air pollution control system utilizes MACT control technology and is comprised of a rapid quench, venturi scrubber, packed bed scrubber, and two ionizing wet scrubbers in series, which create a saturated flue gas that must be conditioned by the CEMs prior to measurement. The incinerator routinely treats a wide variety of wastes including high and low BTU organic liquids, aqueous, and solid wastes. The various possible combinations for treating liquid and solid wastes may present a challenge in establishing a single, acceptable correlation relationship for individual CEMs. The effect of low-level radioactive material present in the waste is a unique site-specific factor not evaluated in previous tests. The three systems chosen for evaluation were two beta gauge devices and a light scattering device. The performance of the CEMs was evaluated using the requirements in draft Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 11 (PS11) and Procedure 2. The results of Reference Method 5i stack tests for establishing statistical correlations between the reference method data and the CEMs responses are discussed.

  2. Particulate matter beyond mass: recent health evidence on the role of fractions, chemical constituents and sources of emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassee, Flemming R; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Kelly, Frank J

    2013-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is regulated in various parts of the world based on specific size cut offs, often expressed as 10 or 2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter. This pollutant is deemed one of the most dangerous to health and moreover, problems persist with high ambient concentrations. Continuing pressure to re-evaluate ambient air quality standards stems from research that not only has identified effects at low levels of PM but which also has revealed that reductions in certain components, sources and size fractions may best protect public health. Considerable amount of published information have emerged from toxicological research in recent years. Accumulating evidence has identified additional air quality metrics (e.g. black carbon, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols) that may be valuable in evaluating the health risks of, for example, primary combustion particles from traffic emissions, which are not fully taken into account with PM2.5 mass. Most of the evidence accumulated so far is for an adverse effect on health of carbonaceous material from traffic. Traffic-generated dust, including road, brake and tire wear, also contribute to the adverse effects on health. Exposure durations from a few minutes up to a year have been linked with adverse effects. The new evidence collected supports the scientific conclusions of the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines and also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the global burden of disease associated with air pollution.

  3. On-road heavy-duty diesel particulate matter emissions modeled using chassis dynamometer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Tom; Niemeier, D A

    2006-12-15

    This study presents a model, derived from chassis dynamometer test data, for factors (operational correction factors, or OCFs) that correct (g/mi) heavy-duty diesel particle emission rates measured on standard test cycles for real-world conditions. Using a random effects mixed regression model with data from 531 tests of 34 heavy-duty vehicles from the Coordinating Research Council's E55/E59 research project, we specify a model with covariates that characterize high power transient driving, time spent idling, and average speed. Gram per mile particle emissions rates were negatively correlated with high power transient driving, average speed, and time idling. The new model is capable of predicting relative changes in g/mi on-road heavy-duty diesel particle emission rates for real-world driving conditions that are not reflected in the driving cycles used to test heavy-duty vehicles.

  4. Projection of SO2, NOx, NMVOC, particulate matter and black carbon emissions - 2015-2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Hjelgaard, Katja Hossy

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of SO2, NOX, NMVOC, PM2.5 and black carbon for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts...

  5. Review, improvement and harmonisation of the Nordic particulate matter air emission inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Kindbom, Karin

    the reported emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 was calculated for each country. Norway has the largest share of PM2.5 compared to PM10 (88 %), whereas Finland has the lowest (66 %). Denmark and Sweden are right in the middle with 73 and 76 %, respectively. The completeness of the inventories was assessed...

  6. Response of fine particulate matter concentrations to changes of emissions and temperature in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Megaritis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PMCAMx-2008, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, was applied in Europe to quantify the changes in fine particle (PM2.5 concentration in response to different emission reductions as well as to temperature increase. A summer and a winter simulation period were used, to investigate the seasonal dependence of the PM2.5 response to 50% reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, nitrogen oxides (NOx, anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs and anthropogenic primary organic aerosol (POA emissions and also to temperature increases of 2.5 and 5 K. Reduction of NH3 emissions seems to be the most effective control strategy for reducing PM2.5, in both periods, resulting in a decrease of PM2.5 up to 5.1 μg m−3 and 1.8 μg m−3 (5.5% and 4% on average during summer and winter respectively, mainly due to reduction of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 (20% on average in both periods. The reduction of SO2 emissions decreases PM2.5 in both periods having a significant effect over the Balkans (up to 1.6 μg m−3 during the modeled summer period, mainly due to decrease of sulfate (34% on average over the Balkans. The anthropogenic POA control strategy reduces total OA by 15% during the modeled winter period and 8% in the summer period. The reduction of total OA is higher in urban areas close to its emissions sources. A slight decrease of OA (8% in the modeled summer period and 4% in the modeled winter period is also predicted after a 50% reduction of VOCs emissions due to the decrease of anthropogenic SOA. The reduction of NOx emissions reduces PM2.5 (up to 3.4 μg m−3 during the summer period, due to a decrease of NH4NO3, causing although an increase of ozone concentration in major urban areas and over Western Europe. Additionally, the NOx control strategy actually increases PM2.5 levels during the winter period, due to more oxidants becoming available to react with SO2 and VOCs. The increase of temperature results in a decrease of PM2

  7. Response of winter fine particulate matter concentrations to emission and meteorology changes in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The winter haze is a growing problem in North China, but the causes are not well understood. The chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem was applied in North China to examine how PM2.5 concentrations change in response to changes in emissions (sulfur dioxide (SO2, black carbon (BC, organic carbon (OC, ammonia (NH3, and nitrogen oxides (NOx, as well as meteorology (temperature, relative humidity (RH, and wind speeds changes in winter. From 1960 to 2010, the dramatic changes in emissions lead to +260 % increases in sulfate, +320 % increases in nitrate, +300 % increases in ammonium, +160 % increases in BC, and +50 % increases in OC. The responses of PM2.5 to individual emission species indicate that the simultaneous increases in SO2, NH3, and NOx emissions dominated the increases in PM2.5 concentrations. PM2.5 shows more notable increases in response to changes in SO2 and NH3 as compared to increases in response to changes in NOx emissions. In addition, OC also accounts for a large fraction in PM2.5 changes. These results provide some implications for haze pollution control. The responses of PM2.5 concentrations to temperature increases are dominated by changes in wind fields and mixing heights. PM2.5 shows relatively smaller changes in response to temperature increases and RH decreases compared to changes in response to changes in wind speed and aerosol feedbacks. From 1960 to 2010, aerosol feedbacks have been significantly enhanced due to higher aerosol loadings. The discussions in this study indicate that dramatic changes in emissions are the main cause of increasing haze events in North China, and long-term trends in atmospheric circulations may be another important cause since PM2.5 is shown to be substantially affected by wind speed and aerosol feedbacks. More studies are necessary to get a better understanding of the aerosol–circulation interactions.

  8. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichen Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods: The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results: Average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6% and (50.3% and 60.8% respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions: The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  9. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qichen; Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-12-28

    Background : The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods : The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results : Average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6%) and (50.3% and 60.8%) respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions : The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  10. Particulate Matter: a closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsman E; Beck JP; Bree L van; Cassee FR; Koelemeijer RBA; Matthijsen J; Thomas R; Wieringa K; LED; MGO

    2005-01-01

    The summary in booklet form 'Fijn stof nader bekeken' (Particulate Matter: a closer look) , published in Dutch by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the Environment and Safety Division of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), has been designed to

  11. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  12. Evaluating Nitrogen Oxides and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Emission Features of Urban Bus Based on Real-World Driving Conditions in the Yangtze River Delta Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengguo Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A Portable Emission Measurement System was used in this study to evaluate the exhaust emission characteristics of nitrogen oxides (NOx, ultrafine particulate matter (PM, and ultrafine particulate number (PN from buses in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Results showed that NOx emission factor (unit: g·km−1 increased from 5.0 to 19.1, and PM emission factor (unit: g·km−1 increased from 0.001 to 0.189. A nonlinear model was established based on scientific statistical method, which showed that NOx and PM emission factors significantly decreased with speed increasing. The model also showed a “long tail effect” of NOx and PM emission factors beyond 30 km·h−1. Furthermore, hybrid bus exhausted less NOx, PM, and PN emissions compared to conventional bus in the acceleration condition. Exhaust rates of NOx, PM and PN emissions (unit: g·s−1 increased with speed increasing under steady state driving condition, while PN emissions commonly showed a unimodal distribution at the speed of 20 km·h−1.

  13. Cardiovascular effects in patrol officers are associated with fine particulate matter from brake wear and engine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbst Margaret C

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to fine particulate matter air pollutants (PM2.5 affects heart rate variability parameters, and levels of serum proteins associated with inflammation, hemostasis and thrombosis. This study investigated sources potentially responsible for cardiovascular and hematological effects in highway patrol troopers. Results Nine healthy young non-smoking male troopers working from 3 PM to midnight were studied on four consecutive days during their shift and the following night. Sources of in-vehicle PM2.5 were identified with variance-maximizing rotational principal factor analysis of PM2.5-components and associated pollutants. Two source models were calculated. Sources of in-vehicle PM2.5 identified were 1 crustal material, 2 wear of steel automotive components, 3 gasoline combustion, 4 speed-changing traffic with engine emissions and brake wear. In one model, sources 1 and 2 collapsed to a single source. Source factors scores were compared to cardiac and blood parameters measured ten and fifteen hours, respectively, after each shift. The "speed-change" factor was significantly associated with mean heart cycle length (MCL, +7% per standard deviation increase in the factor score, heart rate variability (+16%, supraventricular ectopic beats (+39%, % neutrophils (+7%, % lymphocytes (-10%, red blood cell volume MCV (+1%, von Willebrand Factor (+9%, blood urea nitrogen (+7%, and protein C (-11%. The "crustal" factor (but not the "collapsed" source was associated with MCL (+3% and serum uric acid concentrations (+5%. Controlling for potential confounders had little influence on the effect estimates. Conclusion PM2.5 originating from speed-changing traffic modulates the autonomic control of the heart rhythm, increases the frequency of premature supraventricular beats and elicits pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic responses in healthy young men.

  14. Particulate Matter Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humbert, Sebastien; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This chapter deals with the causes and consequences of exposure from emissions of primary particles and secondary particle precursors on human health and how to deal with them in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Following a short introduction and literature review, the first part outlines the...

  15. Effects of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR) on the particulate matter emissions from a direct injection spark ignition engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Chen, Longfei; Stone, Richard

    2011-10-15

    Emissions of fine particles have been shown to have a large impact on the atmospheric environment and human health. Researchers have shown that gasoline engines, especially direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, tend to emit large amounts of small size particles compared to diesel engines fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). As a result, the particle number emissions of DISI engines will be restricted by the forthcoming EU6 legislation. The particulate emission level of DISI engines means that they could face some challenges in meeting the EU6 requirement. This paper is an experimental study on the size-resolved particle number emissions from a spray guided DISI engine and the performance of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR), as the EU legislation seeks to exclude volatile particles. The performance of the catalytic VPR was evaluated by varying its temperature and the exhaust residence time. The effect of the catalytic VPR acting as an oxidation catalyst on particle emissions was also tested. The results show that the catalytic VPR led to a marked reduction in the number of particles, especially the smaller size (nucleation mode) particles. The catalytic VPR is essentially an oxidation catalyst, and when post three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust was introduced to the catalytic VPR, the performance of the catalytic VPR was not affected much by the use of additional air, i.e., no significant oxidation of the PM was observed.

  16. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 2: volatile and semivolatile particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul I; Allan, James D; Lobo, Prem; Coe, Hugh; Christie, Simon; Wilson, Christopher; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip; Raper, David; Rye, Lucas

    2012-10-02

    The work characterizes the changes in volatile and semivolatile PM emissions from a gas turbine engine resulting from burning alternative fuels, specifically gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL), a blend of Jet A-1 and GTL, biodiesel, and diesel, to the standard Jet A-1. The data presented here, compares the mass spectral fingerprints of the different fuels as measured by the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. There were three sample points, two at the exhaust exit plane with dilution added at different locations and another probe located 10 m downstream. For emissions measured at the downstream probe when the engine was operating at high power, all fuels produced chemically similar organic PM, dominated by C(x)H(y) fragments, suggesting the presence of long chain alkanes. The second largest contribution came from C(x)H(y)O(z) fragments, possibly from carbonyls or alcohols. For the nondiesel fuels, the highest loadings of organic PM were from the downstream probe at high power. Conversely, the diesel based fuels produced more organic material at low power from one of the exit plane probes. Differences in the composition of the PM for certain fuels were observed as the engine power decreased to idle and the measurements were made closer to the exit plane.

  17. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  18. Determination of lead isotopic composition of airborne particulate matter by ICPMS: implications for lead atmospheric emissions in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celo, V.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Quadrupole ICPMS was used for determination of trace metal concentrations and lead isotopic composition in fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) collected at selected sites within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance network, from February 2005 to February 2007. High enrichment factors indicated that lead is mostly of anthropogenic origin and consequently, the lead isotopic composition is directly related to that of pollution sources. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios were measured and the results were compared to the isotopic signatures of lead from different sources. Various approaches were used to assess the impact of relevant sources and the meteorological conditions in the occurrence and distribution of lead in Canadian atmospheric aerosols. (author)

  19. The impact of particulate matter (PM and nitric oxides (NOx on human health and an analysis of selected sources accounting for their emission in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This paper is concerned with the harmful impact of nitric oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM on humans. The objective was to determine which source of emission is the most urgent in terms of its reduction.Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge: In published epidemiological studies multiple notifications indicating the harmful impact of particulate matter on human health can be found. The harmful impact is underscored by the increase in the number of hospitalisations owing to diseases of respiratory and cardio-vascular systems, as well as by the rise in general fatality rate. The analysis of the PM impact on the human body is prompted by the fact that its detrimental effects are not clearly defined. Additionally, nitric oxides contribute to the increased number of exacerbations of respiratory disease and are a factor increasing susceptibility to development of local inflammation. Conclusions: The following study is meant to show that the air pollution which derives from vehicles (NOx and PM has a significant impact on human health. This applies particularly to residents of cities and big towns. This issue has gained special importance in Poland. According to the data from the Central Statistical Office, the increasing number of vehicles in use and their age lead to increased emission of the pollutants considered.

  20. Danish emission inventory for particular matter (PM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M; Winther, M; Illerup, J B; Hjort Mikkelsen, M

    2003-11-01

    The first Danish emission inventory that was reported in 2002 was a provisional-estimate based on data presently available. This report documents methodology, emission factors and references used for an improved Danish emission inventory for particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes TSP, PM,, and PM, The report covers emission inventories for transport and stationary combustion. An appendix covering emissions from agriculture is also included. For the transport sector, both exhaust and non-exhaust emission such as tyre and break wear and road abrasion are included. (au)

  1. Regional contributions to particulate matter concentration in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea: seasonal variation and sensitivity to meteorology and emissions inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Eunhye; Bae, Changhan; Cho, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Soontae

    2017-09-01

    The impact of regional emissions (e.g., domestic and international) on surface particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), South Korea, and its sensitivities to meteorology and emissions inventories are quantitatively estimated for 2014 using regional air quality modeling systems. Located on the downwind side of strong sources of anthropogenic emissions, South Korea bears the full impact of the regional transport of pollutants and their precursors. However, the impact of foreign emissions sources has not yet been fully documented. We utilized two regional air quality simulation systems: (1) a Weather Research and Forecasting and Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system and (2) a United Kingdom Met Office Unified Model and CMAQ system. The following combinations of emissions inventories are used: the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B, the Inter-comparison Study for Asia 2010, and the National Institute of Environment Research Clean Air Policy Support System. Partial contributions of domestic and foreign emissions are estimated using a brute force approach, adjusting South Korean emissions to 50 %. Results show that foreign emissions contributed ˜ 60 % of SMA surface PM concentration in 2014. Estimated contributions display clear seasonal variation, with foreign emissions having a higher impact during the cold season (fall to spring), reaching ˜ 70 % in March, and making lower contributions in the summer, ˜ 45 % in September. We also found that simulated surface PM concentration is sensitive to meteorology, but estimated contributions are mostly consistent. Regional contributions are also found to be sensitive to the choice of emissions inventories.

  2. Controlling particulate matter under the Clean Air Act: a menu of options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document was prepared by STAPPA and ALAPCO to help US state and local air pollution control officials understand the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health and air quality, the relative contribution of various sources to particulate emissions, and the effectiveness and costs of various approaches - including innovative ones - to minimizing these emissions. The document covers particulate matter with a nominal diameter of 10 microns ({mu}m) or less (PM{sub 10}), including `fine` PM of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}). Sections cover: the effects of particulate matter on human health; regulatory issues; characterization of particulate matter; emission control strategies for mobile sources (diesel engines, small nonroad engines, alternative fuels etc.), particulates from stationary sources (electric utilities, industry and commercial fuel combustion; mineral products industry, metallurgical industry etc.); particulates from area sources; and market-based strategies for controlling particulate matter. 2 apps.

  3. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption...... and official emission factors, not taking into account actual burning conditions in dwellings [3]. There is limited knowledge on the real-life performance and spatial distribution of existing appliance types. Few studies have been targeting to understand the influence of fuel operation habits on PM2...... the available estimations for Denmark and Portugal, suggesting a methodology to increase the accuracy of activity data and emission factors. This work is based on new studies carried out to quantify the PM2.5 emissions in daily life through field experiments in Danish dwellings and by considering typical...

  4. Estimating source-attributable health impacts of ambient fine particulate matter exposure: global premature mortality from surface transportation emissions in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambliss, S E; Zeinali, M; Minjares, R; Silva, R; West, J J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ambient fine particular matter (PM 2.5 ) was responsible for 3.2 million premature deaths in 2010 and is among the top ten leading risk factors for early death. Surface transportation is a significant global source of PM 2.5 emissions and a target for new actions. The objective of this study is to estimate the global and national health burden of ambient PM 2.5 exposure attributable to surface transportation emissions. This share of health burden is called the transportation attributable fraction (TAF), and is assumed equal to the proportional decrease in modeled ambient particulate matter concentrations when surface transportation emissions are removed. National population-weighted TAFs for 190 countries are modeled for 2005 using the MOZART-4 global chemical transport model. Changes in annual average concentration of PM 2.5 at 0.5 × 0.67 degree horizontal resolution are based on a global emissions inventory and removal of all surface transportation emissions. Global population-weighted average TAF was 8.5 percent or 1.75 μg m −3 in 2005. Approximately 242 000 annual premature deaths were attributable to surface transportation emissions, dominated by China, the United States, the European Union and India. This application of TAF allows future Global Burden of Disease studies to estimate the sector-specific burden of ambient PM 2.5 exposure. Additional research is needed to capture intraurban variations in emissions and exposure, and to broaden the range of health effects considered, including the effects of other pollutants. (letter)

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  6. Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, E D S van; Kinney, P L

    2007-01-01

    Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the lack of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations for particulate matter in SSA cities severely hinders our ability to describe temporal and spatial patterns of concentrations, characterize exposure-response relationships for key health outcomes, estimate disease burdens, and promote policy initiatives to address air quality. As part of a collaborative transportation planning exercise between Columbia University and University of Nairobi, air monitoring was carried out in February 2006 in Nairobi, Kenya. The objective of the monitoring was to collect pilot data on air concentrations (PM 2.5 and black carbon) encountered while driving in the Nairobi metropolitan area, and to compare those data to simultaneous 'urban background' concentrations measured in Nairobi but away from roadways. For both the background and roadway monitoring, we used portable air sampling systems that collect integrated filter samples. Results from this pilot study found that roadway concentrations of PM 2.5 were approximately 20-fold higher than those from the urban background site, whereas black carbon concentrations differed by 10-fold. If confirmed by more extensive sampling, these data would underscore the need for air quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution

  7. Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, E. D. S.; Kinney, P. L.

    2007-10-01

    Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the lack of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations for particulate matter in SSA cities severely hinders our ability to describe temporal and spatial patterns of concentrations, characterize exposure response relationships for key health outcomes, estimate disease burdens, and promote policy initiatives to address air quality. As part of a collaborative transportation planning exercise between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, air monitoring was carried out in February 2006 in Nairobi, Kenya. The objective of the monitoring was to collect pilot data on air concentrations (PM2.5 and black carbon) encountered while driving in the Nairobi metropolitan area, and to compare those data to simultaneous 'urban background' concentrations measured in Nairobi but away from roadways. For both the background and roadway monitoring, we used portable air sampling systems that collect integrated filter samples. Results from this pilot study found that roadway concentrations of PM2.5 were approximately 20-fold higher than those from the urban background site, whereas black carbon concentrations differed by 10-fold. If confirmed by more extensive sampling, these data would underscore the need for air quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution.

  8. On the Impact of Particulate Matter Distribution on Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Particulate Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Bermúdez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wall-flow particulate filters are a required exhaust aftertreatment system to abate particulate matter emissions and meet current and incoming regulations applying worldwide to new generations of diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines. Despite the high filtration efficiency covering the whole range of emitted particle sizes, the porous substrate constitutes a flow restriction especially relevant as particulate matter, both soot and ash, is collected. The dependence of the resulting pressure drop, and hence the fuel consumption penalty, on the particulate matter distribution along the inlet channels is discussed in this paper taking as reference experimental data obtained in water injection tests before the particulate filter. This technique is demonstrated to reduce the particulate filter pressure drop without negative effects on filtration performance. In order to justify these experimental data, the characteristics of the particulate layer are diagnosed applying modeling techniques. Different soot mass distributions along the inlet channels are analyzed combined with porosity change to assess the new properties after water injection. Their influence on the subsequent soot loading process and regeneration is assessed. The results evidence the main mechanisms of the water injection at the filter inlet to reduce pressure drop and boost the interest for control strategies able to force the re-entrainment of most of the particulate matter towards the inlet channels’ end.

  9. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from garbage burning, wood and dung cooking fires, motorcycles and brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, T. S.; Rathnayake, C.; Stockwell, C.; Daugherty, K.; Islam, R. M.; Christian, T. J.; Bhave, P.; Praveen, P. S.; Panday, A. K.; Adhikari, S.; Rasmi, M.; Goetz, D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Saikawa, E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stone, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in-situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia by determining emission factors (EF) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. Garbage burning had the highest EF PM2.5 among the sampled sources ranging 7-124 g kg-1, with maximum EFs for garbage burned under higher moisture conditions. Garbage burning emissions contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) that are associated with acute and chronic health effects. Triphenylbenzene and antimony (Sb) were unique to garbage burning are good candidates for tracing this source. Cook stove emissions varied largely by stove technology (traditional mud stove, 3-stone cooking fire, chimney stove, etc.) and biomass fuel (dung, hardwood, twigs, and mixtures thereof). Burning dung consistently emitted more PM2.5 than burning wood and contained characteristic fecal sterols and stanols. Motorcycle emissions were evaluated before and after servicing, which decreased EF PM2.5 from 8.8 g kg-1 to 0.7 g kg-1. Organic species analysis indicated that this reduction in PM2.5­ is largely due to a decrease in emission of motor oil. For brick kilns, the forced draft zig-zag kilns had higher EF PM2.5 (12-19 g kg-1) compared to clamp kilns (8-13 g kg-1) and also exhibited chemical differences. PM2.5 emitted from the zig-zag kiln were mainly OC (7%), sulfate (32%) and uncharacterized chemical components (60%), while clamp kiln emissions were dominated by OC (64%) and ammonium sulfate (36%). The quantitative emission factors developed in this study may be used for source apportionment and to update regional emission inventories.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  11. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2006-04-02

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0

  12. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  13. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  14. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (pengine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure, composition and toxicity are not straightforward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Masaaki

    2002-01-01

    An airborne particulate matter (APM) consists of many kinds of solid and liquid particles in air. APM analysis methods and the application examples are explained on the basis of paper published after 1998. Books and general remarks, sampling and the measurement of concentration and particle distribution, elemental analysis methods and the present state of analysis of species are introduced. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) method can collect continuously the integrating mass, but indicates lower concentration. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe(2), Mn, Cd, Fe(3) and Pb, the water-soluble elements, are determined by ion-chromatography after ultrasonic extraction of the aqueous solution. The detection limit of them is from 10 to 15 ppb (30 ppb Cd and 60 ppb Pb). The elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are separated by the thermal mass measurement-differential scanning calorimeter by means of keeping at 430degC for 60 min. 11 research organizations compared the results of TC (Total Carbon) and EC by NIOSH method 5040 and the thermal method and obtained agreement of TC. ICP-MS has been developed in order to determine correctly and quickly the trace elements. The determination methods for distinction of chemical forms in the environment were developed. GC/MS, LC/MS and related technologies for determination of organic substances are advanced. Online real-time analysis of APN, an ideal method, is examined. (S.Y.)

  16. Particulate matter and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    In these years, economy of East Asian region is rapidly growing, and countries in this region are facing serious environmental problems. Neutron activation analysis is known as one of high-sensitive analytical method for multi elements. And it is a useful tool for environmental research, particularly for the study on atmospheric particulate matter that consists of various constituents. Elemental concentration represents status of air, such as emission of heavy metals from industries and municipal incinerators, transportation of soil derived elements more than thousands of kilometers, and so on. These monitoring data obtained by neutron activation analysis can be a cue to evaluate environment problems. Japanese government launched National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) employing neutron activation analysis in 1974, and the data has been accumulated at about twenty sampling sites. As a result of mitigation measure of air pollution sources, concentrations of elements that have anthropogenic sources decreased particularly at the beginning of the monitoring period. However, even now, concentrations of these anthropogenic elements reflect the characteristics of each sampling site, e.g. industrial/urban, rural, and remote. Soil derived elements have a seasonal variation because of the contribution of continental dust transported by strong westerly winds prevailing in winter and spring season. The health effects associated with trace elements in particulate matter have not been well characterized. However, there is increasing evidence that particulate air pollution, especially fine portion of particles in many different cities is associated with acute mortality. Neutron activation analysis is also expected to provide useful information to this new study field related to human exposures and health risk. (author)

  17. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that includes curriculum standards, assessments, and lesson rubrics. Sources of Particulate Matter (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) - Information and activity on interpreting ... U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health U.S. Department ...

  18. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  19. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, California, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  20. Allegheny County Particulate Matter 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides information on the particulate matter concentration for Allegheny County that have a diameter greater or equal to...

  1. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Hawaii, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  2. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Arizona, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  3. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Nevada, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  4. The emission of particulate matters and heavy metals from cement kilns – case study: co-incineration of tires in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Todorović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-incineration of wastes started more than 20 years ago. In the last 10 years, the use of alternative fuels in the cement industry is continuously increasing. The use of solid wastes in cement kilns is one of the best technologies for a complete and safe destruction of these wastes, due to the fact that there is a simultaneous benefit of destroying wastes and getting the energy. However, particulate matters (PM and gaseous chemicals emitted from a source into the environment could be directly transmitted to humans through air inhalation. Therefore, for accurate health risk estimation, the emission of pollutants must be determined. In this work, the analysis of the emission of different pollutants when replacing partially the fuel type used in a cement kiln is done. PM, PM10, heavy metals and inorganic pollutants are analyzed. The methods used for sampling and analysis are the standard methods suggested by the EU regulations for stack analysis. Experimental results have shown the encouraging results: in particular clinker characteristics were unmodified, and stack emissions (NOx, SO2 and CO mainly were in the case of tires, slightly incremented but remaining almost always below the law imposed limits, and in some cases were even decreased.

  5. Complexity analysis in particulate matter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Telesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the complex temporal fluctuations of particulate matter data recorded in London area by using the Fisher-Shannon (FS information plane. In the FS plane the PM10 and PM2.5 data are aggregated in two different clusters, characterized by different degrees of order and organization. This results could be related to different sources of the particulate matter.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Particulate Matter Concentrations at Construction Jobsites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid P. S. Araújo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of particulate matter (PM concentrations from construction site activities pose major challenges due to the diverse characteristics related to different aspects, such as concentration, particle size and particle composition. Moreover, the characterization of particulate matter is influenced by meteorological conditions, including temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed. This paper is part of a broader investigation that aims to develop a methodology for assessing the environmental impacts caused by the PM emissions that arise from construction activities. The objective of this paper is to identify and characterize the PM emissions on a construction site with different aerodynamic diameters (PM2.5, PM10, total suspended particulates (TSP, based on an exploratory study. Initially, a protocol was developed to standardize the construction site selection criteria, laboratory procedures, field sample collection and laboratory analysis. This protocol was applied on a multifamily residential building construction site during three different construction phases (earthworks, superstructure and finishings aimed at measuring and monitoring PM concentrations arising from construction activities. The particulate matter was characterized in different particle sizes. Results showed that the higher TSP emissions arising from construction activities provoked environmental impacts. Some limitations to the results were identified, especially with regards the need for a detailed investigation about the influence of different construction phases on PM emissions. The findings provided significant knowledge about various situations, serving as a basis for improving the existing methodology for particulate material collection on construction sites and the development of future studies on the specific construction site phases.

  7. Particulate matter mass concentrations produced from pavement surface abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullova Dasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest findings particulate matter belong to the most significant pollutants in Europe together with ground-level ozone O3 and nitrogen dioxide NO2. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter. Traffic volume has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and also on the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The paper deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The paper offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  8. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  9. Impacts of future climate change and effects of biogenic emissions on surface ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of present and future average regional ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the United States were performed to investigate the potential impacts of global climate change and emissions on regional air quality using CMAQ. Various emissions and climate conditions with different biogenic emissions and domain resolutions were implemented to study the sensitivity of future air quality trends from the impacts of changing biogenic emissions. A comparison of GEOS-Chem and CMAQ was performed to investigate the effect of downscaling on the prediction of future air quality trends. For ozone, the impacts of global climate change are relatively smaller when compared to the impacts of anticipated future emissions reduction, except for the Northeast area, where increasing biogenic emissions due to climate change have stronger positive effects (increases to the regional ozone air quality. The combination effect from both climate change and emission reductions leads to approximately a 10 % or 5 ppbv decrease of the maximum daily average eight-hour ozone (MDA8 over the Eastern United States. For PM2.5, the impacts of global climate change have shown insignificant effect, where as the impacts of anticipated future emissions reduction account for the majority of overall PM2.5 reductions. The annual average 24-h PM2.5 of the future-year condition was found to be about 40 % lower than the one from the present-year condition, of which 60 % of its overall reductions are contributed to by the decrease of SO4 and NO3 particulate matters. Changing the biogenic emissions model increases the MDA8 ozone by about 5–10 % or 3–5 ppbv in the Northeast area. Conversely, it reduces the annual average PM2.5 by 5 % or 1.0 μg m−3 in the Southeast region.

  10. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  11. A Combined Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics Investigation of Particulate Matter Emissions from a Wall-Guided Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide D. Sciortino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-efficiency gasoline direct injection (GDI engines continues to be a significant source of dangerous ultra-fine particulate matter (PM emissions. The forthcoming advent in the 2017–2020 timeframe of the real driving emission (RDE standards affords little time for the identification of viable solutions. The present research work aims to contribute towards a much-needed improved understanding of the process of PM formation in theoretically-homogeneous stoichiometric spark-ignition combustion. Experimental measurements of engine-out PM have been taken from a wall-guided GDI engine operated at part-load; through parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of the test-engine, the process of mixture preparation was investigated. About 80% of the total particle number is emitted on average in the 5–50 nm range, with the vast majority being below the regulated lower limit of 23 nm. The results suggest that both improved charge homogeneity and lower peak combustion temperature contribute to lower particle number density (PNDen and larger particle size, as engine speed and load increase. The effect of engine load is stronger and results from greater injection pressure through better fuel droplet atomisation. Increases in pre-combustion homogeneity of 6% are associated with one order of magnitude reductions of PNDen. A simplified two-equation functional model was developed, which returns satisfactory qualitative predictions of PNDen as a function of basic engine control variables.

  12. Influence of polymethyl acrylate additive on the formation of particulate matter and NOX emission of a biodiesel-diesel-fueled engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirul, Islam Mohammad; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Kalam, Mohammad Abdul; Zulkifli, Nurin Wahidah Mohd; Shancita, Islam

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the polymethyl acrylate (PMA) additive on the formation of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emission from a diesel coconut and/or Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel-fueled engine. The physicochemical properties of 20% of coconut and/or C. inophyllum biodiesel-diesel blend (B20), 0.03 wt% of PMA with B20 (B20P), and diesel fuel were measured and compared to ASTM D6751, D7467, and EN 14214 standard. The test results showed that the addition of PMA additive with B20 significantly improves the cold-flow properties such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), and cold filter plugging point (CFPP). The addition of PMA additives reduced the engine's brake-specific energy consumption of all tested fuels. Engine emission results showed that the additive-added fuel reduce PM concentration than B20 and diesel, whereas the PM size and NO X emission both increased than B20 fuel and baseline diesel fuel. Also, the effect of adding PMA into B20 reduced Carbon (C), Aluminum (Al), Potassium (K), and volatile materials in the soot, whereas it increased Oxygen (O), Fluorine (F), Zinc (Zn), Barium (Ba), Chlorine (Cl), Sodium (Na), and fixed carbon. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results for B20P showed the lower agglomeration than B20 and diesel fuel. Therefore, B20P fuel can be used as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines to lower the harmful emissions without compromising the fuel quality.

  13. Estimating Landscape Fire Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions over Southern Africa using MSG-SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bernardo; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    and the MODIS AOD seen in the corresponding plume. Analysis was performed for plumes extracted from 31 study sites covering 10,000km2each, during 10 consecutive days, for the 2011 southern Africa fire season. Compensation factors associated with undetected low FRP fires was based on extraction and application of frequency density function shape parameters, characterized by analyzing 4 years (2009-2013) of MSG-SEVIRI FRP data in 0.5o degree cells. Using the derived emission coefficients and compensation factors we estimate Total Particulate Matter (TPM) emissions for 2011 on a daily basis and 0.25o spatial resolution across southern Africa. Preliminary results show agreement between our derived emission coefficients and those of past studies following similar methods but with MODIS FRP data, and our annual TPM estimate is in reasonable agreement with those of other emission inventories based on burned area approaches. The proposed approach shows strong potential to be applied to other regions, and also to other geostationary satellite FRP products. Once the smoke emissions coefficients have been derived via comparison to the AOD data, the method requires only the FRP data, which is available at very high temporal frequency from geostationary orbit. Therefore our approach can provide near real time smoke emissions estimates which are essential for operational activities such as NRT smoke dispersion modeling and air quality forecasting.

  14. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    emissions demonstration . 46 6 Figure 24. T63 engine with extension pipe to direct exhaust outside of the test cell for exhaust sampling with tip...to assess their effectiveness in conditioning turbine engine exhaust for total PM emissions measurements. Both were designed to promote the... effectively control and mitigate PM emissions. Aircraft PM is formed in the engine combustor due to incomplete combustion of fuel, and in the

  15. Global emissions of trace gases, particulate matter, and hazardous air pollutants from open burning of domestic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The open burning of waste, whether at individual residences, businesses, or dump sites, is a large source of air pollutants. These emissions, however, are not included in many current emission inventories used in chemistry and climate modeling applications. This paper presents th...

  16. Characterization of particulate emissions from Australian open-cut coal mines: Toward improved emission estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Claire; Rutherford, Shannon; Agranovski, Igor

    2018-06-01

    Given the significance of mining as a source of particulates, accurate characterization of emissions is important for the development of appropriate emission estimation techniques for use in modeling predictions and to inform regulatory decisions. The currently available emission estimation methods for Australian open-cut coal mines relate primarily to total suspended particulates and PM 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter available relating to the PM 2.5 (currently available emission estimation techniques, this paper presents results of sampling completed at three open-cut coal mines in Australia. The monitoring data demonstrate that the particulate size fraction varies for different mining activities, and that the region in which the mine is located influences the characteristics of the particulates emitted to the atmosphere. The proportion of fine particulates in the sample increased with distance from the source, with the coarse fraction being a more significant proportion of total suspended particulates close to the source of emissions. In terms of particulate composition, the results demonstrate that the particulate emissions are predominantly sourced from naturally occurring geological material, and coal comprises less than 13% of the overall emissions. The size fractionation exhibited by the sampling data sets is similar to that adopted in current Australian emission estimation methods but differs from the size fractionation presented in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology. Development of region-specific emission estimation techniques for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from open-cut coal mines is necessary to allow accurate prediction of particulate emissions to inform regulatory decisions and for use in modeling predictions. Development of region-specific emission estimation techniques for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from open-cut coal mines is necessary to allow accurate prediction of particulate emissions to inform regulatory decisions and for

  17. Emission characterization and δ"1"3C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruwei; Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Jiamei; Liu, Guijian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated with PM_1_–_2_._5 and PM_1 compared with PM_2_._5_–_1_0. • Combustion conditions and WFGD showed typical effects on PAH level and profile. • Diagnostic ratio of PAH was to indicative of emission sources to a certain degree. • δ"1"3C values of PAHs were useful for differentiating coal combustion source. • δ"1"3C values of PAHs were unable to differentiate coal-processing sources. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM_2_._5_–_1_0), intermediate (PM_1_–_2_._5) and fine (PM_1) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM_1_–_2_._5 and PM_1. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high-temperature carbonization, gasification and

  18. Emission characterization and δ{sup 13}C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China); Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Hong [Anhui Department of Environmental Protection, Anhui Academy of Environmental Science, Hefei 230071 (China); Zhang, Jiamei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Guijian, E-mail: lgj@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated with PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1} compared with PM{sub 2.5–10}. • Combustion conditions and WFGD showed typical effects on PAH level and profile. • Diagnostic ratio of PAH was to indicative of emission sources to a certain degree. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were useful for differentiating coal combustion source. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were unable to differentiate coal-processing sources. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM{sub 2.5–10}), intermediate (PM{sub 1–2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 1}) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1}. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high

  19. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew [Austin, TX

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  20. Evaluation of airborne particulate matter pollution in Kenitra City, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Benchrif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two size fractions of atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 µm and 2.5-10 µm were collected in Kenitra City from February 2007 to February 2008. The sampling was done using a Gent Stacked sampler on nuclepore polycarbonate filters and the collected filters were analyzed using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The particulate matter trends show higher concentrations during the summer as compared to other seasons. The highest concentrations were obtained for Ca in coarse particles and Fe for fine particles. However, the lowest concentrations were observed for Cd in both particulate sizes. The principal component analysis (PCA based on multivariate study enabled the identification of soil, road dust and traffic emissions as common sources for coarse and fine particles.

  1. Impact of primary and secondary air supply intensity in stove on emissions of size-segregated particulate matter and carbonaceous aerosols from apple tree wood burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Qian; Lei, Yali; Cao, Junji; Huang, Yu; Liu, Suixin; Zheng, Chunli; Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Hongxia; Pan, Hua; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Renjian

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess emission factors (EF) more accurately from household biomass burning, a series of laboratory-controlled apple tree wood burning tests were conducted to measure the EFs of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous aerosols. The controlled burning experiments were conducted with designed primary air (PA) and secondary air (SA) supply intensity. An optimum value of 7 m3·h- 1 was found for SA, resulting the highest modified combustion efficiency (92.4 ± 2.5%) as well as the lowest EFs of PM2.5 (0.13 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1), OC (0.04 ± 0.03 g·MJ- 1) and EC (0.03 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1). SA values of 7 and 10 m3·h- 1 resulted the lowest EFs for all the different PM sizes. In a test with PA of 6 m3·h- 1 and SA of 7 m3·h- 1, very low EFs were observed for OC1 (8.2%), OC2 (11.2%) and especially OP (Pyrolyzed OC) (0%, not detected), indicating nearly complete combustion under this air supply condition. Besides SA, higher PA was proved to have positive effects on PM and carbonaceous fraction emission reduction. For example, with a fixed SA of 1.5 m3·h- 1, EFs of PM2.5 decreased from 0.64 to 0.27 g·MJ- 1 when PA increased from 6 to 15 m3·h- 1 (P < 0.05). Similar reductions were also observed in EFs of OC, EC and size segregated PM.

  2. Source apportionment of sulfate and nitrate particulate matter in the Eastern United States and effectiveness of emission control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Hu, Jianlin; Kleeman, Michael; Ying, Qi

    2014-08-15

    Reducing population exposure to PM2.5 in the eastern US will require control of secondary sulfate and nitrate. A source-oriented Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is used to determine contributions of major emission sources to nitrate and sulfate concentrations in the seven eastern US cities (New York City, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, St. Paul, and Winston-Salem) in January and August of 2000 and 2006. Identified major nitrate sources include on-road gasoline-powered vehicles, diesel engines, natural gas and coal combustion. From 2000 to 2006, January nitrate concentrations decreased by 25-68% for all the seven cities. On average, ~53% of this change was caused by emissions controls while 47% was caused by meteorology variations. August nitrate concentrations decreased by a maximum of 68% in New York City but Detroit experienced increasing August nitrate concentrations by up to 33%. On average, ~33% of the reduction in nitrate is offset by increases associated with meteorological conditions that favor nitrate formation. Coal combustion and natural gas are the dominant sources for sulfate in both seasons. January sulfate decrease from 2000 to 2006 in all cities by 4-58% except New York City, which increases by 13%. On average, ~93% of the reduction in sulfate was attributed to emission controls with 7% associated with changes in meteorology. August sulfate concentrations decrease by 11-44% in all cities. On average, emission controls alone between 2000 and 2006 would have caused 6% more reduction but the effectiveness of the controls was mitigated by meteorology conditions more favorable to sulfate production in 2006 vs. 2000. The results of this study suggest that regional emissions controls between 2000 and 2006 have been effective at reducing population exposure to PM2.5 in the eastern US, but yearly variations in meteorology must be carefully considered when assessing the exact magnitude of the control benefits. Copyright © 2014

  3. The mortality cost of particulate matter due to emissions in the Stockholm area : an investigation into harmfulness, sources and the geographical dimension of their impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The findings in this report are that there is not an one-to-one correspondence between emissions and costs. The reason for this is that the cost is based on health impacts which in turn are related to population exposure. Combustion particulate matte...

  4. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  5. Particulate matter regulation for two-stroke two wheelers: necessity or haphazard legislation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Samaras, Z.; Ntziachristos, L.

    2005-01-01

    Although interest in particulate emissions has increased considerably during recent years, the subject of particulate matter (PM) emissions from small two-stroke engines used in road vehicles is still largely unexplored. This paper presents the results of an investigation, which examined the typical

  6. Reductions in emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass pellets in comparison with raw fuel burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Wen; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxing; Wang, Xuejun; Masse Simonich, Staci L y

    2012-06-05

    Biomass pellets are emerging as a cleaner alternative to traditional biomass fuels. The potential benefits of using biomass pellets include improving energy utilization efficiency and reducing emissions of air pollutants. To assess the environmental, climate, and health significance of replacing traditional fuels with biomass pellets, it is critical to measure the emission factors (EFs) of various pollutants from pellet burning. However, only a few field measurements have been conducted on the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the combustion of pellets. In this study, pine wood and corn straw pellets were burned in a pellet burner (2.6 kW), and the EFs of CO, organic carbon, elemental carbon, PM, and PAHs (EF(CO), EF(OC), EF(EC), EF(PM), and EF(PAH)) were determined. The average EF(CO), EF(OC), EF(EC), and EF(PM) were 1520 ± 1170, 8.68 ± 11.4, 11.2 ± 8.7, and 188 ± 87 mg/MJ for corn straw pellets and 266 ± 137, 5.74 ± 7.17, 2.02 ± 1.57, and 71.0 ± 54.0 mg/MJ for pine wood pellets, respectively. Total carbonaceous carbon constituted 8 to 14% of the PM mass emitted. The measured values of EF(PAH) for the two pellets were 1.02 ± 0.64 and 0.506 ± 0.360 mg/MJ, respectively. The secondary side air supply in the pellet burner did not change the EFs of most pollutants significantly (p > 0.05). The only exceptions were EF(OC) and EF(PM) for pine wood pellets because of reduced combustion temperatures with the increased air supply. In comparison with EFs for the raw pine wood and corn straw, EF(CO), EF(OC), EF(EC), and EF(PM) for pellets were significantly lower than those for raw fuels (p 0.05). Based on the measured EFs and thermal efficiencies, it was estimated that 95, 98, 98, 88, and 71% reductions in the total emissions of CO, OC, EC, PM, and PAHs could be achieved by replacing the raw biomass fuels combusted in traditional cooking stoves with pellets burned in modern pellet burners.

  7. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  8. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3–8 August 2003 showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9, the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat

  9. Metal/nonmetal diesel particulate matter rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomko, D.M. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Safety and Health Technology Center; Stackpole, R.P. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Triadelphia, WV (United States). Approval and Certification Center; Findlay, C.D. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Arlington, VA (United States). Metal/Nonmetal Safety and Health; Pomroy, W.H. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Duluth, MN (United States). Metal/Nonmetal North Central District

    2010-07-01

    The American Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground metal and nonmetal mines. The rule established an interim concentration limit for DPM of 400 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon, to be followed in 2004 by a final limit of 160 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon. The 2001 rule was challenged in federal court by various mining trade associations and mining companies. The rule was subsequently amended. This paper highlighted the major provisions of the 2006 final rule and summarized MSHAs current compliance sampling procedures. The concentration limit was changed to a permissible exposure limit and the sampling surrogate was changed from total carbon to elemental carbon. The MSHA published a new rule in 2006 which based the final limit on a miner's personal exposure rather than a concentration limit. The final limit was phased in using 3 steps over 2 years. This paper also discussed engineering controls and a recent MSHA report on organic carbon, elemental carbon and total carbon emissions from a diesel engine fueled with various blends of standard diesel and biodiesel. In May 2008, about two-thirds of all underground metal/nonmetal mines achieved and maintained compliance with the rule. 20 refs.

  10. Integrated emission inventory and modeling to assess distribution of particulate matter mass and black carbon composition in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Permadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This is part of a research study addressing the potential co-benefits associated with selected black carbon (BC emission reduction measures on mitigation of air pollution and climate forcing in Southeast Asia (SEA. This paper presents details of emission inventory (EI results and WRF–CHIMERE model performance evaluation. The SEA regional emissions for 2007 were updated with our EI results for Indonesia, Thailand, and Cambodia and used for the model input. WRF–CHIMERE-simulated 2007 PM10, PM2.5, and BC over the SEA domain (0.25° × 0.25° and the results were evaluated against the available meteorology and air quality monitoring data in the domain. WRF hourly simulation results were evaluated using the observed data at eight international airport stations in five SEA countries and showed a satisfactory performance. WRF–CHIMERE results for PM10 and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal influence of biomass open burning while the BC distribution showed the influence of urban activities in big SEA cities. Daily average PM10 constructed from the hourly concentrations were obtained from the automatic monitoring stations in three large SEA cities, i.e., Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, and Surabaya, for model evaluation. The daily observed PM2.5 and BC concentrations obtained from the Improving Air Quality in Asian Developing Countries (AIRPET project for four cities (i.e., Bangkok, Hanoi, Bandung, and Manila were also used for model evaluation. In addition, hourly BC concentrations were taken from the measurement results of the Asian Pacific Network (APN project at a suburban site in Bangkok. The modeled PM10 and BC satisfactorily met all suggested statistical criteria for PM evaluation. The modeled PM2.5∕PM10 ratios estimated for four AIRPET sites ranged between 0.47 and 0.59, lower than observed values of 0.6–0.83. Better agreement was found for BC∕PM2.5 ratios with the modeled values of 0.05–0.33 as compared to the observation values of 0

  11. Integrated emission inventory and modeling to assess distribution of particulate matter mass and black carbon composition in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustian Permadi, Didin; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Vautard, Robert

    2018-02-01

    This is part of a research study addressing the potential co-benefits associated with selected black carbon (BC) emission reduction measures on mitigation of air pollution and climate forcing in Southeast Asia (SEA). This paper presents details of emission inventory (EI) results and WRF-CHIMERE model performance evaluation. The SEA regional emissions for 2007 were updated with our EI results for Indonesia, Thailand, and Cambodia and used for the model input. WRF-CHIMERE-simulated 2007 PM10, PM2.5, and BC over the SEA domain (0.25° × 0.25°) and the results were evaluated against the available meteorology and air quality monitoring data in the domain. WRF hourly simulation results were evaluated using the observed data at eight international airport stations in five SEA countries and showed a satisfactory performance. WRF-CHIMERE results for PM10 and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal influence of biomass open burning while the BC distribution showed the influence of urban activities in big SEA cities. Daily average PM10 constructed from the hourly concentrations were obtained from the automatic monitoring stations in three large SEA cities, i.e., Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, and Surabaya, for model evaluation. The daily observed PM2.5 and BC concentrations obtained from the Improving Air Quality in Asian Developing Countries (AIRPET) project for four cities (i.e., Bangkok, Hanoi, Bandung, and Manila) were also used for model evaluation. In addition, hourly BC concentrations were taken from the measurement results of the Asian Pacific Network (APN) project at a suburban site in Bangkok. The modeled PM10 and BC satisfactorily met all suggested statistical criteria for PM evaluation. The modeled PM2.5/PM10 ratios estimated for four AIRPET sites ranged between 0.47 and 0.59, lower than observed values of 0.6-0.83. Better agreement was found for BC/PM2.5 ratios with the modeled values of 0.05-0.33 as compared to the observation values of 0.05-0.28. AODEM (extended aerosol optical

  12. On-road particulate emission measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio

    Particulate matter (PM) suspended in the atmosphere has harmful health effects, contributes to visibility impairment, and affects atmospheric radiative transfer, thereby contributing to global change. Vehicles contribute substantially to the ambient PM concentration in urban areas, yet the fraction of ambient PM originating from vehicle emissions is poorly characterized because suitable measurement methods have not been available. This dissertation describes the development and the use of a new vehicle emission remote sensing system (VERSS) for the on-road measurement of PM emission factors for vehicles. The PM VERSS measures PM by ultraviolet backscattering and transmission. PM backscattering and transmission mass efficiencies have been calculated from Mie theory based on an homogeneous spherical model for gasoline particles and on a two-layers, spherical model for diesel particles. The VERSS was used in a large-scale study in Las Vegas, NV. A commercial gaseous VERSS was used for the measurement of gaseous emission factors (i.e., carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide). Speed and acceleration were also measured for each vehicle. A video image of each vehicle's rear license plate was acquired and license plate numbers were matched with the Clark County department of motor vehicle database to retrieve vehicle information such as model year, vehicle weight category and engine ignition type. PM VERSS has precisely estimated PM fleet average emission factors and clearly shown the dependence of PM emission factors on vehicle model year. Under mostly hot-stabilized operation, diesel vehicle PM emission factors are about 25 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles. Furthermore, the fleet frequency distributions of PM emission factors are highly skewed, meaning that most of the fleet emission factor is accounted for by a small portion of the fleet. The PM VERSS can measure PM emission factors for these high emitting vehicles on an individual basis. PM

  13. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  14. Indoor exposures to particulate matter emissions in various types of households using different cooking fuels in rural areas of south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, Y.; Nagendra, S. S.; Gummadi, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM) that are typically generated from heavy biomass usage in cooking and from unpaved roads is a major health risk in the rural areas of developing countries. To understand the exposure levels in such areas, PM (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) characterizations was carried out through indoor monitoring in a rural site of south India with varied cooking fuels such as only biomass, biomass plus LPG and only LPG in different types of housing namely indoor kitchen without partition (IKWO), indoor kitchen with partition (IKWP), separate enclosed kitchen outside house (SEKO) and open kitchen (OK). Results indicated that use of biomass resulted in the highest PM10 concentrations of 179.51±21µg/m3 followed by combination of biomass and LPG (101.99±21 µg/m3) and LPG (77.48±9µg/m3). Similar patterns were observed in PM2.5 and PM1 with highest emissions from biomass burning. The PM concentrations of biomass households and combination of biomass and LPG households were 233.7 % and 80.2 % respectively higher than those using cleaner fuels (LPG). The monitoring also revealed that kitchen configuration is an important determinant for indoor exposures especially for biomass households. Among biomass users, average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations in all type of houses were above the human permissible limit with IKWP having highest concentrations followed by IKWO>SEKO>OK. Thus, biomass household have high concentrations compared to LPG because of nature of combustion of solid biomass. Also, PM concentrations were higher in enclosed indoor kitchens (IKWO and IKWP) compared to SEKO and OK type kitchen configurations. It is evident from above discussions that type of fuel and kitchen setups are major attributes impacting Indoor air pollution (IAP) in rural areas and any policy intervention to minimize IAP must give due consideration to these two factors.

  15. Real-time measurements of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, D. W.; Hencken, K. R.; Johnsen, H. A.; Ross, J. R.; Walsh, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate matter emissions and some components of the particles were measured in the exhaust from combustion equipment used in oil and gas production operations near Bakersfield, California. The combustion sources included a 22.5 MW (electric) turbine generator, a 342-Bhp rich-burn spark ignition engine, and a 50 million Btu/h steam generator, all fired using natural gas. The particle components and measurement techniques were as follows: (1) Calcium, magnesium, sodium, silicon, and iron were measured using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), (2) particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected using the charge produced by photoionization, (3) particles having sizes between 0.1 and 7.5 (micro)m were counted using an instrument based on light scattering, and (4) total particulate matter was measured according to US EPA Method 5. Not all of the methods were applied to all of the sources. Measurements were also made in the ambient air near the combustion air inlets to the units, for comparison with the concentrations in the exhaust, but the inlet and outlet measurements were not done simultaneously. Calcium, sodium, and silicon were found in the exhaust from the steam generator at concentrations similar to those in the ambient air near the inlet to the burner. Sodium and silicon were observed in the engine exhaust at levels a factor of four higher than their concentrations in the air. The principal metal observed in the engine exhaust was calcium, a component of the lubricating oil, at a concentration of 11.6 (micro)g/m 3 . The air entering the gas turbine is filtered, so the average concentrations of metals in the turbine exhaust under steady operating conditions were even lower than in the air. During start-up following a shut-down to wash the turbine, silicon and iron were the major species in the stack, at concentrations of 6.4 and 16.2 (micro)g/m 3 , respectively. A possible source of silicon is the water injected into the turbine

  16. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  17. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  18. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, P. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Spiers, G.A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring

    2007-07-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, P.; Spiers, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  20. Particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled CI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gupta, Tarun; Shukla, Pravesh C.; Dhar, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical and chemical characterization of biodiesel particulates. • Toxicity of biodiesel particulate due to EC/OC, PAHs and BTEX. • Trace metals and unregulated emissions from biodiesel fuelled diesel engines. • Influence of aftertreatment devices and injection strategy on biodiesel particulates. • Characterization of biodiesel particulate size-number distribution. - Abstract: Compression ignition (CI) engines are the most popular prime-movers for transportation sector as well as for stationary applications. Petroleum reserves are rapidly and continuously depleting at an alarming pace and there is an urgent need to find alternative energy resources to control both, the global warming and the air pollution, which is primarily attributed to combustion of fossil fuels. In last couple of decades, biodiesel has emerged as the most important alternative fuel candidate to mineral diesel. Numerous experimental investigations have confirmed that biodiesel results in improved engine performance, lower emissions, particularly lower particulate mass emissions vis-à-vis mineral diesel and is therefore relatively more environment friendly fuel, being renewable in nature. Environmental and health effects of particulates are not simply dependent on the particulate mass emissions but these change depending upon varying physical and chemical characteristics of particulates. Particulate characteristics are dependent on largely unpredictable interactions between engine technology, after-treatment technology, engine operating conditions as well as fuel and lubricating oil properties. This review paper presents an exhaustive summary of literature on the effect of biodiesel and its blends on exhaust particulate’s physical characteristics (such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, particle surface area-size distribution, surface morphology) and chemical characteristics (such as elemental and organic carbon content, speciation of polyaromatic

  1. The linkages of anthropogenic emissions and meteorology in the rapid increase of particulate matter at a foothill city in the Arawali range of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravi; Beig, G.; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.

    2014-03-01

    The city of Udaipur (24.58°N, 73.68°E) in the province of Rajasthan in the Western part of India has a special significance as it is surrounded by the Arawali mountain ranges on one side and desert on the other side. It is located around the foothills of the rocky Arawali range. It is on the world map due to its tourist attraction. The changing pattern in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) during the past three years indicates an alarming increasing trend, posing a threat to its environment & tourism sector which regulates its economy to a period during the monsoon and distribution of particulate matter is found to be governed by the meteorology and changes the trend. The level of PM10, which was already above the threshold level in 2010, further increased in 2012. The trend is found to be rapid during the months of October & November where an increase by 37% is observed in 3 years. The level of PM2.5, which is the most hazardous for respiratory system diseases, has now started to cross the ambient air quality standards set by the World Health Organization. The impact is significant during winter when the inversion layer is down due to colder temperature and foreign tourists are a peak giving rise an increased morbidity rate. The linkages of local weather with an anthropogenically induced trend and long range transport of pollutants have been outlined.

  2. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland's primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  3. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland's primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  4. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  5. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Sansoni, B.

    1988-11-01

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  6. Monitoring of PM10 and PM2.5 around primary particulate anthropogenic emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Rodriguez, Sergio; Plana, Felicià; Mantilla, Enrique; Ruiz, Carmen R.

    Investigations on the monitoring of ambient air levels of atmospheric particulates were developed around a large source of primary anthropogenic particulate emissions: the industrial ceramic area in the province of Castelló (Eastern Spain). Although these primary particulate emissions have a coarse grain-size distribution, the atmospheric transport dominated by the breeze circulation accounts for a grain-size segregation, which results in ambient air particles occurring mainly in the 2.5-10 μm range. The chemical composition of the ceramic particulate emissions is very similar to the crustal end-member but the use of high Al, Ti and Fe as tracer elements as well as a peculiar grain-size distribution in the insoluble major phases allow us to identify the ceramic input in the bulk particulate matter. PM2.5 instead of PM10 monitoring may avoid the interference of crustal particles without a major reduction in the secondary anthropogenic load, with the exception of nitrate. However, a methodology based in PM2.5 measurement alone is not adequate for monitoring the impact of primary particulate emissions (such as ceramic emissions) on air quality, since the major ambient air particles derived from these emissions are mainly in the range of 2.5-10 μm. Consequently, in areas characterised by major secondary particulate emissions, PM2.5 monitoring should detect anthropogenic particulate pollutants without crustal particulate interference, whereas PM10 measurements should be used in areas with major primary anthropogenic particulate emissions.

  7. Influence of in-port ships emissions to gaseous atmospheric pollutants and to particulate matter of different sizes in a Mediterranean harbour in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merico, E.; Donateo, A.; Gambaro, A.; Cesari, D.; Gregoris, E.; Barbaro, E.; Dinoi, A.; Giovanelli, G.; Masieri, S.; Contini, D.

    2016-08-01

    Ship emissions are a growing concern, especially in coastal areas, for potential impacts on human health and climate. International mitigation strategies to curb these emission, based on low-sulphur content fuels, have proven useful to improve local air quality. However, the effect on climate forcing is less obvious. Detailed information on the influence of shipping to particles of different sizes is needed to investigate air quality and climate interaction. In this work, the contributions of maritime emissions to atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, SO2, and O3) and of particles (sizes from 0.009 μm to 30 μm) were investigated considering manoeuvring (arrival and departure of ships) and hotelling phases (including loading/unloading activities). Results showed that the size distributions of shipping contributions were different for the two phases and could be efficiently described, using measured data, considering four size-ranges. The largest contribution to particles concentration was observed for Dp hotelling for size range 0.4-1 μm. The comparison of 2012 and 2014 datasets showed no significant changes of gaseous and particulate pollutant emissions and of the contribution to particle mass concentration. However, an increase of the contribution to particle number concentration (PNC) was observed. Results suggested that harbour logistic has a relevant role in determining the total impact of shipping on air quality of the nearby coastal areas. Additionally, future policies should focus on PNC that represents an important fraction of emissions also for low-sulphur fuels. DOAS remote sensing proved a useful tool to directly measure NO2 and SO2 ship emissions giving estimates comparable with those of emission inventory approach.

  8. PIXE analysis of atmospheric particulate matter in glas fibre filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabacniks, M.H.; Orsini, C.Q.; Maenhaut, W.

    1993-01-01

    A 3-step extraction procedure was developed to allow particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of particulate matter in normal glass fibre filter samples. The detection limits, expressed in ng/m 3 of air, for the filter extracts were 5 to 30 times lower than those achieved by PIXE analysis or ordinary Nuclepore polycarbonate filter samples. The concentration results were compared with those obtained from routine atomic absorption spectrometry measurements and with the PIXE data from Nuclepore stacked filter unit samples taken in parallel. (orig.)

  9. Surface water, particulate matter, and sediments of inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde (BfG) since 1958 runs a system for monitoring the surface water and sediments of Federal German waterways in its capacity as a directing water monitoring centre. The data recorded over the years show that the radioactivity released by the various emission sources leads to radionuclide concentrations in water, particulate matter, or sediments that generally are below the detection limits defined in the relevant legal provisions governing monitoring and surveillance of nuclear facilities effluents. Representative examples of measuring methods and results (as for e.g. for H-3) are given. (DG) [de

  10. The particulate matter dispersion studies from a local palm oil mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, L.C.; Wong, L. L.; Amnorzahira, A.; Sa'ari, M.; Abdul Rashid, M. S.; Salmiaton Ali

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of industrial emissions and the degradation of scenic vistas are two characteristics of air pollution that humans object. Reduction in visibility suggests worsening pollution levels. The emissions from mobile source and stationary source are the major source of air pollutions contribution in Malaysia. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). The consequence of increasing the particulate concentrations, the particulate matter dissolves with vapour and grows into droplets when the humidity exceeds approximately 70% and causing opaque situation know as haze. This work focuses on the dispersion particulate matter from palm oil mill. The data obtained serves the purpose of modeling the transport of particulate matter for obtaining permits and prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) to the environment. Gaussian Plume Model from a point source, subject to various atmospheric conditions is used to calculate particulate matter concentration then display the distribution of plume dispersion using geographic information system (GIS). The calculated particulate matter concentration is evaluated using Transilient Matrice function. Atmospheric Stability, mixing height, wind direction, wind speed, natural and artificial features play an important role in dispersion process. High concentration area exhibits immediately under prevailing wind direction. (Author)

  11. Composition and oxidation state of sulfur in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Longo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and physical speciation of atmospheric sulfur was investigated in ambient aerosol samples using a combination of sulfur near-edge x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (S-NEXFS and X-ray fluorescence (XRF microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the composition and oxidation state of sulfur in common primary emission sources and ambient particulate matter collected from the greater Atlanta area. Ambient particulate matter samples contained two oxidation states: S0 and S+VI. Ninety-five percent of the individual aerosol particles (> 1 µm analyzed contain S0. Linear combination fitting revealed that S+VI in ambient aerosol was dominated by ammonium sulfate as well as metal sulfates. The finding of metal sulfates provides further evidence for acidic reactions that solubilize metals, such as iron, during atmospheric transport. Emission sources, including biomass burning, coal fly ash, gasoline, diesel, volcanic ash, and aerosolized Atlanta soil, and the commercially available bacterium Bacillus subtilis, contained only S+VI. A commercially available Azotobacter vinelandii sample contained approximately equal proportions of S0 and S+VI. S0 in individual aerosol particles most likely originates from primary emission sources, such as aerosolized bacteria or incomplete combustion.

  12. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  13. An overview of particulate emissions from residential biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, E. D.; Alves, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Residential biomass burning has been pointed out as one of the largest sources of fine particles in the global troposphere with serious impacts on air quality, climate and human health. Quantitative estimations of the contribution of this source to the atmospheric particulate matter levels are hard to obtain, because emission factors vary greatly with wood type, combustion equipment and operating conditions. Updated information should improve not only regional and global biomass burning emission inventories, but also the input for atmospheric models. In this work, an extensive tabulation of particulate matter emission factors obtained worldwide is presented and critically evaluated. Existing quantifications and the suitability of specific organic markers to assign the input of residential biomass combustion to the ambient carbonaceous aerosol are also discussed. Based on these organic markers or other tracers, estimates of the contribution of this sector to observed particulate levels by receptor models for different regions around the world are compiled. Key areas requiring future research are highlighted and briefly discussed.

  14. Battery condenser system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  15. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM_1_0 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-01-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM_1_0 and PM_2_._5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM_2_._5 fraction contributes 66% of PM_1_0 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM_1_0 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003–0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1–33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4–3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2–2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM_1_0 emission of brake wear (3.8–4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2–8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9–10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM_1_0 emission factor (16.7–19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1–12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. - Highlights: • Calculations of exhaust/non-exhaust particulate emission factors using tunnel sampling and source apportionment techniques. • Non-exhaust emission dominates in the fine particle fraction, considered responsible for adverse human health impacts. • Emission factors for non-exhaust sources (e.g. tyre and brake) were calculated. • Fleet source PM_1_0 emission factor were also calculated, which can be used in dispersion modelling and health risk assessment. • Tukey mean

  16. Ambient particulate matter as a risk factor for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Jung, Sang Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Moon, Ki Tae; Hur, Nam Wook; Shin, Dong Chun; Suh, Il

    2010-09-01

    The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period. The association between particulate matter and suicide was determined using a time-stratified case-crossover approach in which subjects served as their own controls. All suicide cases (4,341) in 2004 that occurred in seven cities in the Republic of Korea were included. Hourly mean concentrations of particulate matter suicide risk associated with an interquartile range increase in particulate matter was determined by conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for national holidays and meteorological factors. Subgroup analysis was performed after stratification by underlying disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and psychiatric illness). The largest associations were a 9.0% increase (95% CI=2.4-16.1) and a 10.1% (95% CI=2.0-19.0) increase in suicide risk related to an interquartile range increase in particulate matter suicide) and particulate matter suicide), respectively. Among individuals with cardiovascular disease, a significant association between particulate matter suicide) and suicide was observed (18.9%; 95% CI=3.2-37.0). Conclusions: A transient increase in particulate matter was associated with increased suicide risk, especially for individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease.

  17. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed,deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khamphe Phoungthong; Surajit Tekasakul; Perapong Tekasakul; Gumpon Prateepchaikul; Naret Jindapetch; Masami Furuuchi; Mitsuhiko Hata

    2013-01-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO),the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil,has become of great interest as a renewable energy source.It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits.In the present work,the degummed,deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long term usage.The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler.The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10,2.5 and 1 μm,while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 μm.Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography.The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 μm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings),especially pyrene.The mass median diameter,PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content,but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased.In addition,Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaPeq) for all particle size ranges.As the palm oil was increased,the BaPeq decreased gradually.Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  18. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  19. Mass spectroscopic analysis of atmospheric particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wippel, R.

    1997-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere vary greatly in origin, in their physical and chemical properties and their effects on climate, atmospheric chemistry and health. Aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than two μm can enter the respiratory tract of humans when inhaled. Bulk analysis of ambient dust particles was performed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The size-fractionated collected samples were analyzed after a leaching procedure that simulates the solution reactions occurring in the lungs. A disadvantage of bulk analysis is that it gives no information about the distribution of a certain element within the particles under investigation. A Laser-Microprobe-Mass-Analyzer (LAMMA-500) was used to obtain this information. At sampling sites in Austria and in Zimbabwe, Africa, single particles were sampled using a self-made impactor. One of the final aims in environmental analysis is to successfully apply receptor models that relate the chemical and physical properties of a receptor site to a source. The knowledge of the sources of atmospheric particulate matter is essential for environmental policy makers as well as for epidemiological studies. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have a remarkable ability to handle LAMMA-data. Three ANNs were used as a pattern recognition tool for LAMMA mass spectral data: a back-propagation net, a Kohonen network,and a counter-propagation net. Standard source profiles from the United States Environmental Protection Agency were used as training and test data of the different nets. The elemental patterns of the sum of 100 mass spectra of fine dust particles were presented to the trained nets and satisfactory recognition (> 80 %) was obtained. (author)

  20. The investigation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yi'ou; Zhang Yuliang; Wang Ya; Wang Pei; Tian Hailin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pollution status, vertical distribution and concentration variation within 24 hours of total suspended particles (TSPs), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤5 (PM5) and particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in major functional areas of Suzhou and the protective effect of different type masks on particulate matter. Methods: (1) The concentration of atmospheric TSPs, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 in seven functional areas in Suzhou was monitored for three consecutive days. (2) A residential building of 25 stories was chosen and the concentration of TSPs, PM10, PM5, PM2.5 was detected at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20 th and the 25th floor respectively. (3) The concentrations of the four particulate matter were detected every two-hours for three consecutive days to investigate how concentration of particulate matter varies within 24 hours. (4) The concentration of the four kinds of particulate matter was analyzed with the sampling head of monitor wrapped with disposable non-woven medical mask, fashion-type mask, gauze mask or activated carbon anti-dust mask respectively, and the protective effect of the four masks on particulate matter was compared. Results: (1) The concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the national health limit in all seven functional areas in Suzhou. (2) No significant difference in vertical distribution of particulate matter was found among different floors in residential buildings (P>0.05). (3) Two small peaks of particulate matter appeared in the morning and evening respectively while the top appeared at dawn (P< 0.05). (4) Disposable non-woven medical mask showed the best protective effect on particulate matter among the four tested masks. Conclusion: PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in Suzhou area. In addition the 4 kinds of particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 are of higher concentration in the early morning. No significant difference was detected from an altitude of less than 75 meters

  1. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Schaap, Martijn; Gschwind, Benoit; Lefevre, Mireille; Blanc, Isabelle; Drebszok, Kamila; Wyrwa, Artur; Stetter, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin of the modelled particulate matter distributions thoughout a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated for 2007-2009. These maps were combined with a health impact calculation to estimate Lost of Life Expectancy for each fuel categories. An user friendly web client was generated to access the results and use the web mapping service in an easy manner. (orig.)

  2. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  3. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. The impact of co-combustion of polyethylene plastics and wood in a small residential boiler on emissions of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter, PAHs and 1,3,5- triphenylbenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsej, Tomas; Horak, Jiri; Tomsejova, Sarka; Krpec, Kamil; Klanova, Jana; Dej, Milan; Hopan, Frantisek

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to simulate a banned but widely spread practice of co-combustion of plastic with wood in a small residential boiler and to quantify its impact on emissions of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (135TPB), a new tracer of polyethylene plastic combustion. Supermarket polyethylene shopping bags (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) were burnt as supplementary fuels with beech logs (BL) in an old-type 20 kW over-fire boiler both at a nominal and reduced heat output. An impact of co-combustion was more pronounced at the nominal heat output: an increase in emissions of PM, total organic carbon (TOC), toxic equivalent (TEQ) of 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) and a higher ratio of c-PAHs TEQ in particulate phase was observed during co-combustion of both plastics. 135TPB was found in emissions from both plastics both at a nominal and reduced output. In contrast to findings reported in the literature, 135TPB was a dominant compound detected by mass spectrometry on m/z 306 exclusively in emissions from co-combustion of PE. Surprisingly, six other even more abundant compounds of unknown identity were found on this m/z in emissions from co-combustion of PET. One of these unknown compounds was identified as p-quaterphenyl (pQ). Principal component analysis revealed strong correlation among 135TPB, pQ and five unknown compounds. pQ seems to be suitable tracers of polyethylene terephthalate plastic co-combustion, while 135TPB proved its suitability to be an all-purpose tracer of polyethylene plastics combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Humidity and Gravimetric Equivalency Adjustments for Nephelometer-Based Particulate Matter Measurements of Emissions from Solid Biomass Fuel Use in Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Chen, Chen; Tielsch, James M.; Katz, Joanne; Zeger, Scott L.; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2014-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics. This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined. We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward. PMID:24950062

  6. Humidity and gravimetric equivalency adjustments for nephelometer-based particulate matter measurements of emissions from solid biomass fuel use in cookstoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Chen, Chen; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Zeger, Scott L; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-06-19

    Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics. This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined. We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward.

  7. Gaseous and particulate emissions from prescribed burning in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangil; Baumann, Karsten; Schauer, James J; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Naeher, Luke P; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R; Edgerton, Eric S; Russell, Armistead G; Clements, Mark

    2005-12-01

    Prescribed burning is a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the southeastern United States. However, limited data exist on the emission characteristics from this source. Various organic and inorganic compounds both in the gas and particle phase were measured in the emissions of prescribed burnings conducted at two pine-dominated forest areas in Georgia. The measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM2.5 allowed the determination of emission factors for the flaming and smoldering stages of prescribed burnings. The VOC emission factors from smoldering were distinctly higher than those from flaming except for ethene, ethyne, and organic nitrate compounds. VOC emission factors show that emissions of certain aromatic compounds and terpenes such as alpha and beta-pinenes, which are important precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are much higher from active prescribed burnings than from fireplace wood and laboratory open burning studies. Levoglucosan is the major particulate organic compound (POC) emitted for all these studies, though its emission relative to total organic carbon (mg/g OC) differs significantly. Furthermore, cholesterol, an important fingerprint for meat cooking, was observed only in our in situ study indicating a significant release from the soil and soil organisms during open burning. Source apportionment of ambient primary fine particulate OC measured at two urban receptor locations 20-25 km downwind yields 74 +/- 11% during and immediately after the burns using our new in situ profile. In comparison with the previous source profile from laboratory simulations, however, this OC contribution is on average 27 +/- 5% lower.

  8. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  9. Analysis of atmospheric particulate matter; application of optical and selected geochemical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastalerz, M.; Glikson, M.; Simpson, R.W. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States). Indiana Geological Survey

    1998-09-01

    An increase in particulate matter in the atmosphere has been shown to be linked to increased mortality but this relationship is poorly understood. Light microscopy, electron microscopy, electron microprobe, and micro-FTIR techniques have been applied to study atmospheric particulates in Brisbane, Australia as a part of a study on asthma. The particulate matter samples were collected daily from April to August 1992, and the sampling covered the autumn period which is typically a time of high asthma incidence in Brisbane. Volumetrically, most atmospheric particulate matter is less than 2{mu}m in size. The microscopic analysis reveals that this material is composed mainly of combusted and incompletely burned hydrocarbons from motor vehicle exhaust emissions, quiescent spores of Mucorales, soil bacteria, and inorganic matter in the form of quartz and other silicates. Elemental and functional group analyses confirm microscope identification, documenting carbon-rich, aromatic exhaust material, more aliphatic pollen and spore material and inorganic matter. Fungal spores dominate bioaerosol and are very abundant from the end of April through May to mid-June. The cytoplasmic content of pollens or fungaonly regarded as allergenic. Particulates from the exhaust emissions and crustal material in a sub-micrometer size range may act as carriers or dispersive mechanisms for cytoplasmic material from fungal spores and pollens, perhaps causing periods of the highest exhaust emission to be the most allergenic. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Establishing the link between health effects and tire pyrolysis emissions through X RF spectrometry of particulate matter in the 2.5 range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Bucal, Camille Grace DL.

    2011-01-01

    In July 2009, several tire pyrolysis facility started operations in Angat, Bulacan. Very soon after the facility in Pulong Yantok started operations, nearby residents noted oily effluents contaminating the surrounding area including a nearby creek and adjacent rice fields; sacks of dark ash stacked close just outside the facility; dark layers of soot on the ground, foliage and rooftops. Residents complained that they could no longer save rainwater for drinking because their rain gutters were contaminated by soot. The residents also complained of foul odor emanating from the facility. many of them has to stay indoors and close their windows to keep away tire pyrolysis emissions. In January, 2010, people became alarmed on realizing that they were exhibiting a communal reaction to airborne substances which they suspected were coming from the tire pyrolysis facility. Symptoms experienced were: tightening of the chest, asthma, excessive phlegm formation, coughing, allergic rhinitis, eye and skin irritation, headaches, stomach ache and even fever. At the time the exact nature of the facility was not yet clear to stake holders. Assistance was sought from the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) for the conduct of air particulate monitoring, in order to generate preliminary information on the nature of airborne pollutants. PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 monitoring was undertaken with the Gent sampler and subsequent elemental analysis by X RF spectrometry, in an attempt to identify possible signature elements. PM2.5 and PM10 levels were much below the WHO guideline values. Elements present above one percent in PM2.5 were: Black C, Na, S, Si, K, Ca, Al and Mg. Those present below one percent in PM2.5 were: Fe, Zn, Pb, P, and Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Cu were below detection limits. A drop in concentration was noted for elements present in tires (Zn, S, Pb, Al, Si, Mg and Black C) when the facility stopped operations after the implementation of the Cease and Desist Order (CDO). Zn

  11. Urban particulate matter pollution: a tale of five cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Florou, Kalliopi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Hasa, Erion; Presto, Albert A

    2016-07-18

    Five case studies (Athens and Paris in Europe, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles in the United States, and Mexico City in Central America) are used to gain insights into the changing levels, sources, and role of atmospheric chemical processes in air quality in large urban areas as they develop technologically. Fine particulate matter is the focus of our analysis. In all cases reductions of emissions by industrial and transportation sources have resulted in significant improvements in air quality during the last few decades. However, these changes have resulted in the increasing importance of secondary particulate matter (PM) which dominates over primary in most cases. At the same time, long range transport of secondary PM from sources located hundreds of kilometres from the cities is becoming a bigger contributor to the urban PM levels in all seasons. "Non-traditional" sources including cooking, and residential and agricultural biomass burning contribute an increasing fraction of the now reduced fine PM levels. Atmospheric chemistry is found to change the chemical signatures of a number of these sources relatively fast both during the day and night, complicating the corresponding source apportionment.

  12. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a DC arc melter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcamp, Thomas J; Speer, Matthew P; Griner, Stewart J; Cash, Douglas M

    2003-01-01

    Tests treating soils contaminated with metal compounds and radionuclide surrogates were conducted in a DC arc melter. The soil melted, and glassy or ceramic waste forms with a separate metal phase were produced. Tests were run in the melter plenum with either air or N2 purge gases. In addition to nitrogen, the primary emissions of gases were CO2, CO, oxygen, methane, and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). Although the gas flow through the melter was low, the particulate concentrations ranged from 32 to 145 g/m3. Cerium, a nonradioactive surrogate for plutonium and uranium, was not enriched in the particulate matter (PM). The PM was enriched in cesium and highly enriched in lead.

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  14. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  15. Assessment of social losses of pollution's health caused by man-made pollution of atmospheric air with emissions of particulate matters (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turos Ye.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to available estimates, about 3% of lethal outcomes from cardiac-pulmonary pathology and 5% from lung cancer are related to the impact of patriculate matters (PM. In the course of the study there were assessed social losses of population’s health (additional death cases caused by risk conditions of atmospheric air pollution with PM of various air-dynamic diameter (PM10, proper to emissions of various industrial enterprises. It was established that 90% of population of cities under study live under high exposures (≥50 µg/m3 health and risks for population (IRM=10-3÷10-4, caused by PM10 emissions. Results showed that metallurgical industry is responsible for 7,2 to 2193 additional mortality cases. The impact of machine building enterprises – from 0.06 to 21 cases; coke and chemical – from 1.5 to 36 cases; mining – from 1.1 to 14,6 cases. The findings revealed 0.6 % increase in lifetime mortality for each 10 µg/m3 in 24-hour average PM10 concentration. Based on research outcomes, a set of instruments was developed for implementation of air pollution risk management programs aimed at mitigation of health risks from (PM10 in highly exposed groups.

  16. Airborne particulate matter from livestock production systems: A review of an air pollution problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambra-Lopez, Maria; Aarnink, Andre J.A.; Zhao Yang; Calvet, Salvador; Torres, Antonio G.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock housing is an important source of emissions of particulate matter (PM). High concentrations of PM can threaten the environment, as well as the health and welfare of humans and animals. Particulate matter in livestock houses is mainly coarse, primary in origin, and organic; it can adsorb and contain gases, odorous compounds, and micro-organisms, which can enhance its biological effect. Levels of PM in livestock houses are high, influenced by kind of housing and feeding, animal type, and environmental factors. Improved knowledge on particle morphology, primarily size, composition, levels, and the factors influencing these can be useful to identify and quantify sources of PM more accurately, to evaluate their effects, and to propose adequate abatement strategies in livestock houses. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of PM in and from livestock production systems. Future research to characterize and control PM in livestock houses is discussed. - Control of particulate matter emissions, a major challenge to modern livestock production.

  17. Temporal and spatial variations in particulate matter, particulate organic carbon and attenuation coefficient in Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.

    Nine stations over a stretch of 21 km of Periyar river estuary were sampled during January to December 1981. Particulate matter varied from 3-253 mg.1 super(1) at the surface and 24.8-257mg.1 super(1) at the bottom. Particulate organic carbon ranged...

  18. Particulate emission reduction in small-scale biomass combustion plants by a condensing heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, de C.J.J.M.; Kemenade, van H.P.; Brunner, T.; Obernberger, I.

    2008-01-01

    Use of biomass fuels for energy purposes has gained increasing importance as a method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In comparison to gaseous and liquid fossil fuels, the emissions of particulate matter are higher, leading to concerns about the availability of cost-effective techniques to

  19. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, US EPA Region 9, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  20. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  1. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  2. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  3. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  4. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  5. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  6. Thorium-particulate matter interaction. Thorium complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi; Tanque, Eiichiro

    1994-01-01

    The interaction between thorium and oceanic particulate matter was examined experimentally by using chemical equilibrium techniques. Thorium reacts quantitatively with the organic binding site of Particulate Matter (PM) in 0.1 mol/L HCl solution by complexation, which is equilibrated within 34 h. According to mass balance analysis, thorium forms a 1:1 complex with the organic binding site in PM, whose conditional stability constant is 10 6.6 L/mol. The Th adsorption ability is present even in 6.9 mol/L HCl solution although the amount of Th adsorption decreases with increasing acidity in the solution. Interferences to Th adsorption by Fe(III) suggests that other metals cannot react with PM in more than 0.1 mol/L HCl solutions when concentrations of other metals are the same level of Th. The competitive reaction between Th and Fe(III) occurs in higher Fe concentrations, which means that the organic binding site is nonspecific for Th. A vertical profile of Th complexing capacity of PM in the western North Pacific is characterized; that is, the Th complexing capacity shows a surface maximum and decreases rapidly with depth

  7. Particulate Emissions and Biodiesel: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Angelovič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current mode of transport using fuel it cannot be characterized as harmless to human health or as sustainable. The whole process of extracting, processing and using of petroleum products can be seen as the raw material cycle in nature. This cycle also cause serious damage to the environment and human health. Many studies on air pollutant emissions with biodiesel have been carried out worldwide. Studies have shown that diesel-powered vehicles are the major contributors of PM emissions. PM particulates are especially important in regard to adverse health outcomes, such as increased cardiovascular, respiratory morbidity and mortality rates, due to their larger active surface and the higher likelihood of deposition in the alveolar region of the lungs. Hence, it is overwhelming argument that the use of biodiesel instead of diesel causes reduce of PM emissions. Of course, this reduction will become smaller with the reduction of biodiesel proportion in the blended fuel. The trend with which PM emissions of biodiesel will be reduced, is due to lower aromatic and sulfur compounds and higher cetane number for biodiesel, but the more important factor is the higher oxygen content.

  8. Inventory of primary particulates emissions; Inventaire des emissions de particules primaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    CITEPA carried out a national inventory on particulate emissions. This report presents the results of this study for a great number of sectors and it covers a larger number of sources than the previous CITEPA inventories on particles and some other inventories carried out by International organisms (TNO, IIASA). In particular, at the present time, fugitive dust emissions for some sources are rarely taken into account in inventories because of poor knowledge and they are still the subject of researches in order to validate the emission results. (author)

  9. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyama, Beatriz Sayuri; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Herckes, Pierre; Dusek, Ulrike; Rockmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25% ethanol (called gasohol, E25), hydrated ethanol (E100), and diesel (with 5%

  10. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyama, Beatriz Sayuri; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Herckes, Pierre; Dusek, Ulrike; Rockmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, E25), hydrated ethanol (E100), and diesel (with 5 %

  11. 77 FR 31262 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... otherwise protected. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA... Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the State...

  12. Characterizing Aggregated Exposure to Primary Particulate Matter: Recommended Intake Fractions for Indoor and Outdoor Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Apte, Joshua Schulz

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM_(2.5)) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide...

  13. Characterisation of particulate matter on airborne pollen grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Helena; Guimarães, Fernanda; Duque, Laura; Noronha, Fernando; Abreu, Ilda

    2015-01-01

    A characterization of the physical–chemical composition of the atmospheric PM adsorbed to airborne pollen was performed. Airborne pollen was sampled using a Hirst-type volumetric spore sampler and observed using a Field Emission Electron Probe Microanalyser for PM analysis. A secondary electron image was taken of each pollen grain and EDS spectra were obtained for individually adsorbed particles. All images were analysed and the size parameters of the particles adsorbed to pollen was determined. The measured particles’ equivalent diameter varied between 0.1 and 25.8 μm, mostly in the fine fraction. The dominant particulates identified were Si-rich, Organic-rich, SO-rich, Metals & Oxides and Cl-rich. Significant daily differences were observed in the physical–chemical characteristics of particles adsorbed to the airborne pollen wall. These differences were correlated with weather parameters and atmospheric PM concentration. Airborne pollen has the ability to adsorb fine particles that may enhance its allergenicity. - Highlights: • Airborne pollen sorbs other PM found in suspension. • 84% of the particles sorbed belonged to the fine aerosol fraction. • Adsorbed PM presented daily physical–chemical variations. • Particles sorbed dominated by Si-rich, Organic-rich, SO-rich, Fe-rich and Cl-rich. - Airborne pollen is able to transport finer particulate matter, which presents daily physical–chemical variations.

  14. Emission of particulate matter from ternary blends consisting of biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil: a comparison with conventional dieselEmissão de material particulado por misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal: uma comparação com o óleo diesel convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Daniel de Melo Innocentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the particulate matter emission from ternary blends comprehending biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil in a Diesel cycle engine, and an identical engine working with petrol diesel as control. To compare the fuels’ emissions, the particulate matter from the engine’s exhaust was collected, using a fiberglass circular filter paper, which was coupled by means of a steel flange at the end of the exhaust pipe. The results with ternary blends showed expressive reduction of particulate matter level exhausted by the engine, in its maximum load. We can conclude that the utilization of ternary blends, with the methods and conditions of this experiment, was efficient to reduce the emission of particulate matter contained in the exhaust gases of Diesel cycle engine.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a emissão de material particulado de misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal em um motor de ciclo Diesel, tendo como testemunha um motor idêntico funcionando com óleo diesel de petróleo. Para a comparação da emissão dos dois combustíveis, foi realizada a coleta de material particulado proveniente dos escapamentos dos motores com um filtro circular confeccionado de fibra de vidro, que foi acoplado com um flange de aço, no final da tubulação de escape. Os resultados obtidos com a utilização das misturas ternárias de biocombustíveis indicaram uma redução expressiva no nível de material particulado emitido pelo motor em sua carga máxima. Pode-se concluir que a utilização das misturas ternárias, nas condições e métodos de realização do experimento, foi eficiente na redução de emissão de material particulado presente nos gases de exaustão do motor de ciclo Diesel.

  15. PARTICULATE MATTER IN ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN URBAN AGGLOMERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Marczak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the mass concentration of PM10 in the air in urban area. The specific objective of the research was to analyze and assess the impact of transport road emissions on the level of concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere in the Lublin agglomeration. The measuring points were located in places at different distances from the communications emission sources and, at the same time, possibly varying degrees of air pollution dust. Measuring the concentration of dust at the measuring points was performed using an indirect method using a laser photometer. In the research point which was not under direct influence of a heavy traffic road dust levels lower by 10.5% to 65.4% than in the vicinity of the transport route were reported. Small particle air pollution at all the points covered by the study increased significantly during the heating season. Based on the comparison of the obtained values of PM10 concentrations with legal standards, it was found that the air pollution exceeded the limits in all measurement points only during a series of measurements in the months of November-December. The recorded increase in air pollution during the heating season should be associated with an increased dust emissions in this period from the "low" emitters - local house boilers and detached houses.

  16. Notes on the Particulate Matter Standards in the European Union and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Priemus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM in ambient air to the PM standards, the size of the particles and spatial planning. Diverging impacts of PM standards in legal regulation are discussed. The authors present a review of the development of legal PM standards in the European Union, with a specific reference to The Netherlands.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic matter associated to particulate matter emitted from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastral, A.M.; Callen, M.S.; Garcia, T.

    1999-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the organic matter (OM) content associated with particulate matter (PM) emissions from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion have been studied. The two main aims of the work have been (a) to study OM and PAH emissions as a function of the coal fluidized bed combustion (FBC) variables in solid phase and (b) to check if there is any correlation between OM and PAH contained in the PM. The combustion was carried out in a laboratory scale plant at different combustion conditions: temperature, percentage of oxygen excess, and total air flow. PAH associated on the particulate matter have been analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy in the synchronous mode (FS) after PM extraction by sonication with dimethylformamide (DMF). It can be concluded that there is not a direct relationship between the OM content and the PAH supported in the PM emitted. In addition, neither PM or OM show dependence between themselves

  18. Chemically and size-resolved particulate matter dry deposition on stone and surrogate surfaces inside and outside the low emission zone of Milan: application of a newly developed "Deposition Box".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Luca; Casati, Marco; Nobili, Lara; D'Angelo, Luca; Rovelli, Grazia; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rizzi, Cristiana; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Sansonetti, Antonio; Conti, Claudia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Bernardi, Elena; Vassura, Ivano

    2018-04-01

    The collection of atmospheric particles on not-filtering substrates via dry deposition, and the subsequent study of the particle-induced material decay, is trivial due to the high number of variables simultaneously acting on the investigated surface. This work reports seasonally resolved data of chemical composition and size distribution of particulate matter deposed on stone and surrogate surfaces obtained using a new method, especially developed at this purpose. A "Deposition Box" was designed allowing the particulate matter dry deposition to occur selectively removing, at the same time, variables that can mask the effect of airborne particles on material decay. A pitched roof avoided rainfall and wind variability; a standardised gentle air exchange rate ensured a continuous "sampling" of ambient air leaving unchanged the sampled particle size distribution and, at the same time, leaving quite calm condition inside the box, allowing the deposition to occur. Thus, the "Deposition Box" represents an affordable tool that can be used complementary to traditional exposure systems. With this system, several exposure campaigns, involving investigated stone materials (ISMs) (Carrara Marble, Botticino limestone, Noto calcarenite and Granite) and surrogate (Quartz, PTFE, and Aluminium) substrates, have been performed in two different sites placed in Milan (Italy) inside and outside the low emission zone. Deposition rates (30-90 μg cm -2  month -1 ) showed significant differences between sites and seasons, becoming less evident considering long-period exposures due to a positive feedback on the deposition induced by the deposited particles. Similarly, different stone substrates influenced the deposition rates too. The collected deposits have been observed with optical and scanning electron microscopes and analysed by ion chromatography. Ion deposition rates were similar in the two sites during winter, whereas it was greater outside the low emission zone during summer and

  19. Particulate and gaseous emissions from residential biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, Christoffer

    2005-04-01

    Biomass is considered to be a sustainable energy source with significant potentials for replacing electricity and fossil fuels, not at least in the residential sector. However, present wood combustion is a major source of ambient concentrations of hydrocarbons (e.g. VOC and PAH) and particulate matter (PM) and exposure to these pollutants have been associated with adverse health effects. Increased focus on combustion related particulate emissions has been seen concerning the formation, characteristics and implications to human health. Upgraded biomass fuels (e.g. pellets) provide possibilities of more controlled and optimized combustion with less emission of products of incomplete combustion (PICs). For air quality and health impact assessments, regulatory standards and evaluations concerning residential biomass combustion, there is still a need for detailed emission characterization and quantification when using different fuels and combustion techniques. This thesis summarizes the results from seven different papers. The overall objective was to carefully and systematically study the emissions from residential biomass combustion with respect to: i) experimental characterization and quantification, ii) influences of fuel, appliance and operational variables and iii) aspects of ash and trace element transformations and aerosol formation. Special concern in the work was on sampling, quantification and characterization of particulate emissions using different appliances, fuels and operating procedures. An initial review of health effects showed epidemiological evidence of potential adverse effect from wood smoke exposure. A robust whole flow dilution sampling set-up for residential biomass appliances was then designed, constructed and evaluated, and subsequently used in the following emission studies. Extensive quantifications and characterizations of particulate and gases emissions were performed for residential wood and pellet appliances. Emission factor ranges for

  20. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 1: design, sampling and analysis for an experimental campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro E, P.

    1995-01-01

    This work describes the siting and sampling procedures of collecting airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, determining its chemical composition and daily behaviour. The airborne particulate matter was collected onto polycarbonate membranes, one of fine pore and other of coarse pore, using Pm 10 samplers. The material was analyzed using neutron activation analysis., proton induced X ray emission, X ray fluorescence, voltametry, atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography and isotope dilution. (author). 1 tab

  1. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, G., E-mail: calzolai@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lucarelli, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M.; Nava, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giannoni, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Prati, P. [Department of Physics, University of Genoa and INFN Division of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Vecchi, R. [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN Division of Milan, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  2. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.A.O.; Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM 2.5 and PM 10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing urban and rural nurseries considering PM fractions. • A low number of children in classrooms is enough to increase PM concentrations. • Children in urban nurseries are exposed to higher PM concentrations than in rural. • Children were mainly exposed to the finer fractions, which are worse to health. - PM levels were higher in the urban nursery than in the rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. Still concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources

  3. High reduction of ozone and particulate matter during the 2016 G-20 summit in Hangzhou by forced emission controls of industry and traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many regions in China experience air pollution episodes because of the rapid urbanization and industrialization over the past decades. Here we analyzed the effect of emission controls implemented during the G-20 2016 Hangzhou summit on air quality. Emission controls included a fo...

  4. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  5. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and

  6. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES: MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a field study of PM-2.5 and PM-10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 and 10 micrometers, respectively) emissions from a public paved road in Overland Park, Kansas, adjacent to a 200-acre construction site which will ultimately have 4 ...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONSTRUCTION MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a research program which directly determined mud/dirt carryout emission factors for both particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters of 10 micrometers or less (PM10) and PM with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5). The research was ...

  9. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  10. Effects of emissions change, climate change and long-range transport on regional modeling of future U.S. particulate matter pollution and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the future U.S. PM2.5 pollution under multiple emissions scenarios, climate states, and long-range transport (LRT) effects using the regional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model integrated with a regional climate model. CMAQ with fixed chemical lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) successfully reproduces the present-day PM2.5 pollution and its major species in rural and suburban areas, but has some discrepancies in urban areas such as the Los Angeles Basin, where detailed emissions and meteorology conditions cannot be resolved by the 30 km grid. Its performance is slightly worsened when using dynamic chemical LBCs from global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations, which provide cleaner conditions into the CMAQ lateral boundaries. Under future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios, CMAQ projects large PM2.5 reductions (∼40% for A1B and ∼20% for A1Fi scenario) in the eastern United States, but slight to moderate increases (∼5% for A1B and ∼10% for A1Fi) in the western United States. The projected increases are particularly large (up to 30%) near the Mexico-U.S. border, suggesting that Mexico is a major source for future U.S. PM2.5 pollution. The effect from climate change alone is estimated to increase PM2.5 levels ubiquitously (∼5% for both A1B and A1Fi) over the United States, except for a small decrease in the Houston, Texas area, where anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions dominate. This climate penalty, however, is substantially smaller than effects of emissions change, especially in the eastern United States. Future PM2.5 pollution is affected substantially (up to -20%) by changes in SO2 emissions and moderately (3-5%) by changes in NOx and NH3 emissions. The long-range transport (LRT) effects, which are estimated by comparing CMAQ simulations with fixed and dynamic LBCs, are regional dependent, causing up to 10-20% decrease over the western United

  11. Emission factors of fine particulate matter, organic and elemental carbon, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide for four solid fuels commonly used in residential heating by the U.S. Navajo Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Wyatt M; Connors, Lea; Montoya, Lupita D

    2017-09-01

    Most homes in the Navajo Nation use wood as their primary heating fuel, often in combination with locally mined coal. Previous studies observed health effects linked to this solid-fuel use in several Navajo communities. Emission factors (EFs) for common fuels used by the Navajo have not been reported using a relevant stove type. In this study, two softwoods (ponderosa pine and Utah juniper) and two high-volatile bituminous coals (Black Mesa and Fruitland) were tested with an in-use residential conventional wood stove (homestove) using a modified American Society for Testing and Materials/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ASTM/EPA) protocol. Filter sampling quantified PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) and organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon in the emissions. Real-time monitoring quantified carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and total suspended particles (TSP). EFs for these air pollutants were developed and normalized to both fuel mass and energy consumed. In general, coal had significantly higher mass EFs than wood for all pollutants studied. In particular, coal emitted, on average, 10 times more PM 2.5 than wood on a mass basis, and 2.4 times more on an energy basis. The EFs developed here were based on fuel types, stove design, and operating protocols relevant to the Navajo Nation, but they could be useful to other Native Nations with similar practices, such as the nearby Hopi Nation. Indoor wood and coal combustion is an important contributor to public health burdens in the Navajo Nation. Currently, there exist no emission factors representative of Navajo homestoves, fuels, and practices. This study developed emission factors for PM 2.5 , OC, EC, CO, and CO 2 using a representative Navajo homestove. These emission factors may be utilized in regional-, national-, and global-scale health and environmental models. Additionally, the protocols developed and results presented here may inform on-going stove design of

  12. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayarathne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg−1 with major contributions from OC (7 %, sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %, and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water. For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg−1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %, sulfate (23.4 %, and ammonium (16 %. Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg−1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg−1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb, making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud

  13. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  14. Particulate matter characterization of Cauca River water in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Marin, Juan Pablo; van Halem, D.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The particulate matter composition in the Upper Cauca River section was studied, considering the importance of this river for the water supply of Cali, Colombia, and the implications that the turbidity of this water source has had for the city's water treatment. Additionally, the upstream Palo River

  15. Deposition of Suspended Fine Particulate Matter in a Library

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila; Zíková, Naděžda; Ondráčková, Lucie; Ondráček, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, 3 April (2013) ISSN 2050-7445 R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 Keywords : fine particulate matter * deposition * brownian diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.heritagesciencejournal.com/content/1/1/7

  16. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  17. Trace metals concentration assessment in urban particulate matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and correlation of selected trace elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State and its environs. Air particulate matter was collected gravimetrically at five stations (using a high volume portable SKC air check MTXSidekickair sampler ...

  18. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to cause health hazard, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. The dose of each specific compo...

  19. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  20. An assessment of common atmospheric particulate matter sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method detection limit was also low (0.2 to 1 μg/L) for most metals, and 50% and less standard deviation to mean ratios were obtained for Ni and Pb. Key words: Toxic metals, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry, particulate matter, ...

  1. Trends of particulate matter in four cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, Rakesh

    Particulate matter (PM) in all the four Metropolitan cities in India are higher than the prescribed standards of Central Pollution Control Board, India as well as WHO guidelines. Over last 10 years various changes in fuel quality, vehicle technologies, industrial fuel mix and domestic fuel mix have taken place resulting in changes in air quality in these cities. A set of time series analysis methods viz. t-test adjusted for seasonality, Seasonal Kendall test and Intervention analysis have been applied to identify and estimate the trend in PM 10 and total suspended particles (TSP) levels monitored for about 10 years at three monitoring sites at each of the four cities in India. These tests have indicated that overall PM 10 levels in all four metro cities have been decreasing or stationary. The distinct trends for the monthly averages of PM 10 concentrations at Parel, Kalbadevi in Mumbai and Thiruvattiyar in Chennai for the period 1993-2003 were declining by 10%, 6% and 5% per annum, respectively. This is ascribed to a shift in the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions in the city. However, the monthly averages of TSP do not have a clear trend over the period 1991-2003.

  2. Airborne particulate matter collection and analysis by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Esguerra, Luz V.; Pabroa, Preciosa B.; Almoneda, Rosalina

    2004-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) continues to pursue its air pollution research in support of the implementation of the 1999 Clean Air Act. The primary tool for analysis is X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) since the PPP-I is still on extended shut down. Following the workplan approved during the 1991 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactors, the PNRI collected airborne particulate matter using the Gent sampler. The sampling site selected for the program was Poveda Learning Center, located beside a major highway, the Epifanio delos Santos Avenue (EDSA) where the principal source of pollution is vehicular emissions. Samples collected up to August were analyzed by XRF using three sets of analytical parameters to allow optimized analysis of a wider range of elements including Na and Pb. Although the PNRI has no operating reactor, it has personnel who have trained in NAA but are unable to apply the technique. As mentioned in the 2001 Workshop, the PNRI is considering several options to resume reactor-related activities. Thus, it is necessary to ensure continuing availability of expertise in NAA in the PNRI. It looks forward to collaborating with other Institutes through the FNCA program for the analysis of samples by NAA and using reactor parameters from collaborating Institute, to obtain experience in the use of Ko. This would also allow validation of XRF data obtained for these samples. In return it can analyze samples for collaborating institutions to generate data on Pb and S, which are important for pollutant source apportionment. (author)

  3. Spatial Temporal Modelling of Particulate Matter for Health Effects Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, N. A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution require estimation of individual exposure. It is not possible to obtain measurements at all relevant locations so it is necessary to predict at these space-time locations, either on the basis of dispersion from emission sources or by interpolating observations. This study used data obtained from a low-cost sensor network of 32 air quality monitoring stations in the Dutch city of Eindhoven, which make up the ILM (innovative air (quality) measurement system). These stations currently provide PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 m in diameter), aggregated to hourly means. The data provide an unprecedented level of spatial and temporal detail for a city of this size. Despite these benefits the time series of measurements is characterized by missing values and noisy values. In this paper a space-time analysis is presented that is based on a dynamic model for the temporal component and a Gaussian process geostatistical for the spatial component. Spatial-temporal variability was dominated by the temporal component, although the spatial variability was also substantial. The model delivered accurate predictions for both isolated missing values and 24-hour periods of missing values (RMSE = 1.4 μg m-3 and 1.8 μg m-3 respectively). Outliers could be detected by comparison to the 95% prediction interval. The model shows promise for predicting missing values, outlier detection and for mapping to support health impact studies.

  4. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  5. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Erin N.; Chen, Aimin; Ryan, Patrick; Succop, Paul; Wright, John; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban–rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003–2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3–4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  6. Understanding Particulate Matter Dynamics in the San Joaquin Valley during DISCOVER-AQ, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, G.; Zhang, X.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Pusede, S. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Zhang, Q.; Cappa, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Air quality in the California San Joaquin Valley (SJV) during winter continues to be the worst in the state, failing EPA's 24-hour standard for particulate matter. Despite our improved understanding of the sources of particulate matter (PM) in the valley, air-quality models are unable to predict PM concentrations accurately. We aim to characterize periods of high particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley based on ground and airborne measurements of aerosols and gaseous pollutants, during the DISCOVER-AQ campaign, 2013. A highly instrumented aircraft flew across the SJV making three transects in a repeatable pattern, with vertical spirals over select locations. The aircraft measurements were complemented by ground measurements at these locations, with extensive chemically-speciated measurements at a ground "supersite" at Fresno. Hence, the campaign provided a comprehensive three-dimensional view of the particulate and gaseous pollutants around the valley. The vertical profiles over the different sites indicate significant variability in the concentrations and vertical distribution of PM around the valley, which are most likely driven by differences in the combined effects of emissions, chemistry and boundary layer dynamics at each site. The observations suggest that nighttime PM is dominated by surface emissions of PM from residential fuel combustion, while early morning PM is strongly influenced by mixing of low-level, above-surface, nitrate-rich layers formed from dark chemistry overnight to the surface.

  7. Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ishita

    Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

  8. CHARACTERISTIC OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM TWO SEMI INDUSTRIAL SITES IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Air particulate matter concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations in two semi industrial sites were investigated as a preliminary study for evaluation of air quality in these areas. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler and a total of 18 pairs of samples were collected. Black carbon was determined by reflectance measurement and elemental analysis was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and As were detected. Twenty four hour PM2.5 concentration at semi industrial sites Kiaracondong and Holis ranged from 4.0 to 22.2 µg m-3, while the PM10 concentration ranged from 24.5 to 77.1 µg m-3. High concentration of crustal elements, sulphur and zinc were identified in fine and coarse fractions for both sites. The fine fraction data from both sites were analyzed using a multivariate principal component analysis and for Kiaracondong site, identified factors are attributed to sea-salt with soil dust, vehicular emissions and biomass burning, non ferrous smelter, and iron/steel work industry, while for Holis site identified factors are attributed to soil dust, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions with biomass burning, and sea-salt. Although particulate samples were collected from semi industrial sites, vehicular emissions constituted with S, Zn and BC were identified in both sites.

  9. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  10. Microscopic and submicron components of atmospheric particulate matter during high asthma periods in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, M.; Rutherford, S.; Simpson, R. W.; Mitchell, C. A.; Yago, A.

    The study identifies the various components contributing to atmospheric particulate matter in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, during the period from the end of April and the months of July-August in 1992, covering the autumn period which is typically the period of high asthma incidence in Brisbane. Most particulate matter is Mucorales, and soil bacteria. The contribution from pollen and fungal spores has been evaluated and quantified. Fungal spores counts dominate the bioaerosol counts in the 2-10 μm range and are very high in Brisbane from the end of April through May to mid-June. However even at peak periods the total bioaerosol count only contributes of the order of 5-10% of the total particulate mass. The results show that Pm 10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter) and nephelometer readings do not indicate peak periods of allergenic bioaerosol readings (in fact there is a negative correlation) due to the low contribution of the bioaerosol count to the total and the different influences of wind speed. However the electron microscopy results show that this does not mean there are no synergies between aerosols from anthropogenic sources and bioaerosols. The cytoplasmic content of spores and pollen was often found to be adhered to motor vehicle emission material and crustal matter. The latter may therefore act as carriers for dispersed cytoplasmic allergenic material released from pollen and fungal spores.

  11. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansi Gold Company Limited identified an economically viable gold deposit at Nkran in the Amansie West District of Ghana. Mining of this deposit requires the disposal of waste rock materials at a proposed waste rock dump near Nkran and Koninase communities. Since particulates and noise emissions from the ...

  12. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mahmud; M. Hixson; M. J. Kleeman

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for ...

  13. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mahmud; M. Hixson; M. J. Kleeman

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days ...

  14. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck

  15. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeberger, Steven R.; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants

  16. Relationship between Particulate matter less than 10 microns exposures and health effects on humans in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Geravandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Particulate matters less than 10 microns can absorb into your lungs and reacting with the moisture and enter the circulatory system directly through the airways. The aim of this study is to assess Behavior PM 10 data in different seasons and Determination effects on human health in Ahvaz city during 2013. Materials & Methods: Data Particulate matters less than 10 microns were taken from Ahvaz Department of Environment and Meteorological Organization. Sampling was performed for 24 hours in 4 stations. Method of sampling and analysis were performed according to EPA guideline. Processing data include the instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering. Finally, health-effects of Particulate matters less than 10 exposures were calculated with impact of meteorological parameters and converted as input file to the Air Q model. Results: PM 10 concentration in winter season was maximum amount in the year 2013. According to the research findings, highest and the lowest Particulate matters less than 10 microns concentrations during 2013 had the Bureau of Meteorology “Havashenasi” and Head office of ADoE “Mohitzist”. Sum of total numbers of cardiovascular death and hospitals admission to respiratory diseases attributed to Particulate matters less than 10 microns were 923 and 2342 cases in 2013. Conclusions: Particulate matter emissions are highly regulated in most industrialized countries. Due to environmental concerns, most industries and dust storm phenomena are required to decrease in source produce particle mater and kind of dust collection system to control particulate emissions. Pollution prevention and control measures that reduce Particulate matters less than 10 microns can very useful for expected to reduce people’s exposures to Sulfur dioxide.

  17. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zaiacono, T.

    1996-07-01

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory

  18. Particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from small scale firewood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    One of the serious adverse effects of residential firewood use is the deterioration in air quality caused by wood-smoke. Low combustion zone temperatures, flame quenching, poor gas mixing, and lack of oxygen all contribute to relatively high emissions of particulates and CO. Average emission rates for particulates of 11 g/h for modern woodheaters can certainly be improved upon. More research effort is needed to reduce emissions from cooking stoves used in developing countries and more public information on correct heater use is needed in the developed countries. (author)

  19. Impact of fugitive sources and meteorological parameters on vertical distribution of particulate matter over the industrial agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbová, Kristína; Raclavská, Helena; Bílek, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize vertical distribution of particulate matter, in an area well known by highest air pollution levels in Europe. A balloon filled with helium with measuring instrumentation was used for vertical observation of air pollution over the fugitive sources in Moravian-Silesian metropolitan area during spring and summer. Synchronously, selected meteorological parameters were recorded together with particulate matter for exploration its relationship with particulate matter. Concentrations of particulate matter in the vertical profile were significantly higher in the spring than in the summer. Significant effect of fugitive sources was observed up to the altitude ∼255 m (∼45 m above ground) in both seasons. The presence of inversion layer was observed at the altitude ∼350 m (120-135 m above ground) at locations with major source traffic load. Both particulate matter concentrations and number of particles for the selected particle sizes decreased with increasing height. Strong correlation of particulate matter with meteorological parameters was not observed. The study represents the first attempt to assess the vertical profile over the fugitive emission sources - old environmental burdens in industrial region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice.

  1. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A; Després, Viviane R; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-08-04

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 microm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere.

  2. Emissions factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.; Li, J.; Zhang, G.; Matthias, V.

    2015-09-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbor districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel engine power offshore vessels in China were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emissions factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emissions factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low engine power vessel than for the two higher engine power vessels. Fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low engine power engineering vessel were significantly higher than that of the previous studies, while for the two higher engine power vessels, the fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies. The fuel-based average emissions factor for nitrogen oxides for the small engine power vessel was more than twice the International Maritime Organization standard, while those for the other two vessels were below the standard. Emissions factors for all three vessels were significantly different during different operating modes. Organic carbon and elemental carbon were the main components of particulate matter, while water-soluble ions and elements were present in trace amounts. Best-fit engine speeds

  3. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  4. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2011-07-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  5. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Validation of NAA Method for Urban Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woro Yatu Niken Syahfitri; Muhayatun; Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Natalia Adventini

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques have been applied in many countries for determination of environmental pollutant. Method of NAA (neutron activation analysis) representing one of nuclear analytical technique of that has low detection limits, high specificity, high precision, and accuracy for large majority of naturally occurring elements, and ability of non-destructive and simultaneous determination of multi-elemental, and can handle small sample size (< 1 mg). To ensure quality and reliability of the method, validation are needed to be done. A standard reference material, SRM NIST 1648 Urban Particulate Matter, has been used to validate NAA method. Accuracy and precision test were used as validation parameters. Particulate matter were validated for 18 elements: Ti, I, V, Br, Mn, Na, K, Cl, Cu, Al, As, Fe, Co, Zn, Ag, La, Cr, and Sm,. The result showed that the percent relative standard deviation of the measured elemental concentrations are found to be within ranged from 2 to 14,8% for most of the elements analyzed whereas Hor rat value in range 0,3-1,3. Accuracy test results showed that relative bias ranged from -11,1 to 3,6%. Based on validation results, it can be stated that NAA method is reliable for characterization particulate matter and other similar matrix samples to support air quality monitoring. (author)

  7. The effect of magnesium-based additives on particulate emissions from oil-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L.S.; Galeano, V.C.; Pena, E.S.; Caballero, P.G.

    1986-02-01

    To improve present knowledge of characteristics of particulate emissions from large-size boilers, in particular the role played by magnesium-oxide slurries, research was carried out with the following main objectives in mind: To identify the elementary chemical composition of emissions from a large boiler burning heavy fuel-oil; To define the differences caused by the use of MgO slurries regarding both quantity and characteristics of emissions; To study the boiler's transient response to sudden changes in additive dosage. The use of different fuel-oil during the experiments has given cause to discuss the following aspects: The joint presence of carbon and sulfur in particulate matter; The influence of certain characteristics of fuel-oil in emissions.

  8. Source contributions and regional transport of primary particulate matter in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jianlin; Wu, Li; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Chang, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Fumo; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    A source-oriented CMAQ was applied to determine source sector/region contributions to primary particulate matter (PPM) in China. Four months were simulated with emissions grouped to eight regions and six sectors. Predicted elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), and PPM concentrations and source contributions agree with measurements and have significant spatiotemporal variations. Residential is a major contributor to spring/winter EC (50–80%), POC (60%–90%), and PPM (30–70%). For summer/fall, industrial contributes 30–50% for EC/POC and 40–60% for PPM. Transportation is more important for EC (20–30%) than POC/PPM ( 90% in Beijing. - Highlights: • A source-oriented CMAQ was established for primary particulate matter (PPM). • Source and region contributions to EC, POC and PPM in China were quantified. • Residential is major in spring/winter and industrial dominates in summer/fall. • Open burning is more important for southern while dust is in contrast. • Both local and Heibei emissions contribute to PPM in Beijing. - Source and region contributions to primary particulate matter in China were quantified for four months during 2012-2013. Residential and industrial are the major contributors.

  9. Assessing the impacts of ethanol and isobutanol on gaseous and particulate emissions from flexible fuel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Short, Daniel; Russell, Robert L; Jung, Heejung; Johnson, Kent C; Asa-Awuku, Akua; Durbin, Thomas D

    2014-12-02

    This study investigated the effects of higher ethanol blends and an isobutanol blend on the criteria emissions, fuel economy, gaseous toxic pollutants, and particulate emissions from two flexible-fuel vehicles equipped with spark ignition engines, with one wall-guided direct injection and one port fuel injection configuration. Both vehicles were tested over triplicate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and Unified Cycles (UC) using a chassis dynamometer. Emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) showed some statistically significant reductions with higher alcohol fuels, while total hydrocarbons (THC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) did not show strong fuel effects. Acetaldehyde emissions exhibited sharp increases with higher ethanol blends for both vehicles, whereas butyraldehyde emissions showed higher emissions for the butanol blend relative to the ethanol blends at a statistically significant level. Particulate matter (PM) mass, number, and soot mass emissions showed strong reductions with increasing alcohol content in gasoline. Particulate emissions were found to be clearly influenced by certain fuel parameters including oxygen content, hydrogen content, and aromatics content.

  10. Quantifying the sources of ozone, fine particulate matter, and regional haze in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odman, M Talat; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G; Hanedar, Asude; Boylan, James W; Brewer, Patricia F

    2009-07-01

    A detailed sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantify the contributions of various emission sources to ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and regional haze in the Southeastern United States. O3 and particulate matter (PM) levels were estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and light extinction values were calculated from modeled PM concentrations. First, the base case was established using the emission projections for the year 2009. Then, in each model run, SO2, primary carbon (PC), NH3, NO(x) or VOC emissions from a particular source category in a certain geographic area were reduced by 30% and the responses were determined by calculating the difference between the results of the reduced emission case and the base case. The sensitivity of summertime O3 to VOC emissions is small in the Southeast and ground-level NO(x) controls are generally more beneficial than elevated NO(x) controls (per unit mass of emissions reduced). SO2 emission reduction is the most beneficial control strategy in reducing summertime PM2.5 levels and improving visibility in the Southeast and electric generating utilities are the single largest source of SO2. Controlling PC emissions can be very effective locally, especially in winter. Reducing NH3 emissions is an effective strategy to reduce wintertime ammonium nitrate (NO3NH4) levels and improve visibility; NO(x) emissions reductions are not as effective. The results presented here will help the development of specific emission control strategies for future attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the region.

  11. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agurell, E.; Alsberg, T.; Assefaz-Redda, Y.

    1990-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  12. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piniero, T.; Cerqueira Alves, L.; Reis, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this project is to search for respiratory system particular aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. The work plan under the current IAEA contract comprise a prospective study to identify particulate matter deposited in the human respiratory ducts and lung tissue and workers respiratory health status survey at a steel plant, Siderurgia Nacional (SN). So far, the selection of areas of interest at SN, workers exposed, airborne particulate monitoring sites according to the periodicity of labouring cycles, and the beginning of workers medical survey have been achieved and/or initiated. The SN selected area, where steel is processed and steel casting is achieved, involve approximately 80 workers, most of them working at that location for more than 15 years. Blood elemental content data determined by PIXE and INAA and a preliminary health status evaluation from 32 of the 80 workers included in this survey are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  14. High-Latitude Wintertime Urban Pollution: Particulate Matter Composition and Temporal Trends in Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, W. R.; Nattinger, K.; Hooper, M.

    2017-12-01

    High latitude cities often experience severe pollution episodes during wintertime exacerbated by thermal inversion trapping of pollutant emissions. Fairbanks, Alaska is an extreme example of this problem, currently being classified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a "serious" non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). For this reason, we have studied the chemical composition of PM2.5 at multiple EPA monitoring sites in the non-attainment area from 2006 to the present. The chemical composition is dominated by organic carbon with lesser amounts of black carbon and inorganic ionic species such as ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate. We find large spatial differences in composition and amount of PM2.5 that indicate a different mix of sources in residential areas as compared to the city center. Specifically, the difference in composition is consistent with increased wood smoke source in the residential areas. The extent to which organic matter could be secondary (formed through conversion of emitted gases) is also an area needing study. Ammonium sulfate is responsible for about a fifth to a quarter of the particles mass during the darkest months, possibly indicating a non-photochemical source of sulfate, but the chemical mechanism for this possible transformation is unclear. Therefore, we quantified the relationship between particulate sulfate concentrations and gas-phase sulfur dioxide concentrations along with particulate metals and inferred particulate acidity with the hopes that these data can assist in elucidation of the mechanism of particulate sulfate formation. We also analyze temporal trends in PM2.5 composition in an attempt to understand how the problem is changing over time and find most trends are small despite regulatory changes. Improving mechanistic understanding of particulate formation under cold and dark conditions could assist in reducing air-quality-related health effects.

  15. Ferruginous compounds in the airborne particulate matter of the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Fernanda Vasconcelos Fonseca; Ardisson, José Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo César Horta; Fabris, José Domingos; Fernandez-Outon, Luis Eugenio; Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2017-08-01

    Samples of soil, iron ore, and airborne particulate matter (size airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, are either from natural origin, as, for instance, re-suspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic activities, meaning that it would be originated from the many iron ore minings surrounding the metropolitan area. Numerical simulations were used to model the atmospheric dispersion of the airborne particulate matter emitted by iron mining located at the Iron Quadrangle geodomain, Minas Gerais. Results from these numerical simulations supported identifying the sites with the highest concentrations of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan area. Samples of these suspended materials were collected at the selected sites by using high-volume air samplers. The physicochemical features of the solid materials were assessed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, magnetometry, and 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The soil materials were found to be rich in quartz, aluminum, organic matter, and low contents of iron, mainly as low crystalline iron oxides. The samples of the iron ores, on the other hand, contain high concentration of iron, dominantly as relatively pure and crystalline hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). The samples of the airborne particulate matter are rich in iron, mainly as hematite, but contained also quartz, aluminum, and calcium. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to evaluate the hyperfine structure of 57 Fe of the hematite both from the iron ore and the soil samples. The structural characteristics of the hematite of these particulate materials were further explored. The direct influence of the iron ore mining on the composition of the airborne particulate matter was clearly evidenced based on the trace ability of hematite to its source of emission. Even the atmospheric air on regions relatively far away from the mining activities is also significantly influenced.

  16. Control of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions from restaurant operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynot, J; Quinn, G; Perryman, P; Votlucka, P

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes efforts to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions from restaurant operations, including application of an existing control method to a new equipment type. Commercial charbroiling in the South Coast Air Basin results in emissions of approximately 10 tons/day of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and 1.3 tons/day of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over a seven-year period, the South Coast Air Quality Management District worked with industry to develop test methods for measuring emissions from various cooking operations, evaluate control technologies, and develop a rule to reduce these emissions. Of the two basic types of charbroilers--chain-driven and underfired--underfired produce four times the emissions when equivalent amounts of product are cooked. Cost-effective control technology is currently available only for chain-driven charbroilers. The application of flameless catalytic oxidizers to chain-driven charbroilers was found to effectively reduce emissions by at least 83% and is cost-effective. The catalysts have been used worldwide at restaurants for several years. Research efforts are underway to identify control options for underfired charbroilers. Implementation of Rule 1138, Control of Emissions from Restaurant Operations, adopted November 14, 1997, will result in reductions of 0.5 tons/day of PM2.5 and 0.2 tons/day of VOCs. Future rules will result in reductions from underfired charbroilers and possibly other restaurant equipment when cost-effective solutions are available.

  17. Toward Distinguishing Woodsmoke and Diesel Exhaust in Ambient Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, A.; Huggins, F.; Kubatova, A.; Wirick, S.; Maricq, M.; Mun, B.; McDonald, J.; Kelly, K.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning and diesel exhaust has distinct X-ray spectroscopic, carbon specific signatures, which can be employed for source apportionment. Characterization of the functional groups of a wide selection of PM samples (woodsmoke, diesel soot, urban air PM) was carried out using the soft X-ray spectroscopy capabilities at the synchrotron radiation sources in Berkeley (ALS) and Brookhaven (NSLS). The spectra reveal that diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) matter is made up from a semigraphitic solid core and soluble organic matter, predominantly with carboxylic functional groups. Woodsmoke PM has no or a less prevalent, graphitic signature, instead it contains carbon-hydroxyl groups. Using these features to apportion the carbonaceous PM in ambient samples we estimate that the relative contribution of DEP to ambient PM in an urban area such as Lexington, KY and St. Louis, MO is 7% and 13.5%, respectively. These values are comparable to dispersion modeling data from nonurban and urban areas in California, and with elemental carbon measurements in urban locations such as Boston, MA, Rochester, NY, and Washington, DC.

  18. Individual and population intake fractions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in bus stop microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Jin, Taosheng; Miao, Yaning; Han, Bin; Gao, Jiajia; Bai, Zhipeng; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is associated with adverse human health effects. This study aims to investigate the relationship between DPM exposure and emissions by estimating the individual intake fraction (iFi) and population intake fraction (iFp) of DPM. Daily average concentrations of particulate matter at two bus stops during rush hours were measured, and then they were apportioned to DPM due to heavy-duty diesel bus emissions using Chemical Mass Balance Model. The DPM emissions of diesel buses for different driving conditions (idling, creeping and traveling) were estimated on the basis of field observations and published emission factors. The median iFi of DPM was 0.67 and 1.39 per million for commuters standing at the bus stop and pedestrians/cyclists passing through the bus stop during rush hours, respectively. The median iFp of DPM was 94 per million. Estimations of iFi and iFp of DPM are potentially significant for exposure assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Formation of Particulate Matter from the Oxidation of Evaporated Wastewater from Hydraulic Fracturing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Bean, J. K.; Bilotto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing for production of petroleum and natural gas has increased dramatically in the last decade, but the environmental impacts of this technology remain unclear. Experiments were conducted to quantify airborne emissions from twelve samples of hydraulic fracturing flowback wastewater collected in the Permian Basin, as well as the photochemical processing of these emissions leading to the formation of particulate matter. The concentration of total volatile carbon (TVC, hydrocarbons evaporating at room temperature) averaged 29 milligrams of carbon per liter (mgC/L) and the TVC evaporation rate averaged 1357 mgC/L-m2-min. After photochemical oxidation under high NOx conditions the amount of organic particulate matter formed per milliliter of wastewater evaporated averaged 24 micrograms (µg); the amount of ammonium nitrate formed averaged 262 µg. In the state of Texas, the potential formation of PM from evaporated flowback wastewater is similar to the estimated PM emissions from diesel engines used in oil rigs, emphasizing the need to quantify wastewater evaporation and atmospheric processing of these emissions.

  20. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawicki Kacper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February. The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 – 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 – 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method, three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3 and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  1. Spatial and temporal variability in urban fine particulate matter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Hanna, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of hot spots for urban fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations is complicated by the significant contributions from regional atmospheric transport and the dependence of spatial and temporal variability on averaging time. We focus on PM 2.5 patterns in New York City, which includes significant local sources, street canyons, and upwind contributions to concentrations. A literature synthesis demonstrates that long-term (e.g., one-year) average PM 2.5 concentrations at a small number of widely-distributed monitoring sites would not show substantial variability, whereas short-term (e.g., 1-h) average measurements with high spatial density would show significant variability. Statistical analyses of ambient monitoring data as a function of wind speed and direction reinforce the significance of regional transport but show evidence of local contributions. We conclude that current monitor siting may not adequately capture PM 2.5 variability in an urban area, especially in a mega-city, reinforcing the necessity of dispersion modeling and methods for analyzing high-resolution monitoring observations. - Highlights: →Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) hot spots are hard to identify in urban areas. → Literature conclusions about PM 2.5 hot spots depend on study design and methods. → Hot spots are more likely for short-term concentrations at high spatial density. → Statistical methods illustrate local source impacts beyond regional transport. → Dispersion models and high-resolution monitors are both needed to find hot spots. - Fine particulate matter can vary spatially within large urban areas, in spite of the significant contribution from regional atmospheric transport.

  2. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawicki, Kacper; Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February). The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 - 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 - 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method), three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3) and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  3. Organic speciation of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Raphael

    Particle size and composition are key factors controlling the impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. A comprehensive method to characterize size-segregated PM organic content was developed, and evaluated during two field campaigns. Size-segregated particles were collected using a cascade impactor (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a PM2.5 large volume sampler. A series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were solvent extracted and quantified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Large volume injections were performed using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet to lower detection limits. The developed analysis method was evaluated during the 2001 and 2002 Intercomparison Exercise Program on Organic Contaminants in PM2.5 Air Particulate Matter led by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ambient samples were collected in May 2002 as part of the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Florida, USA and in July and August 2004 as part of the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) in New Hampshire, USA. Morphology of the collected particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smaller particles (one micrometer or less) appeared to consist of solid cores surrounded by a liquid layer which is consistent with combustion particles and also possibly with particles formed and/or coated by secondary material like sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols. Source apportionment studies demonstrated the importance of stationary sources on the organic particulate matter observed at these two rural sites. Coal burning and biomass burning were found to be responsible for a large part of the observed PAHs during the field campaigns. Most of the measured PAHs were concentrated in particles smaller than one micrometer and linked to combustion sources

  4. Characterization of particulate matter deposited on urban tree foliage: A landscape analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yan, Jingli; Ma, Keming; Zhou, Weiqi; Chen, Guojian; Tang, Rongli; Zhang, Yuxin

    2017-12-01

    Plants can mitigate ambient particulate matter by cleaning the air, which is crucial to urban environments. A novel approach was presented to quantitatively characterize particulate matter deposited on urban tree foliage. This approach could accurately quantify the number, size, shape, and spatial distribution of particles with different diameters on leaves. Spatial distribution is represented by proximity, which measures the closeness of particles. We sampled three common broadleaf species and obtained images through field emission scanning electron microscopy. We conducted the object-based method to extract particles from images. We then used Fragstats to analyze the landscape characteristics of these particles in term of selected metrics. Results reveal that Salix matsudana is more efficient than Ailanthus altissima and Fraxinus chinensis in terms of the number and area of particles per unit area and the proportion of fine particulate matter. The shape complexity of the particles increases with their size. Among the three species, S. matsudana and A. altissima particles respectively yield the highest and lowest proximity. PM1 in A. altissima and PM10 in F. chinensis and S. matsudana show the highest proximity, which may influence subsequent particle retention. S. matsudana should be generally considered to collect additional small particles. Different species and particle sizes exhibit various proximities, which should be further examined to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  5. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  6. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  7. The filtering effect of buildings on airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.C.; Mustonen, R.

    1987-06-01

    Within the radioecological programme of the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy (NKA), the possible consequences of a major reactor accident are one of its main research branches. This study of the filtering effect of buildings on airborne particulate matter has been one part of this branch. The absorbed dose to a person from a passing radioactive cloud will be lower if he has been indoors and not ourdoors during the cloud passage. The aim of this study has been to find filtering factors for typical Finnish and Norwegian houses to use in model work

  8. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniš, Martin; Šafránek, Jiří

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5) and PM(2.5-1.0)) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM(10-2.5) 4.1-7.4 μg m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 2.0-3.3 μg m(-3)) than indoors (average PM(10-2.5) 13.6-26.7 μg m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 3.7-7.4 μg m(-3)). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM(10-2.5) and 1.4-4.8 for the PM(2.5-1.0) values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM(10-2.5)) and 19.1 (PM(2.5-1.0)). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high

  9. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Kuenen , Jeroen; Gschwind , Benoît; Drebszok , Kamila M.; Stetter , Daniel; Kranenburg , Richard; Hendriks , Carlijn; Lefèvre , Mireille; Blanc , Isabelle; Wyrwa , Artur; Schaap , Martijn

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin...

  10. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on particulate organic matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xueyan; Luo Lei; Ma Yibing; Zhang Shuzhen

    2010-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) is a key organic matter fraction which can influence soil fertility. Its interactions with hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOCs) have not been characterized and the mechanisms of retention of HOCs by POM remain unclear. In the present study, sorption behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and pyrene (PYR) by POMs separated from different soils were examined and the POMs were characterized by elemental analysis, solid state 13 C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that POMs were mainly composed of aliphatic components with high polarity. The different original POMs showed similar chemical composition and configuration. Sorption behaviors of PAHs indicated that there was no significant difference in sorption capacity among the POMs. Sorption of NAP and PHE by POMs displayed a nonlinear isotherm, while sorption of PYR yielded a linear isotherm. No significant hysteresis and ionic strength effect were observed for PAH desorption from the POMs.

  11. Particulate matter analysis at elementary schools in Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigo, Devanir; Godoi, Ana F L; Janissek, Paulo R; Makarovska, Yaroslava; Krata, Agnieszka; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Alfoldy, Balint; Van Grieken, René; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2008-06-01

    The particulate matter indoors and outdoors of the classrooms at two schools in Curitiba, Brazil, was characterised in order to assess the indoor air quality. Information concerning the bulk composition was provided by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). From the calculated indoor/outdoor ratios and the enrichment factors it was observed that S-, Cl- and Zn-rich particles are of concern in the indoor environment. In the present research, the chemical compositions of individual particles were quantitatively elucidated, including low-Z components like C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements, using automated electron probe microanalysis low Z EPMA. Samples were further analysed for chemical and morphological aspects, determining the particle size distribution and classifying them according to elemental composition associations. Five classes were identified based on major elemental concentrations: aluminosilicate, soot, organic, calcium carbonate and iron-rich particles. The majority of the respirable particulate matter found inside of the classroom was composed of soot, biogenic and aluminosilicate particles. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the human respiratory system were calculated revealing the deposition of soot at alveolar level. The results showed that on average 42% of coarse particles are deposited at the extrathoracic level, whereas 24% are deposited at the pulmonary region. The fine fraction showed a deposition rate of approximately 18% for both deposition levels.

  12. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  13. Analysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter in Madrid urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Mendez, J.; Bomboi, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    Levels of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been measured in the air particulate matter during six months, from January to June of 1987, in an urban area of Madrid. The hydrocarbons were collected on glass fiber filters by high volumen sampling. The extraction was carried out by Sohxlet and ultrasonic techniques. The extracts were clean-up on silicagel fractionation and the chromatographic analysis was performed by capillary column gas chromatographic. Final results are discussed as well as the immission values related to the possible emission sources. (Author)

  14. Source apportionment of carbonaceous particulate matter during haze days in Shanghai based on the radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannan Wei; Jialiang Feng; Detao Xiao

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the sources of carbonaceous particulate matter, "1"4C and biomass-burning marker (levoglucosan) were measured in the form of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM_2_._5 that was collected in five different functional districts of Shanghai during winter 2013. Spatial variations of the contemporary proportion among different districts were evident. The results of levoglucosan in Xujiahui (XH) and Chongming (CM) agreed well with those of "1"4C. The results indicate that environmental protection policies should vary for functional districts within the same city to account for their different sources of emissions. (author)

  15. PIXE and neutron activation analysis: intercomparison in the elemental concentration of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassorla, V.; Rojas, X.; Gras, N.; Chuaqui, L.; Dinator, M.I.; Morales, J.R.; Llona, F.; Romo-Kroeger, C.

    1993-01-01

    Two nuclear analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), were used to determine major and trace elements in airborne particulate matter collected during the first fortnight of June 1991 at the La Reina Nuclear Center. NAA detected the presence of 15 elements in the samples. PIXE, for the same samples, allowed the detection of 12 elements. The elements determined by both techniques were Al, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn. A good correlation between results for these elements for each of the two techniques was demonstrated. (author)

  16. Seasonal variation of the metal composition in particulate matter (PM) in Graz determined with ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, M.; Raber, G.; Goessler, W.; Licbinsky, R.; Pongratz, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Graz, the 2 nd biggest city of Austria, is not only famous for its cultural heritage but is also well known as one of the most heavily air-polluted cities of Austria. Samples of particulate matter (PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 ), collected in Graz over a one year period, were analyzed for 36 metals by ICPMS following microwave-assisted acid digestion. Accumulation of PM in the city (Graz is located in a basin) and additional emissions (e.g. domestic combustion) during winter caused not only higher PM concentrations but also marked changes in the PM metal composition. (author)

  17. Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: Review of influencing factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodas, Natasha; Loh, Miranda; Shin, Hyeong-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major contributor to the global human disease burden. The indoor environment is of particular importance when considering the health effects associated with PM2.5 exposures because people spend the majority of their time indoors and PM2.5 exposures...... per unit mass emitted indoors are two to three orders of magnitude larger than exposures to outdoor emissions. Variability in indoor PM2.5 intake fraction (iFin,total), which is defined as the integrated cumulative intake of PM2.5 per unit of emission, is driven by a combination of building......-specific, human-specific, and pollutant-specific factors. Due to a limited availability of data characterizing these factors, however, indoor emissions and intake of PM2.5 are not commonly considered when evaluating the environmental performance of product life cycles. With the aim of addressing this barrier...

  18. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kerrie A; Whitelaw, Jane L; Jones, Alison L; Davies, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engines have been a mainstay within many industries since the early 1900s. Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a major issue in many industrial workplaces given the potential for serious health impacts to exposed workers; including the potential for lung cancer and adverse irritant and cardiovascular effects. Personal respiratory protective devices are an accepted safety measure to mitigate worker exposure against the potentially damaging health impacts of DPM. To be protective, they need to act as effective filters against carbon and other particulates. In Australia, the filtering efficiency of respiratory protective devices is determined by challenging test filter media with aerosolised sodium chloride to determine penetration at designated flow rates. The methodology outlined in AS/NZS1716 (Standards Australia International Ltd and Standards New Zealand 2012. Respiratory protective devices. Sydney/Wellington: SAI Global Limited/Standards New Zealand) does not account for the differences between characteristics of workplace contaminants like DPM and sodium chloride such as structure, composition, and particle size. This study examined filtering efficiency for three commonly used AS/NZS certified respirator filter models, challenging them with two types of diesel emissions; those from a diesel generator and a diesel engine. Penetration through the filter media of elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), and total suspended particulate (TSP) was calculated. Results indicate that filtering efficiency assumed by P2 certification in Australia was achieved for two of the three respirator models for DPM generated using the small diesel generator, whilst when the larger diesel engine was used, filtering efficiency requirements were met for all three filter models. These results suggest that the testing methodology specified for certification of personal respiratory protective devices by Standards Australia may not ensure adequate protection for

  19. Sampling and analytical methodologies for instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    The IAEA supports a number of projects having to do with the analysis of airborne particulate matter by nuclear techniques. Most of this work involves the use of activation analysis in its various forms, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique has been widely used in many different countries for the analysis of airborne particulate matter, and there are already many publications in scientific journals, books and reports describing such work. The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of INAA as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of INAA to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability, although they are presented here in a way that takes account of the particular requirements arising from the use of INAA as the analytical technique. The analytical part of the document, however, is presented in a form that is applicable only to INAA. (Subsequent publications in this series are expected to deal specifically with other nuclear related techniques such as energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) and particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) analysis). Although the methods and procedures described here have been found through experience to yield acceptable results, they should not be considered mandatory. Any other procedure used should, however, be chosen to be capable of yielding results at least of equal quality to those described.

  20. Sampling and analytical methodologies for instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA supports a number of projects having to do with the analysis of airborne particulate matter by nuclear techniques. Most of this work involves the use of activation analysis in its various forms, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique has been widely used in many different countries for the analysis of airborne particulate matter, and there are already many publications in scientific journals, books and reports describing such work. The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of INAA as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of INAA to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability, although they are presented here in a way that takes account of the particular requirements arising from the use of INAA as the analytical technique. The analytical part of the document, however, is presented in a form that is applicable only to INAA. (Subsequent publications in this series are expected to deal specifically with other nuclear related techniques such as energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) and particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) analysis). Although the methods and procedures described here have been found through experience to yield acceptable results, they should not be considered mandatory. Any other procedure used should, however, be chosen to be capable of yielding results at least of equal quality to those described

  1. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  2. Individual and population intake fractions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in bus stop microenvironments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jia; Jin, Taosheng; Miao, Yaning; Han, Bin; Gao, Jiajia; Bai, Zhipeng; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is associated with adverse human health effects. This study aims to investigate the relationship between DPM exposure and emissions by estimating the individual intake fraction (iF_i) and population intake fraction (iF_p) of DPM. Daily average concentrations of particulate matter at two bus stops during rush hours were measured, and then they were apportioned to DPM due to heavy-duty diesel bus emissions using Chemical Mass Balance Model. The DPM emissions of diesel buses for different driving conditions (idling, creeping and traveling) were estimated on the basis of field observations and published emission factors. The median iF_i of DPM was 0.67 and 1.39 per million for commuters standing at the bus stop and pedestrians/cyclists passing through the bus stop during rush hours, respectively. The median iF_p of DPM was 94 per million. Estimations of iF_i and iF_p of DPM are potentially significant for exposure assessment and risk management. - Highlights: • Methods to estimate the individual and population intake fraction in bus stop microenvironments were established. • Source apportionment was performed to estimate the DPM due to diesel bus emissions in bus stop microenvironments. • The DPM emission in bus stop microenvironments rather than in the entire urban area was considered. • The movement of people and their exposure duration were introduced in the estimation of population intake fraction. - This work established a method to estimate the individual and population intake fraction in transportation microenvironments on the basis of PM source apportionment.

  3. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Tatani, T; Yoshida, H; Takizawa, H; Miyoshi, K; Ikebe, H [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Biomass Burning Smoke Climatology of the United States: Implications for Particulate Matter Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfus, Aaron S; Nair, Udaysankar; Jaffe, Daniel; Christopher, Sundar A; Goodrick, Scott

    2017-10-17

    We utilize the NOAA Hazard Mapping System smoke product for the period of 2005 to 2016 to develop climatology of smoke occurrence over the Continental United States (CONUS) region and to study the impact of wildland fires on particulate matter air quality at the surface. Our results indicate that smoke is most frequently found over the Great Plains and western states during the summer months. Other hotspots of smoke occurrence are found over state and national parks in the southeast during winter and spring, in the Gulf of Mexico southwards of the Texas and Louisiana coastline during spring season and along the Mississippi River Delta during the fall season. A substantial portion (20%) of the 24 h federal standard for particulate pollution exceedance events in the CONUS region occur when smoke is present. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations continue to reduce anthropogenic emissions, wildland fire emissions will become the major contributor to particulate pollution and exceedance events. In this context, we show that HMS smoke product is a valuable tool for analysis of exceptional events caused by wildland fires and our results indicate that these tools can be valuable for policy and decision makers.

  5. Assessment of impact distances for particulate matter dispersion: A stochastic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, S.M.; Mores, P.L.; Santa Cruz, A.S.M.; Scenna, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that pollutants can be dispersed from the emission sources by the wind, or settled on the ground. Particle size, stack height, topography and meteorological conditions strongly affect particulate matter (PM) dispersion. In this work, an impact distance calculation methodology considering different particulate sizes is presented. A Gaussian-type dispersion model for PM that handles size particles larger than 0.1 μm is used. The model considers primary particles and continuous emissions. PM concentration distribution at every affected geographical point defined by a grid is computed. Stochastic uncertainty caused by the natural variability of atmospheric parameters is taken into consideration in the dispersion model by applying a Monte Carlo methodology. The prototype package (STRRAP) that takes into account the stochastic behaviour of atmospheric variables, developed for risk assessment and safe distances calculation [Godoy SM, Santa Cruz ASM, Scenna NJ. STRRAP SYSTEM - A software for hazardous materials risk assessment and safe distances calculation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 2007;92(7):847-57] is enlarged for the analysis of the PM air dispersion. STRRAP computes distances from the source to every affected receptor in each trial and generates the impact distance distribution for each particulate size. In addition, a representative impact distance value to delimit the affected area can be obtained. Fuel oil stack effluents dispersion in Rosario city is simulated as a case study. Mass concentration distributions and impact distances are computed for the range of interest in environmental air quality evaluations (PM 2.5 -PM 10 ).

  6. Impact of dedicated E85 vehicle use on ozone and particulate matter in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Griffin, W. Michael; Yarwood, Greg; Dunker, Alan M.; MacLean, Heather L.; Mansell, Gerard; Grant, John

    2011-12-01

    Increased use of ethanol as a vehicle fuel worldwide warrants the need to understand air quality impacts of replacing gasoline with ethanol. This study evaluates the impacts of dedicated E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline) light-duty vehicles on emissions, ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the United States for a future year (2022) using a 3-D photochemical model, detailed emissions inventories that account for changes in all sectors studied, and winter and summer meteorology that occurred in 2002. Use of E85 introduces new emissions from ethanol production and distribution, reduces petrochemical industry emissions due to lower gasoline consumption, changes on-road vehicle emissions and alters biogenic emissions due to land use changes. Three scenarios with increased ethanol production for dedicated E85 light-duty vehicles were compared to a base case without increased ethanol production. Increased use of E85 caused both increases and decreases in ozone and PM, driven mainly by changes in NO x emissions related to biogenic and upstream petrochemical industry sources. In all states modeled, adoption of dedicated E85 vehicles caused negligible change in average higher ozone and PM concentrations of importance for air quality management strategies. Ozone and PM changes are relatively insensitive to how land area is allocated for switchgrass production. The findings are subject to various uncertainties, especially those in vehicle technology and emissions from cellulosic ethanol production.

  7. Modelisation des emissions de particules microniques et nanometriques en usinage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khettabi, Riad

    La mise en forme des pieces par usinage emet des particules, de tailles microscopiques et nanometriques, qui peuvent etre dangereuses pour la sante. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les emissions de ces particules pour fins de prevention et reduction a la source. L'approche retenue est experimentale et theorique, aux deux echelles microscopique et macroscopique. Le travail commence par des essais permettant de determiner les influences du materiau, de l'outil et des parametres d'usinage sur les emissions de particules. E nsuite un nouveau parametre caracterisant les emissions, nomme Dust unit , est developpe et un modele predictif est propose. Ce modele est base sur une nouvelle theorie hybride qui integre les approches energetiques, tribologiques et deformation plastique, et inclut la geometrie de l'outil, les proprietes du materiau, les conditions de coupe et la segmentation des copeaux. Il ete valide au tournage sur quatre materiaux: A16061-T6, AISI1018, AISI4140 et fonte grise.

  8. Chemical Composition of Fine Particulate Matter and Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Correia, Andrew W.; Ezzati, Majid; Pope, C. Arden; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we provided evidence that a decline in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution during the period between 2000 and 2007 was associated with increased life expectancy in 545 counties in the United States. In this article, we investigated which chemical constituents of PM2.5 were the main drivers of the observed association. Methods We estimated associations between temporal changes in seven major components of PM2.5 (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, elemental carbon matter, organic carbon matter, sodium, and silicon) and temporal changes in life expectancy in 95 counties between 2002 and 2007. We included US counties that had adequate chemical components of PM2.5 mass data across all seasons. We fitted single pollutant and multiple pollutant linear models, controlling for available socioeconomic, demographic, and smoking variables and stratifying by urban and nonurban counties. Results In multiple pollutant models, we found that: (1) a reduction in sulfate was associated with an increase in life expectancy; and (2) reductions in ammonium and sodium ion were associated with increases in life expectancy in nonurban counties only. Conclusions Our findings suggest that recent reductions in long-term exposure to sulfate, ammonium, and sodium ion between 2002 and 2007 are associated with improved public health. PMID:25906366

  9. Hazard identification of particulate matter on vasomotor dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Mikkelsen, Lone; Vesterdal, Lise Kristine

    2011-01-01

    and inflammatory pathways. We have assessed the effect of exposure to particulate matter on progression of atherosclerosis and vasomotor function in humans, animals, and ex vivo experimental systems. The type of particles that have been tested in these systems encompass TiO(2), carbon black, fullerene C(60...... of particulate matter....

  10. Biomonitoring of toxic compounds of airborne particulate matter in urban and industriel areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter...

  11. GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE. JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

  12. The Particulate Nature of Matter in Science Education and in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Wobbe de; Verdonk, Adri H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses ideas about the particulate nature of matter and assesses the extent to which these represent a compromise between scientific and educational considerations. Analyzes relations between the particulate nature of matter in science and science education in an attempt to understand children's inclination to attribute all kinds of macroscopic…

  13. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  14. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branis, Martin, E-mail: branis@natur.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute for Environmental Studies, Prague (Czech Republic); Safranek, Jiri [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Outdoor Sports, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-15

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0}) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 4.1-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 2.0-3.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}) than indoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 13.6-26.7 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 3.7-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM{sub 10-2.5} and 1.4-4.8 for the PM{sub 2.5-1.0} values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and 19.1 (PM{sub 2.5-1.0}). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school

  15. Inhibition of intercellular communication by airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussen, G.A.H. (Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Toxicology)

    1991-04-01

    To investigate the inhibition of gap junction mediated intercellular communication (IC) by extracts of airborne particulate matter (APM), V79 cells were incubated with extracts of APM and subsequently microinjected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow, after which the number of fluorescent (= communicating) cells was determined. To compare inhibitory effects on IC with mutagenicity, APM was also tested in the Salmonella microsome assay. Six different extracts were tested, two outdoor extracts representing a heavily polluted and a relatively clean sample, and four indoor extracts, taken either in livingrooms with or without wood combustion in an open fire place, or in a room with or without cigarette smoking. Non-cytotoxic doses of outdoor and indoor APM inhibited IC in V79 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Mutagenicity data and IC data were correlated. These results suggest that APM has tumor promoter activity in addition to mutagenic activity. (orig.).

  16. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  17. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  18. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-06-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  19. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branis, Martin; Safranek, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5-1.0 ) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM 10-2.5 4.1-7.4 μg m -3 and PM 2.5-1.0 2.0-3.3 μg m -3 ) than indoors (average PM 10-2.5 13.6-26.7 μg m -3 and PM 2.5-1.0 3.7-7.4 μg m -3 ). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM 10-2.5 and 1.4-4.8 for the PM 2.5-1.0 values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM 10-2.5 ) and 19.1 (PM 2.5-1.0 ). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of

  20. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  1. The first sustainable material designed for air particulate matter capture: An introduction to Azure Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, A; Bilo, F; Depero, L E; Zappa, D; Bontempi, E

    2018-07-15

    This work presents a new porous material (SUNSPACE) designed for air particulate matter (PM) capture. It was developed in answer to the European Commission request of an innovative, affordable, and sustainable solution, based on design-driven material, to reduce the concentration of air particulate matter in urban areas. SUNSPACE material was developed from by-products and low-cost materials, such as silica fume and sodium alginate. Its capability to catch ultrafine PM was evaluated by different ad-hoc tests, considering diesel exhaust fumes and incense smoke PM. Despite the fact that procedures and materials can be designed for remediation, the high impact on the environment, for example in terms of natural resources consumption and emissions, are not usually considered. Instead, we believe that the technologies must be always evaluated in terms of material embodied energy (EE) and carbon footprint (CF). We define our approach to solve environment problems by a sustainable methodology "Azure Chemistry". For the SUNSPACE synthesis, the multi-criteria decision analysis was performed to select the best sustainable solution. The emissions and the energies involved in the synthesis of SUNSPACE material were evaluated with the Azure Chemistry approach, showing that this could be the best available technology to face the problem of capturing the PM in urban area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Status of Suspended Particulate Matters Pollution at Traditional Markets in Makassar City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Sri; Fahrunnisa

    2018-03-01

    Research on the status of suspended particulate matters pollution in four traditional markets located in Makassar city has been done. The purpose of this research is to know the air quality in the traditional market areas, especially caused by suspended particulate matters. The background of this research is because traders who trade in traditional markets generally peddle their goods along dusty roads and suspended particulate matters in dust can be inhaled when the vehicle passes. These suspended particulate matters pollutant can cause lung diseases. The results showed that the level of suspended particulate matters pollution fluctuates every year depending on the local wind speed, humidity, and temperature. Research results also showed the values were over the standard value according to the governor of South Sulawesi regulation.

  3. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 levels in ETS emissions of a Marlboro Red cigarette in comparison to the 3R4F reference cigarette under open- and closed-door condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Potential health damage by environmental emission of tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, ETS has been demonstrated convincingly in numerous studies. People, especially children, are still exposed to ETS in the small space of private cars. Although major amounts of toxic compounds from ETS are likely transported into the distal lung via particulate matter (PM, few studies have quantified the amount of PM in ETS. Study aim The aim of this study was to determine the ETS-dependent concentration of PM from both a 3R4F reference cigarette (RC as well as a Marlboro Red brand cigarette (MRC in a small enclosed space under different conditions of ventilation to model car exposure. Method In order to create ETS reproducibly, an emitter (ETSE was constructed and mounted on to an outdoor telephone booth with an inner volume of 1.75 m3. Cigarettes were smoked under open- and closed-door condition to imitate different ventilation scenarios. PM2.5 concentration was quantified by a laser aerosol spectrometer (Grimm; Model 1.109, and data were adjusted for baseline values. Simultaneously indoor and outdoor climate parameters were recorded. The time of smoking was divided into the ETS generation phase (subset “emission” and a declining phase of PM concentration (subset “elimination”; measurement was terminated after 10 min. For all three time periods the average concentration of PM2.5 (Cmean-PM2.5 and the area under the PM2.5 concentration curve (AUC-PM2.5 was calculated. The maximum concentration (Cmax-PM2.5 was taken from the total interval. Results For both cigarette types open-door ventilation reduced the AUC-PM2.5 (RC: from 59 400 ± 14 600 to 5 550 ± 3 900 μg*sec/m3; MRC: from 86 500 ± 32 000 to 7 300 ± 2 400 μg*sec/m3; p mean-PM2.5 (RC: from 600 ± 150 to 56 ± 40 μg/m3, MRC from 870 ± 320 to 75 ± 25 μg/m3; p max-PM2.5 was reduced by about 80% (RC: from 1 050 ± 230 to

  4. A study to estimate and compare the total particulate matter emission indices (EIN) between traditional jet fuel and two blends of Jet A/Camelina biofuel used in a high by-pass turbofan engine: A case study of Honeywell TFE-109 engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shila, Jacob Joshua Howard

    The aviation industry is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5% until the year 2031 according to Boeing Outlook Report of 2012. Although the aerospace manufacturers have introduced new aircraft and engines technologies to reduce the emissions generated by aircraft engines, about 15% of all aircraft in 2032 will be using the older technologies. Therefore, agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Astronautics Administration (NASA), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) among others together with some academic institutions have been working to characterize both physical and chemical characteristics of the aircraft particulate matter emissions to further understand their effects to the environment. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is also working to establish an inventory with Particulate Matter emissions for all the aircraft turbine engines for certification purposes. This steps comes as a result of smoke measurements not being sufficient to provide detailed information on the effects of Particulate Matter (PM) emissions as far as the health and environmental concerns. The use of alternative fuels is essential to reduce the impacts of emissions released by Jet engines since alternative aviation fuels have been studied to lower particulate matter emissions in some types of engines families. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the emission indices of the biofuel blended fuels were lower than the emission indices of the traditional jet fuel at selected engine thrust settings. The biofuel blends observed were 75% Jet A-25% Camelina blend biofuel, and 50% Jet A-50% Jet A blend biofuel. The traditional jet fuel in this study was the Jet A fuel. The results of this study may be useful in establishing a baseline for aircraft engines' PM inventory. Currently the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) engines emissions database contains only gaseous emissions data for only the TFE 731

  5. Identification and chemical characterization of industrial particulate matter sources in southwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Plana, Feliciano; Viana, Mar; Ruiz, Carmen R; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; de la Rosa, Jesús; Mantilla, Enrique; García dos Santos, Saul

    2006-07-01

    A detailed physical and chemical characterization of coarse particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the city of Huelva (in Southwestern Spain) was carried out during 2001 and 2002. To identify the major emission sources with a significant influence on PM10 and PM2.5, a methodology was developed based on the combination of: (1) real-time measurements of levels of PM10, PM2.5, and very fine particulate matter (PM1); (2) chemical characterization and source apportionment analysis of PM10 and PM2.5; and (3) intensive measurements in field campaigns to characterize the emission plumes of several point sources. Annual means of 37, 19, and 16 microg/m3 were obtained for the study period for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively. High PM episodes, characterized by a very fine grain size distribution, are frequently detected in Huelva mainly in the winter as the result of the impact of the industrial emission plumes on the city. Chemical analysis showed that PM at Huelva is characterized by high PO4(3-) and As levels, as expected from the industrial activities. Source apportionment analyses identified a crustal source (36% of PM10 and 31% of PM2.5); a traffic-related source (33% of PM10 and 29% of PM2.5), and a marine aerosol contribution (only in PM10, 4%). In addition, two industrial emission sources were identified in PM10 and PM2.5: (1) a petrochemical source, 13% in PM10 and 8% in PM2.5; and (2) a mixed metallurgical-phosphate source, which accounts for 11-12% of PM10 and PM2.5. In PM2.5 a secondary source has been also identified, which contributed to 17% of the mass. A complete characterization of industrial emission plumes during their impact on the ground allowed for the identification of tracer species for specific point sources, such as petrochemical, metallurgic, and fertilizer and phosphate production industries.

  6. Organic and inorganic speciation of particulate matter formed during different combustion phases in an improved cookstove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Anna; Patel, Sameer; Martinez, Raul; Mitroo, Dhruv; Fortenberry, Claire; Walker, Michael; Williams, Brent; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-10-01

    Residential solid fuel combustion in cookstoves has established health impacts including bladder and lung cancers, cataracts, low birth weight, and pneumonia. The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) from 4 commonly-used solid fuels (coal, dung, ambient/dry applewood, and oakwood pellets), emitted from a gasifier cookstove, as well as propane, were examined. Temporal changes between the different cookstove burn-phases were also explored. Normalized concentrations of non-refractory PM 1 , total organics, chloride, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and 41 particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (TAG), respectively. Coal demonstrated the highest fraction of organic matter in its particulate emission composition (98%), followed by dung (94%). Coal and dung also demonstrated the highest numbers and concentrations of PAHs. While dry applewood emitted ten times lower organic matter compared to ambient applewood, a higher fraction of these organics was composed of PAHs, especially the more toxic ones such as benzo(a)pyrene (9.63ng/L versus 0.04ng/L), and benzo(b)fluoranthene (31.32ng/L versus 0.19ng/L). Data from the AMS demonstrated no clear trends for any of the combustion fuels over the different combustion phases unlike the previously reported trends observed for the physical characteristics. Of the solid fuels, pellets demonstrated the lowest emissions. Emissions from propane were below the quantification limit of the instruments. This work highlights the benefits of incorporating additional metrics into the cookstove evaluation process, thus enriching the existing PM data inventory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Health effects from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; McKone, T.E.; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a major contributor to human disease burden as continuously shown in the Global Burden of Disease study series. Exposures to PM2.5 concentration outdoors and indoors contribute almost equally to this burden. Despite the importance, health...... impacts from exposure to PM2.5 are often excluded from life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) characterization profiles. This is in large part because of the lack of well-vetted harmonized guidance about how to consistently assess the exposures and impacts of indoor and outdoor emissions of PM2.5 and its...... precursors. We present a framework for calculating characterization factors for indoor and outdoor emissions of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors, and a roadmap for further refining this modelling framework for operational use in LCIA. The framework was developed over the last three years...

  8. Methods of analysis for complex organic aerosol mixtures from urban emission sources of particulate carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Hildemann, L.M.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1990-10-01

    Organic aerosols comprise approximately 30% by mass of the total fine particulate matter present in urban atmospheres. The chemical composition of such aerosols is complex and reflects input from multiple sources of primary emissions to the atmosphere, as well as from secondary production of carbonaceous aerosol species via photochemical reactions. To identify discrete sources of fine carbonaceous particles in urban atmospheres, analytical methods must reconcile both bulk chemical and molecular properties of the total carbonaceous aerosol fraction. This paper presents an overview of the analytical protocol developed and used in a study of the major sources of fine carbon particles emitted to an urban atmosphere. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic activities were determined for each extract.Results: This is the first study conducted in Colombia that reports the mutagenic and genotoxic activities associated with particulate matter (MP2,5 taken from vehicular emissions in Pamplona, Norte de Santander. The mutagenic assay determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 showed a high direct mutagenic activity in the analyzed extracts. On the other hand, the genotoxic activity, determined by means of the comet assay, was high too.Conclusion: Particulate material (MP2,5 present in air samples in Pamplona (northeastern Colombia is a risk factor for the exposed population because it can directly induce mutations and also cause genotoxic damage.

  10. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  11. Filtration of Carbon Particulate Emissions from a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Green, Robert; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon; Greenwood, Zach; Abney, Morgan; Peterson, Elspeth

    2016-01-01

    NASA is investigating plasma pyrolysis as a candidate technology that will enable the recovery of hydrogen from the methane produced by the ISS Sabatier Reactor. The Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) is the current prototype of this technology which converts the methane product from the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) to acetylene and hydrogen with 90% or greater conversion efficiency. A small amount of solid carbon particulates are generated as a side product and must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. We discuss developmental work on several options for filtering out the carbon particulate emissions from the PPA exit gas stream. The filtration technologies and concepts investigated range from fibrous media to monolithic ceramic and sintered metal media. This paper describes the different developed filter prototypes and characterizes their performance from integrated testing at the Environmental Chamber (E-Chamber) at MSFC. In addition, characterization data on the generated carbon particulates, that help to define filter requirements, are also presented.

  12. Particulate Matter and Gaseous Pollutions in Three Metropolises along the Chinese Yangtze River: Situation and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mao; Zhang, Xiaolin; Yin, Yan

    2018-05-28

    The situation of criteria atmospheric pollutants, including particulate matter and trace gases (SO₂, NO₂, CO and O₃), over three metropolises (Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing), representing the upstream, midstream and downstream portions of the Yangtze River Basin from September 2015 to August 2016 were analyzed. The maximum annual mean PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations were 61.3 and 102.7 μg/m³ in Wuhan, while highest annual average gaseous pollutions occurred in Nanjing, with 49.6 and 22.9 ppb for 8 h O₃ and NO₂, respectively. Compared to a few years ago, SO₂ and CO mass concentrations have dropped to well below the qualification standards, and the O₃ and NO₂ concentrations basically meet the requirements though occasionally is still high. In contrary, about 13%, 25%, 22% for PM 2.5 , and 4%, 17%, 15% for PM 10 exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (CAAQS) Grade II. Particulate matter, especially PM 2.5 , is the most frequent major pollutant to poor air quality with 73%, 64% and 88% accounting for substandard days. Mean PM 2.5 concentrations on PM 2.5 episode days are 2⁻3 times greater than non-episode days. On the basis of calculation of PM 2.5 /PM 10 and PM 2.5 /CO ratios, the enhanced particulate matter pollution on episode days is closely related to secondary aerosol production. Except for O₃, the remaining five pollutants exhibit analogous seasonal patterns, with the highest magnitude in winter and lowest in summer. The results of back trajectories show that air pollution displays synergistic effects on local emissions and long range transport. O₃ commonly demonstrated negative correlations with other pollutants, especially during winter, while moderate to strong positive correlation between particulate matter and NO₂, SO₂, CO were seen. Compared to pollutant substandard ratios over three megacities in eastern China (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou), the situation in our studied second-tier cities are also severe. The

  13. A Prototype Sensor for In Situ Sensing of Fine Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee-Loon; Kai, Fuu-Ming; Tee, Ming-Hui; Tan, Nicholas; Hemond, Harold F

    2018-01-18

    Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic) capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2.5 from incense burning inside the chamber was measured using the AtmOptic. The weight of PM2.5 particles was collected and measured with a filter to determine their concentration and the sensor signal-to-concentration correlation. The results of the AtmOptic were also compared and found to trend well with the Dylos DC 1100 Pro air quality monitor. The absorbance spectrum of VOCs emitted from various laboratory chemicals and household products as well as a two chemical mixtures were recorded. The quantification was demonstrated, using toluene as an example, by calibrating the AtmOptic with compressed gas standards containing VOCs at different concentrations. The results demonstrated the sensor capabilities in measuring PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds.

  14. Temperature modifies the health effects of particulate matter in Brisbane, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cizao; Tong, Shilu

    2006-11-01

    A few epidemiological studies have examined whether there was an interactive effect between temperature and ambient particulate matter on cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality, but the results were inconsistent. The present study used three time-series approaches to explore whether maximum temperature modified the impact of ambient particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10) on daily respiratory hospital admissions, cardiovascular hospital admissions, respiratory emergency visits, cardiovascular emergency visits, non-external cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in Brisbane between 1996 and 2001. The analytical approaches included a bivariate response surface model, a non-stratification parametric model and a stratification parametric model. Results show that there existed a statistically significant interaction between PM10 and temperature on most health outcomes at various lags. PM10 exhibited more adverse health effects on warm days than cold days. The choice of the degree of freedom for smoothers to adjust for confounders and the selection of arbitrary cut-offs for temperature affected the interaction estimates to a certain extent, but did not change the overall conclusion. The results imply that it is important to control and reduce the emission of air particles in Brisbane, particularly when temperature increases.

  15. PIXE Analysis and source identification of airborne particulate matter collected in Downtown Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Pinnera, I; Ramos, M; Guibert, R; Molina, E.; Martinez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Aldape, F.; Flores, M.

    2009-01-01

    A set of samples containing airborne particulate matter (in two particle size fraction PM10 and PM2,5) collected during five months from November 2006 to April 2007 in a urban area of Havana City were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique and the concentrations of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were determined consistently in both particle size fractions with minimum detection limits in the range of ng/m3. A Gent air sampler was used for the aerosol collection in PM10 and PM2,5 particles simultaneously and the PIXE elemental analysis were performed using a proton beam of 2.5 MeV from the 2 MV Van de Graff Tandetron Accelerator at the ININ PIXE Laboratory in Mexico. The analytical database provided by PIXE was statistically analyzed in order to determine the promising local pollution sources. The statistical techniques of Multivariate Factor Analysis in combination with the Principal Component Analysis methods were applied to this data and allowed identifying five main pollution sources of airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2,5) collected in this area. The main (local) identified sources were: soil dust, sea spray, industry, fossil fuel combustion from motor vehicles and burnings or incinerations of diverse materials. A general discussion about these results is presented in this work. (Author)

  16. Composition and Sources of Particulate Matter Measured near Houston, TX: Anthropogenic-Biogenic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. Bean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter was measured in Conroe, Texas (~60 km north of downtown Houston, Texas during the September 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign to determine the sources of particulate matter in the region. The measurement site is influenced by high biogenic emission rates as well as transport of anthropogenic pollutants from the Houston metropolitan area and is therefore an ideal location to study anthropogenic-biogenic interactions. Data from an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM suggest that on average 64 percent of non-refractory PM1 was organic material, including a high fraction (27%–41% of organic nitrates. There was little diurnal variation in the concentrations of ammonium sulfate; however, concentrations of organic and organic nitrate aerosol were consistently higher at night than during the day. Potential explanations for the higher organic aerosol loadings at night include changing boundary layer height, increased partitioning to the particle phase at lower temperatures, and differences between daytime and nighttime chemical processes such as nitrate radical chemistry. Positive matrix factorization was applied to the organic aerosol mass spectra measured by the ACSM and three factors were resolved—two factors representing oxygenated organic aerosol and one factor representing hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol. The factors suggest that the measured aerosol was well mixed and highly processed, consistent with the distance from the site to major aerosol sources, as well as the high photochemical activity.

  17. Characterisation of air particulate matter in Klang Valley by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abd Rahman; Mohd Khalid Matori; Abd Khalik Wood

    2000-01-01

    Air particulate matter is known to affect human health, impairs visibility and can cause climate change. Study on air particulate matter in term of particle size and chemical contents is very important to indicate the quality of air in a sampling area. Information on concentration of important constituents in air particles can be used to identify some of emission sources which contribute to the pollution problem. The data collected may also be, used as a basis to design a strategy in order to overcome the air pollution problem in the area. The study involved sampling of air dust at two stations, one in Bangi and the other in Kuala Lumpur using Gent Stack Sampler units. Each sampler capable of collecting air particle sizes smaller than 2.5 micron (PM 2.5) and between 2.5 - O micron on two different filters simultaneously. The filters were measured for their mass, elemental carbon and elemental concentrations using analytical equipment or techniques including reflectometer and Neutron Activation Analysis. The results of analysis on samples collected in 1997-1998 are discussed. (author)

  18. A Prototype Sensor for In Situ Sensing of Fine Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Loon Ng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2.5 from incense burning inside the chamber was measured using the AtmOptic. The weight of PM2.5 particles was collected and measured with a filter to determine their concentration and the sensor signal-to-concentration correlation. The results of the AtmOptic were also compared and found to trend well with the Dylos DC 1100 Pro air quality monitor. The absorbance spectrum of VOCs emitted from various laboratory chemicals and household products as well as a two chemical mixtures were recorded. The quantification was demonstrated, using toluene as an example, by calibrating the AtmOptic with compressed gas standards containing VOCs at different concentrations. The results demonstrated the sensor capabilities in measuring PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds.

  19. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  20. Environmental studies in two communes of Santiago de Chile by the analysis of magnetic properties of particulate matter deposited on leaves of roadside trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David; Aguilar, Bertha; Fuentealba, Raúl; Préndez, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Emissions from motor vehicles are considered to be one of the main sources of airborne particulate matter in Santiago. International researchers have shown that particulate matter contains metal oxides and magnetic particles, both of which are emitted mainly from vehicles exhaust pipes. On the other hand, trees are effective in reducing such contamination, so that they act as passive collectors of particulate matter. This work presents the results obtained from the first magnetic study of the particulate matter collected in two areas of the city of Santiago de Chile. Magnetic susceptibility and Saturation Isothermic Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) were determined in leaves from abundant urban trees and from urban dust samples. Results indicate that most of the samples contain ferromagnetic minerals with magnetite (Fe3O4) as the main carrier. Values of magnetic susceptibility (SI ×10-6 m3/kg) in the range 0.04-0.24 for leaves and in the range 10-45 for urban dust were determinated. In one of the city areas studied, significant correlation between the particulate matter deposited on leaves of Platanus orientalis and measured traffic flows was obtained. In addition, it was possible to estimate that the species Platanus orientalis and Acer negundo have a better ability to capture particulate matter than the species Robinia pseudoacacia.

  1. Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; El Haddad, I; Pieber, S M; Zardini, A A; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Clairotte, M; Daellenbach, K R; Huang, R-J; Slowik, J G; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Marchand, N; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, J L; Hayes, P L; Robinson, A L; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C; Prévôt, A S H

    2017-07-13

    Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments. Carbonaceous PM emission and SOA formation is markedly higher from gasoline than diesel particle filter (DPF) and catalyst-equipped diesel cars, more so at -7 °C, contrasting with nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Higher SOA formation from gasoline cars and primary emission reductions for diesels implies gasoline cars will increasingly dominate vehicular total carbonaceous PM, though older non-DPF-equipped diesels will continue to dominate the primary fraction for some time. Supported by state-of-the-art source apportionment of ambient fossil fuel derived PM, our results show that whether gasoline or diesel cars are more polluting depends on the pollutant in question, i.e. that diesel cars are not necessarily worse polluters than gasoline cars.

  2. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colls, J.J.; Micallef, A.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data

  3. Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1979-05-01

    Measurements of resuspension of particulate matter from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds are described in this report. The measurements were performed in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air on to 10m 2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of silt, sprayed on to a similar grass area, were similar. The resuspension factor declined as the reciprocal of time of wind exposure and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source questions the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10 -11 m -1 . The fraction of deposited fallout resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10 per cent. (author)

  4. [Health evaluation of fine particulate matter in indoor air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    When evaluating the health effects of indoor air fine particulate matter, the indoor dynamics as well as the physical, chemical and biological properties of fine particles have to be considered. The indoor air fraction PM2.5 largely stems from outdoor air. Accordingly, the German Working Group on Indoor Guideline Values of the Federal Environmental Agency and the States' Health Authorities also recommends WHO's (2006) 24-hour mean guideline value of 25 microg PM2,5 per cubic meter for indoor air evaluation. In contrast to PM2.5, coarse particles (PM10) in schools, kindergartens and dwellings show much higher indoor air concentrations. Additional sources indoors have to be assumed. Because of the different composition of indoor air compared to outdoor air and due to the lack of dose-response relationships of coarse particles in indoor air, the health effects of indoor air PM10 can not be evaluated yet. Sufficient and consistent ventilation is an indispensable basis to reduce PM concentrations in indoor spaces. Furthermore, known sources of PM indoors should be detected consequently and subsequently minimized.

  5. Source strengths for indoor human activities that resuspend particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2004-03-15

    A mathematical model was applied to continuous indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) measurements to estimate source strengths for a variety of prescribed human activities that resuspend house dust in the home. Activities included folding blankets, folding clothes, dry dusting, making a bed, dancing on a rug, dancing on a wood floor, vacuuming, and walking around and sitting on upholstered furniture. Although most of the resuspended particle mass from these activities was larger than 5 microm in diameter, the resuspension of PM2.5 and PM5 was substantial, with source strengths ranging from 0.03 to 0.5 mg min(-1) for PM2.5 and from 0.1 to 1.4 mg min(-1) for PM5. Source strengths for PM > 5 microm could not be quantified due to instrument limitations. The source strengths were found to be a function of the number of persons performing the activity, the vigor of the activity, the type of activity, and the type of flooring.

  6. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Annette

    2005-01-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM 2.5 exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown

  7. Characterizing temporal changes of agricultural particulate matter number concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docekal, G. P.; Mahmood, R.; Larkin, G. P.; Silva, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted among literature that particulate matter (PM) are of detriment to human health and the environment as a whole. These effects can vary depending on the particle size. This study examines PM size distributions and number concentrations at a poultry house. Despite much literature on PM concentrations at agricultural facilities, few studies have looked at the size distribution of particles at such facilities from the nucleation up through the coarse mode. Two optical particle counters (OPCs) were placed, one inside of a chicken house, and one on the outside of an exhaust fan to determine particle size distributions. In addition, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) sampled poultry house particles to give sizing information from a full size range of 10 nm - 20 mm. The data collected show several different types of events where observed size distributions changed. While some of these are due to expected dust generation events producing coarse mode particles, others suggest particle nucleation and accumulation events at the smaller size ranges that also occurred. The data suggest that agricultural facilities have an impact one the presence of PM in the environment beyond just generation of coarse mode dust. Data for different types of size distribution changes observed will be discussed.

  8. Bivariate generalized Pareto distribution for extreme atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    The high particulate matter (PM10) level is the prominent issue causing various impacts to human health and seriously affecting the economics. The asymptotic theory of extreme value is apply for analyzing the relation of extreme PM10 data from two nearby air quality monitoring stations. The series of daily maxima PM10 for Johor Bahru and Pasir Gudang stations are consider for year 2001 to 2010 databases. The 85% and 95% marginal quantile apply to determine the threshold values and hence construct the series of exceedances over the chosen threshold. The logistic, asymmetric logistic, negative logistic and asymmetric negative logistic models areconsidered as the dependence function to the joint distribution of a bivariate observation. Maximum likelihood estimation is employed for parameter estimations. The best fitted model is chosen based on the Akaike Information Criterion and the quantile plots. It is found that the asymmetric logistic model gives the best fitted model for bivariate extreme PM10 data and shows the weak dependence between two stations.

  9. Protein oxidation and degradation caused by particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Chun-Nin; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, You-Lan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Wu, Sheng-Ming; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) modulates the expression of autophagy; however, the role of selective autophagy by PM remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms in protein oxidation and degradation caused by PM. Human epithelial A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust (UD), and carbon black (CB; control particles). Cell survival and proliferation were significantly reduced by DEPs and UD in A549 cells. First, benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE) protein adduct was caused by DEPs at 150 μg/ml. Methionine oxidation (MetO) of human albumin proteins was induced by DEPs, UD, and CB; however, the protein repair mechanism that converts MetO back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3) was activated by DEPs and inhibited by UD, suggesting that oxidized protein was accumulating in cells. As to the degradation of oxidized proteins, proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by CB with ubiquitin accumulation, whereas proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by DEPs without ubiquitin accumulation. The results suggest that CB-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-dependent autophagy pathway, whereas DEP-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-independent autophagy pathway. A distinct proteotoxic effect may depend on the physicochemistry of PM.

  10. Effects of ambient particulate matter on aerobic exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Wagner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Wintertime thermal inversions in narrow mountain valleys create a ceiling effect, increasing concentration of small particulate matter (PM2.5. Despite potential health risks, many people continue to exercise outdoors in thermal inversions. This study measured the effects of ambient PM2.5 exposure associated with a typical thermal inversion on exercise performance, pulmonary function, and biological markers of inflammation. Methods: Healthy, active adults (5 males, 11 females performed two cycle ergometer time trials outdoors in a counterbalanced design: 1 low ambient PM2.5 concentrations ( .05 for PM2.5 concentration and the measured variables. Conclusion: An acute bout of vigorous exercise during an AQI of “yellow” did not diminish exercise performance in healthy adults, nor did it have a negative effect on pulmonary function or biological health markers. These variables might not be sensitive to small changes from acute, mild PM2.5 exposure. Keywords: Air pollution, Cycle ergometry, Pulmonary function, Time trial, Vigorous exercise

  11. Airborne Particulate Matter Induces Nonallergic Eosinophilic Sinonasal Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Murugappan; London, Nyall R; Tharakan, Anuj; Surya, Nitya; Sussan, Thomas E; Rao, Xiaoquan; Lin, Sandra Y; Toskala, Elina; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to aggravation of respiratory symptoms, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although the health effects of PM on the lower pulmonary airway have been extensively studied, little is known regarding the impact of chronic PM exposure on the upper sinonasal airway. We sought to test the impact of chronic airborne PM exposure on the upper respiratory system in vivo. Mice were subjected, by inhalation, to concentrated fine (2.5 μm) PM 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 16 weeks. Mean airborne fine PM concentration was 60.92 μm/m 3 , a concentration of fine PM lower than that reported in some major global cities. Mice were then killed and analyzed for evidence of inflammation and barrier breakdown compared with control mice. Evidence of the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM on sinonasal health in vivo, including proinflammatory cytokine release, and macrophage and neutrophil inflammatory cell accumulation was observed. A significant increase in epithelial barrier dysfunction was observed, as assessed by serum albumin accumulation in nasal airway lavage fluid, as well as decreased expression of adhesion molecules, including claudin-1 and epithelial cadherin. A significant increase in eosinophilic inflammation, including increased IL-13, eotaxin-1, and eosinophil accumulation, was also observed. Collectively, although largely observational, these studies demonstrate the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM exposure on the sinonasal airway barrier disruption and nonallergic eosinophilic inflammation in mice.

  12. Emissions During and Real-world Frequency of Heavy-duty Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehl, Chris; Smith, Jeremy D; Ma, Yilin; Shields, Jennifer Erin; Burnitzki, Mark; Sobieralski, Wayne; Ianni, Robert; Chernich, Donald J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Collins, John Francis; Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David; Hu, Shaohua; Dwyer, Harry

    2018-05-15

    Recent tightening of particulate matter (PM) emission standards for heavy-duty engines has spurred the widespread adoption of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), which need to be regenerated periodically to remove trapped PM. The total impact of DPFs therefore depends not only on their filtering efficiency during normal operation, but also on the emissions during and the frequency of regeneration events. We performed active (parked and driving) and passive regenerations on two heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), and report the chemical composition of emissions during these events, as well as the efficiency with which trapped PM is converted to gas-phase products. We also collected activity data from 85 HDDVs to determine how often regeneration occurs during real-world operation. PM emitted during regeneration ranged from 0.2 to 16.3 g, and the average time and distance between real-world active regenerations was 28.0 h and 599 miles. These results indicate that regeneration of real-world DPFs does not substantially offset the reduction of PM by DPFs during normal operation. The broad ranges of regeneration frequency per truck (3-100 h and 23-4078 miles) underscore the challenges in designing engines and associated aftertreatments that reduce emissions for all real-world duty cycles.

  13. Concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter downwind during agricultural practices using air samplers in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Luis Gabriel; Limay-Rios, Victor; Xue, Yingen; Schaafsma, Arthur

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of neonicotinoid seed treatment insecticides as particulate matter in field crops occur mainly for two reasons: 1) due to abraded dust of treated seed generated during planting using vacuum planters, and 2) as a result of disturbances (tillage or wind events) in the surface of parental soils which release wind erodible soil-bound residues. In the present study, concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter were quantified under real conditions using passive and active air samplers. Average neonicotinoid concentrations in Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) using passive samplers were 0.48 ng/cm 2 , trace, trace (LOD 0.80 and 0.04 ng/cm 2 for clothianidin and thiamethoxam, respectively), and using active samplers 16.22, 1.91 and 0.61 ng/m 3 during planting, tillage and wind events, respectively. There was a difference between events on total neonicotinoid concentration collected in particulate matter using either passive or active sampling. Distance of sampling from the source field during planting of treated seed had an effect on total neonicotinoid air concentration. However, during tillage distance did not present an effect on measured concentrations. Using hypothetical scenarios, values of contact exposure for a honey bee were estimated to be in the range from 1.1% to 36.4% of the reference contact LD 50 value of clothianidin of 44 ng/bee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Ilaria; Mavris, Christian; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Caprio, Emilio; Pellecchia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

  15. Composition and comparative toxicity of particulate matter emitted from a diesel and biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Jitendra N.; Gupta, Tarun; Agarwal, Avinash K.

    2012-01-01

    There is a global concern about adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust. In the current study, parametric investigations were carried out using a CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection) diesel engine operated at different loads at two different engine speeds (1800 and 2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to collect and measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend collected on a 47 mm quartz substrate. The collected PM (particulate matter) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). For both diesel and biodiesel, BSOF results showed decreasing levels with increasing engine load. B20 showed higher BSOF as compared to those measured with diesel. The concentration of different trace metals analyzed also showed decreasing trends with increasing engine loads. In addition, real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out on the primary engine exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. Analysis of OC/EC data suggested that the ratio of OC to EC decreases with corresponding increase in engine load for both fuels. A peak in PAH concentration was observed at 60% engine load at 1800 rpm and 20% engine load at 2400 rpm engine speeds almost identical for both kinds of fuels. Comparison of chemical components of PM emitted from this CRDI engine provides new insight in terms of PM toxicity for B20 vis-a-vis diesel.

  16. Particulate matter speciation profiles for light-duty gasoline vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Baldauf, Richard W; Yanca, Catherine A; Fulper, Carl R

    2014-05-01

    Representative profiles for particulate matter particles less than or equal to 2.5 microm (PM2.5) are developed from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study for use in the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) vehicle emission model, the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), and for inclusion in the EPA SPECIATE database for speciation profiles. The profiles are compatible with the inputs of current photochemical air quality models, including the Community Multiscale Air Quality Aerosol Module Version 6 (AE6). The composition of light-duty gasoline PM2.5 emissions differs significantly between cold start and hot stabilized running emissions, and between older and newer vehicles, reflecting both impacts of aging/deterioration and changes in vehicle technology. Fleet-average PM2.5 profiles are estimated for cold start and hot stabilized running emission processes. Fleet-average profiles are calculated to include emissions from deteriorated high-emitting vehicles that are expected to continue to contribute disproportionately to the fleet-wide PM2.5 emissions into the future. The profiles are calculated using a weighted average of the PM2.5 composition according to the contribution of PM2.5 emissions from each class of vehicles in the on-road gasoline fleet in the Kansas City Metropolitan Statistical Area. The paper introduces methods to exclude insignificant measurements, correct for organic carbon positive artifact, and control for contamination from the testing infrastructure in developing speciation profiles. The uncertainty of the PM2.5 species fraction in each profile is quantified using sampling survey analysis methods. The primary use of the profiles is to develop PM2.5 emissions inventories for the United States, but the profiles may also be used in source apportionment, atmospheric modeling, and exposure assessment, and as a basis for light-duty gasoline emission profiles for countries with limited data. PM2.5 speciation profiles were

  17. Influence of Channel Geomorphology on Retention of Dissolved and Particulate Matter in a Cascade Mountain Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary A. Lamberti; Stan V. Gregory; Linda R. Ashkenas; Randall C. Wildman; Alan G. Steinman

    1989-01-01

    Retention of particulate and dissolved nutrients in streams is a major determinant of food avail-ability to stream biota. Retention of particulate matter (leaves) and dissolved nutrients (nitrogen) was studied experimentally during summer 1987 in four 300-500 m reaches of Lookout Creek, a fifth-order stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Constrained (narrow valley...

  18. Nature’s Particulate Matter with and without Charge and Travelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, W.N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Natures and anthropogenic particulates can travel long distances on wind flows, but negative electrical charge due to friction can increase dispersion. Models for calculations of distance travelling of biological particulate matter with and without charge are never been calculated in a theoretical

  19. Characterization of urban particulate matter by diffusive gradients in thin film technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dufka, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 9698710. ISSN 2090-8865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : thin film technique * urban particulate matter * particulate air pollution Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2016

  20. Characterization of urban particulate matter by diffusive gradients in thin film technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dufka, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 9698710. ISSN 2090-8865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : thin film technique * urban particulate matter * particulate air pollution Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2016

  1. Assessment of impact distances for particulate matter dispersion: A stochastic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, S.M.; Mores, P.L.; Santa Cruz, A.S.M. [CAIMI - Centro de Aplicaciones Informaticas y Modelado en Ingenieria, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional-Facultad Regional Rosario, Zeballos 1341-S2000 BQA Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Scenna, N.J. [CAIMI - Centro de Aplicaciones Informaticas y Modelado en Ingenieria, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional-Facultad Regional Rosario, Zeballos 1341-S2000 BQA Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); INGAR - Instituto de Desarrollo y Diseno (Fundacion ARCIEN - CONICET), Avellaneda 3657, S3002 GJC Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: nscenna@santafe-conicet.gov.ar

    2009-10-15

    It is known that pollutants can be dispersed from the emission sources by the wind, or settled on the ground. Particle size, stack height, topography and meteorological conditions strongly affect particulate matter (PM) dispersion. In this work, an impact distance calculation methodology considering different particulate sizes is presented. A Gaussian-type dispersion model for PM that handles size particles larger than 0.1 {mu}m is used. The model considers primary particles and continuous emissions. PM concentration distribution at every affected geographical point defined by a grid is computed. Stochastic uncertainty caused by the natural variability of atmospheric parameters is taken into consideration in the dispersion model by applying a Monte Carlo methodology. The prototype package (STRRAP) that takes into account the stochastic behaviour of atmospheric variables, developed for risk assessment and safe distances calculation [Godoy SM, Santa Cruz ASM, Scenna NJ. STRRAP SYSTEM - A software for hazardous materials risk assessment and safe distances calculation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 2007;92(7):847-57] is enlarged for the analysis of the PM air dispersion. STRRAP computes distances from the source to every affected receptor in each trial and generates the impact distance distribution for each particulate size. In addition, a representative impact distance value to delimit the affected area can be obtained. Fuel oil stack effluents dispersion in Rosario city is simulated as a case study. Mass concentration distributions and impact distances are computed for the range of interest in environmental air quality evaluations (PM{sub 2.5}-PM{sub 10})

  2. Measurement and analysis of ambient atmospheric particulate matter in urban and remote environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Gayle S. W.

    Atmospheric particulate matter pollution is a challenging environmental concern in both urban and remote locations worldwide. It is intrinsically difficult to control, given numerous anthropogenic and natural sources (e.g. fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, dust, and seaspray) and atmospheric transport up to thousands of kilometers after production. In urban regions, fine particulate matter (particles with diameters under 2.5 mum) is of special concern for its ability to penetrate the human respiratory system and threaten cardiopulmonary health. A second major impact area is climate, with particulate matter altering Earth's radiative balance through scattering and absorbing solar radiation, modifying cloud properties, and reducing surface reflectivity after deposition in snow-covered regions. While atmospheric particulate matter has been generally well-characterized in populated areas of developed countries, particulate pollution in developing nations and remote regions is relatively unexplored. This thesis characterizes atmospheric particulate matter in locations that represent the extreme ends of the spectrum in terms of air pollution-the rapidly-developing and heavily populated Pearl River Delta Region of China, the pristine and climate-sensitive Greenland Ice Sheet, and a remote site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. In China, fine particles were studied through a year-long field campaign at seven sites surrounding the Pearl River Delta. Fine particulate matter was analyzed for chemical composition, regional variation, and meteorological impacts. On the Greenland Ice Sheet and in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the carbonaceous fraction (organic and elemental carbon) of particulate matter was studied in the atmosphere and snow pack. Analyses included quantifying particulate chemical and optical properties, assessing atmospheric transport, and evaluating post-depositional processing of carbonaceous species in snow.

  3. Screening of various diesel particulate matter samples from various commodity mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents qualitative analysis results of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from various mining commodities in South Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the concentrations of elements in DPM samples. For this screening...

  4. SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundances of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10...

  5. Short term variation in particulate matter in the shelf waters of the Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Particulate matter collected at a single station in the shelf waters of Princess Astrid coast (70 degrees S, 11 degrees E) Antarctica, during the austral summer (Jan.-Feb. 1986) was analysed for phytoplankton biomass (Chl @ia@@), living carbon (ATP...

  6. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  7. ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases—especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

  8. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac function responses to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that show acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the data supporting these findings are increasingly more convincing, the immediate impact of PM inhala...

  9. Assessment of background particulate matter concentrations in small cities and rural locations--Prince George, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veira, Andreas; Jackson, Peter L; Ainslie, Bruce; Fudge, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the development and application of a simple method to calculate annual and seasonal PM2.5 and PM10 background concentrations in small cities and rural areas. The Low Pollution Sectors and Conditions (LPSC) method is based on existing measured long-term data sets and is designed for locations where particulate matter (PM) monitors are only influenced by local anthropogenic emission sources from particular wind sectors. The LPSC method combines the analysis of measured hourly meteorological data, PM concentrations, and geographical emission source distributions. PM background levels emerge from measured data for specific wind conditions, where air parcel trajectories measured at a monitoring station are assumed to have passed over geographic sectors with negligible local emissions. Seasonal and annual background levels were estimated for two monitoring stations in Prince George, Canada, and the method was also applied to four other small cities (Burns Lake, Houston, Quesnel, Smithers) in northern British Columbia. The analysis showed reasonable background concentrations for both monitoring stations in Prince George, whereas annual PM10 background concentrations at two of the other locations and PM2.5 background concentrations at one other location were implausibly high. For those locations where the LPSC method was successful, annual background levels ranged between 1.8 +/- 0.1 microg/m3 and 2.5 +/- 0.1 microg/m3 for PM2.5 and between 6.3 +/- 0.3 microg/m3 and 8.5 +/- 0.3 microg/m3 for PM10. Precipitation effects and patterns of seasonal variability in the estimated background concentrations were detectable for all locations where the method was successful. Overall the method was dependent on the configuration of local geography and sources with respect to the monitoring location, and may fail at some locations and under some conditions. Where applicable, the LPSC method can provide a fast and cost-efficient way to estimate background PM

  10. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate Matter (PM and its management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern at global scale. Particulate matter (PM pollution is intimately linked with human health. Present review describes the different human health implications associated with PM pollution. PM may derive its origin from natural and anthropogenic sources. Vehicle derived pollutants as well as industrial emissions simultaneously release deleterious fine-grained PM into the atmosphere. Fine PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 are particularly deleterious to human health. Air pollution PM is an important environmental health risk factor for several respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Further, PM is inextricably linked with genotoxicity and mutations. Literature review of the cellular and molecular basis of adverse effects associated with PM is presented in this paper. Finally, management, existing technologies and policy options to reduce or mitigate the adverse health impacts of PM pollution is discussed as an eco-sustainable approach.

  11. INAA for the characterization of airborne particulate matter from the industrial area of Islamabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Daud, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    Air particulate matter (PM) was collected in two size fractions using stacked filter units (SFUs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the industrial area of Islamabad. Nucleopore polycarbonate filters were used for collecting from Oct 98 to Jun 99 the particulate matter in coarse and fine size fractions. The samples were characterized by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). About 33 elements were quantified using different irradiation and counting protocols. (author)

  12. On street observations of particulate matter movement and dispersion due to traffic on an urban road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Aditya; Colvile, Roy; Arnold, Samantha; Bowen, Emma; Shallcross, Dudley; Martin, Damien; Price, Catheryn; Tate, James; ApSimon, Helen; Robins, Alan

    Empirical models for particulate matter emissions from paved road surfaces have been criticised for their lack of realism and accuracy. To support the development of a less empirical model, a study was conducted in a busy street at the DAPPLE site in Central London to understand the processes and to identify important parameters that influence emission from paved roads. Ordinary road gritting salt was applied to the road and the particulate matter entering the air at near-road surface level was monitored using optical particle counters. The grit acted as a tracer. The grit moved rapidly along the road in the direction of traffic flow. Build-up of material at the kerb indicated material being thrown across the road by the traffic. Coarser particles were resuspended faster than the finer ones. A clear decay profile was seen in the case of particles larger than 2μm; particles smaller than 2μm did not show any decay pattern during the experiment duration. Grinding of material appears to control the reservoir of fine particles on the road surface. The amount of material resuspended by traffic is about 30% less than those removed along the road and a factor of 6 higher than the amount removed across the road. Resuspension accounts for 40% of the total material removed from a road segment and 70% of the material removed together along and across the road. On average a single vehicle pass removes 0.08% of material present on a road segment at that instant. The calculation scheme is obtained from a short-duration study and therefore further studies of long duration involving varying road geometry and different traffic and meteorological condition need to be carried out before applying parameter estimates presented in this paper.

  13. Oxidative Potential of ambient particulate matter in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Fang, Ting; Liakakou, Eleni; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Exposure of populations to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of chemical species present in PM is a mechanism thought to cause adverse health effects. Apart from radicals present in aerosol, species that can catalytically deplete the antioxidant buffering capacity of cells, called Oxidative Potential (OP), are thought to be particularly toxic. The variability of OP over location, particle age, source and environmental conditions is virtually unknown for most populated regions of the world. Motivated by this, we have built and deployed one of the first operational measurements of OP in Europe at the National Observatory of Athens site in downtown Athens, Greece. OP for fine and coarse mode is measured using a semi-automated dithiothreitol (DTT) assay developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology; the assay measures the oxidation rate of DTT by water-soluble aerosol constituents, and simulates the rate at which the same compounds would deplete antioxidants in-vivo. The DTT oxidation rate per unit volume of air (water-soluble "DTT activity") and aerosol size class (fine, coarse) are used as a measure of aerosol toxicity. We present continuous (24hr average) OP measurements in downtown Athens from July 2016 to January 2017, conducted through quartz fiber filter analysis. The dataset covers a broad range of aerosol sources (pollution from Europe, regional and local biomass burning, dust, marine aerosol, biogenic aerosol) and meteorological conditions. The daily water-soluble DTT activity ranges between 0.02-0.81 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.24 nmolmin-1 m-3) for fine aerosol and between 0.01-0.52 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.08 nmolmin-1 m-3) for coarse particulate matter, indicating that water-soluble fine mode aerosol components possess a significant fraction of the OP. The seasonal variability demonstrates a higher DTT activity during the coldest period of the year for both

  14. Fitting the Probability Distribution Functions to Model Particulate Matter Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanshoury, Gh.I.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to identify the best probability distribution and the plotting position formula for modeling the concentrations of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) as well as the Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter<10 μm (PM 10 ). The best distribution provides the estimated probabilities that exceed the threshold limit given by the Egyptian Air Quality Limit value (EAQLV) as well the number of exceedance days is estimated. The standard limits of the EAQLV for TSP and PM 10 concentrations are 24-h average of 230 μg/m 3 and 70 μg/m 3 , respectively. Five frequency distribution functions with seven formula of plotting positions (empirical cumulative distribution functions) are compared to fit the average of daily TSP and PM 10 concentrations in year 2014 for Ain Sokhna city. The Quantile-Quantile plot (Q-Q plot) is used as a method for assessing how closely a data set fits a particular distribution. A proper probability distribution that represents the TSP and PM 10 has been chosen based on the statistical performance indicator values. The results show that Hosking and Wallis plotting position combined with Frechet distribution gave the highest fit for TSP and PM 10 concentrations. Burr distribution with the same plotting position follows Frechet distribution. The exceedance probability and days over the EAQLV are predicted using Frechet distribution. In 2014, the exceedance probability and days for TSP concentrations are 0.052 and 19 days, respectively. Furthermore, the PM 10 concentration is found to exceed the threshold limit by 174 days

  15. Setting ambient air quality standards for particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, Roger O.

    2002-01-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM), unspecified as to chemical composition, is of concern because of its health effects. Air quality standards for PM have been established in many countries. The earliest standards were based on threshold models and use of a margin of safety. Initially, standards were based on the mass of total suspended material. In the 1980s a shift to a size-specific standard, PM 10 , began. PM 10 is the fraction of PM captured with 50% efficiency at 10 μm and greater efficiency at smaller sizes. In the late 1990s, standards were proposed for PM 2.5 , which is captured with 50% efficiency at 2.5 μm. The standards for PM are based almost exclusively on human epidemiological data, with laboratory animal and in vitro data used in a supporting role. During the 1990s, new statistical tools began to be used and demonstrated an association between increased PM and an increase in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. The analyses are complicated by the effects of other pollutants such as ozone. Effects have been observed down to 10-20 μg of PM 10 per cubic meter, levels equal to or below background in many parts of the world. In many studies there has been no evidence of a threshold. In the absence of a threshold, a critical issue becomes how to determine how low is low enough? This paper reviews the current literature on PM health effects and suggests research avenues that may yield data which, combined with public policy considerations, may be able to address the issue of 'how low is low enough?'

  16. Dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms of TFA adsorption by particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junyu; Zhai, Zihan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ziyuan; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the atmosphere is produced by degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons. In recent years, TFA has attracted global attention because of increased environmental concentrations, biological toxicity and accumulation in aqueous environments. This study focused on the mechanisms underlying the adsorption of TFA by particulate matter to identify the appropriate descriptive model for this process and thus improve estimation of TFA adsorption in future environmental monitoring. Onsite gas and particle phase sampling in Beijing, China, and subsequent measurement of TFA concentrations indicated that the TFA concentration in the gas phase (1396 ± 225 pg m -3 ) was much higher than that in the particle phase (62 ± 8 pg m -3 ) and that monthly concentrations varied seasonally with temperature. Based on the field results and analysis, an adsorption experiment of TFA on soot was then conducted at three different temperatures (293, 303, and 313 K) to provide parameters for kinetic and thermodynamic modelling. The proportion of atmospheric TFA concentration in the gas phase increased with temperature, indicating that temperature affected the phase distribution of TFA. The subsequent kinetic and thermodynamic modelling showed that the adsorption of TFA by soot could be described well by the Bangham kinetic model. The adsorption was controlled by diffusion, and the key mechanism was physical adsorption. The adsorption behavior can be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG° (-2.34, -1.25, and -0.15 kJ mol -1  at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively), ΔH° (-34.34 kJ mol -1 ), and ΔS° (-109.22 J mol -1  K -1 ) for TFA adsorption by soot were negative, indicating that adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impacts of Particulate Matter on Gulf of Mexico Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Rohli, R. V.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to analyze the relationship between tropical cyclones of the Gulf of Mexico-Atlantic basin and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The daily mean PM2.5 concentration values were collected from United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Tropical cyclone data were collected from Tropical Prediction Center Best Track Reanalysis in Unisys Weather®. The GRIdded Binary (GRIB-formatted) data were downloaded from the Data Support Section of the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Through ArcGIS®, the tropical cyclone tracks were compared with the interpolated daily mean PM2.5 concentration value. Results suggest that the tracks tend to avoid areas with higher PM2.5 concentrations, and the intensity was weakened significantly after passing the PM2.5-rich area. Through simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the pressure and vertical structure of Hurricane Lili were weakened after passing the most PM2.5-rich area in Louisiana. Also, little evidence is found for the possibility of precipitation generated by the approaching tropical cyclone to cleanse the atmosphere of PM2.5 before storm passage. These results have important implications for tropical cyclone prediction as storms approach polluted areas or other places where PM2.5 particles are abundant, not only including urban environments but also in coastal areas where proscribed burns take place during tropical cyclone season, such as during sugarcane harvesting in southern Louisiana.

  18. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  19. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Freitas, M.C.; Alves, L.C.; Reis, M.; Bugalho de Almeida, A.; Moniz, D.; Monteiro, P.; Alvarez, E.

    2000-01-01

    Biological and environmental monitoring was carried out at a steel processing sector of a steel plant in Portugal. Approximately 70 workers were surveyed for their respiratory function and blood elemental contents as indicators for a long-term exposure. The characterisation of chemical elements in air at the workplace was also evaluated taking in account the separation of particles by their aerodynamic diameter. Two fractions were collected, a coarse fraction for particles below 10 μm and above 2 μm, and a fine fraction for particles below 2 μm. PIXE and INAA analytical techniques were used for the determination of blood and aerosol elemental concentrations. Up to 12 elements (Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, Hg, and Pb) were determined in blood and so far, up to 18 elements for aerosols (e.g., Na, Al Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb). The concentrations of the essential elements in blood (e.g., Fe, Zn and Se) were found to be altered relative to a reference Portuguese group constituted by non-exposed persons. Relative to the blood average elemental contents for As, Sb, Hg and Pb, the levels determined were below maximum permissible concentrations or reference values, except for Pb. Nevertheless, concentrations above maximum limit values were determined for some of the surveyed subjects. There are evidences that the levels of Se, Cu, and Sb in blood are influenced by exposure. Also, living habits (smoking and other activities) and pulmonary affections may modulate As, Pb and Zn concentrations in blood. For all the chemical elements identified in the particulate matter of the working atmosphere the limit values indicated in the Portuguese regulation were not exceeded, except for Fe. (author)

  20. Diesel-Enriched Particulate Matter Functionally Activates Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael; Karp, Matthew; Killedar, Smruti; Bauer, Stephen M.; Guo, Jia; Williams, D'Ann; Breysse, Patrick; Georas, Steve N.; Williams, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have associated exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) with exacerbations of asthma. It is unknown how different sources of PM affect innate immunity. We sought to determine how car- and diesel exhaust–derived PM affects dendritic cell (DC) activation. DC development was modeled using CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Airborne PM was collected from exhaust plenums of Fort McHenry Tunnel providing car-enriched particles (CEP) and diesel-enriched particles (DEP). DC were stimulated for 48 hours with CEP, DEP, CD40-ligand, or lipopolysaccharide. DC activation was assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and standard culture techniques. DEP increased uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (a model antigen) by DC. Diesel particles enhanced cell-surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules (e.g., CD40 [P < 0.01] and MHC class II [P < 0.01]). By contrast, CEP poorly affected antigen uptake and expression of cell surface molecules, and did not greatly affect cytokine secretion by DC. However, DEP increased production of TNF, IL-6, and IFN-γ (P < 0.01), IL-12 (P < 0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (P < 0.001). In co-stimulation assays of PM-exposed DC and alloreactive CD4+ T cells, both CEP and DEP directed a Th2-like pattern of cytokine production (e.g., enhanced IL-13 and IL-18 and suppressed IFN-γ production). CD4+ T cells were not functionally activated on exposure to either DEP or CEP. Car- and diesel-enriched particles exert a differential effect on DC activation. Our data support the hypothesis that DEP (and to a lesser extent CEP) regulate important functional aspects of human DC, supporting an adjuvant role for this material. PMID:17630318

  1. Airborne particulate matter in school classrooms of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P; Spinazzè, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M

    2014-01-27

    Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels.

  2. Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rovelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO. In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the

  3. Near-road enhancement and solubility of fine and coarse particulate matter trace elements near a major interstate in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities near major roadways are disproportionately affected by traffic-related air pollution which can contribute to adverse health outcomes. The specific role of particulate matter (PM) from traffic sources is not fully understood due to complex emissions processes and physi...

  4. Particulate emissions from a mid-latitude prescribed chaparral fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Winstead, Edward L.; Riggin, Philip J.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1988-01-01

    Particulate emission from a 400-acre prescribed chaparral fire in the San Dimas Experimental Forest was investigated by collecting smoke aerosol on Teflon and glass-fiber filters from a helicopter, and using SEM and EDAX to study the features of the particles. Aerosol particles ranged in size from about 0.1 to 100 microns, with carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, calcium, and iron as the primary elements. The results of ion chromatographic analysis of aerosol-particle extracts (in water-methanol) revealed the presence of significant levels of NO2(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), PO4(3-), C2O4(2-), Na(+), NH4(+), and K(+). The soluble ionic portion of the aerosol was estimated to be about 2 percent by weight.

  5. Emissions of particulate-bound elements from stationary diesel engine: Characterization and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the emissions of airborne particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines because of their close association with adverse health and environmental impacts. Among the alternative fuels being considered, biodiesel made by the transesterification of waste cooking oil has received wide attention in recent years because of its low cost and the added advantage of reducing waste oil disposal. This study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation of the particulate-bound elements emitted from ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel (B100) and a blend of both the fuels (B50). It was observed that the PM mass concentrations were reduced by about 36% when B100 was used. Crustal elements such as Mg, K and Al were found to be in higher concentrations compared to other elements emitted from both B100 and ULSD. Zn, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Ba, K were found to be higher in the biodiesel exhaust while Co, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr, and As were found to be higher in the ULSD exhaust. To evaluate the potential health risk due to inhalation of PM emitted from diesel engines running on ULSD and B100, health risk estimates based on exposure and dose-response assessments of particulate-bound elements were calculated assuming exposure for 24 h. The findings indicate that the exposure to PM of the B100 exhaust is relatively more hazardous and may pose adverse health effects compared to ULSD.

  6. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

  7. Effect of fuel zinc content on toxicological responses of particulate matter from pellet combustion in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uski, O., E-mail: oskari.uski@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Jalava, P.I., E-mail: pasi.jalava@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Happo, M.S., E-mail: mikko.happo@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Torvela, T., E-mail: tiina.torvela@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Leskinen, J., E-mail: jani.leskinen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Mäki-Paakkanen, J., E-mail: jorma.maki-paakkanen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Tissari, J., E-mail: jarkko.tissari@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sippula, O., E-mail: olli.sippula@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lamberg, H., E-mail: heikki.lamberg@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Jokiniemi, J., E-mail: jorma.jokiniemi@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); and others

    2015-04-01

    Significant amounts of transition metals such as zinc, cadmium and copper can become enriched in the fine particle fraction during biomass combustion with Zn being one of the most abundant transition metals in wood combustion. These metals may have an important role in the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM). Indeed, many epidemiological studies have found associations between mortality and PM Zn content. The role of Zn toxicity on combustion PM was investigated. Pellets enriched with 170, 480 and 2300 mg Zn/kg of fuel were manufactured. Emission samples were generated using a pellet boiler and the four types of PM samples; native, Zn-low, Zn-medium and Zn-high were collected with an impactor from diluted flue gas. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed for 24 h to different doses (15, 50,150 and 300 μg ml{sup −1}) of the emission samples to investigate their ability to cause cytotoxicity, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), to altering the cell cycle and to trigger genotoxicity as well as to promote inflammation. Zn enriched pellets combusted in a pellet boiler produced emission PM containing ZnO. Even the Zn-low sample caused extensive cell cycle arrest and there was massive cell death of RAW 264.7 macrophages at the two highest PM doses. Moreover, only the Zn-enriched emission samples induced a dose dependent ROS response in the exposed cells. Inflammatory responses were at a low level but macrophage inflammatory protein 2 reached a statistically significant level after exposure of RAW 264.7 macrophages to ZnO containing emission particles. ZnO content of the samples was associated with significant toxicity in almost all measured endpoints. Thus, ZnO may be a key component producing toxicological responses in the PM emissions from efficient wood combustion. Zn as well as the other transition metals, may contribute a significant amount to the ROS responses evoked by ambient PM. - Highlights: • Zinc powder was added into the

  8. Effect of fuel zinc content on toxicological responses of particulate matter from pellet combustion in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uski, O.; Jalava, P.I.; Happo, M.S.; Torvela, T.; Leskinen, J.; Mäki-Paakkanen, J.; Tissari, J.; Sippula, O.; Lamberg, H.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2015-01-01

    Significant amounts of transition metals such as zinc, cadmium and copper can become enriched in the fine particle fraction during biomass combustion with Zn being one of the most abundant transition metals in wood combustion. These metals may have an important role in the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM). Indeed, many epidemiological studies have found associations between mortality and PM Zn content. The role of Zn toxicity on combustion PM was investigated. Pellets enriched with 170, 480 and 2300 mg Zn/kg of fuel were manufactured. Emission samples were generated using a pellet boiler and the four types of PM samples; native, Zn-low, Zn-medium and Zn-high were collected with an impactor from diluted flue gas. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed for 24 h to different doses (15, 50,150 and 300 μg ml −1 ) of the emission samples to investigate their ability to cause cytotoxicity, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), to altering the cell cycle and to trigger genotoxicity as well as to promote inflammation. Zn enriched pellets combusted in a pellet boiler produced emission PM containing ZnO. Even the Zn-low sample caused extensive cell cycle arrest and there was massive cell death of RAW 264.7 macrophages at the two highest PM doses. Moreover, only the Zn-enriched emission samples induced a dose dependent ROS response in the exposed cells. Inflammatory responses were at a low level but macrophage inflammatory protein 2 reached a statistically significant level after exposure of RAW 264.7 macrophages to ZnO containing emission particles. ZnO content of the samples was associated with significant toxicity in almost all measured endpoints. Thus, ZnO may be a key component producing toxicological responses in the PM emissions from efficient wood combustion. Zn as well as the other transition metals, may contribute a significant amount to the ROS responses evoked by ambient PM. - Highlights: • Zinc powder was added into the pure

  9. Particulate emissions calculations from fall tillage operations using point and remote sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kori D; Wojcik, Michael D; Martin, Randal S; Marchant, Christian C; Bingham, Gail E; Pfeiffer, Richard L; Prueger, John H; Hatfield, Jerry L

    2013-07-01

    Soil preparation for agricultural crops produces aerosols that may significantly contribute to seasonal atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Efforts to reduce PM emissions from tillage through a variety of conservation management practices (CMPs) have been made, but the reductions from many of these practices have not been measured in the field. A study was conducted in California's San Joaquin Valley to quantify emissions reductions from fall tillage CMP. Emissions were measured from conventional tillage methods and from a "combined operations" CMP, which combines several implements to reduce tractor passes. Measurements were made of soil moisture, bulk density, meteorological profiles, filter-based total suspended PM (TSP), concentrations of PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM) and PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM), and aerosol size distribution. A mass-calibrated, scanning, three-wavelength light detection and ranging (LIDAR) procedure estimated PM through a series of algorithms. Emissions were calculated via inverse modeling with mass concentration measurements and applying a mass balance to LIDAR data. Inverse modeling emission estimates were higher, often with statistically significant differences. Derived PM emissions for conventional operations generally agree with literature values. Sampling irregularities with a few filter-based samples prevented calculation of a complete set of emissions through inverse modeling; however, the LIDAR-based emissions dataset was complete. The CMP control effectiveness was calculated based on LIDAR-derived emissions to be 29 ± 2%, 60 ± 1%, and 25 ± 1% for PM, PM, and TSP size fractions, respectively. Implementation of this CMP provides an effective method for the reduction of PM emissions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Fossil and nonfossil carbon in fine particulate matter: A study of five European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, Marianne; La Cour, Agnete; Lohse, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Fossil carbon in particulate matter comes from anthropogenic use and combustion of fossil fuels, while nonfossil carbon may originate from both biogenic (e.g., pollen, plant debris, fungal spores, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)) and anthropogenic sources (e.g., cooking and residential wood combustion). We investigated the relative contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to fine carbonaceous aerosols in five European cities by radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples collected at four types of sites in 2002-2004. The average fraction of nonfossil carbon was 43 ± 11%, with the lowest fraction, 36 ± 7%, at urban curbside sites and the highest fraction, 54 ± 11%, at rural background sites, farthest away from the impact of man-made emissions. Generally, fossil carbon concentrations at urban curbside sites are elevated in comparison to background sites, which is expected because of their proximity to vehicular emissions. Contrary to what might be expected, the concentration of nonfossil carbon is also higher at curbside than at background sites. This may be attributable to differences between site categories in levels of primary biological aerosols, brake and tire wear in resuspended road dust, biofuels, emissions from cooking and residential wood combustion, or processes such as anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic SOA and increased partitioning of semivolatile compounds into the aerosol phase at urban sites. The exact causes should be investigated by future detailed source analyses.

  11. Particulate Matter Dispersion (PM10, with interrelation of topographic and meteorological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Javier Arrieta-Fuentes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mining-industrial processes carried out by anthropic action, bring the generation of impacts to the environment. Between the impacts associated with mining is the involvement of the air quality produced by the release of atmospheric pollutants, being subject to study the behavior of the respirable fraction of particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10 with respect to meteorological and topographical factors. The analyzed scenarios in the study involved daily and annual exposure times of PM10, in wich modeling with AERMOD View Software was made. The model was carried out in two topographic zones, a complex area, located in the municipality of Socha and a simple area located in the municipality of Sogamoso. It was used meteorological data type satellite, in format .SAM for modeled areas. Three types of emission sources were identified in the areas; considering that the disperse fixed emission sources predominate, followed by the mobile sources and point sources were found in low proportion. PM10 dispersion models made for the zones of simple and complex topography, gave as result that direction and the wind speed is conditioned by the type of zone. It allowed a free flow in the predominant direction in wind rose to the area of simple topography and a turbulent flow in the complex area. It was determined that the sources of emission of PM10 in both cases are local scale; They presented a critical radius of drag and deposition of particles of 200 m approximately.

  12. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of organic compounds in source samples and in atmospheric fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christopher G; Schauer, James J; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-10-15

    Source sample extracts of vegetative detritus, motor vehicle exhaust, tire dust paved road dust, and cigarette smoke have been silylated and analyzed by GC-MS to identify polar organic compounds that may serve as tracers for those specific emission sources of atmospheric fine particulate matter. Candidate molecular tracers were also identified in atmospheric fine particle samples collected in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A series of normal primary alkanols, dominated by even carbon-numbered homologues from C26 to C32, the secondary alcohol 10-nonacosanol, and some phytosterols are prominent polar compounds in the vegetative detritus source sample. No new polar organic compounds are found in the motor vehicle exhaust samples. Several hydrogenated resin acids are present in the tire dust sample, which might serve as useful tracers for those sources in areas that are heavily impacted by motor vehicle traffic. Finally, the alcohol and sterol emission profiles developed for all the source samples examined in this project are scaled according to the ambient fine particle mass concentrations attributed to those sources by a chemical mass balance receptor model that was previously applied to the San Joaquin Valley to compute the predicted atmospheric concentrations of individual alcohols and sterols. The resulting underprediction of alkanol concentrations at the urban sites suggests that alkanols may be more sensitive tracers for natural background from vegetative emissions (i.e., waxes) than the high molecular weight alkanes, which have been the best previously available tracers for that source.

  13. Particulate Matter Air Pollution in an Urban Area : a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Holnicki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many European agglomerations suffer from high concentrations of particulate matter (PM, which is now one of the most detrimental pollutants characterizing the urban atmospheric environment. This paper addresses the problem of PM10 pollution in the Warsaw metropolitan area, including very harmful fine fractions (PM2.5, and also some heavy metals. The analysis of air quality in the Warsaw agglomeration discussed in this study is based on results from computer modeling presented elsewhere, and refers to emission and meteorological data for the year 2012. The range of emissions considered in this analysis includes the main sectors of municipal activity: energy generation, industry, urban transport, residential sector. The trans-boundary inflow of the main pollutants coming from distant sources is also taken into account. The regional scale computer model CALPUFF was used to assess the annual mean concentrations of major pollutants in the urban area. The results show the regions where the air quality limits are exceeded and indicate the dominant sources of emission which are responsible for these violations (source apportionment. These are the key data required to implement efficient regulatory actions. (original abstract

  14. Reducing particulate matter in the operation of firewood burning stoves taking into account the toxicological relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, Volker Alfred

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing humanity is climate change. Correspondingly, inter alia, the German government has set a target by 2020, to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases to the 1990 level by 20%. For this purpose can and should an increased energetic use of biomass contribute. End of 2007, the bioenergy had a share of around three quarters of the renewable primary energy input. Of which more than 45% were used for the heat supply. A total of more than 90% of renewable heat have been provided from biomass. From the provided amount of heat come over 80% from the combustion of solid biofuels - so far almost exclusively wood products - in small and medium wood-fuelled combustion systems. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions the federal government is accelerating a further expansion of energetic use of biomass in the heating sector. This expansion of thermal use of biomass, however, for reasons of pollution control, should not rise simultaneously with the emissions of air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides or particulate matter. [de

  15. Emission factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lou, Diming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Matthias, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbour districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel-engine-powered offshore vessels in China (350, 600 and 1600 kW) were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emission factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low-engine-power vessel (HH) than for the two higher-engine-power vessels (XYH and DFH); for instance, HH had NOx EF (emission factor) of 25.8 g kWh-1 compared to 7.14 and 6.97 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH, and PM EF of 2.09 g kWh-1 compared to 0.14 and 0.04 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH. Average emission factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low-engine-power engineering vessel (HH) were significantly higher than that of the previous studies (such as 30.2 g kg-1 fuel of CO EF compared to 2.17 to 19.5 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies, 115 g kg-1 fuel of NOx EF compared to 22.3 to 87 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies and 9.40 g kg-1 fuel of PM EF compared to 1.2 to 7.6 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies), while for the two higher-engine-power vessels (DFH and XYH), most of the average emission factors for pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies, engine type was

  16. Particulate emission factor: A case study of a palm oil mill boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, W.C.; Rashid, M.; Ramli, M.; Zainura, Z.N.; NorRuwaida, J.

    2010-01-01

    A study to investigate the particulate emission from a boiler of a palm oil mill plant equipped with a multi-cyclones particulate arrest or was performed and reported in this paper. The particulate emission concentration was measured at the outlet of a 8 mt/ hr capacity water-tube typed boiler of a palm oil mill plant processing 27mt/ hr of fresh fruit bunch (FFB). The particulate sample was collected iso-kinetically using the USEPA method 5 sampling train through a sampling port made at the duct of the exiting flue gas between the boiler and a multi-cyclones unit. Results showed that the particulate emission rates exiting the boiler varied from 0.09 to 0.60 g/s with an average of 0.29 + 0.18 g/ s. While the average particulate emission concentration exiting the boiler was 12.1 + 7.36 g/ Nm 3 (corrected to 7 % oxygen concentration), ranging from 3.62 to 25.3 g/ Nm 3 (at 7 % O 2 ) of the flue gas during the measurement. Based on the 27 mt/ hr FFB processed and the capacity of the boiler of 8mt steam/ hr, the calculated particulate emission factor was 39 g particulate/ mt FFB processed or 131 g particulate/ mt boiler capacity, respectively. In addition, based on the finding and in order to comply with the emission limits of 0.4 g/ Nm 3 , the collection efficiency of any given particulate emission pollution control system to consider for the mill will be from 87 to 98 %, which is not easily achievable with the existing multi-cyclones unit. A considerable amount of efforts are still needed pertaining to the particulate emission control problem in the industry. (author)

  17. Flipped neutrino emissivity from strange matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, A.; Dutta, S.

    1994-01-01

    Energy loss due to wrong helicity sterile neutrinos through spin flip processes leads to rapid cooling of nascent neutron stars. The observed cooling of neutron stars associated with SN 1987A seems to preclude the existence of Dirac neutrinos with a mass in excess of 20 keV. Assuming that nuclear matter in the core of the neutron star undergoes a phase transition to quark matter leading to a strange star or a neutron star with a strange matter core, we examine the emission of flipped Dirac neutrinos for two dominant processes: quark-neutrino scattering [q+ν - (bar ν + )→q+ν + (bar ν - )] and the quark neutrino pair bremsstrahlung process [q+q→q+q+ν - bar ν - (ν+bar ν + )]. We determine the composition of quark matter just after core bounce and examine the effect of neutrino degeneracy on the emission rate and mean free path of the wrong helicity neutrinos

  18. Source contributions of fine particulate matter during one winter haze episodes in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Wu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term exposure to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is found to be associated with adverse effects on human health, ecological environment and climate change. Identification the major source regions of fine particulate matter are essential to proposing proper joint prevention and control strategies for heavy haze mitigation. In this work, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) together with the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) and the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF), have been applied to analyze the major source regions of PM2.5 in Xi'an during the heavy haze episodes in winter (29, December, 2016 - 5 January 2017), and the framework of the model system is shown in Fig. 1. Firstly, according to the model evaluation of the daily PM2.5 concentrations for the two months, the model has well performance, and the fraction of predictions within a factor of 2 of the observations (FAC2) is 84%, while the correlation coefficient (R) is 0.80 in Xi'an. By using the PSAT in CAMx model, a detailed source region contribution matrix is derived for all points within the Xi'an region and its six surrounding areas, and long-range regional transport. The results show that the local emission in Xi'an is the mainly sources at downtown area, which contributing 72.9% as shown in Fig.2, and the contribution rate of transportations between adjacent areas depends on wind direction. Meanwhile, three different suburban areas selected for detailed analysis in fine particles sources. Comparing to downtown area, the sources of suburban areas are more multiply, and the transportations make the contribution 40%-82%. In the suburban areas, regional inflows play an important role in the fine particles concentrations, indicating a strong need for regional joint emission control efforts. The results enhance the quantitative understanding of the PM2.5 source regions and provide a basis for policymaking to advance the control of pollution

  19. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  20. Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

    2009-12-01

    South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind

  1. Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzzi, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Carslaw, K.; Decesari, S.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Facchini, M. C.; Fowler, D.; Koren, I.; Langford, B.; Lohmann, U.; Nemitz, E.; Pandis, S.; Riipinen, I.; Rudich, Y.; Schaap, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Spracklen, D. V.; Vignati, E.; Wild, M.; Williams, M.; Gilardoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    The literature on atmospheric particulate matter (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last 2 decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which have allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate matter constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and for climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol sciences and the policy needs, which have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. However, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important influences on premature human mortality, we still do not know the relative importance of the different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing black carbon (BC) emissions, using known control measures, would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2 °C. Likewise, cost-effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China

  2. Flipped neutrino emissivity from strange matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, A.; Dutta, S. (Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India))

    1994-04-15

    Energy loss due to wrong helicity sterile neutrinos through spin flip processes leads to rapid cooling of nascent neutron stars. The observed cooling of neutron stars associated with SN 1987A seems to preclude the existence of Dirac neutrinos with a mass in excess of 20 keV. Assuming that nuclear matter in the core of the neutron star undergoes a phase transition to quark matter leading to a strange star or a neutron star with a strange matter core, we examine the emission of flipped Dirac neutrinos for two dominant processes: quark-neutrino scattering [[ital q]+[nu][sub [minus

  3. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load.

  4. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Dongyang; Chen, Mindong; Ge, Xinlei; Zhang, Kai; Ge, Pengxiang

    2018-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER) model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL) attributable to PM2.5, and mortality benefits due to PM2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF), stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) of 10 μg/m3, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits. PMID:29584626

  5. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Nie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL attributable to PM2.5, and mortality benefits due to PM2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF, stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD, lung cancer (LC and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQG of 10 μg/m3, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits.

  6. Influence of background particulate matter (PM) on urban air quality in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, H; Wigder, N; Jaffe, D

    2013-11-15

    Elevated particulate matter concentrations due to Asian long-range transport (LRT) are frequently observed in the free troposphere (FT) above the Pacific Northwest, U.S. Transport of this aerosol from the FT to the boundary layer (BL) and its effect to local air quality remain poorly constrained. We used data collected at the Mount Bachelor observatory (MBO, 2.8 km a.s.l) and from ground stations in the Pacific Northwest to study transport of fine particulate matter (PM) from the FT to the BL. During Asian LRT episodes PM concentrations were clearly elevated above the corresponding monthly averages at MBO as well as at low elevation sites across Washington and Oregon. Also, a clear correlation between MBO and low elevation sites was observed, indicating that LRT episodes are seen in both the FT and BL. In addition, drum impactor measurements show that the chemical composition of PM at MBO was similar to that measured at the BL sites. Using a simple regression model, we estimate that during springtime, when the transport from Asia is most effective, the contribution of Asian sources to PM2.5 in clean background areas of the Pacific Northwest was on average 1.7 μg m(-3) (representing approximately 50-80% of PM). The influence of LRT PM was also seen in measurement stations situated in the urban and urban background areas. However, the fraction of LRT PM was less pronounced (36-50% of PM) due to larger local emissions in the urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Hui; Jung, Hye-Jung; Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Kim, Boowook; Ha, Kwon-Chul; Kim, Seungwon; Yi, Gwangyong; Yoon, Chungsik

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1) the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW) workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM) using elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) as indicators; 2) the correlations among the indicators; 3) the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4) factors that influence personal exposure to DPM. A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM. The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (pemission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (pemission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure. We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  8. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Dongyang; Chen, Mindong; Wu, Yun; Ge, Xinlei; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Kai; Ge, Pengxiang

    2018-03-27

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM 2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER) model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL) attributable to PM 2.5 , and mortality benefits due to PM 2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM 2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM 2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF), stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM 2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM 2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) of 10 μg/m³, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits.

  9. Monitoring of suspended particulate matter (SPM), heavy metals and other parameters in some workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, A.M.; Gatebe, C.K.; Mangala, M.J.; Korir, A.K.; Bartilol, S.; Maina, D.M.; Mugera, W.G.; Kamau, G.N.; Chakaya, J.M.; Karama, M.; Miungu, D.M.; Kitio, V.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of measurements of sound levels, chemical analysis of air particulate matter and soil samples from two factories in Nairobi. A preliminary assessment of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a residential site and its possible impacts on acute respiratory infections (ARI) of children under five years of age is also reported. Our investigations show that for Factory A, the Soil pH measurements within the Factory were more basic (pH=8.5) than those collected near a complainant's residence (pH=7.2). The sound level measurements showed that the maximum noise level recorded was 90 dB. This was at a distance of about 0.5 m from the main exhaust vent of the Factory (20 m above ground level). There was a strong ''detergent-perfume'' odour within and outside the Factory premises especially towards the complainant's side. However, the odour fluctuated. There was also no smoke emissions noticed during the site visits when the factory was operational. For Factory B, the major source of environmental degradation was drainage and management of the factory effluents. The BOD and COD levels for effluents samples analyzed ( 3 whereas the fine particles ranged from 16.2-24.4 μm/m 3 . The prevalence of ARI cases in 1998 ranged between 29.9% in January to the highest level of 59.6% in June. The total number of children who presented themselves throughout the study period, January-December 1998, was 146. A parallel study of dust sampling was also carried out from January to December 1998 in a typical office environment. Dust levels recorded from the working office environment at the Institute of Nuclear Science was found to range from 0. 44 -1.79 μg/cm 2 /day. (author)

  10. Study of indoor and ambient air fungual bioaerosols and its relation with particulate matters in a hospital of khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Basiri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The climate change and particulate matter emission contented of bioaerosols is known as an important reason of increasing the allergic interactions especially in patients with defect in immunity system. The aim of this study was to investigate fungal bioaerosol concentrations in relation to particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in indoor parts and ambient air of the generd educational hospital of Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 192 samples (168 for indoor and 24 for outdoor were gathered during 6 months at the seven indoor wards and one outdoor unit using Quick Take-30 method  at an airflow rate of 28.3 L/min and sampling time of 2.5 min on to Sabouraud dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. The sampling of particulate matter was carried out by Monitor Dust-Trak 8520. Also, the relative humidity and temperature were surveyed by TES-1360 digital. Results: The results showed that infectious ward with 101.7 CFU/m3 was as the most contaminated part and operating room with 46.4 CFU/m3 was the cleanest part. Cladosporium with 36.75% and Rodotorolla with 1.3% had higher and lower of fungi rates, respectively. The rate of  I/O<1  illustrate that this contamination had an outdoor source. Conclusion: The surveys demonstrated that the increase of temperature and relative humidity have an effective influence on the pollutant accumulation. In addition, between fungi bioaerosols frequency and particulate matter ther was a significant correlation.

  11. Experimental study on the particulate matter and nitrogenous compounds from diesel engine retrofitted with DOC+CDPF+SCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Lou, Diming; Tan, Piqiang; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2018-03-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations will mandate the retrofit of after-treatment devices for in-use diesel vehicles, in order to reduce their substantial particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions. In this paper, a combination of DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), CDPF (catalytic diesel particulate filter) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction) retrofit for a heavy-duty diesel engine was employed to perform experiment on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the particulate matter emissions including particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), particle size distributions and nitrogenous compounds emissions including NOX, nitrogen dioxide (NO2)/NOX, nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) slip. In addition, the urea injection was also of our concern. The results showed that the DOC+CDPF+SCR retrofit almost had no adverse effect on the engine power and fuel consumption. Under the test loads, the upstream DOC and CDPF reduced the PN and PM by an average of 91.6% and 90.9%, respectively. While the downstream SCR brought about an average decrease of 85% NOX. Both PM and NOX emission factors based on this retrofit were lower than China-Ⅳ limits (ESC), and even lower than China-Ⅴ limits (ESC) at medium and high loads. The DOC and CDPF changed the particle size distributions, leading to the increase in the proportion of accumulation mode particles and the decrease in the percentage of nuclear mode particles. This indicates that the effect of DOC and CDPF on nuclear mode particles was better than that of accumulation mode ones. The upstream DOC could increase the NO2/NOX ratio to 40%, higher NO2/NOX ratio improved the efficiency of CDPF and SCR. Besides, the N2O emission increased by an average of 2.58 times after the retrofit and NH3 slip occurred with the average of 26.7 ppm. The rate of urea injection was roughly equal to 8% of the fuel consumption rate. The DOC+CDPF+SCR retrofit was proved a feasible and effective measurement in terms

  12. Catalytic combustion of particulate matter Catalysts of alkaline nitrates supported on hydrous zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdeano, N.F.; Carrascull, A.L.; Ponzi, M.I.; Lick, I.D.; Ponzi, E.N.

    2004-01-01

    In order to explore a method to remove particulate matter, catalysts of different alkaline nitrates (Li, K and Cs) supported on hydrous zirconium were prepared by the method of incipient humidity and tested as catalysts for particulate matter combustion. The catalytic activity was determined by using the temperature programmed oxidation technique (TPO), utilizing two equipments, a thermogravimetric reactor and other of fixed bed. In the first case the particulate matter/catalyst mixture was milled carefully in a mortar (tight contact) while in the second case more realistic operative conditions were used, particulate matter/catalyst mixture was made with a spatula (loose contact). All prepared catalysts showed good activity for the particulate matter combustion. The cesium catalyst was the one that presented higher activity, decreasing the combustion temperature between 200 and 250 deg. C with respect to the combustion without catalyst. The catalyst with lithium nitrate became active at higher temperature than its melting point and the same occurred with the potassium catalyst. This did not occur for the catalyst containing cesium nitrate that melts at 407 deg. C and became active from 350 deg. C

  13. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Hui Lee

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1 the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM using elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, total carbon (TC, black carbon (BC, and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 as indicators; 2 the correlations among the indicators; 3 the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4 factors that influence personal exposure to DPM.A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM.The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (p<0.05. Workers of trucks meeting Euro 3 emission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (p<0.05. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the job task, European engine emission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure.We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  14. A Review of Particulate Matter and Health: Focus on Developing Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Panyacosit

    2000-01-01

    The burden of ill human health attributable to particulate air pollution is a critical problem of growing concern. In developing countries it is not uncommon to experience today the same particulate matter levels that characterized the devastating "London fog episodes" of the 1950s which resulted in over 4000 cases of premature mortality and countless cases of exacerbated morbidity related health endpoints. This literature review gives an overview of the situation in developing countries...

  15. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  16. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    particulate nitrogen (PN)and AS concentrations and composition.The AS varied between 0.4 and 17.5 nmol/l.Concentrations were high in the surface waters and generally decreased with increasing depth.AS concentration decreased from the south to ...

  17. Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the three sites; it accounts for a mean of 61% ±20 in Ramisi, 97% ±0.7 in Shirazi and 65% ±29 in Mtwapa. These high detritus levels are expected because of the allochthonous supply of particulate material by the river in Ramisi and the contribution from mangroves, which fringe the banks of the estuary and the creeks.

  18. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay C.; Miller, Stanley J.

    2018-01-09

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  19. Comparison of neutron activation analysis with other instrumental methods for elemental analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, P. de; Lievens, F.; Delespaul, I.; Monsecour, M.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of instrumental methods, including neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and emission spectrometry, for the analysis of heavy metals in airborne particulate matter is described. The merits and drawbacks of each method for the routine analysis of a large number of samples are discussed. The sample preparation technique, calibration and statistical data relevant to each method are given. Concordant results are obtained by the different methods for Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Less good agreement is obtained for Fe, Mn and V. The results are not in agreement for the elements Cd and Cr. Using data obtained on the dust sample distributed by Euratom-ISPRA within the framework of an interlaboratory comparison, the accuracy of each method for the various elements is estimated. Neutron activation analysis was found to be the most sensitive and accurate of the non-destructive analysis methods. Only atomic absorption spectrometry has a comparable sensitivity, but requires considerable preparation work. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is less sensitive and shows biases for Cr and V. Automatic emission spectrometry with simultaneous measurement of the beam intensities by photomultipliers is the fastest and most economical technique, though at the expense of some precision and sensitivity. (author)

  20. Impact of banning of two-stroke engines on airborne particulate matter concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular air pollution is common in growing metropolitan areas throughout the world. Vehicular emissions of fine particles are particularly harmful because they occur near ground level, close to where people live and work. Two-stroke engines represented an important contribution to the motor vehicle emissions where they constitute approximately half of the total vehicle fleet in Dhaka city. Two-stroke engines have lower fuel efficiency than four-stroke engines, and they emit as much of an order of magnitude and more particulate matter (PM) than four-stroke engines of similar size. To eliminate their impact on air quality, the government of Bangladesh promulgated an order banning all two-stroke engines from the roads in Dhaka starting on December 31, 2002. The effect of the banning of two-stroke engines on airborne PM was studied at the Farm Gate air quality-monitoring station in Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh), a hot spot with very high-pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The samples were collected using a "Gent" stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 microm and 2.2-10 microm sizes. Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne PM collected from 2000 to 2004 were studied. It has been found that the fine PM and black carbon concentrations decreased from the previous years because of the banning of two-stroke engine baby taxies.

  1. Source identification of particulate matter in a semi-urban area of Malaysia using multivariate techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, N B A; Latif, M T; Suan, L S; Dominick, D; Sahani, M; Jaafar, S A; Mohd Tahir, N

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to determine the composition and sources of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in a semi-urban area. PM10 samples were collected using a high volume sampler. Heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Ni) and cations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) were detected using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while anions (SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), Cl(-) and F(-)) were analysed using Ion Chromatography. Principle component analysis and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the source apportionment of PM10. Results showed the average concentration of PM10 was 29.5 ± 5.1 μg/m(3). The heavy metals found were dominated by Fe, followed by Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cd and Ni. Na(+) was the dominant cation, followed by Ca(2+), K(+) and Mg(2+), whereas SO4 (2-) was the dominant anion, followed by NO3 (-), Cl(-) and F(-). The main sources of PM10 were the Earth's crust/road dust, followed by vehicle emissions, industrial emissions/road activity, and construction/biomass burning.

  2. Fine particulate matter in the indoor air of barbeque restaurants: Elemental compositions, sources and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, Simge; Pekey, Beyhan; Pekey, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Cooking is a significant source of indoor particulate matter that can cause adverse health effects. In this study, a 5-stage cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter from 14 restaurants that cooked with charcoal in Kocaeli, the second largest city in Turkey. A total of 24 elements were quantified using ICP-MS. All of the element contents except for Mn were higher for fine particles (PM 2.5 ) than coarse particles (PM >2.5 ), and the major trace elements identified in the PM 2.5 included V, Se, Zn, Cr, As, Cu, Ni, and Pb. Principle component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factor (EF) calculations were used to determine the sources of PM 2.5 . Four factors that explained over 77% of the total variance were identified by the PCA. These factors included charcoal combustion, indoor activities, crustal components, and road dust. The Se, As, Cd, and V contents in the PM 2.5 were highly enriched (EF > 100). The health risks posed by the individual metals were calculated to assess the potential health risks associated with inhaling the fine particles released during charcoal cooking. The total hazard quotient (total HQ) for a PM 2.5 of 4.09 was four times greater than the acceptable limit (i.e., 1.0). In addition, the excess lifetime cancer risk (total ELCR) for PM 2.5 was 1.57 × 10 −4 , which is higher than the acceptable limit of 1.0 × 10 −6 . Among all of the carcinogenic elements present in the PM 2.5 , the cancer risks resulting from Cr(VI) and As exposure were the highest (i.e., 1.16 × 10 −4 and 3.89 × 10 −5 , respectively). Overall, these results indicate that the lifetime cancer risk associated with As and Cr(VI) exposure is significant at selected restaurants, which is of concern for restaurant workers. - Highlights: • Particulate emissions from charcoal combustion in the BBQ restaurants were studied. • Vanadium, Se, Zn, Cr and As were found as high concentrations in PM 2.5 . • Charcoal combustion and indoor activities were the

  3. Fine particulate matter in the indoor air of barbeque restaurants: Elemental compositions, sources and health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taner, Simge; Pekey, Beyhan, E-mail: bpekey@kocaeli.edu.tr; Pekey, Hakan

    2013-06-01

    Cooking is a significant source of indoor particulate matter that can cause adverse health effects. In this study, a 5-stage cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter from 14 restaurants that cooked with charcoal in Kocaeli, the second largest city in Turkey. A total of 24 elements were quantified using ICP-MS. All of the element contents except for Mn were higher for fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) than coarse particles (PM{sub >2.5}), and the major trace elements identified in the PM{sub 2.5} included V, Se, Zn, Cr, As, Cu, Ni, and Pb. Principle component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factor (EF) calculations were used to determine the sources of PM{sub 2.5}. Four factors that explained over 77% of the total variance were identified by the PCA. These factors included charcoal combustion, indoor activities, crustal components, and road dust. The Se, As, Cd, and V contents in the PM{sub 2.5} were highly enriched (EF > 100). The health risks posed by the individual metals were calculated to assess the potential health risks associated with inhaling the fine particles released during charcoal cooking. The total hazard quotient (total HQ) for a PM{sub 2.5} of 4.09 was four times greater than the acceptable limit (i.e., 1.0). In addition, the excess lifetime cancer risk (total ELCR) for PM{sub 2.5} was 1.57 × 10{sup −4}, which is higher than the acceptable limit of 1.0 × 10{sup −6}. Among all of the carcinogenic elements present in the PM{sub 2.5}, the cancer risks resulting from Cr(VI) and As exposure were the highest (i.e., 1.16 × 10{sup −4} and 3.89 × 10{sup −5}, respectively). Overall, these results indicate that the lifetime cancer risk associated with As and Cr(VI) exposure is significant at selected restaurants, which is of concern for restaurant workers. - Highlights: • Particulate emissions from charcoal combustion in the BBQ restaurants were studied. • Vanadium, Se, Zn, Cr and As were found as high concentrations in PM{sub 2.5}.

  4. Heavy metal analysis of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and other samples from some workplaces in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, A.M.; Gatebe, C.K.; Mangala, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution studies in Nairobi are indicating a rising trend in the particulate matter loading. The trend is mainly attributed to increased volume of motor vehicles, the physical change of the environment, agricultural and industrial activities. In this study, total suspended particulate matter sampling at the Nairobi industrial area and inside one workplace are reported. Included also are the results of analysis of water samples and effluents collected from a sugar factory, a tannery, and mercury (Hg) analysis in some beauty creams sold in Nairobi. The samples were analysed for heavy metal content using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) while the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were determined by gravimetric technique. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TRXF), atomic absorption spectrophotometry and PIXE analytical techniques plus the use of Standard and Certified Reference Materials (SRM's and CRM's) were used for quality control, analysis and evaluation of the accrued data. Air sampling in the industrial area was done twice (Wednesday and Saturday) every week for a period of two months (November and December, 1996) and twice monthly for a period of six months (January-June 1997). Each sample covering approximately 24 hours, was collected using the 'Gent' Stacked Filter Unit (SFU), for day and night times. The SPM were found to vary from 16 to 83 mgm -3 during the sampling period. The analysis of dust collected inside a workplace showed that there was poor filtration of the air pumped into the building and that there was a need for improvement of the air conditioning unit plus reduction of emissions from a neighbouring tyre factory. Beauty creams analysed showed that there is some mercury present in significant amounts (0.14 - 3.0%). The results of these mercury levels are presented for various brands of cosmetics sold in some market outlets in Nairobi. The health implications on the presence of mercury in some of these beauty

  5. Impact of natural gas development in the Marcellus and Utica shales on regional ozone and fine particulate matter levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohani, Yusuf H.; Roy, Anirban A.; Heo, Jinhyok; Robinson, Allen L.; Adams, Peter J.

    2017-04-01

    The Marcellus and Utica shale formations have recently been the focus of intense natural gas development and production, increasing regional air pollutant emissions. Here we examine the effects of these emissions on regional ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels using the chemical transport model, CAMx, and estimate the public health costs with BenMAP. Simulations were performed for three emissions scenarios for the year 2020 that span a range potential development storylines. In areas with the most gas development, the 'Medium Emissions' scenario, which corresponds to an intermediate level of development and widespread adoption of new equipment with lower emissions, is predicted to increase 8-hourly ozone design values by up to 2.5 ppbv and average annual PM2.5 concentrations by as much as 0.27 μg/m3. These impacts could range from as much as a factor of two higher to a factor of three lower depending on the level of development and the adoption of emission controls. Smaller impacts (e.g. 0.1-0.5 ppbv of ozone, depending on the emissions scenario) are predicted for non-attainment areas located downwind of the Marcellus region such as New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, DC. Premature deaths for the 'Medium Emissions' scenario are predicted to increase by 200-460 annually. The health impacts as well as the changes in ozone and PM2.5 were all driven primarily by NOx emissions.

  6. Particulate emission rates from light-duty vehicles in the South Coast Air Quality Management District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, T.D.; Norbeck, J.M.; Smith, M.R.; Truex, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a particulate emission rate study conducted on 129 light-duty gasoline and 19 light-duty diesel vehicles for the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC's) Project E-24-2. Total particulate emission rates for newer gasoline vehicles were low with modest increases with vehicle age and older technology. Average FTP particulate emission rates as a function of model year for gasoline vehicles were found to be 2.5 mg/mi for 1991 and newer models, 14.4 mg/mi for 1986--1990 models, 49.0 mg/mi for 1981--1985 models, and 33.8 mg/mi for 1980 and older models. High gaseous emitters were found to have approximately 5--10 times the particulate emission rates of normal emitters. The diesel vehicles had an average particulate emission rate of 561 mg/mi. It should be noted that the light-duty diesel vehicles were predominantly older, pre-1985 vehicles; the 1985 and newer diesel vehicles had substantially lower particulate emissions, i.e., less than 100 mg/mi. Emission inventory estimates in the South Coast Air Basin based on the fleet emission rates were higher than those obtained using the default values in EMFAC7G, due primarily to the contribution of high emitters

  7. Impact of regional ventilation changes on surface particulate matter concentrations in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. C.; Stein, A. F.; Chai, T.; Ngan, F.; Kim, B. U.; Jin, C. S.; Hong, S. Y.; Park, R.; Son, S. W.; Bae, C.; Bae, M.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    The recent increase in surface particulate matter (PM) concentrations in South Korea is intriguing due to its disagreement with current intensive emission reduction efforts. The long-term trend of surface PM concentrations in South Korea declined in the 2000s, but since 2012 its concentrations have tended to increase, resulting in frequent severe haze events in the region. This study demonstrates that the interannual variation of surface PM concentrations in South Korea is not only affected by changes in local or regional emission sources, but also closely linked with the interannual variations in regional ventilation. Using EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system, a 12-year (2004-2015) regional air quality simulation was conducted to assess the impact of the meteorological conditions under constant anthropogenic emissions. In addition, NOAA HYSPLIT dispersion model was utilized to estimate the strength of regional ventilation that dissipates local pollutions. Simulated PM concentrations show a strong negative correlation (i.e. R=-0.86) with regional wind speed, implying that reduced regional ventilation is likely associated with more stagnant conditions that cause severe pollutant episodes in South Korea. We conclude that the current PM concentration trend in South Korea is a combination of long-term decline by emission control efforts and short-term fluctuations in regional wind speed interannual variability. When the meteorology-driven variations are removed, PM concentrations in South Korea have declined continuously even after 2012, with -1.45±0.12, -1.41±0.16, and -1.09±0.16 mg/m3 per year in Seoul, the Seoul Metropolitan Area, and South Korea, respectively.

  8. Impacts of Intercontinental Transport of Anthropogenic Fine Particulate Matter on Human Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; West, J. Jason; Hongbin, Yu; Chin, Mian; Schulz, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Fiore, Arlene; hide

    2014-01-01

    Fine particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality and can travel long distances, impacting air quality and health on intercontinental scales. We estimate the mortality impacts of 20 % anthropogenic primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emission reductions in each of four major industrial regions (North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia) using an ensemble of global chemical transport model simulations coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution and epidemiologically-derived concentration-response functions. We estimate that while 93-97 % of avoided deaths from reducing emissions in all four regions occur within the source region, 3-7 % (11,500; 95 % confidence interval, 8,800-14,200) occur outside the source region from concentrations transported between continents. Approximately 17 and 13 % of global deaths avoided by reducing North America and Europe emissions occur extraregionally, owing to large downwind populations, compared with 4 and 2 % for South and East Asia. The coarse resolution global models used here may underestimate intraregional health benefits occurring on local scales, affecting these relative contributions of extraregional versus intraregional health benefits. Compared with a previous study of 20 % ozone precursor emission reductions, we find that despite greater transport efficiency for ozone, absolute mortality impacts of intercontinental PM2.5 transport are comparable or greater for neighboring source-receptor pairs, due to the stronger effect of PM2.5 on mortality. However, uncertainties in modeling and concentration-response relationships are large for both estimates.

  9. Characterization of atmospheric trace gases and particulate matter in Hangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gen; Xu, Honghui; Qi, Bing; Du, Rongguang; Gui, Ke; Wang, Hongli; Jiang, Wanting; Liang, Linlin; Xu, Wanyun

    2018-02-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is one of the most densely populated regions in China with severe air quality issues that have not been fully understood. Thus, in this study, based on 1-year (2013) continuous measurement at a National Reference Climatological Station (NRCS, 30.22° N, 120.17° E; 41.7 m a.s.l.) in the center of Hangzhou in the YRD, we investigated the seasonal characteristics, interspecies relationships, and the local emissions and the regional potential source contributions of trace gases (including O3, NOx, NOy, SO2, and CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). Results revealed that severe two-tier air pollution (photochemical and haze pollution) occurred in this region, with frequent exceedances in O3 (38 days) and PM2.5 (62 days). O3 and PM2.5 both exhibited distinct seasonal variations with reversed patterns: O3 reaching a maximum in warm seasons (May and July) but PM2.5 reaching a maximum in cold seasons (November to January). The overall results from interspecies correlation indicated a strong local photochemistry favoring the O3 production under a volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited regime, whereas it moved towards an optimum O3 production zone during warm seasons, accompanied by the formation of secondary fine particulates under high O3. The emission maps of PM2.5, CO, NOx, and SO2 demonstrated that local emissions were significant for these species on a seasonal scale. The contributions from the regional transport among inland cities (Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, and Jiangxi Province) on a seasonal scale were further confirmed to be crucial to air pollution at the NRCS site by using backward trajectory simulations. Air masses transported from the offshore areas of the Yellow Sea, East Sea, and South Sea were also found to be highly relevant to the elevated O3 at the NRCS site through the analysis of potential source contribution function (PSCF). Case studies of photochemical pollution (O3) and haze (PM2.5) episodes both suggested the

  10. Evidence of molybdenum association with particulate organic matter under sulfidic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Chappaz, A.; Hoek, Joost

    2017-01-01

    , consisting of mainly Mo(IV)-sulfide compounds with molecular structures similar to Mo enzymes and to those found in natural euxinic sediments. Therefore, we propose that Mo removal in natural sulfidic waters can proceed via a non-Fe-assisted pathway that requires particulate organic matter (dead or living......The geochemical behavior of molybdenum (Mo) in the oceans is closely linked to the presence of sulfide species in anoxic environments, where Fe availability may play a key role in the Mo scavenging. Here, we show that Mo(VI) is reduced in the presence of particulate organic matter (represented...

  11. Determination of trace elements by INAA in urban air particulate matter and transplanted lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, L.; Rizzio, E.; Profumo, A.; Gallorini, M.

    2005-01-01

    Lichens as biomonitors and neutron activation analysis as analytical technique have been employed to evaluate the trace element atmospheric pollution in the metropolitan area of the city of Pavia (Northern Italy). Transplanted lichens (Parmelia sulcata and Usnea gr. hirta) and air particulate matter have been monthly collected and analyzed during the winter 2001-2002. INAA and ET-AAS have been used for the determination of 28 elements in air particulate matter and 25 elements in lichens. Trace metals concentrations as well as the corresponding enrichment factors were evaluated and compared. (author)

  12. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  13. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000-2006 and 2047-2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV), the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV) and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events. The current study found that the change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations due to climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 within any major sub-region in California was not statistically significant. However, climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; -3%) and organic carbon (OC; -3%) due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (-3%) and food cooking (-4%). In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-yr period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3). In general, climate change caused increased stagnation during future extreme pollution events, leading to higher exposure to diesel engines

  14. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44 global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV, the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events.

    The current study found that the change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations due to climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 within any major sub-region in California was not statistically significant. However, climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; −3% and organic carbon (OC; −3% due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (−3% and food cooking (−4%. In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-yr period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3. In general, climate

  15. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determined from the following equation: er31au93.070 (1) Pmass = Mass of particulate emitted per test phase... (cubic meters) per revolution. This volume is dependent on the pressure differential across the positive... be applied before Vsf is determined. (4) Pf = Mass of particulate on the sample filter (or sample and...

  16. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amino sugars (AS) are important constituents of organic matter. However ... about the molecular level characterization, distri- bution and ... tion about the dynamics, nutritive value, nature and degradation state of AS containing organic matter. 2. Material ..... carbohydrates and amino acids; Marine Chemistry 96. 155–184.

  17. The fate of particulate emissions from an isolated power plant in the oil sands area of western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    The nature and fate of particulate emissions from an isolated power plant in the Athabasca oil sands area of western Canada are investigated on the basis of measurements of particulate elemental concentrations in the air 80 km from the source late one winter, and close to the source early the next summer, of dry deposition patterns of particulate sulfur and heavy metals in the early summer, and of total (wet and dry) deposition patterns of major ions and metals during two winters. Results of plume chemistry studies to investigate SO 2 oxidation during summer and winter and of fly-ash analyses for heavy metals are also used. It is found that: (1) many elements in particulate matter deposited around the plant originate primarily from a different source in summer and in winter (2) deposition near the source is more alkaline than in outlying areas, (3) wet and dry deposition of acidic oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from the power-plant emissions appear to be the main source of snowpack acidification in downwind areas, and (4) acidic compounds can be transported over long distances before being removed

  18. Characterization and sources of air particulate matter at Kwabenya, near Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboh, I. J. K.

    2009-01-01

    well but during the Rainy season S did not correlate with V and Br. This could serve as possible source indicators. The BC concentration in the fine fraction (ranging from 0.01 to 5.97 µgm') was generally higher than in the coarse fraction and comparable to data from some developed countries. A receptor model using principal component and regression analysis was used to identify sources contributing to the air particulate matter at Kwabenya. The species used in the model were mass, BC and elemental concentrations. The following major sources were identified in the coarse aerosol: Soil/Dust, Biomass/LDT and Sea aerosol. In the fine aerosol the following sources were identified: Soil/Dust, Biomass/LDT and some industrial sources. The contribution of the sources to the PM load varied from season to season, There was very good agreement between the experimental and model data (mass, BC and elemental concentrations). Comparing the data with WHO limit (50 ugm 3 for 24-hour mean) and Ghana EPA guideline limit (70 ugm 3 for 24 hours) for PM 10 , a total of 185 and 130 days respectively out of 216 days had values above these limits. For PM 2 . 5 a total of 60 days had values exceeding the WHO limit (25 µgm 3 for 24-hour mean). The levels of S, Ni and Pb were also comparable to industrialised countries. There is the need for some mitigation measures to curb the emission of these elements and fine BC. (au)

  19. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  20. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Using Complementary Experimental Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Hamdan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne particulate matter (PM pollutants were sampled from an urban background site in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The fine fraction (PM2.5 (particulates with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 μm was collected on 47-mm Teflon filters and analyzed using a combined set of non-destructive techniques in order to provide better understanding of the sources of pollutants and their interaction during transport in the atmosphere. These techniques included gravimetric analysis, equivalent black carbon (EBC, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Generally, the PM2.5 concentrations are within the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO and the United States (US Environmental Protection Agency. The EBC content is in the range of 10–12% of the total PM concentration (2–4 µg m−3, while S (as ammonium sulfate, Ca (as calcite, gypsum, and calcium carbonate, Si (as quartz, Fe, and Al were the major sources of PM pollution. EBC, ammonium sulfate, Zn, V, and Mn originate from anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel burning, traffic, and industrial emissions. Natural elements such as Ca, Fe, Al, Si, and Ti are due to natural sources such as crustal materials (enhanced during dust episodes and sea salts. The average contribution of natural sources in the total PM2.5 mass concentration over the sampling period is about 40%, and the contribution of the secondary inorganic compounds is about 27% (mainly ammonium sulfate in our case. The remaining 22% is assumed to be secondary organic compounds.

  1. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestiani, D.D.; Santoso, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preferred, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. (author)

  2. Chemical characterization of urban air particulate matter of Kuala Lumpur 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Ab. Khalik Bin Haji Wood

    2006-01-01

    Urban air particulate samples of Kuala Lumpur ambient air have been collected characterize according to fine and coarse airborne particulates. The air filters containing particulate matter were collected using GENT stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling location site (Lat: 03deg 10'30''; Long: 101deg 43'24.2'') is approximately 1 km from the Kuala Lumpur city center. All the sampling conducted from January 2002 until October 2004 was included in the analysis and results were reported. The mass loading for finest air particulate matter (PM 2.5) in Kuala Lumpur are 199±55 μg (2002), 171±53 μg (2003), and 171±61 μg (2004), respectively. The mass loading for coarse air particulate matter (PM 10) in Kuala Lumpur were 125±29 μg (2002), 134±48 μg (2003), and 137 ± 57 μg (2004), respectively. The elemental concentration of the air filters were determined using INAA technique utilizing both short and long irradiation facilities at MINT's TRIGA MKII reactor. Upon irradiation the air filters were counted at suitable counting time using HPGe gamma-ray detectors. The elements reported for this monitoring are Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Certified reference materials were also included in the sample analysis function as quality control materials. (author)

  3. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Jayasekera, R.; Kniewald, G.

    2000-01-01

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  4. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  5. Effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter and metal components on mortality in the Rome longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cerza, Francesco; Davoli, Marina; Brunekreef, Bert; Forastiere, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of long-term exposure to metal components in particulate matter on mortality are still controversial. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, particulate matter components (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, silicon,

  6. Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman, a Semi-Urban Area of Ghana, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sam-Quarcoo Dotse; Joshua Kwame Asane; F.G. Ofosu

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter and black carbon concentration levels in Ashaiman, a semi-urban area of Ghana was assessed. Using IVL PM2.5 and PM10 particle samplers, airborne particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters for a period of three months. In addition to determination of particulate mass in the two fractions by gravimetrical method, aerosol filters were analyzed to determine Black Carbon (BC) concentration levels using the black smoke method. BC fractions in fine and coarse, together with ...

  7. Particulate emissions from a stationary engine fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel and waste-cooking-oil-derived biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-10-01

    Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture.

  8. Behavior of secondary particles in particulate matter collected at eastern Kanagawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Tomohiro; Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao; Honda, Teruyuki

    2008-01-01

    The suspended particulate matters collected in 100 periods from 2002/10/28 to 2004/10/29 were separated into the water soluble and insoluble components and their main components were analyzed. The characteristics of atmosphere in the east part of Kagawa prefecture and of the secondary particulates were presumed. Therefore, it was considered that in the samples other than Mn the origins of water soluble and insoluble components are different each other from their behavior. The water-soluble part may be mostly ammonium salt (secondary particulate) from the measurement of NH 4 + . Furthermore, it became clear that the evolution of secondary particulate varies largely with season. Then, the variation with season was presumed by the main component analysis using the statistical software, SPSS adding to the correlation coefficient. This method has proved to be effective. (M.H.)

  9. Particulate emissions from biomass combustion in small district heating plants; Partikelemissioner fraan biobraensleeldade mindre fjaerrvaermecentraler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Henrik; Johansson, Linda; Tullin, Claes; Oesterberg, Stefan; Johansson, Mathias [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Energy Conversion

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, negative health effects associated with increased levels of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} (particles less then 10 and 2.5 {mu}m, respectively) in the ambient air have been highlighted. The development towards a sustainable society will lead to an increased use of biomass in Sweden. Conversion from oil to biomass can lead to increased local levels of particulate matter. In smaller district heating plants (up to a few MW), the dust reduction often is restricted to the use of cyclones/multicyclones having limited separation efficiency for submicron particles (particles less than 1 {mu}m). The emissions are often in the range 100 Mg/nm{sup 3} or higher but very few data regarding particle size distributions from district heating plants have been reported in the literature. In addition to the particle size, a number of other properties might be important for the health effects but the knowledge in this area is limited. It is therefore important to characterise the particles in detail regarding physical and chemical qualities. The objective with the present investigation is to measure and characterise the particulate emissions from two biomass based smaller district heating centrals for different fuel qualities (pellets, briquettes, forest residues and wood chips) and operating parameters such as load and excess air. In addition to analyses of dust and particulates, extensive measurements of the flue composition have been performed. Measurements were performed downstream the multicyclones. The dust emissions were found to be in the range 20 to 120 mg/MJ supplied fuel depending on operating condition and fuel quality. At normal operation, the dust emissions were about 35 to 40 mg/MJ supplied fuel. The particle size distributions were measured using an ELPI (Electric Low Pressure Impactor). The number size distributions were found to be dominated by submicron particles with maxima at diameters between 0. 1 and 0.3 gm. Additional measurements indicated that

  10. Performance Evaluation of a Biomass Stove Using Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Researchers have proved that smoke and other emissions resulting from fuel wood in traditional stoves have led to increase in health hazards which include acute ... High thermal efficiency translates to less exposure to PM and CO emission which reduces significantly, risk to health accruing to the use of briquette and fuel ...

  11. Source contributions to United States ozone and particulate matter over five decades from 1970 to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Alvarez, Yesica; Jung, Jaegun; Grant, John; Kumar, Naresh; Yarwood, Greg

    2017-10-01

    Evaluating long-term air quality trends can demonstrate effectiveness of control strategies and guide future air quality management planning. Observations have shown that ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the US have declined since as early as 1980 in some areas. But observation trends alone cannot separate effects of changes in local and global emissions to US air quality which are important to air quality planners. This study uses a regional model (CAMx) nested within a global model (GEOS-Chem) to characterize regional changes in O3 and PM2.5 due to the intercontinental transport and local/regional emissions representing six modeling years within five decades (1970-2020). We use the CAMx Source Apportionment Technology (OSAT/PSAT) to estimate contributions from 6 source sectors in 7 source regions plus 6 other groups for a total of 48 tagged contributions. On-road mobile sources consistently make the largest U.S. anthropogenic emissions contribution to O3 in all cities examined even though they decline substantially from 1970 to 2005 and also from 2005 to 2020. Off-road mobile source contributions increase from 1970 to 2005 and then decrease after 2005 in all of the cities. The boundary conditions, mostly from intercontinental transport, contribute more than 20 ppb to high maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) O3 for all six years. We found that lowering NOx emissions raises O3 formation efficiency (OFE) across all emission categories which will limit potential O3 benefits of local NOx strategies in the near future. PM2.5 benefited from adoption of control devices between 1970 and 1980 and has continued to decline through 2005 and expected to decline further by 2020. Area sources such as residential, commercial and fugitive dust emissions stand out as making large contributions to PM2.5 that are not declining. Inter-regional transport is less important in 2020 than 1990 for both pollutants.

  12. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  13. Processes and modeling of hydrolysis of particulate organic matter in aerobic wastewater tratment - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Kommedal, Roald; Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    Carbon cycling and the availability of organic carbon for nutrient removal processes are in most wastewater treatment systems restricted by the rate of hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable (particulate) organic matter. To date, the mechanisms of hydrolysis are not well understood for complex...

  14. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  15. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 6: elemental determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassorla, V.; Rojas, X.; Andonie, O.; Gras, N.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the chemical characterization of airborne particulate matter from some locations in the city of Santiago, Chile. The following elements were determined: Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, V y Zn. The accuracy of the experimental procedure was evaluated using a standard reference material. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Observations of a narrow zone of high suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations along the Dutch coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hout, C.M.; Gerkema, T.; Nauw, J.J.; Ridderinkhof, H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this paper is to localize the transport path of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Dutch coastal zone in the southern North Sea. It is known that a large mass of SPM is transported northward from the Strait of Dover, which is however mostly hidden from

  17. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  18. Contrasts in oxidative potential and other particulate matter characteristics collected near major streets and background locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Janssen, N.A.H.; Fischer, P.H.; Kos, G.P.A.; Weijers, E.P.; Cassee, F.R.; van der Zee, S.C.; Hartog, J. de; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measuring the oxidative potential of airborne particulate matter (PM) may provide a more health-based exposure measure by integrating various biologically relevant properties of PM into a single predictor of biological activity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the contrast in oxidative

  19. Contrasts in oxidative potential and other particulate matter characteristics collected near major streets and background locations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Janssen, N.A.; Fischer, P.H.; Kos, G.P.; Weijers, E.P.; Cassee, F.R.; Zee, S.C. van der; Hartog, J.J. de; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measuring the oxidative potential of airborne particulate matter (PM) may provide a more health-based exposure measure by integrating various biologically relevant properties of PM into a single predictor of biological activity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the contrast in oxidative

  20. Global Guidance On LCIA Indicators: Impacts Of Particulate Matter And Of Land Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter; McKone, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Improving life cycle impact assessment models is crucial. The flagship project of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative provides global guidance and consensus on environmental LCIA indicators for climate change, particulate matter impacts, land use impact on biodiversity, water scarcity and water ...

  1. Associations between particulate matter composition and childhood blood pressure - The PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilenko, Natalya; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; de Hoogh, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wang, Meng; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood blood pressure is an important predictor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Evidence for an association between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure and blood pressure is increasing, but little is known about the relevance of different PM constituents.

  2. Effect of Feeding Schedule on Fractionated Particulate Matter Distribution in Rooster House

    Science.gov (United States)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  3. Diesel particulate matter exposure in South African platinum mines: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling was conducted on nearly 300 mine workers in the diesel and non-diesel sections of three platinum mines in South Africa. Respiratory health questionnaires were administered to all of these workers...

  4. Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Gruzieva, Olena; Mölter, Anna; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Custovic, Adnan; Cyrys, Josef; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Keuken, Menno; Klümper, Claudia; Kooter, Ingeborg; Krämer, Ursula; Korek, Michal; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Simpson, Angela; Smit, Henriëtte A; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Wang, Meng; Wolf, Kathrin; Pershagen, Göran; Gehring, Ulrike

    BACKGROUND: Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in 5

  5. Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, M.; Hoek, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Mölter, A.; Agius, R.; Beelen, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Custovic, A.; Cyrys, J.; Fuertes, E.; Heinrich, J.; Hoffmann, B.; De Hoogh, K.; Jedynska, A.; Keuken, M.; Klümper, C.; Kooter, I.; Krämer, U.; Korek, M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Simpson, A.; Smit, H.A.; Tsai, M.Y.; Wang, M.; Wolf, K.; Pershagen, G.; Gehring, U.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in 5

  6. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (P