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Sample records for particle properties derived

  1. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippe, T.G.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Kelly, R.L.; Rittenberg, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Yost, G.P.; Barash-Schmidt, N.; Bricman, C.; Hemingway, R.J.; Losty, M.J.; Roos, M.; Chaloupka, V.; Armstrong, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Phys. Letters 50B, No.1 (1974), and Supplement, Rev. Mod. Phys. 47 (1975) 535]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available

  2. Review of particle properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, G P; Barnett, R M; Hinchliffe, I; Lynch, G R; Rittenberg, A; Ross, R R; Suzuki, M; Trippe, T G; Wohl, C G; Armstrong, B

    1988-04-14

    This review of the properties of gauge bosons, leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of the Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group (Phys. Lett. 170B (1986)). Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. We continue the more orderly set of particle names implemented in the 1986 edition. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available.

  3. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanet, L.; Gieselmann, K. Technical Associate; Barnett, R.M.; Groom, D.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. Technical Associate; Wagman, G.S. Technical Associate; Murayama, H.; Stone, J.; Hernandez, J.J.; Porter, F.C.; Morrison, R.J.; Manohar, A.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Caso, C.; Lantero, P. Technical Associate; Crawford, R.L.; Roos, M.; Toernqvist, N.A.; Hayes, K.G.; Hoehler, G.

    1994-01-01

    This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2300 new measurements from 700 papers, we list evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, monopoles, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review

  4. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricman, C.; Dionisi, C.; Hemingway, R.J.; Mazzucato, M.; Montanet, L.; Barash-Schmidt, N.; Crawford, R.C.; Roos, M.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Horne, C.P.; Kelly, R.L.; Losty, M.J.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Armstrong, B.

    1978-01-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Rev. Mod. Phys. 48 (1976) No. 2, Part II; and Supplement, Phys. Lett. 68B (1977) 1]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available. (Auth.)

  5. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikasa, K.; Hagiwara, K.; Kawabata, S.; Barnett, R.M.; Groom, D.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Wohl, C.G.; Yost, G.P.; Armstrong, B. Technical Associate; Wagman, G.S. Technical Associate; Stone, J.; Porter, F.C.; Morrison, R.J.; Cutkosky, R.E.; Montanet, L.; Gieselmann, K. Technical Associate; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Caso, C.; Crawford, R.L.; Roos, M.; Toernqvist, N.A.; Hayes, K.G.; Hoehler, G.; Manley, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this Review, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, the top quark, heavy neutrinos, monopoles, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some other sections of this full Review

  6. The Microwave Radiative Properties of Falling Snow Derived from Nonspherical Ice Particle Models. Part II: Initial Testing Using Radar, Radiometer and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, William S.; Tian, Lin; Grecu, Mircea; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Johnson, Benjamin; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Bansemer, Aaron; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Wang, James R.; Meneghini, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two different particle models describing the structure and electromagnetic properties of snow are developed and evaluated for potential use in satellite combined radar-radiometer precipitation estimation algorithms. In the first model, snow particles are assumed to be homogeneous ice-air spheres with single-scattering properties derived from Mie theory. In the second model, snow particles are created by simulating the self-collection of pristine ice crystals into aggregate particles of different sizes, using different numbers and habits of the collected component crystals. Single-scattering properties of the resulting nonspherical snow particles are determined using the discrete dipole approximation. The size-distribution-integrated scattering properties of the spherical and nonspherical snow particles are incorporated into a dual-wavelength radar profiling algorithm that is applied to 14- and 34-GHz observations of stratiform precipitation from the ER-2 aircraft-borne High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) radar. The retrieved ice precipitation profiles are then input to a forward radiative transfer calculation in an attempt to simulate coincident radiance observations from the Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR). Much greater consistency between the simulated and observed CoSMIR radiances is obtained using estimated profiles that are based upon the nonspherical crystal/aggregate snow particle model. Despite this greater consistency, there remain some discrepancies between the higher moments of the HIWRAP-retrieved precipitation size distributions and in situ distributions derived from microphysics probe observations obtained from Citation aircraft underflights of the ER-2. These discrepancies can only be eliminated if a subset of lower-density crystal/aggregate snow particles is assumed in the radar algorithm and in the interpretation of the in situ data.

  7. Review of particle properties. Particle Data Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Rev. Mod. Phys. 48 (1976) No. 2, Part II; and Supplement, Phys. Lett. 68B (1977) 1]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available

  8. Laser-based assessment of road aggregate particle shape and texture properties with the aim of deriving comparative models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Breytenbach, IJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research was undertaken using an innovative three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning tool to study the shape and texture characteristics of road aggregate particles. Aggregate materials used for road construction, including G1 crushed rocks...

  9. Particle production in higher derivative theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker cosmological model during the early stages of the universe is analysed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The universe has been considered as an open thermodynamic system where particle production ...

  10. Particle production in higher derivative theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmological models; particle production; higher derivative theory of gravitation. PACS No. 98.80. 1. ... is of singular models where the cosmic expansion is driven by the big-bang impulse; all ... According to Gibbs integrability condition, one cannot independently specify an equa- .... [3] B Hartle and S W Hawking Phys. Rev.

  11. Structure and tensile properties of Fe-Cr model alloy strengthened by nano-scale NbC particles derived from controlled crystallization of Nb-rich clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lei [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Guo, Qianying [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China); Liu, Yongchang, E-mail: licmtju@163.com [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China); Yu, Liming; Li, Huijun [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China)

    2016-09-30

    This article describes the microstructural evolution and tensile properties of Fe-Cr model alloy strengthened by nano-scale NbC particles. According to the results obtained from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, the bcc ultrafine grains and the disordered phase of Nb-rich nano-clusters were observed in the milled powders. The hot pressing (HP) resulted in a nearly equiaxed ferritic grains and dispersed nano-scale NbC (~8 nm) particles. The microstructure studies reveal that the formation of NbC nanoparticles is composed of nucleation and growth of the Nb-rich nano-clusters involving diffusion of their component. At room temperature the material exhibits an ultimate tensile strength of 700 MPa, yield strength of 650 MPa, and total elongation of 11.7 pct. The fracture surface studies reveal that a typical ductile fracture mode has occurred during tensile test.

  12. Optical Properties of Airborne Soil Organic Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veghte, Daniel P. [William; China, Swarup [William; Weis, Johannes [Chemical; Department; Kovarik, Libor [William; Gilles, Mary K. [Chemical; Laskin, Alexander [Department

    2017-09-27

    Recently, airborne soil organic particles (ASOP) were reported as a type of solid organic particles emitted after water droplets impacted wet soils. Chemical constituents of ASOP are macromolecules such as polysaccharides, tannins, and lignin (derived from degradation of plants and biological organisms). Optical properties of ASOP were inferred from the quantitative analysis of the electron energy-loss spectra acquired over individual particles in the transmission electron microscope. The optical constants of ASOP are further compared with those measured for laboratory generated particles composed of Suwanee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) reference material, which was used as a laboratory surrogate of ASOP. The particle chemical compositions were analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. ASOP and SRFA exhibit similar carbon composition, but SRFA has minor contributions of S and Na. When ASOP are heated to 350 °C their absorption increases as a result of their pyrolysis and partial volatilization of semi-volatile organic constituents. The retrieved refractive index (RI) at 532 nm of SRFA particles, ASOP, and heated ASOP were 1.22-62 0.07i, 1.29-0.07i, and 1.90-0.38i, respectively. Compared to RISRFA, RIASOP has a higher real part but similar imaginary part. These measurements of ASOP optical constants suggest that they have properties characteristic of atmospheric brown carbon and therefore their potential effects on the radiative forcing of climate need to be assessed in atmospheric models.

  13. Particles in water properties and processes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, John

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Particles in the Aquatic Environment Colloidal Aspects PARTICLE SIZE AND RELATED PROPERTIES Particle Size and Shape Particle Size Distributions Particle Transport Light Scattering and Turbidity Measurement of Particle Size SURFACE CHARGE Origin of Surface Charge The Electrical Double Layer Electrokinetic Phenomena COLLOID INTERACTIONS AND COLLOID STABILITY Colloid Interactions - General Concepts van der Waals Interaction Electrical Double Layer Interaction Combined Interaction - DLVO Theory Non-DLVO Interactions AGGREGATION KINETICS Collision Frequency - Smoluchow

  14. Review of Particle Properties, 1982-1983

    CERN Document Server

    Particle Data Group. Berkeley; Porter, F C; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Montanet, Lucien; Walck, C; Crawford, R L; Kelly, Robert L; Rittenberg, Alan; Trippe, Thomas G; Wohl, Charles G; Yost, George P; Shimada, T; Losty, Michael J; Gopal, Gian P; Hendrick, R E; Shrock, R E; Frosch, R; Roper, L D; Armstrong, Betty

    1982-01-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Rev. Mod. Phys. 52 (1980) No. 2, Part II]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available.

  15. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  16. Redox properties of small semiconductor particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver, N.; Nitzan, A.

    1992-01-01

    The size dependence of electrical and thermodynamic quantities of intermediate-sized semiconductor particles in an electrolyte solution with a given redox pair are studied. The equilibrium constant for this system is then derived based on the relationship of the electrolytic redox components to the size, charges, and concentration of the semiconductor particles. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  17. The Review-of-Particle-Properties system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippe, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Berkeley Particle Data Group is engaged in a major modernization of its primary project, the Review of Particle Properties, a compilation of experimental data on elementary particles. The goal of this modernization is to develop an integrated system for data storage, manipulation, interactive access and publication using modern technqiues for database management, text processing and phototypesetting. The existing system and the plans for modernization are described. The group's other projects and the computer systems used are also discussed. (orig.)

  18. Diffusion properties of active particles with directional reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Großmann, R; Bär, M; Peruani, F

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion properties of self-propelled particles which move at constant speed and, in addition, reverse their direction of motion repeatedly are investigated. The internal dynamics of particles triggering these reversal processes is modeled by a stochastic clock. The velocity correlation function as well as the mean squared displacement is investigated and, furthermore, a general expression for the diffusion coefficient for self-propelled particles with directional reversal is derived. Our analysis reveals the existence of an optimal, finite rotational noise amplitude which maximizes the diffusion coefficient. We comment on the relevance of these results with regard to biological systems and suggest further experiments in this context. (paper)

  19. r-particle irreducible kernels, asymptotic completeness and analyticity properties of several particle collision amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, J.

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the present status of many-particle structure analysis in the general framework of massive quantum field theory. Two main questions are discussed, namely: i) the equivalence between the asymptotic completeness of a field and the r-particle irreducibility of associated Bether-Salpeter type kernels; ii) the derivation of extended analyticity properties of the Green functions and multiparticle collision amplitudes around the corresponding physical regions. Substantial results concerning the 3→3 particle processes are described. An analogous multiparticle version of these results yields a partial understanding of the general case

  20. Particle agglomeration and properties of nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yijun; Oztekin, Alparslan, E-mail: alo2@lehigh.edu; Neti, Sudhakar [Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics (United States); Mohapatra, Satish [Dynalene Inc. (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The present study demonstrates the importance of actual agglomerated particle size in the nanofluid and its effect on the fluid properties. The current work deals with 5 to 100 nm nanoparticles dispersed in fluids that resulted in 200 to 800 nm agglomerates. Particle size distributions for a range of nanofluids are measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Wet scanning electron microscopy method is used to visualize agglomerated particles in the dispersed state and to confirm particle size measurements by DLS. Our results show that a combination of base fluid chemistry and nanoparticle type is very important to create stable nanofluids. Several nanofluids resulted in stable state without any stabilizers, but in the long term had agglomerations of 250 % over a 2 month period. The effects of agglomeration on the thermal and rheological properties are presented for several types of nanoparticle and base fluid chemistries. Despite using nanodiamond particles with high thermal conductivity and a very sensitive laser flash thermal conductivity measurement technique, no anomalous increases of thermal conductivity was measured. The thermal conductivity increases of nanofluid with the particle concentration are as those predicted by Maxwell and Bruggeman models. The level of agglomeration of nanoparticles hardly influenced the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. The viscosity of nanofluids increased strongly as the concentration of particle is increased; it displays shear thinning and is a strong function of the level of agglomeration. The viscosity increase is significantly above of that predicted by the Einstein model even for very small concentration of nanoparticles.

  1. Particle agglomeration and properties of nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yijun; Oztekin, Alparslan; Neti, Sudhakar; Mohapatra, Satish

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the importance of actual agglomerated particle size in the nanofluid and its effect on the fluid properties. The current work deals with 5 to 100 nm nanoparticles dispersed in fluids that resulted in 200 to 800 nm agglomerates. Particle size distributions for a range of nanofluids are measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Wet scanning electron microscopy method is used to visualize agglomerated particles in the dispersed state and to confirm particle size measurements by DLS. Our results show that a combination of base fluid chemistry and nanoparticle type is very important to create stable nanofluids. Several nanofluids resulted in stable state without any stabilizers, but in the long term had agglomerations of 250 % over a 2 month period. The effects of agglomeration on the thermal and rheological properties are presented for several types of nanoparticle and base fluid chemistries. Despite using nanodiamond particles with high thermal conductivity and a very sensitive laser flash thermal conductivity measurement technique, no anomalous increases of thermal conductivity was measured. The thermal conductivity increases of nanofluid with the particle concentration are as those predicted by Maxwell and Bruggeman models. The level of agglomeration of nanoparticles hardly influenced the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. The viscosity of nanofluids increased strongly as the concentration of particle is increased; it displays shear thinning and is a strong function of the level of agglomeration. The viscosity increase is significantly above of that predicted by the Einstein model even for very small concentration of nanoparticles.

  2. Electroweak properties of particle physics. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Ellis, N.; Falvard, A.; Fayard, L.; Frere, J.M.; Kuehn, J.H.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Roudeau, P.; Wormser, G.

    1991-01-01

    The 23th GIf school was held at Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France from 16 to 20 September 1991. The subject was large: Electroweak properties of heavy quarks. The second part has been devoted to B physics at hadron machines, search for Top, Charm particle physics and Quarkonium physics

  3. Physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of welding fume derived particles generated from real time welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cali; Demokritou, Philip; Shafer, Martin; Christiani, David

    2013-01-01

    Welding fume particles have been well studied in the past; however, most studies have examined welding fumes generated from machine models rather than actual exposures. Furthermore, the link between physicochemical and toxicological properties of welding fume particles has not been well understood. This study aims to investigate the physicochemical properties of particles derived during real time welding processes generated during actual welding processes and to assess the particle size specific toxicological properties. A compact cascade impactor (Harvard CCI) was stationed within the welding booth to sample particles by size. Size fractionated particles were extracted and used for both off-line physicochemical analysis and in vitro cellular toxicological characterization. Each size fraction was analyzed for ions, elemental compositions, and mass concentration. Furthermore, real time optical particle monitors (DustTrak™, TSI Inc., Shoreview, Minn.) were used in the same welding booth to collect real time PM2.5 particle number concentration data. The sampled particles were extracted from the polyurethane foam (PUF) impaction substrates using a previously developed and validated protocol, and used in a cellular assay to assess oxidative stress. By mass, welding aerosols were found to be in coarse (PM 2.5–10), and fine (PM 0.1–2.5) size ranges. Most of the water soluble (WS) metals presented higher concentrations in the coarse size range with some exceptions such as sodium, which presented elevated concentration in the PM 0.1 size range. In vitro data showed size specific dependency, with the fine and ultrafine size ranges having the highest reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity. Additionally, this study suggests a possible correlation between welders' experience, the welding procedure and equipment used and particles generated from welding fumes. Mass concentrations and total metal and water soluble metal concentrations of welding fume particles may be

  4. Thermodynamic properties of particles with intermediate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, G.S.; Sarkar, S.; Spal/ek, J.; Byczuk, K.

    1996-01-01

    Analytic expressions for the distribution function of an ideal gas of particles (exclusons) which have statistics intermediate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein are obtained for all values of the Haldane statistics parameter α element-of[0,1]. The analytic structure of the distribution function is investigated and found to have no singularities in the physical region when the parameter α lies in the range 0 V of the D-dimensional excluson gas. The low-temperature series for the thermodynamic properties illustrate the pseudofermion nature of exclusons. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Statistically derived conservation equations for fluid particle flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, J.N. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of water droplets in a heated nuclear fuel channel is of significant interest to nuclear reactor safety studies pertaining to loss-of-coolant accidents. This paper presents the derivation of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for a distribution of fluid particles (bubbles or droplets) transported by a continuous fluid medium. When coupled with the appropriate closure equations, the conservation equations can be used to model nonequilibrium, two-phase, dispersed, fluid flow behavior

  6. Structure and properties of carbon black particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    Structure and properties of carbon black particles were investigated using atomic force microscopy, gas adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Supplementary information was obtained using TEM and neutron scattering. The AFM imaging of carbon black aggregates provided qualitative visual information on their morphology, complementary to that obtained by 3-D modeling based on TEM images. Our studies showed that carbon black aggregates were relatively flat. The surface of all untreated carbon black particles was found to be rough and its fractal dimension was 2.2. Heating reduced the roughness and fractal dimension for all samples heat treated at above 1300 K to 2.0. Once the samples were heat treated rapid cooling did not affect the surface roughness. However, rapid cooling reduced crystallite sizes, and different Raman spectra were obtained for carbon blacks of various history of heat treatment. By analyzing the Raman spectra we determined the crystallite sizes and identified amorphous carbon. The concentration of amorphous carbon depends on hydrogen content. Once hydrogen was liberated at increased temperature, the concentration of amorphous carbon was reduced and crystallites started to grow. Properties of carbon blacks at high pressure were also studied. Hydrostatic pressure did not affect the size of the crystallites in carbon black particles. The pressure induced shift in Raman frequency of the graphitic component was a result of increased intermolecular forces and not smaller crystallites. Two methods of determining the fractal dimension, the FHH model and the yardstick technique based on the BET theory were used in the literature. Our study proved that the FHH model is sensitive to numerous assumptions and leads to wrong conclusions. On the other hand the yardstick method gave correct results, which agreed with the AFM results.

  7. Deriving Particle Distributions from In-Line Fraunhofer Holographic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarcia, C.A.; Johnson, D.E.; Sorenson, D.S.; Frederickson, R.H.; Delanoy, A.D.; Malone, R.M.; Tunnel, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three-axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple counting of particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set

  8. Zwitterionic polyacrylamides: synthesis, study of their properties in aqueous solution, study of their adsorption on clay particles; Derives zwitterioniques du polyacrylamide. Synthese et etude des proprietes en solution aqueuse et de l'adsorption sur argile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrette, P.L.

    1998-12-10

    Some zwitterionic polyacrylamides have been prepared and studied in aqueous solution. They are neutral polymers, whose charges are on the same lateral group: the positive charge is a quaternary ammonium and the negative charge is a phosphonate or a sulfonate group. Such poly-betaines have a zero net charge on a wide range of pH. They are prepared in salt-free aqueous solution by radical copolymerization of acrylamide with 3-[3-acrylamide-(propyl)dimethyl-ammonio] propane ethyl phosphate or 3-[3-acrylamide-(propyl)dimethyl-ammonio] propane sulfonate. The study has been restricted to copolymers with 1 to 10 % zwitterionic units and weight average molar masses between 1 and 2.10{sup 6} g/mol. The reactivity ratios have been determined. Their properties in solution and their adsorption on clay particles have been compared to the properties of polyacrylamide and partly hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. The use of the later polymers in petroleum industry is limited by the decrease of viscosity in presence of electrolytes, the precipitation with multi-valent cations and an important sensibility to the hydrolysis at basic pH and/or at high temperature. The rheological properties of zwitterionic polymers are controlled by electrostatic attractive forces between charges of opposite signs. Their viscosity increases as a function of ionic strength: the salts screen these attractive forces, increasing in this way the hydrodynamic volume (anti-polyelectrolyte behaviour). At high shear rates, their viscosity decreases less than in the case of usual polyacrylamide. Moreover, their resistance to hydrolysis is better and the precipitation by calcium salts is avoided unlike others charged polymers such as partly hydrolyzed polyacrylamides. Finally, their adsorption on clay particles (montmorillonite) is always twice higher than polyacrylamide adsorption whatever the salinity and the nature of salt (NaCl or KCl). In conclusion, even with small rates the incorporation of zwitterionic units in

  9. Structure–mechanics property relationship of waste derived biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-01-01

    The widespread applications of biochar in agriculture and environmental remediation made the scientific community ignore its mechanical properties. Hence, to examine the scope of biochar's structural applications, its mechanical properties have been investigated in this paper through nanoindentation technique. Seven waste derived biochars, made under different pyrolysis conditions and from diverse feedstocks, were studied via nanoindentation, infrared spectroscopy, X–ray crystallography, thermogravimetry, and electron microscopy. Following this, an attempt was made to correlate the biochars' hardness/modulus with reaction conditions and their chemical properties. The pine wood biochar made at 900 °C and 60 min residence time was found to have the highest hardness and elastic modulus of 4.29 and 25.01 GPa, respectively. It was shown that a combination of higher heat treatment (≥ 500 °C) temperature and longer residence time (~ 60 min) increases the values of hardness and modulus. It was further realized that pyrolysis temperature was a more dominant factor than residence time in determining the final mechanical properties of biochar particles. The degree of aromaticity and crystallinity of the biochar were also correlated with higher values of hardness and modulus. - Highlights: • Characterization was done on waste based biochars which included nanoindentation. • Pine saw dust biochar made at 900 °C for 60 min had highest hardness/modulus. • Combination of temperature/residence time affect biochar's mechanical propertie.s • Aromaticity and crystallinity positively affected biochar's mechanical properties.

  10. Quantum algebras in phenomenological description of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilik, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Quantum and q-deformed algebras find their application not only in mathematical physics and field theoretical context, but also in phenomenology of particle properties. We describe (i) the use of quantum algebras U q (su n ) corresponding to Lie algebras of the groups SU n , taken for flavor symmetries of hadrons, in deriving new high-accuracy hadron mass sum rules, and (ii) the use of (multimode) q-oscillator algebras along with q-Bose gas picture in modelling the properties of the intercept λ of two-pion (two-kaon) correlations in heavy-ion collisions, as λ shows sizable observed deviation from the expected Bose-Einstein type behavior. The deformation parameter q is in case (i) argued and in case (ii) conjectured to be connected with the Cabibbo angle θ c

  11. Physical properties of charged particle beams for use in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The physical properties of the possible charged particle beams used for cancer radiotherapy are reviewed. Each property is discussed for all interesting particles (π, p, α, Ne ion) and the differences are emphasized. This is followed by a short discussion of the several beam delivery systems used in particle therapy today, emphasizing the differences in the problems for the several different radiations, particularly the differences between the accelerated particle beams and those of a secondary nature. Dose calculation techniques are described

  12. Elastic Property Simulation of Nano-particle Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of numerical micro-mechanical models for two kinds of particle (cylindrical and discal particle reinforced composites are developed to investigate the effect of microstructural parameters on the elastic properties of composites. The effects of both the degree of particle clustering and particle’s shape on the elastic mechanical properties of composites are investigated. In addition, single particle unit cell approximation is good enough for the analysis of the effect of averaged parameters when only linear elastic response is considered without considering the particle clustering in particle-reinforced composites.

  13. Magnetic Properties of Nanometer-sized Crystalline and Amorphous Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Bødker, Franz; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    1997-01-01

    Amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloy particles can be prepared by chemical preparation techniques. We discuss the preparation of transition metal-boron and iron-carbon particles and their magnetic properties. Nanometer-sized particles of both crystalline and amorphous magnetic materials...... are superparamagnetic at finite temperatures. The temperature dependence of the superparamagnetic relaxation time and the influence of inter-particle interactions is discussed. Finally, some examples of studies of surface magnetization of alpha-Fe particles are presented....

  14. Snow particles extracted from X-ray computed microtomography imagery and their single-scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Adachi, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tanikawa, Tomonori; Aoki, Teruo; Masuda, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Sizes and shapes of snow particles were determined from X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) images, and their single-scattering properties were calculated at visible and near-infrared wavelengths using a Geometrical Optics Method (GOM). We analyzed seven snow samples including fresh and aged artificial snow and natural snow obtained from field samples. Individual snow particles were numerically extracted, and the shape of each snow particle was defined by applying a rendering method. The size distribution and specific surface area distribution were estimated from the geometrical properties of the snow particles, and an effective particle radius was derived for each snow sample. The GOM calculations at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.242 μm revealed that the realistic snow particles had similar scattering phase functions as those of previously modeled irregular shaped particles. Furthermore, distinct dendritic particles had a characteristic scattering phase function and asymmetry factor. The single-scattering properties of particles of effective radius reff were compared with the size-averaged single-scattering properties. We found that the particles of reff could be used as representative particles for calculating the average single-scattering properties of the snow. Furthermore, the single-scattering properties of the micro-CT particles were compared to those of particle shape models using our current snow retrieval algorithm. For the single-scattering phase function, the results of the micro-CT particles were consistent with those of a conceptual two-shape model. However, the particle size dependence differed for the single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor.

  15. Fatigue properties of particle reinforced aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabernig, B.J.

    2000-06-01

    In this work the particle reinforced Al-alloys 359 T6 + 20 % SiC and 2124 + 17 % SiC which differ significantly in their production and microstructure are investigated. Standard and in-situ tensile tests show, that in the powder metallurgically produced alloy 2124 reinforcement leads to a higher Young's modulus, yield and ultimate tensile stress where the cast alloy 359 + 20 % SiC exhibit increased stiffness, but low ductility due to cast porosity of some 100 μm. The failure mechanism governed by microstructural parameters is found to play an important role for ductility. The fatigue properties are investigated with specific regard to the influence of the in-service condition (load ratio, temperature, variable amplitude loading) in the foreseen applications in the automobile- and aerospace industry. Standard fatigue tests point out that the endurance limit is improved by reinforcement, but is strongly dependent on the size of given initial defects. The fatigue crack properties are characterised by standard crack growth curves and r(esistance)-curves for the threshold of stress intensity factor range. Both composites exhibit a higher effective threshold than their unreinforced alloys. Furthermore the fatigue resistance described by the R-curve as well as the long crack threshold are improved in the alloy 2124 + 17 % SiC. While in crack growth tests under constant amplitude loading the alloy 2124 + 17 % SiC shows lower crack growth rates than its unreinforced alloy, the opposite case is in the alloy 359 + 20 % SiC at high DK. Periodic overloads lead in the 359 + 20 % SiC to particle fracture at the crack tip and to a steeper increase in the crack growth rate. In the 2124 + 17% SiC the fatigue crack grows predominately in the matrix and a retardation effect due to overloads is observed. In order to describe the fatigue limit of components as a function of initial defect size an analytical concept is developed assuming that the fatigue limit is controlled by the

  16. Properties of supersymmetric particles and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The motivations for experimental searches for supersymmetric particles are discussed. The role of R-parity in these searches is described. The production and decay characteristics of each class of supersymmetric particles are investigated in the context of both e+e- and hadron machines. There is a detailed presentation of a sample calculation of a supersymmetric process. Emphasis is given to the signatures for detection of supersymmetric particles and processes. The current limits for supersymmetric particles are given. 125 refs., 50 figs

  17. Properties of microcement mortar with nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimeneti, Narasimha Reddy

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and Carbon nanofibers (CNF) are one of the toughest and stiffest materials in the world presently with extreme properties yet to be discovered in terms of elastic modulus and tensile strength. Due to the advanced properties of these materials they are being used in almost all fields of science at nanolevel and are being used in construction industry recently for improvement of material properties. Microcement is fine ground cement which as half the particle size of ordinary Portland cement. In this research the behavior of cement mortar of micro cement with the addition of nanoparticles is studied. Due to high aspect ratio and strong van der Waal forces between the particles of CNT and CNF, they agglomerate and form bundles when mixed with water, sonication method is used to mix nanoparticles with few drops of surfactant and super plasticizer. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength and flexural strength with CNT and CNF composites are examined and compared with control samples. 0.1% and 0.05 % of nanoparticles (both CNT and CNF) by the weight of cement are used in this research and 0.8% of super plasticizer by weight of cement was also used along with 0.4, 0.45 and 0.50 water cement ratios for making specimens for compression test. The compressive strength results are not satisfactory as there was no constant increase in strength with all the composites, however strength of few nanocomposites increased by a good percentage. 0.5 water cement ratio cement mortar had compressive strength of 7.15 ksi (49.3 MPa), whereas sample with 0.1% CNT showed 8.38 ksi (57.8 MPa) with 17% increase in strength after 28 days. Same trend was followed by 0.4 water cement ratio as the compressive strength of control sample was 8.89 ksi (61.3 MPa), with 0.05% of CNT strength increased to 10.90 ksi (75.2 MPa) with 23% increase in strength. 0.4 water cement ratio was used for flexural tests including 0.1%, 0.05% of CNT and 0.1%, 0.05% of CNF with 0

  18. Magnetic properties of carbonyl iron particles in magnetorheological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkin, S R; James, R O; Kordonski, W I

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the magnetic properties of dispersed magnetic particles is a prerequisite to the design an MR fluid with desired performance. A term specific susceptibility is introduced for characterization of particle susceptibility. The study was performed with the Bartington MS2B magnetic susceptibility system on small samples volume. Specific magnetic susceptibility of iron particles was found to be a linear function of median particle size. Structural change in the fluid, including particle organization, led to susceptibility drift and may affect fluid performance. It was shown that susceptibility data can be used for evaluation of the concentration of carbonyl iron particles in MR fluids.

  19. BHR equations re-derived with immiscible particle effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzkopf, John Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Horwitz, Jeremy A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Compressible and variable density turbulent flows with dispersed phase effects are found in many applications ranging from combustion to cloud formation. These types of flows are among the most challenging to simulate. While the exact equations governing a system of particles and fluid are known, computational resources limit the scale and detail that can be simulated in this type of problem. Therefore, a common method is to simulate averaged versions of the flow equations, which still capture salient physics and is relatively less computationally expensive. Besnard developed such a model for variable density miscible turbulence, where ensemble-averaging was applied to the flow equations to yield a set of filtered equations. Besnard further derived transport equations for the Reynolds stresses, the turbulent mass flux, and the density-specific volume covariance, to help close the filtered momentum and continuity equations. We re-derive the exact BHR closure equations which include integral terms owing to immiscible effects. Physical interpretations of the additional terms are proposed along with simple models. The goal of this work is to extend the BHR model to allow for the simulation of turbulent flows where an immiscible dispersed phase is non-trivially coupled with the carrier phase.

  20. Structure–mechanics property relationship of waste derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik, E-mail: odas566@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes, E-mail: d.bhattacharyya@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Composite Materials, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    The widespread applications of biochar in agriculture and environmental remediation made the scientific community ignore its mechanical properties. Hence, to examine the scope of biochar's structural applications, its mechanical properties have been investigated in this paper through nanoindentation technique. Seven waste derived biochars, made under different pyrolysis conditions and from diverse feedstocks, were studied via nanoindentation, infrared spectroscopy, X–ray crystallography, thermogravimetry, and electron microscopy. Following this, an attempt was made to correlate the biochars' hardness/modulus with reaction conditions and their chemical properties. The pine wood biochar made at 900 °C and 60 min residence time was found to have the highest hardness and elastic modulus of 4.29 and 25.01 GPa, respectively. It was shown that a combination of higher heat treatment (≥ 500 °C) temperature and longer residence time (~ 60 min) increases the values of hardness and modulus. It was further realized that pyrolysis temperature was a more dominant factor than residence time in determining the final mechanical properties of biochar particles. The degree of aromaticity and crystallinity of the biochar were also correlated with higher values of hardness and modulus. - Highlights: • Characterization was done on waste based biochars which included nanoindentation. • Pine saw dust biochar made at 900 °C for 60 min had highest hardness/modulus. • Combination of temperature/residence time affect biochar's mechanical propertie.s • Aromaticity and crystallinity positively affected biochar's mechanical properties.

  1. Analytic properties of many-particle amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, B V; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki; AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.)

    1982-08-01

    In the framework of N. N. Bogolyubov axiomatic approach the complete proof of the existence of an analytic function the boundary values of which are the amplitudes of any channel of n-particle process is given. The one-particle structure of this function is described.

  2. Statistical properties of the normalized ice particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoë, Julien; Protat, Alain; Testud, Jacques; Bouniol, Dominique; Heymsfield, A. J.; Bansemer, A.; Brown, P. R. A.; Forbes, R. M.

    2005-05-01

    Testud et al. (2001) have recently developed a formalism, known as the "normalized particle size distribution (PSD)", which consists in scaling the diameter and concentration axes in such a way that the normalized PSDs are independent of water content and mean volume-weighted diameter. In this paper we investigate the statistical properties of the normalized PSD for the particular case of ice clouds, which are known to play a crucial role in the Earth's radiation balance. To do so, an extensive database of airborne in situ microphysical measurements has been constructed. A remarkable stability in shape of the normalized PSD is obtained. The impact of using a single analytical shape to represent all PSDs in the database is estimated through an error analysis on the instrumental (radar reflectivity and attenuation) and cloud (ice water content, effective radius, terminal fall velocity of ice crystals, visible extinction) properties. This resulted in a roughly unbiased estimate of the instrumental and cloud parameters, with small standard deviations ranging from 5 to 12%. This error is found to be roughly independent of the temperature range. This stability in shape and its single analytical approximation implies that two parameters are now sufficient to describe any normalized PSD in ice clouds: the intercept parameter N*0 and the mean volume-weighted diameter Dm. Statistical relationships (parameterizations) between N*0 and Dm have then been evaluated in order to reduce again the number of unknowns. It has been shown that a parameterization of N*0 and Dm by temperature could not be envisaged to retrieve the cloud parameters. Nevertheless, Dm-T and mean maximum dimension diameter -T parameterizations have been derived and compared to the parameterization of Kristjánsson et al. (2000) currently used to characterize particle size in climate models. The new parameterization generally produces larger particle sizes at any temperature than the Kristjánsson et al. (2000

  3. Sonocrystallization—Case Studies of Salicylamide Particle Size Reduction and Isoniazid Derivative Synthesis and Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Two case studies of salicylamide particle size reduction and isoniazid derivative synthesis and crystallization realized using sonocrystallization were investigated. The size, habit, structure, thermal behavior, and spectrometric properties of sonocrystallized crystals were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of the operating parameters, such as sonication intensity, sonication duration, and solution concentration, on sonocrystallization were compared. The crystal size of salicylamide was reduced from 595 μm (the original size and was efficiently manipulated to be between 40 and 80 μm. Moreover, compared with the crystal habits of unprocessed crystals and recrystallized crystals fabricated through conventional methods, the crystal habit of salicylamide could be modified to present a regular shape. The structure, thermal behavior, and spectrometric properties of sonocrystallized salicylamide were found to be in agreement with those of an unprocessed sample. For producing isoniazid derivative crystals, N′-(propan-2-ylidene-isonicotinohydrazide was synthesized using isoniazid in acetone at 318 K. The resulting solution was then cooled by applying power ultrasound to isolate N′-(propan-2-ylidene-isonicotinohydrazide crystals. The solid-state properties of the synthesized N′-(propan-2-ylidene-isonicotinohydrazide was verified through PXRD, DSC, and FTIR spectroscopy. The feasibility of particle size manipulation was then demonstrated through sonocrystallization.

  4. Review of particle properties. 25th anniversary edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This review is a reprint of Physics Letters, Vol. IIIB, April 22, 1982, and is an updating through December 1981 of our previous review of particle properties [Particle Data Group (1980)]. As in previous editions we have attempted to make the text as complete and self-contained as possible. The results of our compilation are presented in two sections, the Tables of Particle Properties and the Data Card Listings. The Tables summarize the properties of only those particles whose existence is in our judgment experimentally well founded and which have a high probability of standing the test of time. The Data Card Listings give up-to-date information, with references, on all reported particles, whether considered well established or not. The Listings also contain mini-reviews on questions of interest. As in previous editions, we include a section of miscellaneous tables, figures, and formulae. These are aimed at the practicing high energy physics experimentalist

  5. Effective modification of particle surface properties using ultrasonic water mist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Räikkönen, Heikki; Heinämäki, Jyrki

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to design a new technique to modify particle surface properties and, through that, to improve flowability of poorly flowing drug thiamine hydrochloride and pharmaceutical sugar lactose monohydrate of two different grades. The powdered particles were supplied...... properties. It was found that rapid exposition of pharmaceutical materials by water mist resulted in the improvement of powder technical properties. The evident changes in flowability of coarser lactose were obviously due to smoothing of particle surface and decreasing in the level of fines with very slight...... increment in particle size. The changes in thiamine powder flow were mainly due to narrowing in particle size distribution where the tendency for better flow of finer lactose was related to surface and size modifications. The aqueous mist application did not cause any alteration of the crystal structures...

  6. Review of particle properties 1975: Supplement to 1974 edition

    CERN Document Server

    Particle Data Group. Berkeley; Bricman, Claude; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Chew, Denyse M; Kelly, Robert L; Lasinski, Thomas A; Rittenberg, Alan; Rosenfeld, Arthur Hinton; Trippe, Thomas G; Uchiyama, Fumiyo; Yost, George P; Barash-Schmidt, Naomi; Roos, Matts

    1975-01-01

    This supplement to the 1974 edition of "Review of Particle Properties," Particle Data Group Phys. Lett. 50B, (1974), contains an announcement concerning the postponement of the usual Review, a list of Errata, and a tabulation of the experimental results on the newly discovered mesons.

  7. The properties of charmonium and charm particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.

    1977-12-01

    An impressive amount of data has been accumulated over the past three years which support strongly the idea that elementary particles are composed of four quarks instead of three. All the predictions based on the existence of the fourth, the charm quark, have in principal been born out by experiments and from detailed investigations very interesting results could be obtained for the strong and the weak interaction. Most of these results have been obtained with electron-positron storage rings, and only these will be discussed in this report. Additional data from hadronic or neutrino interactions are in general agreement with the e + e - data and will not be discussed here. This series of lectures will be entirely devoted to a discussion of mesons, i.e. quark-antiquark systems. Although some indications have been found for the existence of charmed baryons, these data are still rather scanty. In the last chapter we shall also discuss the upsilon particle. (orig.) [de

  8. Microphysical Properties of Single Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Grazia; Song, Young-Chul; Pereira, Kelly; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Topping, David; Reid, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) deriving from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can account for a substantial fraction of the overall atmospheric aerosol mass.[1] Therefore, the investigation of SOA microphysical properties is crucial to better comprehend their role in the atmospheric processes they are involved in. This works describes a single particle approach to accurately characterise the hygroscopic response, the optical properties and the gas-particle partitioning kinetics of water and semivolatile components for laboratory generated SOA. SOA was generated from the oxidation of different VOCs precursors (e.g. α-pinene, toluene) in a photo-chemical flow reactor, which consists of a temperature and relative humidity controlled 300 L polyvinyl fluoride bag. Known VOC, NOx and ozone concentrations are introduced in the chamber and UV irradiation is performed by means of a Hg pen-ray. SOA samples were collected with an electrical low pressure impactor, wrapped in aluminium foil and kept refrigerated at -20°C. SOA samples were extracted in a 1:1 water/methanol mixture. Single charged SOA particles were generated from the obtained solution using a microdispenser and confined within an electrodynamic balance (EDB), where they sit in a T (250-320 K) and RH (0-95%) controlled nitrogen flow. Suspended droplets are irradiated with a 532 nm laser and the evolving angularly resolved scattered light is used to keep track of changes in droplet size. One of the key features of this experimental approach is that very little SOA solution is required because of the small volumes needed to load the dispensers (evaporation kinetics experiments (CK-EDB) of suspended probe and sample droplets.[2] The variation of the refractive index of SOA droplets following to water or SVOCs evaporative loss was measured as a function of water activity by fitting the collected light scattering patterns with a generated Mie-Theory library of phase functions.[3] Long trapping

  9. Relaxation property of the fractional Brownian particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Litan; Lung, C.W.

    1988-08-01

    Dynamic susceptibility of a diffusion system associated with the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) was examined for the fractal property of the Non-Debye relaxation process. The comparisons between fBm and other approaches were made. Anomalous diffusion and the Non-Debye relaxation processes were discussed with this approach. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  10. Lagrangian properties of particles in turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toschi, F.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Lagrangian description of turbulence is characterized by a unique conceptual simplicity and by an immediate connection with the physics of dispersion and mixing. In this article, we report some motivations behind the Lagrangian description of turbulence and focus on the statistical properties of

  11. Informatics derived materials databases for multifunctional properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Scott; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the development of quantitative structure–property relationships incorporating the impact of data uncertainty from small, limited knowledge data sets from which we rapidly develop new and larger databases. Unlike traditional database development, this informatics based approach is concurrent with the identification and discovery of the key metrics controlling structure–property relationships; and even more importantly we are now in a position to build materials databases based on design ‘intent’ and not just design parameters. This permits for example to establish materials databases that can be used for targeted multifunctional properties and not just one characteristic at a time as is presently done. This review provides a summary of the computational logic of building such virtual databases and gives some examples in the field of complex inorganic solids for scintillator applications. (review)

  12. Properties of magnetic nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1997-01-01

    The intrinsic thermodynamic magnetic properties of clusters are discussed using spin wave theory for a Heisenberg model, with a fixed magnitude of the spins S-i = S and site independent nearest neighbor exchange interaction. The consequences of the more realistic Hubbard model is considered...... in which we allow for a magnetization profile at T = 0 and a structural relaxation, which in turn will give rise to a site dependent exchange interaction. Et is concluded that correlation effects among the electrons play a very important role in small clusters, albeit not modifying the thermodynamic...... properties drastically. The finite cluster size gives foremost rise to a discrete excitation spectrum with a large energy gap to the ground state. The relaxation of the magnetization during the reversal of the external magnetic field is discussed. A first step towards a quantitative understanding...

  13. Particle size distribution of rice flour affecting the starch enzymatic hydrolysis and hydration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hera, Esther; Gomez, Manuel; Rosell, Cristina M

    2013-10-15

    Rice flour is becoming very attractive as raw material, but there is lack of information about the influence of particle size on its functional properties and starch digestibility. This study evaluates the degree of dependence of the rice flour functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior, with the particle size distribution. Hydration properties of flours and gels and starch enzymatic hydrolysis of individual fractions were assessed. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour significantly affected functional properties and starch features, at room temperature and also after gelatinization; and the extent of that effect was grain type dependent. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour induces different pattern in starch enzymatic hydrolysis, with the long grain having slower hydrolysis as indicated the rate constant (k). No correlation between starch digestibility and hydration properties or the protein content was observed. It seems that in intact granules interactions with other grain components must be taken into account. Overall, particle size fractionation of rice flour might be advisable for selecting specific physico-chemical properties. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Ground properties derived from censored data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, H.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob

    1997-01-01

    The geotechnical engineer is often faced with the problem of how to assess the statistical properties of a soil parameter on the basis of a sample measured in-situ or in the laboratory with the defect that some values have been replaced by interval bounds because the corresponding soil parameter ...

  15. Radioprotective properties of sulpholane amidoalkyl derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmozherov, N.N.; Girshik, G.V.

    A series of sulpholane derivatives has been studied from the viewpoint of their possible anti-radiation efficiency. The highest activity at experiments in vitro has been manifested by compounds with dimethylamide radicals in a molecule. The estimate of anti-radiation action was provided by testing with the analysis of cytogenetic damages in the cell culture of the Chinese hamster. The compounds studied were introduced into the medium 20-30 min before irradiation, with the dose of 600 rad at the intensity of 27 rad/min. The percentage of aberrant metaphases and the number of chromosomal aberrations of various types decreased more than 2 times

  16. Valence electronic properties of porphyrin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenuit, G; Castellarin-Cudia, C; Plekan, O; Feyer, V; Prince, K C; Goldoni, A; Umari, P

    2010-09-28

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the valence electronic structure of porphyrin-derived molecules. The valence photoemission spectra of the free-base tetraphenylporphyrin and of the octaethylporphyrin molecule were measured using synchrotron radiation and compared with theoretical spectra calculated using the GW method and the density-functional method within the generalized gradient approximation. Only the GW results could reproduce the experimental data. We found that the contribution to the orbital energies due to electronic correlations has the same linear behavior in both molecules, with larger deviations in the vicinity of the HOMO level. This shows the importance of adequate treatment of electronic correlations in these organic systems.

  17. Formation and growth of sulfur derived particles in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V M; Wexler, A; Hillamo, R [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Aerosol particles modify the Earth`s radiation balance directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly via their influence on cloud properties. The indirect climate forcing due to aerosols probably dominates over that of the direct forcing over global scale, and is induced primary by sulfate originating from both natural and anthropogenic sources. A large portion of the global sulfur flux is due to dimethylsulfide (DMS) released from the ocean surface, where it is produced in large quantities by various biogenic processes. DMS is believed to be the primary particulate precursor over vast oceanic regions, hence having a potential to modify aerosol climatic effects over a major portion of the Earth`s surface. The connection between marine DMS emissions and the resulting climate forcing involves several steps still not properly quantified. Among the open questions related to this system, perhaps the most critical ones are when and where the DMS-derived particles are formed in the atmosphere, and how these particles grow into sizes where they are able to alter cloud properties, such as cloud albedos, lifetimes and precipitation efficiencies, that are relevant to climate. In this work, production and growth of sulfur particles has been examined using a simple, yet realistic model that simulates the processes taking place in a remote marine boundary layer. The specific questions examined include: (1) what is the role of boundary layer dynamics in affecting the condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production in this system, (2) what are the factors controlling the growth of fresh CN into CCN, and (3) how does the presence of boundary layer clouds interact with CN/CCN production

  18. Formation and growth of sulfur derived particles in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Wexler, A.; Hillamo, R. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Aerosol particles modify the Earth`s radiation balance directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly via their influence on cloud properties. The indirect climate forcing due to aerosols probably dominates over that of the direct forcing over global scale, and is induced primary by sulfate originating from both natural and anthropogenic sources. A large portion of the global sulfur flux is due to dimethylsulfide (DMS) released from the ocean surface, where it is produced in large quantities by various biogenic processes. DMS is believed to be the primary particulate precursor over vast oceanic regions, hence having a potential to modify aerosol climatic effects over a major portion of the Earth`s surface. The connection between marine DMS emissions and the resulting climate forcing involves several steps still not properly quantified. Among the open questions related to this system, perhaps the most critical ones are when and where the DMS-derived particles are formed in the atmosphere, and how these particles grow into sizes where they are able to alter cloud properties, such as cloud albedos, lifetimes and precipitation efficiencies, that are relevant to climate. In this work, production and growth of sulfur particles has been examined using a simple, yet realistic model that simulates the processes taking place in a remote marine boundary layer. The specific questions examined include: (1) what is the role of boundary layer dynamics in affecting the condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production in this system, (2) what are the factors controlling the growth of fresh CN into CCN, and (3) how does the presence of boundary layer clouds interact with CN/CCN production

  19. Structural properties of carbon nanotubes derived from 13C NMR

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, E.; Babaa, M.-R.; Bouhrara, M.; Kim, Y.; Saih, Y.; Dennler, S.; Mauri, F.; Basset, Jean-Marie; Goze-Bac, C.; Wå gberg, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study on how structural properties of carbon nanotubes can be derived from 13C NMR investigations. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR experiments have been performed on single- and multiwalled

  20. Waste Slurry Particle Properties for Use in Slurry Flow Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewett, J. R.; Conrads, T. J.; Julyk, L. J.; Reynolds, D. A.; Jensen, L.; Kirch, N. W.; Estey, S. D.; Bechtold, D. B.; Callaway III, W. S.; Cooke, G. A.; Herting, D. L.; Person, J. C.; Duncan, J. B.; Onishi, Y.; Tingey, J. M.

    2003-02-26

    Hanford's tank farm piping system must be substantially modified to deliver high-level wastes from the underground storage tanks to the Waste Treatment Plant now under construction. Improved knowledge of the physical properties of the solids was required to support the design of the modified system. To provide this additional knowledge, particle size distributions for composite samples from seven high-level waste feed tanks were measured using two different laser lightscattering particle size analyzers. These measurements were made under a variety of instrumental conditions, including various flow rates through the sample loop, various stirring rates in the sample reservoir, and before and after subjecting the particles to ultrasonic energy. A mean value over all the tanks of 4.2 {micro}m was obtained for the volume-based median particle size. Additional particle size information was obtained from sieving tests, settling tests and microscopic observations.

  1. Properties of submicron particles in Atmospheric Brown Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.; Chen, B. B.; Dubovskoi, A. N.; Friedrich, F.; Pernik, L. M.; Popel, S. I.; Weidler, P. G.

    2010-05-01

    The Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABC) is an important problem of this century. Investigations of last years and satellite data show that the ABC (or brown gas, smog, fog) cover extensive territories including the whole continents and oceans. The brown gas consists of a mixture of particles of anthropogenic sulfates, nitrates, organic origin, black carbon, dust, ashes, and also natural aerosols such as sea salt and mineral dust. The brown color is a result of absorption and scattering of solar radiation by the anthropogenic black carbon, ashes, the particles of salt dust, and nitrogen dioxide. The investigation of the ABC is a fundamental problem for prevention of degradation of the environment. At present in the CIS in-situ investigations of the ABC are carried out on Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (Kyrgyz Republic). Here, we present the results of experimental investigation of submicron (nanoscale) particles originating from the ABC and the properties of the particles. Samples of dust precipitating from the ABC were obtained at the area of Lidar Station Teplokluchenka as well as scientific station of the Russian Academy of Sciences near Bishkek. The data for determination of the grain composition were obtained with the aid of the scanning electron microscopes JEOL 6460 LV and Philips XL 30 FEG. Analysis of the properties of the particles was performed by means of the X-ray diffraction using diffractometer Siemens D5000. The images of the grains were mapped. The investigation allows us to get (after the image processing) the grain composition within the dust particle size range of 60 nm to 700 μm. Distributions of nano- and microscale particles in sizes were constructed using Rozin-Rammler coordinates. Analysis of the distributions shows that the ABC contain submicron (nanoscale) particles; 2) at higher altitudes the concentration of the submicron (nanoscale) particles in the ABC is higher than at lower altitudes. The chemical compositions of the particles are shown to

  2. Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    We have developed new equations of state for pure-component chain molecules. The excellent performance of complicated theories, such as the Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theory can be mimicked by simpler equations, if assumptions for the shape parameters are made. We developed engineering correlations based on GFD theory, using local composition theory to take into account attractive forces. During this period, we compared methods for calculating repulsive and attractive contributions to equation of state against computer simulation data for hard and square-well chains, and against experimental data from the literature. We also have studied microstructure and local order in fluids that contain asymmetric molecules. We developed a thermodynamic model for polar compounds based on a site-site interaction approach. We have shown the equivalence of various classes of theories for hydrogen bonding, and used this equivalence to derive a multiple site model for water. In addition, simple cubic equations of state have been applied to calculate physical and chemical-reaction equilibria in nonideal systems. We measured infinite dilution activity coefficients using HPLC. We also measured high pressure vapor liquid equilibria of ternary and quaternary systems containing supercritical solvents. We used FT-IR spectroscopy to examine self-association of aliphatic alcohols due to hydrogen bonding, and to investigate the hydrogen bonding in polymer-solvent mixtures

  3. Nano sized Particles of Silica and Its Derivatives for Applications in Various Branches of Food and Nutrition Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasaai, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Nano sized particles of silica and its derivatives have been identified as versatile for a broad range of science, technology, and engineering applications. In this paper, an effort has been made to provide a short review from the available literature information on their applications in various branches of food and nutrition sectors. The information provided in this paper describes various parameters affecting their performances and efficiencies. The properties and applications of nano silica and its derivatives have been compared with micro silica and bulk-silica for their performances. The use of nano sized particles of silica and its derivatives provides a number of advantages. Their efficiencies and performances are significantly higher than those of the traditional ones

  4. Thermal properties of an erythritol derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trhlikova, Lucie; Prikryl, Radek; Zmeskal, Oldrich

    2016-06-01

    Erythritol (C4H10O4) is a sugar alcohol (or polyol) that is commonly used in the food industry. Its molar mass is 122.12 g.mol-1 and mass density 1450 kg.m-3. Erythritol, an odorless crystalline powder, can also be characterized by other physical parameters like melting temperature (121 °C) and boiling temperature (329 °C). The substance can be used for the accumulation of energy in heat exchangers based on various oils or water. The PlusICE A118 product manufactured by the PCM Products Ltd. company (melting temperature Θ = 118 °C, specific heat capacity cp = 2.70 kJ.K-1.kg-1, mass density 1450 kg.m-3, latent heat capacity 340 kJ.kg-1, volumetric heat capacity 493 MJ.m-3) is based on an erythritol-type medium. Thermal properties of the PlusICE A118 product in both solid and liquid phase were investigated for this purpose in terms of potential applications. Temperature dependences of its thermal parameters (thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat) were determined using a transient (step-wise) method. A fractal model of heat transport was used for determination of the above thermal parameters. This model is independent of geometry and type of sample heating. Moreover, it also considers heat losses. The experiment confirmed the formerly declared value of phase change temperature, about 120 °C.

  5. Controlling the scattering properties of thin, particle-doped coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William; Corbett, Madeleine; Manoharan, Vinothan

    2013-03-01

    Coatings and thin films of small particles suspended in a matrix possess optical properties that are important in several industries from cosmetics and paints to polymer composites. Many of the most interesting applications require coatings that produce several bulk effects simultaneously, but it is often difficult to rationally formulate materials with these desired optical properties. Here, we focus on the specific challenge of designing a thin colloidal film that maximizes both diffuse and total hemispherical transmission. We demonstrate that these bulk optical properties follow a simple scaling with two microscopic length scales: the scattering and transport mean free paths. Using these length scales and Mie scattering calculations, we generate basic design rules that relate scattering at the single particle level to the film's bulk optical properties. These ideas will be useful in the rational design of future optically active coatings.

  6. Assembling and properties of the polymer-particle nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheparovych, Roman

    Complementary properties of the soft and hard matter explain its common encounter in many natural and manmade applications. A combination of flexible organic macromolecules and hard mineral clusters results in new materials far advantageous than its constituents alone. In this work we study assembling of colloidal nanocrystals and polymers into complex nanostructures. Magnetism, surface wettability and adhesion comprise properties of interest for the obtained nanocomposites. Applying a magnetic field induces a reversible 1D ordering of the magnetically susceptible particles. This property was employed in the fabrication of the permanent chains of magnetite nanocrystals (d=15nm). In the assembling process the aligned particles were bound together using polyelectrolyte macromolecules. The basics of the binding process involved an electrostatic interaction between the positively charged polyelectrolyte and the negative surface of the particles (aqueous environment). Adsorption of the polymer molecules onto several adjacent particles in the aligned 1D aggregate results in the formation of the permanent particulate chains. Positive charges of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte molecules stabilize the dispersion of the obtained nanostructures in water. Magnetization measurements revealed that superparamagnetic nanoparticles, being assembled into 1D ordered structures, attain magnetic coercivity. This effect originates from the magnetostatic interaction between the neighboring magnetite nanocrystals. The preferable dipole alignment of the assembled nanoparticles is directed along the chain axis. Another system studied in this project includes polymer-particle responsive surface coatings. Tethered polymer chains and particles bearing different functionalities change surface properties upon restructuring of the composite layer. When the environment favors polymer swelling (good solvent), the polymer chains segregate to the surface and cover the particles. In the opposite case

  7. Mass spectrometric analysis and aerodynamic properties of various types of combustion-related aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Weimer, S.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Helas, G.; Gwaze, P.; Schmid, O.; Andreae, M. O.; Kirchner, U.

    2006-12-01

    Various types of combustion-related particles in the size range between 100 and 850 nm were analyzed with an aerosol mass spectrometer and a differential mobility analyzer. The measurements were performed with particles originating from biomass burning, diesel engine exhaust, laboratory combustion of diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as from spark soot generation. Physical and morphological parameters like fractal dimension, effective density, bulk density and dynamic shape factor were derived or at least approximated from the measurements of electrical mobility diameter and vacuum aerodynamic diameter. The relative intensities of the mass peaks in the mass spectra obtained from particles generated by a commercial diesel passenger car, by diesel combustion in a laboratory burner, and by evaporating and re-condensing lubrication oil were found to be very similar. The mass spectra from biomass burning particles show signatures identified as organic compounds like levoglucosan but also others which are yet unidentified. The aerodynamic behavior yielded a fractal dimension (Df) of 2.09 +/- 0.06 for biomass burning particles from the combustion of dry beech sticks, but showed values around three, and hence more compact particle morphologies, for particles from combustion of more natural oak. Scanning electron microscope images confirmed the finding that the beech combustion particles were fractal-like aggregates, while the oak combustion particles displayed a much more compact shape. For particles from laboratory combusted diesel fuel, a Df value of 2.35 was found, for spark soot particles, Df [approximate] 2.10. The aerodynamic properties of fractal-like particles from dry beech wood combustion indicate an aerodynamic shape factor [chi] that increases with electrical mobility diameter, and a bulk density of 1.92 g cm-3. An upper limit of [chi] [approximate] 1.2 was inferred for the shape factor of the more compact particles from oak combustion.

  8. Electronic and conformational properties of 2,3-benzodiazepine derivates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaggi, M.; Girlanda, R.; Chimirri, A.; Gitto, R.

    1996-01-01

    The molecular geometric and electronic structures of 2,3-benzodiazepine derivates have been studied by means of the MNDO-PM3 method. A number of electronic properties have been computed and examined in order to find indication of the role of the electronic characteristics of the different molecules and their pharmacological properties. Theoretical data indicate that both electronic and structural properties appear responsible for the varying degree of anticonvulsant activity exhibited by compounds 1-4

  9. Electronic and conformational properties of 2,3-benzodiazepine derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaggi, M.; Girlanda, R. [Messina Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica della Materia e Fisica dell`Ambiente; Chimirri, A.; Gitto, R. [Messina Univ. (Italy). Dip. Farmaco-Chimico

    1996-04-01

    The molecular geometric and electronic structures of 2,3-benzodiazepine derivates have been studied by means of the MNDO-PM3 method. A number of electronic properties have been computed and examined in order to find indication of the role of the electronic characteristics of the different molecules and their pharmacological properties. Theoretical data indicate that both electronic and structural properties appear responsible for the varying degree of anticonvulsant activity exhibited by compounds 1-4.

  10. Electromagnetic properties of off-shell particles and gauge invariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagorny, S. I.; Dieperink, A. E. L.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: Electromagnetic properties of off-shell particles are discussed on the basis of a purely electromagnetic reaction: virtual Compton scattering off a proton. It is shown that the definition of off-shell electromagnetic form factors is not gauge invariant and that these cannot be investigated

  11. Modulation of Cyclodextrin Particle Amphiphilic Properties to Stabilize Pickering Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yongkang; Luo, Zhigang; Lu, Xuanxuan; Peng, Xichun

    2018-01-10

    Cyclodextrins have been proven to form complexes with linear oil molecules and stabilize emulsions. Amphiphilic properties of cyclodextrin particles were modulated through esterification reaction between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and octadecenyl succinic anhydride (ODSA) under alkaline conditions. ODS-β-CD particles with degree of substitution (DS) of 0.003, 0.011, and 0.019 were obtained. The introduced hydrophobic long chain that was linked within β-CD cavity led to the change of ODS-β-CD in terms of morphological structure, surface charge density, size, and contact angle, upon which the properties and stability of the emulsions stabilized by ODS-β-CD were highly dependent. The average diameter of ODS-β-CD particles ranged from 449 to 1484 nm. With the DS increased from 0.003 to 0.019, the contact angle and absolute zeta potential value of these ODS-β-CD particles improved from 25.7° to 47.3° and 48.1 to 62.8 mV, respectively. The cage structure of β-CD crystals was transformed to channel structure, then further to amorphous structure after introduction of the octadecenyl succinylation chain. ODS-β-CD particles exhibited higher emulsifying ability compared to β-CD. The resulting Pickering emulsions formed by ODS-β-CD particles were more stable during storage. This study investigates the ability of these ODS-β-CD particles to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions with respect to their amphiphilic character and structural properties.

  12. Conductivity at Low Humidity of Materials Derived from Ferroxane Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Alberto; Holtappels, Peter; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    . Conductivity of both sintered and unsintered materials decreases strongly with a decrease in water partial pressure in the atmosphere during the test. The highest conductivity (7·10−3 S cm−1) is measured in air (pH2O = 0.037 atm) at room temperature on sintered material. The conductivity values are compared......Carboxylic-acid-stabilised γ-FeOOH particles (ferroxanes) are synthesized using a precipitation from aqueous solution, and a following reaction with acetic acid. The materials produced with these powders are investigated by XRD, SEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and impedance spectroscopy...

  13. Aerodynamic properties of six organo-mineral fertiliser particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Biocca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural fertilisers are generally applied by means of centrifugal disk spreaders. The machinery, the working conditions and the physical characteristics of fertilizers (including the aerodynamic characteristics of particles may affect the behaviour of particles after the discarding from the spreader. We investigated the aerodynamic properties of organo-mineral fertilisers (a class of slow release fertilisers that are less investigated since they are relatively new in the market using a vertical wind tunnel similar to an elutriator. In the same time, the morphological characteristics of individual fertilizer particles were measured by means of an image analysis procedure. In the study we compare six different fertilisers and we discuss the suitability of the employed methods. The results provide the terminal velocity – Vt – (the velocity value that overcome the gravity force of the particles of the particles, ranging from 8.60 to 9.55 m s-1, and the relationships between Vt and some physical properties (mass, shape, dimensions of the fertilizers. Moreover, the results of field distribution trials show the behaviour of the tested fertilizers during practical use. Such data can contribute to enhance the quality of application of these products in field.

  14. Scaling Properties of Particle Density Fields Formed in Simulated Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of particle concentrations in fully developed 3D turbulence were carried out in order to study the nonuniform structure of the particle density field. Three steady-state turbulent fluid fields with Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers (Re(sub lambda)) of 40, 80 and 140 were generated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with pseudospectral methods. Large scale forcing was used to drive the turbulence and maintain temporal stationarity. The response of the particles to the fluid was parameterized by the particle Stokes number St, defined as the ratio of the particle's stopping time to the mean period of eddies on the Kolmogorov scale (eta). In this paper, we consider only passive particles optimally coupled to these eddies (St approx. = 1) because of their tendency to concentrate more than particles with lesser or greater St values. The trajectories of up to 70 million particles were tracked in the equilibrated turbulent flows until the particle concentration field reached a statistically stationary state. The nonuniform structure of the concentration fields was characterized by the multifractal singularity spectrum, f(alpha), derived from measures obtained after binning particles into cells ranging from 2(eta) to 15(eta) in size. We observed strong systematic variations of f(alpha) across this scale range in all three simulations and conclude that the particle concentration field is not statistically self similar across the scale range explored. However, spectra obtained at the 2(eta), 4(eta), and 8(eta) scales of each flow case were found to be qualitatively similar. This result suggests that the local structure of the particle concentration field may be flow-Independent. The singularity spectra found for 2n-sized cells were used to predict concentration distributions in good agreement with those obtained directly from the particle data. This Singularity spectrum has a shape similar to the analogous spectrum derived for the

  15. Conductivity at Low Humidity of Materials Derived from Ferroxane Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lapina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic-acid-stabilised γ-FeOOH particles (ferroxanes are synthesized using a precipitation from aqueous solution, and a following reaction with acetic acid. The materials produced with these powders are investigated by XRD, SEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and impedance spectroscopy. Conductivity of both sintered and unsintered materials decreases strongly with a decrease in water partial pressure in the atmosphere during the test. The highest conductivity (7·10−3 S cm−1 is measured in air (pH2O = 0.037 atm at room temperature on sintered material. The conductivity values are compared with other works in the literature and the dependence of conductivity on surface area and pore size is discussed. It is suggested that both unsintered and sintered materials act as proton conductors at room temperature under moderate humidity conditions.

  16. Improved ice particle optical property simulations in the ultraviolet to far-infrared regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    To derive the bulk radiative properties of ice clouds, aircraft contrails and snow grains, which are fundamental to atmospheric radiative transfer calculations in downstream applications, it is necessary to accurately simulate the scattering of light by individual ice particles. An ice particle optical property database reported in 2013 (hereafter, TAMUice2013) is updated (hereafter, TAMUice2016) to incorporate recent advances in computation of the optical properties of nonspherical particles. Specifically, we employ the invariant imbedding T-matrix (II-TM) method to compute the optical properties of particles with small to moderate size parameters. Both versions use the Improved Geometric Optics Method (IGOM) to compute the optical properties of large ice crystals, but TAMUice2016 improves the treatment of inhomogeneous waves inside the scattering particles in the case where ice is absorptive such as at infrared wavelengths. To bridge the gap between the extinction efficiencies computed from the II-TM and the IGOM, TAMUice2016 includes spectrally dependent higher order terms of the edge effect in addition to the first order counterpart considered in TAMUice2013. Furthermore, the differences between TAMUice2013 and TAMUice2016 are quantified with respect to the computation of the bulk optical properties of ice clouds. - Highlights: • A previous database of the single-scattering properties of ice crystals is improved. • A combination of the invariant imbedding T-matrix and improved geometric optics methods is used. • The treatment of inhomogeneous waves in an absorptive ice crystal is improved. • Higher order terms of the edge effect are considered in the updated database.

  17. Properties of amorphous FeCoB alloy particles (abstract)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charles, S. W.; Wells, S.; Meagher, A.

    1988-01-01

    -ray diffraction. Magnetic measurements of the saturation magnetization, coercivity, and remanence of the particles have been measured. The transition from the amorphous-to-crystalline state has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermomagnetometry up to a temperature of 450 °C (see Fig......Amorphous and crystalline alloy particles (0.05–0.5 nm) of FexCoyBz in which the ratio x:y ranges from 0 to 1 have been prepared by the borohydride reduction of iron and cobalt salts in aqueous solution. The structure of the particles has been studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy and x....... 1). It has been shown that the fraction of boron in the alloys (10–35 at. %) is dependent upon the rate of addition of salts to borohydride and the concentration of cobalt present; this in turn influences the crystallinity and magnetic properties . Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted...

  18. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMARA

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived from Xanthosoma sagittifolium in metronidazole tablets. Onyishi Ikechukwu V., Chime Salome A.* and Ugwu Jonathan C. Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, ...

  19. Theoretical analysis of the particle properties and polarization measurements made in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttilae, A.; Lumme, K.; Worms, J.C.; Hadamcik, E.; Renard, J.B.; Levasseur-Regourd, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new model to describe the shapes of stochastic polyhedra used in the microgravity experiment PROGRA 2 on board the Airbus A300 aircraft. The polarization measurements of scattering of visible light by boron carbide (B 4 C) particles with sizes between 9 and 88 μm can nicely be explained with the derived shape statistics and the (currently unknown) refractive index obtained. For the latter we derive 2 (-0.15/+0.1)+0.04i(-0.0025/+0.015) at 632.8 nm wavelength. The polarization method is a reliable and sensitive means to estimate various particle properties in various remote sensing applications, including the planetary sciences

  20. Theoretical analysis of the particle properties and polarization measurements made in microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Penttilae, A; Worms, J C; Hadamcik, E; Renard, J B; Levasseur-Regourd, A C

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new model to describe the shapes of stochastic polyhedra used in the microgravity experiment PROGRA sup 2 on board the Airbus A300 aircraft. The polarization measurements of scattering of visible light by boron carbide (B sub 4 C) particles with sizes between 9 and 88 mu m can nicely be explained with the derived shape statistics and the (currently unknown) refractive index obtained. For the latter we derive 2 (-0.15/+0.1)+0.04i(-0.0025/+0.015) at 632.8 nm wavelength. The polarization method is a reliable and sensitive means to estimate various particle properties in various remote sensing applications, including the planetary sciences.

  1. Photophysical properties of columnar phases formed by triphenylene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigal, Herve

    1997-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the spectroscopic properties and of the migration of excitation energy in the singlet state in columnar phases formed by alkyloxy and alkylthio derivatives of triphenylene. First, the author studied the spectroscopic properties of chromophores in solutions, and characterized excited states by using computation codes (CS-INDO-CIPSI). Then, by using the excitonic theory in the case of the considered triphenylene derivatives, the author studied the influence of molecular movements and of the intra-columnar order on the spectroscopic properties. In some circumstances, the non-radiative transfer of excitation energy is governed by a mechanism displaying a random evolution. This stochastic movement is studied by using Monte Carlo simulations. The author shows that the energy migration is one-dimensional on short times, and then becomes three-dimensional. The evolution of excitation energy in space and in time is determined [fr

  2. Measurements of humidified particle number size distributions in a Finnish boreal forest: derivation of hygroscopic particle growth factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birmili, W.; Schwirn, K.; Nowak, A.; Rose, D.; Wiedensohler, A. (Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig (Germany)); Petaejae, T.; Haemeri, K.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Joutsensaari, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Dry and humidified size distributions of atmospheric particles were characterised at the atmospheric research station SMEAR 2, Finland between May and July 2004. Particles were classified in a size range between 3 and 800 nm at controlled relative humidities up to 90% by two instruments complementary in size range (HDMPS; Nano-HDMPS). Using the summation method, descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DHGF) were derived for particle diameters between 70 and 300 nm by comparing dry and humidified size distributions. At 90% relative humidity, DHGF showed mean values between 1.25 and 1.45 in the accumulation mode, between 1.20 and 1.25 in the Aitken mode, and between 1.15 and 1.20 in the nucleation mode. Due to the high size resolution of the method, the transition in DHGF between the Aitken and accumulation modes, which reflects differences in the soluble fraction, could be pinpointed efficiently. For the accumulation mode, experimental DHGFs were compared to those calculated from a simplistic growth model initialised by in-situ chemical composition measurements, and yielded maximum deviations around 0.1. The variation in DHGF could only imperfectly be linked to meteorological factors. A pragmatic parameterisation of DHGF as a function of particle diameter and relative humidity was derived, and subsequently used to study the sensitivity of the condensational sink parameter (CS) as a function of height in a well-mixed boundary layer. (orig.)

  3. N-particle effective generators of the Poincare group derived from a field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, A.; Gloeckle, W.

    1999-01-01

    In quantum mechanics the principle of relativity is guaranteed by unitary operators being associated with inhomogeneous Lorentz transformations ensuring that quantum mechanical expectation values remain unchanged. In field theory the ten generators of inhomogeneous Lorentz transformations can be derived from a scalar Lagrangian density describing the physical system of interest. They obey the well known Poincare Lie algebra. For interacting systems some of the generators become operators allowing for particle production or annihilation so that the generators act on the full Fock space. However, given a field theory on the whole Fock space we prove that it is possible to construct generators acting on a subspace with a finite number of particles by one and the same unitary transformation of all generators leaving the Poincare algebra valid. In this manner it is in principle possible to derive a relativistically invariant theory of interacting particles on a Hilbert space with a finite number of particles from a field theoretical Lagrangian. Refs. 3 (author)

  4. Statistical properties of entropy production derived from fluctuation theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merhav, Neri; Kafri, Yariv

    2010-01-01

    Several implications of well-known fluctuation theorems, on the statistical properties of entropy production, are studied using various approaches. We begin by deriving a tight lower bound on the variance of the entropy production for a given mean of this random variable. It is shown that the Evans–Searles fluctuation theorem alone imposes a significant lower bound on the variance only when the mean entropy production is very small. It is then nonetheless demonstrated that upon incorporating additional information concerning the entropy production, this lower bound can be significantly improved, so as to capture extensivity properties. Another important aspect of the fluctuation properties of the entropy production is the relationship between the mean and the variance, on the one hand, and the probability of the event where the entropy production is negative, on the other hand. Accordingly, we derive upper and lower bounds on this probability in terms of the mean and the variance. These bounds are tighter than previous bounds that can be found in the literature. Moreover, they are tight in the sense that there exist probability distributions, satisfying the Evans–Searles fluctuation theorem, that achieve them with equality. Finally, we present a general method for generating a wide class of inequalities that must be satisfied by the entropy production. We use this method to derive several new inequalities that go beyond the standard derivation of the second law

  5. Mechanical properties of epoxy/coconut shell filler particle composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapuan, S.M.; Harimi, M.; Maleque, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the tensile and flexural properties of composites made from coconut shell filler particles and epoxy resin. The tensile and flexural tests of composites based on coconut shell filler particles at three different filler contents viz., 5%, 0% and 15%were carried out using universal tensile testing machine according to ASTM D 3039/D M-95a and ASTM D790-90 tensile respectively and their results were presented. Experimental results showed that tensile and flexural properties of the composites increased with the increase of the filler particle content. The composite materials demonstrate somewhat linear behavior and sharp structure for tensile and slight nonlinear behavior and sharp fracture of flexural testing. The relation between stress and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests were found to b linear with correlation factors of 0.9929 and 0.9973 respectively. Concerning the relation between the modulus and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests, it was found to be a quadratic relation with the same correlation factor approximated to 1. The same behavior was observed for the strain versus percentage of filler tensile and flexural tests, with the same correlation factor. (author)

  6. Validation of Satellite Derived Cloud Properties Over the Southeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, J.; Minnis, P.; Zuidema, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.; Fairall, C.

    2005-12-01

    Satellite measurements of cloud properties and the radiation budget are essential for understanding meso- and large-scale processes that determine the variability in climate over the southeastern Pacific. Of particular interest in this region is the prevalent stratocumulus cloud deck. The stratocumulus albedos are directly related to cloud microphysical properties that need to be accurately characterized in Global Climate Models (GCMs) to properly estimate the Earth's radiation budget. Meteorological observations in this region are sparse causing large uncertainties in initialized model fields. Remote sensing from satellites can provide a wealth of information about the clouds in this region, but it is vital to validate the remotely sensed parameters and to understand their relationship to other parameters that are not directly observed by the satellites. The variety of measurements from the R/V Roger Revelle during the 2003 STRATUS cruise and from the R/V Ron Brown during EPIC 2001 and the 2004 STRATUS cruises are suitable for validating and improving the interpretation of the satellite derived cloud properties. In this study, satellite-derived cloud properties including coverage, height, optical depth, and liquid water path are compared with in situ measurements taken during the EPIC and STRATUS cruises. The remotely sensed values are derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellites, and from the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The products from this study will include regional monthly cloud climatologies derived from the GOES data for the 2003 and 2004 cruises as well as micro and macro physical cloud property retrievals centered over the ship tracks from MODIS and VIRS.

  7. Characterization of the geometrical properties of agglomerated aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.P.

    1992-12-01

    A method for the absolute mass determination of agglomerated aerosol particles is presented. Based on this method it is possible to determine simultaneously and in situ mass, exposed surface and mobility diameter. From these measurements the fractal dimension of aerosol particles can be derived. For silver agglomerates produced by spark discharge it was found that they are bifractal. The fractal dimension was 3 in the free molecular regime and 1.9 in the transition regime. By variation of the gas mean free path it was shown that the region where the agglomerate structure changes from close-packed particle to low density agglomerates depends on the Knudsen number. In the free molecular regime the fractal dimension was not at all affected by any change of the generation conditions. Only sintering caused an increase in the density which was attributed to mass transport within the agglomerate. In the transition regime the fractal dimension remained constant with increasing monomer concentration and with increasing flow rate, but it increased with increasing pressure, increasing Ar:He ratio and with increasing sintering temperature. For sintering this effect was explained by the minimization of the surface free energy. It was found that the structure changing rate is proportional to the product of sintering temperature and residence time in the sintering oven. By carefully adjusting the temperature it is possible to produce agglomerates of a well defined structure. In desorption experiments of 136 I from silver and carbon agglomerates it could be shown that the desorption behavior is different. It was found that the desorption enthalpy of iodine from graphite and silver particles were -142 kJ/mol and -184 kJ/mol, respectively. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the 136 I attachment to particles is different for silver agglomerates with the same mobility, but different structures. (author) 41 figs., refs

  8. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  9. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  10. Probing the micro-rheological properties of aerosol particles using optical tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, Rory M; Reid, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    The use of optical trapping techniques to manipulate probe particles for performing micro-rheological measurements on a surrounding fluid is well-established. Here, we review recent advances made in the use of optical trapping to probe the rheological properties of trapped particles themselves. In particular, we review observations of the continuous transition from liquid to solid-like viscosity of sub-picolitre supersaturated solution aerosol droplets using optical trapping techniques. Direct measurements of the viscosity of the particle bulk are derived from the damped oscillations in shape following coalescence of two particles, a consequence of the interplay between viscous and surface forces and the capillary driven relaxation of the approximately spheroidal composite particle. Holographic optical tweezers provide a facile method for the manipulation of arrays of particles allowing coalescence to be controllably induced between two micron-sized aerosol particles. The optical forces, while sufficiently strong to confine the composite particle, are several orders of magnitude weaker than the capillary forces driving relaxation. Light, elastically back-scattered by the particle, is recorded with sub-100 ns resolution allowing measurements of fast relaxation (low viscosity) dynamics, while the brightfield image can be used to monitor the shape relaxation extending to times in excess of 1000 s. For the slowest relaxation dynamics studied (particles with the highest viscosity) the presence and line shape of whispering gallery modes in the cavity enhanced Raman spectrum can be used to infer the relaxation time while serving the dual purpose of allowing the droplet size and refractive index to be measured with accuracies of ±0.025% and ±0.1%, respectively. The time constant for the damped relaxation can be used to infer the bulk viscosity, spanning from the dilute solution limit to a value approaching that of a glass, typically considered to be >10 12

  11. Probing the micro-rheological properties of aerosol particles using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Rory M.; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2014-07-01

    The use of optical trapping techniques to manipulate probe particles for performing micro-rheological measurements on a surrounding fluid is well-established. Here, we review recent advances made in the use of optical trapping to probe the rheological properties of trapped particles themselves. In particular, we review observations of the continuous transition from liquid to solid-like viscosity of sub-picolitre supersaturated solution aerosol droplets using optical trapping techniques. Direct measurements of the viscosity of the particle bulk are derived from the damped oscillations in shape following coalescence of two particles, a consequence of the interplay between viscous and surface forces and the capillary driven relaxation of the approximately spheroidal composite particle. Holographic optical tweezers provide a facile method for the manipulation of arrays of particles allowing coalescence to be controllably induced between two micron-sized aerosol particles. The optical forces, while sufficiently strong to confine the composite particle, are several orders of magnitude weaker than the capillary forces driving relaxation. Light, elastically back-scattered by the particle, is recorded with sub-100 ns resolution allowing measurements of fast relaxation (low viscosity) dynamics, while the brightfield image can be used to monitor the shape relaxation extending to times in excess of 1000 s. For the slowest relaxation dynamics studied (particles with the highest viscosity) the presence and line shape of whispering gallery modes in the cavity enhanced Raman spectrum can be used to infer the relaxation time while serving the dual purpose of allowing the droplet size and refractive index to be measured with accuracies of ±0.025% and ±0.1%, respectively. The time constant for the damped relaxation can be used to infer the bulk viscosity, spanning from the dilute solution limit to a value approaching that of a glass, typically considered to be >1012 Pa s, whilst

  12. Hierarchical ZnO particles grafting by fluorocarbon polymer derivative: Preparation and superhydrophobic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dahai; Jia, Mengqiu, E-mail: jiamq@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The hierarchical particles were prepared by a simple, mild hydrothermal process. • The obtained “chestnut” ZnO particles show dual-scale morphology with high roughness. • FEVE derivative was creatively imported to graft onto hierarchical particles. • Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained, on which the contact angles surpass 150°. • A special model was proposed to explain the wetting state in this work. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces on the basis of hierarchical ZnO particles grafted by fluoroethylene-vinylether (FEVE) polymer derivative were prepared using a facile, mild and low-cost method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the resulting ZnO particles via hydrothermal process exhibit micro–nano dual-scale morphology with high purity under a suitable surfactant amount and alkali concentration. The grafting of FEVE derivative was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), suggesting that hierarchical surface of ZnO particles was an imported monomolecular layer of fluorocarbon polymer. The obtained surface fabricated by drop-casting shows considerably high contact angle and good resistance to water immersion. The wetting behavior in this work was furthermore analyzed by theoretical wetting model. This work demonstrates that the sufficient low-wettable surface and high roughness both take a vital role in the superhydrophobic behavior.

  13. Adsorption Properties of Lignin-derived Activated Carbon Fibers (LACF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gallego, Nidia C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States); Karra, Reddy [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The object of this CRADA project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) is the characterization of lignin-derived activated carbon fibers (LACF) and determination of their adsorption properties for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Carbon fibers from lignin raw materials were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the technology previously developed at ORNL. These fibers were physically activated at ORNL using various activation conditions, and their surface area and pore-size distribution were characterized by gas adsorption. Based on these properties, ORNL did down-select five differently activated LACF materials that were delivered to UTRC for measurement of VOC adsorption properties. UTRC used standard techniques based on breakthrough curves to measure and determine the adsorption properties of indoor air pollutants (IAP) - namely formaldehyde and carbon dioxide - and to verify the extent of saturated fiber regenerability by thermal treatments. The results are summarized as follows: (1) ORNL demonstrated that physical activation of lignin-derived carbon fibers can be tailored to obtain LACF with surface areas and pore size distributions matching the properties of activated carbon fibers obtained from more expensive, fossil-fuel precursors; (2) UTRC investigated the LACF potential for use in air cleaning applications currently pursued by UTRC, such as building ventilation, and demonstrated their regenerability for CO2 and formaldehyde, (3) Both partners agree that LACF have potential for possible use in air cleaning applications.

  14. Dynamic properties of micro-particles in ultrasonic transportation using phase-controllable standing waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Kun; Mei, Deqing; Meng, Jianxin; Yang, Keji

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic manipulation has become an attractive method for surface-sensitive objects in micro-technology. Related phenomena, such as radiation force, multiple scattering, and acoustic streaming, have been widely studied. However, in current studies, the behavior of micro-particles in potential force fields is always analyzed in a quasi-static manner. We developed a dynamic model of a dilute micro-particle in the commonly used two-dimensional ultrasonic manipulation system to provide a systemic and quantitative analysis of the transient properties of particle movement. In this model, the acoustic streaming and hydrodynamic forces, omitted in previous work, were both considered. The trajectory of a spherical silica particle with different initial conditions was derived by numerically solving the established nonlinear differential integral equation system, which was then validated experimentally. The envelope of the experimental data on the x-axis showed good agreement with the theoretical calculation, and the greater influence on the y-axis of the deviation between the actual sound field and the ideal distribution employed in our dynamic model could account for the differences in displacement in that direction. Finally, the influence of particle size on its movement and the effect of acoustic streaming on calculating the hydrodynamic forces for an isolated particle with motion relative to the fluid were analyzed theoretically. It was found that the ultrasonic manipulation system will translate from an under-damped system to an over-damped system with a decrease in particle size and the micro-scale acoustic streaming velocity was negligible when calculating the hydrodynamic forces on the particle in the ultrasonic manipulation system.

  15. Dynamic properties of micro-particles in ultrasonic transportation using phase-controllable standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kun; Mei, Deqing; Meng, Jianxin; Yang, Keji

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasonic manipulation has become an attractive method for surface-sensitive objects in micro-technology. Related phenomena, such as radiation force, multiple scattering, and acoustic streaming, have been widely studied. However, in current studies, the behavior of micro-particles in potential force fields is always analyzed in a quasi-static manner. We developed a dynamic model of a dilute micro-particle in the commonly used two-dimensional ultrasonic manipulation system to provide a systemic and quantitative analysis of the transient properties of particle movement. In this model, the acoustic streaming and hydrodynamic forces, omitted in previous work, were both considered. The trajectory of a spherical silica particle with different initial conditions was derived by numerically solving the established nonlinear differential integral equation system, which was then validated experimentally. The envelope of the experimental data on the x-axis showed good agreement with the theoretical calculation, and the greater influence on the y-axis of the deviation between the actual sound field and the ideal distribution employed in our dynamic model could account for the differences in displacement in that direction. Finally, the influence of particle size on its movement and the effect of acoustic streaming on calculating the hydrodynamic forces for an isolated particle with motion relative to the fluid were analyzed theoretically. It was found that the ultrasonic manipulation system will translate from an under-damped system to an over-damped system with a decrease in particle size and the micro-scale acoustic streaming velocity was negligible when calculating the hydrodynamic forces on the particle in the ultrasonic manipulation system.

  16. Measurement of the particle production properties in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, Alessia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the particle production properties with the ATLAS detector A correct modelling of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions is important for the proper simulation of kinematic distributions of high-energy collisions. The ATLAS collaboration extended previous studies at 7 TeV with a leading track or jet or Z boson by a new study at 13 TeV, measuring the number and transverse-momentum sum of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle in dependence of the reconstructed leading track. These measurements are sensitive to the underlying-event as well as the onset of hard emissions. The results are compared to predictions of several MC generators. A similar comparison between measurements and MC generator predictions will be shown for the strange meson content in topquark pair events. Studies of particle correlations in high-energy collisions can provide valuable insights into the detailed understanding of the space-time geometry of the hadronization region. The ATLA...

  17. Influence of Particle Size on Properties of Expanded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurajica, S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Expanded graphite has been applied widely in thermal insulation, adsorption, vibration damping, gasketing, electromagnetic interference shielding etc. It is made by intercalation of natural flake graphite followed by thermal expansion. Intercalation is a process whereby an intercalant material is inserted between the graphene layers of a graphite crystal. Exfoliation, a huge unidirectional expansion of the starting intercalated flakes, occurs when the graphene layers are forced apart by the sudden decomposition and vaporization of the intercalated species by thermal shock. Along with production methodologies, such as the intercalation process and heat treatment, the raw material characteristics, especially particle size, strongly influence the properties of the final product.This report evaluates the influence of the particle size of the raw material on the intercalation and expansion processes and consequently the properties of the exfoliated graphite. Natural crystalline flake graphite with wide particle diameter distribution (between dp = 80 and 425 µm was divided into four size-range portions by sieving. Graphite was intercalated via perchloric acid, glacial acetic acid and potassium dichromate oxidation and intercalation procedure. 5.0 g of graphite, 7.0 g of perchloric acid, 4.0 g of glacial acetic acid and 2.0 g of potassium dichromate were placed in glass reactor. The mixture was stirred with n = 200 min–1 at temperature of 45 °C during 60 min. Then it was filtered and washed with distilled water until pH~6 and dried at 60 °C during 24 h. Expansion was accomplished by thermal shock at 1000 °C for 1 min. The prepared samples were characterized by means of exfoliation volume measurements, simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermo-gravimetry (DTA/TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, BET measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.X-ray diffraction indicated a change of distance

  18. Particle production after inflation with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ema, Yohei; Jinno, Ryusuke; Nakayama, Kazunori; Mukaida, Kyohei

    2015-01-01

    We study cosmological evolution after inflation in models with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity. The background dynamics is solved and particle production associated with rapidly oscillating Hubble parameter is studied in detail. In addition, production of gravitons through the non-minimal derivative coupling with the inflaton is studied. We also find that the sound speed squared of the scalar perturbation oscillates between positive and negative values when the non-minimal derivative coupling dominates over the minimal kinetic term. This may lead to an instability of this model. We point out that the particle production rates are the same as those in the Einstein gravity with the minimal kinetic term, if we require the sound speed squared is positive definite

  19. Synthesis and Analgesic Properties of Lidocaine Derivatives with Substituted Aminobenzothiazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Khalili, Mohsen; Mohammadinoude, Mohammad Kazem; Nahri-Niknafs, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most widely consumed drugs in the practice of medicine which provide a loss of sensation in a certain body part without loss of consciousness or impairment of central control of essential functions. Lidocaine (I) is the most commonly local anaesthetic drug which is widely used in all species due to its fabulous diffusing and penetrating properties as well as prompt onset of surgical analgesia. In this study, new aminobenzothiazole (with many useful biological and pharmacological properties) analogues were synthesized by changing of amine moiety of I. Both acute and chronic pain properties of new compounds (II-VI) were studied by using the tail immersion and formalin tests on mice and the outcomes were compared with control and lidocaine groups. According to the results, aminobenzothiazole derivatives are better candidates than diethylamine group for replacement on amine moiety of I. Also, derivatives with electron-withdrawing groups on this amine (V and VI) could decrease pain better than electron-donating ones (II and III) (specially on position 6 of this amine, II and V) which may be of concern for blockade of specific sodium channels by these new compounds.

  20. Biophysical properties of carboxymethyl derivatives of mannan and dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korcová, Jana; Machová, Eva; Filip, Jaroslav; Bystrický, Slavomír

    2015-12-10

    Mannan from Candida albicans, dextran from Leuconostoc spp. and their carboxymethyl (CM)-derivatives were tested on antioxidant and thrombolytic activities. As antioxidant tests, protection of liposomes against OH radicals and reducing power assay were used. Dextran and mannan protected liposomes in dose-dependent manner. Carboxymethylation significantly increased antioxidant properties of both CM-derivatives up to concentration of 10mg/mL, higher concentrations did not change the protection of liposomes. The reducing power of CM-mannan (DS 0.92) was significantly lower (Pdextran and CM-dextran. All CM-derivatives demonstrated statistically significant increasing activity compared with underivatized polysaccharides. The highest thrombolytic activity was found using CM-mannan (DS 0.92). The clot lysis here amounted to 68.78 ± 6.52% compared with 0.9% NaCl control (18.3 ± 6.3%). Three-dimensional surface profiles of mannan, dextran, and their CM-derivatives were compared by atomic force microscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of CERES Cloud Properties Derived from Aqua and Terra MODIS Data and TRMM VIRS Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Young, D. F.; Sun-Mack, S.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Chen, Y.; Heck, P. W.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project is obtaining Earth radiation budget measurements of unprecedented accuracy as a result of improved instruments and an analysis system that combines simultaneous, high-resolution cloud property retrievals with the broadband radiance data. The cloud properties are derived from three different satellite imagers: the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) on the Aqua and Terra satellites. A single set of consistent algorithms using the 0.65, 1.6 or 2.1, 3.7, 10.8, and 12.0-æm channels are applied to all three imagers. The cloud properties include, cloud coverage, height, thickness, temperature, optical depth, phase, effective particle size, and liquid or ice water path. Because each satellite is in a different orbit, the results provide information on the diurnal cycle of cloud properties. Initial intercalibrations show excellent consistency between the three images except for some differences of ~ 1K between the 3.7-æm channel on Terra and those on VIRS and Aqua. The derived cloud properties are consistent with the known diurnal characteristics of clouds in different areas. These datasets should be valuable for exploring the role of clouds in the radiation budget and hydrological cycle.

  2. Killer smog of London, 50 years on: particle properties and oxidative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andy; BéruBé, Kelly; Jones, Tim; Maynard, Robert; Richards, Roy

    2004-12-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected on glass fibre filters in London before (1955) and after (1958-1974) the Clean Air Act was examined for physicochemical characteristics and oxidative capacity. High-resolution microscopy identified most of the material as soot with smelter spheres, fly ash (FA), sodium chloride and calcium sulphate particles. Image analysis (IA) was used to show that most of the soot aggregates were less than 1 microm in size and contained chains of individual particles of 10-50 nm. Speed mapping of large agglomerates of the historic particles confirmed that the samples were enriched with soot probably derived from a sulphur-rich coal called nutty slack which was used extensively at this time. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to examine elemental composition. Meaningful quantitation of certain elements (Mg, Al and Zn) proved impossible because they were in high quantities in the glass fibre filters. However, high quantities of Fe>Pb>Cu>Mn>V>As were detected which may explain in part the bioreactivity of the samples. Using a simple in vitro test of oxidative capacity (plasmid assay), one historic particulate sample (1958) showed three times the activity of a modern-day diesel exhaust particle (DEP) sample but ten times less activity than a modern-day urban ambient particle collection. Such studies are continuing to link particle physicochemical properties and bioreactivity with a wider range of the samples collected between 1955 and 74 and how such historic samples compare with present-day London ambient particles.

  3. Densities at high pressures and derived properties of thiophenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antón, V.; Lomba, L.; Cea, P.; Giner, B.; Lafuente, C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The pρT behaviour of four members of the thiophene family has been studied. • The experimental results have been correlated with the TRIDEN equation. • Isobaric expansibilities, isothermal compressibilities and internal pressures have been calculated. • The results were discussed in terms of structural differences among thiophenes. - Abstract: This contribution reports the densities in wide temperature (from 283.15 to 338.15 K) and pressure (from 0.1 to 65.0 MPa) ranges of four members of the thiophene family (thiophene, 2-methylthiophene, 3-methylthiophene and 2,5-dimethylthiophene). These densities have been satisfactorily correlated by means of the TRIDEN equation. From these data, several derived properties as isobaric expansibility, isothermal compressibility, and internal pressure have been estimated. Using all these properties, interesting information about molecular organization can be deduced.

  4. Binding properties of oxacalix[4]arenes derivatives toward metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, B.

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this work was to establish the binding properties of oxacalix[4]arene derivatives with different numbers of the oxa bridges, functional groups (ketones, pyridine, ester, amide and methoxy) and conformations. Their interactions with alkali and alkaline-earth, heavy and transition metal cations have been evaluated according to different approaches: (i) extraction of corresponding picrates from an aqueous phase into dichloromethane; (ii) determination of the thermodynamic parameters of complexation in methanol and/or acetonitrile by UV-spectrophotometry and micro-calorimetry; (iii) determination of the stoichiometry of the complexes by ESI-MS; (iv) 1 H-NMR titrations allowing to localize the metal ions in the ligand cavity. In a first part dealing on homo-oxacalix[4]arenes, selectivities for Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Pb 2+ and Mn 2+ of ketones derivatives was shown. The presence of oxa bridge in these derivatives increases their efficiency while decreasing their selectivity with respect to related calixarenes. The pyridine derivative prefers transition and heavy metal cations, in agreement with the presence of the soft nitrogen atoms. In the second part, di-oxacalix[4]arene ester and secondary amide derivatives were shown to be less effective than tertiary amide counterparts but to present high selectivities for Li + , Ba 2+ , Zn 2+ and Hg 2+ . A third part devoted to the octa-homo-tetra-oxacalix[4]arene tetra-methoxy shows that the 1:1 metal complexes formed are generally more stable than those of calixarenes, suggesting the participation of the oxygen atoms of the bridge in the complexation. Selectivity for Cs + , Ba 2+ , Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ were noted. (author)

  5. Efficacy of Natural Polymer Derivatives on Soil Physical Properties and Erosion on an Experimental Loess Hillslope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun'e; Wang, Zhanli; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-12-22

    Raindrops disperse large soil aggregates into smaller particles, which can clog soil pores, cause soil crusting, reduce rainfall infiltration and increase soil loss. It was found that natural polymer derivatives were effective in improving soil physical properties and decreasing soil erosion on an experimental loess hillslope. This study investigated the effect of new natural polymer derivatives (Jag S and Jag C162) on soil properties, rainfall infiltration and sediment yield at four rates of sprayed polymers (0, 1, 3 and 5 g/m²), three rainfall intensities (1, 1.5 and 2 mm/min) and a slope gradient of 15° with a silt loam soil through simulated rain. The results showed that both Jag S and Jag C162 significantly increased the shear strength and improved the aggregates composition of the soil surface. The water-stable soil aggregates >0.25 mm increased from 9% to 50% with increasing rates of Jag S and Jag C162. Jag S and Jag C162 also effectively increased rainfall infiltration and final infiltration rate, and reduced erosion compared to controls without natural polymer derivatives added. However, higher rates of Jag S produced lower infiltration rates. Although both Jag S and Jag C162 effectively influenced soil physical properties and erosion, the effect of Jag C162 was more significant than that of Jag S.

  6. Efficacy of Natural Polymer Derivatives on Soil Physical Properties and Erosion on an Experimental Loess Hillslope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun’e Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Raindrops disperse large soil aggregates into smaller particles, which can clog soil pores, cause soil crusting, reduce rainfall infiltration and increase soil loss. It was found that natural polymer derivatives were effective in improving soil physical properties and decreasing soil erosion on an experimental loess hillslope. This study investigated the effect of new natural polymer derivatives (Jag S and Jag C162 on soil properties, rainfall infiltration and sediment yield at four rates of sprayed polymers (0, 1, 3 and 5 g/m2, three rainfall intensities (1, 1.5 and 2 mm/min and a slope gradient of 15° with a silt loam soil through simulated rain. The results showed that both Jag S and Jag C162 significantly increased the shear strength and improved the aggregates composition of the soil surface. The water-stable soil aggregates >0.25 mm increased from 9% to 50% with increasing rates of Jag S and Jag C162. Jag S and Jag C162 also effectively increased rainfall infiltration and final infiltration rate, and reduced erosion compared to controls without natural polymer derivatives added. However, higher rates of Jag S produced lower infiltration rates. Although both Jag S and Jag C162 effectively influenced soil physical properties and erosion, the effect of Jag C162 was more significant than that of Jag S.

  7. Efficacy of Natural Polymer Derivatives on Soil Physical Properties and Erosion on an Experimental Loess Hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun’e; Wang, Zhanli; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-01-01

    Raindrops disperse large soil aggregates into smaller particles, which can clog soil pores, cause soil crusting, reduce rainfall infiltration and increase soil loss. It was found that natural polymer derivatives were effective in improving soil physical properties and decreasing soil erosion on an experimental loess hillslope. This study investigated the effect of new natural polymer derivatives (Jag S and Jag C162) on soil properties, rainfall infiltration and sediment yield at four rates of sprayed polymers (0, 1, 3 and 5 g/m2), three rainfall intensities (1, 1.5 and 2 mm/min) and a slope gradient of 15° with a silt loam soil through simulated rain. The results showed that both Jag S and Jag C162 significantly increased the shear strength and improved the aggregates composition of the soil surface. The water-stable soil aggregates >0.25 mm increased from 9% to 50% with increasing rates of Jag S and Jag C162. Jag S and Jag C162 also effectively increased rainfall infiltration and final infiltration rate, and reduced erosion compared to controls without natural polymer derivatives added. However, higher rates of Jag S produced lower infiltration rates. Although both Jag S and Jag C162 effectively influenced soil physical properties and erosion, the effect of Jag C162 was more significant than that of Jag S. PMID:29271899

  8. Quantifying the motion of magnetic particles in excised tissue: Effect of particle properties and applied magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Sandip, E-mail: sandip.d.kulkarni@gmail.com [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ramaswamy, Bharath; Horton, Emily; Gangapuram, Sruthi [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Nacev, Alek [Weinberg Medical Physics, LLC (United States); Depireux, Didier [The Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Otomagnetics, LLC (United States); Shimoji, Mika [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Otomagnetics, LLC (United States); Shapiro, Benjamin [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); The Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Otomagnetics, LLC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a method to investigate how magnetic particle characteristics affect their motion inside tissues under the influence of an applied magnetic field. Particles are placed on top of freshly excised tissue samples, a calibrated magnetic field is applied by a magnet underneath each tissue sample, and we image and quantify particle penetration depth by quantitative metrics to assess how particle sizes, their surface coatings, and tissue resistance affect particle motion. Using this method, we tested available fluorescent particles from Chemicell of four sizes (100 nm, 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1 μm diameter) with four different coatings (starch, chitosan, lipid, and PEG/P) and quantified their motion through freshly excised rat liver, kidney, and brain tissues. In broad terms, we found that the applied magnetic field moved chitosan particles most effectively through all three tissue types (as compared to starch, lipid, and PEG/P coated particles). However, the relationship between particle properties and their resulting motion was found to be complex. Hence, it will likely require substantial further study to elucidate the nuances of transport mechanisms and to select and engineer optimal particle properties to enable the most effective transport through various tissue types under applied magnetic fields.

  9. Static and dynamic properties of smoothed dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehrad, Davod; Fedosov, Dmitry A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, static and dynamic properties of the smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) method are investigated. We study the effect of method parameters on SDPD fluid properties, such as structure, speed of sound, and transport coefficients, and show that a proper choice of parameters leads to a well-behaved and accurate fluid model. In particular, the speed of sound, the radial distribution function (RDF), shear-thinning of viscosity, the mean-squared displacement (〈R2 〉 ∝ t), and the Schmidt number (Sc ∼ O (103) - O (104)) can be controlled, such that the model exhibits a fluid-like behavior for a wide range of temperatures in simulations. Furthermore, in addition to the consideration of fluid density variations for fluid compressibility, a more challenging test of incompressibility is performed by considering the Poisson ratio and divergence of velocity field in an elongational flow. Finally, as an example of complex-fluid flow, we present the applicability and validity of the SDPD method with an appropriate choice of parameters for the simulation of cellular blood flow in irregular geometries. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the SDPD method is able to approximate well a nearly incompressible fluid behavior, which includes hydrodynamic interactions and consistent thermal fluctuations, thereby providing, a powerful approach for simulations of complex mesoscopic systems.

  10. A pedagogical derivation of the matrix element method in particle physics data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowidagdo, Suharyo

    2018-03-01

    The matrix element method provides a direct connection between the underlying theory of particle physics processes and detector-level physical observables. I am presenting a pedagogically-oriented derivation of the matrix element method, drawing from elementary concepts in probability theory, statistics, and the process of experimental measurements. The level of treatment should be suitable for beginning research student in phenomenology and experimental high energy physics.

  11. A critical look at 50 years particle theory from the perspective of the crossing property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2010-02-01

    The crossing property, which originated more than 5 decades ago in the aftermath of dispersion relations, was the central new concept which opened an S-matrix based line of research in particle theory. Many constructive ideas in particle theory outside perturbative QFT, among them the S-matrix bootstrap program, the dual resonance model and the various stages of string theory have their historical roots in this property. The crossing property is perhaps the most subtle aspect of the particle-field relation. Although it is not difficult to state its content in terms of certain analytic properties relating different matrix elements of the S-matrix or form factors, its relation to the localization- and positive energy spectral principles requires a level of insight into the inner workings of QFT which goes beyond anything which can be found in typical textbooks on QFT. This paper presents a recent account based on new ideas derived from 'modular localization' including a mathematic appendix on this subject. The main content is an in-depth criticism of the dual model and its string theoretic extension. The conceptual flaws of these models are closely related to misunderstandings of the true meaning of crossing. The correct interpretation of string theory is that of a dynamic infinite component wave function or pointlike field i.e. a theory which under irreducible Poincare decomposition into an infinite mass/spin tower but which also contains operators which do not commute with the generators of the Poincare group but rather intertwine between different mass/spin levels. (author)

  12. A critical look at 50 years particle theory from the perspective of the crossing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-02-15

    The crossing property, which originated more than 5 decades ago in the aftermath of dispersion relations, was the central new concept which opened an S-matrix based line of research in particle theory. Many constructive ideas in particle theory outside perturbative QFT, among them the S-matrix bootstrap program, the dual resonance model and the various stages of string theory have their historical roots in this property. The crossing property is perhaps the most subtle aspect of the particle-field relation. Although it is not difficult to state its content in terms of certain analytic properties relating different matrix elements of the S-matrix or form factors, its relation to the localization- and positive energy spectral principles requires a level of insight into the inner workings of QFT which goes beyond anything which can be found in typical textbooks on QFT. This paper presents a recent account based on new ideas derived from 'modular localization' including a mathematic appendix on this subject. The main content is an in-depth criticism of the dual model and its string theoretic extension. The conceptual flaws of these models are closely related to misunderstandings of the true meaning of crossing. The correct interpretation of string theory is that of a dynamic infinite component wave function or pointlike field i.e. a theory which under irreducible Poincare decomposition into an infinite mass/spin tower but which also contains operators which do not commute with the generators of the Poincare group but rather intertwine between different mass/spin levels. (author)

  13. Lipophilic phytosterol derivatives: synthesis, thermal property and nanoemulsion behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    Phytosterols and their esters have been reported as a cholesterol lowering agent in human. However, natural phytosterols have a low solubility in both water and fat resulting in a poor absorption in intestine. To improve the intestinal absorption and bioavailability of phytosterols, conversion...... of phytosterols into enzyme-liable lipophilic derivatives, such as fatty acid esters was one of the possible strategies. Differences in molecular structures of modified phytosterols may result in the differences in their thermal and micelling behaviors. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to improve...... the productive yield of a series of -sitosteryl fatty acid esters (C2-C18) and to investigate the thermal property and nano-emulsion behaviors of those compounds. This work reported a novel approach to synthesize phytosterol (-sitosterol as a model) fatty acid ester by employing Candida antarctica lipase...

  14. Optical limiting properties of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Peiji; Ye, Cheng; Liu, Hongwei; Xi, Fu

    2001-06-01

    The optical limiting properties of four optically active phthalocyanine derivatives in chloroform solutions and epoxy resin thin plates were measured at 532 nm with 10 ns pulses. The excited state absorption cross-section σex and refractive-index cross-section σr were determined with the Z-scan technique. These chromophores possess larger σex than the ground state absorption cross-section σ0, indicating that they are the potential materials for reverse saturable absorption (RSA). The negative σr values of these chromophores add to the thermal contribution, producing a larger defocusing effect, which may be helpful in further enhancing their optical limiting performance. The optical limiting responses of the thin plate samples are stronger than those of the chloroform solutions.

  15. Synthesis and photophysical properties of indium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özceşmeci, İbrahim, E-mail: ozcesmecii@itu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Gelir, Ali [Department of Physics, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Gül, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Three chloroindium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives bearing four aromatic (naphthalene or pyrene) or aliphatic (hexylthio) groups were prepared from corresponding phthalonitrile compounds. The indium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives were characterized with elemental analyses, mass, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) techniques. Quantum yields and the energy transfer from the substituents to phthalocyanine core were examined. No energy transfer was observed for 5. The energy transfer efficiency from pyrene units to indium phthalocyanine core was calculated as 0.27 for 6. Quantum yields of all samples were very small due to heavy atom effect of indium atom in the core. It was also observed that upon binding of pyrene and naphthalene units to indium phthalocyanine as substituents, the quantum yields of indium phthalocyanine parts of 5 and 6 decreased. -- Highlights: • Three chloroindium(III) phthalocyanines were prepared and characterized. • Aggregation properties of these compounds were investigated. • The energy transfer efficiency was examined. • Quantum yield of these systems were calculated.

  16. Viscous properties of ferrofluids containing both micrometer-size magnetic particles and fine needle-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ido, Yasushi, E-mail: ido.yasushi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Electric and Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Nishida, Hitoshi [Department of Electrical and Control Systems Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, 13 Hongo-cho, Toyama (Japan); Iwamoto, Yuhiro [Department of Electric and Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, Hiroki [KYB Corporation, 2-4-1 Hamamatsu-cho, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    Ferrofluids containing both micrometer-size spherical magnetic particles and nanometer-size needle-like nonmagnetic hematite particles were newly produced. Average length of long axis of the needle-like nonmagnetic particles was 194 nm and the aspect ratio was 8.3. Shear stress and viscosity were measured using the rheometer with the additional equipment for viscosity measurements in the presence of magnetic field. When the total volume fraction of particles in the fluid is constant (0.30), there is the specific mixing ratio of the particles to increase viscosity of the fluid drastically in the absence of magnetic field due to the percolation phenomenon. The fluid of the specific mixing ratio shows solid-like behavior even in the absence of magnetic field. Mixing the needle-like nonmagnetic particles causes strong yield stress and strong viscous force in the presence of magnetic field. - Highlights: • Viscous properties of new magnetic functional fluids were studied experimentally. • The new fluids contain spherical magnetic particles and needle-like particles. • Percolation occurs in the fluid of specific mixing ratio of particles without field. • The fluid of the specific mixing ratio behaves like solid without field. • Mixing needle-like particles causes strong yield stress of the fluid in the field.

  17. A many-particle quantum-kinetic formalism for describing properties of light emitters in frozen dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladush M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A many particle quantum-kinetic formalism is suggested to derive the Maxwell-Bloch-type equations which describe the interaction of quantum emitters with light in a frozen dielectric. It is shown that the quantum-kinetic formalism can meet the concept of local variations of dielectric properties and their influence on the emitter. The definitions of the local response and the effective refractive index in macroscopically homogeneous media are discussed.

  18. TRISO coated fuel particles with enhanced SiC properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Honorato, E.; Tan, J.; Meadows, P.J.; Marsh, G.; Xiao, P.

    2009-01-01

    The silicon carbide (SiC) layer used for the formation of TRISO coated fuel particles is normally produced at 1500-1650 deg. C via fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition from methyltrichlorosilane in a hydrogen environment. In this work, we show the deposition of SiC coatings with uniform grain size throughout the coating thickness, as opposed to standard coatings which have larger grain sizes in the outer sections of the coating. Furthermore, the use of argon as the fluidizing gas and propylene as a carbon precursor, in addition to hydrogen and methyltrichlorosilane, allowed the deposition of stoichiometric SiC coatings with refined microstructure at 1400 and 1300 deg. C. The deposition of SiC at lower deposition temperatures was also advantageous since the reduced heat treatment was not detrimental to the properties of the inner pyrolytic carbon which generally occurs when SiC is deposited at 1500 deg. C. The use of a chemical vapor deposition coater with four spouts allowed the deposition of uniform and spherical coatings.

  19. On The Importance of Connecting Laboratory Measurements of Ice Crystal Growth with Model Parameterizations: Predicting Ice Particle Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Parameterizing the growth of ice particles in numerical models is at an interesting cross-roads. Most parameterizations developed in the past, including some that I have developed, parse model ice into numerous categories based primarily on the growth mode of the particle. Models routinely possess smaller ice, snow crystals, aggregates, graupel, and hail. The snow and ice categories in some models are further split into subcategories to account for the various shapes of ice. There has been a relatively recent shift towards a new class of microphysical models that predict the properties of ice particles instead of using multiple categories and subcategories. Particle property models predict the physical characteristics of ice, such as aspect ratio, maximum dimension, effective density, rime density, effective area, and so forth. These models are attractive in the sense that particle characteristics evolve naturally in time and space without the need for numerous (and somewhat artificial) transitions among pre-defined classes. However, particle property models often require fundamental parameters that are typically derived from laboratory measurements. For instance, the evolution of particle shape during vapor depositional growth requires knowledge of the growth efficiencies for the various axis of the crystals, which in turn depends on surface parameters that can only be determined in the laboratory. The evolution of particle shapes and density during riming, aggregation, and melting require data on the redistribution of mass across a crystals axis as that crystal collects water drops, ice crystals, or melts. Predicting the evolution of particle properties based on laboratory-determined parameters has a substantial influence on the evolution of some cloud systems. Radiatively-driven cirrus clouds show a broader range of competition between heterogeneous nucleation and homogeneous freezing when ice crystal properties are predicted. Even strongly convective squall

  20. Properties of gasification-derived char and its utilization for catalytic tar reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kezhen

    Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon. The overall goal of the proposed research was to develop novel methods to use char derived from gasification for high-value applications in syngas conditioning. The first objective was to investigate effects of gasification condition and feedstock on properties of char derived from fluidized bed gasification. Results show that the surface areas of most of the char were 1--10 m 2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The next objective was to study the properties of sorghum and red cedar char derived from downdraft gasifier. Red cedar char contained more aliphatic carbon and o-alkyl carbon than sorghum char. Char derived from downdraft gasification had higher heating values and lower ash contents than char derived from fluidized bed gasification. The gasification reactivity of red cedar char was higher than that of sorghum char. Then, red cedar char based catalysts were developed with different preparation method to reform toluene and naphthalene as model tars. The catalyst prepared with nickel nitrate was found to be better than that with nickel acetate. The nickel particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate was smaller than that of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate. The particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate decreased by hydrazine reduction. The catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate had the highest toluene removal efficiency, which was 70%--100% at 600--800 °C. The presence of naphthalene in tar reduced the catalyst efficiency. The toluene conversion was 36--99% and the naphthalene conversion was 37%--93% at 700--900 °C. Finally, effects of atmosphere and pressure on catalytic reforming of lignin-derived tars over the developed catalyst

  1. Absorption and scattering properties of arbitrarily shaped particles in the Rayleigh domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, M.; Hovenier, J.W.; Dominik, C.; Koter, A. de; Yurkin, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We provide a theoretical foundation for the statistical approach for computing the absorption properties of particles in the Rayleigh domain. We present a general method based on the discrete dipole approximation to compute the absorption and scattering properties of particles in the Rayleigh domain. The method allows to separate the geometrical aspects of a particle from its material properties. Doing the computation of the optical properties of a particle once, provides them for any set of refractive indices, wavelengths and orientations. This allows for fast computations of e.g. absorption spectra of arbitrarily shaped particles. Other practical applications of the method are in the interpretation of atmospheric and radar measurements as well as computations of the scattering matrix of small particles as a function of the scattering angle. In the statistical approach, the optical properties of irregularly shaped particles are represented by the average properties of an ensemble of particles with simple shapes. We show that the absorption cross section of an ensemble of arbitrarily shaped particles with arbitrary orientations can always be uniquely represented by the average absorption cross section of an ensemble of spheroidal particles with the same composition and fixed orientation. This proves for the first time that the statistical approach is generally viable in the Rayleigh domain

  2. Induced wettability and surface-volume correlation of composition for bovine bone derived hydroxyapatite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidaniuc, Andreea; Miculescu, Florin; Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Andronescu, Corina; Miculescu, Marian; Matei, Ecaterina; Mocanu, Aura Catalina; Pencea, Ion; Csaki, Ioana; Machedon-Pisu, Teodor; Ciocan, Lucian Toma

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite powders characteristics need to be determined both for quality control purposes and for a proper control of microstructural features of bone reconstruction products. This study combines bulk morphological and compositional analysis methods (XRF, SEM-EDS, FT-IR) with surface-related methods (XPS, contact angle measurements) in order to correlate the characteristics of hydroxyapatite powders derived from bovine bone for its use in medical applications. An experimental approach for correlating the surface and volume composition was designed based on the analysis depth of each spectral method involved in the study. Next, the influences of powder particle size and forming method on the contact angle between water drops and ceramic surface were evaluated for identifying suitable strategies of tuning hydroxyapatite's wettability. The results revealed a preferential arrangement of chemical elements at the surface of hydroxyapatite particles which could induce a favourable material behaviour in terms of sinterability and biological performance.

  3. An Alternative Derivation of the Energy Levels of the "Particle on a Ring" System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Alan

    1996-10-01

    All acceptable wave functions must be continuous mathematical functions. This criterion limits the acceptable functions for a particle in a linear 1-dimensional box to sine functions. If, however, the linear box is bent round into a ring, acceptable wave functions are those which are continuous at the 'join'. On this model some acceptable linear functions become unacceptable for the ring and some unacceptable cosine functions become acceptable. This approach can be used to produce a straightforward derivation of the energy levels and wave functions of the particle on a ring. These simple wave mechanical systems can be used as models of linear and cyclic delocalised systems such as conjugated hydrocarbons or the benzene ring. The promotion energy of an electron can then be used to calculate the wavelength of absorption of uv light. The simple model gives results of the correct order of magnitude and shows that, as the chain length increases, the uv maximum moves to longer wavelengths, as found experimentally.

  4. Regulation of the arachidonic acid mobilization in macrophages by combustion-derived particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Carsten

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute exposure to elevated levels of environmental particulate matter (PM is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. These adverse health effects, e.g. culminating in respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, have been demonstrated by a multitude of epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms relevant for toxicity are not completely understood. Especially the role of particle-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses is of particular interest. In this in vitro study we examined the influence of particle-generated ROS on signalling pathways leading to activation of the arachidonic acid (AA cascade. Incinerator fly ash particles (MAF02 were used as a model for real-life combustion-derived particulate matter. As macrophages, besides epithelial cells, are the major targets of particle actions in the lung murine RAW264.7 macrophages and primary human macrophages were investigated. Results The interaction of fly ash particles with macrophages induced both the generation of ROS and as part of the cellular inflammatory responses a dose- and time-dependent increase of free AA, prostaglandin E2/thromboxane B2 (PGE2/TXB2, and 8-isoprostane, a non-enzymatically formed oxidation product of AA. Additionally, increased phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK JNK1/2, p38 and ERK1/2 was observed, the latter of which was shown to be involved in MAF02-generated AA mobilization and phosphorylation of the cytosolic phospolipase A2. Using specific inhibitors for the different phospolipase A2 isoforms the MAF02-induced AA liberation was shown to be dependent on the cytosolic phospholipase A2, but not on the secretory and calcium-independent phospholipase A2. The initiation of the AA pathway due to MAF02 particle exposure was demonstrated to depend on the formation of ROS since the presence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC prevented the MAF02

  5. Effect of particle-size dynamics on properties of dense spongy-particle systems: Approach towards equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Monica E. A.; Anderson, Patrick D.; Hütter, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Open-porous deformable particles, often envisaged as sponges, are ubiquitous in biological and industrial systems (e.g., casein micelles in dairy products and microgels in cosmetics). The rich behavior of these suspensions is owing to the elasticity of the supporting network of the particle, and the viscosity of permeating solvent. Therefore, the rate-dependent size change of these particles depends on their structure, i.e., the permeability. This work aims at investigating the effect of the particle-size dynamics and the underlying particle structure, i.e., the particle permeability, on the transient and long-time behavior of suspensions of spongy particles in the absence of applied deformation, using the dynamic two-scale model developed by Hütter et al. [Farad. Discuss. 158, 407 (2012), 10.1039/c2fd20025b]. In the high-density limit, the transient behavior is found to be accelerated by the particle-size dynamics, even at average size changes as small as 1 % . The accelerated dynamics is evidenced by (i) the higher short-time diffusion coefficient as compared to elastic-particle systems and (ii) the accelerated formation of the stable fcc crystal structure. Furthermore, after long times, the particle-size dynamics of spongy particles is shown to result in lower stationary values of the energy and normal stresses as compared to elastic-particle systems. This dependence of the long-time behavior of these systems on the permeability, that essentially is a transport coefficient and hence must not affect the equilibrium properties, confirms that full equilibration has not been reached.

  6. Influence of the precursors on the properties of alumina supported rhodium particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coq, B.; Figueras, F.; Tazi, T.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of chlorine on the properties of Rh particles supported on alumina was studied using the hydroconversion of alkanes as a molecular probe. Chloride ions on the alumina have little influence on the Rh particles. Chlorine adsorbed on the Rh particles decreases the chemisorption capacity and increases the metal-support interaction, which results in modifications of their catalytic properties. Depending on the alkane processed, specific activity can be depressed up to four orders of magnitude. (orig.)

  7. Statistical properties of the ice particle distribution in stratiform clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoe, J.; Tinel, C.; Testud, J.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive analysis of several microphysical data bases CEPEX, EUCREX, CLARE and CARL to determine statistical properties of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The data base covers different type of stratiform clouds : tropical cirrus (CEPEX), mid-latitude cirrus (EUCREX) and mid-latitude cirrus and stratus (CARL,CLARE) The approach for analysis uses the concept of normalisation of the PSD developed by Testud et al. (2001). The normalization aims at isolating three independent characteristics of the PSD : its "intrinsic" shape, the "average size" of the spectrum and the ice water content IWC, "average size" is meant the mean mass weighted diameter. It is shown that concentration should be normalized by N_0^* proportional to IWC/D_m^4. The "intrinsic" shape is defined as F(Deq/D_m)=N(Deq)/N_0^* where Deq is the equivalent melted diameter. The "intrinsic" shape is found to be very stable in the range 001.5, more scatter is observed, but future analysis should decide if it is representative of real physical variation or statistical "error" due to counting problem. Considering an overall statistics over the full data base, a large scatter of the N_0^* against Dm plot is found. But in the case of a particular event or a particular leg of a flight, the N_0^* vs. Dm plot is much less scattered and shows a systematic trend for decaying of N_0^* when Dm increases. This trend is interpreted as the manifestation of the predominance of the aggregation process. Finally an important point for cloud remote sensing is investigated : the normalised relationships IWC/N_0^* against Z/N_0^* is much less scattered that the classical IWC against Z the radar reflectivity factor.

  8. The origin, composition and distribution of 'hot particles' derived from the nuclear industry and dispersed in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.; Clifton, R.J.

    1987-10-01

    Today, recent sediments of the Esk estuary, Cumbria, contain few hot particles derived from BNF compared with those deposited during peak releases of 1972-74. Overall the hot particles account for about 10% of the total alpha particle activity of the sediments. At some horizons, in buried sediments, concentrations of hot particles probably represent rapid transport on the sea surface under conditions of minimum erosion. Similar particles, usually less well defined, occur in accreting sediments but are corroded. Representative types of the most radioactive particles have been isolated and contain Pu, Am and Cm but only trace amounts of naturally occuring alpha emitters. Microprobe analysis of these particles often shows the presence of fairly pure uranium as the major element. On the basis of radioactivity and elemental composition many of these particles appear to be irradiated nuclear fuel debris. (author)

  9. Influence of particle shape on the microstructure evolution and the mechanical properties of granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianqiu; Liu, Enlong; Jiang, Lian; Jiang, Xiaoqiong; Sun, Yi; Xu, Ran

    2018-06-01

    In order to study the influence of particle shape on the microstructure evolution and the mechanical properties of granular materials, a two-dimensional DEM analysis of samples with three particle shapes, including circular particles, triangular particles, and elongated particles, is proposed here to simulate the direct shear tests of coarse-grained soils. For the numerical test results, analyses are conducted in terms of particle rotations, fabric evolution, and average path length evolution. A modified Rowe's stress-dilatancy equation is also proposed and successfully fitted onto simulation data.

  10. Variable property, steady, axi-symmetric, laminar, continuum plasma flow over spheroidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Yuemin; Jog, Milind A.

    2005-01-01

    Steady, continuum, laminar plasma flow over spheroidal particles has been numerically investigated in this paper using a finite volume method. To body-fit the non-spherical particle surface, an adaptive orthogonal grid is generated. The flow field and the temperature distribution are calculated for oblate and prolate particle shapes. A number of particle surface temperatures and far field temperatures are considered and thermo-physical property variation is fully accounted for in our model. The particle shapes are represented in terms of axis ratio which is defined as the ratio of axis perpendicular to the flow direction to the axis along the flow direction. For oblate shape, axis ratios from 1.6 (disk-like) to 1 (sphere) are used whereas for prolate shape, axis ratios of 1(sphere) to 0.4 (cylinder-like) are used. Effects of flow Reynolds number, particle shape, surface and far field temperatures, and variable properties, on the flow field, temperature variations, drag coefficient, and Nusselt number are outlined. Results show that particle shape has significant effect on flow and heat transfer to particle surface. Compared to a constant property flow, accounting for thermo-physical property variation leads to prediction of higher temperature and velocity gradients in the vicinity of the particle surface. Based on the numerical results, a correlation for the Nusslet number is proposed that accounts for the effect of particle shape in continuum flow with large thermo-physical property variation

  11. Synthesis and surface properties of submicron barium sulfate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Zhang Bao; Li Xinhai; Yin Zhoulan; Guo Xueyi

    2011-01-01

    Barium sulfate particles were synthesized in the presence of EDTA at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of BaSO 4 particles. The effect of the preparation parameters on the particle size distribution and morphology was investigated. The conditional formation constants of Ba-EDTA at different pH values were calculated. The results show that the size and morphology of BaSO 4 particles can be effectively controlled by adding EDTA in the precipitation process. Among all the operation conditions, the pH value has significant effect on the particle size. The obtained barium sulfate particles are spherical and well dispersed at pH = 9-10. Zeta potentials of BaSO 4 were measured at different pH. The isoelectric point (IEP) of barium sulfate colloid appears at pH 6.92. The model of the solid-solution interface at a particle of BaSO 4 was presented. The FTIR result indicates that the surface of the prepared BaSO 4 absorbs the functional groups of EDTA, which lower the IEP of the barium sulfate particles.

  12. Synthesis and surface properties of submicron barium sulfate particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ming, E-mail: csu.light@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing 526061 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhang Bao; Li Xinhai [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yin Zhoulan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Guo Xueyi [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Barium sulfate particles were synthesized in the presence of EDTA at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of BaSO{sub 4} particles. The effect of the preparation parameters on the particle size distribution and morphology was investigated. The conditional formation constants of Ba-EDTA at different pH values were calculated. The results show that the size and morphology of BaSO{sub 4} particles can be effectively controlled by adding EDTA in the precipitation process. Among all the operation conditions, the pH value has significant effect on the particle size. The obtained barium sulfate particles are spherical and well dispersed at pH = 9-10. Zeta potentials of BaSO{sub 4} were measured at different pH. The isoelectric point (IEP) of barium sulfate colloid appears at pH 6.92. The model of the solid-solution interface at a particle of BaSO{sub 4} was presented. The FTIR result indicates that the surface of the prepared BaSO{sub 4} absorbs the functional groups of EDTA, which lower the IEP of the barium sulfate particles.

  13. Effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on the properties of sewage sludge derived solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Yan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available High moisture content along with poor dewaterability are the main challenges for sewage sludge treatment and utilization. In this study, the effect of hydrothermal treatment at various temperature (120-200 ˚C on the properties of sewage sludge derived solid fuel was investigated in the terms of mechanical dewatering character, drying character, calorific value and heavy metal distribution. Hydrothermal treatment (HT followed by dewatering process significantly reduced moisture content and improved calorific value of sewage sludge with the optimum condition obtained at 140˚C. No significant alteration of drying characteristic was produced by HT. Heavy metal enrichment in solid particle was found after HT that highlighted the importance of further study regarding heavy metal behavior during combustion. However, it also implied the potential application of HT on sewage sludge for heavy metal removal from wastewater.

  14. Properties and effects of dust particles suspended in the martian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, J.B.; Colburn, D.S.; Flasar, M.; Kahn, R.; Carlston, C.E.; Pidek, D.

    1979-01-01

    Direct measurements of the optical depth above the two Viking landers are reported for a period of covering the summer, fall, and winter seasons in the northern hemisphere, a time period during which two global dust storms occurred. The optical depth had a value of about 1 just before the onset of each storm; it increased very rapidly, on a time scale of a few days, to peak values of about 3 and 6 with the arrival of the first and second storms, respectively; and its steadily decreased shortly thereafter (> or approx. = few days to few weeks) for both storms, with the decay occurring more rapidly during the initial period of decay. We have also carried out further analyses of observations of the sky brightness made with the lander cameras during the summer season to obtain improved estimates of other dust particle parameters, including the cross section weighted mean particle radius, several shape factors, and the imaginary indices of refraction. These results have been used to define the radiative properties of the suspended dust particles at solar wavelenths. The derived radiative properties of the dust were incorporated into a 1D radiative convective model. Satisfactory agreement with the temperature structure determined during the descent of the landers to the surface. Is achieved when allowance is made for the effects of vertical motions induced by large scale atmospheric dynamics. The diurnal temperature variations predicted by the 1D calculations for the observed optical depths are also in crude agreement with values inferred from orbiter and lander measurements. The 1D model predicts that the diurnal temperature change and daily mean temperature, averaged over the entire atmospheric vertical column, steadily increase as the optical depth of the dust increases to a value of several, and then subsequently change little

  15. Plant-derived chimeric virus particles for the diagnosis of primary Sjögren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eTinazzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX chimeric virus particles (CVPs and Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV empty virus-like particles (eVLPs to display a linear peptide (lipo derived from human lipocalin , which is immunodominant in Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles (VNPs were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases.

  16. Structural properties of silver nanoparticle agglomerates based on transmission electron microscopy: relationship to particle mobility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Weon Gyu; Wang Jing; Mertler, Michael; Sachweh, Bernd; Fissan, Heinz; Pui, David Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the structural properties of silver nanoparticle agglomerates generated using condensation and evaporation method in an electric tube furnace followed by a coagulation process are analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Agglomerates with mobility diameters of 80, 120, and 150 nm are sampled using the electrostatic method and then imaged by TEM. The primary particle diameter of silver agglomerates was 13.8 nm with a standard deviation of 2.5 nm. We obtained the relationship between the projected area equivalent diameter (d pa ) and the mobility diameter (d m ), i.e., d pa = 0.92 ± 0.03 d m for particles from 80 to 150 nm. We obtained fractal dimensions of silver agglomerates using three different methods: (1) D f = 1.84 ± 0.03, 1.75 ± 0.06, and 1.74 ± 0.03 for d m = 80, 120, and 150 nm, respectively from projected TEM images using a box counting algorithm; (2) fractal dimension (D fL ) = 1.47 based on maximum projected length from projected TEM images using an empirical equation proposed by Koylu et al. (1995) Combust Flame 100:621-633; and (3) mass fractal-like dimension (D fm ) = 1.71 theoretically derived from the mobility analysis proposed by Lall and Friedlander (2006) J Aerosol Sci 37:260-271. We also compared the number of primary particles in agglomerate and found that the number of primary particles obtained from the projected surface area using an empirical equation proposed by Koylu et al. (1995) Combust Flame 100:621-633 is larger than that from using the relationship, d pa = 0.92 ± 0.03 d m or from using the mobility analysis.

  17. Dependence of equilibrium properties of channeled particles on transverse quasi temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashlev, Yu.A.

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of channeled particles are investigated by methods of nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics. The equilibrium equation of the transverse energy of fast particles and the equilibrium equation of the transverse momentum of particles are derived. It is shown that equilibrium equations solution permits to obtain the expression for the transverse quasi-temperature of the channeled particle subsystem. The quasi-equilibrium angular distribution of particles after transmission through a thin monocrystal and the angular distribution at backscattering are studied. The evaluated data of the transverse quasi-temperature are presented for the case of iodine ion channeling through silver crystals [ru

  18. 2D and 3D organisation of nano-particles: synthesis and specific properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleb, Abdelhafed

    1998-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis addresses the synthesis of nano-particles of silver and cobalt in the inverse micellar system, and highlights the feasibility of two- and three-dimensional structures of these particles. The author first presents the micellar system (micro-emulsions, surfactant, properties of inverse micelles, functionalized inverse micelles, application to the synthesis of nano-particles), and then reports the study of the synthesis and organisation of colloids in 2D and 3D. He also reports the study of optical properties of metallic colloids: free electron approximation, optical properties of electron gases, optical properties of colloids, optical response of two-dimensional and three-dimensional nano-structures. The magnetic properties of colloids are then studied: magnetism of the massive metallic state, magnetic properties of nano-particles (influence of size, interactions and field, notions of magnetic order and disorder), effect of organisation. The second part of this thesis is made of a set of published articles: Synthesis of highly mono-disperse silver nano-particles from AOT reverse micelles (a way to 2D and 3D self-organisation), Optical properties of self-assembled 2D and 3D super-lattices of silver nano-particles, Collective optical properties of silver nano-particles organised in 2D super-lattices, Self assembled in 2D cobalt nano-sized particles, Self organisation of magnetic nano-sized cobalt particles, Organisation in 2D cobalt nano-particles (synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties) [fr

  19. The effect of particles in different sizes on the mechanical properties of spray formed steel composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenneth; Pedersen, A. S.; Pryds, N.

    2000-01-01

    particle size of 46 and 134 μm were carried out with respect to their mechanical properties e.g. wear resistance and tensile strength. It was found that the addition of Al2O3 particles to the steel improves its wear properties and reduces the elongation and tensile strength of the material......The main objective of the work was to investigate the effect of addition of ceramic particles with different size distributions on the mechanical properties, e.g. wear resistance and tensile strength, of spray formed materials. The experiments were carried out in a spray-forming unit at Risø...... National Laboratory, Denmark, where composites with a low alloyed boron steel (0.2 wt.% carbon) matrix containing alumina particles were produced. A comparison between cast hot-rolled material without particles, spray formed material without particles and the spray formed composites with an average ceramic...

  20. The effect of particle shape and size distribution on the acoustical properties of mixtures of hemp particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glé, Philippe; Gourdon, Emmanuel; Arnaud, Laurent; Horoshenkov, Kirill-V; Khan, Amir

    2013-12-01

    Hemp concrete is an attractive alternative to traditional materials used in building construction. It has a very low environmental impact, and it is characterized by high thermal insulation. Hemp aggregate particles are parallelepiped in shape and can be organized in a plurality of ways to create a considerable proportion of open pores with a complex connectivity pattern, the acoustical properties of which have never been examined systematically. Therefore this paper is focused on the fundamental understanding of the relations between the particle shape and size distribution, pore size distribution, and the acoustical properties of the resultant porous material mixture. The sound absorption and the transmission loss of various hemp aggregates is characterized using laboratory experiments and three theoretical models. These models are used to relate the particle size distribution to the pore size distribution. It is shown that the shape of particles and particle size control the pore size distribution and tortuosity in shiv. These properties in turn relate directly to the observed acoustical behavior.

  1. Novel Online Diagnostic Analysis for In-Flight Particle Properties in Cold Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuluoto, Heli; Matikainen, Ville; Larjo, Jussi; Vuoristo, Petri

    2018-02-01

    In cold spraying, powder particles are accelerated by preheated supersonic gas stream to high velocities and sprayed on a substrate. The particle velocities depend on the equipment design and process parameters, e.g., on the type of the process gas and its pressure and temperature. These, in turn, affect the coating structure and the properties. The particle velocities in cold spraying are high, and the particle temperatures are low, which can, therefore, be a challenge for the diagnostic methods. A novel optical online diagnostic system, HiWatch HR, will open new possibilities for measuring particle in-flight properties in cold spray processes. The system employs an imaging measurement technique called S-PTV (sizing-particle tracking velocimetry), first introduced in this research. This technique enables an accurate particle size measurement also for small diameter particles with a large powder volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate the velocities of metallic particles sprayed with HPCS and LPCS systems and with varying process parameters. The measured in-flight particle properties were further linked to the resulting coating properties. Furthermore, the camera was able to provide information about variations during the spraying, e.g., fluctuating powder feeding, which is important from the process control and quality control point of view.

  2. Cosmological constraints on the properties of weakly interacting massive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.; Turner, M.S.

    1984-10-01

    Considerations of the age and density of, as well as the evolution of structure in, the Universe lead to constraints on the masses and lifetimes of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). 26 references

  3. Cosmological constraints on the properties of weakly interacting massive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigman, G.; Turner, M.S.

    1984-10-01

    Considerations of the age and density of, as well as the evolution of structure in, the Universe lead to constraints on the masses and lifetimes of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). 26 references.

  4. Morphology and Optical Properties of Black-Carbon Particles Relevant to Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, H. A.; Bambha, R.; Dansson, M. A.; Schrader, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Black-carbon particles are believed to have a large influence on climate through direct radiative forcing, reduction of surface albedo of snow and ice in the cryosphere, and interaction with clouds. The optical properties and morphology of atmospheric particles containing black carbon are uncertain, and characterization of black carbon resulting from engines emissions is needed. Refractory black-carbon particles found in the atmosphere are often coated with unburned fuel, sulfuric acid, water, ash, and other combustion by-products and atmospheric constituents. Coatings can alter the optical and physical properties of the particles and therefore change their optical properties and cloud interactions. Details of particle morphology and coating state can also have important effects on the interpretation of optical diagnostics. A more complete understanding of how coatings affect extinction, absorption, and incandescence measurements is needed before these techniques can be applied reliably to a wide range of particles. We have investigated the effects of coatings on the optical and physical properties of combustion-generated black-carbon particles using a range of standard particle diagnostics, extinction, and time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements. Particles were generated in a co-flow diffusion flame, extracted, cooled, and coated with oleic acid. The diffusion flame produces highly dendritic soot aggregates with similar properties to those produced in diesel engines, diffusion flames, and most natural combustion processes. A thermodenuder was used to remove the coating. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to monitor aggregate sizes; a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) was used to measure coating mass fractions, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize particle morphologies. The results demonstrate important differences in optical measurements between coated and uncoated particles.

  5. Investigation of some properties of the dielectric particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavalyan, V.G.; Gukasyan, S.M.; Kavalov, R.L.; Karapetyan, R.A.; Lorikyan, M.P. (Erevanskij Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1981-01-01

    Results of investigation into temporary dispersion and amplitude resolution of a dielectric detector (DD) of particles are given. In this detector secondary electrons produced by a particle passing through a dielectric layer are gathered on thin anode filaments strenched inside the dielectric layer. As a working substance of the detector investigated used was CsI having 1.7% relative density of monocrystal, gap between planes of 20 ..mu..m diameter anode filaments and cathode electrodes was approximately equal to 200 ..mu..m, distance between anode filaments was approximately 250 ..mu..m. DD having working area S=5 cm/sup 2/ was placed at a distance of 2 cm from 5 MeV radioactive alpha source of 10/sup 4/ particle/s intensity. Curve of particle detection efficiency for this detector reached plateau at a level of 100% in the range of working voltages from 800 to 1200 V. Coincidence method together with a time-amplitude converter, at inlets of which applied were pulses from DD and a scintillation counter placed under DD, were used to measure temporary dispersion. Data on behaviour of particle registration efficiency depending on time of continuous effect of working and inverse voltages are given. It is found that temporary dispersion of the DD and scintillation counter system is a value of order of 1 ns and amplitude resolution of DD is an order of 100%.

  6. Structural properties of carbon nanotubes derived from 13C NMR

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, E.

    2011-10-10

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study on how structural properties of carbon nanotubes can be derived from 13C NMR investigations. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR experiments have been performed on single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes with diameters in the range from 0.7 to 100 nm and with number of walls from 1 to 90. We provide models on how diameter and the number of nanotube walls influence NMR linewidth and line position. Both models are supported by theoretical calculations. Increasing the diameter D, from the smallest investigated nanotube, which in our study corresponds to the inner nanotube of a double-walled tube to the largest studied diameter, corresponding to large multiwalled nanotubes, leads to a 23.5 ppm diamagnetic shift of the isotropic NMR line position δ. We show that the isotropic line follows the relation δ = 18.3/D + 102.5 ppm, where D is the diameter of the tube and NMR line position δ is relative to tetramethylsilane. The relation asymptotically tends to approach the line position expected in graphene. A characteristic broadening of the line shape is observed with the increasing number of walls. This feature can be rationalized by an isotropic shift distribution originating from different diamagnetic shielding of the encapsulated nanotubes together with a heterogeneity of the samples. Based on our results, NMR is shown to be a nondestructive spectroscopic method that can be used as a complementary method to, for example, transmission electron microscopy to obtain structural information for carbon nanotubes, especially bulk samples.

  7. Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.

    1995-02-01

    The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D 2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

  8. Properties of the particles emitted at mid-rapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, T.; Cussol, D; Peter, J.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J; Durand, D.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Gulminelli, F.; Lecolley, J.F.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Steckmeyer, J. C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.

    1997-01-01

    Mid-rapidity emission studies allow the access at the very first instances of collision between two nuclei. Its study as a function of the energy of incident projectile permits to follow the evolution of the phenomena in the entrance channel from the lowest energies where these phenomena are essentially collective up to high energies where they are essentially governed by nucleon-nucleon collisions. The first method called the 'method E' consists in evaluating first the contribution of the quasi-projectile to the rapidity distribution and then to subtract it from the total spectrum to obtain the contribution from the mid-rapidity particles. For light particles the mid-rapidity emissions have a spectrum extended up to rapidities close to that of the quasi-projectile. This method under-estimates the contribution due to mid-rapidity. The second method called the 'method M' consists in determining directly the contribution from the mid-rapidity particles supposing that their rapidity spectrum is homothetic to the triton spectrum. This method over-estimates the contribution of mid-rapidity particles to the measure where the rapidity spectrum of the evaporated particles may extend up to Y nn , the rapidity of the nucleon-nucleon frame. The relative proportion of the particles coming from mid-rapidity emissions as a function of the experimental impact parameter and incident energy for the system Ar+Ni is shown. Also, results concerning the energy spectrum of light particles emitted at mid-rapidity as a function of the excitation energy of quasi-projectile are shown for the same system. Conclusions concerning the mid-rapidity emission are the following: the amount of particles depends essentially on the geometric overlap between the projectile and the target; these particles are issued out of a zone richer in neutrons than the total system; the energy per nucleon stored in this zone is independent of the violence of collision what indicates a production process essentially

  9. Relevance of near-Earth magnetic field modeling in deriving SEP properties using ground-based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellakopoulos, Anastasios; Plainaki, Christina; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Laurenza, Monica; Gerontidou, Maria; Storini, Marisa; Andriopoulou, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) are short-term increases observed in cosmic ray intensity records of ground-based particle detectors such as neutron monitors (NMs) or muon detectors; they are related to the arrival of solar relativistic particles in the terrestrial environment. Hence, GLE events are related to the most energetic class of solar energetic particle (SEP) events. In this work we investigate how the use of different magnetospheric field models can influence the derivation of the relativistic SEP properties when modeling GLE events. As a case study, we examine the event of 2012 May 17 (also known as GLE71), registered by ground-based NMs. We apply the Tsyganenko 89 and the Tsyganenko 96 models in order to calculate the trajectories of the arriving SEPs in the near-Earth environment. We show that the intersection of the SEP trajectories with the atmospheric layer at ~20 km from the Earth's surface (i.e., where the flux of the generated secondary particles is maximum), forms for each ground-based neutron monitor a specified viewing region that is dependent on the magnetospheric field configuration. Then, we apply the Neutron Monitor Based Anisotropic GLE Pure Power Law (NMBANGLE PPOLA) model (Plainaki et al. 2010, Solar Phys, 264, 239), in order to derive the spectral properties of the related SEP event and the spatial distributions of the SEP fluxes impacting the Earth's atmosphere. We examine the dependence of the results on the used magnetic field models and evaluate their range of validity. Finally we discuss information derived by modeling the SEP spectrum in the frame of particle acceleration scenarios.

  10. Internalisation of engineered nanoparticles into mammalian cells in vitro: influence of cell type and particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Wibke; Bastian, Susanne; Trahorsch, Ulrike; Iwe, Maria; Kühnel, Dana; Meißner, Tobias; Springer, Armin; Gelinsky, Michael; Richter, Volkmar; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Potthoff, Annegret; Lehmann, Irina; Schirmer, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Cellular internalisation of industrial engineered nanoparticles is undesired and a reason for concern. Here we investigated and compared the ability of seven different mammalian cell cultures in vitro to incorporate six kinds of engineered nanoparticles, focussing on the role of cell type and particle properties in particle uptake. Uptake was examined using light and electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) for particle element identification. Flow cytometry was applied for semi-quantitative analyses of particle uptake and for exploring the influence on uptake by the phagocytosis inhibitor Cytochalasin D (CytoD). All particles studied were found to enter each kind of cultured cells. Yet, particles were never found within cell nuclei. The presence of the respective particles within the cells was confirmed by EDX. Live-cell imaging revealed the time-dependent process of internalisation of technical nanoparticles, which was exemplified by tungsten carbide particle uptake into the human skin cells, HaCaT. Particles were found to co-localise with lysosomal structures within the cells. The incorporated nanoparticles changed the cellular granularity, as measured by flow cytometry, already after 3 h of exposure in a particle specific manner. By correlating particle properties with flow cytometry data, only the primary particle size was found to be a weakly influential property for particle uptake. CytoD, an inhibitor of actin filaments and therewith of phagocytosis, significantly inhibited the internalisation of particle uptake in only two of the seven investigated cell cultures. Our study, therefore, supports the notion that nanoparticles can enter mammalian cells quickly and easily, irrespective of the phagocytic ability of the cells.

  11. Acceleration of Particles as a Universal Property of Ergosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2013-04-01

    We show that recent observation made by Grib and Pavlov, [A. A. Grib and Yu. V. Pavlov, Europhys. Lett.101, 20004 (2013)] for the Kerr black hole is valid in the general case of rotating axially symmetric metric. Namely, collision of two particles in the ergosphere leads to indefinite growth of the energy in the center-of-mass frame, provided the angular momentum of one of the two particles is negative and increases without limit for a fixed energy at infinity. General approach enabled us to elucidate why the role of the ergosphere is crucial in this process.

  12. Deriving the mass of particles from Extended Theories of Gravity in LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; De Laurentis, M

    2011-01-01

    We derive a geometrical approach to produce the mass of particles that could be suitably tested at LHC. Starting from a 5D unification scheme, we show that all the known interactions could be suitably deduced as an induced symmetry breaking of the non-unitary GL(4)-group of diffeomorphisms. The deformations inducing such a breaking act as vector bosons that, depending on the gravitational mass states, can assume the role of interaction bosons like gluons, electroweak bosons or photon. The further gravitational degrees of freedom, emerging from the reduction mechanism in 4D, eliminate the hierarchy problem since generate a cut-off comparable with electroweak one at TeV scales. In this "economic" scheme, gravity should induce the other interactions in a non-perturbative way.

  13. The Effects of Fe-Particles on the Tensile Properties of Al-Si-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Bjurenstedt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Fe-rich particles has been a topic for discussion in the aluminum casting industry because of the negative impact they exert on the mechanical properties. However, there are still contradictions on the effects of various morphologies of Fe-particles. In this study, microstructural characterization of tensile tested samples has been performed to reveal how unmodified and modified Fe-rich particles impact on the tensile behavior. Analysis of additions of Fe modifiers such as Mn and Cr, showed higher amounts of primary Fe-rich particles (sludge with increased porosity and, as result, degraded tensile properties. From the fracture analysis of tensile tested hot isostatic pressed (HIPed samples it could be concluded that the mechanical properties were mainly governed by the Fe-rich particles, which were fracturing through cleavage, not by the porosity.

  14. Properties of aqueous dispersion of chitosan and chondroitin sulfate complex derived from aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikov V. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of production of chondroitin sulfate, chitosan and polyelectrolyte complexes based on them received from the local marine raw materials is relevant from the point of view of developing a comprehensive waste-free technology for natural raw materials processing. The objects of study are chitosan derived from the shell of the Kamchatka crab Paralithodes camtschaticus and chondroitin sulfate derived from cartilage of salmon Salmon salar. To determine the surface tension of polyelectrolyte complex solutions and dispersions the Wilhelmy method has been used, the effective radius of particle dispersion has been calculated by light scattering, measurements of effective viscosity have been carried out under shear deformation. The conditions of formation, surface and rheological properties of the chitosan and chondroitin sulfate complex extracted from aquatic organisms in the Barents Sea have been studied. Obtaining conditions and molar ratios of these polyelectrolytes in which the aqueous dispersion of the complex remains stable for a long time have been established. It has been found that by addition of chondroitin sulfate solution to chitosan solution in molar ratios of 1 : 3; 1 : 6 the dispersion of the polyelectrolyte complex stable for 2 to 3 days has been formed. The polyelectrolyte complex dispersions behave as non-Newtonian pseudoplastic liquid. When the molar ratio of the mixed solution is 1 : 1 (regardless of the sequence of mixing suspension of the polyelectrolyte complex has been formed, then there is precipitation. Equilibrium surface tension of the aqueous dispersion of the polyelectrolyte complex is higher than that of solutions of chondroitin sulfate and chitosan. The effective radius of particles in the complex dispersion has been determined. The effective radius of the particles in the complex dispersion depends on the molar ratio of chondroitin sulfate : chitosan. A qualitative scheme of formation of polyelectrolyte

  15. Physical properties of the arctic summer aerosol particles in relation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sea-salt particles of marine origin generated within the Arctic circle are identified as the main source of the Arctic summer aerosols. ... concentration starts decreasing within a few minutes from the start of these events but requires a few hours to restore to the normal background aerosol level after the end of event.

  16. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumel, D; Fortier, S; Gales, S; Guillot, J; LangevinJoliot, H; Laurent, H; Maison, JM; Vernotte, J; Bordewijck, J; Brandenburg, S; Krasznahorkay, A; Crawley, GM; Massolo, CP; Renteria, M; Khendriche, A

    1996-01-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in Ni-64, Zr-90, Sn-120 and (208)pb excited by means of the (alpha,He-3) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular

  17. Physical properties of the arctic summer aerosol particles in relation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion associated with the winds from the oceanic sector is spread over the whole range of particle sizes, the increase in ... the levels at densely polluted urban areas. These changes ..... forest fires in Siberia or biomass burning in the. Eurasian ...

  18. Directive properties of active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, W.

    2012-01-01

    and optical gain constant on the directivities. While significant variations in the directivities are realized in the cylindrical cases for different source locations within and slightly outside the nano-particles and values of the optical gain constant, the corresponding spherical cases exhibit negligible...

  19. Constraining properties of dark matter particles using astrophysical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakubovskyi, Dmytro

    2013-01-01

    A microscopic origin of dark matter phenomenon is the most plausible hypothesis to explain the mystery of dark matter. The dark matter particle hypothesis necessarily implies an extension of the Standard Model. In this thesis, we undertook a systematic model-independent program of studying the

  20. Single-particle properties from Kohn-Sham Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Furnstahl, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    An effective action approach to Kohn-Sham density functional theory is used to illustrate how the exact Green's function can be calculated in terms of the Kohn-Sham Green's function. An example based on Skyrme energy functionals shows that single-particle Kohn-Sham spectra can be improved by adding sources used to construct the energy functional

  1. Size-resolved chemical composition, effective density, and optical properties of biomass burning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jinghao; Lu, Xiaohui; Li, Ling; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Ci; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-06-01

    Biomass burning aerosol has an important impact on the global radiative budget. A better understanding of the correlations between the mixing states of biomass burning particles and their optical properties is the goal of a number of current studies. In this work, the effective density, chemical composition, and optical properties of rice straw burning particles in the size range of 50-400 nm were measured using a suite of online methods. We found that the major components of particles produced by burning rice straw included black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and potassium salts, but the mixing states of particles were strongly size dependent. Particles of 50 nm had the smallest effective density (1.16 g cm-3) due to a relatively large proportion of aggregate BC. The average effective densities of 100-400 nm particles ranged from 1.35 to 1.51 g cm-3 with OC and inorganic salts as dominant components. Both density distribution and single-particle mass spectrometry showed more complex mixing states in larger particles. Upon heating, the separation of the effective density distribution modes confirmed the external mixing state of less-volatile BC or soot and potassium salts. The size-resolved optical properties of biomass burning particles were investigated at two wavelengths (λ = 450 and 530 nm). The single-scattering albedo (SSA) showed the lowest value for 50 nm particles (0.741 ± 0.007 and 0.889 ± 0.006) because of the larger proportion of BC content. Brown carbon played an important role for the SSA of 100-400 nm particles. The Ångström absorption exponent (AAE) values for all particles were above 1.6, indicating the significant presence of brown carbon in all sizes. Concurrent measurements in our work provide a basis for discussing the physicochemical properties of biomass burning aerosol and its effects on the global climate and atmospheric environment.

  2. A database of microwave and sub-millimetre ice particle single scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelund, Robin; Eriksson, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Ice crystal particles are today a large contributing factor as to why cold-type clouds such as cirrus remain a large uncertainty in global climate models and measurements. The reason for this is the complex and varied morphology in which ice particles appear, as compared to liquid droplets with an in general spheroidal shape, thus making the description of electromagnetic properties of ice particles more complicated. Single scattering properties of frozen hydrometers have traditionally been approximated by representing the particles as spheres using Mie theory. While such practices may work well in radio applications, where the size parameter of the particles is generally low, comparisons with measurements and simulations show that this assumption is insufficient when observing tropospheric cloud ice in the microwave or sub-millimetre regions. In order to assist the radiative transfer and remote sensing communities, a database of single scattering properties of semi-realistic particles is being produced. The data is being produced using DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation) code which can treat arbitrarily shaped particles, and Tmatrix code for simpler shapes when found sufficiently accurate. The aim has been to mainly cover frequencies used by the upcoming ICI (Ice Cloud Imager) mission with launch in 2022. Examples of particles to be included are columns, plates, bullet rosettes, sector snowflakes and aggregates. The idea is to treat particles with good average optical properties with respect to the multitude of particles and aggregate types appearing in nature. The database will initially only cover macroscopically isotropic orientation, but will eventually also include horizontally aligned particles. Databases of DDA particles do already exist with varying accessibility. The goal of this database is to complement existing data. Regarding the distribution of the data, the plan is that the database shall be available in conjunction with the ARTS (Atmospheric

  3. Online single particle analysis of ice particle residuals from mountain-top mixed-phase clouds using laboratory derived particle type assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Klimach, Thomas; Mertes, Stephan; Schenk, Ludwig Paul; Kupiszewski, Piotr; Curtius, Joachim; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    In situ single particle analysis of ice particle residuals (IPRs) and out-of-cloud aerosol particles was conducted by means of laser ablation mass spectrometry during the intensive INUIT-JFJ/CLACE campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.) in January-February 2013. During the 4-week campaign more than 70 000 out-of-cloud aerosol particles and 595 IPRs were analyzed covering a particle size diameter range from 100 nm to 3 µm. The IPRs were sampled during 273 h while the station was covered by mixed-phase clouds at ambient temperatures between -27 and -6 °C. The identification of particle types is based on laboratory studies of different types of biological, mineral and anthropogenic aerosol particles. The outcome of these laboratory studies was characteristic marker peaks for each investigated particle type. These marker peaks were applied to the field data. In the sampled IPRs we identified a larger number fraction of primary aerosol particles, like soil dust (13 ± 5 %) and minerals (11 ± 5 %), in comparison to out-of-cloud aerosol particles (2.4 ± 0.4 and 0.4 ± 0.1 %, respectively). Additionally, anthropogenic aerosol particles, such as particles from industrial emissions and lead-containing particles, were found to be more abundant in the IPRs than in the out-of-cloud aerosol. In the out-of-cloud aerosol we identified a large fraction of aged particles (31 ± 5 %), including organic material and secondary inorganics, whereas this particle type was much less abundant (2.7 ± 1.3 %) in the IPRs. In a selected subset of the data where a direct comparison between out-of-cloud aerosol particles and IPRs in air masses with similar origin was possible, a pronounced enhancement of biological particles was found in the IPRs.

  4. Effects of cement particle size distribution on performance properties of Portland cement-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, D.P.; Garboczi, E.J.; Haecker, C.J.; Jensen, O.M.

    1999-10-01

    The original size, spatial distribution, and composition of Portland cement particles have a large influence on hydration kinetics, microstructure development, and ultimate properties of cement-based materials. In this paper, the effects of cement particle size distribution on a variety of performance properties are explored via computer simulation and a few experimental studies. Properties examined include setting time, heat release, capillary porosity percolation, diffusivity, chemical shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, internal relative humidity evolution, and interfacial transition zone microstructure. The effects of flocculation and dispersion of the cement particles in the starting microstructures on resultant properties are also briefly evaluated. The computer simulations are conducted using two cement particle size distributions that bound those commonly in use today and three different water-to-cement ratios: 0.5, 0.3, and 0.246. For lower water-to-cement ratio systems, the use of coarser cements may offer equivalent or superior performance, as well as reducing production costs for the manufacturer.

  5. Optical properties and quantum confinement of nanocrystalline II-IV semiconductor particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, Albert van

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, experiments are described that were performed on suspensions of nanocrystalline II-IV semiconductor particles.The object of this research is to study quantum size effects in relation to the luminescence properties of these particles. A pre-requisite for performing studies of

  6. Effect of particle size of granules on some mechanical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid dosage forms are invariably multiparticulate systems of heterogenous particle size distribution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of particle size distribution of paracetamol granules on some tablet mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets. Granules were formed by wet massing paracetamol ...

  7. Determining the radiative properties of pulverized-coal particles from experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.

    1992-02-01

    A comprehensive coupled experimental-theoretical study has been performed to determine the effective radiative properties of pulverized-coal/char particles. The results obtained show that the ``effective`` scattering phase function of coal particles are highly forward scattering and show less sensitivity to the size than predicted from the Lorenz-Mie theory. The main reason for this is the presence of smaller size particles associated with each larger particle. Also, the coal/char particle clouds display more side scattering than predicted for the same size range spheres, indicating the irregular shape of the particles and fragmentation. In addition to these, it was observed that in the visible wavelength range the coal absorption is not gray, and slightly vary with the wavelength. These two experimental approaches followed in this study are unique in a sense that the physics of the problem are not approximated. The properties determined include all uncertainties related to the particle shape, size distribution, inhomogeneity and spectral complex index of refraction data. In order to obtain radiative property data over a wider wavelength spectrum, additional ex-situ experiments have been carried out using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer. The spectral measurements were performed over the wavelength range of 2 to 22 {mu}m. These results were interpreted to obtain the ``effective`` efficiency factors of coal particles and the corresponding refractive index values. The results clearly show that the coal/char radiative properties display significant wavelength dependency in the infrared spectrum.

  8. Influence of layer eccentricity on the resonant properties of cylindrical active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, R. O.; Arslanagic, Samel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the influence of the layer eccentricity on the resonant properties of active coated nano-particles made of a silver core and gain impregnated silica shell illuminated by a near-by magnetic line source. For a fixed over-all size of the particle, designs with small and large cores...

  9. Vertical Profiles and Chemical Properties of Aerosol Particles upon Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Moroni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated particle samples were collected in the Arctic (Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in April 2011 both at ground level and in the free atmosphere exploiting a tethered balloon equipped also with an optical particle counter (OPC and meteorological sensors. Individual particle properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive microanalysis (SEM-EDS. Results of the SEM-EDS were integrated with particle size and optical measurements of the aerosols properties at ground level and along the vertical profiles. Detailed analysis of two case studies reveals significant differences in composition despite the similar structure (layering and the comparable texture (grain size distribution of particles in the air column. Differences in the mineral chemistry of samples point at both local (plutonic/metamorphic complexes in Svalbard and remote (basic/ultrabasic magmatic complexes in Greenland and/or Iceland geological source regions for dust. Differences in the particle size and shape are put into relationship with the mechanism of particle formation, that is, primary (well sorted, small or secondary (idiomorphic, fine to coarse grained origin for chloride and sulfate crystals and transport/settling for soil (silicate, carbonate and metal oxide particles. The influence of size, shape, and mixing state of particles on ice nucleation and radiative properties is also discussed.

  10. Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID Controller Tuning using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Bassi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers are the most popular controllers used in industry because of their remarkable effectiveness, simplicity of implementation and broad applicability. However, manual tuning of these controllers is time consuming, tedious and generally lead to poor performance. This tuning which is application specific also deteriorates with time as a result of plant parameter changes. This paper presents an artificial intelligence (AI method of particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm for tuning the optimal proportional-integral derivative (PID controller parameters for industrial processes. This approach has superior features, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristic and good computational efficiency over the conventional methods. Ziegler- Nichols, tuning method was applied in the PID tuning and results were compared with the PSO-Based PID for optimum control. Simulation results are presented to show that the PSO-Based optimized PID controller is capable of providing an improved closed-loop performance over the Ziegler- Nichols tuned PID controller Parameters. Compared to the heuristic PID tuning method of Ziegler-Nichols, the proposed method was more efficient in improving the step response characteristics such as, reducing the steady-states error; rise time, settling time and maximum overshoot in speed control of DC motor.

  11. Hygroscopic Properties and Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles at the High Alpine Site Jungfraujoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingarter, E.; Gysel, M.; Sjoegren, S.; Baltesperger, U.; Alfarra, R.; Bower, K.; Coe, H.

    2004-03-01

    The hygroscopic properties of aerosols play a significant role in atmospheric phenomena such as acid deposition, visibility degradation and climate change. Due to the hygroscopic growth of the particles, water is often the dominant component of the ambient aerosol at high relative humidity (RH) conditions. The ability to absorb water depends on the particle chemical composition, dry size, and shape. The aim of this study is to link the chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol to its hygroscopic properties. (author)

  12. DERIVED THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF [o-XYLENE OR p ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    This paper is a continuation of our earlier work related to the study of thermodynamic properties of binary and ternary mixtures [1-6]. Reliable data on phase behavior and thermodynamic excess properties of multi component fluid mixtures are necessary for the proper design of synthesis and separation processes of the ...

  13. Synthesis and properties of unagglomerated nanocomposite particles for nanomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Sarah M.

    2005-11-01

    Methods have been developed to prepare stable, unagglomerated active-medical-agent nanoparticles in a range of sizes, based on reverse-micelle microemulsion techniques. The process used to prepare monodisperse, spherical nanocomposite particles is based on methods originally outlined in detail by Adair et al. and Li et al. The "Molecular Dot" (MD) nanoparticles incorporate a variety of medically-active substances, such as organic fluorophores and therapeutic drugs, internally distributed in silica, titania, calcium phosphate, or calcium phospho-silicate matrices. The synthesis techniques have also been modified to produce nanoparticles containing combinations of fluorophores and medicinal agents, in order to monitor drug release and location. The specific biomedical application for the nanocomposite particles dictates the selection of core and shell-matrix materials. For example, the protective shell-matrices of the silica and titania MDs shield the active-medical agents from damage due to changes in pH, temperature, and other environmental effects. Conversely, the calcium phosphate and calcium phospho-silicate shell-matrix nanoparticles can potentially be engineered to dissolve in physiological environments. The method used to remove residual precursor materials while maintaining a well-dispersed assembly of nanoparticles is critical to the use of nanocolloids in medical applications. The dispersion approach is based on protection-dispersion theory tailored to accommodate the high surface areas and reactivity of sub-50 nm particles in aqueous or water/ethanol mixtures. Dispersion of the nanocomposite particles is further enhanced with the use of size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to simultaneously wash and disperse the nanocomposite particle suspensions. The state of dispersion of the nanosuspensions is evaluated using the average agglomeration number (AAN) approach in conjunction with other characterization techniques. The formulation of

  14. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, A.; Hasselbach, J.; Lauer, P.; Baumann, R.; Franke, K.; Gurk, C.; Schlager, H.; Weingartner, E.

    2008-05-01

    Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel)-1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel)-1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC). Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 μm, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 μm for raw emissions to 0.10 μm at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp≤0.02 μm. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of ESIPT reactive triazine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuplich, Marcelo D.; Grasel, Fabio S.; Campo, Leandra F.; Rodembusch, Fabiano S.; Stefani, Valter

    2012-01-01

    Four new reactive fluorescent triazine derivatives were obtained from nucleophilic aromatic substitution of cyanuric chloride. The compounds were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C and 1 H NMR) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS MALDI). UV-Vis and steady-state fluorescence (in solution and in solid state) spectroscopies were also applied to characterize the photophysical behavior. The dyes are fluorescent by an intramolecular proton transfer mechanism (ESIPT) in the blue-orange region, with a large Stokes shift between 6365-10290 cm-1. The fluorescent cyanuric derivatives could successfully react with cellulose fibers to give new fluorescent cellulosic materials. (author)

  16. Bio-composites based on polypropylene reinforced with Almond Shells particles: Mechanical and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essabir, H.; Nekhlaoui, S.; Malha, M.; Bensalah, M.O.; Arrakhiz, F.Z.; Qaiss, A.; Bouhfid, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Almond Shells (ASs) particles have been used as reinforcement in polypropylene matrix. • The SEBS-g-MA has been used to improve the adhesion between matrix and particles. • The mechanical and thermal properties of the composite have been improved by the AS. - Abstract: In this work, Almond Shells (ASs) particles are used as reinforcement in a thermoplastic matrix as polypropylene (PP). Composites containing Almond Shells (ASs) particles with and without compatibilizer (maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene; SEBS-g-MA) for various particle content (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 wt.%) was investigated by means of studying their mechanical, thermal and rheological properties. The composites were prepared in a twin-screw extruder and assessed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile testing and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Results show a clear improvement in mechanical and rheological properties from the use of Almond Shells particles in the matrix without and with maleic anhydride compatibilizer, corresponding to a gain in Young’s modulus of 56.2% and 35% respectively, at 30 wt.% particle loading. Thermal analysis revealed that incorporation of particle in the composites resulted in increase in the initial thermal decomposition temperatures

  17. The Microwave Properties of Simulated Melting Precipitation Particles: Sensitivity to Initial Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. T.; Olson, W. S.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.

    2016-01-01

    A simplified approach is presented for assessing the microwave response to the initial melting of realistically shaped ice particles. This paper is divided into two parts: (1) a description of the Single Particle Melting Model (SPMM), a heuristic melting simulation for ice-phase precipitation particles of any shape or size (SPMM is applied to two simulated aggregate snow particles, simulating melting up to 0.15 melt fraction by mass), and (2) the computation of the single-particle microwave scattering and extinction properties of these hydrometeors, using the discrete dipole approximation (via DDSCAT), at the following selected frequencies: 13.4, 35.6, and 94.0GHz for radar applications and 89, 165.0, and 183.31GHz for radiometer applications. These selected frequencies are consistent with current microwave remote-sensing platforms, such as CloudSat and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Comparisons with calculations using variable-density spheres indicate significant deviations in scattering and extinction properties throughout the initial range of melting (liquid volume fractions less than 0.15). Integration of the single-particle properties over an exponential particle size distribution provides additional insight into idealized radar reflectivity and passive microwave brightness temperature sensitivity to variations in size/mass, shape, melt fraction, and particle orientation.

  18. Optical properties, morphology and elemental composition of atmospheric particles at T1 supersite on MILAGRO campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, G.; Mamani-Paco, R.; Castro, T.; Peralta, O.; Herrera, E.; Trujillo, B.

    2012-03-01

    Atmospheric particles were sampled at T1 supersite during MILAGRO campaign, in March 2006. T1 was located at the north of Mexico City (MC). Aerosol sampling was done by placing copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) on the last five of an 8-stage MOUDI cascade impactor. Samples were obtained at different periods to observe possible variations on morphology. Absorption and scattering coefficients, as well as particle concentrations (0.01-3 μm aerodynamic diameter) were measured simultaneously using a PSAP absorption photometer, a portable integrating nephelometer, and a CPC particle counter. Particle images were acquired at different magnifications using a CM 200 Phillips TEM-EDAX system, and then calculated the border-based fractal dimension. Also, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the elemental composition of particles. The morphology of atmospheric particles for two aerodynamic diameters (0.18 and 1.8 μm) was compared using border-based fractal dimension to relate it to the other particle properties, because T1-generated particles have optical, morphological and chemical properties different from those transported by the MC plume. Particles sampled under MC pollution influence showed not much variability, suggesting that more spherical particles (border-based fractal dimension close to 1.0) are more common in larger sizes (d50 = 1.8 μm), which may be attributed to aerosol aging and secondary aerosol formation. Between 06:00 and 09:00 a.m., smaller particles (d50 = 0.18 μm) had more irregular shapes resulting in higher border-based fractal dimensions (1.2-1.3) for samples with more local influence. EDS analysis in d50 = 0.18 μm particles showed high contents of carbonaceous material, Si, Fe, K, and Co. Perhaps, this indicates an impact from industrial and vehicle emissions on atmospheric particles at T1.

  19. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Galès, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J. M.; Vernotte, J.; Bordewijck, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G. M.; Massolo, C. P.; Renteria, M.; Khendriche, A.

    1996-02-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in 64Ni, 90Zr, 120Sn and 208Pb excited by means of the (α, 3He) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular correlation analysis. The structure located between 11 and 15 MeV in 91Zr, and between 8 and 12 MeV excitation energy in 209Pb display large departures from a pure statistical decay. The corresponding non-statistical branching ratios are compared with the results of two theoretical calculations.

  20. Variance analysis of the Monte Carlo perturbation source method in inhomogeneous linear particle transport problems. Derivation of formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, K.

    1981-01-01

    The perturbation source method is used in the Monte Carlo method in calculating small effects in a particle field. It offers primising possibilities for introducing positive correlation between subtracting estimates even in the cases where other methods fail, in the case of geometrical variations of a given arrangement. The perturbation source method is formulated on the basis of integral equations for the particle fields. The formulae for the second moment of the difference of events are derived. Explicity a certain class of transport games and different procedures for generating the so-called perturbation particles are considered [ru

  1. Phase transitions and phase miscibility of mixed particles of ammonium sulfate, toluene-derived secondary organic material, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mackenzie L; You, Yuan; Kuwata, Mikinori; Bertram, Allan K; Martin, Scot T

    2013-09-12

    The phase states of atmospheric particles influence their roles in physicochemical processes related to air quality and climate. The phases of particles containing secondary organic materials (SOMs) are still uncertain, especially for SOMs produced from aromatic precursor gases. In this work, efflorescence and deliquescence phase transitions, as well as phase separation, in particles composed of toluene-derived SOM, ammonium sulfate, and water were studied by hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analysis (HTDMA) and optical microscopy. The SOM was produced in the Harvard Environmental Chamber by photo-oxidation of toluene at chamber relative humidities of toluene-derived SOM and aqueous ammonium sulfate, suggesting phase immiscibility between the two. Optical microscopy of particles prepared for ε = 0.12 confirmed phase separation for RH 0.5, the DRH values of ammonium sulfate in mixtures with SOM produced at toluene-derived SOM and aqueous ammonium sulfate across a limited range of organic volume fractions differentiates this SOM from previous reports for isoprene-derived SOM of full miscibility and for α-pinene-derived SOM of nearly full immiscibility with aqueous ammonium sulfate.

  2. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded SOA particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH42SO4 having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3. The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility – hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75% and above (RH 85% the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH42SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution, with an

  3. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded SOA particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Duplissy, J.; Gysel, M.; Metzger, A.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Alfarra, M. R.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Fletcher, C.; Good, N.; McFiggans, G.; Jonsson, Â. M.; Hallquist, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2009-01-01

    The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3). The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility - hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer). VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF) factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75%) and above (RH 85%) the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH4)2SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution, with an increasing volume fraction of SOA. To our knowledge this is the first time that SOA derived

  4. Antihypertensive properties of lactoferricin B-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Giménez, Pedro; Ibáñez, Aida; Salom, Juan B; Marcos, Jose F; López-Díez, Jose Javier; Vallés, Salvador; Torregrosa, Germán; Alborch, Enrique; Manzanares, Paloma

    2010-06-09

    A set of eight lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-derived peptides was examined for inhibitory effects on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and ACE-dependent vasoconstriction, and their hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Peptides were derived from different elongations both at the C-terminal and N-terminal ends of the representative peptide LfcinB(20-25), which is known as the LfcinB antimicrobial core. All of the eight LfcinB-derived peptides showed in vitro inhibitory effects on ACE activity with different IC(50) values. Moreover, seven of them showed ex vivo inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction. No clear correlation between in vitro and ex vivo inhibitory effects was found. Only LfcinB(20-25) and one of its fragments, F1, generated after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion, showed significant antihypertensive effects in SHR after oral administration. Remarkably, F1 did not show any effect on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction in contrast to the inhibitory effect showed by LfcinB(20-25). In conclusion, two LfcinB-derived peptides lower blood pressure and exhibit potential as orally effective antihypertensive compounds, yet a complete elucidation of the mechanism(s) involved deserves further ongoing research.

  5. Effect of nanodiamond particles on properties of epoxy composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špitalský, Z.; Kromka, Alexander; Matějka, Libor; Černoch, Peter; Kovářová, Jana; Kotek, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2008), s. 29-34 ISSN 0963-6935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Grant - others:EU FP6 Marie Curie RTN DRIVE(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512224 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : nanodiamond * carbon nanotubes * mechanical properties * thermal properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.270, year: 2008

  6. Temperature dependence of single-particle properties in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, W.; Lu, G.C.; Li, Z.H.; Lombardo, U.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    The single-nucleon potential in hot nuclear matter is investigated in the framework of the Brueckner theory by adopting the realistic Argonne V 18 or Nijmegen 93 two-body nucleon-nucleon interaction supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. The rearrangement contribution to the single-particle potential induced by the ground state correlations is calculated in terms of the hole-line expansion of the mass operator and provides a significant repulsive contribution in the low-momentum region around and below the Fermi surface. Increasing temperature leads to a reduction of the effect, while increasing density makes it become stronger. The three-body force suppresses somewhat the ground state correlations due to its strong short-range repulsion, increasing with density. Inclusion of the three-body force contribution results in a quite different temperature dependence of the single-particle potential at high enough densities as compared to that adopting the pure two-body force. The effects of three-body force and ground state correlations on the nucleon effective mass are also discussed

  7. Staphylococcus aureus utilizes host-derived lipoprotein particles as sources of exogenous fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delekta, Phillip C; Shook, John C; Lydic, Todd A; Mulks, Martha H; Hammer, Neal D

    2018-03-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to global health. Consequently, much effort has focused on the development of new antimicrobials that target novel aspects of S. aureus physiology. Fatty acids are required to maintain cell viability, and bacteria synthesize fatty acids using the type II fatty acid synthesis pathway (FASII). FASII is significantly different from human fatty acid synthesis, underscoring the therapeutic potential of inhibiting this pathway. However, many Gram-positive pathogens incorporate exogenous fatty acids, bypassing FASII inhibition and leaving the clinical potential of FASII inhibitors uncertain. Importantly, the source(s) of fatty acids available to pathogens within the host environment remains unclear. Fatty acids are transported throughout the body by lipoprotein particles in the form of triglycerides and esterified cholesterol. Thus, lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) represent a potentially rich source of exogenous fatty acids for S. aureus during infection. We sought to test the ability of LDLs to serve as a fatty acid source for S. aureus and show that cells cultured in the presence of human LDLs demonstrate increased tolerance to the FASII inhibitor, triclosan. Using mass spectrometry, we observed that host-derived fatty acids present in the LDLs are incorporated into the staphylococcal membrane and that tolerance to triclosan is facilitated by the fatty acid kinase A, FakA, and Geh, a triacylglycerol lipase. Finally, we demonstrate that human LDLs support the growth of S. aureus fatty acid auxotrophs. Together, these results suggest that human lipoprotein particles are a viable source of exogenous fatty acids for S. aureus during infection. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of bacterial fatty acid synthesis is a promising approach to combating infections caused by S. aureus and other human pathogens. However, S. aureus incorporates exogenous fatty acids into its phospholipid bilayer. Therefore, the

  8. Synthesis and complex forming property of phosphor acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, B.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:With the aim to get new effective and selective extra gents of noble and non-ferrous metals from acid solution and industrial sewage, research of the dependence of 'structure effectiveness' the various phosphor acid derivatives with logical changeable structure (thio phosphor acids, derivatives of dialkoxythiophosphor, O-alkyl-methylphosphon, alkylphenylphosphon, diphenylphosphine acids also 4 methyl-1,3,2 dioxaphosphorinane) which contain different functional groups, the remains of heterocyclic amines and alkaloids, new derivatives of some analytical reagents were synthesized. The structure of synthesized compounds is approved by the results of IR-, PMR-, mass-spectrum analyze. Researching mass-spectrum decay of synthesized phosphor acid derivatives we defined that differing from O-dihexyl-S-propargyl-benzylthio phosphat, mass spectrum decay of O-dialkyl-S-(piperdynobutin-2-il)thio phosphat is characterized by the appearing [M-H] + ions and during the decay ions with high intensiveness are formed. Fragmentation of M + O-alkyl-O-(aminoalkyl)phenylphosphonate proceeds in various directions and characterized with the great number of phosphor containing ions, the possession of the second phenyl radical in the molecule of diphenylphosphon acid derivatives changes the fragmentation of molecular ion of diphenylphosphon acid derivatives. The process of extraction of noble (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd, Os) metals from hydrochloric-sulphur-nitrogen acid medium was analyzed by radioactive indicator's method. It was noticed that structure, strength, conformation of compounds, the temperature, of acid medium (0,1-10 M) and the nature of acids (HCL, H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 ) could have strong influence to the effectiveness of metal extraction. During the research of metals extraction from pure solutions we can see the followings: 1) There are such substances, which can be used as effective group reagent towards the Au, Ag and Pd. 2) Derivatives with acetylene extract ions of gold from

  9. Calculation of partial derivatives of thermophysical properties of sodium for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jianqiang; Qiu Suizhang; Zhu Jizhou; Zhang Guiqin

    1997-01-01

    According to the characters of safety analysis of LMFBR, the partial derivatives formula of some special thermophysical properties of sodium, including single-and two-phase properties, are calculated based on the basic Maxwell equations, and on the formulae of basic thermophysical properties of sodium which were verified abroad. The present study can provide theoretical base for safety analysis of LMFBR

  10. Linear elastic properties derivation from microstructures representative of transport parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Minh Tan; Bonnet, Guy; Tuan Luu, Hoang; Perrot, Camille

    2014-06-01

    It is shown that three-dimensional periodic unit cells (3D PUC) representative of transport parameters involved in the description of long wavelength acoustic wave propagation and dissipation through real foam samples may also be used as a standpoint to estimate their macroscopic linear elastic properties. Application of the model yields quantitative agreement between numerical homogenization results, available literature data, and experiments. Key contributions of this work include recognizing the importance of membranes and properties of the base material for the physics of elasticity. The results of this paper demonstrate that a 3D PUC may be used to understand and predict not only the sound absorbing properties of porous materials but also their transmission loss, which is critical for sound insulation problems.

  11. Voltage-Induced Nonlinear Conduction Properties of Epoxy Resin/Micron-Silver Particles Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhaoming; Lu, Pin; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear conduction properties of epoxy resin (ER)/micron-silver particles (MP) composites were investigated. Under sufficient high intensity applied constant voltage, the obvious nonlinear conduction properties of the samples with volume fraction 25% were found. With increments in the voltage, the conductive switching effect was observed. The nonlinear conduction mechanism of the ER/MP composites under high applied voltages could be attributed to the electrical current conducted via discrete paths of conductive particles induced by the electric field. The test results show that the ER/MP composites with nonlinear conduction properties are of great potential application in electromagnetic protection of electron devices and systems.

  12. Statistical properties of derivatives: A journey in term structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautier, Delphine; Raynaud, Franck

    2011-06-01

    This article presents an empirical study of 13 derivative markets for commodities and financial assets. The study goes beyond statistical analysis by including the maturity as a variable for the daily returns of futures contracts from 1998 to 2010, and for delivery dates up to 120 months. We observe that the mean and variance of the commodities follow a scaling behavior in the maturity dimension with an exponent characteristic of the Samuelson effect. The comparison between the tails of the probability distribution according to the expiration dates shows that there is a segmentation in the fat tails exponent term structure above the Lévy stable region. Finally, we compute the average tail exponent for each maturity, and we observe two regimes of extreme events for derivative markets, reminiscent of a phase diagram with a sharp transition at the 18th delivery month.

  13. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumel, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Fortier, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Gales, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Guillot, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Langevin-Joliot, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Laurent, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 -Orsay (France); Maison, J.M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Vernotte, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Bordewijck, J. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, S. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Krasznahorkay, A. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Crawley, G.M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Massolo, C.P. [Universitad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Renteria, M. [Universitad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Khendriche, A. [University of Tizi-Ouzou, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    1996-03-18

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in {sup 64}Ni, {sup 90}Zr, {sup 120}Sn and {sup 208}Pb excited by means of the ({alpha},{sup 3}He) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular correlation analysis. The structure located between 11 and 15 MeV in {sup 91}Zr, and between 8 and 12 MeV excitation energy in {sup 209}Pb display large departures from a pure statistical decay. The corresponding non-statistical branching ratios are compared with the results of two theoretical calculations. (orig.).

  14. Antiinflammatory properties of a peptide derived from interleukin-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klementiev, Boris; Enevoldsen, Maj N; Li, Shizhong

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a potent antiinflammatory cytokine. However its use in the clinic is hampered by side effects. We here describe the identification of a novel synthetic peptide, termed Ph8, derived from α-helix C of IL-4, which interacts with IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα). Employing various...... and reduced acute inflammation in carrageenan-induced edema. Our findings indicate that Ph8 is a promising potential drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases....

  15. Immune surveillance properties of human NK cell-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugini, Luana; Cecchetti, Serena; Huber, Veronica; Luciani, Francesca; Macchia, Gianfranco; Spadaro, Francesca; Paris, Luisa; Abalsamo, Laura; Colone, Marisa; Molinari, Agnese; Podo, Franca; Rivoltini, Licia; Ramoni, Carlo; Fais, Stefano

    2012-09-15

    Exosomes are nanovesicles released by normal and tumor cells, which are detectable in cell culture supernatant and human biological fluids, such as plasma. Functions of exosomes released by "normal" cells are not well understood. In fact, several studies have been carried out on exosomes derived from hematopoietic cells, but very little is known about NK cell exosomes, despite the importance of these cells in innate and adaptive immunity. In this paper, we report that resting and activated NK cells, freshly isolated from blood of healthy donors, release exosomes expressing typical protein markers of NK cells and containing killer proteins (i.e., Fas ligand and perforin molecules). These nanovesicles display cytotoxic activity against several tumor cell lines and activated, but not resting, immune cells. We also show that NK-derived exosomes undergo uptake by tumor target cells but not by resting PBMC. Exosomes purified from plasma of healthy donors express NK cell markers, including CD56+ and perforin, and exert cytotoxic activity against different human tumor target cells and activated immune cells as well. The results of this study propose an important role of NK cell-derived exosomes in immune surveillance and homeostasis. Moreover, this study supports the use of exosomes as an almost perfect example of biomimetic nanovesicles possibly useful in future therapeutic approaches against various diseases, including tumors.

  16. Characterization of Fine Metal Particles Derived from Shredded WEEE Using a Hyperspectral Image System: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiani, Gabriele; Picone, Nicoletta; Pompilio, Loredana; Pepe, Monica; Colledani, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) is the fastest-growing waste stream in Europe. The large amount of electric and electronic products introduced every year in the market makes WEEE disposal a relevant problem. On the other hand, the high abundance of key metals included in WEEE has increased the industrial interest in WEEE recycling. However, the high variability of materials used to produce electric and electronic equipment makes key metals’ recovery a complex task: the separation process requires flexible systems, which are not currently implemented in recycling plants. In this context, hyperspectral sensors and imaging systems represent a suitable technology to improve WEEE recycling rates and the quality of the output products. This work introduces the preliminary tests using a hyperspectral system, integrated in an automatic WEEE recycling pilot plant, for the characterization of mixtures of fine particles derived from WEEE shredding. Several combinations of classification algorithms and techniques for signal enhancement of reflectance spectra were implemented and compared. The methodology introduced in this study has shown characterization accuracies greater than 95%. PMID:28505070

  17. Size distribution and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles from dry-season biomass burning in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rissler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties were measured at a pasture site in the southwestern Amazon region (Rondonia. The measurements were performed 11 September-14 November 2002 as part of LBA-SMOCC (Large scale Biosphere atmosphere experiment in Amazonia - SMOke aerosols, Clouds, rainfall and Climate, and cover the later part of the dry season (with heavy biomass burning, a transition period, and the onset of the wet period. Particle number size distributions were measured with a DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, 3-850nm and an APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, extending the distributions up to 3.3 µm in diameter. An H-TDMA (Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer measured the hygroscopic diameter growth factors (Gf at 90% relative humidity (RH, for particles with dry diameters (dp between 20-440 nm, and at several occasions RH scans (30-90% RH were performed for 165nm particles. These data provide the most extensive characterization of Amazonian biomass burning aerosol, with respect to particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties, presented until now. The evolution of the convective boundary layer over the course of the day causes a distinct diel variation in the aerosol physical properties, which was used to get information about the properties of the aerosol at higher altitudes. The number size distributions averaged over the three defined time periods showed three modes; a nucleation mode with geometrical median diameters (GMD of ~12 nm, an Aitken mode (GMD=61-92 nm and an accumulation mode (GMD=128-190 nm. The two larger modes were shifted towards larger GMD with increasing influence from biomass burning. The hygroscopic growth at 90% RH revealed a somewhat external mixture with two groups of particles; here denoted nearly hydrophobic (Gf~1.09 for 100 nm particles and moderately hygroscopic (Gf~1.26. While the hygroscopic growth factors were surprisingly similar over the

  18. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Geometrical Derivatives of Energy Surfaces and Molecular Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Jack

    1986-01-01

    The development and computational implementation of analytical expres­ sions for the low-order derivatives of electronic energy surfaces and other molecular properties has undergone rapid growth in recent years. It is now fairly routine for chemists to make use of energy gradient information in locating and identifying stable geometries and transition states. The use of second analytical derivative (Hessian or curvature) expressions is not yet routine, and third and higher energy derivatives as well as property (e.g., dipole moment, polarizability) derivatives are just beginning to be applied to chemical problems. This NATO Advanced Research Workshop focused on analyzing the re­ lative merits of various strategies for deriving the requisite analyti­ cal expressions, for computing necessary integral derivatives and wave­ function parameter derivatives, and for efficiently coding these expres­ sions on conventional scalar machines and vector-oriented computers. The participant list contained many scientist...

  19. Prediction of elastic properties for polymer-particle nanocomposites exhibiting an interphase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fei; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2011-01-01

    Particle-polymer nanocomposites often exhibit mechanical properties described poorly by micromechanical models that include only the particle and matrix phases. Existence of an interfacial region between the particle and matrix, or interphase, has been posited and indirectly demonstrated to account for this effect. Here, we present a straightforward analytical approach to estimate effective elastic properties of composites comprising particles encapsulated by an interphase of finite thickness and distinct elastic properties. This explicit solution can treat nanocomposites that comprise either physically isolated nanoparticles or agglomerates of such nanoparticles; the same framework can also treat physically isolated nanoparticle aggregates or agglomerates of such aggregates. We find that the predicted elastic moduli agree with experiments for three types of particle-polymer nanocomposites, and that the predicted interphase thickness and stiffness of carbon black-rubber nanocomposites are consistent with measured values. Finally, we discuss the relative influence of the particle-polymer interphase thickness and stiffness to identify maximum possible changes in the macroscale elastic properties of such materials.

  20. Higher-derivative terms in one-loop effective action for general trajectories of D-particles in Matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The one-loop effective action for general trajectories of D-particles in Matrix theory is calculated in the expansion with respect to the number of derivatives up to six, which gives the equation of motion consistently. The result shows that the terms with six derivatives vanish for straight-line trajectories, however, they do not vanish in general. This provides a concrete example that non-renormalization of twelve-fermion terms does not necessarily imply that of six-derivative terms

  1. Effect of the primary particle morphology on the micromechanical properties of nanostructured alumina agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilde, Carsten; Westphal, Bastian; Kwade, Arno

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the application of nanoparticles, certain characteristics of the product quality such as size, morphology, abrasion resistance, specific surface, dispersibility and tendency to agglomeration are important. These characteristics are a function of the physicochemical properties, i.e. the micromechanical properties of the nanostructured material. The micromechanical properties of these nanostructured agglomerates such as the maximum indentation force, the plastic and elastic deformation energy and the strength give information on the product properties, e.g. the efficiency of a dispersion process of the agglomerates, and can be measured by nanoindentation. In this study a Berkovich indenter tip was used for the characterisation of model aggregates out of sol–gel produced silica and precipitated alumina agglomerates with different primary particle morphologies (dimension of 15–40 nm). In general, the effect of the primary particle morphology and the presence or absence of solid bonds can be characterised by the measurement of the micromechanical properties via nanoindentation. The micromechanical behaviour of aggregates containing solid bonds is strongly affected by the elastic–plastic deformation behaviour of the solid bonds and the breakage of solid bonds. Moreover, varying the primary particle morphology for similar particle material and approximately isotropic agglomerate behaviour the particle–particle interactions within the agglomerates can be described by the elementar breaking stress according to the formula of Rumpf.

  2. Mechanical properties of melt-derived erbium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, A.D.; Blacic, M.J.; Platero, M.; Romero, R.S.; McClellan, K.J.; Petrovic, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) is a rare earth oxide that is chemically and thermally stable and has a melting point of 2,430 C. There is relatively little information available regarding single crystal growth of erbia or the properties of erbia. In this study, erbia single crystals have been grown in a Xenon Optical Floating Zone Unit (XeOFZ) capable of melting materials at temperatures up to 3,000 C. Erbia was melt synthesized in the XeOFZ unit in a container less fashion, proving for little chance of contamination. Crystals were grown in compressed air and in reducing atmospheres. A recurring problem with melt synthesis of erbia is the appearance of flakes at the edges of the melt zone during growth; these flakes disrupt the growth process. The processing details and an initial survey of the physical properties of erbia single crystals is discussed

  3. Relation between particle size and properties of some bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.D.; Cheng, M.; Goulet, J.-C.; Furimsky, E. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)

    1990-02-01

    Coal fractions of different size distributions exhibited different H/C ratio, ash and sulphur contents, and surface structures. This was confirmed using two low-sulphur and two high-sulphur bituminous coals. The effect was much less pronounced for low-sulphur coals than for high-sulphur coals. A significant difference in properties was noted between the two high-sulphur coals in spite of similar basic compositional parameters. This was confirmed by the fractal dimensionality factor D of Illinois No. 6 coal, which exceeded the theoretical value. 14 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. The angle property of positive real functions simply derived

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsboe, Helge

    1973-01-01

    The angle property of positive real (rational) functionsZ(s), namely, that|arg s | geqq |arg Z(s)|in the right half of thes-plane, can be demonstrated very simply by an examination of the imaginary parts of the functionsln(s/Z(s))andln (sZ(s)), i.e.,arg s mp arg Z(s). In particular, on a contour...

  5. The necessity of microscopy to characterize the optical properties of size-selected, nonspherical aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veghte, Daniel P; Freedman, Miriam A

    2012-11-06

    It is currently unknown whether mineral dust causes a net warming or cooling effect on the climate system. This uncertainty stems from the varied and evolving shape and composition of mineral dust, which leads to diverse interactions of dust with solar and terrestrial radiation. To investigate these interactions, we have used a cavity ring-down spectrometer to study the optical properties of size-selected calcium carbonate particles, a reactive component of mineral dust. The size selection of nonspherical particles like mineral dust can differ from spherical particles in the polydispersity of the population selected. To calculate the expected extinction cross sections, we use Mie scattering theory for monodisperse spherical particles and for spherical particles with the polydispersity observed in transmission electron microscopy images. Our results for calcium carbonate are compared to the well-studied system of ammonium sulfate. While ammonium sulfate extinction cross sections agree with Mie scattering theory for monodisperse spherical particles, the results for calcium carbonate deviate at large and small particle sizes. We find good agreement for both systems, however, between the calculations performed using the particle images and the cavity ring-down data, indicating that both ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate can be treated as polydisperse spherical particles. Our results indicate that having an independent measure of polydispersity is essential for understanding the optical properties of nonspherical particles measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Our combined spectroscopy and microscopy techniques demonstrate a novel method by which cavity ring-down spectroscopy can be extended for the study of more complex aerosol particles.

  6. Synthesis and luminescent properties of pentacene derivatives having a chromophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Eun-Jee; Kim, Yeong-Eun; Lee, Chang-Jun; Park, Jong-Wook

    2006-01-01

    We introduced carbazole and fluorene moieties into pentacene compound for comparing optical and EL properties together. The structure was identified by NMR, IR, UV-Visible spectroscopies and FAB-Mass analysis. 6,13-Bis(9,9-diethyl-9H-fluoren-2-ly)pentacene (DFP) and 6,13-bis(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)pentacene (ECP) showed similar red PL spectrum pattern and their maximum wavelengths appeared at 627 nm and 633 nm. ITO/m-MTDATA/NPB/Alq 3 :DFP (5%)/LiF/Al device showed red EL spectrum at 636 nm with 0.03 cd/A efficiency. ITO/m-MTDATA/NPB/Alq 3 :ECP (5%)/LiF/Al device also showed similar red EL spectrum at same range and higher efficiency (> 0.21 cd/A) than DFPs. We suppose the dopant EL property of pentacene compound can be changed as the electronic property and steric effect of 6,13-substituted moiety in 6- and 13-positions

  7. Local analyticity properties of the n particle scattering amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Bros, J; Glaser, Vladimir Jurko

    1972-01-01

    The connected part F/sub /c(p) of the scattering amplitude (p/sub 1 /...p/sub /r mod S-1 mod p/sub r+1/,..., p/sub n/) defined on the mass shell p/sub i//sup 2/=m/sub i//sup 2/ and deduced from a local field theory involving only (stable) particles with strictly positive masses can be represented in a suitable neighbourhood of any physical point p as a finite sum f/sub /c(p)= Sigma /sub 1//sup N/F/sub i/(p) of partial amplitudes', each F/sub i/(k) analytic in a certain domain F /sub i/ of the complex mass shell k/sub i//sup 2/=m/sub i//sup 2/. The mentioned real neighbourhood lies on the boundary of each F/sub i/. The above decomposition may fail to hold only at points p where any two incoming or any two outgoing four-momenta become parallel (thresholds). The number N as well as the shape of the domains F/sub i / depend on the number n and on the real neighbourhood considered. For a generic configuration p the intersection of the domains F/sub i/ is empty. When this does not happen, F/sub i/(p) is the boundar...

  8. Synthesis, physicochemical and biological properties of ethynyl piperidol derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalikov, D.Kh.

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the results of studies on the reactivity of some derivatives of ethynyl-piperidol in reactions of homo-and copolymerization, the numerical values of the constants of the initiation reaction, growth and chain termination, the parameters of molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and flexibility of polymer chins, triple-radical copolymerization results of ethynyl-piperidol derivatives with hydrophilic monomers and polyfunctional cross-linked polymers and high swelling hydrogels, as well as developed by the author the radiation-chemical grafting technique termed monomers on the surface of cellulose in a continuous manner. The experimental data on ethynyl-piperidol polymers involves with various low-, medium-and high substrates from model solutions and in biological fluids are given. On the example of three iodide ion sorption, bilirubin and serum albumin showed that for the thermodynamically favorable process make a significant contribution to the free energy terms due to the hypothetical ion exchange, the change in resonates concentration and cooperative interaction. The role of hydrophobic interaction in realization of this process is reviled. The data obtained were formulated and validated a number of scientific statements in the chemistry of biomedical polymers. The results of the practical implementation of a number of developments in medical practice are demonstrated. The hydrogel homo-and sorbent, dressings, which have shown high efficacy in the treatment of diseases complicated by endogenous and bacterial endotoxemia in acute radiation and combined radiation-thermal lesions, as well as kidney and live failure. (author)

  9. Phosphorylated derivatives of anabasine: synthesis, constitution and complex forming properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, B.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: With the purpose of detection of new effective extra gents of metals from number of sulphur containing derivatives of acids of phosphorus with different functional groups, analysis of effect of the different factors on selectivity of allocation of metals, installation of optimum conditions of an extraction, the detections of effective extra gents of noble metals from industrial sewage waters, are synthesized phosphorylated derivatives of the anabasine - O-alkyl-O-(anaba-sinoisopropyl)- and O-alkyl-O-(anabasinobutyn-2-yl)phenyl phosphonates and O-(anabasinoisopropyl)- and O-(anabasinobutyn-2-yl)diphenyl phosphonates In an IR-spectrum about O-pentyl-O-[anabasinoisopropyl]phenylphosphonate There are absorption band of the following functional groups (ν, cm -1 ): (P-O-C 5 H 11 ) 990-1000, (P = 0) 1250, (P-C 6 H 5 )1450, (C-N in cycle) 1550. In a spectrum PMR O-(anabasinobutyn-2-yl)phenylphosphonate in the field of a weak field apart from signals of two phenylic radicals the signals of a b-displaced pyridine, reference for a molecule anabasine are observed: Hαa-8,46 p.m., H α '-8,41 p.m., H γ -7,60 p.m. And H β -7,15 p.m. A double triplet at 4,70 p.m. And triplet at 3,05 p.m. Belong to signals OCH 2 and N-CH 2 of groups, accordingly, separated by acetylene bond. The signals of piperidine cycle of anabasine have the following chemical shifts: H 2a -3,27 p.m., H 6e -2,78 p.m., H 6a -2,45 p.m., and remaining protons (6H, m, CH 2 ) are in resonance in the field of 1,1-1,9 p.m. The analysis of mass-spectrometer decay of the synthesized connections has shown, that the mass-spectrometer fragmentation M * about - O-alkyl-O- (anabasinoisopropyl) phenylphosphonates flows past in different directions and is characterized, as against about O-alkyl-O-(anabasinobutyn-2-yl)phenyl-phosphonates, large number of phosphor containing ions; the availability of the second phenylic radical in molecules anabasincontaining derivatives of a diphenyl phosphinic acid essentially

  10. Structural and fractal properties of particles emitted from spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W Patrick; Garro, Mark A; Walker, John

    2006-11-01

    Size, morphology, and microstructure of particles emitted from one light-duty passenger vehicle (Buick Century; model year 1990; PM (particulate matter) mass emission rate 3.1 mg/km) and two light-duty trucks (Chevrolet C2; model year 1973; PM mass emission rate 282 mg/km, and Chevrolet El Camino; model year 1976; PM mass emission rate 31 mg/km), running California's unified driving cycles (UDC) on a chassis dynamometer, were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images yielded particle properties including three-dimensional density fractal dimensions, monomer and agglomerate number size distributions, and three different shape descriptors, namely aspect ratio, root form factor, and roundness. The density fractal dimension of the particles was between 1.7 and 1.78, while the number size distribution of the particles placed the majority of the particles in the accumulation mode (0.1-0.3 microm). The shape descriptors were found to decrease with increasing particle size. Partial melting of particles, a rare and previously unreported phenomenon, was observed upon exposure of particles emitted during phase 2 of the UDC to the low accelerating voltage electron beam of the SEM. The rate of melting was quantified for individual particles, establishing a near linear relationship between the melting rate and the organic carbon 1 to elemental carbon ratio.

  11. Effects of nonideal surfaces on the derived thermal properties of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakosky, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal inertia of the surface of Mars varies spatially by a factor of 8. This is attributable to changes in the average particle size of the fine material, the surface elevation, the atmospheric opacity due to dust, and the fraction of the surface covered by rocks an fine material. The effects of these nonideal properties on the surface temperatures and derived thermal inertias are modeled, along with the effects of slopes, CO 2 condensed onto the surface, and layering of fine material upon solid rock. The nonideal models are capable of producing thermal behavior similar to that observed by the Viking infrared thermal mapper, including a morning delay in the postdawn temperature rise and an enhanced cooling in the afternoon relative to any ideal, homogeneous model. The enhanced afternoon cooling observed at the Viking 1 landing site is reproduced by the nonideal models while that atop Arsia Mons volcano is not, but may be attributed to the observing geometry. A histogram of surface thermal inertia versus elevation shows at least two distinct classes: a single region near Amazonis Planitia has low inertias at low elevation; many of the remaining data show an anticorrelation between inertia and elevation, expected because of the change in thermal inertia produced by changes in the atmospheric pressure an dust opacity with elevation

  12. Influence of complex particle emission on properties of giant dipole resonance of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Wanxin; Jin Genming

    2003-01-01

    The possible reasons for the discrepancy between calculation results based on the statistical evaporation model and experimental data of giant dipole resonance of very hot nuclei are discussed. Both of simulations with the standard CASCADE code and the code coupling complex particle emission are carried out. It is shown that the complex particle emission affects the properties of giant dipole resonance of very hot nuclei

  13. Spectral, luminescent and lasing properties of pyran derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylova, T N; Svetlichnyi, Valerii A; Samsonova, L G; Svetlichnaya, N N; Reznichenko, A V; Ponomareva, O V; Komlev, I V

    2003-01-01

    The spectral, luminescent and lasing properties of eight organic molecules, substituted pyrans (DCM), are studied upon pumping by an exciplex XeCl laser at 308 nm and by the second harmonic from a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. These molecules exhibit lasing in the red spectral region between 600 and 780 nm with the efficiency of 45%. Lasing was also obtained in bis-substituted pyrans having the quantum yield of fluorescence equal to 0.01. The possibility of preparation of solid active media for tunable lasers based on polymer matrices doped with substituted pyrans is discussed. (active media. lasers)

  14. Classification of aerosol properties derived from AERONET direct sun data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gobbi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol spectral measurements by sunphotometers can be characterized by three independent pieces of information: 1 the optical thickness (AOT, a measure of the column aerosol concentration, 2 the optical thickness average spectral dependence, given by the Angstrom exponent (α, and 3 the spectral curvature of α (δα. We propose a simple graphical method to visually convert (α, δα to the contribution of fine aerosol to the AOT and the size of the fine aerosols. This information can be used to track mixtures of pollution aerosol with dust, to distinguish aerosol growth from cloud contamination and to observe aerosol humidification. The graphical method is applied to the analysis of yearly records at 8 sites in 3 continents, characterized by different levels of pollution, biomass burning and mineral dust concentrations. Results depict the dominance of fine mode aerosols in driving the AOT at polluted sites. In stable meteorological conditions, we see an increase in the size of the fine aerosol as the pollution stagnates and increases in optical thickness. Coexistence of coarse and fine particles is evidenced at the polluted sites downwind of arid regions.

  15. Biological properties of mud extracts derived from various spa resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilioti, Eliana; Vargiami, Margarita; Letsiou, Sophia; Gardikis, Konstantinos; Sygouni, Varvara; Koutsoukos, Petros; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2017-08-01

    Spa resorts are known for thousands of years for their healing properties and have been empirically used for the treatment of many inflammatory conditions. Mud is one of the most often used natural materials for preventive, healing and cosmetic reasons and although it has been used since the antiquity, little light has been shed on its physical, chemical and biological properties. In this study we examined the effect of mud extracts on the expression of adhesion molecules (CAMs) by endothelial cells as well as their effects on monocyte adhesion to activated endothelial cells. Most of mud extracts inhibited the expression of VCAM-1 by endothelial cells and reduced monocyte adhesion to activated endothelial cells, indicating a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the mud extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity; however, most of them appeared inactive against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. One of the mud extracts (showing the best stabilization features) increased significantly the expression of genes involved in cell protection, longevity and hydration of human keratinocytes, such as, collagen 6A1, forkhead box O3, sirtuin-1, superoxide dismutase 1 and aquaporin-3. The present study reveals that mud exerts important beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-aging activity as well as moisturizing effects, implicating important cosmeceutical applications.

  16. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of flake ferrite particles based on diatomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Deyuan; Zhang Wenqiang; Cai Jun

    2011-01-01

    Hexagonal ferrite BaZn 1.1 Co 0.9 Fe 16 O 27 coated surfaces of diatomite flakes of low density were synthesized by a sol-gel method. The phase structures, morphologies, particle size and chemical compositions of the composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that hexagonal ferrite coated diatomite flakes can be achieved, and that the coating consisted of BaZn 1.1 Co 0.9 Fe 16 O 27 nanoparticles. The vibranting sample magnetometer results reveal that the flake ferrite particles have static magnetic properties. The complex permeability and permittivity of the composites were measured in the frequency range of 1-18 GHz. The microwave absorption properties of these ferrite particles are discussed. The results indicate that the flake ferrites have the potential to be used as a lightweight broad band microwave absorber. - Highlights: → We synthesize the flake ferrite particles using diatomite as a template. → Flake ferrite particles' coating layers are constituted by BaZn 1.1 Co 0.9 Fe 16 O 27 nanoparticles. → Flake ferrite particles have good static magnetic properties.→ Flake ferrites are a kind lightweight broad band microwave absorber.

  17. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of flake ferrite particles based on diatomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Deyuan [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang Wenqiang, E-mail: zwqzwqzwqzwq@126.com [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Cai Jun, E-mail: jun_cai@buaa.edu.cn [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Hexagonal ferrite BaZn{sub 1.1}Co{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} coated surfaces of diatomite flakes of low density were synthesized by a sol-gel method. The phase structures, morphologies, particle size and chemical compositions of the composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that hexagonal ferrite coated diatomite flakes can be achieved, and that the coating consisted of BaZn{sub 1.1}Co{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} nanoparticles. The vibranting sample magnetometer results reveal that the flake ferrite particles have static magnetic properties. The complex permeability and permittivity of the composites were measured in the frequency range of 1-18 GHz. The microwave absorption properties of these ferrite particles are discussed. The results indicate that the flake ferrites have the potential to be used as a lightweight broad band microwave absorber. - Highlights: > We synthesize the flake ferrite particles using diatomite as a template. > Flake ferrite particles' coating layers are constituted by BaZn{sub 1.1}Co{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} nanoparticles. > Flake ferrite particles have good static magnetic properties. > Flake ferrites are a kind lightweight broad band microwave absorber.

  18. Correlation between morphology and magnetic properties of electrochemically produced cobalt powder particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt 3D powder particles were successfully prepared by the galvanostatic electrodeposition. Electrodeposited cobalt powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS analysis and SQUID magnetometry. It has been shown that morphology, structure and magnetic properties of cobalt particles are closely associated and can be easily controlled by adjusting process parameters of electrodeposition. Morphology of cobalt powder particles is strongly affected by hydrogen evolution reaction as a parallel reaction to cobalt electrodeposition. Depending on the applied current density, the two types of powder particles were formed: dendrites at lower and spongy-like particles at higher current densities. Morphologies and structures of powder particles are correlated with their magnetic properties, and compared with those of the bulk cobalt. In comparison with the properties of bulk cobalt, the obtained 3D structures exhibited a decreased saturation magnetization (MS, but an enhanced coercivity (HC which is explained by their peculiar morphology. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45012

  19. Effect of particle size on microstructure and mechanical properties of composites produced by ARB process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaati, Roohollah, E-mail: r.jamaatikenari@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Niroumand, Behzad [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Microstructure of MMC with larger particles becomes completely uniform, sooner. {yields} When the number of cycles increased, tensile strength for both samples improved. {yields} Up to the seventh cycle, tensile strength of MMC with larger particles was bigger. {yields} First, the tensile elongation of MMCs was decreased, and then it was improved. - Abstract: In the present work, Al/10 vol.% SiC metal matrix composite (MMC) was manufactured by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process. The silicon carbide particles with two various particle sizes of 40 and 2 {mu}m were used. Effect of particle size on microstructure (by scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) at various ARB cycles was investigated. It was found that the microstructural evolution in MMC with 40 {mu}m particle size was more salient compared to the MMCs with 2 {mu}m particle size. Also, the composite strip with 40 {mu}m particle size became uniform with high bonding quality and without any porosity sooner than the strip of 2 {mu}m particle size. Moreover, when the number of cycles was increased, the tensile strength for both samples was improved. The tensile strength of the composite strip with 40 {mu}m particle size was more than the composite strip with 2 {mu}m up to the seventh cycle. By increasing the number of cycles after the seventh cycle, the value of tensile strength of MMC with 40 {mu}m particle size became saturated and then decreased, and its tensile strength became less than that of the composite with 2 {mu}m particle size for the ninth and eleventh cycles. Up to the seventh cycle, when the number of ARB cycles was increased, the elongation of composite strips was decreased, but after the ninth cycle, the tensile elongation for both samples was improved.

  20. Effect of particle size on microstructure and mechanical properties of composites produced by ARB process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaati, Roohollah; Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Niroumand, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Microstructure of MMC with larger particles becomes completely uniform, sooner. → When the number of cycles increased, tensile strength for both samples improved. → Up to the seventh cycle, tensile strength of MMC with larger particles was bigger. → First, the tensile elongation of MMCs was decreased, and then it was improved. - Abstract: In the present work, Al/10 vol.% SiC metal matrix composite (MMC) was manufactured by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process. The silicon carbide particles with two various particle sizes of 40 and 2 μm were used. Effect of particle size on microstructure (by scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) at various ARB cycles was investigated. It was found that the microstructural evolution in MMC with 40 μm particle size was more salient compared to the MMCs with 2 μm particle size. Also, the composite strip with 40 μm particle size became uniform with high bonding quality and without any porosity sooner than the strip of 2 μm particle size. Moreover, when the number of cycles was increased, the tensile strength for both samples was improved. The tensile strength of the composite strip with 40 μm particle size was more than the composite strip with 2 μm up to the seventh cycle. By increasing the number of cycles after the seventh cycle, the value of tensile strength of MMC with 40 μm particle size became saturated and then decreased, and its tensile strength became less than that of the composite with 2 μm particle size for the ninth and eleventh cycles. Up to the seventh cycle, when the number of ARB cycles was increased, the elongation of composite strips was decreased, but after the ninth cycle, the tensile elongation for both samples was improved.

  1. Effects of fuel components and combustion particle physicochemical properties on toxicological responses of lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Isabel C; Sturrock, Anne; Ghiassi, Hossein; Woller, Diana J; Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Lighty, JoAnn S; Paine, Robert; Reilly, Christopher; Kelly, Kerry E

    2018-03-21

    The physicochemical properties of combustion particles that promote lung toxicity are not fully understood, hindered by the fact that combustion particles vary based on the fuel and combustion conditions. Real-world combustion-particle properties also continually change as new fuels are implemented, engines age, and engine technologies evolve. This work used laboratory-generated particles produced under controlled combustion conditions in an effort to understand the relationship between different particle properties and the activation of established toxicological outcomes in human lung cells (H441 and THP-1). Particles were generated from controlled combustion of two simple biofuel/diesel surrogates (methyl decanoate and dodecane/biofuel-blended diesel (BD), and butanol and dodecane/alcohol-blended diesel (AD)) and compared to a widely studied reference diesel (RD) particle (NIST SRM2975/RD). BD, AD, and RD particles exhibited differences in size, surface area, extractable chemical mass, and the content of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Some of these differences were directly associated with different effects on biological responses. BD particles had the greatest surface area, amount of extractable material, and oxidizing potential. These particles and extracts induced cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 enzyme mRNA in lung cells. AD particles and extracts had the greatest total PAH content and also caused CYP1A1 and 1B1 mRNA induction. The RD extract contained the highest relative concentration of 2-ring PAHs and stimulated the greatest level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) cytokine secretion. Finally, AD and RD were more potent activators of TRPA1 than BD, and while neither the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 nor the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) affected CYP1A1 or 1B1 mRNA induction, both inhibitors reduced IL-8 secretion and mRNA induction. These results highlight that differences in fuel and combustion conditions

  2. Radial dependence of solar energetic particles derived from the 15 March 2013 solar energetic particle event and global MHD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chin-Chun, E-mail: chin-chun.wu@nrl.navy.mil; Plunkett, Simon, E-mail: simon.plunkett@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Liou, Kan, E-mail: kan.liou@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland (United States); Wu, S. T., E-mail: wus@uah.edu [CSPAR, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Dryer, Murray, E-mail: murraydryer@msn.com [Emeritus, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    We study an unusual solar energetic particle (SEP) event that was associated with the coronal mass ejection (CME) on March 15, 2013. Enhancements of the SEP fluxes were first detected by the ACE spacecraft at 14:00 UT, ∼7 hours after the onset of the CME (07:00 UT), and the SEP’s peak intensities were recorded ∼36 hours after the onset of the CME. Our recent study showed that the CME-driven shock Mach number, based on a global three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, is well correlated with the time-intensity of 10-30 MeV and 30-80 MeV protons. Here we focus on the radial dependence (r{sup −α}) of {sup 4}He (3.43-41.2 MeV/n) and O (7.30-89.8 MeV/n) energetic particles from ACE/SIS. It is found that the scaling factor (α) ranges between 2 and 4 for most of the energy channels. We also found that the correlation coefficients tend to increase with SEP energies.

  3. Synthesis, Optical Properties and Applications for New Trianguleniums Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santella, Marco

    The development of new types of emissive organic dyes is an exciting area of research due to the applicability of these compounds in a wide range of disciplines. Cationic triangulenium salts are highly stable carbenium ions with a planar conformation. The convenient and versatile synthetic proced...... focused on the synthesis of thioether para substituted dyes, where the reactivity of various para-methoxy substituted propeller shaped cations towards different alkyl thiols was examined. Furthermore, ringclosure reactions of these thioether bearing propellers in order to obtain trioxa...... structures. These dyes possess excellent emissive properties with possible applications as cell staining agents or as fluorescent probes. Lastly, I focused on the use of triangulenes as binding group for molecular electronics. It has been shown that TATA can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold...

  4. Synthesis, crystal structures and properties of new quinolinium derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Jiang, Xingxing; Li, Yin; Lin, Zheshuai; Zhang, Guochun; Wu, Yicheng

    2015-11-01

    Four phenyl-substituted quinolinium salts with different counter anions, C27H27NO4S, C26H25NO5S, C25H22NO5SCl, and C25H22NO5SBr, were synthesized and their single crystals were successfully grown from methanol solution by slow evaporation. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showed that C27H27NO4S crystal belongs to the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic space group Pna21, and the other three crystals belong to centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21/n. Their first order hyperpolarization and macroscopic nonlinearity were analyzed and physical properties were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetric and thermal gravimetric analysis.

  5. Athabasca tar sand reservoir properties derived from cores and logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, R.

    1976-01-01

    Log interpretation parameters for the Athabasca Tar Sand Lease No. 24 have been determined by careful correlation with Dean and Stark core analysis data. Significant expansion of Athabasca cores occurs as overburden pressure is removed. In the more shaly sands the core analysis procedures remove adsorbed water from the clays leading to further overestimation of porosity and free water volume. Log interpretation parameters (R/sub w/ = 0.5 ohm . m and m = n = 1.5) were defined by correlation with the weight of tar as a fraction of the weight of rock solids (grain or dry weight fraction of tar). This quantity is independent of the water content of the cores, whereas porosity and the weight of tar as a fraction of the bulk weight of fluids plus solids (bulk weight fraction) are both dependent on water content. Charts are provided for the conversion of bulk weight fraction of fluids to porosity; grain weight fraction of fluids to porosity; log derived porosity and core grain weight tar to water saturation. Example results show that the core analysis grain weight fraction of tar is adequately matched by the log analyses. The log results provide a better representation of the reservoir fluid volumes than the core analysis data

  6. Laboratory Studies of the Optical Properties and Condensation Processes of Cosmic Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Craven, Paul D.; Spann, James F.; Tankosic, Dragana; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory facility for levitating single isolated dust particles in an electrodynamics balance has been developing at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center for conducting a variety of experimental, of astrophysical interest. The objective of this research is to employ this innovative experimental technique for studies of the physical and optical properties of the analogs of cosmic grains of 0.2-10 micron size in a chamber with controlled pressure/temperatures simulating astrophysical environments. In particular, we will carry out three classes of experiments to investigate the microphysics of the analogs of interstellar and interplanetary dust grains. (1) Charge characteristics of micron size single dust grains to determine the photoelectric efficiencies, yields, and equilibrium potentials when exposed to UV radiation. These measurements will provide the much-needed photoelectric emission data relating to individual particles as opposed to that for the bulk materials available so far. (2) Infrared optical properties of dust particles obtained by irradiating the particles with radiation from tunable infrared diode lasers and measuring the scattered radiation. Specifically, the complex refractive indices, the extinction coefficients, the scattering phase functions, and the polarization properties of single dust grains of interest in interstellar environments, in the 1-25 micron spectral region will be determined. (3) Condensation experiments to investigate the deposition of volatile gases on colder nucleated particles in dense interstellar clouds and lower planetary atmospheres. The increase in the mass or m/q ratio due to condensation on the particle will be monitored as a function of the dust particle temperature and the partial pressure of the injected volatile gas. The measured data wild permit determination of the sticking efficiencies of volatile gases of astrophysical interest. Preliminary results based on photoelectric emission experiments on 0.2-6.6 micron

  7. Physical properties of elongated magnetic particles: magnetization and friction coefficient anisotropies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereda, Fernando; de Vicente, Juan; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2009-06-02

    Anisotropy counts: A brief review of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs) is presented. The most important characteristic of an EMP is the additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle, when compared to spherical magnetic particles. The electron micrograph shows Ni-ferrite microrods fabricated by the authors.We present an overview of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs), including some of their more relevant properties in suspension. When compared to a spherical magnetic particle, the most important characteristic of an EMP is an additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle. Increasing aspect ratios also lead to an increase in both the critical single-domain size of a magnetic particle and its resistance to thermally activated spontaneous reversal of the magnetization. For single-domain EMPs, magnetization reversal occurs primarily by one of two modes, coherent rotation or curling, the latter being facilitated by larger aspect ratios. When EMPs are used to prepare colloidal suspensions, other physical properties come into play, such as their anisotropic friction coefficient and the consequent enhanced torque they experience in a shear flow, their tendency to align in the direction of an external field, to form less dense sediments and to entangle into more intricate aggregates. From a more practical point of view, EMPs are discussed in connection with two interesting types of magnetic colloids: magnetorheological fluids and suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia. Advances reported in the literature regarding the use of EMPs in these two systems are included. In the final section, we present a summary of the most relevant methods documented in the literature for the fabrication of EMPs, together with a list of the most common ferromagnetic materials that have been synthesized in the form of EMPs.

  8. Ultrafine particles in concrete: Influence of ultrafine particles on concrete properties and application to concrete mix design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Carsten

    2010-07-01

    In this work, the influence of ultrafine particles on concrete properties was investigated. In the context of this work, ultrafine particles (reactive and inert materials) are particles finer than cement. Due to the development of effective superplasticizers, the incorporation of ultrafine particles in concrete is nowadays possible. Different minerals, usually considered inert, were tested. These minerals were also used in combination with reactive silica fume. The modified Andreassen model was used to optimise the particle size distribution and thus the packing density of the complete mix composition. Heat of hydration, compressive strength, shrinkage, frost resistance and the microstructure were investigated.The influence of different ultrafine inert materials on the cement hydration was investigated. The results show that most of the minerals have an accelerating effect. They provide nucleation sites for hydration products and contribute in that way to a faster dissolution of cement grains. Minerals containing calcium were found to influence the early stage of hydration as well. These minerals shortened the dormant period of the cement hydration, the effect is known from limestone filler in self-compacting concrete. In a first test series on concrete, different ultrafine inert particles were used to replace cement. That was done in several ways; with constant water content or constant w/c. The results from this test series show that the best effect is achieved when cement is replaced by suitable ultrafines while the w/c is kept constant. In doing so, the compressive strength can be increased and shrinkage can be reduced. The microstructure is improved and becomes denser with improved packing at microlevel. Efficiency factors (k values) for the ultrafine inert materials were calculated from the compressive strength results. The k values are strongly dependent on the mode of cement replacement, fineness and type of the replacement material and curing time. Drying

  9. Laboratory studies of the growth, sublimation, and light- scattering properties of single levitated ice particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Neil Julian

    2001-12-01

    I describe experiments to investigate the properties of microscopic ice particles. The goal of the work was to measure parameters that are important in cloud processes and radiative transfer, using a novel technique that avoids the use of substrates. The experiments were conducted in two separate electrodynamic balance chambers. Single, charged ice particles were formed from frost particles or from droplets frozen either homogeneously or heteroge neously with a bionucleant. The particles were trapped at temperatures between -38°C and -4°C and grown or sublimated according to the temperature gradient in the cham ber. I describe observations of breakup of sublimating frost particles, measurements of light scattering by hexagonal crystals, and observations of the morphology of ice particles grown from frozen water droplets and frost particles. The breaking strength of frost particles was an order of magnitude less than that of bulk ice. Light scattering features not previously observed were analyzed and related to crystal dimension. Initial results from a computer model failed to reproduce these features. The widths of scattering peaks suggest that surface roughness may play a role in determining the angular distribution of scattered light. Ice particle mass evolution was found to be consistent with diffusion- limited growth. Crystals grown slowly from frozen droplets adopted isometric habits, while faster growth resulted in thin side-planes, although there was not an exact correspondence between growth conditions and particle morphology. From the morphological transition, I infer lower limits for the critical supersaturation for layer nucleation on the prism face of 2.4% at -15°C, 4.4% at -20°C, and 3.1% at -25°C. Analytic expressions for the size dependence of facet stability are developed, indicating a strong dependence of stability on both crystal size and surface kinetics, and compared with data. I discuss the role of complex particle morphologies in

  10. Properties of the HII Regions Derived Using Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian F. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we review some of our more recent results on the observed properties of HII regions using Integral Field Spectroscopy. In particular, we illustrate the use of this technique to study in detail the ionization conditions across the nebulae for galactic HII regions (focused on the Orion Nebula and the statistical study of large samples of extragalactic HII regions. We review the reported new scaling relation between the local mass density and the oxygen abundance across the disk galaxies and the recently discovered universal gradient for oxygen abundances. We update our previous results the lack of a dependence of the Mass-Metallicity relation with the starformation rate, including new unpublished data. Finally we discuss on the relation between the ionization conditions in the nebulae and the underlying stellar population. All together our results indicate that disk galaxies present a chemical enrichment dominated by an inside-out growth scenario, with a less evident effect of radial migrations and/or outflows.

  11. The magnetic properties of mill scale-derived permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woon, H.S.; Hashim, M.M.; Yahya, N.; Zakaria, A.; Lim, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    In the permanent magnet SrO-FeO-Fe 2 O 3 system, there exist several magnetically ordered compounds with a stable phase at room temperature. The most important are the M(SrFe 12 O 19 ), X(SrFe 15 O 23 ) and W(SrFe 18 O 27 ) phases with hexagonal close packed structure. In this project, M(SrFe 12 O 19 ) was prepared using mill scale, a steel-maker byproduct, as raw material. The Malaysia steel industry generates approximately 30,000 metric tons of waste products such as mill scale every year. Transportation and disposal of the byproducts are costly and the environmental regulations are becoming stricter. Hence, local steel mills are to find new ways to recycle the waste as a feedstock for the steel-making process or as a saleable product. The M(SrFe 12 O 19 ) was synthesized using the conventional ceramic process. The formation of the SrFe 12 O 19 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties such as the energy product (BH)max, coercive force (iHc) and remanence (Br) were also reported in this paper. (Author)

  12. Deriving allowable properties of lumber : a practical guide for interpretation of ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Bendtsen; William L. Galligan

    1978-01-01

    The ASTM standards for establishing clear wood mechanical properties and for deriving structural grades and related allowable properties for visually graded lumber can be confusing and difficult for the uninitiated to interpret. This report provides a practical guide to using these standards for individuals not familiar with their application. Sample stress...

  13. Inherent optical properties of pollen particles: a case study for the morning glory pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Yin, Yan

    2016-01-25

    Biological aerosols, such as bacteria, fungal spores, and pollens, play an important role on various atmospheric processes, whereas their inherent optical property is one of the most uncertainties that limit our ability to assess their effects on weather and climate. A numerical model with core-shell structure, hexagonal grids and barbs is developed to represent one kind of realistic pollen particles, and their inherent optical properties are simulated using a pseudo-spectral time domain method. Both the hexagonal grids and barbs substantially affect the modeled pollen optical properties. Results based on the realistic particle model are compared with two equivalent spherical approximations, and the significant differences indicate the importance of considering pollen geometries for their optical properties.

  14. Effect of photochemical ageing on the ice nucleation properties of diesel and wood burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A measurement campaign (IMBALANCE conducted in 2009 was aimed at characterizing the physical and chemical properties of freshly emitted and photochemically aged combustion particles emitted from a log wood burner and diesel vehicles: a EURO3 Opel Astra with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC but no particle filter and a EURO2 Volkswagen Transporter TDI Syncro without emission aftertreatment. Ice nucleation experiments in the deposition and condensation freezing modes were conducted with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC at three nominal temperatures, −30 °C, −35 °C and −40 °C. Freshly emitted diesel particles showed ice formation only at −40 °C in the deposition mode at 137% relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi and 92% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw, and photochemical ageing did not play a role in modifying their ice nucleation behaviour. Only one diesel experiment where α-pinene was added for the ageing process, showed an ice nucleation enhancement at −35 °C. Wood burning particles also act as ice nuclei (IN at −40 °C in the deposition mode at the same conditions as for diesel particles and photochemical ageing also did not alter the ice formation properties of the wood burning particles. Unlike diesel particles, wood burning particles form ice via condensation freezing at −35 °C whereas no ice nucleation was observed at −30 °C. Photochemical ageing did not affect the ice nucleation ability of the diesel and wood burning particles at the three different temperatures investigated but a broader range of temperatures below −40 °C need to be investigated in order to draw an overall conclusion on the effect of photochemical ageing on deposition/condensation ice nucleation across the entire temperature range relevant to cold clouds.

  15. Field measurements of hygroscopic properties and state of mixing of nucleation mode particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Väkevä

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An Ultrafine Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (UF-TDMA has been used in several field campaigns over the last few years. The investigations were focused on the origin and properties of nucleation event aerosols, which are observed frequently in various environments. This paper gives a summary of the results of 10 nm and 20 nm particle hygroscopic properties from different measurement sites: an urban site, an urban background site and a forest site in Finland and a coastal site in western Ireland. The data can be classified in four hygroscopic growth classes: hydrofobic, less-hygroscopic, more-hygroscopic and sea-salt. Similar classification has been earlier presented for Aitken and accumulation mode particles. In urban air, the summertime 10 nm particles showed varying less-hygroscopic growth behaviour, while winter time 10 nm and 20 nm particles were externally mixed with two different hygroscopic growth modes. The forest measurements revealed diurnal behaviour of hygroscopic growth, with high growth factors at day time and lower during night. The urban background particles had growth behaviour similar to the urban and forest measurement sites depending on the origin of the observed particles. The coastal measurements were strongly affected by air mass history. Both 10 nm and 20 nm particles were hygroscopic in marine background air. The 10 nm particles produced during clean nucleation burst periods were hydrofobic. Diurnal variation and higher growth factors of 10 nm particles were observed in air affected by other source regions. External mixing was occasionally observed at all the sites, but incidents with more than two growth modes were extremely rare.

  16. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles

    KAUST Repository

    Longhin, Eleonora

    2016-05-15

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects.Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones.Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure.These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  17. Towards the directed evolution of virus-like particles derived from polyomaviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are assemblies of viral structural proteins. These particles resemble the native viral capsid in structure, tropism, and transduction efficiency, but do not contain any viral genetic material. This makes them a safer alternative to viral vectors for gene therapy, and

  18. Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping; Carder, Kendall L.; Steward, Robert G.; Peacock, Thomas G.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Mueller, James L.

    1997-02-01

    Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic properties of oceanic waters are important parameters for ocean optics. Due to surface reflectance, Rrs or water-leaving radiance is difficult to measure from above the surface. It usually is derived by correcting for the reflected skylight in the measured above-water upwelling radiance using a theoretical Fresnel reflectance value. As it is difficult to determine the reflected skylight, there are errors in the Q and E derived Rrs, and the errors may get bigger for high chl_a coastal waters. For better correction of the reflected skylight,w e propose the following derivation procedure: partition the skylight into Rayleigh and aerosol contributions, remove the Rayleigh contribution using the Fresnel reflectance, and correct the aerosol contribution using an optimization algorithm. During the process, Rrs and in-water inherent optical properties are derived at the same time. For measurements of 45 sites made in the Gulf of Mexico and Arabian Sea with chl_a concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 49 mg/m3, the derived Rrs and inherent optical property values were compared with those from in-water measurements. These results indicate that for the waters studied, the proposed algorithm performs quite well in deriving Rrs and in- water inherent optical properties from above-surface measurements for clear and turbid waters.

  19. Properties of the Water Column and Bottom Derived from AVIRIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.; Chen, F. Robert; Peacock, Thomas G.

    2001-01-01

    Using AVIRIS data as an example, we show in this study that the optical properties of the water column and bottom of a large, shallow area can be adequately retrieved using a model-driven optimization technique. The simultaneously derived properties include bottom depth, bottom albedo, and water absorption and backscattering coefficients, which in turn could be used to derive concentrations of chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments. The derived bottom depths were compared with a bathymetry chart and a boat survey and were found to agree very well. Also, the derived bottom-albedo image shows clear spatial patterns, with end members consistent with sand and seagrass. The image of absorption and backscattering coefficients indicates that the water is quite horizontally mixed. These results suggest that the model and approach used work very well for the retrieval of sub-surface properties of shallow-water environments even for rather turbid environments like Tampa Bay, Florida.

  20. Disintegration rate and properties of active pharmaceutical ingredient particles as determined from the dissolution time profile of a pharmaceutical formulation: an inverse problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkovics-Kovats, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    Dissolution profile of a finished dosage form (FDF) contains hidden information regarding the disintegration of the form and the particle properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Here, an extraction of this information from the dissolution profile without limitation to sink conditions is provided. In the article, mathematical relationships between the continuously measured dissolution profile of an FDF containing uniform or heterogeneous particles and its disintegration rate are developed. Further, the determinability of the disintegration kinetics and particle properties released from an FDF using the derived recurrent procedure was analyzed. On the basis of the theoretical data sets, it was demonstrated that the introduced analysis of dissolution profiles correctly identifies the disintegration rate of FDF containing multiple particle types. Furthermore, for known disintegration rates, the intrinsic lifetime of particles (time needed for total particle dissolution in infinite volume) released from the FDF and their relative amount can be determined. The extractable information from FDF dissolution time profiles can be utilized in designing of the formulation process, resulting in improved understanding of FDF properties, contributing thus to the implementation of quality by design in the FDF development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Microstructure and wear properties of the electroslag remelting layer reinforced by TiC particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The electroslag remelting (ESR) layer reinforced by TiC particles was obtained by electroslag remelting.The microstructure and wear properties of the ESR layer were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD),and wear test.The results indicate that TiC particles are synthesized by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction during the electroslag remelting process.The size of TiC particles is in the range of 1-10 μm,and the distribution of TiC particles is uniform,from outside to inside of the ESR layer,and the volume fraction and the size of TiC particles decrease gradually.Molten iron and slag flow into porosity due to the SHS process leading to rapid densification and the elimination of porosity in the ESR layer during the ESR process.TiC particles enhance the wear resistance of the ESR layer,whereas CaF2 can improve the high temperature lubricating property of the ESR layer.

  2. Effect of the carbonyl iron particles on acoustic absorption properties of magnetic polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jialu; Wang, Caiping; Zhu, Honglang; Wang, Xiaojie

    2018-03-01

    Elastomeric matrix embedded with magnetic micro-sized particles has magnetically controllable properties, which has been investigated extensively in the last decades. In this study we develop a new magnetically controllable elastomeric material for acoustic applications at lower frequencies. The soft polyurethane foam is used as matrix material due to its extraordinary elastic and acoustic absorption properties. One-step method is used to synthesize polyurethane foam, in which all components including polyether polyols 330N, MDI, deionized water, silicone oil, carbonyl iron particle (CIP) and catalyst are put into one container for curing. Changing any component can induce the change of polyurethane foam's properties, such as physical and acoustic properties. The effect of the content of MDI on acoustic absorption is studied. The CIPs are aligned under extra magnetic field during the foaming process. And the property of polyurethane foam with aligned CIPs is also investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to observe the structure of pore and particle-chain. The two-microphone impedance tube and the transfer function method are used to test acoustic absorption property of the magnetic foams.

  3. Microwave-assisted synthesis and antioxidant properties of hydrazinyl thiazolyl coumarin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Hasnah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coumarin derivatives exhibit a wide range of biological properties including promising antioxidant activity. Furthermore, microwave-assisted organic synthesis has delivered rapid routes to N- and O-containing heterocycles, including coumarins and thiazoles. Combining these features, the use of microwave-assisted processes will provide rapid access to a targeted coumarin library bearing a hydrazino pharmacophore for evaluation of antioxidant properties Results Microwave irradiation promoted 3 of the 4 steps in a rapid, convergent synthesis of a small library of hydrazinyl thiazolyl coumarin derivatives, all of which exhibited significant antioxidant activity comparable to that of the natural antioxidant quercetin, as established by DPPH and ABTS radical assays Conclusions Microwave dielectric heating provides a rapid and expedient route to a series of hydrazinyl thiazolyl coumarins to investigate their radical scavenging properties. Given their favourable properties, in comparison with known antioxidants, these coumarin derivatives are promising leads for further development and optimization.

  4. On some new properties of fractional derivatives with Mittag-Leffler kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Fernandez, Arran

    2018-06-01

    We establish a new formula for the fractional derivative with Mittag-Leffler kernel, in the form of a series of Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals, which brings out more clearly the non-locality of fractional derivatives and is easier to handle for certain computational purposes. We also prove existence and uniqueness results for certain families of linear and nonlinear fractional ODEs defined using this fractional derivative. We consider the possibility of a semigroup property for these derivatives, and establish extensions of the product rule and chain rule, with an application to fractional mechanics.

  5. The single- and double-particle properties and the current reversal of coupled Brownian motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen-Pu; Chen, Hong-Bin; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Fan, Hong; Shen, Wen-Mei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the directed transport of coupled Brownian motors composed of two identical particles which is individually subject to a time-symmetric rocking force in spatially-symmetric periodic potentials. We find that both the coupling free length and the coupling strength can induce the reversed motion of the coupled Brownian motors, the essence of which is the coupled Brownian motors can exhibit completely different single- or double-particle properties under certain conditions. Namely, the current reversal is the result of the mutual conversion between the single- and double-particle properties of the coupled Brownian motors. Moreover, the directed current of coupled Brownian motors can be optimized and manipulated by adjusting the strength, the period, the phase difference of the rocking forces, and the noise intensity. (paper)

  6. Highly temperature responsive core-shell magnetic particles: synthesis, characterization and colloidal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahbubor; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2011-08-15

    Temperature responsive magnetic polymer submicron particles were prepared by two step seed emulsion polymerization process. First, magnetic seed polymer particles were obtained by emulsion polymerization of styrene using potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator and divinylbenzne (DVB) as a cross-linker in the presence of oil-in-water magnetic emulsion (organic ferrofluid droplets). Thereafter, DVB cross-linked magnetic polymer particles were used as seed in the precipitation polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) to induce thermosensitive PNIPAM shell onto the hydrophobic polymer surface of the cross-linked magnetic polymer particles. To impart cationic functional groups in the thermosensitive PNIPAM backbone, the functional monomer aminoethylmethacrylate hydrochloride (AEMH) was used to polymerize with NIPAM while N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and 2, 2'-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (V-50) were used as a cross-linker and as an initiator respectively. The effect of seed to monomer (w/w) ratio along with seed nature on the final particle morphology was investigated. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) results demonstrated particles swelling at below volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) and deswelling above the VPTT. The perfect core (magnetic) shell (polymer) structure of the particles prepared was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The chemical composition of the particles were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of temperature, pH, ionic strength on the colloidal properties such as size and zeta potential of the micron sized thermo-sensitive magnetic particles were also studied. In addition, a short mechanistic discussion on the formation of core-shell morphology of magnetic polymer particles has also been discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements for particle detectors in high-energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviano, G.; Ferrini, M.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Colafranceschi, S.; KjØlbro, J.; Sharma, A.; Yang, D.; Chen, G.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Grassini, S.; Parvis, M.

    2018-03-01

    Gas detectors for elementary particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This work studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements by computing the physical and chemical parameters relevant for use as detector media, and suggests candidates to be considered for experimental investigation.

  8. Green's functions for theories with massless particles (in perturbation theory). [Growth properties, momentum space, mass renormalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Seneor, R [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique, 75 - Paris (France). Centre de Physique Theorique)

    1975-01-01

    With the method of perturbative renormalization developed by Epstein and Glaser it is shown that Green's functions exist for theories with massless particles such as Q.E.D. and lambda:PHI/sup 2n/ theories. Growth properties are given in momentum space. In the case of Q.E.D., it is also shown that one can perform the physical mass renormalization.

  9. Plastic tube hadron calorimeter: study of operation properties and particle separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopdzhanov, G.A.; Belousov, V.I.; Blik, A.M.; Romanovski, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The DELPHI hadron calorimeter prototype plastic tubes were tested to show a long-term stability of the prototype operating with the gas mixture carbon dioxide isobutane. The operating properties of the prototype are investigated and presented as well as the results on particles separation. 5 refs.; 11 figs.; 9 tabs

  10. Graphene oxide-modified ZnO particles: synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong LL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Zhong, Kyusik Yun Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanosized ZnO particles with diameters of 15 nm were prepared with a solution precipitation method at low cost and high yield. The synthesis of the particles was functionalized by the organic solvent dimethylformamide, and the particles were covalently bonded to the surface of graphene oxide. The morphology of the graphene oxide sheets and ZnO particles was confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscopy and biological atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the physical and chemical properties of the ZnO/graphene oxide composites that differed from those of the individual components. Enhanced electrochemical properties were detected with cyclic voltammetry, with a redox peak of the composites at 0.025 mV. Excellent antibacterial activity of ZnO/graphene oxide composites was observed with a microdilution method in which minimum inhibitory concentrations of 6.25 µg/mL for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 12.5 µg/mL for Bacillus subtilis, and 25 µg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis. After further study of the antibacterial mechanism, we concluded that a vast number of reactive oxygen species formed on the surface of composites, improving antibacterial properties. Keywords: graphene oxide, ZnO, characterization, antibacterial property

  11. The anomalous physical and chemical properties of gold nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortie, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Although gold is the most inert of all metallic elements, it has been discovered during the last two decades that it has interesting properties as a nano-particle. Some of the properties of interest include its activity as a heterogeneous catalyst, particularly at low temperatures, its optical properties, and the tendency of its nano-particles to adopt non-crystallographic structures. There are a number of curious aspects to catalysis by gold that are attracting academic and industrial investigation and much is still not understood about the mechanism by which they work. For example, apparently similar preparation techniques result in activities of hugely varying magnitude. In the present talk I assess the what is known about gold nano-particles, with particular reference to their physical, electronic, crystallographic and catalytic properties. It is shown that there is much evidence in favour of the belief that it is the unique electronic structure of these particles that imbues them with catalytic activity. If this is true then tighter control of the electronic structure would allow for the design of more specific and more active catalysts

  12. Improvements in mechanical properties in SiC by the addition of TiC particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, G.C.; Becher, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon carbide ceramics containing up to 24.6 vol% dispersed TiC particles yielded fully dense composites by hot-pressing at 2000 0 C with 1 wt% Al and 1 wt% C added. The microstructure consists of fine TiC particles in a fine-grained SiC matrix. Addition of TiC particles increases the critical fracture toughness of SiC (to approx. =6 MPa /SUP ./ m /SUP 1/2/ at 24.6 vol% TiC) and yields high flexure strength (greater than or equal to 680 MPa), with both properties increasing with increasing volume fraction of TiC. The strengths at high temperatures are also improved by the TiC additions. Observations of the fracture path indicate that the improved toughness and strength are a result of crack deflection by the TiC particles

  13. A study on coated particle fuel properties and performances and phase-I data base establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Hyo Cheol; Im, Byeong Ju; Yun, Sang Pil; Son, Seung Beom; Lee, Gyeong Hui; Jang, Jeong Nam

    2006-03-01

    For the successful development of the high temperature gas cooled reactor acquisition and generation of the high temperature properties of reactor materials, especially temperature and burn-up dependent properties of coated particle fuel and fuel element, are crucially essential. Recently national project for HTGR for hydrogen production has been kicked off. However, we have had little experience on this new challenges. Therefore, it became necessary to build up the materials properties and fuel performance data base. In this study, a primitive properties and performance DB for coated particle fuel was developed. This database report consists two sections: materials properties and fuel performance. The materials properties has three parts: kernel materials, carbide coating materials, and fuel elements and graphite matrix. UO 2 and UCO belong to kernel materials while PyC, SiC, and ZrC comprises the coating materials section. Thermal, mechanical and physical properties of these materials were collected, reviewed, and summarized. Additionally, the property change induced by manufacture process and irradiation were collected and summarized. Performance data were also collected, reviewed, and analyzed based on the key phenomena and failure mechanism. All of these data will be accessible in the on-line system. These results will be directly used for HTGR fuel design and fabrication and preliminary fuel performance analysis under irradiation

  14. Biological properties of purified recombinant HCV particles with an epitope-tagged envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hitoshi; Akazawa, Daisuke [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Toray Industries, Inc., Kanagawa (Japan); Kato, Takanobu; Date, Tomoko [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Shirakura, Masayuki [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Toray Industries, Inc., Kanagawa (Japan); Nakamura, Noriko; Mochizuki, Hidenori [Toray Industries, Inc., Kanagawa (Japan); Tanaka-Kaneko, Keiko; Sata, Tetsutaro [Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Yasuhito [Department of Clinical Molecular Informative Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Mizokami, Masashi [Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, Kohnodai Hospital, International Medical Center of Japan, Chiba (Japan); Suzuki, Tetsuro [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Wakita, Takaji, E-mail: wakita@nih.go.jp [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-05-14

    To establish a simple system for purification of recombinant infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles, we designed a chimeric J6/JFH-1 virus with a FLAG (FL)-epitope-tagged sequence at the N-terminal region of the E2 hypervariable region-1 (HVR1) gene (J6/JFH-1/1FL). We found that introduction of an adaptive mutation at the potential N-glycosylation site (E2N151K) leads to efficient production of the chimeric virus. This finding suggests the involvement of glycosylation at Asn within the envelope protein(s) in HCV morphogenesis. To further analyze the biological properties of the purified recombinant HCV particles, we developed a strategy for large-scale production and purification of recombinant J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K. Infectious particles were purified from the culture medium of J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K-infected Huh-7 cells using anti-FLAG affinity chromatography in combination with ultrafiltration. Electron microscopy of the purified particles using negative staining showed spherical particle structures with a diameter of 40-60 nm and spike-like projections. Purified HCV particle-immunization induced both an anti-E2 and an anti-FLAG antibody response in immunized mice. This strategy may contribute to future detailed analysis of HCV particle structure and to HCV vaccine development.

  15. Dependence of the microstructural properties of ZnO particles on their synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Svetozar; Saric, Ankica; Popovic, Stanko

    2008-01-01

    The influence of experimental conditions on the precipitation of ZnO particles and their microstructural properties has been investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal field emission scanning electron microscopy. Mixing of ZnCl 2 or Zn(ac) 2 solution with Na 2 CO 3 solution of proper concentrations yielded aggregates of fine Zn 5 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 6 particles, which were converted to nanosize ZnO particles at 300 deg. C. The size of these ZnO particles increased to around 100 nm upon heating at 600 deg. C, whereas a small fraction of them turned out in the form of aggregates. The obtained ZnO particles assumed a pseudospherical shape; however, their basic structure was based on the hexagonal space group. Precipitation of Zn 2+ ions in decomposing HMTA at 90 deg. C yielded ZnO particles around micron range. Crystalline Zn(OH) 2 was not detected in the precipitates. ZnO particles obtained by this method were strongly elongated in the direction of the crystallographic c-axis

  16. Biological properties of purified recombinant HCV particles with an epitope-tagged envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hitoshi; Akazawa, Daisuke; Kato, Takanobu; Date, Tomoko; Shirakura, Masayuki; Nakamura, Noriko; Mochizuki, Hidenori; Tanaka-Kaneko, Keiko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Wakita, Takaji

    2010-01-01

    To establish a simple system for purification of recombinant infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles, we designed a chimeric J6/JFH-1 virus with a FLAG (FL)-epitope-tagged sequence at the N-terminal region of the E2 hypervariable region-1 (HVR1) gene (J6/JFH-1/1FL). We found that introduction of an adaptive mutation at the potential N-glycosylation site (E2N151K) leads to efficient production of the chimeric virus. This finding suggests the involvement of glycosylation at Asn within the envelope protein(s) in HCV morphogenesis. To further analyze the biological properties of the purified recombinant HCV particles, we developed a strategy for large-scale production and purification of recombinant J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K. Infectious particles were purified from the culture medium of J6/JFH-1/1FL/E2N151K-infected Huh-7 cells using anti-FLAG affinity chromatography in combination with ultrafiltration. Electron microscopy of the purified particles using negative staining showed spherical particle structures with a diameter of 40-60 nm and spike-like projections. Purified HCV particle-immunization induced both an anti-E2 and an anti-FLAG antibody response in immunized mice. This strategy may contribute to future detailed analysis of HCV particle structure and to HCV vaccine development.

  17. Carbon isotope ratios of organic matter in Bering Sea settling particles. Extremely high remineralization of organic carbon derived from diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Saki; Akagi, Tasuku; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Fumio; Takahashi, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    The carbon isotope ratios of organic carbon in settling particles collected in the highly-diatom-productive Bering Sea were determined. Wet decomposition was employed to oxidize relatively fresh organic matter. The amount of unoxidised organic carbon in the residue following wet decomposition was negligible. The δ 13 C of organic carbon in the settling particles showed a clear relationship against SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio of settling particles: approximately -26‰ and -19‰ at lower and higher SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratios, respectively. The δ 13 C values were largely interpreted in terms of mixing of two major plankton sources. Both δ 13 C and compositional data can be explained consistently only by assuming that more than 98% of diatomaceous organic matter decays and that organic matter derived from carbonate-shelled plankton may remain much less remineralized. A greater amount of diatom-derived organic matter is discovered to be trapped with the increase of SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio of the settling particles. The ratio of organic carbon to inorganic carbon, known as the rain ratio, therefore, tends to increase proportionally with the SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio under an extremely diatom-productive condition. (author)

  18. Effect of labeling with iron oxide particles or nanodiamonds on the functionality of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead P Blaber

    Full Text Available Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity. In particular, we investigated the effects of two different particles: micron-sized (~0.9 µm fluorescently labeled (Dragon Green superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (M-SPIO particles; and, carboxylated nanodiamonds of ~0.25 µm in size. The effects of labeling on the functionality of adipose-derived MSCs were assessed by in vitro morphology, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, CD marker expression, cytokine secretion profiling and quantitative proteomics of the intra-cellular proteome. The differentiation and CD marker assays for stem-like functionality were not altered upon label incorporation and no secreted or intra-cellular protein changes indicative of stress or toxicity were detected. These in vitro results indicate that the M-SPIO particles and nanodiamonds investigated in this study are biocompatible with MSCs and therefore would be suitable labels for cell localization and tracking in vivo.

  19. Advances in Biomagnetic Interfacing Concepts Derived from Polymer-Magnetic Particle Complexes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riffle, Judy S

    2005-01-01

    Our research on the development and characterization of magnetic nanoparticle-polymer complexes for tile project period 6/1/03-12/31/04 has yielded approximately 10-nm diameter cobalt particles coated...

  20. Electrical properties of composites of TiO2-triphenylamine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kaneyoshi; Kurosaka, Youko; Osako, Youko; Ha, Jaekook; Vacha, Martin; Sato, Hisaya

    2005-01-01

    We report a concept of organic molecular charge dopant in organic-inorganic composites and study its effect on the composite conductivity. Thin film composites are prepared from a 1:1 dispersion of TiO 2 or other metal oxide particles in a polymer binder. Introduction of a small percentage of triphenylamine (TPA) derivative dopants increases the dark conductivity by up to five orders of magnitude. This phenomenon is explained in terms of electron donation by the dopant to a continuous network of aggregated metal oxide particles

  1. Waste Tire Particles and Gamma Radiation as Modifiers of the Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In polymer reinforced concrete, the Young’s modulus of both polymers and cement matrix is responsible for the detrimental properties of the concrete, including compressive and tensile strength, as well as stiffness. A novel methodology for solving such problems is based on use of ionizing radiation, which has proven to be a good tool for improvement on physical and chemical properties of several materials including polymers, ceramics, and composites. In this work, particles of 0.85 mm and 2.80 mm obtained from waste tire were submitted at 250 kGy of gamma radiation in order to modify their physicochemical properties and then used as reinforcement in Portland cement concrete for improving mechanical properties. The results show diminution on mechanical properties in both kinds of concrete without (or with irradiated tire particles with respect to plain concrete. Nevertheless such diminutions (from 2 to 16% are compensated with the use of high concentration of waste tire particles (30%, which ensures that the concrete will not significantly increase the cost.

  2. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petzold

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel−1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel−1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC. Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 μm, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 μm for raw emissions to 0.10 μm at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp≤0.02 μm. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

  3. Binding properties of oxacalix[4]arenes derivatives toward metal cations; Interactions entre cations metalliques et derives des oxacalix[4]arenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellah, B

    2006-11-15

    The objective of this work was to establish the binding properties of oxacalix[4]arene derivatives with different numbers of the oxa bridges, functional groups (ketones, pyridine, ester, amide and methoxy) and conformations. Their interactions with alkali and alkaline-earth, heavy and transition metal cations have been evaluated according to different approaches: (i) extraction of corresponding picrates from an aqueous phase into dichloromethane; (ii) determination of the thermodynamic parameters of complexation in methanol and/or acetonitrile by UV-spectrophotometry and micro-calorimetry; (iii) determination of the stoichiometry of the complexes by ESI-MS; (iv) {sup 1}H-NMR titrations allowing to localize the metal ions in the ligand cavity. In a first part dealing on homo-oxacalix[4]arenes, selectivities for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} of ketones derivatives was shown. The presence of oxa bridge in these derivatives increases their efficiency while decreasing their selectivity with respect to related calixarenes. The pyridine derivative prefers transition and heavy metal cations, in agreement with the presence of the soft nitrogen atoms. In the second part, di-oxacalix[4]arene ester and secondary amide derivatives were shown to be less effective than tertiary amide counterparts but to present high selectivities for Li{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+}. A third part devoted to the octa-homo-tetra-oxacalix[4]arene tetra-methoxy shows that the 1:1 metal complexes formed are generally more stable than those of calixarenes, suggesting the participation of the oxygen atoms of the bridge in the complexation. Selectivity for Cs{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+} were noted. (author)

  4. A Comparitive Assessement of Cytokine Expression in Human-Derived Cell Lines Exposed to Alpha Particles and X-Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha- (α- particle radiation exposure has been linked to the development of lung cancer and has been identified as a radiation type likely to be employed in radiological dispersal devices. Currently, there exists a knowledge gap concerning cytokine modulations associated with exposure to α-particles. Bio-plex technology was employed to investigate changes in proinflammatory cytokines in two human-derived cell lines. Cells were irradiated at a dose of 1.5 Gy to either α-particles or X-rays at equivalent dose rates. The two cell lines exhibited a unique pattern of cytokine expression and the response varied with radiation type. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, only vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF was observed to be modulated in both cell lines solely after α-particle exposure, and the expression of VEGF was shown to be dose responsive. These results suggest that certain proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the biological effects related to α- particle exposure and the responses are cell type and radiation type specific.

  5. A pore-size classification for peat bogs derived from unsaturated hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias Karl David; Iden, Sascha Christian; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the acrotelm (vadoze zone) controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Thus, variably saturated flow processes determine whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon, and modelling these processes is crucial to assess effects of changed environmental conditions on the future development of these ecosystems. We show that the Richards equation can be used to accurately describe the moisture dynamics under evaporative conditions in variably saturated peat soil, encompassing the transition from the topmost living moss layer to the decomposed peat as part of the vadose zone. Soil hydraulic properties (SHP) were identified by inverse simulation of evaporation experiments on samples from the entire acrotelm. To obtain consistent descriptions of the observations, the traditional van Genuchten-Mualem model was extended to account for non-capillary water storage and flow. We found that the SHP of the uppermost moss layer reflect a pore-size distribution (PSD) that combines three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum moss. For deeper samples, acrotelm pedogenesis changes the shape of the SHP due to the collapse of inter-plant pores and an infill with smaller particles. This leads to gradually more homogeneous and bi-modal PSDs with increasing depth, which in turn can serve as a proxy for increasing state of pedogenesis in peatlands. From this, we derive a nomenclature and size classification for the pore spaces of Sphagnum mosses and define inter-, intra-, and inner-plant pore spaces, with effective pore diameters of > 300, 300-30, and 30-10 µm, respectively.

  6. A pore-size classification for peat bogs derived from unsaturated hydraulic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. D. Weber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the acrotelm (vadoze zone controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Thus, variably saturated flow processes determine whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon, and modelling these processes is crucial to assess effects of changed environmental conditions on the future development of these ecosystems. We show that the Richards equation can be used to accurately describe the moisture dynamics under evaporative conditions in variably saturated peat soil, encompassing the transition from the topmost living moss layer to the decomposed peat as part of the vadose zone. Soil hydraulic properties (SHP were identified by inverse simulation of evaporation experiments on samples from the entire acrotelm. To obtain consistent descriptions of the observations, the traditional van Genuchten–Mualem model was extended to account for non-capillary water storage and flow. We found that the SHP of the uppermost moss layer reflect a pore-size distribution (PSD that combines three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum moss. For deeper samples, acrotelm pedogenesis changes the shape of the SHP due to the collapse of inter-plant pores and an infill with smaller particles. This leads to gradually more homogeneous and bi-modal PSDs with increasing depth, which in turn can serve as a proxy for increasing state of pedogenesis in peatlands. From this, we derive a nomenclature and size classification for the pore spaces of Sphagnum mosses and define inter-, intra-, and inner-plant pore spaces, with effective pore diameters of >  300, 300–30, and 30–10 µm, respectively.

  7. The single scattering properties of the aerosol particles as aggregated spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Gu, X.; Cheng, T.; Xie, D.; Yu, T.; Chen, H.; Guo, J.

    2012-01-01

    The light scattering and absorption properties of anthropogenic aerosol particles such as soot aggregates are complicated in the temporal and spatial distribution, which introduce uncertainty of radiative forcing on global climate change. In order to study the single scattering properties of anthorpogenic aerosol particles, the structures of these aerosols such as soot paticles and soot-containing mixtures with the sulfate or organic matter, are simulated using the parallel diffusion limited aggregation algorithm (DLA) based on the transmission electron microscope images (TEM). Then, the single scattering properties of randomly oriented aerosols, such as scattering matrix, single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP), are computed using the superposition T-matrix method. The comparisons of the single scattering properties of these specific types of clusters with different morphological and chemical factors such as fractal parameters, aspect ratio, monomer radius, mixture mode and refractive index, indicate that these different impact factors can respectively generate the significant influences on the single scattering properties of these aerosols. The results show that aspect ratio of circumscribed shape has relatively small effect on single scattering properties, for both differences of SSA and AP are less than 0.1. However, mixture modes of soot clusters with larger sulfate particles have remarkably important effects on the scattering and absorption properties of aggregated spheres, and SSA of those soot-containing mixtures are increased in proportion to the ratio of larger weakly absorbing attachments. Therefore, these complex aerosols come from man made pollution cannot be neglected in the aerosol retrievals. The study of the single scattering properties on these kinds of aggregated spheres is important and helpful in remote sensing observations and atmospheric radiation balance computations.

  8. Dielectric properties of polymer-particle nanocomposites influenced by electronic nature of filler surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddabattuni, Sasidhar; Schuman, Thomas P; Dogan, Fatih

    2013-03-01

    The interface between the polymer and the particle has a critical role in altering the properties of a composite dielectric. Polymer-ceramic nanocomposites are promising dielectric materials for many electronic and power devices, combining the high dielectric constant of ceramic particles with the high dielectric breakdown strength of a polymer. Self-assembled monolayers of electron rich or electron poor organophosphate coupling groups were applied to affect the filler-polymer interface and investigate the role of this interface on composite behavior. The interface has potential to influence dielectric properties, in particular the leakage and breakdown resistance. The composite films synthesized from the modified filler particles dispersed into an epoxy polymer matrix were analyzed by dielectric spectroscopy, breakdown strength, and leakage current measurements. The data indicate that significant reduction in leakage currents and dielectric losses and improvement in dielectric breakdown strengths resulted when electropositive phenyl, electron-withdrawing functional groups were located at the polymer-particle interface. At a 30 vol % particle concentration, dielectric composite films yielded a maximum energy density of ~8 J·cm(-3) for TiO2-epoxy nanocomposites and ~9.5 J·cm(-3) for BaTiO3-epoxy nanocomposites.

  9. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenhorst, L.M.; Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G.; Gerhard, C.; Militz, H.; Ohms, G.; Viöl, W.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Zn/ZnO mixed systems were deposited from elemental zinc by a cold plasma-spray process. • Oxidation was confirmed by XPS. • The coatings exhibited a strong absorption in the UV spectral range, thus being suitable as protective layers, e.g. on thermosensitive materials. - Abstract: In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  10. Correlation of Optical Properties with Atmospheric Solid Organic Particles (ASOPs) in the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, D.; Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; China, S.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Campaign was carried out to gain a better understanding of the lifecycle of shallow clouds. The HISCALE experiment was designed to contrast two seasons, wet and dry, and determine their effect on atmospheric cloud and aerosol processes. The spring component to HISCALE was selected to characterize mixing state for particles collected onto substrates. Sampling was performed to obtain airborne soil organic particles (ASOP), which are believed to be ejected following rain events. The unique composition of the ASOP have been shown to affect optical properties. The collection of particles took place at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) field site. The Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscope (STXM) was used to image the samples collected during the first HI-SCALE Campaign to determine the carbonaceous mixing state. Scanning Electron Microscopy Energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis is more sensitive to the inorganic makeup of particles, while STXM renders a more comprehensive analysis of the organics. Measurements such as nephelometry, Particle Soot Absorption Photometry (PSAP) from the ARM archive are correlated with microscopy measurements. The primary focus is the relation between composition and morphology of ASOP with optical properties.

  11. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenhorst, L.M., E-mail: lena.wallenhorst@hawk-hhg.de [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Gerhard, C. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films, Application Center for Plasma and Photonics, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 100, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Militz, H. [Wood Biology and Wood Products, Burckhardt Institute, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Büsgenweg 4, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ohms, G. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Viöl, W. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films, Application Center for Plasma and Photonics, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 100, 37085 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Zn/ZnO mixed systems were deposited from elemental zinc by a cold plasma-spray process. • Oxidation was confirmed by XPS. • The coatings exhibited a strong absorption in the UV spectral range, thus being suitable as protective layers, e.g. on thermosensitive materials. - Abstract: In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  12. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhorst, L. M.; Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G.; Gerhard, C.; Militz, H.; Ohms, G.; Viöl, W.

    2017-07-01

    In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  13. Ab-initio investigations of the electronic properties of bulk wurtzite Beryllia and its derived nanofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumri-Said, Souraya; Kanoun, Mohammed Benali

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter we investigate the electronic properties of the bulk and the nanofilm BeO in wurtzite structure. We performed a first-principles pseudo-potential method within the generalized gradient approximation. We will give more importance to the changes in band structure and density of states between the bulk structure and its derived nanofilms. The bonding characterization will be investigated via the analysis Mulliken population and charge density contours. It is found that the nanofilm retains the same properties as its bulk structure with slight changes in electronic properties and band structure which may offer some unusual transport properties.

  14. Ab-initio investigations of the electronic properties of bulk wurtzite Beryllia and its derived nanofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2010-08-01

    In this Letter we investigate the electronic properties of the bulk and the nanofilm BeO in wurtzite structure. We performed a first-principles pseudo-potential method within the generalized gradient approximation. We will give more importance to the changes in band structure and density of states between the bulk structure and its derived nanofilms. The bonding characterization will be investigated via the analysis Mulliken population and charge density contours. It is found that the nanofilm retains the same properties as its bulk structure with slight changes in electronic properties and band structure which may offer some unusual transport properties. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  16. Mechanical and thermal properties of phthalonitrile resin reinforced with silicon carbide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derradji, Mehdi; Ramdani, Noureddine; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Jun; Feng, Tian-tian; Wang, Hui; Liu, Wen-bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SiC microparticles improve the mechanical properties of phthalonitrile resin. • Excellent thermal stability achieved by adding SiC particles in phthalonitrile resin. • Adding 20 wt.% of SiC microparticles increases the T g by 38 °C. • Silane coupling agent can enhance the adhesion and dispersion of particles/matrix. - Abstract: A new type of composite based on phthalonitrile resin reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) microparticles was prepared. For various weight ratios ranging between 0% and 20%, the effect of the micro-SiC particles on the mechanical and thermal properties has been studied. Results from thermal analysis revealed that the starting decomposition temperature and the residual weight were significantly improved upon adding the reinforcing phase. At the maximum micro-SiC loading, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed an important enhancement in both the storage modulus and glass transition temperature (T g ), reaching 3.1 GPa and 338 °C, respectively. The flexural strength and modulus as well as the microhardness were significantly enhanced by adding the microfillers. Tensile test revealed enhancements in the composites toughness upon adding the microparticles. Polarization optical microscope (POM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis confirmed that mechanical and thermal properties improvements are essentially attributed to the good dispersion and adhesion between the particles and the resin

  17. Improvement in mechanical properties of high concentration particle doped thermoset composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.

    2009-01-01

    The paper relates to high concentration particle doped composites based on thermosetting polymer systems in which the sequential addition of particles of certain size distribution is followed by curing and casting of the slurry to form a thermoset composite. Conventionally, at a threshold of beyond 90% of particles by weight of the polymer using triglyceride, the mechanical properties of the composite exhibit a sharp decline. The present research mitigates this behavior by incorporating a unique combination of cross-linking agents in the base polymer to impart exceptional mechanical properties to the composite. More specifically, the base polymer consists of butadiene, with triglyceride as cross-linking agent together with hydroxy-alkane as the chain extension precursors, when tune to the appropriate level of hard segment ratio in the polymer. An added advantage according to the present work resides in the analytical nature of butadiene pre-polymer as opposed to natural product; traditional composites based on natural sources are hampered by their inconsistent chemical composition and poor shelf life in the fabricated composite. The thermoset composite according the present research exhibits superior tensile strength (200-300 psi) properties using particle loading as high as 92% by weight of the fabricated composite as measured on a Tinius Olsen machine. Dynamic Mechanical Testing reveals interesting combination of storage and loss moduli in the fabricated specimens as a function of optimizing the thermal response of the viscoelastic composite to imposed vibration loading. (author)

  18. Nanodiamond particles/PVDF nanocomposite flexible films: thermal, mechanical and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleh, Babak; Sodagar, Shima; Momeni, Amir; Jabbari, Ameneh

    2016-08-01

    Recently, polymer nanocomposites reinforced with nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention due to their unique physical and mechanical properties. In this work, poly (vinylidene fluoride)/nanodiamond particles nanocomposite films were prepared by solution casting method with various nanodiamond particles contents. The samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction technique. The results revealed an obvious α to β-phase transformation compared to pure PVDF. The most (or the maximum) phase transformation from α to β-phase (>90%) was found for nanocomposite film with 8% wt nanodiamond particles. Scanning electron micrographs showed considerable decrease in the size of spherulitic crystal structure of PVDF with adding nanoparticles. The photoluminescence property of nanocomposite films was investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy and the optical band gap value was calculated from the UV-visible absorption spectra. The results showed that after the incorporation of nanoparticles into PVDF, the value of optical band gap decreased. Thermal stability of samples was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Due to an increase in the electroactive phase (β) percentage by adding nanoparticles, the resistance of samples to thermal degradation improved. The mechanical properties of samples were investigated by tensile test and hardness measurements. The elastic modulus and hardness of samples were enhanced by adding nanodiamond particles and elongation to fracture decreased.

  19. An improved corrective smoothed particle method approximation for second‐order derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korzilius, S.P.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Anthonissen, M.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To solve (partial) differential equations it is necessary to have good numerical approximations. In SPH, most approximations suffer from the presence of boundaries. In this work a new approximation for the second-order derivative is derived and numerically compared with two other approximation

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF IMMUNOMODULATING PROPERTIES OF C HITOSAN AND ITS DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ivanushko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Comparative study was carried out, aiming to assess immunostimulatory properties of high-molecular chitosan (Ch-HM and its derivatives, i.e., low molecular weight chitosan (Ch-LM, N-3-hydroxymyristoyl (Ch-LM at a low acylation ratio, N-3-hydroxymyristoylchitooligosaccharides (N-acylchito-biose, -triose, -tetraose, N-, O-carboxyalkylchitosans (carboxymethyl, -ethyl, -propyl derivates. It was established, that the chemical modifications of chitosan influenced its biological activity. The derivatives of chitosan were found to have improved physical properties (good solubility in neutral and alkaline solutions, low viscosity in acidic solutions, good absorption from a gastrointestinal compartment, as compared with initial (high molecular weight chitosan formula. They possess immunomodulatory properties and may be regarded as promising substances for preparation of medical drugs and biologically active food additives (BAFA.

  1. Electromagnetic absorbing property of the flaky carbonyl iron particles by chemical corrosion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dianliang, E-mail: 272895980@qq.com [College of Aeronautical Engineering, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China); Liu, Ting; Zhou, Li [College of Aeronautical Engineering, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China); Xu, Yonggang [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai 200438 (China)

    2016-12-01

    The flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) were prepared using a milling process at the first step, then the chemical corrosion process was done to optimize the particle shape. The particle morphology was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy, the static magnetic property was evaluated on a vibrating sample magnetometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz and the reflection loss (RL) was calculated. The results showed that the saturation magnetization value of the CIPs decreased as the CIPs was corroded to the small flakes in chemical corrosion process. The diffraction peaks of the single α-Fe existed in the XRD pattern of CIPs, and the characteristic peaks was more obvious and the intensity of the diffraction pattern was lower by corrosion. The permittivity and the permeability of the corroded milling CIPs was a little larger than the milling CIPs, it was due to the larger aspect ratio based on the fitting calculation process. At thickness 0.6 mm and 0.8 mm, the corroded milling CIPs composite had the better absorbing property than the other two samples. The frequency band (RL<−5 dB) could be widened to 8.96–18 GHz at 0.6 mm and 5.92–18 GHz at 0.8 mm, and RL less than −8 dB began to exist in 8.96–14.72 GHz at 0.8 mm. - Graphical abstract: The property of absorber using corrosion process could be enhanced. - Highlights: • The chemical corrosion process was done to optimize the particle shape. • The permittivity and permeability of corroded milling CIPs increased. • The aspect ratio of flaky CIPs increased in the corrosion process. • The corroded milling CIPs composite had the better absorbing property.

  2. Dynamical properties of a particle in a time-dependent double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonel, Edson D; McClintock, P V E

    2004-01-01

    Some chaotic properties of a classical particle interacting with a time-dependent double-square-well potential are studied. The dynamics of the system is characterized using a two-dimensional nonlinear area-preserving map. Scaling arguments are used to study the chaotic sea in the low-energy domain. It is shown that the distributions of successive reflections and of corresponding successive reflection times obey power laws with the same exponent. If one or both wells move randomly, the particle experiences the phenomenon of Fermi acceleration in the sense that it has unlimited energy growth

  3. Comparison of mechanical and tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE reinforced with basalt fibers and particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Alexenko, V. O.; Qitao, Huang; Ivanova, L. R.

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical and tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE composites reinforced with basalt fibers and particles under dry sliding friction and abrasion were investigated. It is shown that adding of the basalt particles provides higher wear resistance under the dry sliding friction while at abrasion filling by the basalt fibers is more efficient since the wear resistance of the reinforced UHMWPE composites is by 3.7 times higher in contrast with the neat polymer. Wear mechanisms of the polymeric UHMWPE composites under various types of wear are discussed.

  4. Impact of variety type and particle size distribution on starch enzymatic hydrolysis and functional properties of tef flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Workineh; Collar, Concha; Ronda, Felicidad

    2015-01-22

    Tef grain is becoming very attractive in the Western countries since it is a gluten-free grain with appreciated nutritional advantages. However there is little information of its functional properties and starch digestibility and how they are affected by variety type and particle size distribution. This work evaluates the effect of the grain variety and the mill used on tef flour physico-chemical and functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior. In vitro starch digestibility of the flours by Englyst method was assessed. Two types of mills were used to obtain whole flours of different granulation. Rice and wheat flours were analyzed as references. Protein molecular weight distribution and flour structure by SEM were also analyzed to justify some of the differences found among the cereals studied. Tef cultivar and mill type exhibited important effect on granulation, bulking density and starch damage, affecting the processing performance of the flours and determining the hydration and pasting properties. The color was darker although one of the white varieties had a lightness near the reference flours. Different granulation of tef flour induced different in vitro starch digestibility. The disc attrition mill led to higher starch digestibility rate index and rapidly available glucose, probably as consequence of a higher damaged starch content. The results confirm the adequacy of tef flour as ingredient in the formulation of new cereal based foods and the importance of the variety and the mill on its functional properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Micro- and Nanoscale Fe+3-Containing (Hematite) Particles for Their Toxicological Properties in Human Lung Cells In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharya, K.; Hoffmann, E.; Schins, R.F.P.; Boertz, J.; Prantl, E.M.; Alink, G.M.; Byrne, H.J.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Rahman, Q.; Wiggers, H.; Schulz, C.; Dopp, E.

    2012-01-01

    The specific properties of nanoscale particles, large surface-to-mass ratios and highly reactive surfaces, have increased their commercial application in many fields. However, the same properties are also important for the interaction and bioaccumulation of the nonbiodegradable nanoscale particles

  6. Physicochemical conditions and properties of particles in urban runoff and rivers: Implications for runoff pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Qionghua; Wu, Yaketon; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2017-04-01

    In this study, to gain an improved understanding of the fate and fractionation of particle-bound pollutants, we evaluated the physicochemical conditions and the properties of particles in rainwater, urban runoff, and rivers of Yixing, a city with a large drainage density in the Taihu Lake Basin, China. Road runoff and river samples were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2015 and 2016. There were significant differences between the physicochemical conditions (pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and electroconductivity (EC)) of rainwater, runoff, and rivers. The lowest pH and highest ORP values of rainwater provide the optimal conditions for leaching of particle-bound pollutants such as heavy metals. The differences in the physicochemical conditions of the runoff and rivers may contribute to the redistribution of pollutants between particulate and dissolved phases after runoff is discharged into waterways. Runoff and river particles were mainly composed of silt and clay (runoff particles contained a higher proportion of nano-scale particles (runoff pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of particles thickness and veneer reiforced layer in the properties of oriented strand boards OSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effects of particle thickness and veneer reinforced layer on the physical and mechanicalproperties of OSB made of Pinus taeda L. The boards were manufactured with particle thickness of 0.4, 0.7 and 1.0 mm and phenolformaldehyderesin in the proportion of 6% of solid content. To the veneer reinforced layer was used veneer from Pinus taeda with 2.0mm of thickness. The increase in the slenderness (length/thickness ratio of thins particles, results in the higher values of MOE andMOR in the cross direction. The increase in the particles thickness contributed to higher values of the board internal bond. Thedifferent particles thickness did not clearly affected on the physical properties of OSB. The veneer reinforced layer results in the higheraverage values of MOE and MOR in the cross direction. All of the results of MOE and MOR obtained for boards with differentthickness attend tominimum values required per CSA 0437 (CSA, 1993. For the internal bond, the results were satisfactory to boardsmanufactured with particles thickness of 0.7 and 1.0 mm. According to the results the main conclusions were: (i The increase in theparticles thickness contributed to lower values of MOE and MOR, and higher values of the board internal bond; (ii the veneerreinforced layer increased MOE and MOR values in the cross direction.

  8. Selected mechanical properties of aluminum composite materials reinforced with SiC particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurzawa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of research concerning influence of ceramic particles’ content of silicon carbide on selected mechanical properties of type AW-AlCu4Mg2Mn - SiC composite materials. Composites produced of SiC particles with pressure infiltration method of porous preform and subject to hot plastic forming in the form of open die forging were investigated. The experimental samples contained from 5% up to 45% of reinforcing SiC particles of 8÷10μm diameter. Studies of strength properties demonstrated that the best results, in case of tensile strength as well as offset yield strength, might be obtained while applying reinforcement in the amount of 20-25% vol. of SiC. Application of higher than 25% vol. contents of reinforcing particles leads to gradual strength loss. The investigated composites were characterized by very high functional properties, such as hardness and abrasive wear resistance, whose values increase strongly with the increase of reinforcement amount. The presented results of the experiments shall allow for a more precise component selection of composite materials at the stage of planning and design of their properties.

  9. Quasi-classical derivation of the Dirac and one-particle Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, J.W.G.

    1990-08-01

    The quasi-classical approach, in which particles are regarded as extended periodic excitations of a classical nonlinear field, is for the first time applied quantitatively in the quantum domain. It is shown that the twofold intrinsic 'spin' degree of freedom possessed by an electron can be interpreted in a purely classical way, and that the Lorentz covariant incorporation of this degree of freedom requires that the spacetime evolution of an electron excitation in a prescribed external field be given by the Dirac equation and hence, in the nonrelativistic limit, by the Pauli or Schroedinger one-particle equations. 17 refs

  10. Portable instrument for selectively detecting alpha-particles derived from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; DaJlevic, D.

    1975-01-01

    A portable instrument of the pocket type designed primarily for monitoring atmospheric contamination in uranium mines by selectively detecting the α-particles emitted simultaneously by the daughter products of radon, namely radium A and radium C' is described. The instrument comprises in combination a tube containing a suction fan for drawing external air through a filter which retains the α-emitting aerosols, a detector in which the α-particles corresponding to the respective energies of the α-emissions of radium A and of radium C' are detected separately, and two collimators placed between the filter and the detector

  11. Mechanical properties of dental resin composites by co-filling diatomite and nanosized silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua; Zhu Meifang; Li Yaogang; Zhang Qinghong; Wang Hongzhi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical property effects of co-filling dental resin composites with porous diatomite and nanosized silica particles (OX-50). The purification of raw diatomite by acid-leaching was conducted in a hot 5 M HCl solution at 80 deg. C for 12 h. Both diatomite and nanosized SiO 2 were silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The silanized inorganic particles were mixed into a dimethacrylate resin. Purified diatomite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. Silanized inorganic particles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical properties of the composites were tested by three-point bending, compression and Vicker's microhardness. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show the cross-section morphologies of the composites. Silanization of diatomite and nanosized silica positively reinforced interactions between the resin matrix and the inorganic particles. The mechanical properties of the resin composites gradually increased with the addition of modified diatomite (m-diatomite). The fracture surfaces of the composites exhibited large fracture steps with the addition of m-diatomite. However, when the mass fraction of m-diatomite was greater than 21 wt.% with respect to modified nanosized silica (mOX-50) and constituted 70% of the resin composite by weight, the mechanical properties of the resin composites started to decline. Thus, the porous structure of diatomite appears to be a crucial factor to improve mechanical properties of resin composites.

  12. Mechanical properties of dental resin composites by co-filling diatomite and nanosized silica particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hua; Zhu Meifang [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Li Yaogang [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glasses Manufacturing Technology, MOE, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang Qinghong, E-mail: zhangqh@dhu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glasses Manufacturing Technology, MOE, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang Hongzhi, E-mail: wanghz@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-04-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical property effects of co-filling dental resin composites with porous diatomite and nanosized silica particles (OX-50). The purification of raw diatomite by acid-leaching was conducted in a hot 5 M HCl solution at 80 deg. C for 12 h. Both diatomite and nanosized SiO{sub 2} were silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The silanized inorganic particles were mixed into a dimethacrylate resin. Purified diatomite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm. Silanized inorganic particles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical properties of the composites were tested by three-point bending, compression and Vicker's microhardness. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show the cross-section morphologies of the composites. Silanization of diatomite and nanosized silica positively reinforced interactions between the resin matrix and the inorganic particles. The mechanical properties of the resin composites gradually increased with the addition of modified diatomite (m-diatomite). The fracture surfaces of the composites exhibited large fracture steps with the addition of m-diatomite. However, when the mass fraction of m-diatomite was greater than 21 wt.% with respect to modified nanosized silica (mOX-50) and constituted 70% of the resin composite by weight, the mechanical properties of the resin composites started to decline. Thus, the porous structure of diatomite appears to be a crucial factor to improve mechanical properties of resin composites.

  13. Properties of charmed particle nonleptonic interactions following from Δ T=1/2 rule for usual mesons and baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.; Cartasheva, V.G.; Tikhonin, F.F.

    1978-01-01

    A version of weak interaction has been considered in the frame of the model of 4-colour quarks with integer charges. The white part of the nonleptonic Lagrangian, responsible for the weak decay of usual particles, is constructed in such a way, that the ΔT=1/2 rule be fulfilled. This requirement fixed in a certain way the set of the parameters of full weak hadronic current. Parameters obtained in such a way give a complete description of the part of the Lagrangian with c-quark. The properties of the latter one reproduce to a certain extent those of the Lagrangian obtained in the GIM model, however the Lagrangian obtained in this work contains additional terms, that cannot be derived in the GIM model

  14. Silicon-containing polymer-derived ceramic nanocomposites (PDC-NCs): preparative approaches and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Emanuel; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Riedel, Ralf

    2012-08-07

    Composites consist by definition of at least two materials (Gibbsian phases) with rather different properties. They exhibit a heterogeneous microstructure and possess improved properties with respect to their components. Furthermore, the design of their microstructure allows for tailoring their overall properties. In the last decades, intense work was performed on the synthesis of nanocomposites, which have the feature that at least one of their components is nanoscaled. However, the microstructure-property relationship of nanocomposite materials is still a challenging topic. This tutorial review paper deals with a special class of nanocomposites, i.e. polymer-derived ceramic nanocomposites (PDC-NCs), which have been shown to be promising materials for various structural and functional applications. Within this context, different preparative approaches for PDC-NCs as well as some of their properties will be presented and discussed. Furthermore, recent results concerning the relationship between the nano/microstructure of PDC-NCs and their properties will be highlighted.

  15. Stem Cell-Derived Exosome in Cardiovascular Diseases: Macro Roles of Micro Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Du, Weijie; Liu, Jiaqi; Ma, Wenya; Zhang, Lai; Du, Zhimin; Cai, Benzhi

    2018-01-01

    The stem cell-based therapy has emerged as the promising therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Recently, increasing evidence suggest stem cell-derived active exosomes are important communicators among cells in the heart via delivering specific substances to the adjacent/distant target cells. These exosomes and their contents such as certain proteins, miRNAs and lncRNAs exhibit huge beneficial effects on preventing heart damage and promoting cardiac repair. More importantly, stem cell-derived exosomes are more effective and safer than stem cell transplantation. Therefore, administration of stem cell-derived exosomes will expectantly be an alternative stem cell-based therapy for the treatment of CVDs. Furthermore, modification of stem cell-derived exosomes or artificial synthesis of exosomes will be the new therapeutic tools for CVDs in the future. In addition, stem cell-derived exosomes also have been implicated in the diagnosis and prognosis of CVDs. In this review, we summarize the current advances of stem cell-derived exosome-based treatment and prognosis for CVDs, including their potential benefits, underlying mechanisms and limitations, which will provide novel insights of exosomes as a new tool in clinical therapeutic translation in the future.

  16. Effects of the shape properties of talc and quartz particles on the wettability based separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicyilmaz, C.; Ulusoy, U.; Yekeler, M.

    2004-01-01

    Shape properties of talc and quartz particles ground by a laboratory size ball, rod, and autogenous mills were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). More than 100 particles were measured to do the shape analysis of each mill product. The wettability behavior of (γ c ) a highly hydrophobic of talc mineral was determined by contact angle measurements and micro-flotation tests using a contact angle goniometer and EMDEE MicroFLOT test tube, respectively. On the other hand, wettability (γ c ) of quartz, which is a highly hydrophilic mineral, was determined by the micro-flotation method only. The results showed that the particles ground by rod mill gave higher flatness and elongation ratio, which meant higher hydrophobicity with lower γ c values in the separations by flotation method

  17. Tribological Properties of Aluminum Alloy treated by Fine Particle Peening/DLC Hybrid Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanbu H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the adhesiveness of the DLC coating, Fine Particle Peening (FPP treatment was employed as pre-treatment of the DLC coating process. FPP treatment was performed using SiC shot particles, and then AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was DLC-coated. A SiC-rich layer was formed around the surface of the aluminum alloy by the FPP treatment because small chips of shot particles were embedded into the substrate surface. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficients. While the DLC coated specimen without FPP treatment showed a sudden increase in friction coefficient at the early stage of the wear cycles, the FPP/DLC hybrid treated specimen maintained a low friction coefficient value during the test period. Further investigation revealed that the tribological properties of the substrate after the DLC coating were improved with an increase in the amount of Si at the surface.

  18. Synthesis, multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance and electromagnetic absorption properties of hcp-cobalt particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shulai; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiuchen; Cheng, Jingwei; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hcp-cobalt particles were successfully prepared by a liquid phase reduction method, and the microstructure, static magnetic properties, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of the cobalt particles with irregular shape were investigated in detail. The measured results indicate that the saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals, and the coercivity was larger than that of bulk cobalt crystal. The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance, which may result from the irregular shape containing parts of cutting angle of dodecahedron of cobalt particles. The real part of permeability decreases with the frequency, and the imaginary part has a wide resonant peak. The paraffin-based composite containing 70 wt% cobalt particles possessed strong absorption characteristics with a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz and an absorption band with RL under −10 dB from 8.72 to 13.26 GHz when the thickness is 1.8 mm, which exhibits excellent microwave absorption in middle and high frequency. The architectural design of material morphologies is important for improving microwave absorption properties toward future application. - Highlights: • Hcp-cobalt particles were prepared by a liquid phase reduction method. • The saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals. • The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance. • The real part of permeability decreases with frequency, and the imaginary part presents a wide resonant peak. • The paraffin-based composite possessed a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz

  19. Ice nucleation properties of atmospheric aerosol particles collected during a field campaign in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Petya; Maier, Stefanie; Lang-Yona, Naama; Tamm, Alexandra; Meusel, Hannah; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, including desert and soil dust as well as marine aerosols, are well known to act as ice nuclei (IN) and thus have been investigated in numerous ice nucleation studies. Based on their cloud condensation nuclei potential and their impacts on radiative properties of clouds (via scattering and absorption of solar radiation), aerosol particles may significantly affect the cloud and precipitation development. Atmospheric aerosols of the Eastern Mediterranean have been described to be dominated by desert dust, but only little is known on their composition and ice nucleating properties. In this study we investigated the ice nucleating ability of total suspended particles (TSP), collected at the remote site Agia Marina Xyliatou on Cyprus during a field campaign in April 2016. Airborne TSP samples containing air masses of various types such as African (Saharan) and Arabian dust and European and Middle Eastern pollution were collected on glass fiber filters at 24 h intervals. Sampling was performed ˜5 m above ground level and ˜521 m above sea level. During the sampling period, two major dust storms (PM 10max 118 μg/m3 and 66 μg/m3) and a rain event (rainfall amount: 3.4 mm) were documented. Chemical and physical characterizations of the particles were analyzed experimentally through filtration, thermal, chemical and enzyme treatments. Immersion freezing experiments were performed at relatively high subzero temperatures (-1 to -15˚ C) using the mono ice nucleation array. Preliminary results indicate that highest IN particle numbers (INPs) occurred during the second dust storm event with lower particle concentrations. Treatments at 60˚ C lead to a gradual IN deactivation, indicating the presence of biological INPs, which were observed to be larger than 300 kDa. Additional results originating from this study will be shown. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the DFG Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT).

  20. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin Peng [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Tianjin Binhai New Area Finance Bureau, Tianjin 300450 (China); Wang, Cheng Guo, E-mail: sduwangchg@gmail.com [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang, Wen [Norinco Group China North Material Science and Engineering Technology Group Corporation, Jinan 250031 (China); Yu, Mei Jie; Gao, Rui; Chen, Yang; Xiang Wang, Yan [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon were fabricated conveniently and economically by carbonizing polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers mixed with micro-sized iron particles under different temperatures. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The electromagnetic (EM) properties were measured by a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz based on which analog computations of EM wave absorption properties were carried out. The influences of temperature on phase composition and EM wave absorption properties were also investigated, indicating that the composites had good electromagnetic absorption properties with both electrical loss and magnetic loss. Effective reflection loss (RL<−10 dB) was observed in a large frequency range of 7.5–18 GHz with the absorber thickness of 2.0–3.0 mm for the paraffin samples with composite powders heated up to 750 °C and the minimum absorption peak around −40 dB appeared at approximately 10 GHz with matching thickness of 2.0 mm for the paraffin sample with composite powders heated up to 800 °C. - Highlights: • High-performance electromagnetic wave absorption materials were fabricated conveniently and economically. • The materials are composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in porous amorphous carbon. • The influences of temperature on phase composition and electromagnetic wave absorption properties were investigated. • The composites heated up to 750 °C and 800 °C had good electromagnetic wave absorption property.

  1. Single-particle properties of the Hubbard model in a novel three-pole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciolo, Andrea; Avella, Adolfo

    2018-05-01

    We study the 2D Hubbard model using the Composite Operator Method within a novel three-pole approximation. Motivated by the long-standing experimental puzzle of the single-particle properties of the underdoped cuprates, we include in the operatorial basis, together with the usual Hubbard operators, a field describing the electronic transitions dressed by the nearest-neighbor spin fluctuations, which play a crucial role in the unconventional behavior of the Fermi surface and of the electronic dispersion. Then, we adopt this approximation to study the single-particle properties in the strong coupling regime and find an unexpected behavior of the van Hove singularity that can be seen as a precursor of a pseudogap regime.

  2. Enhancement of transport properties of a Brownian particle due to quantum effects: Smoluchowski limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: By invoking physically motivated coordinate transformation into quantum Smoluchowski equation, we have presented a transparent treatment for the determination of the effective diffusion coefficient and current of a quantum Brownian particle. Substantial enhancement in the efficiency of the diffusive transport is envisaged due to the quantum correction effects. Highlights:: ► Transport of a quantum Brownian particle in a periodic potential has been addressed. ► Governing quantum Smoluchowski equation (QSE) includes state dependent diffusion. ► A coordinate transformation is used to recast QSE with constant diffusion. ► Transport properties increases in comparison to the corresponding classical result. ► This enhancement is purely a quantum effect. - Abstract: The transport property of a quantum Brownian particle that interacts strongly with a bath (in which a typical damping constant by far exceeds a characteristic frequency of the isolated system) under the influence of a tilted periodic potential has been studied by solving quantum Smoluchowski equation (QSE). By invoking physically motivated coordinate transformation into QSE, we have presented a transparent treatment for the determination of the effective diffusion coefficient of a quantum Brownian particle and the current (the average stationary velocity). Substantial enhancement in the efficiency of the diffusive transport is envisaged due to the quantum correction effects only if the bath temperature hovers around an appropriate range of intermediate values. Our findings also confirm the results obtained in the classical cases.

  3. Hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activation of limonene-derived organosulfates and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Hong, J.; Raatikainen, T.; Kristensen, K.; Ylisirniö, A.; Virtanen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Glasius, M.; Prisle, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organosulfates have been observed as constituents of atmospheric aerosols in a wide range of environments; however their hygroscopic properties remain uncharacterised. Here, limonene-derived organosulfates with a molecular weight of 250 Da (L-OS 250) were synthesised and used for simultaneous measurements with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (H-TDMA) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) to determine the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, for pure L-OS 250 and mixtures of L-OS 250 with ammonium sulfate (AS) over a wide range of humidity conditions. The κ values derived from measurements with H-TDMA decreased with increasing particle dry diameter for all chemical compositions investigated, indicating that κH-TDMA depends on particle diameter and/or surface effects; however, it is not clear if this trend is statistically significant. For pure L-OS 250, κ was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, indicating dilution/solubility effects to be significant. Discrepancies in κ between the sub- and supersaturated measurements were observed for L-OS 250, whereas κ of AS and mixed L-OS 250/AS were similar. This discrepancy was primarily ascribed to limited dissolution of L-OS 250 at subsaturated conditions. In general, hygroscopic growth factor, critical particle diameter and κ for the mixed L-OS 250/AS particles converged towards the values of pure AS for mixtures with ≥ 20 % w / w AS. Surface tension measurements of bulk aqueous L-OS 250/AS solutions showed that L-OS 250 was indeed surface active, as expected from its molecular structure, decreasing the surface tension of solutions with 24 % from the pure water value at a L-OS 250 concentration of 0.0025 mol L-1. Based on these surface tension measurements, we present the first concentration-dependent parametrisation of surface tension for aqueous L-OS 250, which was implemented to different process-level models of L-OS 250 hygroscopicity and CCN activation. The values of κ

  4. Properties and toxicological effects of particles from the interaction between tyres, road pavement and winter traction material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SE-581 95 Linkoeping (Sweden)], E-mail: mats.gustafsson@vti.se; Blomqvist, Goeran [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SE-581 95 Linkoeping (Sweden); Gudmundsson, Anders; Dahl, Andreas [Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Swietlicki, Erik [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bohgard, Mats [Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lindbom, John; Ljungman, Anders [Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    In regions where studded tyres and traction material are used during winter, e.g. the Nordic countries, northern part of USA, Canada, and Japan, mechanically generated particles from traffic are the main reason for high particle mass concentrations in busy street and road environments. In many Nordic municipalities the European environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}) is exceeded due to these particles. In this study, particles from the wear of studded and studless friction tyres on two pavements and traction sanding were generated using a road simulator. The particles were characterized using particle sizers, Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis and electron microscopy. Cell studies were conducted on particles sampled from the tests with studded tyres and compared with street environment, diesel exhaust and subway PM{sub 10}, respectively. The results show that in the road simulator, where resuspension is minimized, studded tyres produce tens of times more particles than friction tyres. Chemical analysis of the sampled particles shows that the generated wear particles consist almost entirely of minerals from the pavement stone material, but also that Sulfur is enriched for the submicron particles and that Zink is enriched for friction tyres for all particles sizes. The chemical data can be used for source identification and apportionment in urban aerosol studies. A mode of ultra-fine particles was also present and is hypothesised to originate in the tyres. Further, traction material properties affect PM{sub 10} emission. The inflammatory potential of the particles from wear of pavements seems to depend on type of pavement and can be at least as potent as diesel exhaust particles. The results imply that there is a need and a good potential to reduce particle emission from pavement wear and winter time road and street operation by adjusting both studded tyre use as well as pavement and traction material properties.

  5. Properties and toxicological effects of particles from the interaction between tyres, road pavement and winter traction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Goeran; Gudmundsson, Anders; Dahl, Andreas; Swietlicki, Erik; Bohgard, Mats; Lindbom, John; Ljungman, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In regions where studded tyres and traction material are used during winter, e.g. the Nordic countries, northern part of USA, Canada, and Japan, mechanically generated particles from traffic are the main reason for high particle mass concentrations in busy street and road environments. In many Nordic municipalities the European environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM 10 ) is exceeded due to these particles. In this study, particles from the wear of studded and studless friction tyres on two pavements and traction sanding were generated using a road simulator. The particles were characterized using particle sizers, Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis and electron microscopy. Cell studies were conducted on particles sampled from the tests with studded tyres and compared with street environment, diesel exhaust and subway PM 10 , respectively. The results show that in the road simulator, where resuspension is minimized, studded tyres produce tens of times more particles than friction tyres. Chemical analysis of the sampled particles shows that the generated wear particles consist almost entirely of minerals from the pavement stone material, but also that Sulfur is enriched for the submicron particles and that Zink is enriched for friction tyres for all particles sizes. The chemical data can be used for source identification and apportionment in urban aerosol studies. A mode of ultra-fine particles was also present and is hypothesised to originate in the tyres. Further, traction material properties affect PM 10 emission. The inflammatory potential of the particles from wear of pavements seems to depend on type of pavement and can be at least as potent as diesel exhaust particles. The results imply that there is a need and a good potential to reduce particle emission from pavement wear and winter time road and street operation by adjusting both studded tyre use as well as pavement and traction material properties

  6. Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Huang, Tzu-Teng

    2013-01-01

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transparent semiconductor thin films were prepared by KrF excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films. Each as-coated film was dried at 150 °C in air and then annealed using excimer laser irradiation. The influence of laser irradiation energy density on surface conditions, optical transmittances, and electrical properties of laser annealed IGZO thin films were investigated, and the physical properties of the excimer laser annealed (ELA) and the thermally annealed (TA) thin films were compared. Experimental results showed that two kinds of surface morphology resulted from excimer laser annealing. Irradiation with a lower energy density (≤250 mJ cm −2 ) produced wavy and irregular surfaces, while irradiation with a higher energy density (≥350 mJ cm −2 ) produced flat and dense surfaces consisting of uniform nano-sized amorphous particles. The explanation for the differences in surface features and film quality is that using laser irradiation energy to form IGZO thin films improves the film density and removes organic constituents. The dried IGZO sol–gel films irradiated with a laser energy density of 350 mJ/cm 2 had the best physical properties of all the ELA IGZO thin films. The mean resistivity of the ELA 350 thin films (4.48 × 10 3 Ω cm) was lower than that of TA thin films (1.39 × 10 4 Ω cm), and the average optical transmittance in the visible range (90.2%) of the ELA 350 thin films was slightly higher than that of TA thin films (89.7%). - Highlights: • IGZO semiconductor films were prepared by laser annealing of sol–gel derived films. • Surface roughness and resistivity of ELA samples were affected by energy density. • The ELA 350 IGZO film exhibited the best properties among all of ELA IGZO films. • Transmittance and resistivity of ELA 350 films are greater than those of TA films

  7. Frictional behaviour and transport properties of simulated fault gouges derived from a natural CO2 reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.; Hangx, S.J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483579X; Niemeijer, A.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132; Spiers, C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829323

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of long-term CO2-brine-rock interactions on the frictional and transport properties of reservoir-derived fault gouges, prepared from both unexposed and CO2-exposed sandstone, and from aragonite-cemented fault rock of an active CO2-leaking conduit, obtained from a natural

  8. Synthesis and properties of highly branched Jatropha curcas L. oil derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, Louis; Ardiyanti, Agnes R.; Schuur, Boelo; Manurung, Robert; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    The synthesis and properties of a number of novel branched Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) derivatives containing vicinal di-ester units in the fatty acid chains are reported. Both the length (acetyl vs. hexanoyl) and the stereochemistry of the vicinal di-ester units (cis vs. trans) were varied. The

  9. Influence of p H on optical properties of nano structure sol-gel-derived silica films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpuor, F.; Adelkhani, H.; Nahavandi, M.; Noorbakhsh Shourabadi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sol-gel derived silica films were fabricated by dip-coating onto glass microscope substrates. Film properties such as transmission and surface morphology were monitored as function of dip speed and sol p H. Film transmission was increased with increasing of p H in visible range. The surface morphology of films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Synthetic strategies for modifying dielectric properties and the electron mobility of fullerene derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahani Bahnamiri, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this PhD research project was to develop fullerene derivatives with enhanced dielectric properties for photovoltaic applications. Organic solar cells suffer from relatively low power conversion efficiency mainly due to charge recombination, which stems from the low dielectric constant of

  11. Naima: a Python package for inference of particle distribution properties from nonthermal spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalza, V.

    2015-07-01

    The ultimate goal of the observation of nonthermal emission from astrophysical sources is to understand the underlying particle acceleration and evolution processes, and few tools are publicly available to infer the particle distribution properties from the observed photon spectra from X-ray to VHE gamma rays. Here I present naima, an open source Python package that provides models for nonthermal radiative emission from homogeneous distribution of relativistic electrons and protons. Contributions from synchrotron, inverse Compton, nonthermal bremsstrahlung, and neutral-pion decay can be computed for a series of functional shapes of the particle energy distributions, with the possibility of using user-defined particle distribution functions. In addition, naima provides a set of functions that allow to use these models to fit observed nonthermal spectra through an MCMC procedure, obtaining probability distribution functions for the particle distribution parameters. Here I present the models and methods available in naima and an example of their application to the understanding of a galactic nonthermal source. naima's documentation, including how to install the package, is available at http://naima.readthedocs.org.

  12. Quantum Radiation Properties of Dirac Particles in General Nonstationary Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Chen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum radiation properties of Dirac particles in general nonstationary black holes in the general case are investigated by both using the method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation and considering simultaneously the asymptotic behaviors of the first-order and second-order forms of Dirac equation near the event horizon. It is generally shown that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on both the time and different angles. Further, we give a general expression of the new extra coupling effect in thermal radiation spectrum of Dirac particles which is absent from the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particles. Also, we reveal a relationship that is ignored before between thermal radiation and nonthermal radiation in the case of scalar particles, which is that the chemical potential in thermal radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of scalar particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.

  13. Effect of sorghum flour composition and particle size on quality properties of gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappey, Emily Frederick; Khouryieh, Hanna; Aramouni, Fadi; Herald, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    White, food-grade sorghum was milled to flour of varying extraction rates (60%, 80%, and 100%) and pin-milled at different speeds (no pin-milling, low-speed, and high-speed) to create flours of both variable composition and particle size. Flours were characterized for flour composition, total starch content, particle size distribution, color, damaged starch, and water absorption. Bread was characterized for specific volume, crumb structure properties, and crumb firmness. Significant differences were found (P Breads produced from 60% extraction flour had significantly higher specific volumes, better crumb properties, and lower crumb firmness when compared with all other extractions and flour types. The specific volume of bread slices ranged from 2.01 mL/g (100% extraction, no pin-milling) to 2.54 mL/g (60% extraction, low-speed pin-milling), whereas the firmness ranged from 553.28 g (60% extraction, high-speed pin-milling) to 1096.26 g (commercial flour, no pin-milling). The bread characteristics were significantly impacted by flour properties, specifically particle size, starch damage, and fiber content (P < 0.05). © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. The Field-Dependent Rheological Properties of Magnetorheological Grease Based on Carbonyl-Iron-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, N.; Mazlan, S. A.; Ubaidillah; Choi, Seung-Bok; Nordin, M. F. M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents dynamic viscoelastic properties of magnetorheological (MR) grease under variation of magnetic fields and magnetic particle fractions. The tests to discern the field-dependent properties are undertaken using both rotational and oscillatory shear rheometers. As a first step, the MR grease is developed by dispersing the carbonyl iron (CI) particles into grease medium with a mechanical stirrer. Experimental data are obtained by changing the magnetic field from 0 to 0.7 T at room temperature of 25 °C. It is found that a strong Payne effect limits the linear viscoelastic region of MR grease at strains above 0.1%. The results exhibit a high dynamic yield stress which is equivalent to Bingham plastic rheological model, and show relatively good MR effect at high shear rate of 2000 s-1. In addition, high dispersion of the magnetic particles and good thermal properties are proven. The results presented in this work directly indicate that MR grease is a smart material candidate that could be widely applicable to various fields including vibration control.

  15. Aqueous Lubrication, Structure and Rheological Properties of Whey Protein Microgel Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anwesha; Kanti, Farah; Gulotta, Alessandro; Murray, Brent S; Zhang, Shuying

    2017-12-26

    Aqueous lubrication has emerged as an active research area in recent years due to its prevalence in nature in biotribological contacts and its enormous technological soft-matter applications. In this study, we designed aqueous dispersions of biocompatible whey-protein microgel particles (WPM) (10-80 vol %) cross-linked via disulfide bonding and focused on understanding their rheological, structural and biotribological properties (smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) contacts, R a ball bearings", the latter supported by negligible change in size and microstructure of the WPM particles after tribology. An ultralow boundary friction coefficient, μ ≤ 0.03 was achieved using WPM between O 2 plasma-treated hydrophilic PDMS contacts coated with bovine submaxillary mucin (water contact angle 47°), and electron micrographs revealed that the WPM particles spread effectively as a layer of particles even at low ϕ∼ 10%, forming a lubricating load-bearing film that prevented the two surfaces from true adhesive contact. However, above an optimum volume fraction, μ increased in HL+BSM surfaces due to the interpenetration of particles that possibly impeded effective rolling, explaining the slight increase in friction. These effects are reflected in the highly shear thinning nature of the WPM dispersions themselves plus the tendency for the apparent viscosity to fall as dispersions are forced to very high volume fractions. The present work demonstrates a novel approach for providing ultralow friction in soft polymeric surfaces using proteinaceous microgel particles that satisfy both load bearing and kinematic requirements. These findings hold great potential for designing biocompatible particles for aqueous lubrication in numerous soft matter applications.

  16. Size-dependent effective properties of anisotropic piezoelectric composites with piezoelectric nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming-Juan; Fang, Xue-Qian; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the electro-elastic surface/interface theory, the size-dependent effective piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients of anisotropic piezoelectric composites that consist of spherically piezoelectric inclusions under a uniform electric field are investigated, and the analytical solutions for the elastic displacement and electric potentials are derived. With consideration of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the effective field method is introduced to derive the effective dielectric and piezoelectric responses in the dilute limit. The numerical examples show that the effective dielectric constant exhibits a significant variation due to the surface/interface effect. The dielectric property of the surface/interface displays greater effect than the piezoelectric property, and the elastic property shows little effect. A comparison with the existing results validates the present approach. (paper)

  17. Noise bias in the refinement of structures derived from single particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Alex; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2004-01-01

    One of the main goals in the determination of three-dimensional macromolecular structures from electron microscope images of individual molecules and complexes (single particles) is a sufficiently high spatial resolution, about 4 A, at which the interpretation with an atomic model becomes possible. To reach high resolution, an iterative refinement procedure using an expectation maximization algorithm is often used that leads to a more accurate alignment of the positional and orientational parameters for each particle. We show here the results of refinement algorithms that use a phase residual, a linear correlation coefficient, or a weighted correlation coefficient to align individual particles. The algorithms were applied to computer-generated data sets that contained projections from model structures, as well as noise. The algorithms show different degrees of over-fitting, especially at high resolution where the signal is weak. We demonstrate that the degree of over-fitting is reduced with a weighting scheme that depends on the signal-to-noise ratio in the data. The weighting also improves the accuracy of resolution measurement by the commonly used Fourier shell correlation. The performance of the refinement algorithms is compared to that using a maximum likelihood approach. The weighted correlation coefficient was implemented in the computer program FREALIGN

  18. Computation of the optical properties and their first order derivatives for multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Haija, A.J.; Omari, H.Y.

    1985-08-01

    An elaborate computer programme has been established for calculating the optical properties and their first order derivatives for arbitrary multilayer structure systems. The method employs Chebychev polynomials. The optical properties that may be calculated include reflectivity R, transmissivity T, absorptivity A and their derivatives R', T' and A' with respect to wavelength. The obtained values of R, T and A as calculated by this method were compared with their values calculated from direct multiplication of matrices using the characteristic transfer technique. The advantages of the present programme over the previous one reside in the reduction of the computer time by almost a factor of m, the total number of identity periods, and the advantage of calculating the derivatives of R, T and A with respect to wavelength. The basic formulas which are utilized in these calculations are given together with the essential details of the programme, including a block diagram. (author)

  19. Retrieving simulated volcanic, desert dust and sea-salt particle properties from two/three-component particle mixtures using UV-VIS polarization lidar and T matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. David

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During transport by advection, atmospheric nonspherical particles, such as volcanic ash, desert dust or sea-salt particles experience several chemical and physical processes, leading to a complex vertical atmospheric layering at remote sites where intrusion episodes occur. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed to analyse this complex vertical layering in the case of a two/three-component particle external mixtures. This methodology relies on an analysis of the spectral and polarization properties of the light backscattered by atmospheric particles. It is based on combining a sensitive and accurate UV-VIS polarization lidar experiment with T-matrix numerical simulations and air mass back trajectories. The Lyon UV-VIS polarization lidar is used to efficiently partition the particle mixture into its nonspherical components, while the T-matrix method is used for simulating the backscattering and depolarization properties of nonspherical volcanic ash, desert dust and sea-salt particles. It is shown that the particle mixtures' depolarization ratio δ p differs from the nonspherical particles' depolarization ratio δns due to the presence of spherical particles in the mixture. Hence, after identifying a tracer for nonspherical particles, particle backscattering coefficients specific to each nonspherical component can be retrieved in a two-component external mixture. For three-component mixtures, the spectral properties of light must in addition be exploited by using a dual-wavelength polarization lidar. Hence, for the first time, in a three-component external mixture, the nonsphericity of each particle is taken into account in a so-called 2β + 2δ formalism. Applications of this new methodology are then demonstrated in two case studies carried out in Lyon, France, related to the mixing of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash with sulfate particles (case of a two-component mixture and to the mixing of dust with sea-salt and water-soluble particles

  20. A novel approach to derive halo-independent limits on dark matter properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Francesc; Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method that allows to place an upper limit on the dark matter elastic scattering cross section with nucleons which is independent of the velocity distribution. Our approach combines null results from direct detection experiments with indirect searches at neutrino telescopes, and goes beyond previous attempts to remove astrophysical uncertainties in that it directly constrains the particle physics properties of the dark matter. The resulting halo-independent upper limits on the sc...

  1. Laboratory and Cloud Chamber Studies of Formation Processes and Properties of Atmospheric Ice Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, T.; Abdelmonem, A.; Benz, S.; Brinkmann, M.; Möhler, O.; Rzesanke, D.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Wagner, R.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of ice in tropospheric clouds controls the evolution of precipitation and thereby influences climate and weather via a complex network of dynamical and microphysical processes. At higher altitudes, ice particles in cirrus clouds or contrails modify the radiative energy budget by direct interaction with the shortwave and longwave radiation. In order to improve the parameterisation of the complex microphysical and dynamical processes leading to and controlling the evolution of tropospheric ice, laboratory experiments are performed at the IMK Karlsruhe both on a single particle level and in the aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA. Single particle experiments in electrodynamic levitation lend themselves to the study of the interaction between cloud droplets and aerosol particles under extremely well characterized and static conditions in order to obtain microphysical parameters as freezing nucleation rates for homogeneous and heterogeneous ice formation. They also allow the observation of the freezing dynamics and of secondary ice formation and multiplication processes under controlled conditions and with very high spatial and temporal resolution. The inherent droplet charge in these experiments can be varied over a wide range in order to assess the influence of the electrical state of the cloud on its microphysics. In the AIDA chamber on the other hand, these processes are observable under the realistic dynamic conditions of an expanding and cooling cloud- parcel with interacting particles and are probed simultaneously by a comprehensive set of analytical instruments. By this means, microphysical processes can be studied in their complex interplay with dynamical processes as for example coagulation or particle evaporation and growth via the Bergeron - Findeisen process. Shortwave scattering and longwave absorption properties of the nucleating and growing ice crystals are probed by in situ polarised laser light scattering measurements and infrared extinction

  2. The Effect Of Organic Surfactants On The Properties Of Common Hygroscopic Particles: Effective Densities, Reactivity And Water Evaporation Of Surfactant Coated Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrarodriguez, L.; Zelenyuk, A.; Imre, D.; Ellison, B.

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric aerosol compositions routinely show that organic compounds account for a very large fraction of the particle mass. The organic compounds that make up this aerosol mass represent a wide range of molecules with a variety of properties. Many of the particles are composed of hygroscopic salts like sulfates, nitrates and sea-salt internally mixed with organics. While the properties of the hygroscopic salts are known, the effect of the organic compounds on the microphysical and chemical properties which include CCN activity is not clear. .One particularly interesting class of internally mixed particles is composed of aqueous salts solutions that are coated with organic surfactants which are molecules with long aliphatic chain and a water soluble end. Because these molecules tend to coat the particles' surfaces, a monolayer might be sufficient to drastically alter their hygroscopic properties, their CCN activity, and reactivity. The aliphatic chains, being exposed to the oxidizing atmosphere are expected to be transformed through heterogeneous chemistry, yielding complex products with mixed properties. We will report the results from a series of observations on ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and sea salt particles coated with three types of surfactant molecules: sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium oleate and laurtrimonium chloride. We have been able to measure the effective densities of internally mixed particles with a range of surfactant concentration that start below a monolayer and extend all the way to particles composed of pure surfactant. For many of the measurements the data reveal a rather complex picture that cannot be simply interpreted in terms of the known pure-compound densities. For unsaturated hydrocarbons we observed and quantified the effect of oxidation by ozone on particle size, effective density and individual particle mass spectral signatures. One of the more important properties of these surfactants is that they can form a

  3. Ice nucleation properties of fine ash particles from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Steinke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in the south of Iceland in April/May 2010, about 40 Tg of ash mass were emitted into the atmosphere. It was unclear whether volcanic ash particles with d < 10 μm facilitate the glaciation of clouds. Thus, ice nucleation properties of volcanic ash particles were investigated in AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere cloud chamber experiments simulating atmospherically relevant conditions. The ash sample that was used for our experiments had been collected at a distance of 58 km from the Eyjafjallajökull during the eruption period in April 2010. The temperature range covered by our ice nucleation experiments extended from 219 to 264 K, and both ice nucleation via immersion freezing and deposition nucleation could be observed. Immersion freezing was first observed at 252 K, whereas the deposition nucleation onset lay at 242 K and RHice =126%. About 0.1% of the volcanic ash particles were active as immersion freezing nuclei at a temperature of 249 K. For deposition nucleation, an ice fraction of 0.1% was observed at around 233 K and RHice =116%. Taking ice-active surface site densities as a measure for the ice nucleation efficiency, volcanic ash particles are similarly efficient ice nuclei in immersion freezing mode (ns,imm ~ 109 m−2 at 247 K compared to certain mineral dusts. For deposition nucleation, the observed ice-active surface site densities ns,dep were found to be 1011 m−2 at 224 K and RHice =116%. Thus, volcanic ash particles initiate deposition nucleation more efficiently than Asian and Saharan dust but appear to be poorer ice nuclei than ATD particles. Based on the experimental data, we have derived ice-active surface site densities as a function of temperature for immersion freezing and of relative humidity over ice and temperature for

  4. Synthesis, fluorescence properties and the promising cytotoxicity of pyrene-derived aminophosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowski, Jarosław; Rodriguez Moya, Maria; Wrona-Piotrowicz, Anna; Zakrzewski, Janusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    A large series of variously substituted amino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic acid derivatives was synthesized using a modified aza-Pudovik reaction in 20-97% yields. The fluorescence properties of the obtained compounds were investigated revealing that N-alkylamino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic derivatives are stronger emissive compounds than the corresponding N-aryl derivatives. N-Benzylamino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic acid displayed strong fluorescence (ΦF = 0.68) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The influence of a series of derivatives on two colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 was also investigated. The most promising results were obtained for N-(4-methoxyphenyl)amino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonate, which was found to be cytotoxic for the HCT116 cancer cell line (IC50 = 20.8 μM), simultaneously showing weak toxicity towards normal lymphocytes (IC50 = 230.8 µM).

  5. Synthesis, fluorescence properties and the promising cytotoxicity of pyrene–derived aminophosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Lewkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A large series of variously substituted amino(pyren-1-ylmethylphosphonic acid derivatives was synthesized using a modified aza-Pudovik reaction in 20–97% yields. The fluorescence properties of the obtained compounds were investigated revealing that N-alkylamino(pyren-1-ylmethylphosphonic derivatives are stronger emissive compounds than the corresponding N-aryl derivatives. N-Benzylamino(pyren-1-ylmethylphosphonic acid displayed strong fluorescence (ΦF = 0.68 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. The influence of a series of derivatives on two colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 was also investigated. The most promising results were obtained for N-(4-methoxyphenylamino(pyren-1-ylmethylphosphonate, which was found to be cytotoxic for the HCT116 cancer cell line (IC50 = 20.8 μM, simultaneously showing weak toxicity towards normal lymphocytes (IC50 = 230.8 µM.

  6. Synthesis, fluorescence properties and the promising cytotoxicity of pyrene–derived aminophosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Moya, Maria; Wrona-Piotrowicz, Anna; Gajek, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Summary A large series of variously substituted amino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic acid derivatives was synthesized using a modified aza-Pudovik reaction in 20–97% yields. The fluorescence properties of the obtained compounds were investigated revealing that N-alkylamino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic derivatives are stronger emissive compounds than the corresponding N-aryl derivatives. N-Benzylamino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic acid displayed strong fluorescence (ΦF = 0.68) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The influence of a series of derivatives on two colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 was also investigated. The most promising results were obtained for N-(4-methoxyphenyl)amino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonate, which was found to be cytotoxic for the HCT116 cancer cell line (IC50 = 20.8 μM), simultaneously showing weak toxicity towards normal lymphocytes (IC50 = 230.8 µM). PMID:27559373

  7. A study on properties-performances of coated particle fuel and on-line DB establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Hyo Cheol; Jang, Jeong Nam; Kwon, Seok Hwan

    2007-03-01

    Recently national project for HTGR for hydrogen production has been kicked off. However, For the successful development of the high temperature gas cooled reactor high temperature and burn-up dependent properties of the reactor materials are essentially and crucially required. Therefore, it was proposed to build up the materials properties and fuel performance data base. In this study, a phase - 1 properties and performance DB for coated particle fuel was developed. This database report consists two sections: materials properties and fuel performance. The materials properties has three parts: kernel materials, carbide coating materials, and fuel elements and graphite matrix. UO2 and UCO belong to kernel materials while PyC, SiC, and ZrC comprises the coating materials section. Thermal, mechanical and physical properties data of these materials were collected, reviewed, and summarized. Additionally, the property change induced by manufacture process and irradiation were reviewed. Fuel performance data were also collected, reviewed, and analyzed based on the key phenomena and failure mechanism, These performance data are divided into two: normal and accident. All of these data will be accessible in the pc based stand-alone system. These results will be directly used for HTGR fuel design and fabrication and preliminary fuel performance analysis under irradiation

  8. Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, parica (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard contained 25, 50, 75 and 100% of eucalyptus and paricá or eucalytus and vassoura or paricá an vassoura were fabricated. Two (6% and 8% amounts of urea-formaldehyde adhesive were used. The physical and mechanical properties were determined according to NBR / ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002. It was observed that increase in resin content in the improved some physical and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the amount of vassoura particles on panels had different effects depending on the species used. The increase in the percentage of vassoura particles in the Eucalyptus panels did not affect the internal bond, screw withdrawal and hardness. Increasing the percentage of vassoura particles on the panels produced with paricá did not affect its hardness and resistance to screw withdrawal. The panels produced with vassoura particle absorbed more water and, consequently, increased the thickness swelling, and therefore is not recommended for use in environments with high humidity. It was concluded that the genus Sida, in general, has potential for particleboard production.

  9. A high energy photon beam derived from neutral strange particle decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, K.; Ruchti, R.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional methods for generating photon beams include: tagged beams in which the photons are derived from electron bremsstrahlung in a radiator target; and broad band beams in which the photons are derived from π/sup 0/ decay - the hadronic component (n, K/sub s//sup 0/) accompanying such a beam is usually suppressed by passage of the beam through a low Z (D/sub 2/) filter. Although one can generate high energy photons by these techniques, the major drawback to these beams is that the photon energy spectrum obtained is peaked at very low E/sub γ/. (Recall that the bremsstrahlung spectrum falls as 1/k). With very high energy proton beams (20 TeV/c), one can image other alternatives for photon beam design. The authors consider one such option here

  10. Effect of Particle Size on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Based Composite Reinforced with 10 Vol.% Mechanically Alloyed Mg-7.4%Al Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Chaubey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Mg-7.4%Al reinforcement particle size on the microstructure and mechanical properties in pure Al matrix composites was investigated. The samples were prepared by hot consolidation using 10 vol.% reinforcement in different size ranges, D, 0 < D < 20 µm (0–20 µm, 20 ≤ D < 40 µm (20–40 µm, 40 ≤ D < 80 µm (40–80 µm and 80 ≤ D < 100 µm (80–100 µm. The result reveals that particle size has a strong influence on the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and percentage elongation. As the particle size decreases from 80 ≤ D < 100 µm to 0 < D < 20 µm, both tensile strength and ductility increases from 195 MPa to 295 MPa and 3% to 4% respectively, due to the reduced ligament size and particle fracturing. Wear test results also corroborate the size effect, where accelerated wear is observed in the composite samples reinforced with coarse particles.

  11. Analysis of External Surface Irregularities on Fukushima-Derived Fallout Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Peter George, E-mail: peter.martin@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Satou, Yukihiko [Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tomioka (Japan); Griffiths, Ian [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Richards, David [School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Scott, Thomas [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-22

    Three large high radioactivity particulate fragments, each several 100 μm in diameter, have been recovered from the region immediately surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Through the application of high-resolution electron and ion-beam methods, this work has sought to investigate the structure and composition of this fibrous surface morphology. By evaluating this, a potential material source can be determined, alongside important information relating to the conditions/events at the time of the reactor explosions and catastrophic release of radioactive materials. The results of this study show that the fibrous features associated with these large radiocesium-containing particles share a common elemental composition. With respect to the surrounding particle, the fibers are enriched in Si, Cl, and Fe, while depleted in both Zn and Al. Based on composition, these fibers are ascribed to thermal insulating material used within the plant, which was sufficiently heated during the loss of coolant incident at the plant to be incorporated into the molten ejecta material that rapidly solidified upon quenching in air. Elemental analysis of these fibers does not reveal any evidence of leaching or the presence of actinide materials.

  12. Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping; Carder, Kendall L.; Chen, Robert F.; Peacock, Thomas G.

    2001-06-01

    Using Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data as an example, we show in this study that the properties of the water column and bottom of a large, shallow area can be adequately retrieved using a model-driven optimization technique. The simultaneously derived properties include bottom depth, bottom albedo, and water absorption and backscattering coefficients, which in turn could be used to derive concentrations of chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments in the water column. The derived bottom depths were compared with a bathymetry chart and a boat survey and were found to agree very well. Also, the derived bottom albedo image shows clear spatial patterns, with end-members consistent with sand and seagrass. The image of absorption and backscattering coefficients indicates that the water is quite horizontally mixed. Without bottom corrections, chlorophyll a retrievals were ˜50 mg m-3, while the retrievals after bottom corrections were tenfold less, approximating real values. These results suggest that the model and approach used work very well for the retrieval of subsurface properties of shallow-water environments even for rather turbid environments like Tampa Bay, Florida.

  13. Preparation of SnO_2-Glass Composite Containing Cu Particles Reduced from Copper Ions in Glass Matrix : Effect of Glass Particle Size on Microstructure and Electrical Property

    OpenAIRE

    Haruhisa, SHIOMI; Kaori, UMEHARA; Faculty of Engineering and Design, Kyoto Institute of Technology; Faculty of Engineering and Design, Kyoto Institute of Technology

    2000-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve the electrical properties of SnO_2-glass composites by dispersing Cu particles with low resistivity and positive temperature coefficient of resistance(TCR)in the glass matrix. Cu metal particles were precipitated by reducing Cu_2O previously dissolved into the matrix glass by adding LaB_6 as a reducing agent. The effect of the glass particle size, which influences the homogeneity of LaB_6 dispersion in the powder mixture before firing, on the Cu precipitation in...

  14. Shear jamming: where does it come from and how is it affected by particle properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong

    Granular systems have been shown to be able to behave like solids, under shear, even when their densities are below the critical packing fraction for frictionless isotropic jamming. To understand such a phenomena, called shear jamming, the questions we address here is: how does shear bring a system from a unjammed state to a jammed state and how do particle properties, such as inter-particle friction and particle shape, affect shear jamming? Since Z can be used to distinguish jammed states from unjammed ones (Z = 3 is the isotropic jamming point for 2 D frictional disks), it is vital to understand how shear increases Z. In the first part of this talk, we propose a set of three particles in contact, denoted as a trimer, as the basic unit to microscopically characterize the deformation of the system. Trimers, stabilized by inter-grain friction, are then expected to bend in response to shear to make extra contacts to regain stability. By defining a projection operator of the opening angle of the trimer to the compression direction in the shear, O, we see a systematically linear decrease of this quantity with respect to shear strain, demonstrating the bending of trimers as expected. In the second part of this talk, we look into the effect of particle properties on shear jamming. Photoelastic disks either wrapped with Teflon to reduce friction or with fine teeth on the edge to increase friction are used to study the effect of friction. In addition, disks are replaced with ellipses to introduce anisotropy into the particle shape. Shear jamming is observed for all the cases. For the disk system, the lowest packing fraction that can reach a shear jammed state increases with friction. For the ellipse system, shear brings the system to a more ordered state and particles tend to align to a certain angle relative to the principal directions of shear, regardless of packing fraction. Support by NSF DMR1206351, NASA NNX15AD38G, the W. M. Keck Foundation and a Triangle MRSEC

  15. Defective RNA particles derived from Tomato black ring virus genome interfere with the replication of parental virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Minicka, Julia; Zarzyńska-Nowak, Aleksandra; Budzyńska, Daria; Elena, Santiago F

    2018-05-02

    Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) is the only member of the Nepovirus genus that is known to form defective RNA particles (D RNAs) during replication. Here, de novo generation of D RNAs was observed during prolonged passages of TBRV isolates originated from Solanum lycopersicum and Lactuca sativa in Chenopodium quinoa plants. D RNAs of about 500 nt derived by a single deletion in the RNA1 molecule and contained a portion of the 5' untranslated region and viral replicase, and almost the entire 3' non-coding region. Short regions of sequence complementarity were found at the 5' and 3' junction borders, which can facilitate formation of the D RNAs. Moreover, in this study we analyzed the effects of D RNAs on TBRV replication and symptoms development of infected plants. C. quinoa, S. lycopersicum, Nicotiana tabacum, and L. sativa were infected with the original TBRV isolates (TBRV-D RNA) and those containing additional D RNA particles (TBRV + D RNA). The viral accumulation in particular hosts was measured up to 28 days post inoculation by RT-qPCR. Statistical analyses revealed that D RNAs interfere with TBRV replication and thus should be referred to as defective interfering particles. The magnitude of the interference effect depends on the interplay between TBRV isolate and host species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Microphysical Properties of Frozen Particles Inferred from Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) Polarimetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Wu, Dongliang

    2017-01-01

    Scattering differences induced by frozen particle microphysical properties are investigated, using the vertically (V) and horizontally (H) polarized radiances from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) 89 and 166GHz channels. It is the first study on global frozen particle microphysical properties that uses the dual-frequency microwave polarimetric signals. From the ice cloud scenes identified by the 183.3 3GHz channel brightness temperature (TB), we find that the scatterings of frozen particles are highly polarized with V-H polarimetric differences (PD) being positive throughout the tropics and the winter hemisphere mid-latitude jet regions, including PDs from the GMI 89 and 166GHz TBs, as well as the PD at 640GHz from the ER-2 Compact Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR) during the TC4 campaign. Large polarization dominantly occurs mostly near convective outflow region (i.e., anvils or stratiform precipitation), while the polarization signal is small inside deep convective cores as well as at the remote cirrus region. Neglecting the polarimetric signal would result in as large as 30 error in ice water path retrievals. There is a universal bell-curve in the PD TB relationship, where the PD amplitude peaks at 10K for all three channels in the tropics and increases slightly with latitude. Moreover, the 166GHz PD tends to increase in the case where a melting layer is beneath the frozen particles aloft in the atmosphere, while 89GHz PD is less sensitive than 166GHz to the melting layer. This property creates a unique PD feature for the identification of the melting layer and stratiform rain with passive sensors. Horizontally oriented non-spherical frozen particles are thought to produce the observed PD because of different ice scattering properties in the V and H polarizations. On the other hand, changes in the ice microphysical habitats or orientation due to turbulence mixing can also lead to a reduced PD in the deep

  17. Light scattering and absorption properties of dust particles retrieved from satellite measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, R.-M.; Sokhi, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    We use the radiative transfer model and chemistry transport model to improve our retrievals of dust optical properties from satellite measurements. The optical depth and absorbing optical depth of mineral dust can be obtained from our improved retrieval algorithm. We find the nonsphericity and absorption of dust particles strongly affect the scattering signatures such as phase function and polarization at the ultraviolet wavelengths. From our retrieval results, we find the high levels of dust concentration occurred over most desert regions such as Saharan and Gobi deserts. The dust absorption is found to be sensitive to mineral chemical composition, particularly the fraction of strongly absorbing dust particles. The enhancement of polarization at the scattering angles exceeding 120 0 is found for the nonspherical dust particles. If the polarization is neglected in the radiative transfer calculation, a maximum 50 percent error is introduced for the case of forward scattering and 25 percent error for the case of backscattering. We suggest that the application of polarimeter at the ultraviolet wavelengths has the great potential to improve the satellite retrievals of dust properties. Using refined optical model and radiative transfer model to calculate the solar radiative forcing of dust aerosols can reduce the uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing assessment.

  18. Microwave absorbing property of silicone rubber composites with added carbonyl iron particles and graphite platelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Zhang, Deyuan; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Wenqiang

    2013-01-01

    Silicone rubber composites filled with carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and graphite platelet (GP) were prepared using non-coating or coating processes. The complex permittivity and permeability of the composites were measured using a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 1–18 GHz and dc electric conductivity was measured by the standard four-point contact method. The results showed that CIPs/GP composites fabricated in the coating process had the highest permittivity and permeability due to the particle orientation and interactions between the two absorbents. The coating process resulted in a decreased effective eccentricity of the absorbents, and the dc conductivity increased according to Neelakanta's equations. The reflection loss (RL) value showed that the composites had an excellent absorbing property in the L-band, minimum −11.85 dB at 1.5 mm and −15.02 dB at 2 mm. Thus, GP could be an effective additive in preparing thin absorbing composites in the L-band. - Highlights: ► The added GP increased the permittivity and permeability of composites filled with CIPs. ► The enhancement was owing to interactions of the two absorbents and the fabrication process. ► The coating process decreased the effective eccentricity of the particles, and increased the conductivity of the composites. ► The composites to which CIPs/GP were added in coating process had excellent absorbing properties in the L-band.

  19. The effects of particle properties on nanoparticle drug retention and release in dynamic minoxidil foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanjun; Brown, Marc B; Jones, Stuart A

    2010-01-04

    Nanocarriers may act as useful tools to deliver therapeutic agents to the skin. However, balancing the drug-particle interactions; to ensure adequate drug loading, with the drug-vehicle interactions; to allow efficient drug release, presents a significant challenge using traditional semi-solid vehicles. The aim of this study was to determine how the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles influenced minoxidil release pre and post dose application when formulated as a simple aqueous suspension compared to dynamic hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) foams. Minoxidil loaded lipid nanoparticles (LN, 1.4 mg/ml, 50 nm) and polymeric nanoparticles with a lipid core (PN, 0.6 mg/ml, 260 nm) were produced and suspended in water to produce the aqueous suspensions. These aqueous suspensions were emulsified with HFA using pluronic surfactant to generate the foams. Approximately 60% of the minoxidil loaded into the PN and 80% of the minoxidil loaded into the LN was released into the external aqueous phase 24h after production. Drug permeation was superior from the PN, i.e. it was the particle that retained the most drugs, irrespective of the formulation method. Premature drug release, i.e. during storage, resulted in the performance of the topical formulation being dictated by the thermodynamic activity of the solubilised drug not the particle properties.

  20. AELAS: Automatic ELAStic property derivations via high-throughput first-principles computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, R. F.

    2017-11-01

    The elastic properties are fundamental and important for crystalline materials as they relate to other mechanical properties, various thermodynamic qualities as well as some critical physical properties. However, a complete set of experimentally determined elastic properties is only available for a small subset of known materials, and an automatic scheme for the derivations of elastic properties that is adapted to high-throughput computation is much demanding. In this paper, we present the AELAS code, an automated program for calculating second-order elastic constants of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional single crystal materials with any symmetry, which is designed mainly for high-throughput first-principles computation. Other derivations of general elastic properties such as Young's, bulk and shear moduli as well as Poisson's ratio of polycrystal materials, Pugh ratio, Cauchy pressure, elastic anisotropy and elastic stability criterion, are also implemented in this code. The implementation of the code has been critically validated by a lot of evaluations and tests on a broad class of materials including two-dimensional and three-dimensional materials, providing its efficiency and capability for high-throughput screening of specific materials with targeted mechanical properties. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/f8fwg4j9tw.1 Licensing provisions: BSD 3-Clause Programming language: Fortran Nature of problem: To automate the calculations of second-order elastic constants and the derivations of other elastic properties for two-dimensional and three-dimensional materials with any symmetry via high-throughput first-principles computation. Solution method: The space-group number is firstly determined by the SPGLIB code [1] and the structure is then redefined to unit cell with IEEE-format [2]. Secondly, based on the determined space group number, a set of distortion modes is automatically specified and the distorted structure files are generated

  1. Modifications of the optical properties for DAM-ADC nuclear track detector exposed to alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Awad, E. M.

    2018-05-01

    Modifications of the optical properties of diallyl maleate-allyl diglycol carbonate (DAM-ADC) nuclear detector induced by alpha particles are described. DAM-ADC samples were irradiated perpendicularly by thin 241Am disk source that emits alpha particles with 5.48 MeV. The optical absorption has been measured using the ultraviolet-visible (UV-1100) spectroscopy. It was found that DAM-ADC polymer shows substantial modifications in its optical characteristics upon irradiated with alpha particles with different energies. The optical energy band gap (Egap) for the detector was calculated for the direct and the indirect allowed transitions in K-space using two approaches (Tauc's model and absorption spectrum fitting (ASF) method). Urbach's energy (Ea), number of carbon atoms per conjugated length (N), number of carbon atoms per cluster (M), and refractive index (n) for the present samples were determined. Results reveal that the values of energy gap in direct transition are greater than those of indirect, before and after irradiation. (Egap), (Ea), (N), (M), and (n) of the present samples are changed significantly with irradiation time and value of alpha energy. Results reflect the possibility of using DAM-ADC polymer track detectors to estimate alpha particle energies using the variation of the absorbance.

  2. Effect of Wheat Straw Pretreatments and Glue Formulations on particle board properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.; Naveed, S.; Yousaf, S.; Ramzan, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of wheat straw (WS) pretreatments and glue formulations on mechanical (i.e. Compressive Strength (CS) and Impact Strength (IS)) and water resistance properties (i.e. Thickness Swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA)) of particle board have been investigated and the results have been compared with conventional wooden particleboard. Wheat straw was treated with steam available at 110 degree C and 20 psig, for the retention time of 5, 10 and 15 min. The solution of 10% HCl was also used for removing the lignin. Particleboard was prepared by bonding treated WS with four types of glue recipes of synthetic and natural binders like urea formaldehyde (UF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), corn flour (CF) and wheat flour (WF). The particle board was formed at the hydraulic pressure and temperature of 2800 psig and 80 degree C respectively. It was observed that WS particleboard has low mechanical strength and high water resistance in comparison with conventional board. The particle board prepared with HCl cured wheat straw and glue having high urea formaldehyde and corn flour has higher CS and IS as well as low TS and WA. It may be concluded that wheat straw is a good substitute of wood for particle board while using HCl as a modifying chemical and strong binders like urea formaldehyde and corn flour. (author)

  3. Simulation study on the structural properties of colloidal particles with offset dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David M; Velev, Orlin D; Klapp, Sabine H L; Hall, Carol K

    2017-05-03

    A major research theme in materials science is determining how the self-assembly of new generations of colloidal particles of complex shape and surface charge is guided by their interparticle interactions. In this paper, we describe results from quasi-2D Monte Carlo simulations of systems of colloidal particles with offset transversely-oriented extended dipole-like charge distributions interacting via an intermediate-ranged Yukawa potential. The systems are cooled slowly through an annealing procedure during which the temperature is lowered in discrete steps, allowing the system to equilibrate. We perform ground state calculations for two, three and four particles at several shifts of the dipole vector from the particle center. We create state diagrams in the plane spanned by the temperature and the area fraction outlining the boundaries between fluid, string-fluid and percolated states at various values of the shift. Remarkably we find that the effective cooling rate in our simulations has an impact on the structures formed, with chains being more prevalent if the system is cooled quickly and cyclic structures more prevalent if the system is cooled slowly. As the dipole is further shifted from the center, there is an increased tendency to assemble into small cyclic structures at intermediate temperatures. These systems further self-assemble into open lattice-like arrangements at very low temperatures. The novel structures identified might be useful for photonic applications, new types of porous media for filtration and catalysis, and gel matrices with unusual properties.

  4. Analysis of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Marble Particles Floor-Tile Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Arslan, A.; Ismoyo, A.H.; Jodi, H.E.; Nurhasanah, S.

    2002-01-01

    Two criteria that very predictable to quality products of marble particles composite floor-tile are physical and mechanical properties. Simple manufacturing was conducted from powdering refuges of marble to molding and drying the specimens at ambient atmosphere. The characterization, to observe; density, crystal structure, microstructure, hardness and compressive/bending strength of the material, was performed in Serpong and IPB-Bogor. The analysis shows that polymeric crystallization was occurred by HEXA and the density and the hardness generally rise up with the improvements in mesh and composition of marble particles. But it is not always followed by the real improvements of compressive and bending strength, which related to the material stiffness. The curves figured that these two strengths give the maximum values at 60% composition of marble particles. It can be concluded that density and hardness are dependent on mesh and composition, whereas the stiffness (modulus) is only correlation with composition of particulate. The theoretical modulus of marble particles composite floor-tile has been evaluated at about 56.19 GPa. (author)

  5. Structure organization and magnetic properties of microscale ferrogels: The effect of particle magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, Aleksandr V.; Melenev, Petr V.; Balasoiu, Maria; Raikher, Yuriy L.

    2016-08-01

    The equilibrium structure and magnetic properties of a ferrogel object of small size (microferrogel(MFG)) are investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics. As a generic model of a microferrogel (MFG), a sample with a lattice-like mesh is taken. The solid phase of the MFG consists of magnetic (e.g., ferrite) nanoparticles which are mechanically linked to the mesh making some part of its nodes. Unlike previous models, the finite uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the particles, as it is the case for real ferrogels, is taken into account. For comparison, two types of MFGs are considered: MFG-1, which dwells in virtually non-aggregated state independently of the presence of an external magnetic field, and MFG-2, which displays aggregation yet under zero field. The structure states of the samples are analyzed with the aid of angle-resolved radial distribution functions and cluster counts. The results reveal the crucial role of the matrix elasticity on the structure organization as well as on magnetization of both MFGs. The particle anisotropy, which plays insignificant role in MFG-1 (moderate interparticle magnetodipole interaction), becomes an important factor in MFG-2 (strong interaction). There, the restrictions imposed on the particle angular freedom by the elastic matrix result in notable diminution of the particle chain lengths as well as the magnetization of the sample. The approach proposed enables one to investigate a large variety of MFGs, including those of capsule type and to purposefully choose the combination of their magnetoelastic parameters.

  6. Ambient black carbon particle hygroscopic properties controlled by mixing state and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The wet removal of black carbon aerosol (BC in the atmosphere is a crucial factor in determining its atmospheric lifetime and thereby the vertical and horizontal distributions, dispersion on local and regional scales, and the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The in-cloud scavenging and wet deposition rate of freshly emitted hydrophobic BC will be increased on acquisition of more-hydrophilic components by coagulation or coating processes. The lifetime of BC is still subject to considerable uncertainty for most of the model inputs, which is largely due to the insufficient constraints on the BC hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion process from observational field data. This study was conducted at a site along UK North Norfolk coastline, where the BC particles were transported from different regions within Western Europe. A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA was coupled with a single particle soot photometer (SP2 to measure the hygroscopic properties of BC particles and associated mixing state in real time. In addition, a Soot Particle AMS (SP-AMS measured the chemical compositions of additional material associated with BC particles. The ensemble of BC particles persistently contained a less-hygroscopic mode at a growth factor (gf of around 1.05 at 90% RH (dry diameter 163 nm. Importantly, a more-hygroscopic mode of BC particles was observed throughout the experiment, the gf of these BC particles extended up to ~1.4–1.6 with the minimum between this and the less hygroscopic mode at a gf ~1.25, or equivalent effective hygroscopicity parameter κ ~0.1. The gf of BC particles (gfBC was highly influenced by the composition of associated soluble material: increases of gfBC were associated with secondary inorganic components, and these increases were more pronounced when ammonium nitrate was in the BC particles; however the presence of secondary organic matter suppressed

  7. Modified Bessel P-integrals and P-derivatives and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volosivets, S S

    2014-01-01

    We study the modified Bessel P-integral, whose properties are similar to those of the Bessel potential, and the modified Bessel P-derivative. These operators are inverse to each other. We prove analogues of the embedding theorems of Hardy, Littlewood, Stein, Zygmund and Lizorkin concerning the images of L p (R) under the action of Bessel potentials. We give applications of the Bessel integral and derivative to the integrability of the P-adic Fourier transform and to approximation theory (an embedding theorem of Ul'yanov type)

  8. The relationship between the particle properties, mechanical behavior, and surface roughness of some pharmaceutical excipient compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Padma; Hancock, Bruno C.

    2003-01-01

    Several common pharmaceutical excipient powders were compacted at a constant solid fraction (SF) in order to study the relationship between powder properties, compact surface roughness, and compact mechanical properties such as hardness, elasticity, and brittleness. The materials used in this study included microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), fumaric acid, mannitol, lactose monohydrate, spray dried lactose, sucrose, and dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate. A slow consolidation process was used to make compacts at a SF of 0.85 (typical for most pharmaceutical tablets) from single excipient components. A model was proposed to describe the surface roughness of compacts based on the brittle or ductile deformation tendencies of the powder materials. The roughness profile would also be dependent upon the magnitude of the compression stress in relation to the yield stress (onset of irreversible deformation) values of the excipients. It was hypothesized that brittle materials would produce smooth compacts with high surface variability due to particle fracture, and the converse would apply for ductile materials. Compact surfaces should be smoother if the materials were compressed above their yield pressure values. Non-contact optical profilometry was used along with scanning electron microscopy to quantify and characterize the surface morphology of the excipient compacts. The roughness parameters R a (average roughness), R q (RMS roughness), R q /R a (ratio describing surface variability), and R sk (skewness) were found to correlate with the deformation properties of the excipients. Brittle materials such as lactose, sucrose, and calcium phosphate produced compacts with low values of R a and R q , high variability, and negative R sk . The opposite was found with plastic materials such as MCC, mannitol, and fumaric acid. The highly negative skewness values for brittle material compacts may indicate their propensity to be vulnerable to cracks or surface defects. These findings

  9. The relationship between the particle properties, mechanical behavior, and surface roughness of some pharmaceutical excipient compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Padma; Hancock, Bruno C

    2003-08-25

    Several common pharmaceutical excipient powders were compacted at a constant solid fraction (SF) in order to study the relationship between powder properties, compact surface roughness, and compact mechanical properties such as hardness, elasticity, and brittleness. The materials used in this study included microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), fumaric acid, mannitol, lactose monohydrate, spray dried lactose, sucrose, and dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate. A slow consolidation process was used to make compacts at a SF of 0.85 (typical for most pharmaceutical tablets) from single excipient components. A model was proposed to describe the surface roughness of compacts based on the brittle or ductile deformation tendencies of the powder materials. The roughness profile would also be dependent upon the magnitude of the compression stress in relation to the yield stress (onset of irreversible deformation) values of the excipients. It was hypothesized that brittle materials would produce smooth compacts with high surface variability due to particle fracture, and the converse would apply for ductile materials. Compact surfaces should be smoother if the materials were compressed above their yield pressure values. Non-contact optical profilometry was used along with scanning electron microscopy to quantify and characterize the surface morphology of the excipient compacts. The roughness parameters R{sub a} (average roughness), R{sub q} (RMS roughness), R{sub q}/R{sub a} (ratio describing surface variability), and R{sub sk} (skewness) were found to correlate with the deformation properties of the excipients. Brittle materials such as lactose, sucrose, and calcium phosphate produced compacts with low values of R{sub a} and R{sub q}, high variability, and negative R{sub sk}. The opposite was found with plastic materials such as MCC, mannitol, and fumaric acid. The highly negative skewness values for brittle material compacts may indicate their propensity to be vulnerable to

  10. Iron particle and anisotropic effects on mechanical properties of magneto-sensitive elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Lee, Dong-Joo

    2017-11-01

    Rubber specimens were prepared by mixing micron-sized iron particles dispersed in room-temperature-vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber by solution mixing. The possible correlations of the particle volume, size, and distribution with the mechanical properties of the specimens were examined. An isotropic mechanical test shows that at 60 phr, the elastic modulus was 3.29 MPa (electrolyte), 2.92 MPa (carbonyl), and 2.61 MPa (hybrid). The anisotropic effect was examined by curing the specimen under magnetic fields of 0.5-2.0 T at 90° relative to the applied strain. The measurements show anisotropic effects of 11% (carbonyl), 9% (electrolyte), and 6% (hybrid) at 40 phr and 1 T. At 80 phr, the polymer-filler compatibility factor (c-factor) was estimated using the Pythagorean theorem as 0.53 (regular) and 0.73 (anisotropic studies). The improved features could be useful in applications such as controlled damping, vibrational absorption, or automotive bushings.

  11. Concentration and vertical flux of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in sinking particles from two sites in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Honda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At two stations in the western North Pacific, K2 in the subarctic gyre and S1 in the subtropical gyre, time-series sediment traps were collecting sinking particles when the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1 accident occurred on 11 March 2011. Radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs derived from the FNPP1 accident was detected in sinking particles collected at 500 m in late March 2011 and at 4810 m in early April 2011 at both stations. The sinking velocity of 134Cs and 137Cs was estimated to be 22 to 71 m day−1 between the surface and 500 m and >180 m day−1 between 500 m and 4810 m. 137Cs concentrations varied from 0.14 to 0.25 Bq g−1 dry weight. These values are higher than those of surface seawater, suspended particles, and zooplankton collected in April 2011. Although the radiocesium may have been adsorbed onto or incorporated into clay minerals, correlations between 134Cs and lithogenic material were not always significant; therefore, the form of the cesium associated with the sinking particles is still an open question. The total 137Cs inventory by late June at K2 and by late July at S1 was 0.5 to 1.7 Bq m−2 at both depths. Compared with 137Cs input from both stations by April 2011, estimated from the surface 137Cs concentration and mixed-layer depth and by assuming that the observed 137Cs flux was constant throughout the year, the estimated removal rate of 137Cs from the upper layer (residence time in the upper layer was 0.3 to 1.5% yr−1 (68 to 312 yr. The estimated removal rates and residence times are comparable to previously reported values after the Chernobyl accident (removal rate: 0.2–1%, residence time: 130–390 yr.

  12. First correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdelmonem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10° and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°. The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.

  13. First correlated measurements of the shape and scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Amsler, P.; Hesse, E.; Meyer, J.; Leisner, T.

    2011-05-01

    Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires the knowledge of the link between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of the cloud particles. Usually, this link is created by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS) designed to measure the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles, simultaneously. Clouds containing particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter can be systematically characterized with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns which were conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced comparable size distributions and images to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) program. PHIPS is candidate to be a novel air borne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurements instruments.

  14. First correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Amsler, P.; Hesse, E.; Meyer, J.; Leisner, T.

    2011-10-01

    Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS) designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.

  15. UV and gamma irradiation effects on surface properties of polyurethane derivative from castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Elaine C.; Nascimento, Eduardo M.; Chierice, Gilberto O.; Claro Neto, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Gamma and ultraviolet radiation effects on hardness, elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of polyurethane derived from castor oil (PU) were investigated by nanoindentation tests. Modifications on surface morphology, induce by radiation, were observed by atomic force microscopy. The polyurethane derivative from castor oil shows good resistance to gamma radiation, with only small changes in hardness, elastic modulus, viscoelastic properties and contact angle. The hardness of PY increases at the near surface region due to UVA radiation and decreases after UVC radiation. The contact angle for water drop decreases after UVC radiation, by not after gamma radiation, despite a significant increase in roughness. Such results are attributed to different responses from polyurethane to radiation energy. Increase in hardness due to UVA is attributed to a higher crosslinking at shallow depths, while a decrease in mechanical properties may be attributed to chain scission. These results are consistent with the modifications on viscoelastic properties. Shore D hardness did not show the same trend as observed by nanoindentation results. Hardness, viscoelastic properties and contact angle of castor oil polyurethane are more severely influenced by UVC radiation, while gamma radiation does not have a significant effect. (author)

  16. UV and gamma irradiation effects on surface properties of polyurethane derivative from castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Elaine C.; Nascimento, Eduardo M., E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Chierice, Gilberto O.; Claro Neto, Salvador [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Lepienski, Carlos M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Gamma and ultraviolet radiation effects on hardness, elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of polyurethane derived from castor oil (PU) were investigated by nanoindentation tests. Modifications on surface morphology, induce by radiation, were observed by atomic force microscopy. The polyurethane derivative from castor oil shows good resistance to gamma radiation, with only small changes in hardness, elastic modulus, viscoelastic properties and contact angle. The hardness of PY increases at the near surface region due to UVA radiation and decreases after UVC radiation. The contact angle for water drop decreases after UVC radiation, by not after gamma radiation, despite a significant increase in roughness. Such results are attributed to different responses from polyurethane to radiation energy. Increase in hardness due to UVA is attributed to a higher crosslinking at shallow depths, while a decrease in mechanical properties may be attributed to chain scission. These results are consistent with the modifications on viscoelastic properties. Shore D hardness did not show the same trend as observed by nanoindentation results. Hardness, viscoelastic properties and contact angle of castor oil polyurethane are more severely influenced by UVC radiation, while gamma radiation does not have a significant effect. (author)

  17. New diarylmethanofullerene derivatives and their properties for organic thin-film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sukeguchi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of diarylmethanofullerene derivatives were synthesized. The cyclopropane ring of the derivatives has two aryl groups substituted with electron-withdrawing and -donating groups, the latter with long alkyl chains to improve solubility in organic solvents, an important property in processing cells. First reduction potentials of most derivatives were less negative than that of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM, which is possibly ascribed to their electron-withdrawing nature. Organic thin-film photovoltaic cells fabricated with poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT as the electron-donor and diarylmethanofullerene derivatives as the electron-acceptor material were examined. The {(methoxycarbonylphenyl[bis(octyloxyphenyl]methano}fullerene showed power conversion efficiency as high as PCBM, but had higher solubility in a variety of organic solvents than PCBM. The Voc value was higher than that of PCBM, which is derived from the electron-donating (octyloxyphenyl group, possibly raising the LUMO level. Photovoltaic effects of the devices fabricated with the derivatives having some electron-withdrawing groups were also examined.

  18. An Analytical Approach for Fast Recovery of the LSI Properties in Magnetic Particle Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Jabbari Asl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linearity and shift invariance (LSI characteristics of magnetic particle imaging (MPI are important properties for quantitative medical diagnosis applications. The MPI image equations have been theoretically shown to exhibit LSI; however, in practice, the necessary filtering action removes the first harmonic information, which destroys the LSI characteristics. This lost information can be constant in the x-space reconstruction method. Available recovery algorithms, which are based on signal matching of multiple partial field of views (pFOVs, require much processing time and a priori information at the start of imaging. In this paper, a fast analytical recovery algorithm is proposed to restore the LSI properties of the x-space MPI images, representable as an image of discrete concentrations of magnetic material. The method utilizes the one-dimensional (1D x-space imaging kernel and properties of the image and lost image equations. The approach does not require overlapping of pFOVs, and its complexity depends only on a small-sized system of linear equations; therefore, it can reduce the processing time. Moreover, the algorithm only needs a priori information which can be obtained at one imaging process. Considering different particle distributions, several simulations are conducted, and results of 1D and 2D imaging demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Effects of particle shape and size on nanofluid properties for potential Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Tengku Amran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR in oil and gas industry is very important to increase oil recovery and prolong the lifetime of a reservoir but it has been very costly and losing properties of EOR agent due to harsh condition. Nanoparticles have been used in EOR application since they are not degradable in reservoir condition and used in smaller amount compared to polymer usage. Commonly, EOR techniques are focusing on increasing the sweep efficiency by controlling the mobility ratio between reservoir fluid and injected fluid. Thus, this research aimed to analyze the nanofluid viscosity at different particle size and shape, volumetric concentration and types of dispersing fluid, as well as to determine the oil recovery performance at different nanofluid concentration. The nanofluid viscosity was investigated at nanoparticle sizes of 15nm and 60nm and shapes of 15nm spherical-solid and porous. Five nanofluid samples with concentration ranging from 0.1wt.% to 7wt.% were used to investigate the effect of volumetric concentration. Distilled water, ethanol, ethylene glycol (EG and brine were used for the effect of dispersing fluids. Oil recovery was investigated at five different concentrations of nanofluid samples through flooding test. It was found that viscosity of nanofluid increased with decreasing particle size and increasing volumetric concentration. Solid shape particle and increasing dispersing fluid viscosity resulted in higher nanofluid viscosity. The higher the nanofluid concentration, the higher the oil recovery obtained. It can be concluded that nanofluid properties have been significantly affected by the environment and the particle used for potential EOR application.

  20. The mechanical properties of nanofilled resin-based composites: characterizing discrete filler particles and agglomerates using a micromanipulation technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curtis, Andrew R

    2009-02-01

    To assess the mechanical properties of discrete filler particles representative of several inorganic fillers in modern dental resin-based composites (RBCs) and to assess the validity of a novel micromanipulation technique.

  1. Application of bioethanol derived lignin for improving physico-mechanical properties of thermoset biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Dilpreet S; Wang, Xinnan; Sitz, Evan; Loll, Tyler; Bhattacharjee, Sujal

    2016-08-01

    Lignin is the most abundant of renewable polymers next to cellulose with a global annual production of 70million tons, largely produced from pulping and second generation biofuel industries. Low value of industrial lignin makes it an attractive biomaterial for wide range of applications. The study investigated the application of wheat straw and corn stover based lignin derived from ethanol production for use in thermoset biocomposites. The biocomposite matrix constituted a two component low viscosity Araldite(®)LY 8601/Aradur(®) 8602 epoxy resin system and the lignin content varied from 0 to 25% by weight fraction. The analysis of the physical and mechanical properties of the biocomposites show bioethanol derived lignin can improve selective properties such as impact strength, and thermal stability without compromising the modulus and strength attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Semi-Empirical Predictions on the Structure and Properties of ent-Kaurenoic Acid and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Isagani B. Janairo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of ent- kaurenoic acid model derivatives, which possibly influence its therapeutic application, were calculated. Results revealed that the molecule possess favourable attributes which renders it possible to be considered as a drug lead only that its very hydrophobic nature can result to poor bioavailabilty, low absorption and poor systemic circulation. In silico simulations revealed that this setback can be overcome by introduction of hydroxyl group to the tertiary carbon of ent-kaurenoic acid employing m-CPBA catalyzed hydroxylation, thus, unleashing its full drug potency. Moreover, molecular similarity analyses derived from semi-empirical calculations between ent-kaurenoic acid and a set of kaurane diterpenoids showed differences in hydrophobic complementarity, size and electronic properties despite possessing nearly identical molecular frameworks, thus, arriving in a generalization for their observed mechanistic differences on acting on different targets.

  3. Mechanical Properties and Structures of Pyrolytic Carbon Coating Layer in HTR Coated Particle Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Woo; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Woong Ki; Cho, Moon Sung

    2009-01-01

    The TRISO(tri-isotropic)-coated fuel particle for a HTR(High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor) has a diameter of about 1 mm, composed of a nuclear fuel kernel and four different outer coating layers, consisting of a buffer PyC (pyrolytic carbon) layer, inner PyC layer, SiC layer, and outer PyC layer with different coating thicknesses following a specific fuel design. While the fuel kernel is a source for a heat generation by a nuclear fission of fissile uranium, each of the four coating layers acts as a different role in view of retaining the generated fission products and the other interactions during an in-reactor service. Among these coating layers, PyC properties are scarcely in agreement among various investigators and the dependency of their changes upon the deposition condition is comparatively large due to their additional anisotropic properties. Although a recent review work has contributed to an establishment of relationship between the material properties and QC measurements, the data on the mechanical properties and structural parameters of PyC coating layers remain still unclearly evaluated. A review work on dimensional changes of PyC by neutron irradiation was one of re-evaluative works recently attempted by the authors. In this work, an attempt was made to analyze and re-evaluate the existing data of the experimental results of the mechanical properties, i.e., Young's modulus and fracture stress, in relation with the coating conditions, density and the BAF (Bacon Anisotropy Factor), an important structural parameter, of PyC coating layers obtained from various experiments performed in the early periods of the HTR coated particle development

  4. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  5. Size effect of added LaB6 particles on optical properties of LaB6/Polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yifei; Zhang Lin; Hu Lijie; Wang Wei; Min Guanghui

    2011-01-01

    Modified LaB 6 particles with sizes ranging from 50 nm to 400 nm were added into polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix in order to investigate the effect of added LaB 6 particles on optical properties of LaB 6 /PMMA composites. Method of in-situ polymerization was applied to prepare PMMA from raw material—methyl methacrylate (MMA), a process during which LaB 6 particles were dispersed in MMA. Ultraviolet–visible–near infrared (UV–vis–NIR) absorption spectrum was used to study optical properties of the as-prepared materials. The difference in particle size could apparently affect the composites' absorption of visible light around wavelength of 600 nm. Added LaB 6 particles with size of about 70 nm resulted in the best optical properties among these groups of composites. - Graphical abstract: 70 nm LaB 6 particles resulted in the best performance on absorption of VIS and NIR, which could not be apparently achieved by LaB 6 particles beyond nano-scale. Highlights: ► LaB 6 /PMMA composites were prepared using the method of in-situ polymerization. ► LaB 6 particles added in MMA prolonged the time needed for its pre-polymerization. ► Nanosized LaB 6 particles could obviously absorb much NIR but little VIS.

  6. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm 2 for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  7. Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wonaschütz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE, a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs: between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm−3, which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM increased with plume age: from −3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

  8. Electromagnetic properties for arbitrary spin particles: Natural electromagnetic moments from light-cone arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorce, Cedric

    2009-01-01

    We revisit the old-standing problem of the electromagnetic interaction for particles of arbitrary spin. Based on the assumption that light-cone helicity at tree level and Q 2 =0 should be conserved nontrivially by the electromagnetic interaction, we are able to derive all the natural electromagnetic moments for a pointlike particle of any spin. We provide here a transparent decomposition of the electromagnetic current in terms of covariant vertex functions. We also define in a general way the electromagnetic multipole form factors, and show their relation with the electromagnetic moments and covariant vertex functions. The light-cone helicity conservation argument determines uniquely the values of all electromagnetic moments, which we refer to as the 'natural' ones. These specific values are in accordance with the standard model, and the prediction of universal g=2 gyromagnetic factor is naturally recovered. We provide a very simple and compact formula for these natural moments. As an application of our results, we generalize the discussion of quark transverse charge densities to particles with arbitrary spin, giving more physical support to the light-cone helicity conservation argument.

  9. Photoelectrical Properties and Energetical Structure of Thin Films of Indandione Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira INDRIKOVA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A sandwich type structure of two dimetilaminobenziliden-1,3-indandione (DMABI derivatives placed between metal electrodes was made to investigate the photoelectrical properties of these derivatives. DMABI is an organic isolator with a wide energy gap and high quantum efficiency of the photogeneration, DMABI derivatives have received also considerable attention because of its large dipole moment and optical nonlinearities. Besides, since it is a photosensitive material, its use in solar systems is very promising. The energy gap of each material and combined system was observed from the spectral dependence of the quantum efficiency of the photoconductivity and results are compared with results of oxidation and reduction potential of the materials. The values showed a good correlation between experimental data of the photoconductivity and voltamperometry and calculated data of the HOMO and LUMO levels of the molecules.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.480

  10. Deriving a blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry in Sylgard-184 vascular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Majid Y; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L

    2009-01-01

    A new blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for particle image velocimetry (PIV), which enables flow studies in vascular models (phantoms). A major difficulty in PIV that affects measurement accuracy is the refraction and distortion of light passing through the interface between the model and the fluid, due to the difference in refractive index (n) between the two materials. The problem can be eliminated by using a fluid with a refractive index matching that of the model. Such fluids are not commonly available, especially for vascular research where the fluid should also have a viscosity similar to human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid, composed of water (47.38% by weight), glycerol (36.94% by weight) and sodium iodide salt (15.68% by weight), was developed for compatibility with our silicone (Sylgard 184; n = 1.414) phantoms. The fluid exhibits a dynamic viscosity of 4.31+/-0.03 cP which lies within the range of human blood viscosity (4.4+/-0.6 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at 22.2+/-0.2 degrees C, which is a feasible room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a temperature-control system. The fluid will be used to study hemodynamics in vascular flow models fabricated from Sylgard 184.

  11. A simple derivation for amplitude and time period of charged particles in an electrostatic bathtub potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathap Reddy, K

    2016-01-01

    An ‘electrostatic bathtub potential’ is defined and analytical expressions for the time period and amplitude of charged particles in this potential are obtained and compared with simulations. These kinds of potentials are encountered in linear electrostatic ion traps, where the potential along the axis appears like a bathtub. Ion traps are used in basic physics research and mass spectrometry to store ions; these stored ions make oscillatory motion within the confined volume of the trap. Usually these traps are designed and studied using ion optical software, but in this work the bathtub potential is reproduced by making two simple modifications to the harmonic oscillator potential. The addition of a linear ‘ k 1 | x |’ potential makes the simple harmonic potential curve steeper with a sharper turn at the origin, while the introduction of a finite-length zero potential region at the centre reproduces the flat region of the bathtub curve. This whole exercise of modelling a practical experimental situation in terms of a well-known simple physics problem may generate interest among readers. (paper)

  12. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles as determined by particle properties, experimental conditions, and cell type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Katja; Veltman, Karin; van de Meent, Dik; van Wezel, Annemarie; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-03-01

    The increased application of nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing the risk of their release into the environment. Although many toxicity studies have been conducted, the environmental risk is difficult to estimate, because uptake mechanisms are often not determined in toxicity studies. In the present study, the authors review dominant uptake mechanisms of NPs in cells, as well as the effect of NP properties, experimental conditions, and cell type on NP uptake. Knowledge of NP uptake is crucial for risk assessment and is essential to predict the behavior of NPs based on their physical-chemical properties. Important uptake mechanisms for eukaryotic cells are macropinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and phagocytosis in specialized mammalian cells. The studies reviewed demonstrate that uptake into nonphagocytic cells depends strongly on NP size, with an uptake optimum at an NP diameter of approximately 50 nm. Increasing surface charges, either positive or negative, have been shown to increase particle uptake in comparison with uncharged NPs. Another important factor is the degree of (homo-) aggregation. Results regarding shape have been ambiguous. Difficulties in the production of NPs, with 1 property changed at a time, call for a full characterization of NP properties. Only then will it be possible to draw conclusions as to which property affected the uptake. © 2013 SETAC.

  13. The Use Of Optical Properties Of Cr-39 In Alpha Particle Equivalent Dose Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shnishin, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, optical properties of alpha irradiated Cr-39 were measured as a function of optical photon wavelength from 200-1100 nm. Optical energy gap and optical absorption at finite wavelength was also calculated and correlated to alpha fluence and dose equivalent. Alpha doses were calculated from the corresponding irradiation fluence and specific energy loss using TRIM computer program. It was found that, the optical absorption of unattached Cr-39 was varied with alpha fluence and corresponding equivalent doses. Also the optical energy gab was varied with fluence and dose equivalent of alpha particles. This work introduces a reasonably simple method for the Rn dose equivalent calculation by Cr-39 track

  14. Pairing and low temperature properties of 2 D Fermi-systems with attraction between particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbar, E.V.; Gusynin, V.P.; Loktev, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    Proceeding from microscopic model Hamiltonian for the system of Fermi-particles with attraction the effective Lagrangian, admitting the analysis of its superconducting properties at arbitrary fermion concentration, is obtained.Exact solution for gap and chemical potential makes it possible to trace from local pair situation to Cooper pairing. The crucial parameter discriminating between the regions of exotic and normal superconducting behaviour is show to be that of the energy of the bound fermion state, which, however, rapidly disappears with fermion density increasing. The solutions of the equations for the case of finite temperatures are analysed. (author). 42 refs

  15. Nuclear matter with a pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-01-01

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of gaussians per nucleon and the gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (orig.)

  16. Nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-12-31

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a Gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of Gaussian per nucleon and the Gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (author) 13 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs.

  17. Nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-01-01

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a Gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of Gaussian per nucleon and the Gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (author) 13 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Nuclear matter with a pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Benhassine, B. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Farine, M. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Remaud, B. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Sebille, F. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France))

    1993-11-15

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of gaussians per nucleon and the gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (orig.)

  19. Safety and immune regulatory properties of canine induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lyndah; Johnson, Valerie; Regan, Dan; Wheat, William; Webb, Saiphone; Koch, Peter; Dow, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit broad immune modulatory activity in vivo and can suppress T cell proliferation and dendritic cell activation in vitro. Currently, most MSC for clinical usage are derived from younger donors, due to ease of procurement and to the superior immune modulatory activity. However, the use of MSC from multiple unrelated donors makes it difficult to standardize study results and compare outcomes between different clinical trials. One solution is the use of MSC derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC); as iPSC-derived MSC have nearly unlimited proliferative potential and exhibit in vitro phenotypic stability. Given the value of dogs as a spontaneous disease model for pre-clinical evaluation of stem cell therapeutics, we investigated the functional properties of canine iPSC-derived MSC (iMSC), including immune modulatory properties and potential for teratoma formation. We found that canine iMSC downregulated expression of pluripotency genes and appeared morphologically similar to conventional MSC. Importantly, iMSC retained a stable phenotype after multiple passages, did not form teratomas in immune deficient mice, and did not induce tumor formation in dogs following systemic injection. We concluded therefore that iMSC were phenotypically stable, immunologically potent, safe with respect to tumor formation, and represented an important new source of cells for therapeutic modulation of inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Theoretical predictions of anti-corrosive properties of THAM and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Szymon; Jaroszyńska-Wolińska, Justyna; Herbert, Tony

    2017-12-04

    We present quantum chemical theoretical estimations of the anti-corrosive properties of THAM (tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) and three derivatives that differ in the number of benzene rings: THAM-1 (2-amino-3-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl) propylobenzoate), THAM-2 (2-amino-2-(hydroxymetyl)prapan-1,3-diyldibenzoate) and THAM-3 (2-amino-propan-1,2,3-triyltribenzoate). Fourteen exchange-correlation functionals based on the density functional theory (DFT) were chosen for quantum chemical study of THAM derivatives. The objective was to examine the effect of benzene rings on potential anti-corrosive properties of THAM compounds. The results indicate that the addition of benzene rings in THAM derivatives is likely to significantly enhance electrostatic bonding of a THAM-based coating to a presented metal surface and, thus, its adhesion and long-term effect in corrosion inhibition. Whereas it is clear that all three derivatives appear to be superior in their bonding characteristics to pure THAM, the potential order of merit between the three is less clear, although THAM-3 presents as possibly superior.

  1. Unique Intramolecular Electronic Communications in Mono-ferrocenylpyrimidine Derivatives: Correlation between Redox Properties and Structural Nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Debo; Noel, Jerome; Shao, Huibo; Dupas, Georges; Merbouh, Nabyl; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique intramolecular electronic communications (electron withdrawing and π-bond delocalization effects) exist in the mono-ferrocenylpyrimidine derivatives. • The redox potential shift correlates the pyrimidine ring torsion angle with the extent of electron delocalization. • The correlation between redox properties and structural nature in mono-ferrocenylpyrimidine derivatives is evident. - Abstract: The correlation between redox properties and structural nature in a complete set of mono-ferrocenylpyrimidine derivatives (2-ferrocenylpyrimidine, 2-FcPy; 4-ferrocenylpyrimidine, 4-FcPy; 5-ferrocenylpyrimidine, 5-FcPy) was evaluated by investigating the intramolecular electronic communications. Both conventional electrochemical measurements in organic solvents and thin-film voltammetric studies of these compounds were carried out. It was discovered that their formal potentials are significantly different from each other, and shift negatively in the order of 4-FcPy > 5-FcPy > 2-FcPy. This result suggests that the intramolecular electronic communication is dictated by the delocalization effect of the π-bonding systems in 2-FcPy, and that the electron-withdrawing effect of the nitrogen atoms in the pyrimidine ring plays the key role in 4-FcPy and 5-FcPy. The single crystal X-ray structure analyis and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation provided additional evidence (e.g., different torsion angles between the cyclopentadienyl and pyrimidine rings) to support the observed correlation between the redox properties and structural nature

  2. Study on EM-parameters and EM-wave absorption properties of materials with bio-flaky particles added

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenqiang, E-mail: zwqcau@gmail.com [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Deyuan; Xu, Yonggang [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); McNaughton, Ryan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston 02215 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Bio-flaky particles, fabricated through deposition of carbonyl iron on the surface of disk shaped diatomite, demonstrated beneficial performance on electromagnetic parameters. This paper will detail the improvements to the electromagnetic parameters and absorbing properties of traditional absorbing material generated by the addition of bio-flaky particles. Composites' electromagnetic parameters were measured using the transmission method. Calculated test results confirmed with bio-flaky particles were added, composites' permittivity increased due to the high permeability of bio-flaky particles. Secondly, the permeability of composites increased as a result of the increased volume content of iron particles. Composites with bio-flaky particles added exhibited superlative absorption properties at 0.5 mm thickness, with a maximum reflection loss of approximately −5.1 dB at 14.4 GHz. - Highlights: • Light weight absorbing composites were fabricated with bio-flaky particles added. • SEM results show bio-flaky particles could help the arrangement of FCIPs. • Composites' RL could be improved with bio-flaky particles added. • The RL peak move to lower frequency with bio-flaky particles added.

  3. Study on EM-parameters and EM-wave absorption properties of materials with bio-flaky particles added

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Deyuan; Xu, Yonggang; McNaughton, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Bio-flaky particles, fabricated through deposition of carbonyl iron on the surface of disk shaped diatomite, demonstrated beneficial performance on electromagnetic parameters. This paper will detail the improvements to the electromagnetic parameters and absorbing properties of traditional absorbing material generated by the addition of bio-flaky particles. Composites' electromagnetic parameters were measured using the transmission method. Calculated test results confirmed with bio-flaky particles were added, composites' permittivity increased due to the high permeability of bio-flaky particles. Secondly, the permeability of composites increased as a result of the increased volume content of iron particles. Composites with bio-flaky particles added exhibited superlative absorption properties at 0.5 mm thickness, with a maximum reflection loss of approximately −5.1 dB at 14.4 GHz. - Highlights: • Light weight absorbing composites were fabricated with bio-flaky particles added. • SEM results show bio-flaky particles could help the arrangement of FCIPs. • Composites' RL could be improved with bio-flaky particles added. • The RL peak move to lower frequency with bio-flaky particles added.

  4. Microphysical characteristics of squall-line stratiform precipitation and transition zones inferred using an ice particle property-evolving model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A. A.; Harrington, J. Y.; Morrison, H.

    2017-12-01

    A quasi-idealized 3D squall line (based on a June 2007 Oklahoma case) is simulated using a novel bulk microphysics scheme called the Ice-Spheroids Habit Model with Aspect-ratio Evolution (ISHMAEL). In ISHMAEL, the evolution of ice particle properties, such as mass, shape, maximum diameter, density, and fall speed, are tracked as these properties evolve from vapor growth, sublimation, riming, and melting. Thus, ice properties evolve from various microphysical processes without needing separate unrimed and rimed ice categories. Simulation results show that ISHMAEL produces both a squall-line transition zone and an enhanced stratiform precipitation region. The ice particle properties produced in this simulation are analyzed and compared to observations to determine the characteristics of ice that lead to the development of these squall-line features. It is shown that rimed particles advected rearward from the convective region produce the enhanced stratiform precipitation region. The development of the transition zone results from hydrometer sorting: the evolution of ice particle properties in the convective region produces specific fall speeds that favor significant ice advecting rearward of the transition zone before reaching the melting level, causing a local minimum in precipitation rate and reflectivity there. Microphysical sensitivity studies, for example turning rime splintering off, that lead to changes in ice particle properties reveal that the fall speed of ice particles largely determines both the location of the enhanced stratiform precipitation region and whether or not a transition zone forms.

  5. The effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. N.; Sukardi, M. A.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for bone filling applications. Hydroxyapatite powder was synthesized via hydrothermal method using calcium oxide, CaO and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, NH4H2PO4 as the calcium and phosphorus precursors respectively. The effects of calcium excess were evaluated by varying the CaO content at 0, 5 and 15 mole %. The precursors were then refluxed in distilled water at 90-100°C and dried overnight until the calcium phosphate powder was formed. CPC was then produced by mixing the synthesized powder with distilled water at the powder-to-liquid (P/L) ratio of 1.5. The result from the morphological properties of CPC shows the increase in agglomeration and particles size with 5 mole % of calcium excess but decreased with 15 mole % of calcium excess in CPC. This result was in agreement with the compressive strength result where the CPC increased its strength with 5 mole % of calcium excess but reduced with 15 mole % of calcium excess. The excess in calcium precursor also significantly improved the setting time but reduced the injectability of CPC.

  6. The influence of particle size and fluorine content of aluminosilicate glass on the glass ionomer cement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caluwé, T; Vercruysse, C W J; Fraeyman, S; Verbeeck, R M H

    2014-09-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are clinically accepted dental restorative materials mainly due to their direct chemical adhesion to both enamel and dentin and their ability to release fluoride. However, their mechanical properties are inferior compared to those of amalgam and composite. The aim of this study is to investigate if combinations of nano- and macrogranular glass with different compositions in a glass ionomer cement can improve the mechanical and physical properties. Glasses with the composition 4.5 SiO2-3 Al2O3-1.5 P2O5-(5-x) CaO-x CaF2 (x=0 and x=2) were prepared. Of each type of glass, particles with a median size of about 0.73 μm and 6.02 μm were made. The results show that the setting time of GIC decreases when macrogranular glass particles are replaced by nanogranular glass particles, whereas the compressive strength and Young's modulus, measured after 24 h setting, increase. The effects are more pronounced when the nanogranular glass particles contain fluoride. After thermocycling, compressive strength decreases for nearly all formulations, the effect being most pronounced for cements containing nanogranular glass particles. Hence, the strength of the GIC seems mainly determined by the macrogranular glass particles. Cumulative F--release decreases when the macrogranular glass particles with fluoride are replaced by nanogranular glass particles with(out) fluoride. The present study thus shows that replacing macro- by nanogranular glass particles with different compositions can lead to cements with approximately the same physical properties (e.g. setting time, consistency), but with different physicochemical (e.g. F--release, water-uptake) and initial mechanical properties. On the long term, the mechanical properties are mainly determined by the macrogranular glass particles. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of time-series properties of gourd observed solar irradiance data using cloud properties derived from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T.; Nohara, D.

    2017-12-01

    The shorter temporal scale variation in the downward solar irradiance at the ground level (DSI) is not understood well because researches in the shorter-scale variation in the DSI is based on the ground observation and ground observation stations are located coarsely. Use of dataset derived from satellite observation will overcome such defect. DSI data and MODIS cloud properties product are analyzed simultaneously. Three metrics: mean, standard deviation and sample entropy, are used to evaluate time-series properties of the DSI. Three metrics are computed from two-hours time-series centered at the observation time of MODIS over the ground observation stations. We apply the regression methods to design prediction models of each three metrics from cloud properties. The validation of the model accuracy show that mean and standard deviation are predicted with a higher degree of accuracy and that the accuracy of prediction of sample entropy, which represents the complexity of time-series, is not high. One of causes of lower prediction skill of sample entropy is the resolution of the MODIS cloud properties. Higher sample entropy is corresponding to the rapid fluctuation, which is caused by the small and unordered cloud. It seems that such clouds isn't retrieved well.

  8. The effect of particle aspect ratio on the electroelastic properties of piezoelectric nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, C; Lin, Y; Sodano, H A

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials offer exceptional sensing and actuation properties; however, they are prone to breakage and difficult to apply on curved surfaces in their monolithic form. One method of alleviating these issues is through the use of 0–3 nanocomposites, which are formed by embedding piezoelectric particles into a polymer matrix. Material of this class offers certain advantages over monolithic materials; however, it has seen little use due to its low coupling. Here we develop micromechanics and finite element models to study the electroelastic properties of an active nanocomposite, as a function of the aspect ratio and alignment of the piezoelectric filler. Our results show that the aspect ratio is critical for achieving high electromechanical coupling, and with an increase from 1 to 10 at 30% volume fraction of piezoelectric filler the coupling can increase to 60 times its initial value and achieve a bulk composite coupling as high as 90% for a pure PZT-7A piezoelectric constituent

  9. Molecular and structural properties of polymer composites filled with activated charcoal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Dahlang, E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Bakri, Fahrul [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia); Liong, Syarifuddin [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    We have studied the molecular properties, structural properties, and chemical composition of composites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, respectively. FTIR spectra shows absorption band of hydroxyl group (-OH), methyl group (-CH{sub 3}) and aromatic group (C-C). The absorption band for aromatic group (C-C) shows the formation of carbonaceous in composites. XRF shows chemical composition of composites, which the main chemicals are SO{sub 3}, Cl, and ZnO. The loss on ignition value (LOI) of activated charcoal indicates high carbonaceous matter. The crystallite size for diffraction pattern from hydrogel polymer is about 17 nm and for activated charcoal are about 19 nm. The crystallite size of the polymer is lower than that of activated charcoal, which make possible of the particle from filler in contact with each other to form continuous conducting polymer through polymer matrix.

  10. Mg-Fe-mixed oxides derived from layered double hydroxides: A study of the surface properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković-Nedučin Radmila P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface properties on the selectivity of the synthesized catalysts was studied, considering that their selectivity towards particular hydrocarbons is crucial for their overall activity in the chosen Fischer- -Tropsch reaction. Magnesium- and iron-containing layered double hydroxides (LDH, with the general formula: [Mg1-xFex(OH2](CO3x/2?mH2O, x = = n(Fe/(n(Mg+n(Fe, synthesized with different Mg/Fe ratio and their thermally derived mixed oxides were investigated. Magnesium was chosen because of its basic properties, whereas iron was selected due to its well-known high Fischer-Tropsch activity, redox properties and the ability to form specific active sites in the layered LDH structure required for catalytic application. The thermally less stable multiphase system (synthesized outside the optimal single LDH phase range with additional Fe-phase, having a lower content of surface acid and base active sites, a lower surface area and smaller fraction of smaller mesopores, showed higher selectivity in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The results of this study imply that the metastability of derived multiphase oxides structure has a greater influence on the formation of specific catalyst surface sites than other investigated surface properties.

  11. Physicotechnical, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric properties of powdered cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose derived from groundnut shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuemeka P. Azubuike

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available α-Cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders, derived from agricultural waste products, that have for the pharmaceutical industry, desirable physical (flow properties were investigated. α–Cellulose (GCN was extracted from groundnut shell (an agricultural waste product using a non-dissolving method based on inorganic reagents. Modification of this α -cellulose was carried out by partially hydrolysing it with 2N hydrochloric acid under reflux to obtain microcrystalline cellulose (MCGN. The physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of the derived α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders were compared with Avicel® PH 101, a commercial brand of microcrystalline cellulose (MCCA, using standard methods. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the α-cellulose had lower crystallinity. This suggested that treatment with 2N hydrochloric acid led to an increase in the crystallinity index. Thermogravimetric analysis showed quite similar thermal behavior for all cellulose samples, although the α-cellulose had a somewhat lower stability. A comparison of the physical properties between the microcrystalline celluloses and the α-cellulose suggests that microcrystalline cellulose (MCGN and MCCA might have better flow properties. In almost all cases, MCGN and MCCA had similar characteristics. Since groundnut shells are agricultural waste products, its utilization as a source of microcrystalline cellulose might be a good low-cost alternative to the more expensive commercial brand.

  12. Amniotic membrane-derived stem cells: immunomodulatory properties and potential clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insausti CL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carmen L Insausti,1 Miguel Blanquer,1 Ana M García-Hernández,1 Gregorio Castellanos,2 José M Moraleda11Unidad de Trasplante Hematopoyético y Terapia Celular, 2Servicio de Cirugía, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, IMIB, Campus Mare Nostrum, Universidad de Murcia, El Palmar, Murcia, SpainAbstract: Epithelial and mesenchymal cells isolated from the amniotic membrane (AM possess stem cell characteristics, differentiation potential toward lineages of different germ layers, and immunomodulatory properties. While their expansion and differentiation potential have been well studied and characterized, knowledge about their immunomodulatory properties and the mechanisms involved is still incomplete. These mechanisms have been evaluated on various target cells of the innate and the adaptive system and in animal models of different inflammatory diseases. Some results have evidenced that the immunomodulatory effect of AM-derived cells is dependent on cell-cell contact, but many of them have demonstrated that these properties are mediated through the secretion of suppressive molecules. In this review, we present an update on the described immunomodulatory properties of the derived amniotic cells and some of the proposed involved mechanisms. Furthermore, we describe some assays in animal models of different inflammatory diseases which reveal the potential use of these cells to treat such diseases.Keywords: epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, cell therapy, immunomodulation

  13. Dimerization effects on coacervation property of an elastin-derived synthetic peptide (FPGVG)5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Keitaro; Taniguchi, Suguru; Tatsubo, Daiki; Maeda, Iori; Nose, Takeru

    2016-04-01

    Elastin, a core protein of the elastic fibers, exhibits the coacervation (temperature-dependent reversible association/dissociation) under physiological conditions. Because of this characteristic, elastin and elastin-derived peptides have been considered to be useful as base materials for developing various biomedical products, skin substitutes, synthetic vascular grafts, and drug delivery systems. Although elastin-derived polypeptide (Val-Pro-Gly-Val-Gly)n also has been known to demonstrate coacervation property, a sufficiently high (VPGVG)n repetition number (n>40) is required for coacervation. In the present study, a series of elastin-derived peptide (Phe-Pro-Gly-Val-Gly)5 dimers possessing high coacervation potential were newly developed. These novel dimeric peptides exhibited coacervation at significantly lower concentrations and temperatures than the commonly used elastin-derived peptide analogs; this result suggests that the coacervation ability of the peptides is enhanced by dimerization. Circular dichroism (CD) measurements indicate that the dimers undergo similar temperature-dependent and reversible conformational changes when coacervation occurs. The molecular dynamics calculation results reveal that the sheet-turn-sheet motif involving a type II β-turn-like structure commonly observed among the dimers and caused formation of globular conformation of them. These synthesized peptide dimers may be useful not only as model peptides for structural analysis of elastin and elastin-derived peptides, but also as base materials for developing various temperature-sensitive biomedical and industrial products. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Role of Quinone Reductase 2 in the Antimalarial Properties of Indolone-Type Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure-Estelle Cassagnes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indolone-N-oxides have antiplasmodial properties against Plasmodium falciparum at the erythrocytic stage, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. The mechanism of action of indolone derivatives involves the production of free radicals, which follows their bioreduction by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we hypothesized that human quinone reductase 2 (hQR2, known to act as a flavin redox switch upon binding to the broadly used antimalarial chloroquine, could be involved in the activity of the redox-active indolone derivatives. Therefore, we investigated the role of hQR2 in the reduction of indolone derivatives. We analyzed the interaction between hQR2 and several indolone-type derivatives by examining enzymatic kinetics, the substrate/protein complex structure with X-ray diffraction analysis, and the production of free radicals with electron paramagnetic resonance. The reduction of each compound in cells overexpressing hQR2 was compared to its reduction in naïve cells. This process could be inhibited by the specific hQR2 inhibitor, S29434. These results confirmed that the anti-malarial activity of indolone-type derivatives was linked to their ability to serve as hQR2 substrates and not as hQR2 inhibitors as reported for chloroquine, leading to the possibility that substrate of hQR2 could be considered as a new avenue for the design of new antimalarial compounds.

  15. Dynamical properties for an ensemble of classical particles moving in a driven potential well with different time perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Diogo Ricardo da; Caldas, I.L.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider dynamical properties for an ensemble of classical particles confined to an infinite box of potential and containing a time-dependent potential well described by different nonlinear functions. For smooth functions, the phase space contains chaotic trajectories, periodic islands and invariant spanning curves preventing the unlimited particle diffusion along the energy axis. Average properties of the chaotic sea are characterised as a function of the control parameters and exponents describing their behaviour show no dependence on the perturbation functions. Given invariant spanning curves are present in the phase space, a sticky region was observed and show to modify locally the diffusion of the particles

  16. Temperature dependent thermoelectric properties of chemically derived gallium zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Barasheed, Abeer Z.; Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the temperature dependent thermoelectric properties of sol-gel prepared ZnO and 3% Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films have been explored. The power factor of GZO films, as compared to ZnO, is improved by nearly 17% at high temperature. A stabilization anneal, prior to thermoelectric measurements, in a strongly reducing Ar/H2 (95/5) atmosphere at 500°C was found to effectively stabilize the chemically derived films, practically eliminating hysteresis during thermoelectric measurements. Subtle changes in the thermoelectric properties of stabilized films have been correlated to oxygen vacancies and excitonic levels that are known to exist in ZnO-based thin films. The role of Ga dopants and defects, formed upon annealing, in driving the observed complex temperature dependence of the thermoelectric properties is discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  17. Improving surface functional properties of tofu whey-derived peptides by chemical modification with fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matemu, Athanasia Oswald; Katayama, Shigeru; Kayahara, Hisataka; Murasawa, Hisashi; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2012-04-01

    Effect of acylation with saturated fatty acids on surface functional properties of tofu whey-derived peptides was investigated. Tofu whey (TW) and soy proteins (7S, 11S, and acid-precipitated soy protein [APP]) were hydrolyzed by Protease M 'Amano' G, and resulting peptide mixtures were acylated with esterified fatty acids of different chain length (6C to 18C) to form a covalent linkage between the carboxyl group of fatty acid and the free amino groups of peptide. Acylation significantly (P properties of 7S, 11S, and APP peptides independent of fatty acid chain length. Acylation decreased water binding capacity although oil binding capacity of acylated tofu whey ultra filtered fraction (UFTW acids had shown significant higher surface hydrophobicity as in contrast with acylated UFTW acids can further affect functional properties of soy proteins. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Mechanical properties study of particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites by micro-indentation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhanwei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By using instrumental micro-indentation technique, the microhardness and Young’s modulus of SiC particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites were investigated with micro-compression-tester (MCT. The micro-indentation experiments were performed with different maximum loads, and with three loading speeds of 2.231, 4.462 and 19.368 mN/s respectively. During the investigation, matrix, particle and interface were tested by micro-indentation experiments. The results exhibit that the variations of Young’s modulus and microhardness at particle, matrix and interface were highly dependent on the loading conditions (maximum load and loading speed and the locations of indentation. Micro-indentation hardness experiments of matrix show the indentation size effects, i.e. the indentation hardness decreased with the indentation depth increasing. During the analysis, the effect of loading conditions on Young’s modulus and microhardness were explained. Besides, the elastic–plastic properties of matrix were analyzed. The validity of calculated results was identified by finite element simulation. And the simulation results had been preliminarily analyzed from statistical aspect.

  19. Aging behavior and mechanical properties of maraging steels in the presence of submicrocrystalline Laves phase particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, A.; Ghavidel, M.R. Zamanzad; Nedjad, S. Hossein; Heidarzadeh, A.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili

    2011-01-01

    Cold rolling and annealing of homogenized Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti-Cr maraging steels resulted in the formation of submicrocrystalline Fe 2 (Mo,Ti) Laves phase particles. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile and hardness tests were used to study the microstructure, aging behavior and mechanical properties of the annealed steels. The annealed microstructures showed age hardenability during subsequent isothermal aging at 753 K. Ultrahigh fracture stress but poor tensile ductility was obtained after substantial age hardening in the specimens with 2% and 4% chromium. Increasing chromium addition up to 6% toughened the aged microstructure at the expense of the fracture stress by increasing the volume fraction of retained austenite. The Laves phase particles acted as crack nucleation sites during tensile deformation. - Highlights: → Laves phases dispersed in a BCC iron matrix by annealing of cold rolled samples. → The samples showed age hardenability during subsequent isothermal aging at 753 K. → Ultrahigh fracture stress but poor ductility was obtained after age hardening. → Increasing chromium addition toughened the aged microstructure. → Laves phase particles acting as crack nucleation sites during tensile deformation.

  20. Particle morphology of hydroxyapatite and its influence on the properties of biocomposite plasma coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikova I.P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to identify patterns of change in the properties of biocompatible coatings during modernization of its structure by changing the morphology and crystallinity of the starting powder particles of hydroxyapatite (HA for agglomeration and subsequent grinding. Material and methods. We investigated the morphology, degree of crystallinity and internal tension in HA powder with a particle size of 40-90 microns in the initial state and after the agglomeration process and structure piasmasprayed HA coatings application methods ray analysis (XRF and XRD on DRON-3, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectrometer Nicolet 6700, optical (MIM-8 and atomic force microscopy (SMM-2000, the laser microprobe (Spectrum 2000. Results: It was shown that change in particle morphology HA agglomerated and subsequently grinding increases the uniformity of the porous structure, its crystallinity, reduce internal stresses developing surface morphology of the coating and its nanostructuring. Conclusion. It is recommended for the improvement of characteristics of the porous structure (uniformity, strength, adhesion, and the surface morphology of implant to use agglomerating starting powders and their subsequent grinding.

  1. Surface modification of silica particles and its effects on cure and mechanical properties of the natural rubber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theppradit, Thawinan [Program in Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Prasassarakich, Pattarapan [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Poompradub, Sirilux, E-mail: sirilux.p@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    The efficiency of modified silica (SiO{sub 2}) particles in the reinforcement of natural rubber (NR) vulcanizates was evaluated. The SiO{sub 2} particles were synthesized via a sol–gel reaction using tetraethyl orthosilicate as the precursor, and then the formed SiO{sub 2} particles were modified with methyl, vinyl or aminopropyl groups using methyltriethoxysilane, vinyltriethoxysilane or aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis confirmed the successful modification of the surface of the silica particles. The water contact angle measurement revealed the greater hydrophobicity of the three modified silica preparations compared to the unmodified SiO{sub 2}. NR vulcanizates filled with modified SiO{sub 2} particles were prepared and the mechanical, thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of composites were investigated. The morphology of composite materials was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The modified SiO{sub 2} particles were well dispersed in the NR matrix leading to the good compatibility between the rubber and filler, and so an improved cure, mechanical, thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of the composite vulcanizate materials. - Highlights: • Modification of SiO{sub 2} particles by MTES, VTES and APTES. • Improvement of hydrophobicity of SiO{sub 2} particle and compatibility between SiO{sub 2} and rubbery matrix. • Improvement of cure, mechanical, thermal, dynamic mechanical properties of NR vulcanizates.

  2. Effect of particle size and concentration on the mechanical properties of polyester/date palm seed particulate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulosic materials as reinforcement in composites can greatly enhance their properties. The thrust of this study was to investigate the effect of date palm seed particle on the properties of reinforced polyester. Unsaturated polyester resin was reinforced with date palm seed particles of 0.5, 2.0 and 2.8mm particle sizes using variable particle loadings of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25wt%. The composites obtained were subjected to various types of mechanical and physical tests in order to assess their performance. The optimum tensile strength of 16.7619N/mm2 and elastic modulus of 343.8N/mm2 were attained at 15wt% and 10wt% loading (using 0.5mm particles respectively and percent water absorption was found to be least for 0.5mm particle size. The hardness was enhanced to the maximum of 74 HRF (Rockwell Hardness Factor by 2mm particle size at 25wt% loading. Pure unsaturated polyester resin recorded tensile strength of 17.5959N/mm2, elastic modulus of 316.7N/mm2 and hardness of 33.5 HRF. The results indicated that the use of date palm seed particles as reinforcement can enhance the properties of polyester composites.

  3. Corrosion and magnetic properties of encapsulated carbonyl iron particles in aqueous suspension by inorganic thin films for magnetorheological finishing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzare, Amir; Rezaei, Seyed Mehdi; Ramezanzadeh, Bahram

    2018-04-01

    Magnetorheological fluid is composed of micro-size carbonyl iron (CI) particles for polishing of optical substrates. In this paper, the corrosion resistance of carbonyl iron (CI) particles modified with three inorganic thin films based on rare earth elements, including cerium oxide (CeO2), lanthanum oxide (La2O3) and praseodymium oxide (Pr2O3), was investigated. The morphology and chemistry of the CI-Ce, CI-Pr and CI-La particles were examined by high resolution Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to investigate the corrosion behavior of CI particles in aquatic environment. In addition, the Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) technique was utilized for determination of magnetic saturation properties of the coated particles. Afterwards, gas pycnometry and contact angle measurement methods were implemented to evaluate the density and hydrophilic properties of these particles. The results showed that deposition of all thin films increased the hydrophilic nature of these particles. In addition, it was observed that the amount of magnetic saturation properties attenuation for Pr2O3 and La2O3 films is greater than the CeO2 film. The EIS and polarization tests results confirmed that the CI-Ce had the maximum corrosion resistant among other samples. In addition, the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the ceria coating provided particles with enhanced surface oxidation resistance.

  4. Assembly and luminescence properties of lanthanide-polyoxometalates/polyethyleneimine/SiO{sub 2} particles with core–shell structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun, E-mail: junwang924@yahoo.com.cn; Fan, Shaohua; Zhao, Weiqian; Zhang, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, two lanthanide-polyoxometalate (LnW{sub 10}) complexes were bonded on the surface of the polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified silica nanoparticles with different sizes, resulting in the formation of LnW{sub 10}/PEI/SiO{sub 2} particles. The hybrid core–shell particles were characterized by infrared, luminescent spectra, scanning electronic microscope, and transmission electronic microscope. The particles obtained exhibit the fine spherical core–shell structure and the excellent luminescence properties. The luminescence spectra studies revealed that the formation of LnW{sub 10}/PEI/SiO{sub 2} particles and the size of particle have an influence on the luminescence properties of lanthanide ions. - Highlights: ► SiO{sub 2}/polyethyleneimine (PEI) shows the chemisorption for Ln-polyoxometalates (LnW{sub 10}). ► The core-shell LnW{sub 10}/PEI/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different sizes were fabricated. ► The hybrid particles exhibit the excellent luminescence properties. ► The sizes of particles affect the luminescence properties of lanthanide ions.

  5. Evolution of Single Particle and Collective properties in the Neutron-Rich Mg Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Wiens, A; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Van duppen, P L E; Finke, F

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the single particle and collective properties of the neutron-rich Mg isotopes in transfer reactions and Coulomb excitation using REX-ISOLDE and MINIBALL. From the Coulomb excitation measurement precise and largely model independent B( E2 ; 0$^{+}_{g.s.}\\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}_{1}$ ) will be determined for the even-even isotopes. For the odd isotopes the distribution of the E2 strength over a few low-lying states will be measured. The sign of the M1/E2 mixing ratio, extracted from angular distributions, is characteristic of the sign of the deformation, as is the resulting level scheme. The neutron-pickup channel in the transfer reactions will allow for a determination of the single particle properties (spin, parity, spectroscopic factors) of these nuclei. This information will give new insights in changes of nuclear structure in the vicinity of the island of deformation around $^{32}$Mg. A total of 24 shifts of REX beam time is requested.

  6. Enhanced antioxidation and microwave absorbing properties of SiO2-coated flaky carbonyl iron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Xie, Hui; Zhou, Wancheng; Ren, Zhaowen

    2018-01-01

    SiO2 was successfully coated on the surface of flaky carbonyl iron particles using a chemical bath deposition method in the presence of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). The morphologies, composition, valence states of elements, as well as antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric (TG) and microwave network analyzer. TG curve shows the obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred to 360 °C after SiO2-coated, which can be ascribed to the exits of SiO2 overlayer. Compared with the raw carbonyl iron, SiO2-coated sample shows good wave absorption performance due to its impedance matching. The electromagnetic properties of raw and SiO2-coated carbonyl iron particles were characterized in X band before and after heat treatment at 250 °C for 10 h. It was established that SiO2-coated carbonyl iron demonstrate good thermal stability, indicating SiO2-coating is useful in the usage of microwave absorbers operating at temperature up to 250 °C.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Properties of Pure and EDTA-Capped NiO Nanosized Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Rahal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA as a capping agent on the structure, morphology, optical, and magnetic properties of nickel oxide (NiO nanosized particles, synthesized by coprecipitation method, was investigated. Nickel chloride hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH were used as precursors. The resultant nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. XRD patterns showed that NiO have a face-centered cubic (FCC structure. The crystallite size, estimated by Scherrer formula, has been found in the range of 28–33 nm. It is noticed that EDTA-capped NiO nanoparticles have a smaller size than pure nanoparticles. Thus, the addition of 0.1 M capping agent EDTA can form a nucleation point for nanoparticles growth. The optical and magnetic properties were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy (UV as well as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR and magnetization measurements. FTIR spectra indicated the presence of absorption bands in the range of 402–425 cm−1, which is a common feature of NiO. EPR for NiO nanosized particles was measured at room temperature. An EPR line with g factor ≈1.9–2 is detected for NiO nanoparticles, corresponding to Ni2+ ions. The magnetic hysteresis of NiO nanoparticles showed that EDTA capping recovers the surface magnetization of the nanoparticles.

  8. The magnetic field dependent dynamic properties of magnetorheological elastomers based on hard magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qianqian; Wang, Yu; Gong, Xinglong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, novel magnetorheological elastomers based on hard magnetic particles (H-MREs) were developed and the magnetic field dependent dynamic properties of the H-MREs were further investigated. The storage modulus of H-MREs could not only be increased by increasing magnetic field but also be decreased by the increasing magnetic field of opposite orientation. For the anisotropic H-MREs with 80 wt% NdFeB particles, the field-induced increasing and decreasing modulus was 426 kPa and 118 kPa respectively. Moreover, the dynamic performances of H-MREs significantly depended on the pre-structure magnetic field, magnetizing field and test magnetic field. The H-MREs were initially magnetized and formed the chain-like microstructure by the pre-structure magnetic field. The field-induced increasing and decreasing modulus of H-MREs both raised with increasing of the magnetizing field. When the magnetizing field increased from 400 to 1200 kA m-1, the field induced decreasing modulus of the 80 wt% isotropic H-MREs raised from 3 to 47 kPa. The magnetic field dependent curves of H-MREs’ storage modulus were asymmetric if the magnetizing field was higher than the test magnetic field. Based on the dipolar model of MREs and magnetic properties of hard magnetic material, a reasonable explanation was proposed to understand the H-MREs’ field dependent mechanical behaviors.

  9. About the kinematics of spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesi, G.; Recami, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan; Campinas State Univ., SP

    1995-06-01

    Inserting the correct Lorentz factor into the definition of the 4-velocity vμ for spinning particles entails new kinematical properties for v 2 . The well-know constraint (identically true for scalar particles, but entering also the Dirac theory, and assumed a priori in all spinning particle models) P μ v μ =m is here derived in a self-consistent way

  10. Fractal scaling of particle size distribution and relationships with topsoil properties affected by biological soil crusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Lei Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological soil crusts are common components of desert ecosystem; they cover ground surface and interact with topsoil that contribute to desertification control and degraded land restoration in arid and semiarid regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To distinguish the changes in topsoil affected by biological soil crusts, we compared topsoil properties across three types of successional biological soil crusts (algae, lichens, and mosses crust, as well as the referenced sandland in the Mu Us Desert, Northern China. Relationships between fractal dimensions of soil particle size distribution and selected soil properties were discussed as well. The results indicated that biological soil crusts had significant positive effects on soil physical structure (P<0.05; and soil organic carbon and nutrients showed an upward trend across the successional stages of biological soil crusts. Fractal dimensions ranged from 2.1477 to 2.3032, and significantly linear correlated with selected soil properties (R(2 = 0.494∼0.955, P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biological soil crusts cause an important increase in soil fertility, and are beneficial to sand fixation, although the process is rather slow. Fractal dimension proves to be a sensitive and useful index for quantifying changes in soil properties that additionally implies desertification. This study will be essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on optimal solutions regarding desertification control and assessment, as well as degraded ecosystem restoration in arid and semiarid regions.

  11. Steering particles by breaking symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bet, Bram; Samin, Sela; Georgiev, Rumen; Burak Eral, Huseyin; van Roij, René

    2018-06-01

    We derive general equations of motions for highly-confined particles that perform quasi-two-dimensional motion in Hele-Shaw channels, which we solve analytically, aiming to derive design principles for self-steering particles. Based on symmetry properties of a particle, its equations of motion can be simplified, where we retrieve an earlier-known equation of motion for the orientation of dimer particles consisting of disks (Uspal et al 2013 Nat. Commun. 4), but now in full generality. Subsequently, these solutions are compared with particle trajectories that are obtained numerically. For mirror-symmetric particles, excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions is found. For particles lacking mirror symmetry, the analytic solutions provide means to classify the motion based on particle geometry, while we find that taking the side-wall interactions into account is important to accurately describe the trajectories.

  12. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and un-seeded SOA particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Duplissy, J.; Gysel, M.; Metzger, A.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Alfarra, M. R.; Fletcher, C.; Good, N.; McFiggans, G.; Jonsson, Ã. M.; Hallquist, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2008-05-01

    The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and un-seeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3). The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility - hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer). VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF) factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75%) and above (RH 85%) the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH4)2SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution, with an increasing volume fraction of SOA. To our knowledge this is the first time that SOA derived

  13. Global particle balance and wall recycling properties of long duration discharges on TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, M.; Yuno, M.; Itoh, S.

    2003-01-01

    The longest tokamak discharge with the duration of 11406 s (3 h 10 min) was achieved. The global particle balance has been investigated. In the longest discharge, the global balance between the particle absorption and release of the wall was achieved around t∼30 min and then the fueling was automatically stopped. After that the plasma density was maintained by the recycling flux alone until the end of the discharge. The maximum wall inventory is about 3.6 x 10 20 H at t ∼ 30 min but it is finally released from the wall at the end of the discharge. The global balance seems to be caused by the increase in the hydrogen release from the main chamber resulting from its temperature rise. Moreover, it has been observed a large difference between properties of wall recycling in the continuous gas feed case (i.e. static condition) and the additional gas puff case (i.e. dynamic condition). In the static condition, the effective particle confinement time increases almost linearly to about 10 s during the one-minute discharge. In the dynamic condition, the decay time of the electron density just after the gas puff, i.e. the effective particle confinement time, is 0.2 to 0.3 s during the one-minute discharge. The large difference was also reproduced in the longest discharge. It is considered that the enhanced wall pumping is caused by the increase in fluxes of the diffused ions and charge exchange neutrals due to the additional gas puff. (author)

  14. Ice Nucleating Particle Properties in the Saharan Air Layer Close to the Dust Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boose, Y.; Garcia, I. M.; Rodríguez, S.; Linke, C.; Schnaiter, M.; Nickovic, S.; Lohmann, U.; Kanji, Z. A.; Sierau, B.

    2015-12-01

    In August 2013 and 2014 measurements of ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations, aerosol particle size distributions, chemistry and fluorescence were conducted at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory located at 2373 m asl on Tenerife, west off the African shore. During summer, the observatory is frequently within the Saharan Air Layer and thus often exposed to dust. Absolute INP concentrations and activated fractions at T=-40 to -15°C and RHi=100-150 % were measured. In this study, we discuss the in-situ measured INP properties with respect to changes in the chemical composition, the biological content, the source regions as well as transport pathways and thus aging processes of the dust aerosol. For the first time, ice crystal residues were also analyzed with regard to biological content by means of their autofluorescence signal close to a major dust source region. Airborne dust samples were collected with a cyclone for additional offline analysis in the laboratory under similar conditions as in the field. Both, in-situ and offline dust samples were chemically characterized using single-particle mass spectrometry. The DREAM8 dust model extended with dust mineral fractions was run to simulate meteorological and dust aerosol conditions for ice nucleation. Results show that the background aerosol at Izaña was dominated by carbonaceous particles, which were hardly ice-active under the investigated conditions. When Saharan dust was present, INP concentrations increased by up to two orders of magnitude even at water subsaturated conditions at T≤-25°C. Differences in the ice-activated fraction were found between different dust periods which seem to be linked to variations in the aerosol chemical composition (dust mixed with changing fractions of sea salt and differences in the dust aerosol itself). Furthermore, two biomass burning events in 2014 were identified which led to very low INP concentrations under the investigated temperature and relative humidity

  15. Effect of aluminium particles on mechanical and morphological properties of epoxy nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Sefiu A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumper is a front or rear part of automobiles. It is designed and shaped to be impact absorbing and protecting automobiles from damage in low impact collisions. Initially, they were made from heavy steels, increasing the weight of automobiles and fuel consumption. Also, high impacts of steel bumpers on pedestrians during accidental collision cause fatalities and or disabilities. An effort to enhance fuel efficiency, safety, freedom of design and shape detailing, heavy alloys for automobile applications are now being replaced with polymeric composites. Aluminium micro particles and nanoparticles were prepared from aluminium cans through sand casting, lathe machine spinning, and ball milling techniques. Both types of aluminium particles were incorporated into a mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, epoxy resin cured with amine base hardener (ABH. Phases of the epoxy polymer and composites were identified using Xray Diffraction (XRD. Spatial arrangement of the phases within the matrix and their elemental composition were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope with attached energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX. Tensile, impact and micro hardness tests were conducted on the prepared epoxy/aluminium composites. Results of the XRD showed the presence of aluminium compounds/phases due to chemical reactions between aluminium particles and DGEBA/ABH system. SEM confirmed a homogeneous distribution of the phases within the epoxy matrix, and that there is a strong adhesion between the epoxy matrix and aluminium particles. Correlation between the mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposite and the procured bumper materials exhibited a fair suitability of the prepared nanocomposites for automobile applications.

  16. Multiscale structure, interfacial cohesion, adsorbed layers, miscibility and properties in dense polymer-particle mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Ken

    2012-02-01

    A major goal in polymer nanocomposite research is to understand and predict how the chemical and physical nature of individual polymers and nanoparticles, and thermodynamic state (temperature, composition, solvent dilution, filler loading), determine bulk assembly, miscibility and properties. Microscopic PRISM theory provides a route to this goal for equilibrium disordered mixtures. A major prediction is that by manipulating the net polymer-particle interfacial attraction, miscibility is realizable via the formation of thin thermodynamically stable adsorbed layers, which, however, are destroyed by entropic depletion and bridging attraction effects if interface cohesion is too weak or strong, respectively. This and related issues are quantitatively explored for miscible mixtures of hydrocarbon polymers, silica nanospheres, and solvent using x-ray scattering, neutron scattering and rheology. Under melt conditions, quantitative agreement between theory and silica scattering experiments is achieved under both steric stabilization and weak depletion conditions. Using contrast matching neutron scattering to characterize the collective structure factors of polymers, particles and their interface, the existence and size of adsorbed polymer layers, and their consequences on microstructure, is determined. Failure of the incompressible RPA, accuracy of PRISM theory, the nm thickness of adsorbed layers, and qualitative sensitivity of the bulk modulus to interfacial cohesion and particle size are demonstrated for concentrated PEO-silica-ethanol nanocomposites. Temperature-dependent complexity is discovered when water is the solvent, and nonequilibrium effects emerge for adsorbing entangled polymers that strongly impact structure. By varying polymer chemistry, the effect of polymer-particle attraction on the intrinsic viscosity is explored with striking non-classical effects observed. This work was performed in collaboration with S.Y.Kim, L.M.Hall, C.Zukoski and B.Anderson.

  17. The Effects of Particle Size on the Surface Properties of an HVOF Coating of WC-Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Tong Yul; Yoon, Jae Hong; Yoon, Sang Hwan; Joo, Yun Kon [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Ho; Son, Young Bok [Xinix Metallizing Co., Ltd, Gyungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The effects of particle size on the surface properties of HVOF spray coating were studied to improve of the durability of metal components. Micro and nano sized WC-12Co powders were coated on the surface of Inconel718, and the effects of particle size on surface properties were studied. Surface hardness was reduced when the particle sizes of the powder were decreased, because the larger specific surface area of the smaller particles caused greater heat absorption and decomposition of the hard WC to less hard W{sub 2}C and graphite. Porosity was increased by decreasing the particle size, because the larger specific surface area of the smaller particles caused a greater decomposition of WC to W{sub 2}C and free carbon. The free carbon formed carbon oxide gases which created the porous surface. The friction coefficient was reduced by decreasing the particle size because the larger specific surface area of the smaller particles produced more free carbon free Co and Co oxide which acted as solid lubricants. The friction coefficient increased when the surface temperature was increased from 25 to 500 ℃, due to local cold welding. To improve the durability of metal mechanical components, WC-Co coating with the proper particle size is recommended.

  18. Fractional derivative and its application in mathematics and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namsrai, K.

    2004-12-01

    We propose fractional derivatives and to study those mathematical and physical consequences. It is shown that fractional derivatives possess noncommutative and nonassociative properties and within which motion of a particle, differential and integral calculuses are investigated. (author)

  19. Influence of residual composition on the structure and properties of extracellular matrix derived hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Rizo, Jesús A; Rangel-Argote, Magdalena; Castellano, Laura E; Delgado, Jorge; Mata-Mata, José L; Mendoza-Novelo, Birzabith

    2017-10-01

    In this work, hydrolysates of extracellular matrix (hECM) were obtained from rat tail tendon (TR), bovine Achilles tendon (TAB), porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and bovine pericardium (PB), and they were polymerized to generate ECM hydrogels. The composition of hECM was evaluated by quantifying the content of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), fibronectin and laminin. The polymerization process, structure, physicochemical properties, in vitro degradation and biocompatibility were studied and related to their composition. The results indicated that the hECM derived from SIS and PB were significantly richer in sGAG, fibronectin and laminin, than those derived from TAB and TR. These differences in hECM composition influenced the polymerization and the structural characteristics of the fibrillar gel network. Consequently, the swelling, mechanics and degradation of the hydrogels showed a direct relationship with the remaining composition. Moreover, the cytocompatibility and the secretion of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) by macrophages were enhanced in hydrogels with the highest residual content of ECM biomolecules. The results of this work evidenced the role of the ECM molecules remaining after both decellularization and hydrolysis steps to produce tissue derived hydrogels with structure and properties tailored to enhance their performance in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical properties and structure of fine core-shell particles used as packing materials for chromatography Relationships between particle characteristics and column performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Leonardis, Irene; Abia, Jude; Guiochon, Georges

    2010-06-11

    The recent development of new brands of packing materials made of fine porous-shell particles, e.g., Halo and Kinetex, has brought great improvements in potential column efficiency, demanding considerable progress in the design of chromatographic instruments. Columns packed with Halo and Kinetex particles provide minimum values of their reduced plate heights of nearly 1.5 and 1.2, respectively. These packing materials have physical properties that set them apart from conventional porous particles. The kinetic performance of 4.6mm I.D. columns packed with these two new materials is analyzed based on the results of a series of nine independent and complementary experiments: low-temperature nitrogen adsorption (LTNA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inverse size-exclusion chromatography (ISEC), Coulter counter particle size distributions, pycnometry, height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP), peak parking method (PP), total pore blocking method (TPB), and local electrochemical detection across the column exit section (LED). The results of this work establish links between the physical properties of these superficially porous particles and the excellent kinetic performance of columns packed with them. It clarifies the fundamental origin of the difference in the chromatographic performances of the Halo and the Kinetex columns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation, microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm(Co,Hf){sub 7}/Co nanocomposite particles by polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Shao-Jing; Duan, Xiu-Li; Han, Xu-Hao; Sun, Ji-Bing, E-mail: hbgdsjb@126.com; Chi, Xiang; Cui, Chun-Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Hard/soft Sm-Co/Co nanocomposite particles were prepared by reducing CoCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O in the solution containing ball-milled Sm(Co, Hf){sub 7} particles by a simple polyol method with ethylene glycol as the solvent. Phase composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of the particles were analyzed by XRD, TEM (HRTEM) and VSM, respectively. It has been found that Sm-Co/Co core/shell structure is formed in which the Co shell is 3–5 nm in thickness and mainly exists in hcp-Co phase. At the same time, fcc-Co tends to nucleate and grow independently between Sm-Co particles. The formation mechanism of Sm-Co/Co composite particles is discussed and corresponding model is established. Sm-Co/Co composite particles perform obvious remanence enhancement effects especially after being heated at 450 °C for 15 min.

  2. Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie, E-mail: cytsay@fcu.edu.tw; Huang, Tzu-Teng

    2013-06-15

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transparent semiconductor thin films were prepared by KrF excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films. Each as-coated film was dried at 150 °C in air and then annealed using excimer laser irradiation. The influence of laser irradiation energy density on surface conditions, optical transmittances, and electrical properties of laser annealed IGZO thin films were investigated, and the physical properties of the excimer laser annealed (ELA) and the thermally annealed (TA) thin films were compared. Experimental results showed that two kinds of surface morphology resulted from excimer laser annealing. Irradiation with a lower energy density (≤250 mJ cm{sup −2}) produced wavy and irregular surfaces, while irradiation with a higher energy density (≥350 mJ cm{sup −2}) produced flat and dense surfaces consisting of uniform nano-sized amorphous particles. The explanation for the differences in surface features and film quality is that using laser irradiation energy to form IGZO thin films improves the film density and removes organic constituents. The dried IGZO sol–gel films irradiated with a laser energy density of 350 mJ/cm{sup 2} had the best physical properties of all the ELA IGZO thin films. The mean resistivity of the ELA 350 thin films (4.48 × 10{sup 3} Ω cm) was lower than that of TA thin films (1.39 × 10{sup 4} Ω cm), and the average optical transmittance in the visible range (90.2%) of the ELA 350 thin films was slightly higher than that of TA thin films (89.7%). - Highlights: • IGZO semiconductor films were prepared by laser annealing of sol–gel derived films. • Surface roughness and resistivity of ELA samples were affected by energy density. • The ELA 350 IGZO film exhibited the best properties among all of ELA IGZO films. • Transmittance and resistivity of ELA 350 films are greater than those of TA films.

  3. Mechanical and thermal properties of environmentally friendly composites derived from sugar palm tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahari, J.; Sapuan, S.M.; Zainudin, E.S.; Maleque, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We successfully developed biocomposites derived from sugar palm tree. ► The addition of SPF improve the mechanical properties of biocomposites. ► The thermal stability of biocomposites increase with increasing of SPF. ► The water absorption of biocomposites decrease with increasing of SPF. ► We investigate the morphological fracture through scanning electron microscopy. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the effect of fibre content on mechanical properties, water absorption behaviour and thermal properties of sugar palm fibre (SPF) reinforced plasticized sugar palm starch (SPF/SPS) biocomposites. The biocomposites were prepared with different amounts of fibres (i.e. 10%, 20% and 30% by weight percent) by using glycerol as plasticizer for the starch. The mechanical properties of plasticized SPS improved with the incorporation of fibres. Fibre loading also increased the thermal stability of the biocomposite in this investigation. Water uptake and moisture content of SPF/SPS biocomposites decreased with the incorporation of fibres, which is due to better interfacial bonding between the matrix and fibres as well as the hindrance to absorption caused by the fibres. Fractographic studies through scanning electron microscopy showed homogeneous distribution of fibres and matrix with good adhesion which play an important role in improving the mechanical properties of biocomposites

  4. The effect of SiC particle size on the properties of Cu–SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celebi Efe, G.; Zeytin, S.; Bindal, C.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The relative densities of Cu–SiC composites sintered at 700 °C for 2 h are ranged from 97.3% to 91.8% for SiC with 1 μm particle size and 97.5% to 95.2% for SiC with 5 μm particle size, microhardness of composites ranged from 143 to 167 HV for SiC having 1 μm particle size and 156–182 HVN for SiC having 5 μm particle size and the electrical conductivity of composites changed between 85.9% IACS and 55.7% IACS for SiC with 1 μm particle size, 87.9% IACS and 65.2%IACS for SiC with 5 μm particle size. It was found that electrical conductivity of composites containing SiC with 5 μm particle size is better than that of Cu–SiC composites containing SiC with particle size of 1 μm. Highlights: ► In this research, the effect of SiC particle size on some properties of Cu–SiC composites were investigated. ► The mechanical properties were improved. ► The electrical properties were obtained at desirable level. -- Abstract: SiC particulate-reinforced copper composites were prepared by powder metallurgy (PM) method and conventional atmospheric sintering. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used to characterize the sintered composites. The effect of SiC content and particle size on the relative density, hardness and electrical conductivity of composites were investigated. The relative densities of Cu–SiC composites sintered at 700 °C for 2 h are ranged from 97.3% to 91.8% for SiC with 1 μm particle size and from 97.5% to 95.2% for SiC with 5 μm particle size. Microhardness of composites ranged from 143 to 167 HV for SiC having 1 μm particle size and from 156 to 182 HV for SiC having 5 μm particle size. The electrical conductivity of composites changed between 85.9% IACS and 55.7% IACS for SiC with 1 μm particle size, between 87.9% IACS and 65.2% IACS for SiC with 5 μm particle size.

  5. Graphene derivatives/Fe_3O_4/polymer nanocomposite films: Optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatel, Rhizlane; Goumri, Meryem; Ratier, Bernard; Baitoul, Mimouna

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a simple solution casting method for the preparation of nanocomposite films in which graphene oxide (GO)/Fe_3O_4 nanocomposites are incorporated into poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. The films obtained with different weight percent of GO/Fe_3O_4 (0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt%) are subjected an in situ chemical and thermal reduction in order to explore the evolution and interactions between these components under different treatments and get an insight into on how this can affects the optical and electrical properties of these nanocomposites. Characterization was carried out using, UV–Vis absorption, Photoluminescence, electrical conductivity measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. Strong covalent functionalization occurs between the polymer and graphene derivatives (GD)/Fe_3O_4 hybrids. The experimental results obtained for our nanocomposites films exhibit significant enhancement in properties highlighted the efficiency of the in situ thermal reduction. The high absorption with strong photoluminescence and electrical conductivity achieved might promote these nanocomposites for opto-electronic devices in near future. - Highlights: • Novel inorganic-organic hybrid flexible films were successfully prepared. • Good interfacial interaction between the graphene/Fe_3O_4 and the hydroxyl-rich PVA. • Optical and electrical properties of Graphene Derivatives/Fe_3O_4/PVA were investigated. • Thermally reduced GO/Fe_3O_4/PVA films show high absorption and strong photoluminescence.

  6. Functional Properties of Human Stem Cell-Derived Neurons in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Weick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-derived neurons from various source materials present unique model systems to examine the fundamental properties of central nervous system (CNS development as well as the molecular underpinnings of disease phenotypes. In order to more accurately assess potential therapies for neurological disorders, multiple strategies have been employed in recent years to produce neuronal populations that accurately represent in vivo regional and transmitter phenotypes. These include new technologies such as direct conversion of somatic cell types into neurons and glia which may accelerate maturation and retain genetic hallmarks of aging. In addition, novel forms of genetic manipulations have brought human stem cells nearly on par with those of rodent with respect to gene targeting. For neurons of the CNS, the ultimate phenotypic characterization lies with their ability to recapitulate functional properties such as passive and active membrane characteristics, synaptic activity, and plasticity. These features critically depend on the coordinated expression and localization of hundreds of ion channels and receptors, as well as scaffolding and signaling molecules. In this review I will highlight the current state of knowledge regarding functional properties of human stem cell-derived neurons, with a primary focus on pluripotent stem cells. While significant advances have been made, critical hurdles must be overcome in order for this technology to support progression toward clinical applications.

  7. Optical properties of new 5-(4-phenylethynyl)-substituted-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Juliette; Aronica, Christophe; Boeuf, Gaelle; Chauvin, Jerome; Moreau, Juliette; Lemercier, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and optical properties of a novel family of 5-substituted-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives are reported herein. One carbon-carbon triple-bond function was introduced using a Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The effects on optical properties, of the substitution with electro-withdrawing or -donating substituents in the 5th position of the 1,10-phenanthroline are investigated. Experimental chemical structure-polarisability relationship is analyzed according to the Lippert-Mataga correlation and compared to a theoretical study carried out with DFT calculations. These compounds are promising candidates for a fine-tuning of the internal charge-transfers but also as potential nonlinear chromophores and ligands within multifunctional coordination complexes. - Highlights: → Synthesis and optical properties of new 5-substituted-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives. → Sonogashira reaction was used for the substitution. → Structure-polarisability relationship analyzed according to Lippert-Mataga correlation. → Theoretical study was carried out with DFT calculations. → Fine-tuning of the internal charge-transfers within nonlinear compounds.

  8. Electrophysiological properties of neurosensory progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Needham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In severe cases of sensorineural hearing loss where the numbers of auditory neurons are significantly depleted, stem cell-derived neurons may provide a potential source of replacement cells. The success of such a therapy relies upon producing a population of functional neurons from stem cells, to enable precise encoding of sound information to the brainstem. Using our established differentiation assay to produce sensory neurons from human stem cells, patch-clamp recordings indicated that all neurons examined generated action potentials and displayed both transient sodium and sustained potassium currents. Stem cell-derived neurons reliably entrained to stimuli up to 20 pulses per second (pps, with 50% entrainment at 50 pps. A comparison with cultured primary auditory neurons indicated similar firing precision during low-frequency stimuli, but significant differences after 50 pps due to differences in action potential latency and width. The firing properties of stem cell-derived neurons were also considered relative to time in culture (31–56 days and revealed no change in resting membrane potential, threshold or firing latency over time. Thus, while stem cell-derived neurons did not entrain to high frequency stimulation as effectively as mammalian auditory neurons, their electrical phenotype was stable in culture and consistent with that reported for embryonic auditory neurons.

  9. New Setup of the UAS ALADINA for Measuring Boundary Layer Properties, Atmospheric Particles and Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Bärfuss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The unmanned research aircraft ALADINA (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting in situ Aerosols has been established as an important tool for boundary layer research. For simplified integration of additional sensor payload, a flexible and reliable data acquisition system was developed at the Institute of Flight Guidance, Technische Universität (TU Braunschweig. The instrumentation consists of sensors for temperature, humidity, three-dimensional wind vector, position, black carbon, irradiance and atmospheric particles in the diameter range of ultra-fine particles up to the accumulation mode. The modular concept allows for straightforward integration and exchange of sensors. So far, more than 200 measurement flights have been performed with the robustly-engineered system ALADINA at different locations. The obtained datasets are unique in the field of atmospheric boundary layer research. In this study, a new data processing method for deriving parameters with fast resolution and to provide reliable accuracies is presented. Based on tests in the field and in the laboratory, the limitations and verifiability of integrated sensors are discussed.

  10. Effect of Particle Size on Mechanical Properties of Sawdust-High Density Polyethylene Composites under Various Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliza Jaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to understand the effect of wood particle size, as it affects the characteristics of wood-based composites. This study considers the effect of wood particle size relative to the dynamic behavior of wood composites. The compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB was introduced to execute dynamic compression testing at the strain rate of 650 s-1, 900 s-1, and 1100 s-1, whereas a conventional universal testing machine (UTM was used to perform static compression testing at the strain rate of 0.1 s-1, 0.01 s-1, and 0.001 s-1 for four different particle sizes (63 µm, 125 µm, 250 µm, and 500 µm. The results showed that mechanical properties of composites were positively affected by the particle sizes, where the smallest particle size gave the highest values compared to the others. Moreover, the particle size also affected the rate sensitivity and the thermal activation volume of sawdust/HDPE, where smaller particles resulted in lower rate sensitivity. For the post-damage analysis, the applied strain rates influenced deformation behavior differently for all particle sizes of the specimens. In a fractographic analysis under dynamic loading, the composites with large particles experienced severe catastrophic deformation and damages compared to the smaller particles.

  11. Synthesis, optical properties and application of a set of novel pyrazole nopinone derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinlai; Xu, Xu; Rui, Jian; Wang, Zhonglong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shifa; Wu, Liangru

    2017-08-01

    Pyrazole derivatives (4-6) were directly synthesized from β-pinene derivative nopinone, and they were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectoscope, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrometry. Their optical properties were investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The three compounds emitted strong blue fluorescence in ethanol. Using a fluorescence quenching method, compound 4 could be used to detect the content (100.57%) of copper sulfate pentahydrate (≥ 99%) with a RSD of 1.98%, y = - 0.1127 × + 2.7148, R2 = 0.9703 (Cu2 +: 0.5-8.0 × 10- 5 mol/L), and compounds 4-6 also had utility of calculating the content of anhydrous ferric chloride at a wide range of concentration. Thus, compounds 4-6 are new functional fluorescents for detecting the content of some purchased products.

  12. Sun and aureole spectrometer for airborne measurements to derive aerosol optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, Hagen; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen

    2004-04-01

    We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct Sun irradiance and aureole radiance. The instrument is based on diffraction grating spectrometers with linear image sensors. It is robust, lightweight, compact, and reliable, characteristics that are important for airborne applications. The multispectral radiation measurements are used to derive optical properties of tropospheric aerosols. We extract the altitude dependence of the aerosol volume scattering function and of the aerosol optical depth by using flight patterns with descents and ascents ranging from the surface level to the top of the boundary layer. The extinction coefficient and the product of single scattering albedo and phase function of separate layers can be derived from the airborne measurements.

  13. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  14. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrices: An Alternative Cell Culture System That Increases Metastatic Cellular Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Scherzer

    Full Text Available Poor survival rates from lung cancer can largely be attributed to metastatic cells that invade and spread throughout the body. The tumor microenvironment (TME is composed of multiple cell types, as well as non-cellular components. The TME plays a critical role in the development of metastatic cancers by providing migratory cues and changing the properties of the tumor cells. The Extracellular Matrix (ECM, a main component of the TME, has been shown to change composition during tumor progression, contributing to cancer cell invasion and survival away from the primary cancer site. Although the ECM is well-known to influence the fate of tumor progression, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that are affected by the cancer cell-ECM interactions. It is imperative that these mechanisms are elucidated in order to properly understand and prevent lung cancer dissemination. However, common in vitro studies do not incorporate these interactions into everyday cell culture assays. We have adopted a model that examines decellularized human fibroblast-derived ECM as a 3-dimensional substrate for growth of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Here, we have characterized the effect of fibroblast-derived matrices on the properties of various lung-derived epithelial cell lines, including cancerous and non-transformed cells. This work highlights the significance of the cell-ECM interaction and its requirement for incorporation into in vitro experiments. Implementation of a fibroblast-derived ECM as an in vitro technique will provide researchers with an important factor to manipulate to better recreate and study the TME.

  15. Preparation and magnetic properties of nano size nickel ferrite particles using hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejati Kamellia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nickel ferrite, a kind of soft magnetic materials is one of the most attracting class of materials due to its interesting and important properties and has many technical applications, such as in catalysis, sensors and so on. In this paper the synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles by the hydrothermal method is reported and the inhibition of surfactant (Glycerol or Sodium dodecyl sulfate on the particles growth is investigated. Methods For investigation of the inhibition effect of surfactant on NiFe2O4 particles growth, the samples were prepared in presence of Glycerol and Sodium dodecyl sulfate. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES techniques were used to characterize the samples. Results The results of XRD and ICP-AES show that the products were pure NiFe2O4 and also nanoparticles grow with increasing the temperature, while surfactant prevents the particle growth under the same condition. The average particle size was determined from the Scherrer's equation and TEM micrographs and found to be in the range of 50-60 nm that decreased up to 10-15 nm in presence of surfactant. The FT-IR results show two absorption bands near to 603 and 490 cm-1 for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites respectively. Furthermore, the saturated magnetization and coercivity of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 39.60 emu/g and 15.67 Qe that decreased for samples prepared in presence of surfactant. As well as, the nanoparticles exhibited a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Conclusions Nanosized nickel ferrite particles were synthesized with and without surfactant assisted hydrothermal methods. The results show that with increasing of temperature, the crystallinity of nanoparticles is increased. In the presence of surfactants, the crystallinity of

  16. Production of bone cement composites: effect of fillers, co-monomer and particles properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, J.G.F.; Melo, P.A.; Pinto, J.C., E-mail: jjunior@peq.coppe.ufrj.b, E-mail: melo@peq.coppe.ufrj.b, E-mail: pinto@peq.coppe.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. (PEQ/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Pita, V.J.R.R., E-mail: vjpita@ima.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa Mano; Nele, M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2011-04-15

    Artificial bone cements (BCs) based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) powders and methyl methacrylate (MMA) liquid monomer also present in their formulation small amounts of other substances, including a chemical initiator compound and radiopaque agents. Because inadequate mixing of the recipe components during the manufacture of the bone cement may compromise the mechanical properties of the final pieces, new techniques to incorporate the fillers into the BC and their effect upon the mechanical properties of BC pieces were investigated in the present study. PMMA powder composites were produced in situ in the reaction vessel by addition of X-ray contrasts to the reacting MMA mixture. It is shown that this can lead to much better mechanical properties of test pieces, when compared to standard bone cement formulations, because enhanced dispersion of the radiopaque agents can be achieved. Moreover, it is shown that the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and acrylic acid (AA) to the bone cement recipe can be beneficial for the mechanical performance of the final material. It is also shown that particle morphology can exert a tremendous effect upon the performance of test pieces, indicating that the suspension polymerization step should be carefully controlled when optimization of the bone cement formulation is desired. (author)

  17. Production of bone cement composites: effect of fillers, co-monomer and particles properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. F. Santos Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bone cements (BCs based on poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA powders and methyl methacrylate (MMA liquid monomer also present in their formulation small amounts of other substances, including a chemical initiator compound and radiopaque agents. Because inadequate mixing of the recipe components during the manufacture of the bone cement may compromise the mechanical properties of the final pieces, new techniques to incorporate the fillers into the BC and their effect upon the mechanical properties of BC pieces were investigated in the present study. PMMA powder composites were produced in-situ in the reaction vessel by addition of X-ray contrasts to the reacting MMA mixture. It is shown that this can lead to much better mechanical properties of test pieces, when compared to standard bone cement formulations, because enhanced dispersion of the radiopaque agents can be achieved. Moreover, it is shown that the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA and acrylic acid (AA to the bone cement recipe can be beneficial for the mechanical performance of the final material. It is also shown that particle morphology can exert a tremendous effect upon the performance of test pieces, indicating that the suspension polymerization step should be carefully controlled when optimization of the bone cement formulation is desired.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of the plant growth regulator property of indolic compounds derived from safrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchi, Irineu; Rebelo, Ricardo Andrade; Rosa, Flavia A. Fernandes da; Maiochi, Riceli A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes the use of piperonal, a derivative of the secondary metabolite safrole, for the synthesis of new 5,6-methylenedioxy substituted indole carboxylic acids structurally related to the indol-3-yl-acetic acid (AIA, I). The route comprises six steps beginning with piperonal with an overall yield of 19%. Compound IX was tested towards its plant growth regulator properties in bioassays specific for auxine activity. The in vitro assays were performed in a germination chamber and were of two types: root growth in germinated seeds of Lactuca sativa, Cucumbis sativus and Raphanus sativus and peciole biotest using Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  19. Design and study of some novel ibuprofen derivatives with potential nootropic and neuroprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskou, Ioanna C; Rekka, Eleni A; Kourounakis, Angeliki P; Chrysselis, Michael C; Tsiakitzis, Kariofyllis; Kourounakis, Panos N

    2007-01-15

    Six novel ibuprofen derivatives and related structures, incorporating a proline moiety and designed for neurodegenerative disorders, are studied. They possess anti-inflammatory properties and three of them inhibited lipoxygenase. One compound was found to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 production in spleenocytes from arthritic rats. The HS-containing compounds are potent antioxidants and one of them protected against glutathione loss after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. They demonstrated lipid-lowering ability and seem to acquire low gastrointestinal toxicity. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, found in two of these compounds, may be an asset to their actions.

  20. Bisacenaphthopyrazinoquinoxaline derivatives: Synthesis, physical properties and applications as semiconductors for n-channel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Chenhua

    2013-01-01

    Several bisacenaphthopyrazinoquinoxaline (BAPQ) based derivatives 1-3 were synthesized by condensation between the acenaphthenequinones and 1,2,4,5-tetraaminobenzene tetrahydrochloride. Their optical, electrochemical and self-assembling properties are tuned by different substituents. Among them, compound 3 possesses a homogeneously distributed low-lying LUMO due to the peripheral substitution with four cyano groups. The corresponding n-channel field effect transistors showed a field effect electron mobility of 5 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Heavy metal toxicity and bioavailability of dissolved nutrients to a bacterivorous flagellate are linked to suspended particle physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenigk, Jens; Wiedlroither, Anneliese; Pfandl, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Many dissolved substances attach easily to sediment particles. In the presence of suspended sediments bioavailability of dissolved substances is therefore, usually reduced and clays are even applied to 'wash' natural waters upon pollution. In organisms which feed on food organisms in the size range of these suspended sediment particles, however, bioavailability of such substances may even increase. For microorganisms the interaction with dissolved substances and suspended sediment particles so far has hardly been investigated. We specifically tested: (1) the importance of suspended particles as an uptake route for dissolved substances; and (2) the significance of particle surface properties, i.e. surface load and mineralogy. As a model system we used an axenically cultured strain of a widespread and often abundant flagellate ('Spumella-like' flagellate strain JBM10). We tested the toxicity of cadmium (II) and mercury (II) as well as availability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the absence as well as in the presence of different natural clays, i.e. a kaolinite, a montmorillonite, and a mixed clay, and of artificial silicate particles of different surface charge. When applied separately the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury as well as of suspended particles negatively affected the investigated flagellate but nutritive organics supported growth of the investigated flagellate. Toxic stress response comprises behavioral changes including enhanced swimming activity and stress egestion of ingested particles and was generally similar for a variety of different flagellate species. In combination with suspended particles, the respective effect of trace metals and nutritive substances decreased. Regarding the particle quality, cadmium toxicity increased with increasingly negative surface charge, i.e. increasing surface density of silanol groups (Pearson's product moment, P = 0.005). For mercury particle mineralogy still had a significant effect (P < 0

  2. The gauge properties of the dual model pomeron-reggeon vertex their derivation and their consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Brink, L; Scherk, J

    1973-01-01

    Study of the non-planar orientable single dual loop diagrams in 26 space-time dimensions has revealed an infinite positive-definite spectrum of 'pomeron' intermediate states which couple to reggeons via a bilinear pomeron-reggeon vertex operator. General algebraic techniques are developed to derive the behaviour of this vertex with respect to the Visasoro gauge operators. A reflection and transmission behaviour is found, reminiscent of the behaviour of a wave incident at the interface between two different media (in this case reggeonic and pomeronic). These gauge properties are such as to guarantee the desired 'good properties', namely completeness of the transverse reggeon states when coupled between physical reggeon states on one side, and on the other side, either physical pomeron states or else physical reggeon states created via an intermediate pomeron. This is yet another example of the amazing and gratifying self-consistency of the dual model with respect to duality, transversality and unitarity. (13 r...

  3. Effect of weak nonsphericity on linear and nonlinear optical properties of small particle composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, A.V.; Popelnukh, V.V.; Venger, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    A small particle composite in which the inclusions are slightly nonspherical and distributed in shape is considered. Within the framework of the mean-field approximation, the functions of linear and nonlinear optical responses are calculated in terms of a nonsphericity parameter specifying the width of the distribution function in shape. To estimate the effect of weak nonsphericity on the functions, their second derivatives with respect to the nonsphericity parameter are computed. The derivatives are shown to be complexly structured surfaces in the coordinates (Re(ε i /ε m ), Im(ε i /ε m )), where ε i and ε m are the inclusion and matrix permittivity, respectively. Based on the results obtained, applicability area of the classical Maxwell Garnett theory is discussed. The main conclusion is that weak nonsphericity is significant only in the close vicinity of a dipole resonance of a single ball made of inclusion material. At the same time, the role of nonsphericity increases with decreasing the imaginary part of inclusion permittivity. (author)

  4. Two-particle irreducible effective actions versus resummation: Analytic properties and self-consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximations based on two-particle irreducible (2PI effective actions (also known as Φ-derivable, Cornwall–Jackiw–Tomboulis or Luttinger–Ward functionals depending on context have been widely used in condensed matter and non-equilibrium quantum/statistical field theory because this formalism gives a robust, self-consistent, non-perturbative and systematically improvable approach which avoids problems with secular time evolution. The strengths of 2PI approximations are often described in terms of a selective resummation of Feynman diagrams to infinite order. However, the Feynman diagram series is asymptotic and summation is at best a dangerous procedure. Here we show that, at least in the context of a toy model where exact results are available, the true strength of 2PI approximations derives from their self-consistency rather than any resummation. This self-consistency allows truncated 2PI approximations to capture the branch points of physical amplitudes where adjustments of coupling constants can trigger an instability of the vacuum. This, in effect, turns Dyson's argument for the failure of perturbation theory on its head. As a result we find that 2PI approximations perform better than Padé approximation and are competitive with Borel–Padé resummation. Finally, we introduce a hybrid 2PI–Padé method.

  5. Interfacial effect on physical properties of composite media: Interfacial volume fraction with non-spherical hard-core-soft-shell-structured particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenxiang; Duan, Qinglin; Ma, Huaifa; Chen, Wen; Chen, Huisu

    2015-11-02

    Interfaces are known to be crucial in a variety of fields and the interfacial volume fraction dramatically affects physical properties of composite media. However, it is an open problem with great significance how to determine the interfacial property in composite media with inclusions of complex geometry. By the stereological theory and the nearest-surface distribution functions, we first propose a theoretical framework to symmetrically present the interfacial volume fraction. In order to verify the interesting generalization, we simulate three-phase composite media by employing hard-core-soft-shell structures composed of hard mono-/polydisperse non-spherical particles, soft interfaces, and matrix. We numerically derive the interfacial volume fraction by a Monte Carlo integration scheme. With the theoretical and numerical results, we find that the interfacial volume fraction is strongly dependent on the so-called geometric size factor and sphericity characterizing the geometric shape in spite of anisotropic particle types. As a significant interfacial property, the present theoretical contribution can be further drawn into predicting the effective transport properties of composite materials.

  6. Hygroscopic properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the boreal forest: diurnal variation, solubility and the influence of sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ehn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles present in a boreal forest was measured at a relative humidity of 88%. Simultaneously the gas phase concentration of sulfuric acid, a very hygroscopic compound, was monitored. The focus was mainly on days with new particle formation by nucleation. The measured hygroscopic growth factors (GF correlated positively with the gaseous phase sulfuric acid concentrations. The smaller the particles, the stronger the correlation, with r=0.20 for 50 nm and r=0.50 for 10 nm particles. The increase in GF due to condensing sulfuric acid is expected to be larger for particles with initially smaller masses. During new particle formation, the changes in solubility of the new particles were calculated during their growth to Aitken mode sizes. As the modal diameter increased, the solubility of the particles decreased. This indicated that the initial particle growth was due to more hygroscopic compounds, whereas the later growth during the evening and night was mainly caused by less hygroscopic or even hydrophobic compounds. For all the measured sizes, a diurnal variation in GF was observed both during days with and without particle formation. The GF was lowest at around midnight, with a mean value of 1.12–1.24 depending on particle size and if new particle formation occurred during the day, and increased to 1.25–1.34 around noon. This can be tentatively explained by day- and nighttime gas-phase chemistry; different vapors will be present depending on the time of day, and through condensation these compounds will alter the hygroscopic properties of the particles in different ways.

  7. Mechanical and thermal properties of bio-composites based on polypropylene reinforced with Nut-shells of Argan particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essabir, H.; Hilali, E.; Elgharad, A.; El Minor, H.; Imad, A.; Elamraoui, A.; Al Gaoudi, O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nuts-shells of Argan particles are used as reinforcement in thermoplastic matrix. ► Particles are homogeneously dispersed and distributed within PP matrix. ► Mechanical and thermal characterization of the composite are applied. ► Particles–matrix adhesion was assured by the use of a SBS compatibilizer. - Abstract: This study treats the combined effects of both particle sizes and particle loading on the mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) composites reinforced with Nut-shells of Argan (NA) particles. Three range sizes of particles were used in the presence of a polypropylene matrix grafted with 8 wt.% of a linear block copolymer based on styrene and butadiene coupling agent, to improve adhesion between the particles and the matrix. The composites were prepared through melt-blending using an internal mixer and the tensile specimens were prepared using a hot press molding machine. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and tensile tests were employed to characterize the composites at 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt.% particle contents. Results show a clear improvement in Young’s modulus from the use of particles when compared to the neat PP, a gain of 42.65%, 26.7% and 2.9% at 20 wt.% particle loading, for particle range 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In addition a notable increase in the Young’s modulus was observed when decrease the particle size. The thermal stability of composites exhibits a slight decrease (256–230 °C) with particles loading from 10 to 25 wt.%, against neat PP (258 °C)

  8. Experimental investigation of the effect of inlet particle properties on the capture efficiency in an exhaust particulate filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Sandeep; Rothamer, David; Zelenyuk, Alla; Stewart, Mark; Bell, David

    2017-11-01

    The impact of inlet particle properties on the filtration performance of clean and particulate matter (PM) laden cordierite filter samples was evaluated using PM generated by a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine fuelled with tier II EEE certification gasoline. Prior to the filtration experiments, a scanning mobility particle spectrometer (SMPS) was used to measure the electrical-mobility based particle size distribution (PSD) in the SIDI exhaust from distinct engine operating conditions. An advanced aerosol characterization system that comprised of a centrifugal particle mass analyser (CPMA), a differential mobility analyser (DMA), and a single particle mass spectrometer (SPLAT II) was used to obtain additional information on the SIDI particulate, including particle composition, mass, and dynamic shape factors (DSFs) in the transition () and free-molecular () flow regimes. During the filtration experiments, real-time measurements of PSDs upstream and downstream of the filter sample were used to estimate the filtration performance and the total trapped mass within the filter using an integrated particle size distribution method. The filter loading process was paused multiple times to evaluate the filtration performance in the partially loaded state. The change in vacuum aerodynamic diameter () distribution of mass-selected particles was examined for flow through the filter to identify whether preferential capture of particles of certain shapes occurred in the filter. The filter was also probed using different inlet PSDs to understand their impact on particle capture within the filter sample. Results from the filtration experiment suggest that pausing the filter loading process and subsequently performing the filter probing experiments did not impact the overall evolution of filtration performance. Within the present distribution of particle sizes, filter efficiency was independent of particle shape potentially due to the diffusion-dominant filtration

  9. Effect of nanoclay particles on some physical and mechanical properties of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Sharifnasab

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As a mechanical tillage practices on soil preparation improve soil structure, increase in porosity, better distribution of soil aggregates and eventually modify the physical properties of soil. The use of nano-technology in agricultural science and its application in tillage for improving the physical properties and mechanical issues has grown substantially. Nanotechnology is an appropriate way to reduce soil limitations. However the nanoparticles are very small amounts in soil, due to features such as high surface area, surface charge (appearance and sometimes porous nano-engineering of physical-chemical properties of soil are affected significantly (Mohammadi & Niazian, 2013. To use of nanomaterials in the territory of a new issue (Taipodia et al., 2011. Small developments on the use of nanoparticles to improve soil quality and land reform have been taken (Theron et al., 2008. Clay soil was used to enhance the compressive strength (Yonekura & Miwa, 1993. Nanosilica particle effects were examined for increasing resistance against penetration and consolidation (Noll et al., 1992. In 2005, these particles were used to increase adhesion and reduce viscosity. It seemed that the adhesion of the particles was depended on Nanosilica (Mohammadi & Niazian, 2013. The use of nanomaterials showed that the increased pH and soil fertility, improved soil physical structure, and reduced mobility, availability and toxicity of heavy metals and other environmental factors and those that will stabilize the soil components and subsides the erosion in the mining pick, (Lal, 2008. In agriculture, the soil conditioner studies have shown that nanoparticles can mine the soil quality by increasing water-holding capacity, increasing silt and clay and improve levels of nutrients, and eliminate toxins, (Liu and Lal, 2012.In this study, the effect on some physical and mechanical properties of soil contain clay gradation, Atterberg limits, specifications

  10. Comparative study of the performance of columns packed with several new fine silica particles. Would the external roughness of the particles affect column properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2007-09-28

    We measured and compared the characteristics and performance of columns packed with particles of five different C(18)-bonded silica, 3 and 5 microm Luna, 3 microm Atlantis, 3.5 microm Zorbax, and 2.7 microm Halo. The average particle size of each material was derived from the SEM pictures of 200 individual particles. These pictures contrast the irregular morphology of the external surface of the Zorbax and Halo particles and the smooth surface of the Luna and Atlantis particles. In a wide range of mobile phase velocities (from 0.010 to 3 mL/min) and at ambient temperature, we measured the first and second central moments of the peaks of naphthalene, insulin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). These moments were corrected for the contributions of the extra-column volumes to calculate the reduced HETPs. The C-terms of naphthalene and insulin are largest for the Halo and Zorbax materials and the A-term smallest for the Halo-packed column. The Halo column performs the best for the low molecular weight compound naphthalene (minimum reduced HETP, 1.4) but is not as good as the Atlantis or Luna columns for the large molecular weight compound insulin. The Zorbax column is the least efficient column because of its large C-term. The lowest sample diffusivity through these particles, alone, does not account for the results. It is most likely that the roughness of the external surface of the Halo and Zorbax particles limit the performance of these columns at high flow rates generating an unusually high film mass transfer resistance.

  11. Characterizing physical properties and heterogeneous chemistry of single particles in air using optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z.; Wang, C.; Pan, Y. L.; Videen, G.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneous reactions of solid particles in a gaseous environment are of increasing interest; however, most of the heterogeneous chemistry studies of airborne solids were conducted on particle ensembles. A close examination on the heterogeneous chemistry between single particles and gaseous-environment species is the key to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of hydroscopic growth, cloud nuclei condensation, secondary aerosol formation, etc., and reduce the uncertainty of models in radiative forcing, climate change, and atmospheric chemistry. We demonstrate an optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy (OT-RS) system to study the heterogeneous chemistry of the solid particles in air at single-particle level. Compared to other single-particle techniques, optical trapping offers a non-invasive, flexible, and stable method to isolate single solid particle from substrates. Benefited from two counter-propagating hollow beams, the optical trapping configuration is adaptive to trap a variety of particles with different materials from inorganic substitution (carbon nanotubes, silica, etc.) to organic, dye-doped polymers and bioaerosols (spores, pollen, etc.), with different optical properties from transparent to strongly absorbing, with different sizes from sub-micrometers to tens of microns, or with distinct morphologies from loosely packed nanotubes to microspheres and irregular pollen grains. The particles in the optical trap may stay unchanged, surface degraded, or optically fragmented according to different laser intensity, and their physical and chemical properties are characterized by the Raman spectra and imaging system simultaneously. The Raman spectra is able to distinguish the chemical compositions of different particles, while the synchronized imaging system can resolve their physical properties (sizes, shapes, morphologies, etc.). The temporal behavior of the trapped particles also can be monitored by the OT-RS system at an indefinite time with a resolution from

  12. Novel vanillin derivatives: Synthesis, anti-oxidant, DNA and cellular protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, Matteo; Kay, Graeme; Megson, Ian; Kong Thoo Lin, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants have been the subject of intense research interest mainly due to their beneficial properties associated with human health and wellbeing. Phenolic molecules, such as naturally occurring Resveratrol and Vanillin, are well known for their anti-oxidant properties, providing a starting point for the development of new antioxidants. Here we report, for the first time, the synthesis of a number of new vanillin through the reductive amination reaction between vanillin and a selection of amines. All the compounds synthesised, exhibited strong antioxidant properties in DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays, with compounds 1b and 2c being the most active. The latter also demonstrated the ability to protect plasmid DNA from oxidative damage in the presence of the radical initiator AAPH. At cellular level, neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were protected from oxidative damage (H 2 O 2 , 400 μM) with both 1b and 2c. The presence of a tertiary amino group, along with the number of vanillin moieties in the molecule contribute for the antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the delocalization of the electron pair of the nitrogen and the presence of an electron donating substituent to enhance the antioxidant properties of this new class of compounds. In our opinion, vanillin derivatives 1b and 2c described in this work can provide a viable platform for the development of antioxidant based therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of fast particles' irradiation on electrooptical properties of GaP LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontaruk, O.; Kovalenko, A.; Malyj, E.; Petrenko, I.; Pinkovska, M.; Polivtcev, L.; Tartachnyk, V.

    2013-01-01

    The electrooptical properties of industrial AL 102 GaP light-emitting diodes (LEDs) irradiated with fast particles have been studied. 2 MeV electrons and fast reactor neutrons were used and devices' microplsma emitting, current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics were measured. It was shown that electron irradiation in the range (2-5)10 16 cm -2 leads to the drop of microplasma emitting intensity, decrease of capacity and reverse currents and increase of reverse bias. The annealing study of current-voltage characteristics after neutron irradiation of diodes confirms the assumption about prevailing radiation influence on diode base due to induce of deep levels. (authors)

  14. Effect of Modified Rubber Particles Mixing Amount on Properties of Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crumb rubber cement mortar is prepared by the crumb rubber aggregates in 60 mesh which are modified by 1% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA solution. Some mechanical properties of cement mortar with different crumb rubber aggregate amounts are researched including compressive strength, flexural strength, the ratio of compressive strength to flexural strength, impact resistance, and dry contraction percentage. In our tests, we consider six kinds of the rubber contents, 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 19%, 22.5%, and 30%, respectively. The optimal mixing amount of crumb rubber is determined by measuring three indices, the ratio of compressive strength to flexural strength, impact resistance, and dry contraction percentage. It is shown by test that the ratio of compressive strength to flexural strength is the smallest when the mixing amount of rubber is 19%; meanwhile high impact resistance and rational drying shrinkage are observed. The optimal mixing amount of the rubber particles is 19% determined by this test.

  15. Properties of amorphous silicon thin films synthesized by reactive particle beam assisted chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Gyu; Wang, Seok-Joo; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Jang, Jin-Nyoung; Hong, MunPyo; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous silicon thin films were formed by chemical vapor deposition of reactive particle beam assisted inductively coupled plasma type with various reflector bias voltages. During the deposition, the substrate was heated at 150 o C. The effects of reflector bias voltage on the physical and chemical properties of the films were systematically studied. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results showed that the deposited films were amorphous and the films under higher reflector voltage had higher internal energy to be easily crystallized. The chemical state of amorphous silicon films was revealed as metallic bonding of Si atoms by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An increase in reflector voltage induced an increase of surface morphology of films and optical bandgap and a decrease of photoconductivity.

  16. Investigating fundamental properties of wind turbine wake structure using particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whale, J. [Univ. of Edinburgh, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    Low Reynolds number flow visualization tests are often used for showing the flow pattern changes associated with changes in lift-coefficients at a higher Reynolds number. In wind turbine studies, analysis of measured wake structures at small scale may reveal fundamental properties of the wake which will offer wake modellers a more complete understanding of rotor flows. Measurements are presented from experiments on a model wind turbine rig conducted in a water channel. The laser-optics technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to make simultaneous multi-point measurements of the wake flow behind small-scale rotors. Analysis of the PIV data shows trends in velocity and vorticity structure in the wake. Study of the flow close to the rotor plane reveals information on stalled flow and blade performance. (au)

  17. THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE LASER CLAD COATINGS WITH Ni BASED MATRIX WITH WC PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Iždinská

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of the processing conditions on the microstructure and abrasive wear behavior of composite laser clad coatings with Ni based matrix reinforced with 50% WC particles is analyzed. Composite powder was applied in the form of coatings onto a mild steel substrate (Fe–0.17% C by different laser powers and cladding speeds. The microstructure of the coatings was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Tribological properties of coatings were evaluated by pin-on-disc wear test. It appeared that the hardness of the matrix of composite coatings decreases with increasing cladding speed. However, wear resistance of composite coatings with decreasing hardness of Ni based matrix increases. Significantly enhanced wear resistance of WC composite coatings in comparison with Ni based coatings is attributed to the hard phase structures in composite coatings.

  18. Inverse Estimation of Surface Radiation Properties Using Repulsive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyun Ho [Sejong University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Wan [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The heat transfer mechanism for radiation is directly related to the emission of photons and electromagnetic waves. Depending on the participation of the medium, the radiation can be classified into two forms: surface and gas radiation. In the present study, unknown radiation properties were estimated using an inverse boundary analysis of surface radiation in an axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure. For efficiency, a repulsive particle swarm optimization (RPSO) algorithm, which is a relatively recent heuristic search method, was used as inverse solver. By comparing the convergence rates and accuracies with the results of a genetic algorithm (GA), the performances of the proposed RPSO algorithm as an inverse solver was verified when applied to the inverse analysis of the surface radiation problem.

  19. Inverse Estimation of Surface Radiation Properties Using Repulsive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyun Ho; Kim, Ki Wan

    2014-01-01

    The heat transfer mechanism for radiation is directly related to the emission of photons and electromagnetic waves. Depending on the participation of the medium, the radiation can be classified into two forms: surface and gas radiation. In the present study, unknown radiation properties were estimated using an inverse boundary analysis of surface radiation in an axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure. For efficiency, a repulsive particle swarm optimization (RPSO) algorithm, which is a relatively recent heuristic search method, was used as inverse solver. By comparing the convergence rates and accuracies with the results of a genetic algorithm (GA), the performances of the proposed RPSO algorithm as an inverse solver was verified when applied to the inverse analysis of the surface radiation problem

  20. Influence of particle surface properties on the dielectric behavior of silica/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lihong; Zheng Liaoying; Li Guorong; Zeng Jiangtao; Yin Qingrui

    2008-01-01

    Silica/epoxy composites have been widely used in functional electric device applications. Silica nanoparticles, both unmodified and modified with the coupling agent KH-550, were used to prepare epoxy composites. Dielectric measurements showed that nanocomposites exhibit a higher dielectric constant than the control sample, and had more obvious dielectric relaxation characteristics. Results showed that particle surface properties have a profound effect on the dielectric behavior of the nanocomposites. These characteristics are attributed to the local ununiformity of the microstructure caused by the large interface area and the interaction between the filler and the matrix. This phenomenon is explained in terms of prolonging chemical chains created during the curing process. The mechanism is discussed with measurements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)

  1. Preparation and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Mg-Rich Mg-Ni Ultrafine Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Mg-rich Mg-Ni ultrafine powders were prepared through an arc plasma method. The phase components, microstructure, and hydrogen storage properties of the powders were carefully investigated. It is found that Mg2Ni and MgNi2 could be obtained directly from the vapor state reactions between Mg and Ni, depending on the local vapor content in the reaction chamber. A nanostructured MgH2 + Mg2NiH4 hydrogen storage composite could be generated after hydrogenation of the Mg-Ni ultrafine powders. After dehydrogenation, MgH2 and Mg2NiH4 decomposed into nanograined Mg and Mg2Ni, respectively. Thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC analyses showed that Mg2NiH4 phase may play a catalytic role in the dehydriding process of the hydrogenated Mg ultrafine particles.

  2. The effect of particle properties on the depth profile of buoyant plastics in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Merel; Reisser, Julia; Slat, Boyan; Ferrari, Francesco F.; Schmid, Moritz S.; Cunsolo, Serena; Brambini, Roberto; Noble, Kimberly; Sirks, Lys-Anne; Linders, Theo E. W.; Schoeneich-Argent, Rosanna I.; Koelmans, Albert A.

    2016-10-01

    Most studies on buoyant microplastics in the marine environment rely on sea surface sampling. Consequently, microplastic amounts can be underestimated, as turbulence leads to vertical mixing. Models that correct for vertical mixing are based on limited data. In this study we report measurements of the depth profile of buoyant microplastics in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, from 0 to 5 m depth. Microplastics were separated into size classes (0.5-1.5 and 1.5-5.0 mm) and types (‘fragments’ and ‘lines’), and associated with a sea state. Microplastic concentrations decreased exponentially with depth, with both sea state and particle properties affecting the steepness of the decrease. Concentrations approached zero within 5 m depth, indicating that most buoyant microplastics are present on or near the surface. Plastic rise velocities were also measured, and were found to differ significantly for different sizes and shapes. Our results suggest that (1) surface samplers such as manta trawls underestimate total buoyant microplastic amounts by a factor of 1.04-30.0 and (2) estimations of depth-integrated buoyant plastic concentrations should be done across different particle sizes and types. Our findings can assist with improving buoyant ocean plastic vertical mixing models, mass balance exercises, impact assessments and mitigation strategies.

  3. Effect of carbide particles on the ablation properties of tungsten composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Guiming; Zhou Yu; Wang Yujin

    2003-01-01

    The high temperature ablation behavior of tungsten composites containing carbides produced by vacuum hot pressing is studied as a function of reinforcement chemistry (ZrC and TiC) and content using a self-made oxyacetylene ablation equipment. A dynamic responding multiwavelength pyrometer was employed to measure the temperature of the ablation surface, and a thermocouple was employed to measure the temperature of the back surface during the time that a specimen was being ablated. The mass and linear ablation rates are lower in composites containing ZrC, decreasing with increasing particle content in both composites system. The values of the mass and linear ablation rates were in the order from high to low: W>30TiC/W>40TiC/W>30ZrC/W>40ZrC/W (30TiC/W stands for 30 vol.% TiC particle content in the W matrix, the same below). The important temperature curves of the ablation surfaces of specimens were successfully detected online. Ablated surfaces and vertical sections of the specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermochemical oxidation of tungsten, TiC, and ZrC was the main ablation mechanism of ZrC/W and TiC/W composites. These ablation behaviors are discussed based on the thermophysical and chemical properties of both the composite systems

  4. Properties of Arctic Aerosol Particles and Residuals of Warm Clouds: Cloud Activation Efficiency and the Aerosol Indirect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Imre, D. G.; Leaitch, R.; Ovchinnikov, M.; Liu, P.; Macdonald, A.; Strapp, W.; Ghan, S. J.; Earle, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II, was used to characterize the size, composition, number concentration, density, and shape of individual Arctic spring aerosol. Background particles, particles above and below the cloud, cloud droplet residuals, and interstitial particles were characterized with goal to identify the properties that separate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from background aerosol particles. The analysis offers a comparison between warm clouds formed on clean and polluted days, with clean days having maximum particle concentrations (Na) lower than ~250 cm-3, as compared with polluted days, in which maximum concentration was tenfold higher. On clean days, particles were composed of organics, organics mixed with sulfates, biomass burning (BB), sea salt (SS), and few soot and dust particles. On polluted days, BB, organics associated with BB, and their mixtures with sulfate dominated particle compositions. Based on the measured compositions and size distributions of cloud droplet residuals, background aerosols, and interstitial particles, we conclude that these three particle types had virtually the same compositions, which means that cloud activation probabilities were surprisingly nearly composition independent. Moreover, these conclusions hold in cases in which less than 20% or more than 90% of background particles got activated. We concluded that for the warm clouds interrogated in this study particle size played a more important factor on aerosol CCN activity. Comparative analysis of all studied clouds reveals that aerosol activation efficiency strongly depends on the aerosol concentrations, such that at Na <200 cm-3, nearly all particles activate, and at higher concentrations the activation efficiency is lower. For example, when Na was greater than 1500 cm-3, less than ~30% of particles activated. The data suggest that as the number of nucleated droplets increases, condensation on existing droplets effectively competes with particle

  5. Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol particles in urban zone during ESCOMPTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Roger, J. C.; Despiau, S.; Dubovik, O.; Putaud, J. P.

    2003-10-01

    Microphysical and optical properties of the main aerosol species on a peri-urban site have been investigated during the ESCOMPTE experiment. Ammonium sulfate (AS), nitrate (N), black carbon (BC), particulate organic matter (POM), sea salt (SS) and mineral aerosol (D) size distributions have been used, associated with their refractive index, to compute, from the Mie theory, the key radiative aerosol properties as the extinction coefficient Kext, the mass extinction efficiencies σext, the single scattering albedo ω0 and the asymmetry parameter g at the wavelength of 550 nm. Optical computations show that 90% of the light extinction is due to anthropogenic aerosol and only 10% is due to natural aerosol (SS and D). 44±6% of the extinction is due to (AS) and 40±6% to carbonaceous particles (20±4% to BC and 21±4% to POM). Nitrate aerosol has a weak contribution of 5±2%. Computations of the mass extinction efficiencies σext, single scattering albedo ω0 and asymmetry parameter g indicate that the optical properties of the anthropogenic aerosol are often quite different from those yet published and generally used in global models. For example, the (AS) mean specific mass extinction presents a large difference with the value classically adopted at low relative humidity ( h<60%) (2.6±0.5 instead of 6 m 2 g -1 at 550 nm). The optical properties of the total aerosol layer, including all the aerosol species, indicate a mean observed single-scattering albedo ω0=0.85±0.05, leading to an important absorption of the solar radiation and an asymmetry parameter g=0.59±0.05 which are in a reasonably good agreements with the AERONET retrieval of ω0 (=0.86±0.05) and g (=0.64±0.05) at this wavelength.

  6. Toxic properties of specific radiation determinant molecules, derived from radiated species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Kedar, Prasad; Casey, Rachael; Jones, Jeffrey

    Introduction: High doses of radiation induce the formation of radiation toxins in the organs of irradiated mammals. After whole body irradiation, cellular macromolecules and cell walls are damaged as a result of long-lived radiation-induced free radicals, reactive oxygen species, and fast, charged particles of radiation. High doses of radiation induce breaks in the chemical bonds of macromolecules and cross-linking reactions via chemically active processes. These processes result in the creation of novel modified macromolecules that possess specific toxic and antigenic properties defined by the type and dose of irradiation by which they are generated. Radiation toxins isolated from the lymph of irradiated animals are classified as hematotoxic, neurotoxic, and enteric non-bacterial (GI) radiation toxins, and they play an important role in the development of hematopoietic, cerebrovascular, and gastrointestinal acute radiation syndromes (ARS). Seven distinct toxins derived from post-irradiated animals have been designated as Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD): SRD-1 (neurotoxic radiation toxin generated by the cerebrovascular form of ARS), SRD-3 (enteric non-bacterial radiation toxins generated by the gastrointestinal form of ARS), and SRD-4 (hematotoxic radiation toxins generated by the hematological, bone marrow form of ARS). SRD-4 is further subdivided into four groups depending on the severity of the ARS induced: SRD-4/1, mild ARS; SRD-4/2, moderate ARS; SRD-4/3, severe ARS; and SRD-4/4, extremely severe ARS. The seventh SRD, SRD-2 is a toxic extract derived from animals suffering from a fourth form of ARS, as described in European literature and produces toxicity primarily in the autonimic nervous system. These radiation toxins have been shown to be responsible for the induction of important pathophysiological, immunological, and biochemical reactions in ARS. Materials and Methods: These studies incorporated the use of statistically significant numbers of a

  7. Properties of K,Rb-intercalated C60 encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes called peapods derived from nuclear magnetic resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Remi; Bouhrara, M.; Kim, Y.; Wå gberg, T.; Goze-Bac, C.; Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed experimental study on how magnetic and electronic properties of Rb,K-intercalated C60 encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes called peapods can be derived from 13C nuclear magnetic resonance investigations. Ring currents do play

  8. Interplay of activation kinetics and the derivative conductance determines resonance properties of neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Rodrigo F. O.; Ceballos, Cesar C.; Lima, Vinicius; Roque, Antonio C.

    2018-04-01

    In a neuron with hyperpolarization activated current (Ih), the correct input frequency leads to an enhancement of the output response. This behavior is known as resonance and is well described by the neuronal impedance. In a simple neuron model we derive equations for the neuron's resonance and we link its frequency and existence with the biophysical properties of Ih. For a small voltage change, the component of the ratio of current change to voltage change (d I /d V ) due to the voltage-dependent conductance change (d g /d V ) is known as derivative conductance (GhDer). We show that both GhDer and the current activation kinetics (characterized by the activation time constant τh) are mainly responsible for controlling the frequency and existence of resonance. The increment of both factors (GhDer and τh) greatly contributes to the appearance of resonance. We also demonstrate that resonance is voltage dependent due to the voltage dependence of GhDer. Our results have important implications and can be used to predict and explain resonance properties of neurons with the Ih current.

  9. A machine learning approach for the identification of odorant binding proteins from sequence-derived properties

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    Suganthan PN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odorant binding proteins (OBPs are believed to shuttle odorants from the environment to the underlying odorant receptors, for which they could potentially serve as odorant presenters. Although several sequence based search methods have been exploited for protein family prediction, less effort has been devoted to the prediction of OBPs from sequence data and this area is more challenging due to poor sequence identity between these proteins. Results In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that uses Regularized Least Squares Classifier (RLSC in conjunction with multiple physicochemical properties of amino acids to predict odorant-binding proteins. The algorithm was applied to the dataset derived from Pfam and GenDiS database and we obtained overall prediction accuracy of 97.7% (94.5% and 98.4% for positive and negative classes respectively. Conclusion Our study suggests that RLSC is potentially useful for predicting the odorant binding proteins from sequence-derived properties irrespective of sequence similarity. Our method predicts 92.8% of 56 odorant binding proteins non-homologous to any protein in the swissprot database and 97.1% of the 414 independent dataset proteins, suggesting the usefulness of RLSC method for facilitating the prediction of odorant binding proteins from sequence information.

  10. Ku-band electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of polysiloxane derived Si-O-C bulk ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Donghai; Li, Zipei; Xiao, Guoqing; Yang, Shaoyu

    2018-02-01

    The bulk Si-O-C ceramics were prepared by polymer derived ceramics (PDCs) route using polysiloxane as precursor and their properties were investigated for electromagnetic wave absorbing in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). It was found that the catalytic pyrolysis can enhance substantially the absorbing properties by in situ formation of turbostratic carbon network, ordered carbon, and multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The matching thickness of sample containing 1.5 wt% FeCl3 (FPSO-1.5) is 2.2 mm, and its reflection loss exceeds -10 dB in the whole Ku-band with an absorption peak of -35.48 dB at 14.16 GHz. For sample containing 1.5 wt% FeCl3, its absorption peak increases to -15.78 dB, but its matching thickness decreases significantly to 2.2 mm. The polymer derived Si-O-C ceramics could be used as excellent electromagnetic functional devices working in harsh environments.

  11. Properties of cellulose derivatives produced from radiation-Modified cellulose pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, Edward; Stupinska, Halina; Starostka, Pawel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of project was elaboration of radiation methods for properties modification of cellulose pulps using for derivatives production. The selected cellulose pulps were exposed to an electron beam with energy 10 MeV in a linear accelerator. After irradiation pulps underwent the structural and physico-chemical investigations. The laboratory test for manufacturing carboxymethylocellulose (CMC), cellulose carbamate (CC) and cellulose acetate (CA) with cellulose pulps irradiated dose 10 and 15 kGy have been performed. Irradiation of the pulp influenced its depolimerisation degree and resulted in the drop of viscosity of CMC. However, the expected level of cellulose activation expressed as a rise of the substitution degree or increase of the active substance content in the CMC sodium salt was not observed. In the case of cellulose esters (CC, CA) formation, the action of ionising radiation on cellulose pulps with the dose 10 and 15 kGy enables obtaiment of the average values of polimerisation degree as required for CC soluble in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The properties of derivatives prepared by means of radiation and classic methods were compared

  12. Study of the antimalarial properties of hydroxyethylamine derivatives using green fluorescent protein transformed Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Conceição Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A rapid decrease in parasitaemia remains the major goal for new antimalarial drugs and thus, in vivo models must provide precise results concerning parasitaemia modulation. Hydroxyethylamine comprise an important group of alkanolamine compounds that exhibit pharmacological properties as proteases inhibitors that has already been proposed as a new class of antimalarial drugs. Herein, it was tested the antimalarial property of new nine different hydroxyethylamine derivatives using the green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing Plasmodium berghei strain. By comparing flow cytometry and microscopic analysis to evaluate parasitaemia recrudescence, it was observed that flow cytometry was a more sensitive methodology. The nine hydroxyethylamine derivatives were obtained by inserting one of the following radical in the para position: H, 4Cl, 4-Br, 4-F, 4-CH3, 4-OCH3, 4-NO2, 4-NH2 and 3-Br. The antimalarial test showed that the compound that received the methyl group (4-CH3 inhibited 70% of parasite growth. Our results suggest that GFP-transfected P. berghei is a useful tool to study the recrudescence of novel antimalarial drugs through parasitaemia examination by flow cytometry. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the insertion of a methyl group at the para position of the sulfonamide ring appears to be critical for the antimalarial activity of this class of compounds.

  13. Derivative load voltage and particle swarm optimization to determine optimum sizing and placement of shunt capacitor in improving line losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Milad Baiek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study optimal size and placement of shunt capacitor in order to minimize line loss. Derivative load bus voltage was calculated to determine the sensitive load buses which further being optimum with the placement of shunt capacitor. Particle swarm optimization (PSO was demonstrated on the IEEE 14 bus power system to find optimum size of shunt capacitor in reducing line loss. The objective function was applied to determine the proper placement of capacitor and get satisfied solutions towards constraints. The simulation was run over Matlab under two scenarios namely base case and increasing 100% load. Derivative load bus voltage was simulated to determine the most sensitive load bus. PSO was carried out to determine the optimum sizing of shunt capacitor at the most sensitive bus. The results have been determined that the most sensitive bus was bus number 14 for the base case and increasing 100% load. The optimum sizing was 8.17 Mvar for the base case and 23.98 Mvar for increasing load about 100%. Line losses were able to reduce approximately 0.98% for the base case and increasing 100% load reduced about 3.16%. The proposed method was also proven as a better result compared with harmony search algorithm (HSA method. HSA method recorded loss reduction ratio about 0.44% for the base case and 2.67% when the load was increased by 100% while PSO calculated loss reduction ratio about 1.12% and 4.02% for the base case and increasing 100% load respectively. The result of this study will support the previous study and it is concluded that PSO was successfully able to solve some engineering problems as well as to find a solution in determining shunt capacitor sizing on the power system simply and accurately compared with other evolutionary optimization methods.

  14. Evaluation of Fog and Low Stratus Cloud Microphysical Properties Derived from In Situ Sensor, Cloud Radar and SYRSOC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Dupont

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The microphysical properties of low stratus and fog are analyzed here based on simultaneous measurement of an in situ sensor installed on board a tethered balloon and active remote-sensing instruments deployed at the Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research (SIRTA observatory (south of Paris, France. The study focuses on the analysis of 3 case studies where the tethered balloon is deployed for several hours in order to derive the relationship between liquid water content (LWC, effective radius (Re and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC measured by a light optical aerosol counter (LOAC in situ granulometer and Bistatic Radar System for Atmospheric Studies (BASTA cloud radar reflectivity. The well-known relationship Z = α × (LWCβ has been optimized with α ϵ [0.02, 0.097] and β ϵ [1.91, 2.51]. Similar analysis is done to optimize the relationship Re = f(Z and CDNC = f(Z. Two methodologies have been applied to normalize the particle-size distribution measured by the LOAC granulometer with a visible extinction closure (R² ϵ [0.73, 0.93] and to validate the LWC profile with a liquid water closure using the Humidity and Temperature Profiler (HATPRO microwave radiometer (R² ϵ [0.83, 0.91]. In a second step, these relationships are used to derive spatial and temporal variability of the vertical profile of LWC, Re and CDNC starting from BASTA measurement. Finally, the synergistic remote sensing of clouds (SYRSOC algorithm has been tested on three tethered balloon flights. Generally, SYRSOC CDNC and Re profiles agreed well with LOAC in situ and BASTA profiles for the studied fog layers. A systematic overestimation of LWC by SYRSOC in the top half of the fog layer was found due to fog processes that are not accounted for in the cloud algorithm SYRSOC.

  15. Improving the particle distribution and mechanical properties of friction-stir-welded composites by using a smooth pin tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijie; Hu, Yanying; Zhao, Yunqiang; Fujii, Hidetoshi

    2017-09-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a very promising technique for joining particle-reinforced aluminum-matrix composites (PRAMCs), but with increase in the volume fraction of reinforcing particles, their distribution in welds becomes inhomogeneous. This leads to an inconsistent deformation of welds and their destruction at low stresses. In order to improve the weld microstructure, a smooth pin tool was used for the friction stir welding of AC4A + 30 vol.% SiC particle-reinforced aluminum-matrix composites. The present work describes the effect of welding parameters on the characteristics of particle distribution and the mechanical properties of welds. The ultimate strength of weld reached, 309 MPa, was almost 190% of that of the basic material. The mechanism of SiC particle conglomeration is clearly illustrated by means of schematic illustrations.

  16. Defatted wheat germ application: Influence on cookies' properties with regard to its particle size and dough moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jovana; Rakić, Dušan; Fišteš, Aleksandar; Pajin, Biljana; Lončarević, Ivana; Tomović, Vladimir; Zarić, Danica

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of agro-food industry by-products rich in bioactive compounds represents major challenge in food industry sector. The influence of wheat germ particle size (Box-Behnken experimental design. The substitution of wheat flour with wheat germ increased the protein, fat, mineral, and fiber content of the cookies. The particle size of wheat germ affected the textural properties of cookies. As the particle size of wheat germ increased, the hardness of cookies decreased. The color of the cookie was most influenced by the interaction of dough moisture content and wheat germ particle size. Wheat germ level up to 15% had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of cookies. A suitable combination of defatted wheat germ level, its