Value for money in particle-mesh plasma simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eastwood, J.W.
1976-01-01
The established particle-mesh method of simulating a collisionless plasma is discussed. Problems are outlined, and it is stated that given constraints on mesh size and particle number, the only way to adjust the compromise between dispersive forces, collision time and heating time is by altering the force calculating cycle. In 'value for money', schemes, matching of parts of the force calculation cycle is optimized. Interparticle forces are considered. Optimized combinations of elements of the force calculation cycle are compared. Following sections cover the dispersion relation, and comparisons with other schemes. (U.K.)
A software framework for the portable parallelization of particle-mesh simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sbalzarini, I.F.; Walther, Jens Honore; Polasek, B.
2006-01-01
Abstract: We present a software framework for the transparent and portable parallelization of simulations using particle-mesh methods. Particles are used to transport physical properties and a mesh is required in order to reinitialize the distorted particle locations, ensuring the convergence...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apisit, Patchimpattapong; Alireza, Haghighat; Shedlock, D.
2003-01-01
An expert system for generating an effective mesh distribution for the SN particle transport simulation has been developed. This expert system consists of two main parts: 1) an algorithm for generating an effective mesh distribution in a serial environment, and 2) an algorithm for inference of an effective domain decomposition strategy for parallel computing. For the first part, the algorithm prepares an effective mesh distribution considering problem physics and the spatial differencing scheme. For the second part, the algorithm determines a parallel-performance-index (PPI), which is defined as the ratio of the granularity to the degree-of-coupling. The parallel-performance-index provides expected performance of an algorithm depending on computing environment and resources. A large index indicates a high granularity algorithm with relatively low coupling among processors. This expert system has been successfully tested within the PENTRAN (Parallel Environment Neutral-Particle Transport) code system for simulating real-life shielding problems. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Apisit, Patchimpattapong [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Office of Corporate Planning, Bangkruai, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Alireza, Haghighat; Shedlock, D. [Florida Univ., Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2003-07-01
An expert system for generating an effective mesh distribution for the SN particle transport simulation has been developed. This expert system consists of two main parts: 1) an algorithm for generating an effective mesh distribution in a serial environment, and 2) an algorithm for inference of an effective domain decomposition strategy for parallel computing. For the first part, the algorithm prepares an effective mesh distribution considering problem physics and the spatial differencing scheme. For the second part, the algorithm determines a parallel-performance-index (PPI), which is defined as the ratio of the granularity to the degree-of-coupling. The parallel-performance-index provides expected performance of an algorithm depending on computing environment and resources. A large index indicates a high granularity algorithm with relatively low coupling among processors. This expert system has been successfully tested within the PENTRAN (Parallel Environment Neutral-Particle Transport) code system for simulating real-life shielding problems. (authors)
Simulation study for high resolution alpha particle spectrometry with mesh type collimator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Seunghoon; Kwak, Sungwoo; Kang, Hanbyeol; Shin, Jungki; Park, Iljin
2014-01-01
An alpha particle spectrometry with a mesh type collimator plays a crucial role in identifying specific radionuclide in a radioactive source collected from the atmosphere or environment. The energy resolution is degraded without collimation because particles with a high angle have a longer path to travel in the air. Therefore, collision with the background increases. The collimator can cut out particles which traveling at a high angle. As a result, an energy distribution with high resolution can be obtained. Therefore, the mesh type collimator is simulated for high resolution alpha particle spectrometry. In conclusion, the collimator can improve resolution. With collimator, the collimator is a role of cutting out particles with a high angle, so, low energy tail and broadened energy distribution can be reduced. The mesh diameter is found out as an important factor to control resolution and counting efficiency. Therefore, a target particle, for example, 235 U, can be distinguished by a detector with a collimator under a mixture of various nuclides, for example: 232 U, 238 U, and 232 Th
A regularized vortex-particle mesh method for large eddy simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spietz, Henrik Juul; Walther, Jens Honore; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm
We present recent developments of the remeshed vortex particle-mesh method for simulating incompressible ﬂuid ﬂow. The presented method relies on a parallel higher-order FFT based solver for the Poisson equation. Arbitrary high order is achieved through regularization of singular Green’s function...... solutions to the Poisson equation and recently we have derived novel high order solutions for a mixture of open and periodic domains. With this approach the simulated variables may formally be viewed as the approximate solution to the ﬁltered Navier Stokes equations, hence we use the method for Large Eddy...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Spietz, Henrik J.; Walther, Jens Honore
2014-01-01
, unbounded particle-mesh based vortex method is used to simulate the instability, transition to turbulence and eventual destruction of a single vortex ring. From the simulation data a novel method on analyzing the dynamics of the enstrophy is presented based on the alignment of the vorticity vector...... with the principal axis of the strain rate tensor. We find that the dynamics of the enstrophy density is dominated by the local flow deformation and axis of rotation, which is used to infer some concrete tendencies related to the topology of the vorticity field....
A regularized vortex-particle mesh method for large eddy simulation
Spietz, H. J.; Walther, J. H.; Hejlesen, M. M.
2017-11-01
We present recent developments of the remeshed vortex particle-mesh method for simulating incompressible fluid flow. The presented method relies on a parallel higher-order FFT based solver for the Poisson equation. Arbitrary high order is achieved through regularization of singular Green's function solutions to the Poisson equation and recently we have derived novel high order solutions for a mixture of open and periodic domains. With this approach the simulated variables may formally be viewed as the approximate solution to the filtered Navier Stokes equations, hence we use the method for Large Eddy Simulation by including a dynamic subfilter-scale model based on test-filters compatible with the aforementioned regularization functions. Further the subfilter-scale model uses Lagrangian averaging, which is a natural candidate in light of the Lagrangian nature of vortex particle methods. A multiresolution variation of the method is applied to simulate the benchmark problem of the flow past a square cylinder at Re = 22000 and the obtained results are compared to results from the literature.
Cell-centered particle weighting algorithm for PIC simulations in a non-uniform 2D axisymmetric mesh
Araki, Samuel J.; Wirz, Richard E.
2014-09-01
Standard area weighting methods for particle-in-cell simulations result in systematic errors on particle densities for a non-uniform mesh in cylindrical coordinates. These errors can be significantly reduced by using weighted cell volumes for density calculations. A detailed description on the corrected volume calculations and cell-centered weighting algorithm in a non-uniform mesh is provided. The simple formulas for the corrected volume can be used for any type of quadrilateral and/or triangular mesh in cylindrical coordinates. Density errors arising from the cell-centered weighting algorithm are computed for radial density profiles of uniform, linearly decreasing, and Bessel function in an adaptive Cartesian mesh and an unstructured mesh. For all the density profiles, it is shown that the weighting algorithm provides a significant improvement for density calculations. However, relatively large density errors may persist at outermost cells for monotonically decreasing density profiles. A further analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of the density errors in potential calculations, and it is shown that the error at the outermost cell does not propagate into the potential solution for the density profiles investigated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Chatelain
2017-06-01
Full Text Available A vortex particle-mesh (VPM method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity–velocity formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. Large-eddy simulation (LES of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT flows is performed. The complex wake development is captured in detail and over up to 15 diameters downstream: from the blades to the near-wake coherent vortices and then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters. The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics and topological flow features, such as a recirculation region influenced by the tip speed ratio and the rotor geometry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, J.-L.; Colella, P.; McCorquodale, P.; Van Straalen, B.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.
2002-01-01
The numerical simulation of the driving beams in a heavy ion fusion power plant is a challenging task, and simulation of the power plant as a whole, or even of the driver, is not yet possible. Despite the rapid progress in computer power, past and anticipated, one must consider the use of the most advanced numerical techniques, if we are to reach our goal expeditiously. One of the difficulties of these simulations resides in the disparity of scales, in time and in space, which must be resolved. When these disparities are in distinctive zones of the simulation region, a method which has proven to be effective in other areas (e.g., fluid dynamics simulations) is the mesh refinement technique. They discuss the challenges posed by the implementation of this technique into plasma simulations (due to the presence of particles and electromagnetic waves). They will present the prospects for and projected benefits of its application to heavy ion fusion. In particular to the simulation of the ion source and the final beam propagation in the chamber. A collaboration project is under way at LBNL between the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group (ANAG) and the HIF group to couple the Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) library (CHOMBO) developed by the ANAG group to the Particle-In-Cell accelerator code WARP developed by the HIF-VNL. They describe their progress and present their initial findings
N-body simulations for f(R) gravity using a self-adaptive particle-mesh code
Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya
2011-02-01
We perform high-resolution N-body simulations for f(R) gravity based on a self-adaptive particle-mesh code MLAPM. The chameleon mechanism that recovers general relativity on small scales is fully taken into account by self-consistently solving the nonlinear equation for the scalar field. We independently confirm the previous simulation results, including the matter power spectrum, halo mass function, and density profiles, obtained by Oyaizu [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 78, 123524 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevD.78.123524] and Schmidt [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 083518 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.083518], and extend the resolution up to k˜20h/Mpc for the measurement of the matter power spectrum. Based on our simulation results, we discuss how the chameleon mechanism affects the clustering of dark matter and halos on full nonlinear scales.
N-body simulations for f(R) gravity using a self-adaptive particle-mesh code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Gongbo; Koyama, Kazuya; Li Baojiu
2011-01-01
We perform high-resolution N-body simulations for f(R) gravity based on a self-adaptive particle-mesh code MLAPM. The chameleon mechanism that recovers general relativity on small scales is fully taken into account by self-consistently solving the nonlinear equation for the scalar field. We independently confirm the previous simulation results, including the matter power spectrum, halo mass function, and density profiles, obtained by Oyaizu et al.[Phys. Rev. D 78, 123524 (2008)] and Schmidt et al.[Phys. Rev. D 79, 083518 (2009)], and extend the resolution up to k∼20 h/Mpc for the measurement of the matter power spectrum. Based on our simulation results, we discuss how the chameleon mechanism affects the clustering of dark matter and halos on full nonlinear scales.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, J.L.; Colella, P.; McCorquodale, P.; Van Straalen, B.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.
2002-01-01
The numerical simulation of the driving beams in a heavy ion fusion power plant is a challenging task, and simulation of the power plant as a whole, or even of the drive,r is not yet possible. Despite the rapid progress in computer power, past and anticipated, one must consider the use of the most advanced numerical techniques, if they are to reach the goal expeditiously. One of the difficulties of these simulations resides in the disparity of scales, in time and in space, which must be resolved. When these disparities are in distinctive zones of the simulation region, a method which has proven to be effective in other areas (e.g., fluid dynamics simulations) is the mesh refinement technique. They discuss the challenges posed by the implementation of this technique into plasma simulations (due to the presence of particles and electromagnetic waves). They will present the prospects for and projected benefits of its application to heavy ion fusion, in particular to the simulation of the ion source and the final beam propagation in the chamber
Chatelain, P.; Duponcheel, M.; Caprace, D.-G.; Marichal, Y.; Winckelmans, G.
2016-09-01
A Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. LES of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) flows are performed. The complex wake development is captured in details and over very long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics, including some unexpected topological flow features.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatelain, P; Duponcheel, M; Caprace, D-G; Winckelmans, G; Marichal, Y
2016-01-01
A Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. LES of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) flows are performed. The complex wake development is captured in details and over very long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics, including some unexpected topological flow features. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, J.-L.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.
2002-01-01
The numerical simulation of the driving beams in a heavy ion fusion power plant is a challenging task, and, despite rapid progress in computer power, one must consider the use of the most advanced numerical techniques. One of the difficulties of these simulations resides in the disparity of scales in time and in space which must be resolved. When these disparities are in distinctive zones of the simulation region, a method which has proven to be effective in other areas (e.g. fluid dynamics simulations) is the Adaptive-Mesh-Refinement (AMR) technique. We follow in this article the progress accomplished in the last few months in the merging of the AMR technique with Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method. This includes a detailed modeling of the Lampel-Tiefenback solution for the one-dimensional diode using novel techniques to suppress undesirable numerical oscillations and an AMR patch to follow the head of the particle distribution. We also report new results concerning the modeling of ion sources using the axisymmetric WARPRZ-AMR prototype showing the utility of an AMR patch resolving the emitter vicinity and the beam edge
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spietz, Henrik Juul; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore
in the oncoming flow. This may lead to structural instability e.g. when the shedding frequency aligns with the natural frequency of the structure. Fluid structure interaction must especially be considered when designing long span bridges. A three dimensional vortex-in-cell method is applied for the direct......The ability to predict aerodynamic forces, due to the interaction of a fluid flow with a solid body, is central in many fields of engineering and is necessary to identify error-prone structural designs. In bluff-body flows the aerodynamic forces oscillate due to vortex shedding and variations...... numerical simulation of the flow past a bodies of arbitrary shape. Vortex methods use a simple formulation where only the trajectories of discrete vortex particles are simulated. The Lagrangian formulation eliminates the CFL type condition that Eulerian methods have to satisfy. This allows vortex methods...
Parallel adaptive simulations on unstructured meshes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shephard, M S; Jansen, K E; Sahni, O; Diachin, L A
2007-01-01
This paper discusses methods being developed by the ITAPS center to support the execution of parallel adaptive simulations on unstructured meshes. The paper first outlines the ITAPS approach to the development of interoperable mesh, geometry and field services to support the needs of SciDAC application in these areas. The paper then demonstrates the ability of unstructured adaptive meshing methods built on such interoperable services to effectively solve important physics problems. Attention is then focused on ITAPs' developing ability to solve adaptive unstructured mesh problems on massively parallel computers
An immersed interface vortex particle-mesh solver
Marichal, Yves; Chatelain, Philippe; Winckelmans, Gregoire
2014-11-01
An immersed interface-enabled vortex particle-mesh (VPM) solver is presented for the simulation of 2-D incompressible viscous flows, in the framework of external aerodynamics. Considering the simulation of free vortical flows, such as wakes and jets, vortex particle-mesh methods already provide a valuable alternative to standard CFD methods, thanks to the interesting numerical properties arising from its Lagrangian nature. Yet, accounting for solid bodies remains challenging, despite the extensive research efforts that have been made for several decades. The present immersed interface approach aims at improving the consistency and the accuracy of one very common technique (based on Lighthill's model) for the enforcement of the no-slip condition at the wall in vortex methods. Targeting a sharp treatment of the wall calls for substantial modifications at all computational levels of the VPM solver. More specifically, the solution of the underlying Poisson equation, the computation of the diffusion term and the particle-mesh interpolation are adapted accordingly and the spatial accuracy is assessed. The immersed interface VPM solver is subsequently validated on the simulation of some challenging impulsively started flows, such as the flow past a cylinder and that past an airfoil. Research Fellow (PhD student) of the F.R.S.-FNRS of Belgium.
Introducing a distributed unstructured mesh into gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code, XGC
Yoon, Eisung; Shephard, Mark; Seol, E. Seegyoung; Kalyanaraman, Kaushik
2017-10-01
XGC has shown good scalability for large leadership supercomputers. The current production version uses a copy of the entire unstructured finite element mesh on every MPI rank. Although an obvious scalability issue if the mesh sizes are to be dramatically increased, the current approach is also not optimal with respect to data locality of particles and mesh information. To address these issues we have initiated the development of a distributed mesh PIC method. This approach directly addresses the base scalability issue with respect to mesh size and, through the use of a mesh entity centric view of the particle mesh relationship, provides opportunities to address data locality needs of many core and GPU supported heterogeneous systems. The parallel mesh PIC capabilities are being built on the Parallel Unstructured Mesh Infrastructure (PUMI). The presentation will first overview the form of mesh distribution used and indicate the structures and functions used to support the mesh, the particles and their interaction. Attention will then focus on the node-level optimizations being carried out to ensure performant operation of all PIC operations on the distributed mesh. Partnership for Edge Physics Simulation (EPSI) Grant No. DE-SC0008449 and Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) Grant No. DE-SC0006618.
Bernier, Caroline; Gazzola, Mattia; Ronsse, Renaud; Chatelain, Philippe
2017-11-01
We present a 2D fluid-structure interaction simulation method with a specific focus on articulated and actuated structures. The proposed algorithm combines a viscous Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method based on a penalization technique and a Multi-Body System (MBS) solver. The hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on the structure parts are not computed explicitly from the surface stresses; they are rather recovered from the projection and penalization steps within the VPM method. The MBS solver accounts for the body dynamics via the Euler-Lagrange formalism. The deformations of the structure are dictated by the hydrodynamic efforts and actuation torques. Here, we focus on simplified swimming structures composed of neutrally buoyant ellipses connected by virtual joints. The joints are actuated through a simple controller in order to reproduce the swimming patterns of an eel-like swimmer. The method enables to recover the histories of torques applied on each hinge along the body. The method is verified on several benchmarks: an impulsively started elastically mounted cylinder and free swimming articulated fish-like structures. Validation will be performed by means of an experimental swimming robot that reproduces the 2D articulated ellipses.
Application of particle-mesh Ewald summation to ONIOM theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Osamu; Nanbu, Shinkoh
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Particle-mesh Ewald sum is extended to ONIOM scheme. • Non-adiabatic MD simulation in solution is performed. • The behavior of excited (Z)-penta-2,4-dieniminium cation in methanol is simulated. • The difference between gas phase and solution is predicted. - Abstract: We extended a particle mesh Ewald (PME) summation method to the ONIOM (our Own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbitals and molecular Mechanics) scheme (PME-ONIOM) to validate the simulation in solution. This took the form of a nonadiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in which the Zhu-Nakamura trajectory surface hopping (ZN-TSH) method was performed for the photoisomerization of a (Z)-penta-2,4-dieniminium cation (protonated Schiff base, PSB3) electronically excited to the S 1 state in a methanol solution. We also calculated a nonadiabatic ab initio MD simulation with only minimum image convention (MI-ONIOM). The lifetime determined by PME-ONIOM-MD was 3.483 ps. The MI-ONIOM-MD lifetime of 0.4642 ps was much shorter than those of PME-ONIOM-MD and the experimentally determined excited state lifetime. The difference eminently illustrated the accurate treatment of the long-range solvation effect, which destines the electronically excited PSB3 for staying in S 1 at the pico-second or the femto-second time scale.
Model of Random Polygon Particles for Concrete and Mesh Automatic Subdivision
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
In order to study the constitutive behavior of concrete in mesoscopic level, a new method is proposed in this paper. This method uses random polygon particles to simulate full grading broken aggregates of concrete. Based on computational geometry, we carry out the automatic generation of the triangle finite element mesh for the model of random polygon particles of concrete. The finite element mesh generated in this paper is also applicable to many other numerical methods.
Mesh refinement of simulation with the AID riser transmission gamma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima Filho, Hilario J.B. de; Benachour, Mohand; Dantas, Carlos C.; Brito, Marcio F.P.; Santos, Valdemir A. dos
2013-01-01
Type reactors Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFBR) vertical, in which the particulate and gaseous phases have flows upward (riser) have been widely used in gasification processes, combustion and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC). These biphasic reactors (gas-solid) efficiency depends largely on their hydrodynamic characteristics, and shows different behaviors in the axial and radial directions. The solids axial distribution is observed by the higher concentration in the base, getting more diluted toward the top. Radially, the solids concentration is characterized as core-annular, in which the central region is highly diluted, consisting of dispersed particles and fluid. In the present work developed a two-dimensional geometry (2D) techniques through simulations in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict the gas-solid flow in the riser type CFBR through transient modeling, based on the kinetic theory of granular flow . The refinement of computational meshes provide larger amounts of information on the parameters studied, but may increase the processing time of the simulations. A minimum number of cells applied to the mesh construction was obtained by testing five meshes. The validation of the hydrodynamic parameters was performed using a range of 241Am source and detector NaI (Tl). The numerical results were provided consistent with the experimental data, indicating that the refined computational mesh in a controlled manner, improve the approximation of the expected results. (author)
Charged particle tracking through electrostatic wire meshes using the finite element method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devlin, L. J.; Karamyshev, O.; Welsch, C. P., E-mail: carsten.welsch@cockcroft.ac.uk [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)
2016-06-15
Wire meshes are used across many disciplines to accelerate and focus charged particles, however, analytical solutions are non-exact and few codes exist which simulate the exact fields around a mesh with physical sizes. A tracking code based in Matlab-Simulink using field maps generated using finite element software has been developed which tracks electrons or ions through electrostatic wire meshes. The fields around such a geometry are presented as an analytical expression using several basic assumptions, however, it is apparent that computational calculations are required to obtain realistic values of electric potential and fields, particularly when multiple wire meshes are deployed. The tracking code is flexible in that any quantitatively describable particle distribution can be used for both electrons and ions as well as other benefits such as ease of export to other programs for analysis. The code is made freely available and physical examples are highlighted where this code could be beneficial for different applications.
Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh
2007-01-01
"Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)
Jacobs, C. T.; Collins, G. S.; Piggott, M. D.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R. G.
2013-02-01
Small-scale experiments of volcanic ash particle settling in water have demonstrated that ash particles can either settle slowly and individually, or rapidly and collectively as a gravitationally unstable ash-laden plume. This has important implications for the emplacement of tephra deposits on the seabed. Numerical modelling has the potential to extend the results of laboratory experiments to larger scales and explore the conditions under which plumes may form and persist, but many existing models are computationally restricted by the fixed mesh approaches that they employ. In contrast, this paper presents a new multiphase flow model that uses an adaptive unstructured mesh approach. As a simulation progresses, the mesh is optimized to focus numerical resolution in areas important to the dynamics and decrease it where it is not needed, thereby potentially reducing computational requirements. Model verification is performed using the method of manufactured solutions, which shows the correct solution convergence rates. Model validation and application considers 2-D simulations of plume formation in a water tank which replicate published laboratory experiments. The numerically predicted settling velocities for both individual particles and plumes, as well as instability behaviour, agree well with experimental data and observations. Plume settling is clearly hindered by the presence of a salinity gradient, and its influence must therefore be taken into account when considering particles in bodies of saline water. Furthermore, individual particles settle in the laminar flow regime while plume settling is shown (by plume Reynolds numbers greater than unity) to be in the turbulent flow regime, which has a significant impact on entrainment and settling rates. Mesh adaptivity maintains solution accuracy while providing a substantial reduction in computational requirements when compared to the same simulation performed using a fixed mesh, highlighting the benefits of an
Monte Carlo charged-particle tracking and energy deposition on a Lagrangian mesh.
Yuan, J; Moses, G A; McKenty, P W
2005-10-01
A Monte Carlo algorithm for alpha particle tracking and energy deposition on a cylindrical computational mesh in a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) simulations is presented. The straight line approximation is used to follow propagation of "Monte Carlo particles" which represent collections of alpha particles generated from thermonuclear deuterium-tritium (DT) reactions. Energy deposition in the plasma is modeled by the continuous slowing down approximation. The scheme addresses various aspects arising in the coupling of Monte Carlo tracking with Lagrangian hydrodynamics; such as non-orthogonal severely distorted mesh cells, particle relocation on the moving mesh and particle relocation after rezoning. A comparison with the flux-limited multi-group diffusion transport method is presented for a polar direct drive target design for the National Ignition Facility. Simulations show the Monte Carlo transport method predicts about earlier ignition than predicted by the diffusion method, and generates higher hot spot temperature. Nearly linear speed-up is achieved for multi-processor parallel simulations.
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Sugiyama, L.E.
1998-01-01
Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.
1996-01-01
We describe work on a full MHD code using an unstructured mesh. MH3D++ is an extension of the PPPL MH3D resistive full MHD code. MH3D++ replaces the structured mesh and finite difference / fourier discretization of MH3D with an unstructured mesh and finite element / fourier discretization. Low level routines which perform differential operations, solution of PDEs such as Poisson's equation, and graphics, are encapsulated in C++ objects to isolate the finite element operations from the higher level code. The high level code is the same, whether it is run in structured or unstructured mesh versions. This allows the unstructured mesh version to be benchmarked against the structured mesh version. As a preliminary example, disruptions in DIIID reverse shear equilibria are studied numerically with the MH3D++ code. Numerical equilibria were first produced starting with an EQDSK file containing equilibrium data of a DIII-D L-mode negative central shear discharge. Using these equilibria, the linearized equations are time advanced to get the toroidal mode number n = 1 linear growth rate and eigenmode, which is resistively unstable. The equilibrium and linear mode are used to initialize 3D nonlinear runs. An example shows poloidal slices of 3D pressure surfaces: initially, on the left, and at an intermediate time, on the right
Simulating galactic dust grain evolution on a moving mesh
McKinnon, Ryan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Torrey, Paul; Marinacci, Federico; Kannan, Rahul
2018-05-01
Interstellar dust is an important component of the galactic ecosystem, playing a key role in multiple galaxy formation processes. We present a novel numerical framework for the dynamics and size evolution of dust grains implemented in the moving-mesh hydrodynamics code AREPO suited for cosmological galaxy formation simulations. We employ a particle-based method for dust subject to dynamical forces including drag and gravity. The drag force is implemented using a second-order semi-implicit integrator and validated using several dust-hydrodynamical test problems. Each dust particle has a grain size distribution, describing the local abundance of grains of different sizes. The grain size distribution is discretised with a second-order piecewise linear method and evolves in time according to various dust physical processes, including accretion, sputtering, shattering, and coagulation. We present a novel scheme for stochastically forming dust during stellar evolution and new methods for sub-cycling of dust physics time-steps. Using this model, we simulate an isolated disc galaxy to study the impact of dust physical processes that shape the interstellar grain size distribution. We demonstrate, for example, how dust shattering shifts the grain size distribution to smaller sizes resulting in a significant rise of radiation extinction from optical to near-ultraviolet wavelengths. Our framework for simulating dust and gas mixtures can readily be extended to account for other dynamical processes relevant in galaxy formation, like magnetohydrodynamics, radiation pressure, and thermo-chemical processes.
MUSIC: a mesh-unrestricted simulation code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonalumi, R.A.; Rouben, B.; Dastur, A.R.; Dondale, C.S.; Li, H.Y.H.
1978-01-01
A general formalism to solve the G-group neutron diffusion equation is described. The G-group flux is represented by complementing an ''asymptotic'' mode with (G-1) ''transient'' modes. A particular reduction-to-one-group technique gives a high computational efficiency. MUSIC, a 2-group code using the above formalism, is presented. MUSIC is demonstrated on a fine-mesh calculation and on 2 coarse-mesh core calculations: a heavy-water reactor (HWR) problem and the 2-D lightwater reactor (LWR) IAEA benchmark. Comparison is made to finite-difference results
Enriching Triangle Mesh Animations with Physically Based Simulation.
Li, Yijing; Xu, Hongyi; Barbic, Jernej
2017-10-01
We present a system to combine arbitrary triangle mesh animations with physically based Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation, enabling control over the combination both in space and time. The input is a triangle mesh animation obtained using any method, such as keyframed animation, character rigging, 3D scanning, or geometric shape modeling. The input may be non-physical, crude or even incomplete. The user provides weights, specified using a minimal user interface, for how much physically based simulation should be allowed to modify the animation in any region of the model, and in time. Our system then computes a physically-based animation that is constrained to the input animation to the amount prescribed by these weights. This permits smoothly turning physics on and off over space and time, making it possible for the output to strictly follow the input, to evolve purely based on physically based simulation, and anything in between. Achieving such results requires a careful combination of several system components. We propose and analyze these components, including proper automatic creation of simulation meshes (even for non-manifold and self-colliding undeformed triangle meshes), converting triangle mesh animations into animations of the simulation mesh, and resolving collisions and self-collisions while following the input.
Finite element simulation of impact response of wire mesh screens
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Caizheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the response of wire mesh screens to low velocity impact with blunt objects is investigated using finite element (FE simulation. The woven wire mesh is modelled with homogeneous shell elements with equivalent smeared mechanical properties. The mechanical behaviour of the woven wire mesh was determined experimentally with tensile tests on steel wire mesh coupons to generate the data for the smeared shell material used in the FE. The effects of impacts with a low mass (4 kg and a large mass (40 kg providing the same impact energy are studied. The joint between the wire mesh screen and the aluminium frame surrounding it is modelled using contact elements with friction between the corresponding elements. Damage to the screen of different types compromising its structural integrity, such as mesh separation and pulling out from the surrounding frame is modelled. The FE simulation is validated with results of impact tests conducted on woven steel wire screen meshes.
Interoperable mesh and geometry tools for advanced petascale simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diachin, L; Bauer, A; Fix, B; Kraftcheck, J; Jansen, K; Luo, X; Miller, M; Ollivier-Gooch, C; Shephard, M S; Tautges, T; Trease, H
2007-01-01
SciDAC applications have a demonstrated need for advanced software tools to manage the complexities associated with sophisticated geometry, mesh, and field manipulation tasks, particularly as computer architectures move toward the petascale. The Center for Interoperable Technologies for Advanced Petascale Simulations (ITAPS) will deliver interoperable and interchangeable mesh, geometry, and field manipulation services that are of direct use to SciDAC applications. The premise of our technology development goal is to provide such services as libraries that can be used with minimal intrusion into application codes. To develop these technologies, we focus on defining a common data model and data-structure neutral interfaces that unify a number of different services such as mesh generation and improvement, front tracking, adaptive mesh refinement, shape optimization, and solution transfer operations. We highlight the use of several ITAPS services in SciDAC applications
Merging for Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic Modeling of the Multiple Plasma Beams
Lipatov, Alexander S.
2011-01-01
We suggest a merging procedure for the Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic (PMCPK) method in case of inter-penetrating flow (multiple plasma beams). We examine the standard particle-in-cell (PIC) and the PMCPK methods in the case of particle acceleration by shock surfing for a wide range of the control numerical parameters. The plasma dynamics is described by a hybrid (particle-ion-fluid-electron) model. Note that one may need a mesh if modeling with the computation of an electromagnetic field. Our calculations use specified, time-independent electromagnetic fields for the shock, rather than self-consistently generated fields. While a particle-mesh method is a well-verified approach, the CPK method seems to be a good approach for multiscale modeling that includes multiple regions with various particle/fluid plasma behavior. However, the CPK method is still in need of a verification for studying the basic plasma phenomena: particle heating and acceleration by collisionless shocks, magnetic field reconnection, beam dynamics, etc.
Full Core Multiphysics Simulation with Offline Mesh Deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merzari, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, E. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yu, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Thomas, J. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Obabko, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solberg, Jerome [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferencz, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whitesides, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-12-21
In this report, building on previous reports issued in FY13 we describe our continued efforts to integrate thermal/hydraulics, neutronics, and structural mechanics modeling codes to perform coupled analysis of a representative fast sodium-cooled reactor core. The focus of the present report is a full core simulation with off-line mesh deformation.
Impact of Variable-Resolution Meshes on Regional Climate Simulations
Fowler, L. D.; Skamarock, W. C.; Bruyere, C. L.
2014-12-01
The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is currently being used for seasonal-scale simulations on globally-uniform and regionally-refined meshes. Our ongoing research aims at analyzing simulations of tropical convective activity and tropical cyclone development during one hurricane season over the North Atlantic Ocean, contrasting statistics obtained with a variable-resolution mesh against those obtained with a quasi-uniform mesh. Analyses focus on the spatial distribution, frequency, and intensity of convective and grid-scale precipitations, and their relative contributions to the total precipitation as a function of the horizontal scale. Multi-month simulations initialized on May 1st 2005 using ERA-Interim re-analyses indicate that MPAS performs satisfactorily as a regional climate model for different combinations of horizontal resolutions and transitions between the coarse and refined meshes. Results highlight seamless transitions for convection, cloud microphysics, radiation, and land-surface processes between the quasi-uniform and locally- refined meshes, despite the fact that the physics parameterizations were not developed for variable resolution meshes. Our goal of analyzing the performance of MPAS is twofold. First, we want to establish that MPAS can be successfully used as a regional climate model, bypassing the need for nesting and nudging techniques at the edges of the computational domain as done in traditional regional climate modeling. Second, we want to assess the performance of our convective and cloud microphysics parameterizations as the horizontal resolution varies between the lower-resolution quasi-uniform and higher-resolution locally-refined areas of the global domain.
Toward 10-km mesh global climate simulations
Ohfuchi, W.; Enomoto, T.; Takaya, K.; Yoshioka, M. K.
2002-12-01
An atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) that runs very efficiently on the Earth Simulator (ES) was developed. The ES is a gigantic vector-parallel computer with the peak performance of 40 Tflops. The AGCM, named AFES (AGCM for ES), was based on the version 5.4.02 of an AGCM developed jointly by the Center for Climate System Research, the University of Tokyo and the Japanese National Institute for Environmental Sciences. The AFES was, however, totally rewritten in FORTRAN90 and MPI while the original AGCM was written in FORTRAN77 and not capable of parallel computing. The AFES achieved 26 Tflops (about 65 % of the peak performance of the ES) at resolution of T1279L96 (10-km horizontal resolution and 500-m vertical resolution in middle troposphere to lower stratosphere). Some results of 10- to 20-day global simulations will be presented. At this moment, only short-term simulations are possible due to data storage limitation. As ten tera flops computing is achieved, peta byte data storage are necessary to conduct climate-type simulations at this super-high resolution global simulations. Some possibilities for future research topics in global super-high resolution climate simulations will be discussed. Some target topics are mesoscale structures and self-organization of the Baiu-Meiyu front over Japan, cyclogenecsis over the North Pacific and typhoons around the Japan area. Also improvement in local precipitation with increasing horizontal resolution will be demonstrated.
Adaptive and dynamic meshing methods for numerical simulations
Acikgoz, Nazmiye
For the numerical simulation of many problems of engineering interest, it is desirable to have an automated mesh adaption tool capable of producing high quality meshes with an affordably low number of mesh points. This is important especially for problems, which are characterized by anisotropic features of the solution and require mesh clustering in the direction of high gradients. Another significant issue in meshing emerges in the area of unsteady simulations with moving boundaries or interfaces, where the motion of the boundary has to be accommodated by deforming the computational grid. Similarly, there exist problems where current mesh needs to be adapted to get more accurate solutions because either the high gradient regions are initially predicted inaccurately or they change location throughout the simulation. To solve these problems, we propose three novel procedures. For this purpose, in the first part of this work, we present an optimization procedure for three-dimensional anisotropic tetrahedral grids based on metric-driven h-adaptation. The desired anisotropy in the grid is dictated by a metric that defines the size, shape, and orientation of the grid elements throughout the computational domain. Through the use of topological and geometrical operators, the mesh is iteratively adapted until the final mesh minimizes a given objective function. In this work, the objective function measures the distance between the metric of each simplex and a target metric, which can be either user-defined (a-priori) or the result of a-posteriori error analysis. During the adaptation process, one tries to decrease the metric-based objective function until the final mesh is compliant with the target within a given tolerance. However, in regions such as corners and complex face intersections, the compliance condition was found to be very difficult or sometimes impossible to satisfy. In order to address this issue, we propose an optimization process based on an ad
PowderSim: Lagrangian Discrete and Mesh-Free Continuum Simulation Code for Cohesive Soils
Johnson, Scott; Walton, Otis; Settgast, Randolph
2013-01-01
PowderSim is a calculation tool that combines a discrete-element method (DEM) module, including calibrated interparticle-interaction relationships, with a mesh-free, continuum, SPH (smoothed-particle hydrodynamics) based module that utilizes enhanced, calibrated, constitutive models capable of mimicking both large deformations and the flow behavior of regolith simulants and lunar regolith under conditions anticipated during in situ resource utilization (ISRU) operations. The major innovation introduced in PowderSim is to use a mesh-free method (SPH-based) with a calibrated and slightly modified critical-state soil mechanics constitutive model to extend the ability of the simulation tool to also address full-scale engineering systems in the continuum sense. The PowderSim software maintains the ability to address particle-scale problems, like size segregation, in selected regions with a traditional DEM module, which has improved contact physics and electrostatic interaction models.
Gear Mesh Loss-of-Lubrication Experiments and Analytical Simulation
Handschuh, Robert F.; Polly, Joseph; Morales, Wilfredo
2011-01-01
An experimental program to determine the loss-of-lubrication (LOL) characteristics of spur gears in an aerospace simulation test facility has been completed. Tests were conducted using two different emergency lubricant types: (1) an oil mist system (two different misted lubricants) and (2) a grease injection system (two different grease types). Tests were conducted using a NASA Glenn test facility normally used for conducting contact fatigue. Tests were run at rotational speeds up to 10000 rpm using two different gear designs and two different gear materials. For the tests conducted using an air-oil misting system, a minimum lubricant injection rate was determined to permit the gear mesh to operate without failure for at least 1 hr. The tests allowed an elevated steady state temperature to be established. A basic 2-D heat transfer simulation has been developed to investigate temperatures of a simulated gear as a function of frictional behavior. The friction (heat generation source) between the meshing surfaces is related to the position in the meshing cycle, the load applied, and the amount of lubricant in the contact. Experimental conditions will be compared to those from the 2-D simulation.
Finite Element in Angle Unit Sphere Meshing for Charged Particle Transport.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega, Mario Ivan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Drumm, Clifton R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-10-01
Finite element in angle formulations of the charged particle transport equation require the discretization of the unit sphere. In Sceptre, a three-dimensional surface mesh of a sphere is transformed into a two-dimensional mesh. Projection of a sphere onto a two-dimensional surface is well studied with map makers spending the last few centuries attempting to create maps that preserve proportion and area. Using these techniques, various meshing schemes for the unit sphere were investigated.
Nyx: Adaptive mesh, massively-parallel, cosmological simulation code
Almgren, Ann; Beckner, Vince; Friesen, Brian; Lukic, Zarija; Zhang, Weiqun
2017-12-01
Nyx code solves equations of compressible hydrodynamics on an adaptive grid hierarchy coupled with an N-body treatment of dark matter. The gas dynamics in Nyx use a finite volume methodology on an adaptive set of 3-D Eulerian grids; dark matter is represented as discrete particles moving under the influence of gravity. Particles are evolved via a particle-mesh method, using Cloud-in-Cell deposition/interpolation scheme. Both baryonic and dark matter contribute to the gravitational field. In addition, Nyx includes physics for accurately modeling the intergalactic medium; in optically thin limits and assuming ionization equilibrium, the code calculates heating and cooling processes of the primordial-composition gas in an ionizing ultraviolet background radiation field.
Multiscale Simulations Using Particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Walther, Jens Honore
vortex methods for problems in continuum fluid dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics for flow at the meso scale, and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of nanofluidic systems. We employ multiscale techniques to breach the atomistic and continuum scales to study fundamental problems in fluid...... dynamics. Recent work on the thermophoretic motion of water nanodroplets confined inside carbon nanotubes, and multiscale techniques for polar liquids will be discussed in detail at the symposium....
Radiation in Particle Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
More, R.; Graziani, F.; Glosli, J.; Surh, M.
2010-01-01
Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (planewaves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle simulations of
Numerical simulation for quenching meshes with TONUS platform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bin, Chen; Hongxing, Yu
2009-01-01
For mitigation of hydrogen risks during severe accidents to protect the integrity of containment, PAR and ignitors are used in current advanced nuclear power plants. But multiple combustions induced by ignitors and consequent DDT phenomena are not practically eliminated. An innovative design call 'quenching meshes' is considered to confine hydrogen flame within one compartment by metallic meshes, so that hazardous flame propagation can be prevented. The numerical simulation results based on discretization of the full Navier-Stokes equations with global one-step reaction represented by Arrhenius laminar combustion model have shown the possibility of flame quenching 'numerically'. This is achieved via multiplication of the combustion rate expression by a Heaviside function having an ignition temperature as a parameter. Qualitative behavior of the computed flow shows that the flame velocity diminishes while passing through a quenching mesh, while qualitative analysis based on the energy balance reveals the mechanism of flame quenching. All the above analysis has been performed for a stoichiometric mixture and normal initial pressure and temperature for initial conditions. For further research we would like to suggest the investigation of the influence of the mixture composition, initial pressure and/or temperature on the quenching criteria
Simulating control rod and fuel assembly motion using moving meshes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilbert, D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: gilbertdw1@gmail.com; Roman, J.E. [Departamento de Sistemas Informaticos y Computacion, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Garland, Wm. J. [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Poehlman, W.F.S. [Department of Computing and Software, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)
2008-02-15
A prerequisite for designing a transient simulation experiment which includes the motion of control and fuel assemblies is the careful verification of a steady state model which computes k{sub eff} versus assembly insertion distance. Previous studies in nuclear engineering have usually approached the problem of the motion of control rods with the use of nonlinear nodal models. Nodal methods employ special approximations for the leading and trailing cells of the moving assemblies to avoid the rod cusping problem which results from the naive volume weighted cell cross-section approximation. A prototype framework called the MOOSE has been developed for modeling moving components in the presence of diffusion phenomena. A linear finite difference model is constructed, solutions for which are computed by SLEPc, a high performance parallel eigenvalue solver. Design techniques for the implementation of a patched non-conformal mesh which links groups of sub-meshes that can move relative to one another are presented. The generation of matrices which represent moving meshes which conserve neutron current at their boundaries, and the performance of the framework when applied to model reactivity insertion experiments is also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Corato, M., E-mail: marco.decorato@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Slot, J.J.M., E-mail: j.j.m.slot@tue.nl [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hütter, M., E-mail: m.huetter@tue.nl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); D' Avino, G., E-mail: gadavino@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maffettone, P.L., E-mail: pierluca.maffettone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Hulsen, M.A., E-mail: m.a.hulsen@tue.nl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2016-07-01
In this paper, we present a finite element implementation of fluctuating hydrodynamics with a moving boundary fitted mesh for treating the suspended particles. The thermal fluctuations are incorporated into the continuum equations using the Landau and Lifshitz approach [1]. The proposed implementation fulfills the fluctuation–dissipation theorem exactly at the discrete level. Since we restrict the equations to the creeping flow case, this takes the form of a relation between the diffusion coefficient matrix and friction matrix both at the particle and nodal level of the finite elements. Brownian motion of arbitrarily shaped particles in complex confinements can be considered within the present formulation. A multi-step time integration scheme is developed to correctly capture the drift term required in the stochastic differential equation (SDE) describing the evolution of the positions of the particles. The proposed approach is validated by simulating the Brownian motion of a sphere between two parallel plates and the motion of a spherical particle in a cylindrical cavity. The time integration algorithm and the fluctuating hydrodynamics implementation are then applied to study the diffusion and the equilibrium probability distribution of a confined circle under an external harmonic potential.
Adaptive mesh refinement and adjoint methods in geophysics simulations
Burstedde, Carsten
2013-04-01
It is an ongoing challenge to increase the resolution that can be achieved by numerical geophysics simulations. This applies to considering sub-kilometer mesh spacings in global-scale mantle convection simulations as well as to using frequencies up to 1 Hz in seismic wave propagation simulations. One central issue is the numerical cost, since for three-dimensional space discretizations, possibly combined with time stepping schemes, a doubling of resolution can lead to an increase in storage requirements and run time by factors between 8 and 16. A related challenge lies in the fact that an increase in resolution also increases the dimensionality of the model space that is needed to fully parametrize the physical properties of the simulated object (a.k.a. earth). Systems that exhibit a multiscale structure in space are candidates for employing adaptive mesh refinement, which varies the resolution locally. An example that we found well suited is the mantle, where plate boundaries and fault zones require a resolution on the km scale, while deeper area can be treated with 50 or 100 km mesh spacings. This approach effectively reduces the number of computational variables by several orders of magnitude. While in this case it is possible to derive the local adaptation pattern from known physical parameters, it is often unclear what are the most suitable criteria for adaptation. We will present the goal-oriented error estimation procedure, where such criteria are derived from an objective functional that represents the observables to be computed most accurately. Even though this approach is well studied, it is rarely used in the geophysics community. A related strategy to make finer resolution manageable is to design methods that automate the inference of model parameters. Tweaking more than a handful of numbers and judging the quality of the simulation by adhoc comparisons to known facts and observations is a tedious task and fundamentally limited by the turnaround times
Implicit Geometry Meshing for the simulation of Rotary Friction Welding
Schmicker, D.; Persson, P.-O.; Strackeljan, J.
2014-08-01
The simulation of Rotary Friction Welding (RFW) is a challenging task, since it states a coupled problem of phenomena like large plastic deformations, heat flux, contact and friction. In particular the mesh generation and its restoration when using a Lagrangian description of motion is of significant severity. In this regard Implicit Geometry Meshing (IGM) algorithms are promising alternatives to the more conventional explicit methods. Because of the implicit description of the geometry during remeshing, the IGM procedure turns out to be highly robust and generates spatial discretizations of high quality regardless of the complexity of the flash shape and its inclusions. A model for efficient RFW simulation is presented, which is based on a Carreau fluid law, an Augmented Lagrange approach in mapping the incompressible deformations, a penalty contact approach, a fully regularized Coulomb-/fluid friction law and a hybrid time integration strategy. The implementation of the IGM algorithm using 6-node triangular finite elements is described in detail. The techniques are demonstrated on a fairly complex friction welding problem, demonstrating the performance and the potentials of the proposed method. The techniques are general and straight-forward to implement, and offer the potential of successful adoption to a wide range of other engineering problems.
A DAFT DL_POLY distributed memory adaptation of the Smoothed Particle Mesh Ewald method
Bush, I. J.; Todorov, I. T.; Smith, W.
2006-09-01
The Smoothed Particle Mesh Ewald method [U. Essmann, L. Perera, M.L. Berkowtz, T. Darden, H. Lee, L.G. Pedersen, J. Chem. Phys. 103 (1995) 8577] for calculating long ranged forces in molecular simulation has been adapted for the parallel molecular dynamics code DL_POLY_3 [I.T. Todorov, W. Smith, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 362 (2004) 1835], making use of a novel 3D Fast Fourier Transform (DAFT) [I.J. Bush, The Daresbury Advanced Fourier transform, Daresbury Laboratory, 1999] that perfectly matches the Domain Decomposition (DD) parallelisation strategy [W. Smith, Comput. Phys. Comm. 62 (1991) 229; M.R.S. Pinches, D. Tildesley, W. Smith, Mol. Sim. 6 (1991) 51; D. Rapaport, Comput. Phys. Comm. 62 (1991) 217] of the DL_POLY_3 code. In this article we describe software adaptations undertaken to import this functionality and provide a review of its performance.
Crack growth simulation for plural crack using hexahedral mesh generation technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orita, Y; Wada, Y; Kikuchi, M
2010-01-01
This paper describes a surface crack growth simulation using a new mesh generation technique. The generated mesh is constituted of all hexahedral elements. Hexahedral elements are suitable for an analysis of fracture mechanics parameters, i.e. stress intensity factor. The advantage of a hexahedral mesh is good accuracy of an analysis and less number of degrees of freedoms than a tetrahedral mesh. In this study, a plural crack growth simulation is computed using the hexahedral mesh and its distribution of stress intensity factor is investigated.
Visualization of Octree Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) in Astrophysical Simulations
Labadens, M.; Chapon, D.; Pomaréde, D.; Teyssier, R.
2012-09-01
Computer simulations are important in current cosmological research. Those simulations run in parallel on thousands of processors, and produce huge amount of data. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to reduce the computing cost while keeping good numerical accuracy in regions of interest. RAMSES is a cosmological code developed by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (English: Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) which uses Octree adaptive mesh refinement. Compared to grid based AMR, the Octree AMR has the advantage to fit very precisely the adaptive resolution of the grid to the local problem complexity. However, this specific octree data type need some specific software to be visualized, as generic visualization tools works on Cartesian grid data type. This is why the PYMSES software has been also developed by our team. It relies on the python scripting language to ensure a modular and easy access to explore those specific data. In order to take advantage of the High Performance Computer which runs the RAMSES simulation, it also uses MPI and multiprocessing to run some parallel code. We would like to present with more details our PYMSES software with some performance benchmarks. PYMSES has currently two visualization techniques which work directly on the AMR. The first one is a splatting technique, and the second one is a custom ray tracing technique. Both have their own advantages and drawbacks. We have also compared two parallel programming techniques with the python multiprocessing library versus the use of MPI run. The load balancing strategy has to be smartly defined in order to achieve a good speed up in our computation. Results obtained with this software are illustrated in the context of a massive, 9000-processor parallel simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy.
Resolution convergence in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations using adaptive mesh refinement
Snaith, Owain N.; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan; Rosdahl, Joakim
2018-06-01
We have explored the evolution of gas distributions from cosmological simulations carried out using the RAMSES adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code, to explore the effects of resolution on cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. It is vital to understand the effect of both the resolution of initial conditions (ICs) and the final resolution of the simulation. Lower initial resolution simulations tend to produce smaller numbers of low-mass structures. This will strongly affect the assembly history of objects, and has the same effect of simulating different cosmologies. The resolution of ICs is an important factor in simulations, even with a fixed maximum spatial resolution. The power spectrum of gas in simulations using AMR diverges strongly from the fixed grid approach - with more power on small scales in the AMR simulations - even at fixed physical resolution and also produces offsets in the star formation at specific epochs. This is because before certain times the upper grid levels are held back to maintain approximately fixed physical resolution, and to mimic the natural evolution of dark matter only simulations. Although the impact of hold-back falls with increasing spatial and IC resolutions, the offsets in the star formation remain down to a spatial resolution of 1 kpc. These offsets are of the order of 10-20 per cent, which is below the uncertainty in the implemented physics but are expected to affect the detailed properties of galaxies. We have implemented a new grid-hold-back approach to minimize the impact of hold-back on the star formation rate.
High-fidelity meshes from tissue samples for diffusion MRI simulations.
Panagiotaki, Eleftheria; Hall, Matt G; Zhang, Hui; Siow, Bernard; Lythgoe, Mark F; Alexander, Daniel C
2010-01-01
This paper presents a method for constructing detailed geometric models of tissue microstructure for synthesizing realistic diffusion MRI data. We construct three-dimensional mesh models from confocal microscopy image stacks using the marching cubes algorithm. Random-walk simulations within the resulting meshes provide synthetic diffusion MRI measurements. Experiments optimise simulation parameters and complexity of the meshes to achieve accuracy and reproducibility while minimizing computation time. Finally we assess the quality of the synthesized data from the mesh models by comparison with scanner data as well as synthetic data from simple geometric models and simplified meshes that vary only in two dimensions. The results support the extra complexity of the three-dimensional mesh compared to simpler models although sensitivity to the mesh resolution is quite robust.
Water Flow Simulation using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)
Vu, Bruce; Berg, Jared; Harris, Michael F.
2014-01-01
Simulation of water flow from the rainbird nozzles has been accomplished using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The advantage of using SPH is that no meshing is required, thus the grid quality is no longer an issue and accuracy can be improved.
Influence of mesh non-orthogonality on numerical simulation of buoyant jet flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishigaki, Masahiro; Abe, Satoshi; Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Influence of mesh non-orthogonality on numerical solution of buoyant jet flows. • Buoyant jet flows are simulated with hexahedral and prismatic meshes. • Jet instability with prismatic meshes may be overestimated compared to that with hexahedral meshes. • Modified solvers that can reduce the influence of mesh non-orthogonality and reduce computation time are proposed. - Abstract: In the present research, we discuss the influence of mesh non-orthogonality on numerical solution of a type of buoyant flow. Buoyant jet flows are simulated numerically with hexahedral and prismatic mesh elements in an open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code called “OpenFOAM”. Buoyant jet instability obtained with the prismatic meshes may be overestimated compared to that obtained with the hexahedral meshes when non-orthogonal correction is not applied in the code. Although the non-orthogonal correction method can improve the instability generated by mesh non-orthogonality, it may increase computation time required to reach a convergent solution. Thus, we propose modified solvers that can reduce the influence of mesh non-orthogonality and reduce the computation time compared to the existing solvers in OpenFOAM. It is demonstrated that calculations for a buoyant jet with a large temperature difference are performed faster by the modified solver.
Influence of mesh non-orthogonality on numerical simulation of buoyant jet flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishigaki, Masahiro, E-mail: ishigaki.masahiro@jaea.go.jp; Abe, Satoshi; Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke
2017-04-01
Highlights: • Influence of mesh non-orthogonality on numerical solution of buoyant jet flows. • Buoyant jet flows are simulated with hexahedral and prismatic meshes. • Jet instability with prismatic meshes may be overestimated compared to that with hexahedral meshes. • Modified solvers that can reduce the influence of mesh non-orthogonality and reduce computation time are proposed. - Abstract: In the present research, we discuss the influence of mesh non-orthogonality on numerical solution of a type of buoyant flow. Buoyant jet flows are simulated numerically with hexahedral and prismatic mesh elements in an open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code called “OpenFOAM”. Buoyant jet instability obtained with the prismatic meshes may be overestimated compared to that obtained with the hexahedral meshes when non-orthogonal correction is not applied in the code. Although the non-orthogonal correction method can improve the instability generated by mesh non-orthogonality, it may increase computation time required to reach a convergent solution. Thus, we propose modified solvers that can reduce the influence of mesh non-orthogonality and reduce the computation time compared to the existing solvers in OpenFOAM. It is demonstrated that calculations for a buoyant jet with a large temperature difference are performed faster by the modified solver.
In vitro bioactivity of 3D Ti-mesh with bioceramic coatings in simulated body fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Yi
2014-09-01
Full Text Available 3D Ti-mesh has been coated with bioceramics under different coating conditions, such as material compositions and micro-porosity, using a dip casting method. Hydroxyapatite (HA, micro-HA particles (HAp, a bioglass (BG and their different mixtures together with polymer additives were used to control HA-coating microstructures. Layered composites with the following coating-to-substrate designs, such as BG/Ti, HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti, were fabricated. The bioactivity of these coated composites and the uncoated Ti-mesh substrate was then investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF. The Ti-mesh substrate and BG/Ti composite did not induce biomimetic apatite deposition when they were immersed in SBF for the selected BG, a pressable dental ceramic, used in this study. After seven days in SBF, an apatite layer was formed on both HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti composites. The difference is the apatite layer on the HAp + BG/BG/Ti composite was rougher and contained more micro-pores, while the apatite layer on the HA + BG/BG/Ti composite was dense and smooth. The formation of biomimetic apatite, being more bioresorbable, is favored for bone regeneration.
Hernández-Gascón, B; Peña, E; Melero, H; Pascual, G; Doblaré, M; Ginebra, M P; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B
2011-11-01
The material properties of meshes used in hernia surgery contribute to the overall mechanical behaviour of the repaired abdominal wall. The mechanical response of a surgical mesh has to be defined since the haphazard orientation of an anisotropic mesh can lead to inconsistent surgical outcomes. This study was designed to characterize the mechanical behaviour of three surgical meshes (Surgipro®, Optilene® and Infinit®) and to describe a mechanical constitutive law that accurately reproduces the experimental results. Finally, through finite element simulation, the behaviour of the abdominal wall was modelled before and after surgical mesh implant. Uniaxial loading of mesh samples in two perpendicular directions revealed the isotropic response of Surgipro® and the anisotropic behaviour of Optilene® and Infinit®. A phenomenological constitutive law was used to reproduce the measured experimental curves. To analyze the mechanical effect of the meshes once implanted in the abdomen, finite element simulation of the healthy and partially herniated repaired rabbit abdominal wall served to reproduce wall behaviour before and after mesh implant. In all cases, maximal displacements were lower and maximal principal stresses higher in the implanted abdomen than the intact wall model. Despite the fact that no mesh showed a behaviour that perfectly matched that of abdominal muscle, the Infinit® mesh was able to best comply with the biomechanics of the abdominal wall. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Direct numerical simulation of bubbles with parallelized adaptive mesh refinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talpaert, A.
2015-01-01
The study of two-phase Thermal-Hydraulics is a major topic for Nuclear Engineering for both security and efficiency of nuclear facilities. In addition to experiments, numerical modeling helps to knowing precisely where bubbles appear and how they behave, in the core as well as in the steam generators. This work presents the finest scale of representation of two-phase flows, Direct Numerical Simulation of bubbles. We use the 'Di-phasic Low Mach Number' equation model. It is particularly adapted to low-Mach number flows, that is to say flows which velocity is much slower than the speed of sound; this is very typical of nuclear thermal-hydraulics conditions. Because we study bubbles, we capture the front between vapor and liquid phases thanks to a downward flux limiting numerical scheme. The specific discrete analysis technique this work introduces is well-balanced parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). With AMR, we refined the coarse grid on a batch of patches in order to locally increase precision in areas which matter more, and capture fine changes in the front location and its topology. We show that patch-based AMR is very adapted for parallel computing. We use a variety of physical examples: forced advection, heat transfer, phase changes represented by a Stefan model, as well as the combination of all those models. We will present the results of those numerical simulations, as well as the speed up compared to equivalent non-AMR simulation and to serial computation of the same problems. This document is made up of an abstract and the slides of the presentation. (author)
Go with the Flow. Moving meshes and solution monitoring for compressible flow simulation
van Dam, A.
2009-01-01
The simulation of time-dependent physical problems, such as flows of some kind, places high demands on the domain discretization in order to obtain high accuracy of the numerical solution. We present a moving mesh method in which the mesh points automatically move towards regions where high spatial
Accurate halo-galaxy mocks from automatic bias estimation and particle mesh gravity solvers
Vakili, Mohammadjavad; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Feng, Yu; Yepes, Gustavo; Zhao, Cheng; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Hahn, ChangHoon
2017-12-01
Reliable extraction of cosmological information from clustering measurements of galaxy surveys requires estimation of the error covariance matrices of observables. The accuracy of covariance matrices is limited by our ability to generate sufficiently large number of independent mock catalogues that can describe the physics of galaxy clustering across a wide range of scales. Furthermore, galaxy mock catalogues are required to study systematics in galaxy surveys and to test analysis tools. In this investigation, we present a fast and accurate approach for generation of mock catalogues for the upcoming galaxy surveys. Our method relies on low-resolution approximate gravity solvers to simulate the large-scale dark matter field, which we then populate with haloes according to a flexible non-linear and stochastic bias model. In particular, we extend the PATCHY code with an efficient particle mesh algorithm to simulate the dark matter field (the FASTPM code), and with a robust MCMC method relying on the EMCEE code for constraining the parameters of the bias model. Using the haloes in the BigMultiDark high-resolution N-body simulation as a reference catalogue, we demonstrate that our technique can model the bivariate probability distribution function (counts-in-cells), power spectrum and bispectrum of haloes in the reference catalogue. Specifically, we show that the new ingredients permit us to reach percentage accuracy in the power spectrum up to k ∼ 0.4 h Mpc-1 (within 5 per cent up to k ∼ 0.6 h Mpc-1) with accurate bispectra improving previous results based on Lagrangian perturbation theory.
How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science
Hirshon, B.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hallau, K. G.; Solomon, S. C.; Vanhala, H.; Weir, H. M.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach (Epo) Team
2010-12-01
How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science In the film The Last Starfighter, an alien civilization grooms their future champion—a kid on Earth—using a video game. As he gains proficiency in the game, he masters the skills he needs to pilot a starship and save their civilization. The NASA MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team is using the same tactic to train citizen scientists to help the Science Team explore the planet Mercury. We are building a new series of games that appear to be designed primarily for fun, but that guide players through a knowledge and skill set that they will need for future science missions in support of MESSENGER mission scientists. As players score points, they gain expertise. Once they achieve a sufficiently high score, they will be invited to become participants in Mercury Zoo, a new program being designed by Zooniverse. Zooniverse created Galaxy Zoo and Moon Zoo, programs that allow interested citizens to participate in the exploration and interpretation of galaxy and lunar data. Scientists use the citizen interpretations to further refine their exploration of the same data, thereby narrowing their focus and saving precious time. Mercury Zoo will be designed with input from the MESSENGER Science Team. This project will not only support the MESSENGER mission, but it will also add to the growing cadre of informed members of the public available to help with other citizen science projects—building on the concept that engaged, informed citizens can help scientists make new discoveries. The MESSENGER EPO Team comprises individuals from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE); Center for Educational Resources (CERES) at Montana State University (MSU) - Bozeman; National Center for Earth and Space Science Education (NCESSE); Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL); National Air and Space Museum (NASM); Science
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Litvin, F
1999-01-01
An integrated tooth contact analysis (TCA) computer program for the simulation of meshing and contact of gear drives that calculates transmission errors and shift of hearing contact for misaligned gear drives has been developed...
Linac particle tracing simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lysenko, W.P.
1979-01-01
A particle tracing code was developed to study space--charge effects in proton or heavy-ion linear accelerators. The purpose is to study space--charge phenomena as directly as possible without the complications of many accelerator details. Thus, the accelerator is represented simply by harmonic oscillator or impulse restoring forces. Variable parameters as well as mismatched phase--space distributions were studied. This study represents the initial search for those features of the accelerator or of the phase--space distribution that lead to emittance growth
Numerical analysis of splashing fluid using hybrid method of mesh-based and particle-based modelings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Nobuatsu; Ogawara, Takuya; Kaneda, Takeshi; Maseguchi, Ryo
2009-01-01
In order to simulate splashing and scattering fluid behaviors, we developed a hybrid method of mesh-based model for large-scale continuum fluid and particle-based model for small-scale discrete fluid particles. As for the solver of the continuum fluid, we adopt the CIVA RefIned Multiphase SimulatiON (CRIMSON) code to evaluate two phase flow behaviors based on the recent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The phase field model has been introduced to the CRIMSON in order to solve the problem of loosing phase interface sharpness in long-term calculation. As for the solver of the discrete fluid droplets, we applied the idea of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Both continuum fluid and discrete fluid interact each other through drag interaction force. We verified our method by applying it to a popular benchmark problem of collapse of water column problems, especially focusing on the splashing and scattering fluid behaviors after the column collided against the wall. We confirmed that the gross splashing and scattering behaviors were well reproduced by the introduction of particle model while the detailed behaviors of the particles were slightly different from the experimental results. (author)
Optimization-based Fluid Simulation on Unstructured Meshes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bridson, Robert; Erleben, Kenny
2010-01-01
for solving the fluid dynamics equations as well as direct access to the interface geometry data, making in- clusion of a new surface energy term feasible. Furthermore, using an unstructured mesh makes it straightforward to handle curved solid boundaries and gives us a possibility to explore several fluid...
Parallel Performance Optimizations on Unstructured Mesh-based Simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarje, Abhinav; Song, Sukhyun; Jacobsen, Douglas; Huck, Kevin; Hollingsworth, Jeffrey; Malony, Allen; Williams, Samuel; Oliker, Leonid
2015-01-01
© The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This paper addresses two key parallelization challenges the unstructured mesh-based ocean modeling code, MPAS-Ocean, which uses a mesh based on Voronoi tessellations: (1) load imbalance across processes, and (2) unstructured data access patterns, that inhibit intra- and inter-node performance. Our work analyzes the load imbalance due to naive partitioning of the mesh, and develops methods to generate mesh partitioning with better load balance and reduced communication. Furthermore, we present methods that minimize both inter- and intranode data movement and maximize data reuse. Our techniques include predictive ordering of data elements for higher cache efficiency, as well as communication reduction approaches. We present detailed performance data when running on thousands of cores using the Cray XC30 supercomputer and show that our optimization strategies can exceed the original performance by over 2×. Additionally, many of these solutions can be broadly applied to a wide variety of unstructured grid-based computations.
The numerical simulation study of hemodynamics of the new dense-mesh stent
Ma, Jiali; Yuan, Zhishan; Yu, Xuebao; Feng, Zhaowei; Miao, Weidong; Xu, Xueli; Li, Juntao
2017-09-01
The treatment of aortic aneurysm in new dense mesh stent is based on the principle of hemodynamic changes. But the mechanism is not yet very clear. This paper analyzed and calculated the hemodynamic situation before and after the new dense mesh stent implanting by the method of numerical simulation. The results show the dense mesh stent changed and impacted the blood flow in the aortic aneurysm. The changes include significant decrement of blood velocity, pressure and shear forces, while ensuring blood can supply branches, which means the new dense mesh stent's hemodynamic mechanism in the treatment of aortic aneurysm is clearer. It has very important significance in developing new dense mesh stent in order to cure aortic aneurysm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hummels, Cameron B.; Bryan, Greg L.
2012-01-01
We carry out adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations of Milky Way mass halos in order to investigate the formation of disk-like galaxies in a Λ-dominated cold dark matter model. We evolve a suite of five halos to z = 0 and find a gas disk formation in each; however, in agreement with previous smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations (that did not include a subgrid feedback model), the rotation curves of all halos are centrally peaked due to a massive spheroidal component. Our standard model includes radiative cooling and star formation, but no feedback. We further investigate this angular momentum problem by systematically modifying various simulation parameters including: (1) spatial resolution, ranging from 1700 to 212 pc; (2) an additional pressure component to ensure that the Jeans length is always resolved; (3) low star formation efficiency, going down to 0.1%; (4) fixed physical resolution as opposed to comoving resolution; (5) a supernova feedback model that injects thermal energy to the local cell; and (6) a subgrid feedback model which suppresses cooling in the immediate vicinity of a star formation event. Of all of these, we find that only the last (cooling suppression) has any impact on the massive spheroidal component. In particular, a simulation with cooling suppression and feedback results in a rotation curve that, while still peaked, is considerably reduced from our standard runs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balaven-Clermidy, S.
2001-12-01
Oil reservoir simulations study multiphase flows in porous media. These flows are described and evaluated through numerical schemes on a discretization of the reservoir domain. In this thesis, we were interested in this spatial discretization and a new kind of hybrid mesh has been proposed where the radial nature of flows in the vicinity of wells is directly taken into account in the geometry. Our modular approach described wells and their drainage area through radial circular meshes. These well meshes are inserted in a structured reservoir mesh (a Corner Point Geometry mesh) made up with hexahedral cells. Finally, in order to generate a global conforming mesh, proper connections are realized between the different kinds of meshes through unstructured transition ones. To compute these transition meshes that we want acceptable in terms of finite volume methods, an automatic method based on power diagrams has been developed. Our approach can deal with a homogeneous anisotropic medium and allows the user to insert vertical or horizontal wells as well as secondary faults in the reservoir mesh. Our work has been implemented, tested and validated in 2D and 2D1/2. It can also be extended in 3D when the geometrical constraints are simplicial ones: points, segments and triangles. (author)
Coupling of a 3-D vortex particle-mesh method with a finite volume near-wall solver
Marichal, Y.; Lonfils, T.; Duponcheel, M.; Chatelain, P.; Winckelmans, G.
2011-11-01
This coupling aims at improving the computational efficiency of high Reynolds number bluff body flow simulations by using two complementary methods and exploiting their respective advantages in distinct parts of the domain. Vortex particle methods are particularly well suited for free vortical flows such as wakes or jets (the computational domain -with non zero vorticity- is then compact and dispersion errors are negligible). Finite volume methods, however, can handle boundary layers much more easily due to anisotropic mesh refinement. In the present approach, the vortex method is used in the whole domain (overlapping domain technique) but its solution is highly underresolved in the vicinity of the wall. It thus has to be corrected by the near-wall finite volume solution at each time step. Conversely, the vortex method provides the outer boundary conditions for the near-wall solver. A parallel multi-resolution vortex particle-mesh approach is used here along with an Immersed Boundary method in order to take the walls into account. The near-wall flow is solved by OpenFOAM® using the PISO algorithm. We validate the methodology on the flow past a sphere at a moderate Reynolds number. F.R.S. - FNRS Research Fellow.
Plasma physics via particle simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birdsall, C.K.
1981-01-01
Plasmas are studied by following the motion of many particles in applied and self fields, analytically, experimentally and computationally. Plasmas for magnetic fusion energy devices are very hot, nearly collisionless and magnetized, with scale lengths of many ion gyroradii and Debye lengths. The analytic studies of such plasmas are very difficult as the plasma is nonuniform, anisotropic and nonlinear. The experimental studies have become very expensive in time and money, as the size, density and temperature approach fusion reactor values. Computational studies using many particles and/or fluids have complemented both theories and experiments for many years and have progressed to fully three dimensional electromagnetic models, albeit with hours of running times on the fastest largest computers. Particle simulation methods are presented in some detail, showing particle advance from acceleration to velocity to position, followed by calculation of the fields from charge and current densities and then further particle advance, and so on. Limitations due to the time stepping and use of a spatial grid are given, to avoid inaccuracies and instabilities. Examples are given for an electrostatic program in one dimension of an orbit averaging program, and for a three dimensional electromagnetic program. Applications of particle simulations of plasmas in magnetic and inertial fusion devices continue to grow, as well as to plasmas and beams in peripheral devices, such as sources, accelerators, and converters. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlidis, D.; Lathouwers, D.
2011-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics model with anisotropic mesh adaptivity is used to investigate coolant flow and heat transfer in pebble bed reactors. A novel method for implicitly incorporating solid boundaries based on multi-fluid flow modelling is adopted. The resulting model is able to resolve and simulate flow and heat transfer in randomly packed beds, regardless of the actual geometry, starting off with arbitrarily coarse meshes. The model is initially evaluated using an orderly stacked square channel of channel-height-to-particle diameter ratio of unity for a range of Reynolds numbers. The model is then applied to the face-centred cubical geometry. Coolant flow and heat transfer patterns are investigated. (author)
Carvalho, Sílvia C. P.; de Lima, João L. M. P.; de Lima, M. Isabel P.
2013-04-01
Rainfall simulators can be a powerful tool to increase our understanding of hydrological and geomorphological processes. Nevertheless, rainfall simulators' design and operation might be rather demanding, for achieving specific rainfall intensity distributions and drop characteristics. The pressurized simulators have some advantages over the non-pressurized simulators: drops do not rely on gravity to reach terminal velocity, but are sprayed out under pressure; pressurized simulators also yield a broad range of drop sizes in comparison with drop-formers simulators. The main purpose of this study was to explore in the laboratory the potential of combining spray nozzle simulators with meshes in order to change rainfall characteristics (rainfall intensity and diameters and fall speed of drops). Different types of spray nozzles were tested, such as single full-cone and multiple full-cone nozzles. The impact of the meshes on the simulated rain was studied by testing different materials (i.e. plastic and steel meshes), square apertures and wire thicknesses, and different vertical distances between the nozzle and the meshes underneath. The diameter and fall speed of the rain drops were measured using a Laser Precipitation Monitor (Thies Clima). The rainfall intensity range and coefficients of uniformity of the sprays and the drop size distribution, fall speed and kinetic energy were analysed. Results show that when meshes intercept drop trajectories the spatial distribution of rainfall intensity and the drop size distribution are affected. As the spray nozzles generate typically small drop sizes and narrow drop size distributions, meshes can be used to promote the formation of bigger drops and random their landing positions.
Numerical simulation of deformation of dynamic mesh in the human vocal tract model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Řidký Václav
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulation of the acoustic signal generation in the human vocal tract is a very complex problem. The computational mesh is not static; it is deformed due to vibration of vocal folds. Movement of vocal folds is in this case prescribed as function of translation and rotation. A new boundary condition for the 2DOF motion of the vocal folds was implemented in OpenFOAM, an open-source software package based on finite volume method Work is focused on the dynamic mesh and deformation of structured meshes in the computation a package OpenFOAM. These methods are compared with focus onquality of the mesh (non-orthogonality, aspect ratio and skewness.
Microscopic Simulation of Particle Detectors
Schindler, Heinrich
Detailed computer simulations are indispensable tools for the development and optimization of modern particle detectors. The interaction of particles with the sensitive medium, giving rise to ionization or excitation of atoms, is stochastic by its nature. The transport of the resulting photons and charge carriers, which eventually generate the observed signal, is also subject to statistical fluctuations. Together with the readout electronics, these processes - which are ultimately governed by the atomic cross-sections for the respective interactions - pose a fundamental limit to the achievable detector performance. Conventional methods for calculating electron drift lines based on macroscopic transport coefficients used to provide an adequate description for traditional gas-based particle detectors such as wire chambers. However, they are not suitable for small-scale devices such as micropattern gas detectors, which have significantly gained importance in recent years. In this thesis, a novel approach, bas...
Numerical simulation of 3D unsteady flow in a rotating pump by dynamic mesh technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, S; Guo, J; Yang, F X
2013-01-01
In this paper, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for three kinds of typical rotating pumps, roots blower, roto-jet pump and centrifugal pump, were performed using the three-dimensional Dynamic Mesh technique. In the unsteady simulation, all the computational domains, as stationary, were set in one inertial reference frame. The motions of the solid boundaries were defined by the Profile file in FLUENT commercial code, in which the rotational orientation and speed of the rotors were specified. Three methods (Spring-based Smoothing, Dynamic Layering and Local Re-meshing) were used to achieve mesh deformation and re-meshing. The unsteady solutions of flow field and pressure distribution were solved. After a start-up stage, the flow parameters exhibit time-periodic behaviour corresponding to blade passing frequency of rotor. This work shows that Dynamic Mesh technique could achieve numerical simulation of three-dimensional unsteady flow field in various kinds of rotating pumps and have a strong versatility and broad application prospects
Tetrahedral-Mesh Simulation of Turbulent Flows with the Space-Time Conservative Schemes
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji; Cheng, Gary C.
2015-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows are predominantly carried out using structured, hexahedral meshes despite decades of development in unstructured mesh methods. Tetrahedral meshes offer ease of mesh generation around complex geometries and the potential of an orientation free grid that would provide un-biased small-scale dissipation and more accurate intermediate scale solutions. However, due to the lack of consistent multi-dimensional numerical formulations in conventional schemes for triangular and tetrahedral meshes at the cell interfaces, numerical issues exist when flow discontinuities or stagnation regions are present. The space-time conservative conservation element solution element (CESE) method - due to its Riemann-solver-free shock capturing capabilities, non-dissipative baseline schemes, and flux conservation in time as well as space - has the potential to more accurately simulate turbulent flows using unstructured tetrahedral meshes. To pave the way towards accurate simulation of shock/turbulent boundary-layer interaction, a series of wave and shock interaction benchmark problems that increase in complexity, are computed in this paper with triangular/tetrahedral meshes. Preliminary computations for the normal shock/turbulence interactions are carried out with a relatively coarse mesh, by direct numerical simulations standards, in order to assess other effects such as boundary conditions and the necessity of a buffer domain. The results indicate that qualitative agreement with previous studies can be obtained for flows where, strong shocks co-exist along with unsteady waves that display a broad range of scales, with a relatively compact computational domain and less stringent requirements for grid clustering near the shock. With the space-time conservation properties, stable solutions without any spurious wave reflections can be obtained without a need for buffer domains near the outflow/farfield boundaries. Computational results for the
Integration of Heat Transfer, Stress, and Particle Trajectory Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thuc Bui; Michael Read; Lawrence ives
2012-05-17
Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed and currently markets Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA) in the United States and abroad. BOA is a 3D, charged particle optics code that solves the electric and magnetic fields with and without the presence of particles. It includes automatic and adaptive meshing to resolve spatial scales ranging from a few millimeters to meters. It is fully integrated with CAD packages, such as SolidWorks, allowing seamless geometry updates. The code includes iterative procedures for optimization, including a fully functional, graphical user interface. Recently, time dependent, particle in cell capability was added, pushing particles synchronically under quasistatic electromagnetic fields to obtain particle bunching under RF conditions. A heat transfer solver was added during this Phase I program. Completed tasks include: (1) Added a 3D finite element heat transfer solver with adaptivity; (2) Determined the accuracy of the linear heat transfer field solver to provide the basis for development of higher order solvers in Phase II; (3) Provided more accurate and smoother power density fields; and (4) Defined the geometry using the same CAD model, while maintaining different meshes, and interfacing the power density field between the particle simulator and heat transfer solvers. These objectives were achieved using modern programming techniques and algorithms. All programming was in C++ and parallelization in OpenMP, utilizing state-of-the-art multi-core technology. Both x86 and x64 versions are supported. The GUI design and implementation used Microsoft Foundation Class.
Simulation of halo particles with Simpsons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machida, Shinji
2003-01-01
Recent code improvements and some simulation results of halo particles with Simpsons will be presented. We tried to identify resonance behavior of halo particles by looking at tune evolution of individual macro particle
Simulation of halo particles with Simpsons
Machida, Shinji
2003-12-01
Recent code improvements and some simulation results of halo particles with Simpsons will be presented. We tried to identify resonance behavior of halo particles by looking at tune evolution of individual macro particle.
Enhanced Mesh-Free Simulation of Regolith Flow, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs simulation tools capable of predicting the behavior of regolith in proposed excavation, transport, and handling or sample acquisition systems. For...
Impact of mesh and DEM resolutions in SEM simulation of 3D seismic response
Khan, Saad; van der Meijde, M.; van der Werff, H.M.A.; Shafique, Muhammad
2017-01-01
This study shows that the resolution of a digital elevation model (DEM) and model mesh strongly influences 3D simulations of seismic response. Topographic heterogeneity scatters seismic waves and causes variation in seismic response (am-plification and deamplification of seismic amplitudes) at the
Figueredo-Cardero, Alvio; Chico, Ernesto; Castilho, Leda R; Medronho, Ricardo A
2009-11-01
In the present work Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to study the flow field and particle dynamics in an internal spin-filter (SF) bioreactor system. Evidence of a radial exchange flow through the filter mesh was detected, with a magnitude up to 130-fold higher than the perfusion flow, thus significantly contributing to radial drag. The exchange flow magnitude was significantly influenced by the filter rotation rate, but not by the perfusion flow, within the ranges evaluated. Previous reports had only given indirect evidences of this exchange flow phenomenon in spin-filters, but the current simulations were able to quantify and explain it. Flow pattern inside the spin-filter bioreactor resembled a typical Taylor-Couette flow, with vortices being formed in the annular gap and eventually penetrating the internal volume of the filter, thus being the probable reason for the significant exchange flow observed. The simulations also showed that cells become depleted in the vicinity of the mesh due to lateral particle migration. Cell concentration near the filter was approximately 50% of the bulk concentration, explaining why cell separation achieved in SFs is not solely due to size exclusion. The results presented indicate the power of CFD techniques to study and better understand spin-filter systems, aiming at the establishment of effective design, operation and scale-up criteria.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshizuka, Seiichi
2011-01-01
The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is one of the particle methods in which continuum mechanics is analyzed using the concept of particles. Since meshes are not used, large deformation of free surfaces and material interfaces can be simulated without the problems of mesh distortion. Thus, the MPS method has been applied to multiphase flow analysis in nuclear engineering. The advantages of the particle methods are also useful for applications in other engineering fields: ship engineering, civil engineering, microflow, biomechanics, visualization, etc. In this review, calculation examples are described and classified. Commercial codes have been released and applied in industries. The particle methods are also used in TV programs, movies, and computer games. Combinations of numerical techniques for multiphysics problems, fast calculations, and high-quality visualizations are expected to lead to real-time particle simulations for various new applications in the near future. (author)
Liu, Peter X.; Lai, Pinhua; Xu, Shaoping; Zou, Yanni
2018-01-01
In the present work, the majority of implemented virtual surgery simulation systems have been based on either a mesh or meshless strategy with regard to soft tissue modelling. To take full advantage of the mesh and meshless models, a novel coupled soft tissue cutting model is proposed. Specifically, the reconstructed virtual soft tissue consists of two essential components. One is associated with surface mesh that is convenient for surface rendering and the other with internal meshless point elements that is used to calculate the force feedback during cutting. To combine two components in a seamless way, virtual points are introduced. During the simulation of cutting, the Bezier curve is used to characterize smooth and vivid incision on the surface mesh. At the same time, the deformation of internal soft tissue caused by cutting operation can be treated as displacements of the internal point elements. Furthermore, we discussed and proved the stability and convergence of the proposed approach theoretically. The real biomechanical tests verified the validity of the introduced model. And the simulation experiments show that the proposed approach offers high computational efficiency and good visual effect, enabling cutting of soft tissue with high stability. PMID:29850006
Salinas, P.; Pavlidis, D.; Jacquemyn, C.; Lei, Q.; Xie, Z.; Pain, C.; Jackson, M.
2017-12-01
It is well known that the pressure gradient into a production well increases with decreasing distance to the well. To properly capture the local pressure drawdown into the well a high grid or mesh resolution is required; moreover, the location of the well must be captured accurately. In conventional simulation models, the user must interact with the model to modify grid resolution around wells of interest, and the well location is approximated on a grid defined early in the modelling process.We report a new approach for improved simulation of near wellbore flow in reservoir scale models through the use of dynamic mesh optimisation and the recently presented double control volume finite element method. Time is discretized using an adaptive, implicit approach. Heterogeneous geologic features are represented as volumes bounded by surfaces. Within these volumes, termed geologic domains, the material properties are constant. Up-, cross- or down-scaling of material properties during dynamic mesh optimization is not required, as the properties are uniform within each geologic domain. A given model typically contains numerous such geologic domains. Wells are implicitly coupled with the domain, and the fluid flows is modelled inside the wells. The method is novel for two reasons. First, a fully unstructured tetrahedral mesh is used to discretize space, and the spatial location of the well is specified via a line vector, ensuring its location even if the mesh is modified during the simulation. The well location is therefore accurately captured, the approach allows complex well trajectories and wells with many laterals to be modelled. Second, computational efficiency is increased by use of dynamic mesh optimization, in which an unstructured mesh adapts in space and time to key solution fields (preserving the geometry of the geologic domains), such as pressure, velocity or temperature, this also increases the quality of the solutions by placing higher resolution where required
Mesh-based weight window approach for Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, L.; Gardner, R.P.
1997-01-01
The Monte Carlo method has been increasingly used to solve particle transport problems. Statistical fluctuation from random sampling is the major limiting factor of its application. To obtain the desired precision, variance reduction techniques are indispensable for most practical problems. Among various variance reduction techniques, the weight window method proves to be one of the most general, powerful, and robust. The method is implemented in the current MCNP code. An importance map is estimated during a regular Monte Carlo run, and then the map is used in the subsequent run for splitting and Russian roulette games. The major drawback of this weight window method is lack of user-friendliness. It normally requires that users divide the large geometric cells into smaller ones by introducing additional surfaces to ensure an acceptable spatial resolution of the importance map. In this paper, we present a new weight window approach to overcome this drawback
Zarzycki, C. M.; Gettelman, A.; Callaghan, P.
2017-12-01
Accurately predicting weather extremes such as precipitation (floods and droughts) and temperature (heat waves) requires high resolution to resolve mesoscale dynamics and topography at horizontal scales of 10-30km. Simulating such resolutions globally for climate scales (years to decades) remains computationally impractical. Simulating only a small region of the planet is more tractable at these scales for climate applications. This work describes global simulations using variable-resolution static meshes with multiple dynamical cores that target the continental United States using developmental versions of the Community Earth System Model version 2 (CESM2). CESM2 is tested in idealized, aquaplanet and full physics configurations to evaluate variable mesh simulations against uniform high and uniform low resolution simulations at resolutions down to 15km. Different physical parameterization suites are also evaluated to gauge their sensitivity to resolution. Idealized variable-resolution mesh cases compare well to high resolution tests. More recent versions of the atmospheric physics, including cloud schemes for CESM2, are more stable with respect to changes in horizontal resolution. Most of the sensitivity is due to sensitivity to timestep and interactions between deep convection and large scale condensation, expected from the closure methods. The resulting full physics model produces a comparable climate to the global low resolution mesh and similar high frequency statistics in the high resolution region. Some biases are reduced (orographic precipitation in the western United States), but biases do not necessarily go away at high resolution (e.g. summertime JJA surface Temp). The simulations are able to reproduce uniform high resolution results, making them an effective tool for regional climate studies and are available in CESM2.
Fuel-steel mixing and radial mesh effects in power excursion simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, X.-N.; Rineiski, A.; Gabrielli, F.; Andriolo, L.; Vezzoni, B.; Li, R.; Maschek, W.; Kiefhaber, E.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Fuel-steel mixing and radial mesh effects are significant on power excursion. • The earliest power peak is reduced and retarded by these two effects. • Unprotected loss of coolant transients in ESFR core are calculated. - Abstract: This paper deals with SIMMER-III once-through simulations of the earliest power excursion initiated by an unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) in the Working Horse design of the European Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (ESFR). Since the sodium void effect is strictly positive in this core and dominant in the transient, a power excursion is initiated by sodium boiling in the ULOF case. Two major effects, namely (1) reactivity effects due to fuel-steel mixing after melting and (2) the radial mesh size, which were not considered originally in SIMMER simulations for ESFR, are studied. The first effect concerns the reactivity difference between the heterogeneous fuel/clad/wrapper configuration and the homogeneous mixture of steel and fuel. The full core homogenization (due to melting) effect is −2 $, though a smaller effect takes place in case of partial core melting. The second effect is due to the SIMMER sub-assembly (SA) coarse mesh treatment, where a simultaneous sodium boiling onset in all SAs belonging to one ring leads to an overestimated reactivity ramp. For investigating the influence of fuel/steel mixing effects, a lumped “homogenization” reactivity feedback has been introduced, being proportional to the molten steel mass. For improving the coarse mesh treatment, we employ finer radial meshes to take the subchannel effects into account, where the side and interior channels have different coolant velocities and temperatures. The simulation results show that these two effects have significant impacts on the earliest power excursion after the sodium boiling.
H. Thorsdottir (Halldora)
2011-01-01
htmlabstractThe Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) method is used to solve the Quasi-Geostrophic model generalized to a sphere, using the Spherepack modeling package to solve the Helmholtz equation on a colatitude-longitude grid with spherical harmonics. The predicted energy conservation of a
Simulated Annealing Technique for Routing in a Rectangular Mesh Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noraziah Adzhar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the process of automatic design for printed circuit boards (PCBs, the phase following cell placement is routing. On the other hand, routing process is a notoriously difficult problem, and even the simplest routing problem which consists of a set of two-pin nets is known to be NP-complete. In this research, our routing region is first tessellated into a uniform Nx×Ny array of square cells. The ultimate goal for a routing problem is to achieve complete automatic routing with minimal need for any manual intervention. Therefore, shortest path for all connections needs to be established. While classical Dijkstra’s algorithm guarantees to find shortest path for a single net, each routed net will form obstacles for later paths. This will add complexities to route later nets and make its routing longer than the optimal path or sometimes impossible to complete. Today’s sequential routing often applies heuristic method to further refine the solution. Through this process, all nets will be rerouted in different order to improve the quality of routing. Because of this, we are motivated to apply simulated annealing, one of the metaheuristic methods to our routing model to produce better candidates of sequence.
Algebraic mesh generation for large scale viscous-compressible aerodynamic simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, R.E.
1984-01-01
Viscous-compressible aerodynamic simulation is the numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations and associated boundary conditions. Boundary-fitted coordinate systems are well suited for the application of finite difference techniques to the Navier-Stokes equations. An algebraic approach to boundary-fitted coordinate systems is one where an explicit functional relation describes a mesh on which a solution is obtained. This approach has the advantage of rapid-precise mesh control. The basic mathematical structure of three algebraic mesh generation techniques is described. They are transfinite interpolation, the multi-surface method, and the two-boundary technique. The Navier-Stokes equations are transformed to a computational coordinate system where boundary-fitted coordinates can be applied. Large-scale computation implies that there is a large number of mesh points in the coordinate system. Computation of viscous compressible flow using boundary-fitted coordinate systems and the application of this computational philosophy on a vector computer are presented
Modeling of magnetic particle suspensions for simulations
Satoh, Akira
2017-01-01
The main objective of the book is to highlight the modeling of magnetic particles with different shapes and magnetic properties, to provide graduate students and young researchers information on the theoretical aspects and actual techniques for the treatment of magnetic particles in particle-based simulations. In simulation, we focus on the Monte Carlo, molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, lattice Boltzmann and stochastic rotation dynamics (multi-particle collision dynamics) methods. The latter two simulation methods can simulate both the particle motion and the ambient flow field simultaneously. In general, specialized knowledge can only be obtained in an effective manner under the supervision of an expert. The present book is written to play such a role for readers who wish to develop the skill of modeling magnetic particles and develop a computer simulation program using their own ability. This book is therefore a self-learning book for graduate students and young researchers. Armed with this knowledge,...
Electromagnetic ''particle-in-cell'' plasma simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langdon, A.B.
1985-01-01
''PIC'' simulation tracks particles through electromagnetic fields calculated self-consistently from the charge and current densities of the particles themselves, external sources, and boundaries. Already used extensively in plasma physics, such simulations have become useful in the design of accelerators and their r.f. sources. 5 refs
Simulation of transients with space-dependent feedback by coarse mesh flux expansion method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langenbuch, S.; Maurer, W.; Werner, W.
1975-01-01
For the simulation of the time-dependent behaviour of large LWR-cores, even the most efficient Finite-Difference (FD) methods require a prohibitive amount of computing time in order to achieve results of acceptable accuracy. Static CM-solutions computed with a mesh-size corresponding to the fuel element structure (about 20 cm) are at least as accurate as FD-solutions computed with about 5 cm mesh-size. For 3d-calculations this results in a reduction of storage requirements by a factor 60 and of computing costs by a factor 40, relative to FD-methods. These results have been obtained for pure neutronic calculations, where feedback is not taken into account. In this paper it is demonstrated that the method retains its accuracy also in kinetic calculations, even in the presence of strong space dependent feedback. (orig./RW) [de
Visualization of particle in cell simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Ming; Cheng Yinhui
2003-01-01
This paper is trying to provide a new technique of the visualization for the Particle In Cell simulation, which takes effect by using the MATLAB external interface, so the real-time obsevation of particles came easier and more efficient. With this method, state of the particles, considered as 'particle cloud' can be found in the image produced automatically and their movement can be predicted. (authors)
Data parallel sorting for particle simulation
Dagum, Leonardo
1992-01-01
Sorting on a parallel architecture is a communications intensive event which can incur a high penalty in applications where it is required. In the case of particle simulation, only integer sorting is necessary, and sequential implementations easily attain the minimum performance bound of O (N) for N particles. Parallel implementations, however, have to cope with the parallel sorting problem which, in addition to incurring a heavy communications cost, can make the minimun performance bound difficult to attain. This paper demonstrates how the sorting problem in a particle simulation can be reduced to a merging problem, and describes an efficient data parallel algorithm to solve this merging problem in a particle simulation. The new algorithm is shown to be optimal under conditions usual for particle simulation, and its fieldwise implementation on the Connection Machine is analyzed in detail. The new algorithm is about four times faster than a fieldwise implementation of radix sort on the Connection Machine.
Simulations of flame generated particles
Patterson, Robert
2016-01-05
The nonlinear structure of the equations describing the evolution of a population of coagulating particles in a flame make the use of stochastic particle methods attractive for numerical purposes. I will present an analysis of the stochastic fluctuations inherent in these numerical methods leading to an efficient sampling technique for steady-state problems. I will also give some examples where stochastic particle methods have been used to explore the effect of uncertain parameters in soot formation models. In conclusion I will try to indicate some of the issues in optimising these methods for the study of uncertain model parameters.
Simulations of flame generated particles
Patterson, Robert
2016-01-01
The nonlinear structure of the equations describing the evolution of a population of coagulating particles in a flame make the use of stochastic particle methods attractive for numerical purposes. I will present an analysis of the stochastic fluctuations inherent in these numerical methods leading to an efficient sampling technique for steady-state problems. I will also give some examples where stochastic particle methods have been used to explore the effect of uncertain parameters in soot formation models. In conclusion I will try to indicate some of the issues in optimising these methods for the study of uncertain model parameters.
Numerical simulation of the laminar hydrogen flame in the presence of a quenching mesh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudriakov, S.; Studer, E.; Bin, C.
2011-01-01
Recent studies of J.H. Song et al., and S.Y. Yang et al. have been concentrated on mitigation measures against hydrogen risk. The authors have proposed installation of quenching meshes between compartments or around the essential equipment in order to contain hydrogen flames. Preliminary tests were conducted which demonstrated the possibility of flame extinction using metallic meshes of specific size. Considerable amount of numerical and theoretical work on flame quenching phenomenon has been performed in the second half of the last century and several techniques and models have been proposed to predict the quenching phenomenon of the laminar flame system. Most of these models appreciated the importance of heat loss to the surroundings as a primary cause of extinguishment, in particular, the heat transfer by conduction to the containing wall. The supporting simulations predict flame-quenching structure either between parallel plates (quenching distance) or inside a tube of a certain diameter (quenching diameter). In the present study the flame quenching is investigated assuming the laminar hydrogen flame propagating towards a quenching mesh using two-dimensional configuration and the earlier developed models. It is shown that due to a heat loss to a metallic grid the flame can be quenched numerically. (authors)
Monte Carlo Simulation for Particle Detectors
Pia, Maria Grazia
2012-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation is an essential component of experimental particle physics in all the phases of its life-cycle: the investigation of the physics reach of detector concepts, the design of facilities and detectors, the development and optimization of data reconstruction software, the data analysis for the production of physics results. This note briefly outlines some research topics related to Monte Carlo simulation, that are relevant to future experimental perspectives in particle physics. The focus is on physics aspects: conceptual progress beyond current particle transport schemes, the incorporation of materials science knowledge relevant to novel detection technologies, functionality to model radiation damage, the capability for multi-scale simulation, quantitative validation and uncertainty quantification to determine the predictive power of simulation. The R&D on simulation for future detectors would profit from cooperation within various components of the particle physics community, and synerg...
Micromagnetic simulations of spinel ferrite particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dantas, Christine C.; Gama, Adriana M.
2010-01-01
This paper presents the results of simulations of the magnetization field ac response (at 2-12 GHz) of various submicron ferrite particles (cylindrical dots). The ferrites in the present simulations have the spinel structure, expressed here by M 1 - n Zn n Fe 2 O 4 (where M stands for a divalent metal), and the parameters chosen were the following: (a) for n=0: M={Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Mg, Cu }; (b) for n=0.1: M = {Fe, Mg} (mixed ferrites). These runs represent full 3D micromagnetic (one-particle) ferrite simulations. We find evidences of confined spin waves in all simulations, as well as a complex behavior nearby the main resonance peak in the case of the M = {Mg, Cu} ferrites. A comparison of the n=0 and n=0.1 cases for fixed M reveals a significant change in the spectra in M = Mg ferrites, but only a minor change in the M=Fe case. An additional larger scale simulation of a 3 by 3 particle array was performed using similar conditions of the Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite; n=0, M = Fe) one-particle simulation. We find that the main resonance peak of the Fe 3 O 4 one-particle simulation is disfigured in the corresponding 3 by 3 particle simulation, indicating the extent to which dipolar interactions are able to affect the main resonance peak in that magnetic compound.
Audette, M. A.; Hertel, I.; Burgert, O.; Strauss, G.
This paper presents on-going work on a method for determining which subvolumes of a patient-specific tissue map, extracted from CT data of the head, are relevant to simulating endoscopic sinus surgery of that individual, and for decomposing these relevant tissues into triangles and tetrahedra whose mesh size is well controlled. The overall goal is to limit the complexity of the real-time biomechanical interaction while ensuring the clinical relevance of the simulation. Relevant tissues are determined as the union of the pathology present in the patient, of critical tissues deemed to be near the intended surgical path or pathology, and of bone and soft tissue near the intended path, pathology or critical tissues. The processing of tissues, prior to meshing, is based on the Fast Marching method applied under various guises, in a conditional manner that is related to tissue classes. The meshing is based on an adaptation of a meshing method of ours, which combines the Marching Tetrahedra method and the discrete Simplex mesh surface model to produce a topologically faithful surface mesh with well controlled edge and face size as a first stage, and Almost-regular Tetrahedralization of the same prescribed mesh size as a last stage.
Dynamic Mesh CFD Simulations of Orion Parachute Pendulum Motion During Atmospheric Entry
Halstrom, Logan D.; Schwing, Alan M.; Robinson, Stephen K.
2016-01-01
This paper demonstrates the usage of computational fluid dynamics to study the effects of pendulum motion dynamics of the NASAs Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle parachute system on the stability of the vehicles atmospheric entry and decent. Significant computational fluid dynamics testing has already been performed at NASAs Johnson Space Center, but this study sought to investigate the effect of bulk motion of the parachute, such as pitching, on the induced aerodynamic forces. Simulations were performed with a moving grid geometry oscillating according to the parameters observed in flight tests. As with the previous simulations, OVERFLOW computational fluid dynamics tool is used with the assumption of rigid, non-permeable geometry. Comparison to parachute wind tunnel tests is included for a preliminary validation of the dynamic mesh model. Results show qualitative differences in the flow fields of the static and dynamic simulations and quantitative differences in the induced aerodynamic forces, suggesting that dynamic mesh modeling of the parachute pendulum motion may uncover additional dynamic effects.
A collision model in plasma particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Yanyun; Chang Wenwei; Yin Yan; Yue Zongwu; Cao Lihua; Liu Daqing
2000-01-01
In order to offset the collisional effects reduced by using finite-size particles, β particle clouds are used in particle simulation codes (β is the ratio of charge or mass of modeling particles to real ones). The method of impulse approximation (strait line orbit approximation) is used to analyze the scattering cross section of β particle clouds plasmas. The authors can obtain the relation of the value of a and β and scattering cross section (a is the radius of β particle cloud). By using this relation the authors can determine the value of a and β so that the collisional effects of the modeling system is correspondent with the real one. The authors can also adjust the values of a and β so that the authors can enhance or reduce the collisional effects fictitiously. The results of simulation are in good agreement with the theoretical ones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenman, G.M.; O'Brien, M.J.; Procassini, R.J.; Joy, K.I.
2009-01-01
Two enhancements to the combinatorial geometry (CG) particle tracker in the Mercury Monte Carlo transport code are presented. The first enhancement is a hybrid particle tracker wherein a mesh region is embedded within a CG region. This method permits efficient calculations of problems with contain both large-scale heterogeneous and homogeneous regions. The second enhancement relates to the addition of parallelism within the CG tracker via spatial domain decomposition. This permits calculations of problems with a large degree of geometric complexity, which are not possible through particle parallelism alone. In this method, the cells are decomposed across processors and a particles is communicated to an adjacent processor when it tracks to an interprocessor boundary. Applications that demonstrate the efficacy of these new methods are presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pointer, William David [ORNL
2017-08-01
The objective of this effort is to establish a strategy and process for generation of suitable computational mesh for computational fluid dynamics simulations of departure from nucleate boiling in a 5 by 5 fuel rod assembly held in place by PWR mixing vane spacer grids. This mesh generation process will support ongoing efforts to develop, demonstrate and validate advanced multi-phase computational fluid dynamics methods that enable more robust identification of dryout conditions and DNB occurrence.Building upon prior efforts and experience, multiple computational meshes were developed using the native mesh generation capabilities of the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+. These meshes were used to simulate two test cases from the Westinghouse 5 by 5 rod bundle facility. The sensitivity of predicted quantities of interest to the mesh resolution was then established using two evaluation methods, the Grid Convergence Index method and the Least Squares method. This evaluation suggests that the Least Squares method can reliably establish the uncertainty associated with local parameters such as vector velocity components at a point in the domain or surface averaged quantities such as outlet velocity magnitude. However, neither method is suitable for characterization of uncertainty in global extrema such as peak fuel surface temperature, primarily because such parameters are not necessarily associated with a fixed point in space. This shortcoming is significant because the current generation algorithm for identification of DNB event conditions relies on identification of such global extrema. Ongoing efforts to identify DNB based on local surface conditions will address this challenge
Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Friedlander, David J.; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung
2016-01-01
Despite decades of development of unstructured mesh methods, high-fidelity time-accurate simulations are still predominantly carried out on structured, or unstructured hexahedral meshes by using high-order finite-difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO), or hybrid schemes formed by their combinations. In this work, the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is used to simulate several flow problems including supersonic jet/shock interaction and its impact on launch vehicle acoustics, and direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows using tetrahedral meshes. This paper provides a status report for the continuing development of the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) numerical and software framework under the Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) project. Solution accuracy and large-scale parallel performance of the numerical framework is assessed with the goal of providing a viable paradigm for future high-fidelity flow physics simulations.
Bmad: A relativistic charged particle simulation library
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagan, D.
2006-01-01
Bmad is a subroutine library for simulating relativistic charged particle beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. Bmad can be used to study both single and multi-particle beam dynamics using routines to track both particles and macroparticles. Bmad has various tracking algorithms including Runge-Kutta and symplectic (Lie algebraic) integration. Various effects such as wakefields, and radiation excitation and damping can be simulated. Bmad has been developed in a modular, object-oriented fashion to maximize flexibility. Interface routines allow Bmad to be called from C/C++ as well as Fortran programs. Bmad is well documented. Every routine is individually annotated, and there is an extensive manual
3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Pellet Injection in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samtaney, S.; Jardin, S.C.; Colella, P.; Martin, D.F.
2003-01-01
We present results of Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulations of the pellet injection process, a proven method of refueling tokamaks. AMR is a computationally efficient way to provide the resolution required to simulate realistic pellet sizes relative to device dimensions. The mathematical model comprises of single-fluid MHD equations with source terms in the continuity equation along with a pellet ablation rate model. The numerical method developed is an explicit unsplit upwinding treatment of the 8-wave formulation, coupled with a MAC projection method to enforce the solenoidal property of the magnetic field. The Chombo framework is used for AMR. The role of the E x B drift in mass redistribution during inside and outside pellet injections is emphasized
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hepburn, I.; De Schutter, E., E-mail: erik@oist.jp [Computational Neuroscience Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904 0495 (Japan); Theoretical Neurobiology & Neuroengineering, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2610 (Belgium); Chen, W. [Computational Neuroscience Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904 0495 (Japan)
2016-08-07
Spatial stochastic molecular simulations in biology are limited by the intense computation required to track molecules in space either in a discrete time or discrete space framework, which has led to the development of parallel methods that can take advantage of the power of modern supercomputers in recent years. We systematically test suggested components of stochastic reaction-diffusion operator splitting in the literature and discuss their effects on accuracy. We introduce an operator splitting implementation for irregular meshes that enhances accuracy with minimal performance cost. We test a range of models in small-scale MPI simulations from simple diffusion models to realistic biological models and find that multi-dimensional geometry partitioning is an important consideration for optimum performance. We demonstrate performance gains of 1-3 orders of magnitude in the parallel implementation, with peak performance strongly dependent on model specification.
Particle simulations in toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydemir, A.Y.
1992-09-01
A computational tool to be used in kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas is being developed. The initial goal of the project is to develop an electrostatic gyrokinetic model for studying transport and stability problems in tokamaks. In this brief report, preliminary results from the early stages of this effort are presented
Visual interrogation of gyrokinetic particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, Chad; Ma, K-L; Sanderson, Allen; Myers, Lee Roy Jr
2007-01-01
Gyrokinetic particle simulations are critical to the study of anomalous energy transport associated with plasma microturbulence in magnetic confinement fusion experiments. The simulations are conducted on massively parallel computers and produce large quantities of particles, variables, and time steps, thus presenting a formidable challenge to data analysis tasks. We present two new visualization techniques for scientists to improve their understanding of the time-varying, multivariate particle data. One technique allows scientists to examine correlations in multivariate particle data with tightly coupled views of the data in both physical space and variable space, and to visually identify and track features of interest. The second technique, built into SCIRun, allows scientists to perform range-based queries over a series of time slices and visualize the resulting particles using glyphs. The ability to navigate the multiple dimensions of the particle data, as well as query individual or a collection of particles, enables scientists to not only validate their simulations but also discover new phenomena in their data
Biastoch, Arne; Sein, Dmitry; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Wang, Qiang; Danilov, Sergey
2018-01-01
Many questions in ocean and climate modelling require the combined use of high resolution, global coverage and multi-decadal integration length. For this combination, even modern resources limit the use of traditional structured-mesh grids. Here we compare two approaches: A high-resolution grid nested into a global model at coarser resolution (NEMO with AGRIF) and an unstructured-mesh grid (FESOM) which allows to variably enhance resolution where desired. The Agulhas system around South Africa is used as a testcase, providing an energetic interplay of a strong western boundary current and mesoscale dynamics. Its open setting into the horizontal and global overturning circulations also requires global coverage. Both model configurations simulate a reasonable large-scale circulation. Distribution and temporal variability of the wind-driven circulation are quite comparable due to the same atmospheric forcing. However, the overturning circulation differs, owing each model's ability to represent formation and spreading of deep water masses. In terms of regional, high-resolution dynamics, all elements of the Agulhas system are well represented. Owing to the strong nonlinearity in the system, Agulhas Current transports of both configurations and in comparison with observations differ in strength and temporal variability. Similar decadal trends in Agulhas Current transport and Agulhas leakage are linked to the trends in wind forcing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
BO AN LEE
2014-02-01
Full Text Available An electrical resistance tomography (ERT technique combining the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm with the Gauss-Newton method is applied to the visualization of two-phase flows. In the ERT, the electrical conductivity distribution, namely the conductivity values of pixels (numerical meshes comprising the domain in the context of a numerical image reconstruction algorithm, is estimated with the known injected currents through the electrodes attached on the domain boundary and the measured potentials on those electrodes. In spite of many favorable characteristics of ERT such as no radiation, low cost, and high temporal resolution compared to other tomography techniques, one of the major drawbacks of ERT is low spatial resolution due to the inherent ill-posedness of conventional image reconstruction algorithms. In fact, the number of known data is much less than that of the unknowns (meshes. Recalling that binary mixtures like two-phase flows consist of only two substances with distinct electrical conductivities, this work adopts the PSO algorithm for mesh grouping to reduce the number of unknowns. In order to verify the enhanced performance of the proposed method, several numerical tests are performed. The comparison between the proposed algorithm and conventional Gauss-Newton method shows significant improvements in the quality of reconstructed images.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Bo An; Kim, Bong Seok; Ko, Min Seok; Kim, Kyung Young; Kim, Sin
2014-01-01
An electrical resistance tomography (ERT) technique combining the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with the Gauss-Newton method is applied to the visualization of two-phase flows. In the ERT, the electrical conductivity distribution, namely the conductivity values of pixels (numerical meshes) comprising the domain in the context of a numerical image reconstruction algorithm, is estimated with the known injected currents through the electrodes attached on the domain boundary and the measured potentials on those electrodes. In spite of many favorable characteristics of ERT such as no radiation, low cost, and high temporal resolution compared to other tomography techniques, one of the major drawbacks of ERT is low spatial resolution due to the inherent ill-posedness of conventional image reconstruction algorithms. In fact, the number of known data is much less than that of the unknowns (meshes). Recalling that binary mixtures like two-phase flows consist of only two substances with distinct electrical conductivities, this work adopts the PSO algorithm for mesh grouping to reduce the number of unknowns. In order to verify the enhanced performance of the proposed method, several numerical tests are performed. The comparison between the proposed algorithm and conventional Gauss-Newton method shows significant improvements in the quality of reconstructed images
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Bo An; Kim, Bong Seok; Ko, Min Seok; Kim, Kyung Young; Kim, Sin [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)
2014-02-15
An electrical resistance tomography (ERT) technique combining the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with the Gauss-Newton method is applied to the visualization of two-phase flows. In the ERT, the electrical conductivity distribution, namely the conductivity values of pixels (numerical meshes) comprising the domain in the context of a numerical image reconstruction algorithm, is estimated with the known injected currents through the electrodes attached on the domain boundary and the measured potentials on those electrodes. In spite of many favorable characteristics of ERT such as no radiation, low cost, and high temporal resolution compared to other tomography techniques, one of the major drawbacks of ERT is low spatial resolution due to the inherent ill-posedness of conventional image reconstruction algorithms. In fact, the number of known data is much less than that of the unknowns (meshes). Recalling that binary mixtures like two-phase flows consist of only two substances with distinct electrical conductivities, this work adopts the PSO algorithm for mesh grouping to reduce the number of unknowns. In order to verify the enhanced performance of the proposed method, several numerical tests are performed. The comparison between the proposed algorithm and conventional Gauss-Newton method shows significant improvements in the quality of reconstructed images.
Multi-Algorithm Particle Simulations with Spatiocyte.
Arjunan, Satya N V; Takahashi, Koichi
2017-01-01
As quantitative biologists get more measurements of spatially regulated systems such as cell division and polarization, simulation of reaction and diffusion of proteins using the data is becoming increasingly relevant to uncover the mechanisms underlying the systems. Spatiocyte is a lattice-based stochastic particle simulator for biochemical reaction and diffusion processes. Simulations can be performed at single molecule and compartment spatial scales simultaneously. Molecules can diffuse and react in 1D (filament), 2D (membrane), and 3D (cytosol) compartments. The implications of crowded regions in the cell can be investigated because each diffusing molecule has spatial dimensions. Spatiocyte adopts multi-algorithm and multi-timescale frameworks to simulate models that simultaneously employ deterministic, stochastic, and particle reaction-diffusion algorithms. Comparison of light microscopy images to simulation snapshots is supported by Spatiocyte microscopy visualization and molecule tagging features. Spatiocyte is open-source software and is freely available at http://spatiocyte.org .
Yu, Sang-Hui; Oh, Seunghan; Cho, Hye-Won; Bae, Ji-Myung
2017-11-01
Studies that evaluated the strength of complete dentures reinforced with glass-fiber mesh or metal mesh on a cast with a simulated oral mucosa are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the mechanical properties of maxillary complete dentures reinforced with glass-fiber mesh with those of metal mesh in a new test model, using a simulated oral mucosa. Complete dentures reinforced with 2 types of glass-fiber mesh, SES mesh (SES) and glass cloth (GC) and metal mesh (metal) were fabricated. Complete dentures without any reinforcement were prepared as a control (n=10). The complete dentures were located on a cast with a simulated oral mucosa, and a load was applied on the posterior artificial teeth bilaterally. The fracture load, elastic modulus, and toughness of a complete denture were measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The fracture load and elastic modulus were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance, and the toughness was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=.05). The Tukey multiple range test was used as a post hoc test. The fracture load and toughness of the SES group was significantly higher than that of the metal and control groups (P<.05) but not significantly different from that of the GC group. The elastic modulus of the metal group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<.05), and no significant differences were observed in the SES and GC groups. Compared with the control group, the fracture load and toughness of the SES and GC groups were higher, while those of the metal group were not significantly different. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zenitani, Seiji
2015-01-01
Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zenitani, Seiji, E-mail: seiji.zenitani@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2015-04-15
Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.
A particle finite element method for machining simulations
Sabel, Matthias; Sator, Christian; Müller, Ralf
2014-07-01
The particle finite element method (PFEM) appears to be a convenient technique for machining simulations, since the geometry and topology of the problem can undergo severe changes. In this work, a short outline of the PFEM-algorithm is given, which is followed by a detailed description of the involved operations. The -shape method, which is used to track the topology, is explained and tested by a simple example. Also the kinematics and a suitable finite element formulation are introduced. To validate the method simple settings without topological changes are considered and compared to the standard finite element method for large deformations. To examine the performance of the method, when dealing with separating material, a tensile loading is applied to a notched plate. This investigation includes a numerical analysis of the different meshing parameters, and the numerical convergence is studied. With regard to the cutting simulation it is found that only a sufficiently large number of particles (and thus a rather fine finite element discretisation) leads to converged results of process parameters, such as the cutting force.
Gyrokinetic particle simulation of neoclassical transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.
1995-01-01
A time varying weighting (δf ) scheme for gyrokinetic particle simulation is applied to a steady-state, multispecies simulation of neoclassical transport. Accurate collision operators conserving momentum and energy are developed and implemented. Simulation results using these operators are found to agree very well with neoclassical theory. For example, it is dynamically demonstrated that like-particle collisions produce no particle flux and that the neoclassical fluxes are ambipolar for an ion--electron plasma. An important physics feature of the present scheme is the introduction of toroidal flow to the simulations. Simulation results are in agreement with the existing analytical neoclassical theory. The poloidal electric field associated with toroidal mass flow is found to enhance density gradient-driven electron particle flux and the bootstrap current while reducing temperature gradient-driven flux and current. Finally, neoclassical theory in steep gradient profile relevant to the edge regime is examined by taking into account finite banana width effects. In general, in the present work a valuable new capability for studying important aspects of neoclassical transport inaccessible by conventional analytical calculation processes is demonstrated. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Yuan, H. Z.; Wang, Y.; Shu, C.
2017-12-01
This paper presents an adaptive mesh refinement-multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver (AMR-MLBFS) for effective simulation of complex binary fluid flows at large density ratios. In this method, an AMR algorithm is proposed by introducing a simple indicator on the root block for grid refinement and two possible statuses for each block. Unlike available block-structured AMR methods, which refine their mesh by spawning or removing four child blocks simultaneously, the present method is able to refine its mesh locally by spawning or removing one to four child blocks independently when the refinement indicator is triggered. As a result, the AMR mesh used in this work can be more focused on the flow region near the phase interface and its size is further reduced. In each block of mesh, the recently proposed MLBFS is applied for the solution of the flow field and the level-set method is used for capturing the fluid interface. As compared with existing AMR-lattice Boltzmann models, the present method avoids both spatial and temporal interpolations of density distribution functions so that converged solutions on different AMR meshes and uniform grids can be obtained. The proposed method has been successfully validated by simulating a static bubble immersed in another fluid, a falling droplet, instabilities of two-layered fluids, a bubble rising in a box, and a droplet splashing on a thin film with large density ratios and high Reynolds numbers. Good agreement with the theoretical solution, the uniform-grid result, and/or the published data has been achieved. Numerical results also show its effectiveness in saving computational time and virtual memory as compared with computations on uniform meshes.
Simulation of capillary bridges between nanoscale particles.
Dörmann, Michael; Schmid, Hans-Joachim
2014-02-04
Capillary forces are very important as they exceed in general other adhesion forces. But at the same time the exact calculation of these forces is very complex, so often assumptions and approximations are used. Previous research was done with regard to micrometer sized particles, but the behavior of nanoscale particles is different. Hence, the results for micrometer sized particles cannot be directly transferred when considering nanoscale particles. Therefore, a simulation method was developed to calculate numerically the shape of a rotationally symmetrical capillary bridge between two spherical particles or a particle and a plate. The capillary bridge in the gap between the particles is formed due to capillary condensation and is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the gas phase. Hence the Kelvin equation and the Young-Laplace equation can be used to calculate the profile of the capillary bridge, depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. The bridge profile consists of several elements that are determined consecutively and interpolated linearly. After the shape is determined, the volume and force, divided into capillary pressure force and surface tension force, can be calculated. The validation of this numerical model will be shown by comparison with several different analytical calculations for micrometer-sized particles. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that two often used approximations, (1) the toroidal approximation and (2) the use of an effective radius, cannot be used for nanoscale particles without remarkable mistake. It will be discussed how the capillary force and its components depend on different parameters, like particle size, relative humidity, contact angle, and distance, respectively. The rupture of a capillary bridge due to particle separation will also be presented.
Interactive methods for exploring particle simulation data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Co, Christopher S.; Friedman, Alex; Grote, David P.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Bethel, E. Wes; Joy, Kenneth I.
2004-05-01
In this work, we visualize high-dimensional particle simulation data using a suite of scatter plot-based visualizations coupled with interactive selection tools. We use traditional 2D and 3D projection scatter plots as well as a novel oriented disk rendering style to convey various information about the data. Interactive selection tools allow physicists to manually classify ''interesting'' sets of particles that are highlighted across multiple, linked views of the data. The power of our application is the ability to correspond new visual representations of the simulation data with traditional, well understood visualizations. This approach supports the interactive exploration of the high-dimensional space while promoting discovery of new particle behavior.
Computational plasticity algorithm for particle dynamics simulations
Krabbenhoft, K.; Lyamin, A. V.; Vignes, C.
2018-01-01
The problem of particle dynamics simulation is interpreted in the framework of computational plasticity leading to an algorithm which is mathematically indistinguishable from the common implicit scheme widely used in the finite element analysis of elastoplastic boundary value problems. This algorithm provides somewhat of a unification of two particle methods, the discrete element method and the contact dynamics method, which usually are thought of as being quite disparate. In particular, it is shown that the former appears as the special case where the time stepping is explicit while the use of implicit time stepping leads to the kind of schemes usually labelled contact dynamics methods. The framing of particle dynamics simulation within computational plasticity paves the way for new approaches similar (or identical) to those frequently employed in nonlinear finite element analysis. These include mixed implicit-explicit time stepping, dynamic relaxation and domain decomposition schemes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Landry, Guillaume; White, Shane; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank; D’Amours, Michel; Beaulieu, Luc
2014-01-01
Accounting for brachytherapy applicator attenuation is part of the recommendations from the recent report of AAPM Task Group 186. To do so, model based dose calculation algorithms require accurate modelling of the applicator geometry. This can be non-trivial in the case of irregularly shaped applicators such as the Fletcher Williamson gynaecological applicator or balloon applicators with possibly irregular shapes employed in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) performed using electronic brachytherapy sources (EBS). While many of these applicators can be modelled using constructive solid geometry (CSG), the latter may be difficult and time-consuming. Alternatively, these complex geometries can be modelled using tessellated geometries such as tetrahedral meshes (mesh geometries (MG)). Recent versions of Monte Carlo (MC) codes Geant4 and MCNP6 allow for the use of MG. The goal of this work was to model a series of applicators relevant to brachytherapy using MG. Applicators designed for 192 Ir sources and 50 kV EBS were studied; a shielded vaginal applicator, a shielded Fletcher Williamson applicator and an APBI balloon applicator. All applicators were modelled in Geant4 and MCNP6 using MG and CSG for dose calculations. CSG derived dose distributions were considered as reference and used to validate MG models by comparing dose distribution ratios. In general agreement within 1% for the dose calculations was observed for all applicators between MG and CSG and between codes when considering volumes inside the 25% isodose surface. When compared to CSG, MG required longer computation times by a factor of at least 2 for MC simulations using the same code. MCNP6 calculation times were more than ten times shorter than Geant4 in some cases. In conclusion we presented methods allowing for high fidelity modelling with results equivalent to CSG. To the best of our knowledge MG offers the most accurate representation of an irregular APBI balloon applicator. (paper)
Partially linearized algorithms in gyrokinetic particle simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimits, A.M.; Lee, W.W.
1990-10-01
In this paper, particle simulation algorithms with time-varying weights for the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson system have been developed. The primary purpose is to use them for the removal of the selected nonlinearities in the simulation of gradient-driven microturbulence so that the relative importance of the various nonlinear effects can be assessed. It is hoped that the use of these procedures will result in a better understanding of the transport mechanisms and scaling in tokamaks. Another application of these algorithms is for the improvement of the numerical properties of the simulation plasma. For instance, implementations of such algorithms (1) enable us to suppress the intrinsic numerical noise in the simulation, and (2) also make it possible to regulate the weights of the fast-moving particles and, in turn, to eliminate the associated high frequency oscillations. Examples of their application to drift-type instabilities in slab geometry are given. We note that the work reported here represents the first successful use of the weighted algorithms in particle codes for the nonlinear simulation of plasmas.
Partially linearized algorithms in gyrokinetic particle simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimits, A.M.; Lee, W.W.
1990-10-01
In this paper, particle simulation algorithms with time-varying weights for the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson system have been developed. The primary purpose is to use them for the removal of the selected nonlinearities in the simulation of gradient-driven microturbulence so that the relative importance of the various nonlinear effects can be assessed. It is hoped that the use of these procedures will result in a better understanding of the transport mechanisms and scaling in tokamaks. Another application of these algorithms is for the improvement of the numerical properties of the simulation plasma. For instance, implementations of such algorithms (1) enable us to suppress the intrinsic numerical noise in the simulation, and (2) also make it possible to regulate the weights of the fast-moving particles and, in turn, to eliminate the associated high frequency oscillations. Examples of their application to drift-type instabilities in slab geometry are given. We note that the work reported here represents the first successful use of the weighted algorithms in particle codes for the nonlinear simulation of plasmas
Track-structure simulations for charged particles.
Dingfelder, Michael
2012-11-01
Monte Carlo track-structure simulations provide a detailed and accurate picture of radiation transport of charged particles through condensed matter of biological interest. Liquid water serves as a surrogate for soft tissue and is used in most Monte Carlo track-structure codes. Basic theories of radiation transport and track-structure simulations are discussed and differences compared to condensed history codes highlighted. Interaction cross sections for electrons, protons, alpha particles, and light and heavy ions are required input data for track-structure simulations. Different calculation methods, including the plane-wave Born approximation, the dielectric theory, and semi-empirical approaches are presented using liquid water as a target. Low-energy electron transport and light ion transport are discussed as areas of special interest.
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
Zenitani, S.
2015-12-01
In order to study energetic plasma phenomena by using particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations, we need to deal with relativistic velocity distributions in these simulations. However, numerical algorithms to deal with relativistic distributions are not well known. In this contribution, we overview basic algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in PIC and Monte-Carlo simulations. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are newly proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are 50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.
Huang, W.; Zheng, Lingyun; Zhan, X.
2002-01-01
Accurate modelling of groundwater flow and transport with sharp moving fronts often involves high computational cost, when a fixed/uniform mesh is used. In this paper, we investigate the modelling of groundwater problems using a particular adaptive mesh method called the moving mesh partial differential equation approach. With this approach, the mesh is dynamically relocated through a partial differential equation to capture the evolving sharp fronts with a relatively small number of grid points. The mesh movement and physical system modelling are realized by solving the mesh movement and physical partial differential equations alternately. The method is applied to the modelling of a range of groundwater problems, including advection dominated chemical transport and reaction, non-linear infiltration in soil, and the coupling of density dependent flow and transport. Numerical results demonstrate that sharp moving fronts can be accurately and efficiently captured by the moving mesh approach. Also addressed are important implementation strategies, e.g. the construction of the monitor function based on the interpolation error, control of mesh concentration, and two-layer mesh movement. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonaka, A.; Aspden, A. J.; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Zingale, M.; Woosley, S. E.
2012-01-01
We extend our previous three-dimensional, full-star simulations of the final hours of convection preceding ignition in Type Ia supernovae to higher resolution using the adaptive mesh refinement capability of our low Mach number code, MAESTRO. We report the statistics of the ignition of the first flame at an effective 4.34 km resolution and general flow field properties at an effective 2.17 km resolution. We find that off-center ignition is likely, with radius of 50 km most favored and a likely range of 40-75 km. This is consistent with our previous coarser (8.68 km resolution) simulations, implying that we have achieved sufficient resolution in our determination of likely ignition radii. The dynamics of the last few hot spots preceding ignition suggest that a multiple ignition scenario is not likely. With improved resolution, we can more clearly see the general flow pattern in the convective region, characterized by a strong outward plume with a lower speed recirculation. We show that the convective core is turbulent with a Kolmogorov spectrum and has a lower turbulent intensity and larger integral length scale than previously thought (on the order of 16 km s –1 and 200 km, respectively), and we discuss the potential consequences for the first flames.
Direct numerical simulation of bubbles with adaptive mesh refinement with distributed algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talpaert, Arthur
2017-01-01
This PhD work presents the implementation of the simulation of two-phase flows in conditions of water-cooled nuclear reactors, at the scale of individual bubbles. To achieve that, we study several models for Thermal-Hydraulic flows and we focus on a technique for the capture of the thin interface between liquid and vapour phases. We thus review some possible techniques for adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) and provide algorithmic and computational tools adapted to patch-based AMR, which aim is to locally improve the precision in regions of interest. More precisely, we introduce a patch-covering algorithm designed with balanced parallel computing in mind. This approach lets us finely capture changes located at the interface, as we show for advection test cases as well as for models with hyperbolic-elliptic coupling. The computations we present also include the simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes system, which models the shape changes of the interface between two non-miscible fluids. (author) [fr
AbuAlSaud, Moataz
2012-07-01
The purpose of this thesis is to solve unsteady two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a moving mesh using implicit explicit (IMEX) Runge- Kutta scheme. The moving mesh is implemented in the equations using Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation. The inviscid part of the equation is explicitly solved using second-order Godunov method, whereas the viscous part is calculated implicitly. We simulate subsonic compressible flow over static NACA-0012 airfoil at different angle of attacks. Finally, the moving mesh is examined via oscillating the airfoil between angle of attack = 0 and = 20 harmonically. It is observed that the numerical solution matches the experimental and numerical results in the literature to within 20%.
Computer Models Simulate Fine Particle Dispersion
2010-01-01
Through a NASA Seed Fund partnership with DEM Solutions Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, scientists at Kennedy Space Center refined existing software to study the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces. The software, EDEM, allows users to import particles and obtain accurate representations of their shapes for modeling purposes, such as simulating bulk solids behavior, and was enhanced to be able to more accurately model fine, abrasive, cohesive particles. These new EDEM capabilities can be applied in many industries unrelated to space exploration and have been adopted by several prominent U.S. companies, including John Deere, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble.
Radial particle distributions in PARMILA simulation beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boicourt, G.P.
1984-03-01
The estimation of beam spill in particle accelerators is becoming of greater importance as higher current designs are being funded. To the present, no numerical method for predicting beam-spill has been available. In this paper, we present an approach to the loss-estimation problem that uses probability distributions fitted to particle-simulation beams. The properties of the PARMILA code's radial particle distribution are discussed, and a broad class of probability distributions are examined to check their ability to fit it. The possibility that the PARMILA distribution is a mixture is discussed, and a fitting distribution consisting of a mixture of two generalized gamma distributions is found. An efficient algorithm to accomplish the fit is presented. Examples of the relative prediction of beam spill are given. 26 references, 18 figures, 1 table
Implicit particle simulation of electromagnetic plasma phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamimura, T.; Montalvo, E.; Barnes, D.C.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Tajima, T.
1986-11-01
A direct method for the implicit particle simulation of electromagnetic phenomena in magnetized, multi-dimensional plasmas is developed. The method is second-order accurate for ωΔt < 1, with ω a characteristic frequency and time step Δt. Direct time integration of the implicit equations with simplified space differencing allows the consistent inclusion of finite particle size. Decentered time differencing of the Lorentz force permits the efficient simulation of strongly magnetized plasmas. A Fourier-space iterative technique for solving the implicit field corrector equation, based on the separation of plasma responses perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field and longitudinal and transverse to the wavevector, is described. Wave propagation properties in a uniform plasma are in excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. Applications to collisionless tearing and coalescence instabilities further demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithm. (author)
De Colle, Fabio; Granot, Jonathan; López-Cámara, Diego; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2012-02-01
We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with ρvpropr -k , bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the relativistic flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; López-Cámara, Diego
2012-01-01
We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with ρ∝r –k , bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the relativistic flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Granot, Jonathan [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Lopez-Camara, Diego [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)
2012-02-20
We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -k}, bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the
A dynamic mesh refinement technique for Lattice Boltzmann simulations on octree-like grids
Neumann, Philipp
2012-04-27
In this contribution, we present our new adaptive Lattice Boltzmann implementation within the Peano framework, with special focus on nanoscale particle transport problems. With the continuum hypothesis not holding anymore on these small scales, new physical effects - such as Brownian fluctuations - need to be incorporated. We explain the overall layout of the application, including memory layout and access, and shortly review the adaptive algorithm. The scheme is validated by different benchmark computations in two and three dimensions. An extension to dynamically changing grids and a spatially adaptive approach to fluctuating hydrodynamics, allowing for the thermalisation of the fluid in particular regions of interest, is proposed. Both dynamic adaptivity and adaptive fluctuating hydrodynamics are validated separately in simulations of particle transport problems. The application of this scheme to an oscillating particle in a nanopore illustrates the importance of Brownian fluctuations in such setups. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
A multilevel particle method for gas dynamics: application to multi-fluids simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weynans, Lisl
2006-12-01
In inertial confinement fusion, laser implosions require to know hydrodynamic flow in presence of shocks. This work is devoted to the evaluation of the ability of a particle-mesh method, inspired from Vortex-In-Cell methods, to simulate gas dynamics, especially multi-fluids. First, we develop a particle method, associated with a conservative re-meshing step, which is performed with high order interpolating kernels. We study theoretically and numerically this method. This analysis gives evidence of a strong relationship between the particle method and high order Lax-Wendroff-like finite difference schemes. We introduce a new scheme for the advection of particles. Then we implement a multilevel technique, inspired from AMR, which allows us to increase locally the accuracy of the computations. Finally we develop a level set-like technique, discretized on the particles, to simulate the interface between compressible flows. We use the multilevel technique to improve the interface resolution and the conservation of partial masses. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skillman, Samuel W.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O.; Smith, Britton D.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Turk, Matthew J.
2011-01-01
Cosmological shocks are a critical part of large-scale structure formation, and are responsible for heating the intracluster medium in galaxy clusters. In addition, they are capable of accelerating non-thermal electrons and protons. In this work, we focus on the acceleration of electrons at shock fronts, which is thought to be responsible for radio relics-extended radio features in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters. By combining high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement/N-body cosmological simulations with an accurate shock-finding algorithm and a model for electron acceleration, we calculate the expected synchrotron emission resulting from cosmological structure formation. We produce synthetic radio maps of a large sample of galaxy clusters and present luminosity functions and scaling relationships. With upcoming long-wavelength radio telescopes, we expect to see an abundance of radio emission associated with merger shocks in the intracluster medium. By producing observationally motivated statistics, we provide predictions that can be compared with observations to further improve our understanding of magnetic fields and electron shock acceleration.
Integration of Heat Transfer, Stress, and Particle Trajectory Simulation. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bui, Thuc; Read, Michael; Ives, Lawrence
2012-01-01
Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed and currently markets Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA) in the United States and abroad. BOA is a 3D, charged particle optics code that solves the electric and magnetic fields with and without the presence of particles. It includes automatic and adaptive meshing to resolve spatial scales ranging from a few millimeters to meters. It is fully integrated with CAD packages, such as SolidWorks, allowing seamless geometry updates. The code includes iterative procedures for optimization, including a fully functional, graphical user interface. Recently, time dependent, particle in cell capability was added, pushing particles synchronically under quasistatic electromagnetic fields to obtain particle bunching under RF conditions. A heat transfer solver was added during this Phase I program. Completed tasks include: (1) Added a 3D finite element heat transfer solver with adaptivity; (2) Determined the accuracy of the linear heat transfer field solver to provide the basis for development of higher order solvers in Phase II; (3) Provided more accurate and smoother power density fields; and (4) Defined the geometry using the same CAD model, while maintaining different meshes, and interfacing the power density field between the particle simulator and heat transfer solvers. These objectives were achieved using modern programming techniques and algorithms. All programming was in C++ and parallelization in OpenMP, utilizing state-of-the-art multi-core technology. Both x86 and x64 versions are supported. The GUI design and implementation used Microsoft Foundation Class.
Particle simulation of 3D galactic hydrodynamics on the ICL DAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johns, T.C.; Nelson, A.H.
1985-01-01
A non-self-gravitating galactic hydrodynamics code based on a quasi-particle technique and making use of a mesh for force evaluation and sorting purposes is described. The short-range nature of the interparticle pressure forces, coupled with the use of a mesh allows a particularly fast algorithm. The 3D representation of the galaxy is mapped onto the ''3D'' main store of ICL DAP in a natural way, the 2 spatial dimensions in the plane of the galaxy becoming the 2 dimensions of the processor plane on the DAP and the third dimension varying within individual processor storage elements. This leads to a fairly straightforward implementation and a high degree of parallelism in the crucial parts of the code. The particle shuffling which is necessary after each timestep is facilitated by the use of a parallel variant of the bitonic sorting algorithm. Some results of simulations using a 63x63x16 mesh and about 50,000 particles to follow the evolution of a model disk galaxy are presented
Cortical imaging on a head template: a simulation study using a resistor mesh model (RMM).
Chauveau, Nicolas; Franceries, Xavier; Aubry, Florent; Celsis, Pierre; Rigaud, Bernard
2008-09-01
The T1 head template model used in Statistical Parametric Mapping Version 2000 (SPM2), was segmented into five layers (scalp, skull, CSF, grey and white matter) and implemented in 2 mm voxels. We designed a resistor mesh model (RMM), based on the finite volume method (FVM) to simulate the electrical properties of this head model along the three axes for each voxel. Then, we introduced four dipoles of high eccentricity (about 0.8) in this RMM, separately and simultaneously, to compute the potentials for two sets of conductivities. We used the direct cortical imaging technique (CIT) to recover the simulated dipoles, using 60 or 107 electrodes and with or without addition of Gaussian white noise (GWN). The use of realistic conductivities gave better CIT results than standard conductivities, lowering the blurring effect on scalp potentials and displaying more accurate position areas when CIT was applied to single dipoles. Simultaneous dipoles were less accurately localized, but good qualitative and stable quantitative results were obtained up to 5% noise level for 107 electrodes and up to 10% noise level for 60 electrodes, showing that a compromise must be found to optimize both the number of electrodes and the noise level. With the RMM defined in 2 mm voxels, the standard 128-electrode cap and 5% noise appears to be the upper limit providing reliable source positions when direct CIT is used. The admittance matrix defining the RMM is easy to modify so as to adapt to different conductivities. The next step will be the adaptation of individual real head T2 images to the RMM template and the introduction of anisotropy using diffusion imaging (DI).
Recent progress of hybrid simulation for energetic particles and MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todo, Y.
2013-01-01
Several hybrid simulation models have been constructed to study the evolution of Alfven eigenmodes destabilized by energetic particles. Recent hybrid simulation results of energetic particle driven instabilities are presented in this paper. (J.P.N.)
Maljaars, Jakob M.; Labeur, Robert Jan; Möller, Matthias
2018-04-01
A generic particle-mesh method using a hybridized discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) framework is presented and validated for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Building upon particle-in-cell concepts, the method is formulated in terms of an operator splitting technique in which Lagrangian particles are used to discretize an advection operator, and an Eulerian mesh-based HDG method is employed for the constitutive modeling to account for the inter-particle interactions. Key to the method is the variational framework provided by the HDG method. This allows to formulate the projections between the Lagrangian particle space and the Eulerian finite element space in terms of local (i.e. cellwise) ℓ2-projections efficiently. Furthermore, exploiting the HDG framework for solving the constitutive equations results in velocity fields which excellently approach the incompressibility constraint in a local sense. By advecting the particles through these velocity fields, the particle distribution remains uniform over time, obviating the need for additional quality control. The presented methodology allows for a straightforward extension to arbitrary-order spatial accuracy on general meshes. A range of numerical examples shows that optimal convergence rates are obtained in space and, given the particular time stepping strategy, second-order accuracy is obtained in time. The model capabilities are further demonstrated by presenting results for the flow over a backward facing step and for the flow around a cylinder.
Particle Simulation of Fractional Diffusion Equations
Allouch, Samer
2017-07-12
This work explores different particle-based approaches to the simulation of one-dimensional fractional subdiffusion equations in unbounded domains. We rely on smooth particle approximations, and consider four methods for estimating the fractional diffusion term. The first method is based on direct differentiation of the particle representation, it follows the Riesz definition of the fractional derivative and results in a non-conservative scheme. The other three methods follow the particle strength exchange (PSE) methodology and are by construction conservative, in the sense that the total particle strength is time invariant. The first PSE algorithm is based on using direct differentiation to estimate the fractional diffusion flux, and exploiting the resulting estimates in an integral representation of the divergence operator. Meanwhile, the second one relies on the regularized Riesz representation of the fractional diffusion term to derive a suitable interaction formula acting directly on the particle representation of the diffusing field. A third PSE construction is considered that exploits the Green\\'s function of the fractional diffusion equation. The performance of all four approaches is assessed for the case of a one-dimensional diffusion equation with constant diffusivity. This enables us to take advantage of known analytical solutions, and consequently conduct a detailed analysis of the performance of the methods. This includes a quantitative study of the various sources of error, namely filtering, quadrature, domain truncation, and time integration, as well as a space and time self-convergence analysis. These analyses are conducted for different values of the order of the fractional derivatives, and computational experiences are used to gain insight that can be used for generalization of the present constructions.
Particle Simulation of Fractional Diffusion Equations
Allouch, Samer; Lucchesi, Marco; Maî tre, O. P. Le; Mustapha, K. A.; Knio, Omar
2017-01-01
This work explores different particle-based approaches to the simulation of one-dimensional fractional subdiffusion equations in unbounded domains. We rely on smooth particle approximations, and consider four methods for estimating the fractional diffusion term. The first method is based on direct differentiation of the particle representation, it follows the Riesz definition of the fractional derivative and results in a non-conservative scheme. The other three methods follow the particle strength exchange (PSE) methodology and are by construction conservative, in the sense that the total particle strength is time invariant. The first PSE algorithm is based on using direct differentiation to estimate the fractional diffusion flux, and exploiting the resulting estimates in an integral representation of the divergence operator. Meanwhile, the second one relies on the regularized Riesz representation of the fractional diffusion term to derive a suitable interaction formula acting directly on the particle representation of the diffusing field. A third PSE construction is considered that exploits the Green's function of the fractional diffusion equation. The performance of all four approaches is assessed for the case of a one-dimensional diffusion equation with constant diffusivity. This enables us to take advantage of known analytical solutions, and consequently conduct a detailed analysis of the performance of the methods. This includes a quantitative study of the various sources of error, namely filtering, quadrature, domain truncation, and time integration, as well as a space and time self-convergence analysis. These analyses are conducted for different values of the order of the fractional derivatives, and computational experiences are used to gain insight that can be used for generalization of the present constructions.
Interoperable mesh components for large-scale, distributed-memory simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devine, K; Leung, V; Diachin, L; Miller, M
2009-01-01
SciDAC applications have a demonstrated need for advanced software tools to manage the complexities associated with sophisticated geometry, mesh, and field manipulation tasks, particularly as computer architectures move toward the petascale. In this paper, we describe a software component - an abstract data model and programming interface - designed to provide support for parallel unstructured mesh operations. We describe key issues that must be addressed to successfully provide high-performance, distributed-memory unstructured mesh services and highlight some recent research accomplishments in developing new load balancing and MPI-based communication libraries appropriate for leadership class computing. Finally, we give examples of the use of parallel adaptive mesh modification in two SciDAC applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kojima, T; Tange, A; Matsuda, K [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)
1997-10-01
For the purpose of continuous run without any maintenance, new DPF (diesel particulate filter)systems laminated by both metal-wire mesh and alumina-fiber mesh alternately, are under the developments. The perfect combustion of trapped diesel particulate can be achieved by a couple of the resistance heating devices inserted into the filter. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Camara, D.; Lazzati, Davide [Department of Physics, NC State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Morsony, Brian J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Begelman, Mitchell C., E-mail: dlopezc@ncsu.edu [JILA, University of Colorado, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)
2013-04-10
We present the results of special relativistic, adaptive mesh refinement, 3D simulations of gamma-ray burst jets expanding inside a realistic stellar progenitor. Our simulations confirm that relativistic jets can propagate and break out of the progenitor star while remaining relativistic. This result is independent of the resolution, even though the amount of turbulence and variability observed in the simulations is greater at higher resolutions. We find that the propagation of the jet head inside the progenitor star is slightly faster in 3D simulations compared to 2D ones at the same resolution. This behavior seems to be due to the fact that the jet head in 3D simulations can wobble around the jet axis, finding the spot of least resistance to proceed. Most of the average jet properties, such as density, pressure, and Lorentz factor, are only marginally affected by the dimensionality of the simulations and therefore results from 2D simulations can be considered reliable.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
Mesh generation and visualization software based on the CGAL library. Folder content: drawmesh Visualize slices of the mesh (surface/volumetric) as wireframe on top of an image (3D). drawsurf Visualize surfaces of the mesh (surface/volumetric). img2mesh Convert isosurface in image to volumetric m...... mesh (medit format). img2off Convert isosurface in image to surface mesh (off format). off2mesh Convert surface mesh (off format) to volumetric mesh (medit format). reduce Crop and resize 3D and stacks of images. data Example data to test the library on...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Yuzhou, E-mail: yuzhousun@126.com; Chen, Gensheng; Li, Dongxia [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou (China)
2016-06-08
This paper attempts to study the application of mesh-free method in the numerical simulations of the higher-order continuum structures. A high-order bending beam considers the effect of the third-order derivative of deflections, and can be viewed as a one-dimensional higher-order continuum structure. The moving least-squares method is used to construct the shape function with the high-order continuum property, the curvature and the third-order derivative of deflections are directly interpolated with nodal variables and the second- and third-order derivative of the shape function, and the mesh-free computational scheme is establish for beams. The coupled stress theory is introduced to describe the special constitutive response of the layered rock mass in which the bending effect of thin layer is considered. The strain and the curvature are directly interpolated with the nodal variables, and the mesh-free method is established for the layered rock mass. The good computational efficiency is achieved based on the developed mesh-free method, and some key issues are discussed.
Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kim, Daeseung; Shen, Shunyao; Yuan, Peng; Liu, Siting; Tang, Zhen; Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Xiaobo; Gateno, Jaime; Liebschner, Michael A K; Xia, James J
2018-04-01
Accurate surgical planning and prediction of craniomaxillofacial surgery outcome requires simulation of soft tissue changes following osteotomy. This can only be achieved by using an anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model. The current state-of-the-art of model generation is not appropriate to clinical applications due to the time-intensive nature of manual segmentation and volumetric mesh generation. The conventional patient-specific finite element (FE) mesh generation methods are to deform a template FE mesh to match the shape of a patient based on registration. However, these methods commonly produce element distortion. Additionally, the mesh density for patients depends on that of the template model. It could not be adjusted to conduct mesh density sensitivity analysis. In this study, we propose a new framework of patient-specific facial soft tissue FE mesh generation. The goal of the developed method is to efficiently generate a high-quality patient-specific hexahedral FE mesh with adjustable mesh density while preserving the accuracy in anatomical structure correspondence. Our FE mesh is generated by eFace template deformation followed by volumetric parametrization. First, the patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model (including skin, mucosa, and muscles) is generated by deforming an eFace template model. The adaptation of the eFace template model is achieved by using a hybrid landmark-based morphing and dense surface fitting approach followed by a thin-plate spline interpolation. Then, high-quality hexahedral mesh is constructed by using volumetric parameterization. The user can control the resolution of hexahedron mesh to best reflect clinicians' need. Our approach was validated using 30 patient models and 4 visible human datasets. The generated patient-specific FE mesh showed high surface matching accuracy, element quality, and internal structure matching accuracy. They can be directly and effectively used for clinical
Computer simulation of backscattered alpha particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, A. Martin; Bland, C.J.; Timon, A. Fernandez
2000-01-01
Alpha-particle spectrometry forms an important aspect of radionuclide metrology. Accurate measurements require corrections to be made for factors such as self-absorption within the source and backscattering from the backing material. The theory of the latter phenomenon has only received limited attention. Furthermore the experimental verification of these theoretical results requires adequate counting statistics for a variety of sources with different activities. These problems could be resolved by computer simulations of the various interactions which occur as alpha-particles move through different materials. The pioneering work of Ziegler and his coworkers over several years, has provided the sophisticated software (SRIM) which has enabled us to obtain the results presented here. These results are compared with theoretical and experimental values obtained previously
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majander, E.O.J.; Manninen, M.T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)
1996-12-31
The flow induced by a pitched blade turbine was simulated using the sliding mesh technique. The detailed geometry of the turbine was modelled in a computational mesh rotating with the turbine and the geometry of the reactor including baffles was modelled in a stationary co-ordinate system. Effects of grid density were investigated. Turbulence was modelled by using the standard k-{epsilon} model. Results were compared to experimental observations. Velocity components were found to be in good agreement with the measured values throughout the tank. Averaged source terms were calculated from the sliding mesh simulations in order to investigate the reliability of the source term approach. The flow field in the tank was then simulated in a simple grid using these source terms. Agreement with the results of the sliding mesh simulations was good. Commercial CFD-code FLUENT was used in all simulations. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majander, E O.J.; Manninen, M T [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)
1997-12-31
The flow induced by a pitched blade turbine was simulated using the sliding mesh technique. The detailed geometry of the turbine was modelled in a computational mesh rotating with the turbine and the geometry of the reactor including baffles was modelled in a stationary co-ordinate system. Effects of grid density were investigated. Turbulence was modelled by using the standard k-{epsilon} model. Results were compared to experimental observations. Velocity components were found to be in good agreement with the measured values throughout the tank. Averaged source terms were calculated from the sliding mesh simulations in order to investigate the reliability of the source term approach. The flow field in the tank was then simulated in a simple grid using these source terms. Agreement with the results of the sliding mesh simulations was good. Commercial CFD-code FLUENT was used in all simulations. (author)
Electron gun simulation with CST PARTICLE STUDIO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spachmann, Holger; Becker, Ulrich
2006-01-01
This paper introduces CST PARTICLE STUDIO TM , a specialist tool for the fast and accurate design and analysis of 3D electron guns. The new software is based on the multi-purpose electromagnetic solvers of the CST STUDIO family and incorporates their powerful modelling capabilities as well as successful algorithms of the MAFIA-TS simulators. The underlying theory of the PBA based field solvers and the used tracking technique is presented and some examples of application demonstrate the current status of the software
Particle simulation in curvilinear coordinate systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.
1989-01-01
We present methods for particle simulation of plasmas in a nearly arbitrary coordinate metric and describe a toroidal electrostatic simulation code that evolved from this effort. A Mercier-type coordinate system is used, with a nonuniform radial grid for improved cross-field resolution. A fast iterative method for solving the Poisson equation is employed, and the interpolation/filtering technique shown to be momentum and energy conserving in the continuum limit. Lorentz ion and drift electron species are used. The code has been thoroughly tested for its reproduction of linear and nonlinear physics, and has been applied to the toroidal drift wave problem and its impact on anomalous transport in tokamaks. 40 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab
Becker, P.; Idelsohn, S. R.; Oñate, E.
2015-06-01
This paper describes a strategy to solve multi-fluid and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems using Lagrangian particles combined with a fixed finite element (FE) mesh. Our approach is an extension of the fluid-only PFEM-2 (Idelsohn et al., Eng Comput 30(2):2-2, 2013; Idelsohn et al., J Numer Methods Fluids, 2014) which uses explicit integration over the streamlines to improve accuracy. As a result, the convective term does not appear in the set of equations solved on the fixed mesh. Enrichments in the pressure field are used to improve the description of the interface between phases.
Pelties, Christian
2012-02-18
Accurate and efficient numerical methods to simulate dynamic earthquake rupture and wave propagation in complex media and complex fault geometries are needed to address fundamental questions in earthquake dynamics, to integrate seismic and geodetic data into emerging approaches for dynamic source inversion, and to generate realistic physics-based earthquake scenarios for hazard assessment. Modeling of spontaneous earthquake rupture and seismic wave propagation by a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method combined with an arbitrarily high-order derivatives (ADER) time integration method was introduced in two dimensions by de la Puente et al. (2009). The ADER-DG method enables high accuracy in space and time and discretization by unstructured meshes. Here we extend this method to three-dimensional dynamic rupture problems. The high geometrical flexibility provided by the usage of tetrahedral elements and the lack of spurious mesh reflections in the ADER-DG method allows the refinement of the mesh close to the fault to model the rupture dynamics adequately while concentrating computational resources only where needed. Moreover, ADER-DG does not generate spurious high-frequency perturbations on the fault and hence does not require artificial Kelvin-Voigt damping. We verify our three-dimensional implementation by comparing results of the SCEC TPV3 test problem with two well-established numerical methods, finite differences, and spectral boundary integral. Furthermore, a convergence study is presented to demonstrate the systematic consistency of the method. To illustrate the capabilities of the high-order accurate ADER-DG scheme on unstructured meshes, we simulate an earthquake scenario, inspired by the 1992 Landers earthquake, that includes curved faults, fault branches, and surface topography. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.
Optimization of Particle Search Algorithm for CFD-DEM Simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Baryshev
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Discrete element method has numerous applications in particle physics. However, simulating particles as discrete entities can become costly for large systems. In time-driven DEM simulation most computation time is taken by contact search stage. We propose an efficient collision detection method which is based on sorting particles by their coordinates. Using multiple sorting criteria allows minimizing number of potential neighbours and defines fitness of this approach for simulation of massive systems in 3D. This method is compared to a common approach that consists of placing particles onto a grid of cells. Advantage of the new approach is independence of simulation parameters upon particle radius and domain size.
Particle-transport simulation with the Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, L.L.; Cashwell, E.D.
1975-01-01
Attention is focused on the application of the Monte Carlo method to particle transport problems, with emphasis on neutron and photon transport. Topics covered include sampling methods, mathematical prescriptions for simulating particle transport, mechanics of simulating particle transport, neutron transport, and photon transport. A literature survey of 204 references is included. (GMT)
Numerical simulation of particle settling and cohesion in liquid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johno, Y; Nakashima, K; Shigematsu, T; Ono, B [SASEBO National College of Technology, 1-1 Okishin, Sasebo, Nagasaki, 857-1193 (Japan); Satomi, M, E-mail: yjohno@post.cc.sasebo.ac.j [Sony Semiconductor Kyushu Corporation, Kikuchigun, Kumamoto (Japan)
2009-02-01
In this study, the motions of particles and particle clusters in liquid were numerically simulated. The particles of two sizes (Dp=40mum and 20mum) settle while repeating cohesion and dispersion, and finally the sediment of particles are formed at the bottom of a hexahedron container which is filled up with pure water. The flow field was solved with the Navier-Stokes equations and the particle motions were solved with the Lagrangian-type motion equations, where the interaction between fluid and particles due to drag forces were taken into account. The collision among particles was calculated using Distinct Element Method (DEM), and the effects of cohesive forces by van der Waals force acting on particle contact points were taken into account. Numerical simulations were performed under conditions in still flow and in shear flow. It was found that the simulation results enable us to know the state of the particle settling and the particle condensation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Essadki Mohamed
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Predictive simulation of liquid fuel injection in automotive engines has become a major challenge for science and applications. The key issue in order to properly predict various combustion regimes and pollutant formation is to accurately describe the interaction between the carrier gaseous phase and the polydisperse evaporating spray produced through atomization. For this purpose, we rely on the EMSM (Eulerian Multi-Size Moment Eulerian polydisperse model. It is based on a high order moment method in size, with a maximization of entropy technique in order to provide a smooth reconstruction of the distribution, derived from a Williams-Boltzmann mesoscopic model under the monokinetic assumption [O. Emre (2014 PhD Thesis, École Centrale Paris; O. Emre, R.O. Fox, M. Massot, S. Chaisemartin, S. Jay, F. Laurent (2014 Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 93, 689-722; O. Emre, D. Kah, S. Jay, Q.-H. Tran, A. Velghe, S. de Chaisemartin, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2015 Atomization Sprays 25, 189-254; D. Kah, F. Laurent, M. Massot, S. Jay (2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231, 394-422; D. Kah, O. Emre, Q.-H. Tran, S. de Chaisemartin, S. Jay, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2015 Int. J. Multiphase Flows 71, 38-65; A. Vié, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2013 J. Comp. Phys. 237, 277-310]. The present contribution relies on a major extension of this model [M. Essadki, S. de Chaisemartin, F. Laurent, A. Larat, M. Massot (2016 Submitted to SIAM J. Appl. Math.], with the aim of building a unified approach and coupling with a separated phases model describing the dynamics and atomization of the interface near the injector. The novelty is to be found in terms of modeling, numerical schemes and implementation. A new high order moment approach is introduced using fractional moments in surface, which can be related to geometrical quantities of the gas-liquid interface. We also provide a novel algorithm for an accurate resolution of the evaporation. Adaptive mesh refinement properly scaling on massively
Schroeder, Craig; Zheng, Wen; Fedkiw, Ronald
2012-01-01
-implicit and fully-coupled viscosity, pressure, and Lagrangian forces. We apply our new framework for forces on a Lagrangian mesh to the case of a surface tension force, which when treated explicitly leads to a tight time step restriction. By applying surface tension
Transonic Airfoil Flow Simulation. Part I: Mesh Generation and Inviscid Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir CARDOS
2010-06-01
Full Text Available A calculation method for the subsonic and transonic viscous flow over airfoil using thedisplacement surface concept is described. Part I presents a mesh generation method forcomputational grid and a finite volume method for the time-dependent Euler equations. The inviscidsolution is used for the inviscid-viscous coupling procedure presented in the Part II.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caribe, Paulo Rauli Rafeson Vasconcelos; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Kramer, Richard; Khoury, Helen Jamil
2013-01-01
The use of three-dimensional models described by polygonal meshes in numerical dosimetry enables more accurate modeling of complex objects than the use of simple solid. The objectives of this work were validate the coupling of mesh models to the Monte Carlo code GEANT4 and evaluate the influence of the number of vertices in the simulations to obtain absorbed fractions of energy (AFEs). Validation of the coupling was performed to internal sources of photons with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV for spherical geometries described by the GEANT4 and three-dimensional models with different number of vertices and triangular or quadrilateral faces modeled using Blender program. As a result it was found that there were no significant differences between AFEs for objects described by mesh models and objects described using solid volumes of GEANT4. Since that maintained the shape and the volume the decrease in the number of vertices to describe an object does not influence so meant dosimetric data, but significantly decreases the time required to achieve the dosimetric calculations, especially for energies less than 100 keV
Enhanced stopping of macro-particles in particle-in-cell simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
May, J.; Tonge, J.; Ellis, I.; Mori, W. B.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Ren, C.
2014-01-01
We derive an equation for energy transfer from relativistic charged particles to a cold background plasma appropriate for finite-size particles that are used in particle-in-cell simulation codes. Expressions for one-, two-, and three-dimensional particles are presented, with special attention given to the two-dimensional case. This energy transfer is due to the electric field of the wake set up in the background plasma by the relativistic particle. The enhanced stopping is dependent on the q 2 /m, where q is the charge and m is the mass of the relativistic particle, and therefore simulation macro-particles with large charge but identical q/m will stop more rapidly. The stopping power also depends on the effective particle shape of the macro-particle. These conclusions are verified in particle-in-cell simulations. We present 2D simulations of test particles, relaxation of high-energy tails, and integrated fast ignition simulations showing that the enhanced drag on macro-particles may adversely affect the results of these simulations in a wide range of high-energy density plasma scenarios. We also describe a particle splitting algorithm which can potentially overcome this problem and show its effect in controlling the stopping of macro-particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes Lopez, Y.; Yervilla Herrera, H.; Viamontes Esquivel, A.; Recarey Morfa, C. A.
2009-01-01
In the following paper we developed a new method to interpolate large volumes of scattered data, focused mainly on the results of the Mesh free Methods, Points Methods and the Particles Methods application. Through this one, we use local radial basis function as interpolating functions. We also use over-tree as the data structure that allows to accelerate the localization of the data that influences to interpolate the values at a new point, speeding up the application of scientific visualization techniques to generate images from large data volumes from the application of Mesh-free Methods, Points and Particle Methods, in the resolution of diverse models of physics-mathematics. As an example, the results obtained after applying this method using the local interpolation functions of Shepard are shown. (Author) 22 refs
Schroeder, Craig
2012-02-01
We present a method for applying semi-implicit forces on a Lagrangian mesh to an Eulerian discretization of the Navier Stokes equations in a way that produces a sparse symmetric positive definite system. The resulting method has semi-implicit and fully-coupled viscosity, pressure, and Lagrangian forces. We apply our new framework for forces on a Lagrangian mesh to the case of a surface tension force, which when treated explicitly leads to a tight time step restriction. By applying surface tension as a semi-implicit Lagrangian force, the resulting method benefits from improved stability and the ability to take larger time steps. The resulting discretization is also able to maintain parasitic currents at low levels. © 2011.
Advanced visualization technology for terascale particle accelerator simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, K-L; Schussman, G.; Wilson, B.; Ko, K.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.
2002-01-01
This paper presents two new hardware-assisted rendering techniques developed for interactive visualization of the terascale data generated from numerical modeling of next generation accelerator designs. The first technique, based on a hybrid rendering approach, makes possible interactive exploration of large-scale particle data from particle beam dynamics modeling. The second technique, based on a compact texture-enhanced representation, exploits the advanced features of commodity graphics cards to achieve perceptually effective visualization of the very dense and complex electromagnetic fields produced from the modeling of reflection and transmission properties of open structures in an accelerator design. Because of the collaborative nature of the overall accelerator modeling project, the visualization technology developed is for both desktop and remote visualization settings. We have tested the techniques using both time varying particle data sets containing up to one billion particle s per time step and electromagnetic field data sets with millions of mesh elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyun, J.J.
1981-01-01
As part of an effort to incorporate the variable Eulerian mesh into the second-order PIC computational method, a truncation error analysis was performed to calculate the second-order error terms for the variable Eulerian mesh system. The results that the maximum mesh size increment/decrement is limited to be α(Δr/sub i/) 2 where Δr/sub i/ is a non-dimensional mesh size of the ith cell, and α is a constant of order one. The numerical solutions of Burgers' equation by the second-order PIC method in the variable Eulerian mesh system wer compared with its exact solution. It was found that the second-order accuracy in the PIC method was maintained under the above condition. Additional problems were analyzed using the second-order PIC methods in both variable and uniform Eulerian mesh systems. The results indicate that the second-order PIC method in the variable Eulerian mesh system can provide substantial computational time saving with no loss in accuracy
Flow simulation of a Pelton bucket using finite volume particle method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vessaz, C; Jahanbakhsh, E; Avellan, F
2014-01-01
The objective of the present paper is to perform an accurate numerical simulation of the high-speed water jet impinging on a Pelton bucket. To reach this goal, the Finite Volume Particle Method (FVPM) is used to discretize the governing equations. FVPM is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method, which combines attractive features of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and conventional mesh-based Finite Volume Method. This method is able to satisfy free surface and no-slip wall boundary conditions precisely. The fluid flow is assumed weakly compressible and the wall boundary is represented by one layer of particles located on the bucket surface. In the present study, the simulations of the flow in a stationary bucket are investigated for three different impinging angles: 72°, 90° and 108°. The particles resolution is first validated by a convergence study. Then, the FVPM results are validated with available experimental data and conventional grid-based Volume Of Fluid simulations. It is shown that the wall pressure field is in good agreement with the experimental and numerical data. Finally, the torque evolution and water sheet location are presented for a simulation of five rotating Pelton buckets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helmut Schomburg
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this work a numerical approach to predict the deposition behaviour of nano-scale particles on the surface of a single fibre by resolving the resulting dendrite-like particle structures in detail is presented. The gas flow simulation is carried out by a two-dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann method, which is coupled with a Lagrangian approach for the particle motion. To decrease calculation time and system requirements the Lattice-Boltzmann model is extended to allow for local grid refinement. Because of the a priori unknown location of deposition, the simulation procedure starts on a coarse mesh which is then locally refined in a fully adaptive way in regions of accumulated particles. After each deposition the fluid flow is recalculated in order to resolve the coupling of the flow with the growing particle structures correctly. For the purpose of avoiding unphysical blocking of flow by growing particle dendrites the Lattice-Boltzmann method is extended to permeable cells in these regions using the Brinkmann equation. This extended deposition model is compared to simpler approaches, where the deposit has no retroaction on the flow or is treated as a solid structure. It is clear that the permeable model is most realistic and allows considering the particle deposition on a fibre as two-dimensional problem. Comprehensive simulations were conducted for analysing the importance of different parameters, i.e. free-stream velocity and particle diameter on the deposit structure. The results of this sensitivity analysis agree qualitatively well with former published numerical and experimental results. Finally the structure of the particle deposit was quantitatively characterised by using a modified fractal dimension.
Kimura, Satoshi; Candy, Adam S.; Holland, Paul R.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Jenkins, Adrian
2013-07-01
Several different classes of ocean model are capable of representing floating glacial ice shelves. We describe the incorporation of ice shelves into Fluidity-ICOM, a nonhydrostatic finite-element ocean model with the capacity to utilize meshes that are unstructured and adaptive in three dimensions. This geometric flexibility offers several advantages over previous approaches. The model represents melting and freezing on all ice-shelf surfaces including vertical faces, treats the ice shelf topography as continuous rather than stepped, and does not require any smoothing of the ice topography or any of the additional parameterisations of the ocean mixed layer used in isopycnal or z-coordinate models. The model can also represent a water column that decreases to zero thickness at the 'grounding line', where the floating ice shelf is joined to its tributary ice streams. The model is applied to idealised ice-shelf geometries in order to demonstrate these capabilities. In these simple experiments, arbitrarily coarsening the mesh outside the ice-shelf cavity has little effect on the ice-shelf melt rate, while the mesh resolution within the cavity is found to be highly influential. Smoothing the vertical ice front results in faster flow along the smoothed ice front, allowing greater exchange with the ocean than in simulations with a realistic ice front. A vanishing water-column thickness at the grounding line has little effect in the simulations studied. We also investigate the response of ice shelf basal melting to variations in deep water temperature in the presence of salt stratification.
Data simulation for the Associated Particle Imaging system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tunnell, L.N.
1994-01-01
A data simulation procedure for the Associated Particle Imaging (API) system has been developed by postprocessing output from the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) code. This paper compares the simulated results to our experimental data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scherg-Kurmes, Harald; Hafez, Ahmad; Szyszka, Bernd [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Einsteinufer 25, 10587, Berlin (Germany); Siemers, Michael; Pflug, Andreas [Fraunhofer IST, Bienroder Weg 54E, 38108, Braunschweig (Germany); Schlatmann, Rutger [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, PVcomB, Schwarzschildstr. 3, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Rech, Bernd [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekulestrasse 5, 12489, Berlin (Germany)
2016-09-15
Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (IOH) is a transparent conductive oxide offering great potential to optoelectronic applications because of its high mobility of over 100 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1}s{sup -1}. In films deposited statically by RF magnetron sputtering, a small area directly opposing the target center with a higher resistivity and lower crystallinity than the rest of the film has been found via hall- and XRD-measurements, which we attribute to plasma damage. In order to investigate the distribution of particle energies during the sputtering process we have simulated the RF-sputtering deposition process of IOH by particle-in-cell Monte Carlo (PICMC) simulation. At the surface of ceramic sputtering targets, negatively charged oxygen ions are created. These ions are accelerated toward the substrate in the plasma sheath with energies up to 150 eV. They damage the growing film and reduce its crystallinity. The influence of a negatively biased mesh inside the sputtering chamber on particle energies and distributions has been simulated and investigated. We found that the mesh decreased the high-energetic oxygen ion density at the substrate, thus enabling a more homogeneous IOH film growth. The theoretical results have been verified by XRD X-ray diffractometry (XRD), 4-point probe, and hall measurements of statically deposited IOH films on glass. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Angelidis, Dionysios; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2015-11-01
The geometrical details of wind turbines determine the structure of the turbulence in the near and far wake and should be taken in account when performing high fidelity calculations. Multi-resolution simulations coupled with an immersed boundary method constitutes a powerful framework for high-fidelity calculations past wind farms located over complex terrains. We develop a 3D Immersed-Boundary Adaptive Mesh Refinement flow solver (IB-AMR) which enables turbine-resolving LES of wind turbines. The idea of using a hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout adopted in the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method (CURVIB) has been successfully incorporated on unstructured meshes and the fractional step method has been employed. The overall performance and robustness of the second order accurate, parallel, unstructured solver is evaluated by comparing the numerical simulations against conforming grid calculations and experimental measurements of laminar and turbulent flows over complex geometries. We also present turbine-resolving multi-scale LES considering all the details affecting the induced flow field; including the geometry of the tower, the nacelle and especially the rotor blades of a wind tunnel scale turbine. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0005482 and the Sandia National Laboratories.
Deformation and fracture behavior of simulated particle gels
Rzepiela, A.A.
2003-01-01
In this PhD project rheological properties of model particle gels are investigated using Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations. Particle gels are systems of colloidal particles that form weakly bonded percolating networks interpenetrated by a suspending fluid. They are characterized as
Cobra-IE Evaluation by Simulation of the NUPEC BWR Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Test (BFBT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burns, C. J.; Aumiler, D.L.
2006-01-01
The COBRA-IE computer code is a thermal-hydraulic subchannel analysis program capable of simulating phenomena present in both PWRs and BWRs. As part of ongoing COBRA-IE assessment efforts, the code has been evaluated against experimental data from the NUPEC BWR Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Tests (BFBT). The BFBT experiments utilized an 8 x 8 rod bundle to simulate BWR operating conditions and power profiles, providing an excellent database for investigation of the capabilities of the code. Benchmarks performed included steady-state and transient void distribution, single-phase and two-phase pressure drop, and steady-state and transient critical power measurements. COBRA-IE effectively captured the trends seen in the experimental data with acceptable prediction error. Future sensitivity studies are planned to investigate the effects of enabling and/or modifying optional code models dealing with void drift, turbulent mixing, rewetting, and CHF
High performance stream computing for particle beam transport simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appleby, R; Bailey, D; Higham, J; Salt, M
2008-01-01
Understanding modern particle accelerators requires simulating charged particle transport through the machine elements. These simulations can be very time consuming due to the large number of particles and the need to consider many turns of a circular machine. Stream computing offers an attractive way to dramatically improve the performance of such simulations by calculating the simultaneous transport of many particles using dedicated hardware. Modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are powerful and affordable stream computing devices. The results of simulations of particle transport through the booster-to-storage-ring transfer line of the DIAMOND synchrotron light source using an NVidia GeForce 7900 GPU are compared to the standard transport code MAD. It is found that particle transport calculations are suitable for stream processing and large performance increases are possible. The accuracy and potential speed gains are compared and the prospects for future work in the area are discussed
Simulation of concentration distribution of urban particles under wind
Chen, Yanghou; Yang, Hangsheng
2018-02-01
The concentration of particulate matter in the air is too high, which seriously affects people’s health. The concentration of particles in densely populated towns is also high. Understanding the distribution of particles in the air helps to remove them passively. The concentration distribution of particles in urban streets is simulated by using the FLUENT software. The simulation analysis based on Discrete Phase Modelling (DPM) of FLUENT. Simulation results show that the distribution of the particles is caused by different layout of buildings. And it is pointed out that in the windward area of the building and the leeward sides of the high-rise building are the areas with high concentration of particles. Understanding the concentration of particles in different areas is also helpful for people to avoid and reduce the concentration of particles in high concentration areas.
Solution adaptive triangular meshes with application to the simulation of plasma equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erlebacher, G.
1984-01-01
A new discrete Laplace operator is constructed on a local mesh molecule, second order accurate on symmetric cell regions, based on local Taylor series expansions. This discrete Laplacian is then compared to the one commonly used in the literature. A truncation error analysis of gradient and Laplace operators calculated at triangle centroids reveals that the maximum bounds of their truncation errors are minimized on equilateral triangles, for a fixed triangle perimeter. A new adaptive strategy on arbitrary triangular grids is developed in which a uniform grid is defined with respect to the solution surface, as opposed to the x,y plane. Departures from mesh uniformity arises from a spacially dependent mean-curvature of the solution surface. The power of this new adaptive technique is applied to the problem of finding free-boundary plasma equilibria within the context of MHD. The geometry is toroidal, and axisymmetry in the toroidal direction is assumed. We are led to conclude that the grid should move, not towards regions of high curvature of magnetic flux, but rather towards regions of greater toroidal current density. This has a direct bearing on the accuracy with which the Grad-Shafranov equation is being approximated
Vectorization of a particle code used in the simulation of rarefied hypersonic flow
Baganoff, D.
1990-01-01
A limitation of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is that it does not allow efficient use of vector architectures that predominate in current supercomputers. Consequently, the problems that can be handled are limited to those of one- and two-dimensional flows. This work focuses on a reformulation of the DSMC method with the objective of designing a procedure that is optimized to the vector architectures found on machines such as the Cray-2. In addition, it focuses on finding a better balance between algorithmic complexity and the total number of particles employed in a simulation so that the overall performance of a particle simulation scheme can be greatly improved. Simulations of the flow about a 3D blunt body are performed with 10 to the 7th particles and 4 x 10 to the 5th mesh cells. Good statistics are obtained with time averaging over 800 time steps using 4.5 h of Cray-2 single-processor CPU time.
Modeling and analysis of large-eddy simulations of particle-laden turbulent boundary layer flows
Rahman, Mustafa M.
2017-01-05
We describe a framework for the large-eddy simulation of solid particles suspended and transported within an incompressible turbulent boundary layer (TBL). For the fluid phase, the large-eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layer employs stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work of Cheng, Pullin & Samtaney (J. Fluid Mech., 2015). This LES model is virtually parameter free and involves no active filtering of the computed velocity field. Furthermore, a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow is implemented. For the particle phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The numerical method in this framework is based on a fractional-step method with an energy-conservative fourth-order finite difference scheme on a staggered mesh. This code is parallelized based on standard message passing interface (MPI) protocol and is designed for distributed-memory machines. It is proposed to utilize this framework to examine transport of particles in very large-scale simulations. The solver is validated using the well know result of Taylor-Green vortex case. A large-scale sandstorm case is simulated and the altitude variations of number density along with its fluctuations are quantified.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Federico Canè
2018-01-01
Full Text Available With cardiovascular disease (CVD remaining the primary cause of death worldwide, early detection of CVDs becomes essential. The intracardiac flow is an important component of ventricular function, motion kinetics, wash-out of ventricular chambers, and ventricular energetics. Coupling between Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations and medical images can play a fundamental role in terms of patient-specific diagnostic tools. From a technical perspective, CFD simulations with moving boundaries could easily lead to negative volumes errors and the sudden failure of the simulation. The generation of high-quality 4D meshes (3D in space + time with 1-to-1 vertex becomes essential to perform a CFD simulation with moving boundaries. In this context, we developed a semiautomatic morphing tool able to create 4D high-quality structured meshes starting from a segmented 4D dataset. To prove the versatility and efficiency, the method was tested on three different 4D datasets (Ultrasound, MRI, and CT by evaluating the quality and accuracy of the resulting 4D meshes. Furthermore, an estimation of some physiological quantities is accomplished for the 4D CT reconstruction. Future research will aim at extending the region of interest, further automation of the meshing algorithm, and generating structured hexahedral mesh models both for the blood and myocardial volume.
Simulating immersed particle collisions: the Devil's in the details
Biegert, Edward; Vowinckel, Bernhard; Meiburg, Eckart
2015-11-01
Simulating densely-packed particle-laden flows with any degree of confidence requires accurate modeling of particle-particle collisions. To this end, we investigate a few collision models from the fluids and granular flow communities using sphere-wall collisions, which have been studied by a number of experimental groups. These collisions involve enough complexities--gravity, particle-wall lubrication forces, particle-wall contact stresses, particle-wake interactions--to challenge any collision model. Evaluating the successes and shortcomings of the collision models, we seek improvements in order to obtain more consistent results. We will highlight several implementation details that are crucial for obtaining accurate results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cai, Yunhai
2000-08-31
A highly accurate self-consistent particle code to simulate the beam-beam collision in e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings has been developed. It adopts a method of solving the Poisson equation with an open boundary. The method consists of two steps: assigning the potential on a finite boundary using the Green's function, and then solving the potential inside the boundary with a fast Poisson solver. Since the solution of the Poisson's equation is unique, the authors solution is exactly the same as the one obtained by simply using the Green's function. The method allows us to select much smaller region of mesh and therefore increase the resolution of the solver. The better resolution makes more accurate the calculation of the dynamics in the core of the beams. The luminosity simulated with this method agrees quantitatively with the measurement for the PEP-II B-factory ring in the linear and nonlinear beam current regimes, demonstrating its predictive capability in detail.
Understanding bulk behavior of particulate materials from particle scale simulations
Deng, Xiaoliang
Particulate materials play an increasingly significant role in various industries, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, food, mining, and civil engineering. The objective of this research is to better understand bulk behaviors of particulate materials from particle scale simulations. Packing properties of assembly of particles are investigated first, focusing on the effects of particle size, surface energy, and aspect ratio on the coordination number, porosity, and packing structures. The simulation results show that particle sizes, surface energy, and aspect ratio all influence the porosity of packing to various degrees. The heterogeneous force networks within particle assembly under external compressive loading are investigated as well. The results show that coarse-coarse contacts dominate the strong network and coarse-fine contacts dominate the total network. Next, DEM models are developed to simulate the particle dynamics inside a conical screen mill (comil) and magnetically assisted impaction mixer (MAIM), both are important particle processing devices. For comil, the mean residence time (MRT), spatial distribution of particles, along with the collision dynamics between particles as well as particle and vessel geometries are examined as a function of the various operating parameters such as impeller speed, screen hole size, open area, and feed rate. The simulation results can help better understand dry coating experimental results using comil. For MAIM system, the magnetic force is incorporated into the contact model, allowing to describe the interactions between magnets. The simulation results reveal the connections between homogeneity of mixture and particle scale variables such as size of magnets and surface energy of non-magnets. In particular, at the fixed mass ratio of magnets to non-magnets and surface energy the smaller magnets lead to better homogeneity of mixing, which is in good agreement with previously published experimental results. Last but not
Simulation of contaminant transport in fractured porous media on triangular meshes
Dong, Chen
2010-12-01
A mathematical model for contaminant species passing through fractured porous media is presented. In the numerical model, we combine two locally conservative methods, i.e. mixed finite element (MFE) and the finite volume (FV) methods. Adaptive triangle mesh is used for effective treatment of the fractures. A hybrid MFE method is employed to provide an accurate approximation of velocities field for both the fractures and matrix which are crucial to the convection part of the transport equation. The FV method and the standard MFE method are used to approximate the convection and dispersion terms respectively. Numerical examples in a medium containing fracture network illustrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed numerical model. © 2010 IEEE.
Simulation of contaminant transport in fractured porous media on triangular meshes
Dong, Chen; Sun, Shuyu
2010-01-01
A mathematical model for contaminant species passing through fractured porous media is presented. In the numerical model, we combine two locally conservative methods, i.e. mixed finite element (MFE) and the finite volume (FV) methods. Adaptive triangle mesh is used for effective treatment of the fractures. A hybrid MFE method is employed to provide an accurate approximation of velocities field for both the fractures and matrix which are crucial to the convection part of the transport equation. The FV method and the standard MFE method are used to approximate the convection and dispersion terms respectively. Numerical examples in a medium containing fracture network illustrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed numerical model. © 2010 IEEE.
Documentation for MeshKit - Reactor Geometry (&mesh) Generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2015-09-30
This report gives documentation for using MeshKit’s Reactor Geometry (and mesh) Generator (RGG) GUI and also briefly documents other algorithms and tools available in MeshKit. RGG is a program designed to aid in modeling and meshing of complex/large hexagonal and rectilinear reactor cores. RGG uses Argonne’s SIGMA interfaces, Qt and VTK to produce an intuitive user interface. By integrating a 3D view of the reactor with the meshing tools and combining them into one user interface, RGG streamlines the task of preparing a simulation mesh and enables real-time feedback that reduces accidental scripting mistakes that could waste hours of meshing. RGG interfaces with MeshKit tools to consolidate the meshing process, meaning that going from model to mesh is as easy as a button click. This report is designed to explain RGG v 2.0 interface and provide users with the knowledge and skills to pilot RGG successfully. Brief documentation of MeshKit source code, tools and other algorithms available are also presented for developers to extend and add new algorithms to MeshKit. RGG tools work in serial and parallel and have been used to model complex reactor core models consisting of conical pins, load pads, several thousands of axially varying material properties of instrumentation pins and other interstices meshes.
Bacopoulos, Peter
2018-05-01
A localized truncation error analysis with complex derivatives (LTEA+CD) is applied recursively with advanced circulation (ADCIRC) simulations of tides and storm surge for finite element mesh optimization. Mesh optimization is demonstrated with two iterations of LTEA+CD for tidal simulation in the lower 200 km of the St. Johns River, located in northeast Florida, and achieves more than an over 50% decrease in the number of mesh nodes, relating to a twofold increase in efficiency, at a zero cost to model accuracy. The recursively generated meshes using LTEA+CD lead to successive reductions in the global cumulative truncation error associated with the model mesh. Tides are simulated with root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.09-0.21 m and index of agreement (IA) values generally in the 80s and 90s percentage ranges. Tidal currents are simulated with RMSE of 0.09-0.23 m s-1 and IA values of 97% and greater. Storm tide due to Hurricane Matthew 2016 is simulated with RMSE of 0.09-0.33 m and IA values of 75-96%. Analysis of the LTEA+CD results shows the M2 constituent to dominate the node spacing requirement in the St. Johns River, with the M4 and M6 overtides and the STEADY constituent contributing some. Friction is the predominant physical factor influencing the target element size distribution, especially along the main river stem, while frequency (inertia) and Coriolis (rotation) are supplementary contributing factors. The combination of interior- and boundary-type computational molecules, providing near-full coverage of the model domain, renders LTEA+CD an attractive mesh generation/optimization tool for complex coastal and estuarine domains. The mesh optimization procedure using LTEA+CD is automatic and extensible to other finite element-based numerical models. Discussion is provided on the scope of LTEA+CD, the starting point (mesh) of the procedure, the user-specified scaling of the LTEA+CD results, and the iteration (termination) of LTEA+CD for mesh optimization.
A Coulomb collision algorithm for weighted particle simulations
Miller, Ronald H.; Combi, Michael R.
1994-01-01
A binary Coulomb collision algorithm is developed for weighted particle simulations employing Monte Carlo techniques. Charged particles within a given spatial grid cell are pair-wise scattered, explicitly conserving momentum and implicitly conserving energy. A similar algorithm developed by Takizuka and Abe (1977) conserves momentum and energy provided the particles are unweighted (each particle representing equal fractions of the total particle density). If applied as is to simulations incorporating weighted particles, the plasma temperatures equilibrate to an incorrect temperature, as compared to theory. Using the appropriate pairing statistics, a Coulomb collision algorithm is developed for weighted particles. The algorithm conserves energy and momentum and produces the appropriate relaxation time scales as compared to theoretical predictions. Such an algorithm is necessary for future work studying self-consistent multi-species kinetic transport.
Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; García-Navarro, Pilar; Murillo, Javier
2012-07-01
SummaryHydrological simulation of rain-runoff processes is often performed with lumped models which rely on calibration to generate storm hydrographs and study catchment response to rain. In this paper, a distributed, physically-based numerical model is used for runoff simulation in a mountain catchment. This approach offers two advantages. The first is that by using shallow-water equations for runoff flow, there is less freedom to calibrate routing parameters (as compared to, for example, synthetic hydrograph methods). The second, is that spatial distributions of water depth and velocity can be obtained. Furthermore, interactions among the various hydrological processes can be modeled in a physically-based approach which may depend on transient and spatially distributed factors. On the other hand, the undertaken numerical approach relies on accurate terrain representation and mesh selection, which also affects significantly the computational cost of the simulations. Hence, we investigate the response of a gauged catchment with this distributed approach. The methodology consists of analyzing the effects that the mesh has on the simulations by using a range of meshes. Next, friction is applied to the model and the response to variations and interaction with the mesh is studied. Finally, a first approach with the well-known SCS Curve Number method is studied to evaluate its behavior when coupled with a shallow-water model for runoff flow. The results show that mesh selection is of great importance, since it may affect the results in a magnitude as large as physical factors, such as friction. Furthermore, results proved to be less sensitive to roughness spatial distribution than to mesh properties. Finally, the results indicate that SCS-CN may not be suitable for simulating hydrological processes together with a shallow-water model.
Macroscale particle simulation of externally driven magnetic reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, Sadayoshi; Sato, Tetsuya.
1991-09-01
Externally driven reconnection, assuming an anomalous particle collision model, is numerically studied by means of a 2.5D macroscale particle simulation code in which the field and particle motions are solved self-consistently. Explosive magnetic reconnection and energy conversion are observed as a result of slow shock formation. Electron and ion distribution functions exhibit large bulk acceleration and heating of the plasma. Simulation runs with different collision parameters suggest that the development of reconnection, particle acceleration and heating do not significantly depend on the parameters of the collision model. (author)
Morfa, Carlos Recarey; Cortés, Lucía Argüelles; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Morales, Irvin Pablo Pérez; Valera, Roberto Roselló; Oñate, Eugenio
2018-07-01
A methodology that comprises several characterization properties for particle packings is proposed in this paper. The methodology takes into account factors such as dimension and shape of particles, space occupation, homogeneity, connectivity and isotropy, among others. This classification and integration of several properties allows to carry out a characterization process to systemically evaluate the particle packings in order to guarantee the quality of the initial meshes in discrete element simulations, in both the micro- and the macroscales. Several new properties were created, and improvements in existing ones are presented. Properties from other disciplines were adapted to be used in the evaluation of particle systems. The methodology allows to easily characterize media at the level of the microscale (continuous geometries—steels, rocks microstructures, etc., and discrete geometries) and the macroscale. A global, systemic and integral system for characterizing and evaluating particle sets, based on fuzzy logic, is presented. Such system allows researchers to have a unique evaluation criterion based on the aim of their research. Examples of applications are shown.
Morfa, Carlos Recarey; Cortés, Lucía Argüelles; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Morales, Irvin Pablo Pérez; Valera, Roberto Roselló; Oñate, Eugenio
2017-10-01
A methodology that comprises several characterization properties for particle packings is proposed in this paper. The methodology takes into account factors such as dimension and shape of particles, space occupation, homogeneity, connectivity and isotropy, among others. This classification and integration of several properties allows to carry out a characterization process to systemically evaluate the particle packings in order to guarantee the quality of the initial meshes in discrete element simulations, in both the micro- and the macroscales. Several new properties were created, and improvements in existing ones are presented. Properties from other disciplines were adapted to be used in the evaluation of particle systems. The methodology allows to easily characterize media at the level of the microscale (continuous geometries—steels, rocks microstructures, etc., and discrete geometries) and the macroscale. A global, systemic and integral system for characterizing and evaluating particle sets, based on fuzzy logic, is presented. Such system allows researchers to have a unique evaluation criterion based on the aim of their research. Examples of applications are shown.
Particle-in-cell simulations of Hall plasma thrusters
Miranda, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre
2016-07-01
Hall plasma thrusters can be modelled using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In these simulations, the plasma is described by a set of equations which represent a coupled system of charged particles and electromagnetic fields. The fields are computed using a spatial grid (i.e., a discretization in space), whereas the particles can move continuously in space. Briefly, the particle and fields dynamics are computed as follows. First, forces due to electric and magnetic fields are employed to calculate the velocities and positions of particles. Next, the velocities and positions of particles are used to compute the charge and current densities at discrete positions in space. Finally, these densities are used to solve the electromagnetic field equations in the grid, which are interpolated at the position of the particles to obtain the acting forces, and restart this cycle. We will present numerical simulations using software for PIC simulations to study turbulence, wave and instabilities that arise in Hall plasma thrusters. We have sucessfully reproduced a numerical simulation of a SPT-100 Hall thruster using a two-dimensional (2D) model. In addition, we are developing a 2D model of a cylindrical Hall thruster. The results of these simulations will contribute to improve the performance of plasma thrusters to be used in Cubesats satellites currenty in development at the Plasma Laboratory at University of Brasília.
Particle Simulation of Pulsed Plasma Thruster Plumes
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Boyd, Ian
2002-01-01
.... Our modeling had made progress in al aspects of simulating these complex devices including Teflon ablation, plasma formation, electro-magnetic acceleration, plume expansion, and particulate transport...
Valasek, Lukas; Glasa, Jan
2017-12-01
Current fire simulation systems are capable to utilize advantages of high-performance computer (HPC) platforms available and to model fires efficiently in parallel. In this paper, efficiency of a corridor fire simulation on a HPC computer cluster is discussed. The parallel MPI version of Fire Dynamics Simulator is used for testing efficiency of selected strategies of allocation of computational resources of the cluster using a greater number of computational cores. Simulation results indicate that if the number of cores used is not equal to a multiple of the total number of cluster node cores there are allocation strategies which provide more efficient calculations.
Deng, Xiaolong; Dong, Haibo
2017-11-01
Developing a high-fidelity, high-efficiency numerical method for bio-inspired flow problems with flow-structure interaction is important for understanding related physics and developing many bio-inspired technologies. To simulate a fast-swimming big fish with multiple finlets or fish schooling, we need fine grids and/or a big computational domain, which are big challenges for 3-D simulations. In current work, based on the 3-D finite-difference sharp-interface immersed boundary method for incompressible flows (Mittal et al., JCP 2008), we developed an octree-like Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) technique to enhance the computational ability and increase the computational efficiency. The AMR is coupled with a multigrid acceleration technique and a MPI +OpenMP hybrid parallelization. In this work, different AMR layers are treated separately and the synchronization is performed in the buffer regions and iterations are performed for the convergence of solution. Each big region is calculated by a MPI process which then uses multiple OpenMP threads for further acceleration, so that the communication cost is reduced. With these acceleration techniques, various canonical and bio-inspired flow problems with complex boundaries can be simulated accurately and efficiently. This work is supported by the MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533 and NSF Grant CBET-1605434.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmadi, M. [Heriot Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
2008-10-15
This paper described a project in which a higher order up-winding scheme was used to solve mass/energy conservation equations for simulating steam flood processes in an oil reservoir. Thermal recovery processes are among the most complex because they require a detailed accounting of thermal energy and chemical reaction kinetics. The numerical simulation of thermal recovery processes involves localized phenomena such as saturation and temperatures fronts due to hyperbolic features of governing conservation laws. A second order accurate FV method that was improved by a moving mesh strategy was used to adjust for moving coordinates on a finely gridded domain. The Finite volume method was used and the problem of steam injection was then tested using derived solution frameworks on both mixed and moving coordinates. The benefits of using a higher-order Godunov solver instead of lower-order ones were qualified. This second order correction resulted in better resolution on moving features. Preferences of higher-order solvers over lower-order ones in terms of shock capturing is under further investigation. It was concluded that although this simulation study was limited to steam flooding processes, the newly presented approach may be suitable to other enhanced oil recovery processes such as VAPEX, SAGD and in situ combustion processes. 23 refs., 28 figs.
Energy mesh optimization for multi-level calculation schemes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosca, P.; Taofiki, A.; Bellier, P.; Prevost, A.
2011-01-01
The industrial calculations of third generation nuclear reactors are based on sophisticated strategies of homogenization and collapsing at different spatial and energetic levels. An important issue to ensure the quality of these calculation models is the choice of the collapsing energy mesh. In this work, we show a new approach to generate optimized energy meshes starting from the SHEM 281-group library. The optimization model is applied on 1D cylindrical cells and consists of finding an energy mesh which minimizes the errors between two successive collision probability calculations. The former is realized over the fine SHEM mesh with Livolant-Jeanpierre self-shielded cross sections and the latter is performed with collapsed cross sections over the energy mesh being optimized. The optimization is done by the particle swarm algorithm implemented in the code AEMC and multigroup flux solutions are obtained from standard APOLLO2 solvers. By this new approach, a set of new optimized meshes which encompass from 10 to 50 groups has been defined for PWR and BWR calculations. This set will allow users to adapt the energy detail of the solution to the complexity of the calculation (assembly, multi-assembly, two-dimensional whole core). Some preliminary verifications, in which the accuracy of the new meshes is measured compared to a direct 281-group calculation, show that the 30-group optimized mesh offers a good compromise between simulation time and accuracy for a standard 17 x 17 UO 2 assembly with and without control rods. (author)
A mixed finite element method for particle simulation in lasertron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Meur, G.
1987-03-01
A particle simulation code is being developed with the aim to treat the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic devices, such as Lasertron. The paper describes the use of mixed finite element methods in computing the field components, without derivating them from scalar or vector potentials. Graphical results are shown
A mixed finite element method for particle simulation in Lasertron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Meur, G.
1987-01-01
A particle simulation code is being developed with the aim to treat the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic devices, such as Lasertron. The paper describes the use of mixed finite element methods in computing the field components, without derivating them from scalar or vector potentials. Graphical results are shown
A direct simulation method for flows with suspended paramagnetic particles
Kang, T.G.; Hulsen, M.A.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; Anderson, P.D.; Meijer, H.E.H.
2008-01-01
A direct numerical simulation method based on the Maxwell stress tensor and a fictitious domain method has been developed to solve flows with suspended paramagnetic particles. The numerical scheme enables us to take into account both hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions between particles in a
Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sang Don, E-mail: lee.sangdon@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Viani, Brian [Simbol Mining Corp., Pleasanton, CA 94566 (United States); Drake, John [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); MacKinney, John [U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States)
2010-04-15
Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.
Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Don; Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert; Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark; Viani, Brian; Drake, John; MacKinney, John
2010-01-01
Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.
Extended particle-based simulation for magnetic-aligned compaction of hard magnetic particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soda, Rikio; Takagi, Kenta; Ozaki, Kimihiro, E-mail: r-soda@aist.go.jp
2015-12-15
In order to understand the magnetic-aligned compaction process, we develop a three-dimensional (3D) discrete element method for simulating the motion of hard magnetic particles subjected to strong compression and magnetic fields. The proposed simulation model also considers the exact magnetic force involved via the calculation of the magnetic moment. First, to validate the simulation model, single-action compaction in the absence of a magnetic field was calculated. The calculated compaction curves are in good quantitative agreement with experimental ones. Based on this simulation model, the alignment behavior of Nd–Fe–B particles during compression under the application of a static magnetic field. The developed simulation model enables the visualization of particle behavior including the misorientation of the magnetization easy axis, which provided the quantitative relationships between applied pressure and particle misorientation. - Highlights: • A practical 3D DEM simulation technique for magnetic-aligned compaction was developed. • An extended simulation model was introduced for hard magnetic particles. • Magnetic-aligned compaction was simulated using the developed simulation model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey PLOTNIKOV
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The simulation from the motion of flat particle revealed that the fall depends on the height of the drop, the thickness and density of the particles and does not depend on its length and width. The drop in air is about 20% longer than in vacuum. During orientation from angular particles the velocity of rotating particles with a length of 150mm is reduced by 18%, for particles with a length of 75mm by 12%. This reduction increases linearly with decreasing density of particles. A velocity field acting on the particle in the fall and rotation was presented. The results of the study prove the possibility to reduce the scatter of the particles during the mat's formation, that in turns can increase the board’s bending strength.
Pizette, Patrick; Govender, Nicolin; Wilke, Daniel N.; Abriak, Nor-Edine
2017-06-01
The use of the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for industrial civil engineering industrial applications is currently limited due to the computational demands when large numbers of particles are considered. The graphics processing unit (GPU) with its highly parallelized hardware architecture shows potential to enable solution of civil engineering problems using discrete granular approaches. We demonstrate in this study the pratical utility of a validated GPU-enabled DEM modeling environment to simulate industrial scale granular problems. As illustration, the flow discharge of storage silos using 8 and 17 million particles is considered. DEM simulations have been performed to investigate the influence of particle size (equivalent size for the 20/40-mesh gravel) and induced shear stress for two hopper shapes. The preliminary results indicate that the shape of the hopper significantly influences the discharge rates for the same material. Specifically, this work shows that GPU-enabled DEM modeling environments can model industrial scale problems on a single portable computer within a day for 30 seconds of process time.
Direct Numerical Simulations of Particle-Laden Turbulent Channel Flow
Jebakumar, Anand Samuel; Premnath, Kannan; Abraham, John
2017-11-01
In a recent experimental study, Lau and Nathan (2014) reported that the distribution of particles in a turbulent pipe flow is strongly influenced by the Stokes number (St). At St lower than 1, particles migrate toward the wall and at St greater than 10 they tend to migrate toward the axis. It was suggested that this preferential migration of particles is due to two forces, the Saffman lift force and the turbophoretic force. Saffman lift force represents a force acting on the particle as a result of a velocity gradient across the particle when it leads or lags the fluid flow. Turbophoretic force is induced by turbulence which tends to move the particle in the direction of decreasing turbulent kinetic energy. In this study, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is employed to simulate a particle-laden turbulent channel flow through Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). We find that the preferential migration is a function of particle size in addition to the St. We explain the effect of the particle size and St on the Saffman lift force and turbophoresis and present how this affects particle concentration at different conditions.
Toward An Unstructured Mesh Database
Rezaei Mahdiraji, Alireza; Baumann, Peter Peter
2014-05-01
Unstructured meshes are used in several application domains such as earth sciences (e.g., seismology), medicine, oceanography, cli- mate modeling, GIS as approximate representations of physical objects. Meshes subdivide a domain into smaller geometric elements (called cells) which are glued together by incidence relationships. The subdivision of a domain allows computational manipulation of complicated physical structures. For instance, seismologists model earthquakes using elastic wave propagation solvers on hexahedral meshes. The hexahedral con- tains several hundred millions of grid points and millions of hexahedral cells. Each vertex node in the hexahedrals stores a multitude of data fields. To run simulation on such meshes, one needs to iterate over all the cells, iterate over incident cells to a given cell, retrieve coordinates of cells, assign data values to cells, etc. Although meshes are used in many application domains, to the best of our knowledge there is no database vendor that support unstructured mesh features. Currently, the main tool for querying and manipulating unstructured meshes are mesh libraries, e.g., CGAL and GRAL. Mesh li- braries are dedicated libraries which includes mesh algorithms and can be run on mesh representations. The libraries do not scale with dataset size, do not have declarative query language, and need deep C++ knowledge for query implementations. Furthermore, due to high coupling between the implementations and input file structure, the implementations are less reusable and costly to maintain. A dedicated mesh database offers the following advantages: 1) declarative querying, 2) ease of maintenance, 3) hiding mesh storage structure from applications, and 4) transparent query optimization. To design a mesh database, the first challenge is to define a suitable generic data model for unstructured meshes. We proposed ImG-Complexes data model as a generic topological mesh data model which extends incidence graph model to multi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Pérez-Grande
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This manuscript explores numerical errors in highly anisotropic diffusion problems. First, the paper addresses the use of regular structured meshes in numerical solutions versus meshes aligned with the preferential directions of the problem. Numerical diffusion in structured meshes is quantified by solving the classical anisotropic diffusion problem; the analysis is exemplified with the application to a numerical model of conducting fluids under magnetic confinement, where rates of transport in directions parallel and perpendicular to a magnetic field are quite different. Numerical diffusion errors in this problem promote the use of magnetic field aligned meshes (MFAM. The generation of this type of meshes presents some challenges; several meshing strategies are implemented and analyzed in order to provide insight into achieving acceptable mesh regularity. Second, Gradient Reconstruction methods for magnetically aligned meshes are addressed and numerical errors are compared for the structured and magnetically aligned meshes. It is concluded that using the latter provides a more correct and straightforward approach to solving problems where anisotropicity is present, especially, if the anisotropicity level is high or difficult to quantify. The conclusions of the study may be extrapolated to the study of anisotropic flows different from conducting fluids.
Poisson solvers for self-consistent multi-particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiang, J; Paret, S
2014-01-01
Self-consistent multi-particle simulation plays an important role in studying beam-beam effects and space charge effects in high-intensity beams. The Poisson equation has to be solved at each time-step based on the particle density distribution in the multi-particle simulation. In this paper, we review a number of numerical methods that can be used to solve the Poisson equation efficiently. The computational complexity of those numerical methods will be O(N log(N)) or O(N) instead of O(N2), where N is the total number of grid points used to solve the Poisson equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vervisch, Luc; Domingo, Pascale; Lodato, Guido [CORIA - CNRS and INSA de Rouen, Technopole du Madrillet, BP 8, 76801 Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray (France); Veynante, Denis [EM2C - CNRS and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)
2010-04-15
Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) provides space-filtered quantities to compare with measurements, which usually have been obtained using a different filtering operation; hence, numerical and experimental results can be examined side-by-side in a statistical sense only. Instantaneous, space-filtered and statistically time-averaged signals feature different characteristic length-scales, which can be combined in dimensionless ratios. From two canonical manufactured turbulent solutions, a turbulent flame and a passive scalar turbulent mixing layer, the critical values of these ratios under which measured and computed variances (resolved plus sub-grid scale) can be compared without resorting to additional residual terms are first determined. It is shown that actual Direct Numerical Simulation can hardly accommodate a sufficiently large range of length-scales to perform statistical studies of LES filtered reactive scalar-fields energy budget based on sub-grid scale variances; an estimation of the minimum Reynolds number allowing for such DNS studies is given. From these developments, a reliability mesh criterion emerges for scalar LES and scaling for scalar sub-grid scale energy is discussed. (author)
Simulations of Shock Wave Interaction with a Particle Cloud
Koneru, Rahul; Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.'Bala'
2016-11-01
Simulations of a shock wave interacting with a cloud of particles are performed in an attempt to understand similar phenomena observed in dispersal of solid particles under such extreme environment as an explosion. We conduct numerical experiments in which a particle curtain fills only 87% of the shock tube from bottom to top. As such, the particle curtain upon interaction with the shock wave is expected to experience Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. In this study, the initial volume fraction profile matches with that of Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments, and the shock Mach number is limited to M =1.66. In these simulations we use a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with state-of-the-art point-particle force and heat transfer models. Measurements of particle dispersion are made at different initial volume fractions of the particle cloud. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the particle curtain with respect to the initial conditions is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Large scale particle simulations in a virtual memory computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, P.C.; Million, R.; Wagner, J.S.; Tajima, T.
1983-01-01
Virtual memory computers are capable of executing large-scale particle simulations even when the memory requirements exceeds the computer core size. The required address space is automatically mapped onto slow disc memory the the operating system. When the simulation size is very large, frequent random accesses to slow memory occur during the charge accumulation and particle pushing processes. Assesses to slow memory significantly reduce the excecution rate of the simulation. We demonstrate in this paper that with the proper choice of sorting algorithm, a nominal amount of sorting to keep physically adjacent particles near particles with neighboring array indices can reduce random access to slow memory, increase the efficiency of the I/O system, and hence, reduce the required computing time. (orig.)
Program BETA for simulation of particle decays and reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takhtamyshev, G.G.; Merkulova, T.A.
1997-01-01
Program BETA is designed for simulation of particle decays and reactions. The program also produces integration over the phase space and decay rate or the reaction cross section are calculated as a result of such integration. At the simulation process the adaptive random number generator SMART may be used, what is found to be useful for some difficult cases
Launch Environment Water Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Vu, Bruce T.; Berg, Jared J.; Harris, Michael F.; Crespo, Alejandro C.
2015-01-01
This paper describes the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the water flow from the rainbird nozzle system used in the sound suppression system during pad abort and nominal launch. The simulations help determine if water from rainbird nozzles will impinge on the rocket nozzles and other sensitive ground support elements.
Global Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Mercury's Magnetosphere
Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P. M.; Lapenta, G.; Amaya, J.; Gonzalez, D.; Richard, R. L.; Berchem, J.; Hellinger, P.
2017-12-01
Spacecraft observations of Mercury's magnetosphere have shown that kinetic ion and electron particle effects play a major role in the transport, acceleration, and loss of plasma within the magnetospheric system. Kinetic processes include reconnection, the breakdown of particle adiabaticity and wave-particle interactions. Because of the vast range in spatial scales involved in magnetospheric dynamics, from local electron Debye length scales ( meters) to solar wind/planetary magnetic scale lengths (tens to hundreds of planetary radii), fully self-consistent kinetic simulations of a global planetary magnetosphere remain challenging. Most global simulations of Earth's and other planet's magnetosphere are carried out using MHD, enhanced MHD (e.g., Hall MHD), hybrid, or a combination of MHD and particle in cell (PIC) simulations. Here, 3D kinetic self-consistent hybrid (ion particle, electron fluid) and full PIC (ion and electron particle) simulations of the solar wind interaction with Mercury's magnetosphere are carried out. Using the implicit PIC and hybrid simulations, Mercury's relatively small, but highly kinetic magnetosphere will be examined to determine how the self-consistent inclusion of electrons affects magnetic reconnection, particle transport and acceleration of plasma at Mercury. Also the spatial and energy profiles of precipitating magnetospheric ions and electrons onto Mercury's surface, which can strongly affect the regolith in terms of space weathering and particle outflow, will be examined with the PIC and hybrid codes. MESSENGER spacecraft observations are used both to initiate and validate the global kinetic simulations to achieve a deeper understanding of the role kinetic physics play in magnetospheric dynamics.
PLASMA ENERGETIC PARTICLES SIMULATION CENTER (PEPSC)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berk, Herbert L.
2014-05-23
The main effort of the Texas group was to develop theoretical and simplified numerical models to understand chirping phenomena often seen for Alfven and geodesic acoustic waves in experimental plasmas such as D-III-D, NSTX and JET. Its main numerical effort was to modify the AEGIS code, which was originally developed as an eigenvalue solver. To apply to the chirping problem this code has to be able to treat the linear response to the continuum and the response of the plasma to external drive or to an internal drive that comes from the formation of phase space chirping structures. The theoretical underpinning of this investigation still needed to be more fully developed to understand how to best formulate the theoretical problem. Considerable progress was made on this front by B.N. Breizman and his collaborators and a new reduced model was developed by H. L. Berk and his PhD student, G. Wang which can be uses as simplified model to describe chirping in a large aspect ratio tokamak. This final report will concentrate on these two directions that were developed as well as results that were found in the work with the AEGIS code and in the progress in developing a novel quasi-linear formulation for a description of Alfvenic modes destabilized by energetic particles, such as alpha particles in a burning plasma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walters, W.F.; Brinkley, F.W.; Marr, D.R.
1984-10-01
TWOHEX solves the two-dimensional multigroup transport equation on an equilateral triangular mesh in the x,y plane. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous (fixed source) and homogeneous problems are solved. Three problem domains are treated by TWOHEX. The whole core domain is a 60 0 parallelogram with vacuum boundary conditions on each face. The third core domain is a 120 0 parallelogram with two vacuum and two rotational boundary conditions. The sixth core domain is a 60 0 parallelogram with two vacuum and two rotational boundary conditions. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and an anisotropic inhomogeneous source may be input as cell averages
Particle Transport Simulation on Heterogeneous Hardware
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
CPUs and GPGPUs. About the speaker Vladimir Koylazov is CTO and founder of Chaos Software and one of the original developers of the V-Ray raytracing software. Passionate about 3D graphics and programming, Vlado is the driving force behind Chaos Group's software solutions. He participated in the implementation of algorithms for accurate light simulations and support for different hardware platforms, including CPU and GPGPU, as well as distributed calculat...
Simulations of Granular Particles Under Cyclic Shear
Royer, John; Chaikin, Paul
2012-02-01
We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of spherical grains subjected to cyclic, quasi-static shear in a 3D parallelepiped shear cell. This virtual shear cell is constructed out of rough, bumpy walls in order to minimize wall-induced ordering and has an open top surface to allow the packing to readily dilate or compact. Using a standard routine for MD simulations of frictional grains, we simulate over 1000 shear cycles, measuring grain displacements, the local packing density and changes in the contact network. Varying the shear amplitude and the friction coefficient between grains, we map out a phase diagram for the different types of behavior exhibited by these sheared grains. With low friction and high enough shear, the grains can spontaneously order into densely packed crystals. With low shear and increasing friction the packing remains disordered, yet the grains arrange themselves into configurations which exhibit limit cycles where all grains return to the same position after each full shear cycle. At higher shear and friction there is a transition to a diffusive state, where grains continue rearrange and move throughout the shear cell.
Full particle simulations of quasi-perpendicular shocks
Lembège, B.
This tutorial-style review is dedicated to the different strategies and constraints used for analysing the dynamics of a collisionless shocks with full particle simulations. Main results obtained with such simulations can be found in published materials (recent references are provided in this text); these will be only quoted herein in order to illustrate a few aspects of these simulations. Thanks to the large improvement of super computers, full particle simulations reveal to be quite helpful for analyzing in details the dynamics of collisionless shocks. The main characteristics of such codes can be shortly reminded as follows: one resolves the full set of Poisson and Maxwell's equations without any approximation. Two approaches are commonly used for resolving this equation's set, more precisely the space derivatives: (i) the finite difference approach and (ii) the use of FFT's (Fast Fourier Transform). Two advantages of approach (ii) are that FFT's are highly optimized in supercomputers libraries, and these allow to separate all fields components into two groups: the longitudinal electrostatic component El (solution of Poisson equation) and the transverse electromagnetic components Et and Bt solutions of the Maxwell's equations (so called "fields pusher"). Such a separation is quite helpful in the post processing stage necessary for the data analysis, as will be explained in the presentation. both ions and electrons populations are treated as individual finite-size particles and suffer the effects of all fields via the Lorentz force, so called "particle pusher", which is applied to each particle. Because of the large number of particles commonly used, the particle pusher represents the most expensive part of the calculations on which most efforts of optimisation needs to be performed (in terms of "vectorisation" or of "parallelism"). Relativistic effects may be included in this force via the use of particle momemtum. Each particle has three velocity components (vx
Discrete particle noise in particle-in-cell simulations of plasma microturbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nevins, W.M.; Hammett, G.W.; Dimits, A.M.; Dorland, W.; Shumaker, D.E.
2005-01-01
Recent gyrokinetic simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence with the global particle-in-cell (PIC) code GTC [Z. Lin et al., Proceedings of the 20th Fusion Energy Conference, Vilamoura, Portugal, 2004 (IAEA, Vienna, 2005)] yielded different results from earlier flux-tube continuum code simulations [F. Jenko and W. Dorland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 225001 (2002)] despite similar plasma parameters. Differences between the simulation results were attributed to insufficient phase-space resolution and novel physics associated with global simulation models. The results of the global PIC code are reproduced here using the flux-tube PIC code PG3EQ [A. M. Dimits et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 71 (1996)], thereby eliminating global effects as the cause of the discrepancy. The late-time decay of the ETG turbulence and the steady-state heat transport observed in these PIC simulations are shown to result from discrete particle noise. Discrete particle noise is a numerical artifact, so both these PG3EQ simulations and, by inference, the GTC simulations that they reproduced have little to say about steady-state ETG turbulence and the associated anomalous heat transport. In the course of this work several diagnostics are developed to retrospectively test whether a particular PIC simulation is dominated by discrete particle noise
SIMULATION OF PARTICLE SPECTRA AT RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KAHANA, D.E.; KAHANA, S.H.
2001-01-01
A purely hadronic simulation is performed of the recently reported data from PHOBOS at energies of √s = 56, 130 GeV using the relativistic heavy ion cascade LUCIFER which had previously given a good description of the NA49 inclusive spectra at √s = 17.2 GeV/A. The results compare well with these early measurements at RHIC and indeed successfully predict the increase in multiplicity now seen by PHOBOS and the other RHIC detectors at the nominal maximum energy of √s = 200 GeV/A, suggesting that evidence for quark-gluon matter remains elusive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alejandro Acevedo-Malavé
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH is a Lagrangian mesh-free formalism and has been useful to model continuous fluid. This formalism is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations by replacing the fluid with a set of particles. These particles are interpolation points from which properties of the fluid can be determined. In this study, the SPH method is applied to simulate the hydrodynamics interaction of many drops, showing some settings for the coalescence, fragmentation and flocculation problem of equally sized liquid drops in three-dimensional spaces. For small velocities the drops interact only through their deformed surfaces and the flocculation of the droplets arises. This result is very different if the collision velocity is large enough for the fragmentation of droplets takes place. We observe that for velocities around 15 mm/ms the coalescence of droplets occurs. The velocity vector fields formed inside the drops during the collision process are shown.
Investigating the settling dynamics of cohesive silt particles with particle-resolving simulations
Sun, Rui; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Honglei
2018-01-01
The settling of cohesive sediment is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, and the study of the settling process is important for both engineering and environmental reasons. In the settling process, the silt particles show behaviors that are different from non-cohesive particles due to the influence of inter-particle cohesive force. For instance, the flocs formed in the settling process of cohesive silt can loosen the packing, and thus the structural densities of cohesive silt beds are much smaller than that of non-cohesive sand beds. While there is a consensus that cohesive behaviors depend on the characteristics of sediment particles (e.g., Bond number, particle size distribution), little is known about the exact influence of these characteristics on the cohesive behaviors. In addition, since the cohesive behaviors of the silt are caused by the inter-particle cohesive forces, the motions of and the contacts among silt particles should be resolved to study these cohesive behaviors in the settling process. However, studies of the cohesive behaviors of silt particles in the settling process based on particle-resolving approach are still lacking. In the present work, three-dimensional settling process is investigated numerically by using CFD-DEM (Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method). The inter-particle collision force, the van der Waals force, and the fluid-particle interaction forces are considered. The numerical model is used to simulate the hindered settling process of silt based on the experimental setup in the literature. The results obtained in the simulations, including the structural densities of the beds, the characteristic lines, and the particle terminal velocity, are in good agreement with the experimental observations in the literature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that the influences of non-dimensional Bond number and particle polydispersity on the structural densities of silt beds have been investigated separately
Modelling and simulation of particle-particle interaction in a magnetophoretic bio-separation chip
Alam, Manjurul; Golozar, Matin; Darabi, Jeff
2018-04-01
A Lagrangian particle trajectory model is developed to predict the interaction between cell-bead particle complexes and to track their trajectories in a magnetophoretic bio-separation chip. Magnetic flux gradients are simulated in the OpenFOAM CFD software and imported into MATLAB to obtain the trapping lengths and trajectories of the particles. A connector vector is introduced to calculate the interaction force between cell-bead complexes as they flow through a microfluidic device. The interaction force calculations are performed for cases where the connector vector is parallel, perpendicular, and at an angle of 45° with the applied magnetic field. The trajectories of the particles are simulated by solving a system of eight ordinary differential equations using a fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The model is then used to study the effects of geometric positions and angles of the connector vector between the particles as well as the cell size, number of beads per cell, and flow rate on the interaction force and trajectories of the particles. The results show that the interaction forces may be attractive or repulsive, depending on the orientation of the connector vector distance between the particle complexes and the applied magnetic field. When the interaction force is attractive, the particles are observed to merge and trap sooner than a single particle, whereas a repulsive interaction force has little or no effect on the trapping length.
Solar energetic particles: observational studies and magnetohydrodynamic simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masson, S.
2010-10-01
Solar activity manifests itself through highly dynamical events, such as flares and coronal mass ejections, which result in energy release by magnetic reconnection. This thesis focuses on two manifestations of this energy release: solar energetic particles and dynamics of magnetic reconnection. The first part of my work consists in the detailed temporal analysis of several electromagnetic signatures, produced by energetic particles in the solar atmosphere, with respect to the energetic particle flux at Earth. Using multi-instrument observations, I highlighted that particles can be accelerated by the flare to relativistic energies during a specific episode of acceleration in the impulsive phase. This showed that particles traveled a longer path length than the theoretical length generally assumed. Using in-situ measurements of magnetic field and plasma, I identified the interplanetary magnetic field for 10 particle events, and performing a velocity dispersion analysis I obtained the interplanetary length traveled by particles. I showed that the magnetic structure of the interplanetary medium play a crucial role in the association of the particle flux at Earth and the acceleration signatures of particles at the Sun. The second part of my work focuses on the dynamics of magnetic reconnection. Observationally, the best evidence for magnetic reconnection is the appearance of brightnesses at the solar surface. Performing the first data-driven 3 dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of an observed event, I discovered that the evolution of brightnesses can be explained by the succession of two different reconnection regimes, induced by a new topological association where null-point separatrix lines are embedded in quasi-separatrix layers. This new topological association induces a change of field line connectivity, but also a continuous reconnection process, leading to an apparent slipping motion of reconnected field lines. From a MHD simulation I showed that
Hydrodynamics in adaptive resolution particle simulations: Multiparticle collision dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alekseeva, Uliana, E-mail: Alekseeva@itc.rwth-aachen.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); German Research School for Simulation Sciences (GRS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Winkler, Roland G., E-mail: r.winkler@fz-juelich.de [Theoretical Soft Matter and Biophysics, Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Sutmann, Godehard, E-mail: g.sutmann@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); ICAMS, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)
2016-06-01
A new adaptive resolution technique for particle-based multi-level simulations of fluids is presented. In the approach, the representation of fluid and solvent particles is changed on the fly between an atomistic and a coarse-grained description. The present approach is based on a hybrid coupling of the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) method and molecular dynamics (MD), thereby coupling stochastic and deterministic particle-based methods. Hydrodynamics is examined by calculating velocity and current correlation functions for various mixed and coupled systems. We demonstrate that hydrodynamic properties of the mixed fluid are conserved by a suitable coupling of the two particle methods, and that the simulation results agree well with theoretical expectations.
Macroscale implicit electromagnetic particle simulation of magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Motohiko.
1988-01-01
An electromagnetic and multi-dimensional macroscale particle simulation code (MACROS) is presented which enables us to make a large time and spatial scale kinetic simulation of magnetized plasmas. Particle ions, finite mass electrons with the guiding-center approximation and a complete set of Maxwell equations are employed. Implicit field-particle coupled equations are derived in which a time-decentered (slightly backward) finite differential scheme is used to achieve stability for large time and spatial scales. It is shown analytically that the present simulation scheme suppresses high frequency electromagnetic waves and that it accurately reproduces low frequency waves in the plasma. These properties are verified by numerical examination of eigenmodes in a 2-D thermal equilibrium plasma and by that of the kinetic Alfven wave. (author)
Target Lagrangian kinematic simulation for particle-laden flows.
Murray, S; Lightstone, M F; Tullis, S
2016-09-01
The target Lagrangian kinematic simulation method was motivated as a stochastic Lagrangian particle model that better synthesizes turbulence structure, relative to stochastic separated flow models. By this method, the trajectories of particles are constructed according to synthetic turbulent-like fields, which conform to a target Lagrangian integral timescale. In addition to recovering the expected Lagrangian properties of fluid tracers, this method is shown to reproduce the crossing trajectories and continuity effects, in agreement with an experimental benchmark.
A 3d particle simulation code for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedman, A.; Bangerter, R.O.; Callahan, D.A.; Grote, D.P.; Langdon, A.B.; Haber, I.
1990-01-01
We describe WARP, a new particle-in-cell code being developed and optimized for ion beam studies in true geometry. We seek to model transport around bends, axial compression with strong focusing, multiple beamlet interaction, and other inherently 3d processes that affect emittance growth. Constraints imposed by memory and running time are severe. Thus, we employ only two 3d field arrays (ρ and φ), and difference φ directly on each particle to get E, rather than interpolating E from three meshes; use of a single 3d array is feasible. A new method for PIC simulation of bent beams follows the beam particles in a family of rotated laboratory frames, thus ''straightening'' the bends. We are also incorporating an envelope calculation, an (r, z) model, and 1d (axial) model within WARP. The BASIS development and run-time system is used, providing a powerful interactive environment in which the user has access to all variables in the code database. 10 refs., 3 figs
Monte Carlo simulation of particle-induced bit upsets
Wrobel, Frédéric; Touboul, Antoine; Vaillé, Jean-Roch; Boch, Jérôme; Saigné, Frédéric
2017-09-01
We investigate the issue of radiation-induced failures in electronic devices by developing a Monte Carlo tool called MC-Oracle. It is able to transport the particles in device, to calculate the energy deposited in the sensitive region of the device and to calculate the transient current induced by the primary particle and the secondary particles produced during nuclear reactions. We compare our simulation results with SRAM experiments irradiated with neutrons, protons and ions. The agreement is very good and shows that it is possible to predict the soft error rate (SER) for a given device in a given environment.
Monte Carlo simulation of particle-induced bit upsets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wrobel Frédéric
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the issue of radiation-induced failures in electronic devices by developing a Monte Carlo tool called MC-Oracle. It is able to transport the particles in device, to calculate the energy deposited in the sensitive region of the device and to calculate the transient current induced by the primary particle and the secondary particles produced during nuclear reactions. We compare our simulation results with SRAM experiments irradiated with neutrons, protons and ions. The agreement is very good and shows that it is possible to predict the soft error rate (SER for a given device in a given environment.
Miyamoto, K.
2005-12-01
I investigate how the intensity and the activity of mid-latitude cyclones change as a result of global warming, based on a time-slice experiment with a super-high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (20-km mesh TL959L60 MRI/JMA AGCM). The model was developed by the RR2002 project "Development of Super High Resolution Global and Regional Climate Models" funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In this context, I use a 10-year control simulation with the climatological SST and a 10-year time-slice global warming simulation using the SST anomalies derived from the SRES A1B scenario run with the MRI-CGCM2.3 (T42L30 atmosphere, 0.5-2.0 x 2.5 L23 ocean) corresponding to the end of the 21st century. I have analyzed the sea-level pressure field and the kinetic energy field of the wind at the 500 hPa pressure level associated with mid-latitude transients from October through April. According to a comparison of 10-day average fields between present and future in the North Pacific, some statistically significant changes are found in a warmer climate for the both of sea-level pressure and the kinetic energy fields. In particular, from late winter through early spring, the sea-level pressure decreases on many parts of the whole Pacific. The kinetic energy of the wind becomes higher on center of the basin. Therefore, I suppose the Aleutian Low is likely to settle in longer by about one month than the present. Hereafter, I plan to investigate what kind of phenomena may accompany the changes on mid-latitude transients.
Mountrakis, L.; Lorenz, E.; Hoekstra, A. G.
2017-07-01
The immersed-boundary lattice-Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) is increasingly being used in simulations of dense suspensions. These systems are computationally very expensive and can strongly benefit from lower resolutions that still maintain the desired accuracy for the quantities of interest. IB-LBM has a number of free parameters that have to be defined, often without exact knowledge of the tradeoffs, since their behavior in low resolutions is not well understood. Such parameters are the lattice constant Δ x , the number of vertices Nv, the interpolation kernel ϕ , and the LBM relaxation time τ . We investigate the effect of these IB-LBM parameters on a number of straightforward but challenging benchmarks. The systems considered are (a) the flow of a single sphere in shear flow, (b) the collision of two spheres in shear flow, and (c) the lubrication interaction of two spheres. All benchmarks are performed in three dimensions. The first two systems are used for determining two effective radii: the hydrodynamic radius rhyd and the particle interaction radius rinter. The last system is used to establish the numerical robustness of the lubrication forces, used to probe the hydrodynamic interactions in the limit of small gaps. Our results show that lower spatial resolutions result in larger hydrodynamic and interaction radii, while surface densities should be chosen above two vertices per LU2 result to prevent fluid penetration in underresolved meshes. Underresolved meshes also failed to produce the migration of particles toward the center of the domain due to lift forces in Couette flow, mostly noticeable for IBM-kernel ϕ2. Kernel ϕ4, despite being more robust toward mesh resolution, produces a notable membrane thickness, leading to the breakdown of the lubrication forces in larger gaps, and its use in dense suspensions where the mean particle distances are small can result in undesired behavior. rhyd is measured to be different from rinter, suggesting that there is
Optimization of the particle pusher in a diode simulation code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theimer, M.M.; Quintenz, J.P.
1979-09-01
The particle pusher in Sandia's particle-in-cell diode simulation code has been rewritten to reduce the required run time of a typical simulation. The resulting new version of the code has been found to run up to three times as fast as the original with comparable accuracy. The cost of this optimization was an increase in storage requirements of about 15%. The new version has also been written to run efficiently on a CRAY-1 computing system. Steps taken to affect this reduced run time are described. Various test cases are detailed
Open boundaries for particle beams within fit-simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balk, M.C. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: balk@temf.tu-darmstadt.de; Schuhmann, R. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Weiland, T. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
2006-03-01
A method is proposed to simulate open boundary conditions for charged particle beams with v
Open boundaries for particle beams within fit-simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balk, M.C.; Schuhmann, R.; Weiland, T.
2006-01-01
A method is proposed to simulate open boundary conditions for charged particle beams with v< c in time domain or frequency domain within the Finite Integration Technique (FIT). Inside the calculation domain the moving charged particles are represented by a line current. Further, the simulated field components at the boundary of the calculation domain have to be modified for an undisturbed transmission of the space-charge field. This can be realised by a 'scattered field' formulation. The method is verified by several calculations
Dynamic Simulation of Random Packing of Polydispersive Fine Particles
Ferraz, Carlos Handrey Araujo; Marques, Samuel Apolinário
2018-02-01
In this paper, we perform molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to study the two-dimensional packing process of both monosized and random size particles with radii ranging from 1.0 to 7.0 μm. The initial positions as well as the radii of five thousand fine particles were defined inside a rectangular box by using a random number generator. Both the translational and rotational movements of each particle were considered in the simulations. In order to deal with interacting fine particles, we take into account both the contact forces and the long-range dispersive forces. We account for normal and static/sliding tangential friction forces between particles and between particle and wall by means of a linear model approach, while the long-range dispersive forces are computed by using a Lennard-Jones-like potential. The packing processes were studied assuming different long-range interaction strengths. We carry out statistical calculations of the different quantities studied such as packing density, mean coordination number, kinetic energy, and radial distribution function as the system evolves over time. We find that the long-range dispersive forces can strongly influence the packing process dynamics as they might form large particle clusters, depending on the intensity of the long-range interaction strength.
Noiseless Vlasov–Poisson simulations with linearly transformed particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campos Pinto, Martin, E-mail: campos@ann.jussieu.fr [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); CNRS, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Sonnendrücker, Eric, E-mail: sonnen@math.unistra.fr [IRMA, UMR 7501, Université de Strasbourg and CNRS, 7 rue René Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Project-team CALVI, INRIA Nancy Grand Est, 7 rue René Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Friedman, Alex, E-mail: af@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grote, David P., E-mail: grote1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lund, Steve M., E-mail: smlund@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2014-10-15
We introduce a deterministic discrete-particle simulation approach, the Linearly-Transformed Particle-In-Cell (LTPIC) method, that employs linear deformations of the particles to reduce the noise traditionally associated with particle schemes. Formally, transforming the particles is justified by local first order expansions of the characteristic flow in phase space. In practice the method amounts of using deformation matrices within the particle shape functions; these matrices are updated via local evaluations of the forward numerical flow. Because it is necessary to periodically remap the particles on a regular grid to avoid excessively deforming their shapes, the method can be seen as a development of Denavit's Forward Semi-Lagrangian (FSL) scheme (Denavit, 1972 [8]). However, it has recently been established (Campos Pinto, 2012 [20]) that the underlying Linearly-Transformed Particle scheme converges for abstract transport problems, with no need to remap the particles; deforming the particles can thus be seen as a way to significantly lower the remapping frequency needed in the FSL schemes, and hence the associated numerical diffusion. To couple the method with electrostatic field solvers, two specific charge deposition schemes are examined, and their performance compared with that of the standard deposition method. Finally, numerical 1d1v simulations involving benchmark test cases and halo formation in an initially mismatched thermal sheet beam demonstrate some advantages of our LTPIC scheme over the classical PIC and FSL methods. Benchmarked test cases also indicate that, for numerical choices involving similar computational effort, the LTPIC method is capable of accuracy comparable to or exceeding that of state-of-the-art, high-resolution Vlasov schemes.
Natural tracer test simulation by stochastic particle tracking method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackerer, P.; Mose, R.; Semra, K.
1990-01-01
Stochastic particle tracking methods are well adapted to 3D transport simulations where discretization requirements of other methods usually cannot be satisfied. They do need a very accurate approximation of the velocity field. The described code is based on the mixed hybrid finite element method (MHFEM) to calculated the piezometric and velocity field. The random-walk method is used to simulate mass transport. The main advantages of the MHFEM over FD or FE are the simultaneous calculation of pressure and velocity, which are considered as unknowns; the possibility of interpolating velocities everywhere; and the continuity of the normal component of the velocity vector from one element to another. For these reasons, the MHFEM is well adapted for particle tracking methods. After a general description of the numerical methods, the model is used to simulate the observations made during the Twin Lake Tracer Test in 1983. A good match is found between observed and simulated heads and concentrations. (Author) (12 refs., 4 figs.)
Particle Tracking and Simulation on the .NET Framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, Hiroshi; Scarvie, Tom
2006-01-01
Particle tracking and simulation studies are becoming increasingly complex. In addition to the use of more sophisticated graphics, interactive scripting is becoming popular. Compatibility with different control systems requires network and database capabilities. It is not a trivial task to fulfill all the various requirements without sacrificing runtime performance. We evaluated the effectiveness of the .NET framework by converting a C++ simulation code to C. The portability to other platforms is mentioned in terms of Mono
Particle beam dynamics simulations using the POOMA framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Humphrey, W.; Ryne, R.; Cleland, T.; Cummings, J.; Habib, S.; Mark, G.; Ji Qiang
1998-01-01
A program for simulation of the dynamics of high intensity charged particle beams in linear particle accelerators has been developed in C++ using the POOMA Framework, for use on serial and parallel architectures. The code models the trajectories of charged particles through a sequence of different accelerator beamline elements such as drift chambers, quadrupole magnets, or RF cavities. An FFT-based particle-in-cell algorithm is used to solve the Poisson equation that models the Coulomb interactions of the particles. The code employs an object-oriented design with software abstractions for the particle beam, accelerator beamline, and beamline elements, using C++ templates to efficiently support both 2D and 3D capabilities in the same code base. The POOMA Framework, which encapsulates much of the effort required for parallel execution, provides particle and field classes, particle-field interaction capabilities, and parallel FFT algorithms. The performance of this application running serially and in parallel is compared to an existing HPF implementation, with the POOMA version seen to run four times faster than the HPF code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolobov, Vladimir; Arslanbekov, Robert; Frolova, Anna
2014-01-01
The paper describes an Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) technique for solving kinetic equations with deterministic mesh-based methods. The AMPS technique allows automatic generation of adaptive Cartesian mesh in both physical and velocity spaces using a Tree-of-Trees data structure. We illustrate advantages of AMPS for simulations of rarefied gas dynamics and electron kinetics on low temperature plasmas. In particular, we consider formation of the velocity distribution functions in hypersonic flows, particle kinetics near oscillating boundaries, and electron kinetics in a radio-frequency sheath. AMPS provide substantial savings in computational cost and increased efficiency of the mesh-based kinetic solvers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolobov, Vladimir [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805, USA and The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Arslanbekov, Robert [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Frolova, Anna [Computing Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation)
2014-12-09
The paper describes an Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) technique for solving kinetic equations with deterministic mesh-based methods. The AMPS technique allows automatic generation of adaptive Cartesian mesh in both physical and velocity spaces using a Tree-of-Trees data structure. We illustrate advantages of AMPS for simulations of rarefied gas dynamics and electron kinetics on low temperature plasmas. In particular, we consider formation of the velocity distribution functions in hypersonic flows, particle kinetics near oscillating boundaries, and electron kinetics in a radio-frequency sheath. AMPS provide substantial savings in computational cost and increased efficiency of the mesh-based kinetic solvers.
Simulating Biomass Fast Pyrolysis at the Single Particle Scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciesielski, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Jakes, Joseph E. [U.S. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
2017-07-01
Simulating fast pyrolysis at the scale of single particles allows for the investigation of the impacts of feedstock-specific parameters such as particle size, shape, and species of origin. For this reason particle-scale modeling has emerged as an important tool for understanding how variations in feedstock properties affect the outcomes of pyrolysis processes. The origins of feedstock properties are largely dictated by the composition and hierarchical structure of biomass, from the microstructural porosity to the external morphology of milled particles. These properties may be accounted for in simulations of fast pyrolysis by several different computational approaches depending on the level of structural and chemical complexity included in the model. The predictive utility of particle-scale simulations of fast pyrolysis can still be enhanced substantially by advancements in several areas. Most notably, considerable progress would be facilitated by the development of pyrolysis kinetic schemes that are decoupled from transport phenomena, predict product evolution from whole-biomass with increased chemical speciation, and are still tractable with present-day computational resources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico
2010-01-01
The recently concluded OECD SETH project included twenty-four experiments on basic flows and gas transport and mixing driven by jets and plumes in two, large, connected vessels of the PANDA facility. The experiments featured injection of saturated or superheated steam, or a mixture of steam and helium in one vessel and venting from the same vessel or from the connected one. These tests have been especially designed for providing an extensive data base for the assessment of three-dimensional codes, including CFD codes. In particular, one of the goals of the analytical activities associated with the experiments was to evaluate the detail of the model (mesh) necessary for capturing the various phenomena. This work reports an overview of the results obtained for these experimental data using the advanced containment code GOTHIC and relatively coarse meshes, which are coarser than the ones typically used for the simulation with commercial CFD codes, but are still representative of the models which are currently affordable for a full containment analysis. In general, the phenomena were correctly represented in the simulations with GOTHIC, and the agreement of the results with the data was in most cases pretty good, in some cases excellent. Only for a few tests (or particular phenomena occurring in some tests) the simulations showed noticeable discrepancies with the experimental data, which could be referred to either an insufficiently detailed mesh or to lack of specialized models for local effects.
Fully resolved simulations of expansion waves propagating into particle beds
Marjanovic, Goran; Hackl, Jason; Annamalai, Subramanian; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, S.
2017-11-01
There is a tremendous amount of research that has been done on compression waves and shock waves moving over particles but very little concerning expansion waves. Using 3-D direct numerical simulations, this study will explore expansion waves propagating into fully resolved particle beds of varying volume fractions and geometric arrangements. The objectives of these simulations are as follows: 1) To fully resolve all (1-way coupled) forces on the particles in a time varying flow and 2) to verify state-of-the-art drag models for such complex flows. We will explore a range of volume fractions, from very low ones that are similar to single particle flows, to higher ones where nozzling effects are observed between neighboring particles. Further, we will explore two geometric arrangements: body centered cubic and face centered cubic. We will quantify the effects that volume fraction and geometric arrangement plays on the drag forces and flow fields experienced by the particles. These results will then be compared to theoretical predictions from a model based on the generalized Faxen's theorem. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Friction dependence of shallow granular flows from discrete particle simulations
Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Luding, Stefan; Bokhove, Onno
2011-01-01
A shallow-layer model for granular flows is completed with a closure relation for the macroscopic bed friction or basal roughness obtained from micro-scale discrete particle simulations of steady flows. We systematically vary the bed friction by changing the contact friction coefficient between
Simulating water hammer with corrective smoothed particle method
Hou, Q.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Keramat, A.
2012-01-01
The corrective smoothed particle method (CSPM) is used to simulate water hammer. The spatial derivatives in the water-hammer equations are approximated by a corrective kernel estimate. For the temporal derivatives, the Euler-forward time integration algorithm is employed. The CSPM results are in
Simulation of particle suspensions at the Institute for Computational Physics
Harting, J.D.R.; Hecht, M.; Herrmann, H.J.; Nagel, W.E.; Jäger, W.; Resch, M.M.
2006-01-01
In this report we describe some of our projects related to the simulation of particle-laden flows. We give a short introduction to the topic and the methods used, namely the Stochastic Rotation Dynamics and the lattice Boltzmann method. Then, we show results from our work related to the behaviour of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Liedekerke, P; Tijskens, E; Smeedts, B; Ramon, H; Ghysels, P; Samaey, G; Roose, D
2010-01-01
This paper is concerned with addressing how plant tissue mechanics is related to the micromechanics of cells. To this end, we propose a mesh-free particle method to simulate the mechanics of both individual plant cells (parenchyma) and cell aggregates in response to external stresses. The model considers two important features in the plant cell: (1) the cell protoplasm, the interior liquid phase inducing hydrodynamic phenomena, and (2) the cell wall material, a viscoelastic solid material that contains the protoplasm. In this particle framework, the cell fluid is modeled by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), a mesh-free method typically used to address problems with gas and fluid dynamics. In the solid phase (cell wall) on the other hand, the particles are connected by pairwise interactions holding them together and preventing the fluid to penetrate the cell wall. The cell wall hydraulic conductivity (permeability) is built in as well through the SPH formulation. Although this model is also meant to be able to deal with dynamic and even violent situations (leading to cell wall rupture or cell–cell debonding), we have concentrated on quasi-static conditions. The results of single-cell compression simulations show that the conclusions found by analytical models and experiments can be reproduced at least qualitatively. Relaxation tests revealed that plant cells have short relaxation times (1 µs–10 µs) compared to mammalian cells. Simulations performed on cell aggregates indicated an influence of the cellular organization to the tissue response, as was also observed in experiments done on tissues with a similar structure
Multiple time-scale methods in particle simulations of plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, B.I.
1985-01-01
This paper surveys recent advances in the application of multiple time-scale methods to particle simulation of collective phenomena in plasmas. These methods dramatically improve the efficiency of simulating low-frequency kinetic behavior by allowing the use of a large timestep, while retaining accuracy. The numerical schemes surveyed provide selective damping of unwanted high-frequency waves and preserve numerical stability in a variety of physics models: electrostatic, magneto-inductive, Darwin and fully electromagnetic. The paper reviews hybrid simulation models, the implicitmoment-equation method, the direct implicit method, orbit averaging, and subcycling
Particle-in-cell Simulations with Kinetic Electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, J.L.V.
2004-01-01
A new scheme, based on an exact separation between adiabatic and nonadiabatic electron responses, for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of drift-type modes is presented. The (linear and nonlinear) elliptic equations for the scalar fields are solved using a multi-grid solver. The new scheme yields linear growth rates in excellent agreement with theory and it is shown to conserve energy well into the nonlinear regime. It is also demonstrated that simulations with few electrons are reliable and accurate, suggesting that large-scale, PIC simulations with electron dynamics in toroidal geometry (e.g., tokamaks and stellarators plasmas) are within reach of present-day massively parallel supercomputers
Mathematical simulation of cascade-probabilistic functions for charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kupchishin, A.A.; Kupchishin, A.I.; Smygaleva, T.A.
1998-01-01
Analytical expressions for cascade-probabilistic functions (CPF) for electrons, protons, α-particles and ions with taking into account energy losses are received. Mathematical analysis of these functions is carried out and main properties of function are determined. Algorithms of CPF are developed and their computer calculation were conducted. Regularities in behavior of function in dependence on initial particles energy, atomic number and registration depth are established. Book is intended to specialists on mathematical simulation of radiation defects, solid state physics, elementary particle physics and applied mathematics. There are 3 chapters in the book: 1. Cascade-probabilistic functions for electrons; 2. CPF for protons and α-particles; 3. CPF with taking unto account energy losses of ions. (author)
Parallel pic plasma simulation through particle decomposition techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briguglio, S.; Vlad, G.; Di Martino, B.; Naples, Univ. 'Federico II'
1998-02-01
Particle-in-cell (PIC) codes are among the major candidates to yield a satisfactory description of the detail of kinetic effects, such as the resonant wave-particle interaction, relevant in determining the transport mechanism in magnetically confined plasmas. A significant improvement of the simulation performance of such codes con be expected from parallelization, e.g., by distributing the particle population among several parallel processors. Parallelization of a hybrid magnetohydrodynamic-gyrokinetic code has been accomplished within the High Performance Fortran (HPF) framework, and tested on the IBM SP2 parallel system, using a 'particle decomposition' technique. The adopted technique requires a moderate effort in porting the code in parallel form and results in intrinsic load balancing and modest inter processor communication. The performance tests obtained confirm the hypothesis of high effectiveness of the strategy, if targeted towards moderately parallel architectures. Optimal use of resources is also discussed with reference to a specific physics problem [it
Numerical simulation of flow fields and particle trajectories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mayer, Stefan
2000-01-01
. The time-dependent flow is approximated with a continuous sequence of steady state creeping flow fields, where metachronously beating ciliary bands are modelled by linear combinations of singularity solutions to the Stokes equations. Generally, the computed flow fields can be divided into an unsteady......A model describing the ciliary driven flow and motion of suspended particles in downstream suspension feeders is developed. The quasi-steady Stokes equations for creeping flow are solved numerically in an unbounded fluid domain around cylindrical bodies using a boundary integral formulation...... in the simulated unsteady ciliary driven flow. A fraction of particles appear to follow trajectories, that resemble experimentally observed particle capture events in the downstream feeding system of the polycheate Sabella penicillus, indicating that particles can be captured by ciliary systems without mechanical...
Numerical Simulation of Particle Distribution in Capillary Membrane during Backwash
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anik Keller
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The membrane filtration with inside-out dead-end driven UF-/MF- capillary membranes is an effective process for particle removal in water treatment. Its industrial application increased in the last decade exponentially. To date, the research activities in this field were aimed first of all at the analysis of filtration phenomena disregarding the influence of backwash on the operation parameters of filtration plants. However, following the main hypothesis of this paper, backwash has great potential to increase the efficiency of filtration. In this paper, a numerical approach for a detailed study of fluid dynamic processes in capillary membranes during backwash is presented. The effect of particle size and inlet flux on the backwash process are investigated. The evaluation of these data concentrates on the analysis of particle behavior in the cross sectional plane and the appearance of eventually formed particle plugs inside the membrane capillary. Simulations are conducted in dead-end filtration mode and with two configurations. The first configuration includes a particle concentration of 10% homogeneously distributed within the capillary and the second configuration demonstrates a cake layer on the membrane surface with a packing density of 0:6. Analyzing the hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles shows that the lift force plays the main role in defining the particle enrichment areas. The operation parameters contribute in enhancing the lift force and the heterogeneity to anticipate the clogging of the membrane.
Comparison of GPU-Based Numerous Particles Simulation and Experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Sang Wook; Jun, Chul Woong; Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jae Wook
2014-01-01
The dynamic behavior of numerous grains interacting with each other can be easily observed. In this study, this dynamic behavior was analyzed based on the contact between numerous grains. The discrete element method was used for analyzing the dynamic behavior of each particle and the neighboring-cell algorithm was employed for detecting their contact. The Hertzian and tangential sliding friction contact models were used for calculating the contact force acting between the particles. A GPU-based parallel program was developed for conducting the computer simulation and calculating the numerous contacts. The dam break experiment was performed to verify the simulation results. The reliability of the program was verified by comparing the results of the simulation with those of the experiment
Impact of detector simulation in particle physics collider experiments
Daniel Elvira, V.
2017-06-01
Through the last three decades, accurate simulation of the interactions of particles with matter and modeling of detector geometries has proven to be of critical importance to the success of the international high-energy physics (HEP) experimental programs. For example, the detailed detector modeling and accurate physics of the Geant4-based simulation software of the CMS and ATLAS particle physics experiments at the European Center of Nuclear Research (CERN) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was a determinant factor for these collaborations to deliver physics results of outstanding quality faster than any hadron collider experiment ever before. This review article highlights the impact of detector simulation on particle physics collider experiments. It presents numerous examples of the use of simulation, from detector design and optimization, through software and computing development and testing, to cases where the use of simulation samples made a difference in the precision of the physics results and publication turnaround, from data-taking to submission. It also presents estimates of the cost and economic impact of simulation in the CMS experiment. Future experiments will collect orders of magnitude more data with increasingly complex detectors, taxing heavily the performance of simulation and reconstruction software. Consequently, exploring solutions to speed up simulation and reconstruction software to satisfy the growing demand of computing resources in a time of flat budgets is a matter that deserves immediate attention. The article ends with a short discussion on the potential solutions that are being considered, based on leveraging core count growth in multicore machines, using new generation coprocessors, and re-engineering HEP code for concurrency and parallel computing.
Koester, Martin; García, R Edwin; Thommes, Markus
2014-12-30
Spheronization is an important pharmaceutical manufacturing technique to produce spherical agglomerates of 0.5-2mm diameter. These pellets have a narrow size distribution and a spherical shape. During the spheronization process, the extruded cylindrical strands break in short cylinders and evolve from a cylindrical to a spherical state by deformation and attrition/agglomeration mechanisms. Using the discrete element method, an integrated modeling-experimental framework is presented, that captures the particle motion during the spheronization process. Simulations were directly compared and validated against particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments with monodisperse spherical and dry γ-Al2O3 particles. demonstrate a characteristic torus like flow pattern, with particle velocities about three times slower than the rotation speed of the friction plate. Five characteristic zones controlling the spheronization process are identified: Zone I, where particles undergo shear forces that favors attrition and contributes material to the agglomeration process; Zone II, where the static wall contributes to the mass exchange between particles; Zone III, where gravitational forces combined with particle motion induce particles to collide with the moving plate and re-enter Zone I; Zone IV, where a subpopulation of particles are ejected into the air when in contact with the friction plate structure; and Zone V where the low poloidal velocity favors a stagnant particle population and is entirely controlled by the batch size. These new insights in to the particle motion are leading to deeper process understanding, e.g., the effect of load and rotation speed to the pellet formation kinetics. This could be beneficial for the optimization of a manufacturing process as well as for the development of new formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Simulating non-Newtonian flows with the moving particle semi-implicit method with an SPH kernel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiang, Hao; Chen, Bin
2015-01-01
The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) are commonly used mesh-free particle methods for free surface flows. The MPS method has superiority in incompressible flow simulation and simple programing. However, the crude kernel function is not accurate enough for the discretization of the divergence of the shear stress tensor by the particle inconsistency when the MPS method is extended to non-Newtonian flows. This paper presents an improved MPS method with an SPH kernel to simulate non-Newtonian flows. To improve the consistency of the partial derivative, the SPH cubic spline kernel and the Taylor series expansion are combined with the MPS method. This approach is suitable for all non-Newtonian fluids that can be described with τ = μ(|γ|) Δ (where τ is the shear stress tensor, μ is the viscosity, |γ| is the shear rate, and Δ is the strain tensor), e.g., the Casson and Cross fluids. Two examples are simulated including the Newtonian Poiseuille flow and container filling process of the Cross fluid. The results of Poiseuille flow are more accurate than the traditional MPS method, and different filling processes are obtained with good agreement with previous results, which verified the validation of the new algorithm. For the Cross fluid, the jet fracture length can be correlated with We 0.28 Fr 0.78 (We is the Weber number, Fr is the Froude number). (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Young Joon; Djilali, Ned
2016-01-01
Colloidal agglomeration of nanoparticles in shear flow is investigated by solving the fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions in a 2D system. We use an extended finite element method in which the dynamics of the particles is solved in a fully coupled manner with the flow, allowing an accurate description of the fluid-particle interfaces without the need of boundary-fitted meshes or of empirical correlations to account for the hydrodynamic interactions between the particles. Adaptive local mesh refinement using a grid deformation method is incorporated with the fluid-structure interaction algorithm, and the particle-particle interaction at the microscopic level is modeled using the Lennard-Jones potential. Motivated by the process used in fabricating fuel cell catalysts from a colloidal ink, the model is applied to investigate agglomeration of colloidal particles under external shear flow in a sliding bi-periodic Lees-Edwards frame with varying shear rates and particle fraction ratios. Both external shear and particle fraction are found to have a crucial impact on the structure formation of colloidal particles in a suspension. Segregation intensity and graph theory are used to analyze the underlying agglomeration patterns and structures, and three agglomeration regimes are identified
High viscosity fluid simulation using particle-based method
Chang, Yuanzhang
2011-03-01
We present a new particle-based method for high viscosity fluid simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the traditional Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the movements of the high viscosity fluids. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, in order to eliminate the particle deficiency problem near the boundary, ghost particles are employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. Compared with Finite Element Methods with complicated and time-consuming remeshing operations, our method is much more straightforward to implement. Moreover, our method doesn\\'t need to store and compare to an initial rest state. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient to handle the movements of highly viscous flows, and a large variety of different kinds of fluid behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2011 IEEE.
PART 2: LARGE PARTICLE MODELLING Simulation of particle filtration processes in deformable media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gernot Boiger
2008-06-01
Full Text Available In filtration processes it is necessary to consider both, the interaction of thefluid with the solid parts as well as the effect of particles carried in the fluidand accumulated on the solid. While part 1 of this paper deals with themodelling of fluid structure interaction effects, the accumulation of dirtparticles will be addressed in this paper. A closer look is taken on theimplementation of a spherical, LAGRANGIAN particle model suitable forsmall and large particles. As dirt accumulates in the fluid stream, it interactswith the surrounding filter fibre structure and over time causes modificationsof the filter characteristics. The calculation of particle force interactioneffects is necessary for an adequate simulation of this situation. A detailedDiscrete Phase Lagrange Model was developed to take into account thetwo-way coupling of the fluid and accumulated particles. The simulation oflarge particles and the fluid-structure interaction is realised in a single finitevolume flow solver on the basis of the OpenSource software OpenFoam.
Numerical simulation of a flow-like landslide using the particle finite element method
Zhang, Xue; Krabbenhoft, Kristian; Sheng, Daichao; Li, Weichao
2015-01-01
In this paper, an actual landslide process that occurred in Southern China is simulated by a continuum approach, the particle finite element method (PFEM). The PFEM attempts to solve the boundary-value problems in the framework of solid mechanics, satisfying the governing equations including momentum conservation, displacement-strain relation, constitutive relation as well as the frictional contact between the sliding mass and the slip surface. To warrant the convergence behaviour of solutions, the problem is formulated as a mathematical programming problem, while the particle finite element procedure is employed to tackle the issues of mesh distortion and free-surface evolution. The whole procedure of the landslide, from initiation, sliding to deposition, is successfully reproduced by the continuum approach. It is shown that the density of the mass has little influence on the sliding process in the current landslide, whereas both the geometry and the roughness of the slip surface play important roles. Comparative studies are also conducted where a satisfactory agreement is obtained.
Particle tracking in sophisticated CAD models for simulation purposes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sulkimo, J.; Vuoskoski, J.
1995-01-01
The transfer of physics detector models from computer aided design systems to physics simulation packages like GEANT suffers from certain limitations. In addition, GEANT is not able to perform particle tracking in CAD models. We describe an application which is able to perform particle tracking in boundary models constructed in CAD systems. The transfer file format used is the new international standard, STEP. The design and implementation of the application was carried out using object-oriented techniques. It will be integrated in the future object-oriented version of GEANT. (orig.)
Particle tracking in sophisticated CAD models for simulation purposes
Sulkimo, J.; Vuoskoski, J.
1996-02-01
The transfer of physics detector models from computer aided design systems to physics simulation packages like GEANT suffers from certain limitations. In addition, GEANT is not able to perform particle tracking in CAD models. We describe an application which is able to perform particle tracking in boundary models constructed in CAD systems. The transfer file format used is the new international standard, STEP. The design and implementation of the application was carried out using object-oriented techniques. It will be integrated in the future object-oriented version of GEANT.
Optimized Loading for Particle-in-cell Gyrokinetic Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, J.L.V.
2004-01-01
The problem of particle loading in particle-in-cell gyrokinetic simulations is addressed using a quadratic optimization algorithm. Optimized loading in configuration space dramatically reduces the short wavelength modes in the electrostatic potential that are partly responsible for the non-conservation of total energy; further, the long wavelength modes are resolved with good accuracy. As a result, the conservation of energy for the optimized loading is much better that the conservation of energy for the random loading. The method is valid for any geometry and can be coupled to optimization algorithms in velocity space
Vectorization of a particle simulation method for hypersonic rarefied flow
Mcdonald, Jeffrey D.; Baganoff, Donald
1988-01-01
An efficient particle simulation technique for hypersonic rarefied flows is presented at an algorithmic and implementation level. The implementation is for a vector computer architecture, specifically the Cray-2. The method models an ideal diatomic Maxwell molecule with three translational and two rotational degrees of freedom. Algorithms are designed specifically for compatibility with fine grain parallelism by reducing the number of data dependencies in the computation. By insisting on this compatibility, the method is capable of performing simulation on a much larger scale than previously possible. A two-dimensional simulation of supersonic flow over a wedge is carried out for the near-continuum limit where the gas is in equilibrium and the ideal solution can be used as a check on the accuracy of the gas model employed in the method. Also, a three-dimensional, Mach 8, rarefied flow about a finite-span flat plate at a 45 degree angle of attack was simulated. It utilized over 10 to the 7th particles carried through 400 discrete time steps in less than one hour of Cray-2 CPU time. This problem was chosen to exhibit the capability of the method in handling a large number of particles and a true three-dimensional geometry.
Particle in cell simulation of peaking switch for breakdown evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Umbarkar, Sachin B.; Bindu, S.; Mangalvedekar, H.A.; Saxena, A.; Singh, N.M., E-mail: sachin.b.umbarkar@gmail.com [Department of Electric Engineering, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai (India); Sharma, Archana; Saroj, P.C.; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)
2014-07-01
Marx generator connected to peaking capacitor and peaking switch can generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radiation. A new peaking switch is designed for converting the existing nanosecond Marx generator to a UWB source. The paper explains the particle in cell (PIC) simulation for this peaking switch, using MAGIC 3D software. This peaking switch electrode is made up of copper tungsten material and is fixed inside the hermitically sealed derlin material. The switch can withstand a gas pressure up to 13.5 kg/cm{sup 2}. The lower electrode of the switch is connected to the last stage of the Marx generator. Initially Marx generator (without peaking stage) in air; gives the output pulse with peak amplitude of 113.75 kV and pulse rise time of 25 ns. Thus, we design a new peaking switch to improve the rise time of output pulse and to pressurize this peaking switch separately (i.e. Marx and peaking switch is at different pressure). The PIC simulation gives the particle charge density, current density, E counter plot, emitted electron current, and particle energy along the axis of gap between electrodes. The charge injection and electric field dependence on ionic dissociation phenomenon are briefly analyzed using this simulation. The model is simulated with different gases (N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Air) under different pressure (2 kg/cm{sup 2}, 5 kg/cm{sup 2}, 10 kg/cm{sup 2}). (author)
Vectorization of a particle simulation method for hypersonic rarefied flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mcdonald, J.D.; Baganoff, D.
1988-01-01
An efficient particle simulation technique for hypersonic rarefied flows is presented at an algorithmic and implementation level. The implementation is for a vector computer architecture, specifically the Cray-2. The method models an ideal diatomic Maxwell molecule with three translational and two rotational degrees of freedom. Algorithms are designed specifically for compatibility with fine grain parallelism by reducing the number of data dependencies in the computation. By insisting on this compatibility, the method is capable of performing simulation on a much larger scale than previously possible. A two-dimensional simulation of supersonic flow over a wedge is carried out for the near-continuum limit where the gas is in equilibrium and the ideal solution can be used as a check on the accuracy of the gas model employed in the method. Also, a three-dimensional, Mach 8, rarefied flow about a finite-span flat plate at a 45 degree angle of attack was simulated. It utilized over 10 to the 7th particles carried through 400 discrete time steps in less than one hour of Cray-2 CPU time. This problem was chosen to exhibit the capability of the method in handling a large number of particles and a true three-dimensional geometry. 14 references
A particle-based method for granular flow simulation
Chang, Yuanzhang; Bao, Kai; Zhu, Jian; Wu, Enhua
2012-01-01
We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke's law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Wavenumber spectrum of whistler turbulence: Particle-in-cell simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, S.; Gary, S. Peter; Narita, Y.
2010-01-01
The forward cascade of decaying whistler turbulence is studied in low beta plasma to understand essential properties of the energy spectrum at electron scales, by using a two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. This simulation demonstrates turbulence in which the energy cascade rate is greater than the dissipation rate at the electron inertial length. The PIC simulation shows that the magnetic energy spectrum of forward-cascaded whistler turbulence at electron inertial scales is anisotropic and develops a very steep power-law spectrum which is consistent with recent solar wind observations. A comparison of the simulated spectrum with that predicted by a phenomenological turbulence scaling model suggests that the energy cascade at the electron inertial scale depends on both magnetic fluctuations and electron velocity fluctuations, as well as on the whistler dispersion relation. Thus, not only kinetic Alfven turbulence but also whistler turbulence may explain recent solar wind observations of very steep magnetic spectra at short scales.
A particle-based method for granular flow simulation
Chang, Yuanzhang
2012-03-16
We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants
... procedures performed to treat pelvic floor disorders with surgical mesh: Transvaginal mesh to treat POP Transabdominal mesh to treat ... address safety risks Final Order for Reclassification of Surgical Mesh for Transvaginal Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair Final Order for Effective ...
Particle simulation models and their application to controlled fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuda, H.
1977-01-01
Plasma simulation models using particles are described which have been developed for studying the microscopic behavior of a confined plasma in a magnetic field. The first model is developed to investigate the anomalous diffusion of particles and energy due to low-frequency electrostatic microinstabilities in cylindrical and toroidal systems. The model makes use of the combination of eigenfunction expansion in one direction and the multipole expansion on a two-dimensional spatial grid for solving the Maxwell equations and for pushing particles. The second model is developed to study the neutral beam injection heating of a tokamak plasma taking into account the spatial variation of plasma parameters and the finite ion beam banana orbit. The self-consistent electric and magnetic fields are totally ignored in this model and the Fokker-Planck collisions on the beam ions due to background ions and electrons are built in through the Monte Carlo method
DART: a simulation code for charged particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, R.C.; Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.
1988-01-01
This paper presents a recently modified verion of the 2-D DART code designed to simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose paths are affected by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation technique includes space charge, secondary electron effects, and neutral gas ionization. Calculations of electrode placement and energy conversion efficiency are described. Basic operation procedures are given including sample input files and output. 7 refs., 18 figs
Gyrokinetics Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, Patrick H.
2011-09-21
Progress in research during this year elucidated the physics of precession resonance and its interaction with radial scattering to form phase space density granulations. Momentum theorems for drift wave-zonal flow systems involving precession resonance were derived. These are directly generalizable to energetic particle modes. A novel nonlinear, subcritical growth mechanism was identified, which has now been verified by simulation. These results strengthen the foundation of our understanding of transport in burning plasmas
Monte Carlo simulations of interacting particle mixtures in ratchet potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fendrik, A J; Romanelli, L
2012-01-01
There are different models of devices for achieving a separation of mixtures of particles by using the ratchet effect. On the other hand, it has been proposed that one could also control the separation by means of appropriate interactions. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we show that inclusion of simple interactions leads to a decrease of the ratchet effect and therefore also a separation of the mixtures.
Gyrokinetics Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, Patrick H.
2011-01-01
Progress in research during this year elucidated the physics of precession resonance and its interaction with radial scattering to form phase space density granulations. Momentum theorems for drift wave-zonal flow systems involving precession resonance were derived. These are directly generalizable to energetic particle modes. A novel nonlinear, subcritical growth mechanism was identified, which has now been verified by simulation. These results strengthen the foundation of our understanding of transport in burning plasmas
Parallel treatment of simulation particles in particle-in-cell codes on SUPRENUM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seldner, D.
1990-02-01
This report contains the program documentation and description of the program package 2D-PLAS, which has been developed at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe in the Institute for Data Processing in Technology (IDT) under the auspices of the BMFT. 2D-PLAS is a parallel program version of the treatment of the simulation particles of the two-dimensional stationary particle-in-cell code BFCPIC which has been developed at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. This parallel version has been designed for the parallel computer SUPRENUM. (orig.) [de
Particle simulation of a two-dimensional electrostatic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, K.
1989-01-01
Computer simulation is a growing field of research and plasma physics is one of the important areas where it is being applied today. This report describes the particle method of simulating a two-dimensional electrostatic plasma. The methods used to discretise the plasma equations and integrate the equations of motion are outlined. The algorithm used in building a simulation program is described. The program is applied to simulating the Two-stream Instability occurring within an infinite plasma. The results of the simulation are presented. The growth rate of the instability as simulated is in excellent agreement with the growth rate as calculated using linear theory. Diagnostic techniques used in interpreting the data generated by the simulation program are discussed. A comparison of the computing environment of the ND and PC from a user's viewpoint is presented. It is observed that the PC is an acceptable computing tool for certain (non-trivial) physics problems, and that more extensive use of its computing power should be made. (author). 5 figs
Fully kinetic particle simulations of high pressure streamer propagation
Rose, David; Welch, Dale; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, Robert
2012-10-01
Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is a dynamic process involving a hierarchy of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. We have performed 2D and 3D fully EM implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation under DC and RF fields. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm [D. R. Welch, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)] that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge. These models are being applied to the analysis of high-pressure gas switches [D. V. Rose, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 093501 (2011)] and gas-filled RF accelerator cavities [D. V. Rose, et al. Proc. IPAC12, to appear].
Transient Simulation of Accumulating Particle Deposition in Pipe Flow
Hewett, James; Sellier, Mathieu
2015-11-01
Colloidal particles that deposit in pipe systems can lead to fouling which is an expensive problem in both the geothermal and oil & gas industries. We investigate the gradual accumulation of deposited colloids in pipe flow using numerical simulations. An Euler-Lagrangian approach is employed for modelling the fluid and particle phases. Particle transport to the pipe wall is modelled with Brownian motion and turbulent diffusion. A two-way coupling exists between the fouled material and the pipe flow; the local mass flux of depositing particles is affected by the surrounding fluid in the near-wall region. This coupling is modelled by changing the cells from fluid to solid as the deposited particles exceed each local cell volume. A similar method has been used to model fouling in engine exhaust systems (Paz et al., Heat Transfer Eng., 34(8-9):674-682, 2013). We compare our deposition velocities and deposition profiles with an experiment on silica scaling in turbulent pipe flow (Kokhanenko et al., 19th AFMC, 2014).
Kinetic solvers with adaptive mesh in phase space
Arslanbekov, Robert R.; Kolobov, Vladimir I.; Frolova, Anna A.
2013-12-01
An adaptive mesh in phase space (AMPS) methodology has been developed for solving multidimensional kinetic equations by the discrete velocity method. A Cartesian mesh for both configuration (r) and velocity (v) spaces is produced using a “tree of trees” (ToT) data structure. The r mesh is automatically generated around embedded boundaries, and is dynamically adapted to local solution properties. The v mesh is created on-the-fly in each r cell. Mappings between neighboring v-space trees is implemented for the advection operator in r space. We have developed algorithms for solving the full Boltzmann and linear Boltzmann equations with AMPS. Several recent innovations were used to calculate the discrete Boltzmann collision integral with dynamically adaptive v mesh: the importance sampling, multipoint projection, and variance reduction methods. We have developed an efficient algorithm for calculating the linear Boltzmann collision integral for elastic and inelastic collisions of hot light particles in a Lorentz gas. Our AMPS technique has been demonstrated for simulations of hypersonic rarefied gas flows, ion and electron kinetics in weakly ionized plasma, radiation and light-particle transport through thin films, and electron streaming in semiconductors. We have shown that AMPS allows minimizing the number of cells in phase space to reduce the computational cost and memory usage for solving challenging kinetic problems.
CFD simulation of gas and particles combustion in biomass furnaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Griselin, Nicolas
2000-11-01
In this thesis, gas and particle combustion in biomass furnaces is investigated numerically. The aim of this thesis is to use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology as an effective computer based simulation tool to study and develop the combustion processes in biomass furnaces. A detailed model for the numerical simulation of biomass combustion in a furnace, including fixed-bed modeling, gas-phase calculation (species distribution, temperature field, flow field) and gas-solid two-phase interaction for flying burning particles is presented. This model is used to understand the mechanisms of combustion and pollutant emissions under different conditions in small scale and large scale furnaces. The code used in the computations was developed at the Division of Fluid Mechanics, LTH. The flow field in the combustion enclosure is calculated by solving the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, with standard {kappa} - {epsilon} turbulence closure, together with the energy conservation equation and species transport equations. Discrete transfer method is used for calculating the radiation source term in the energy conservation equation. Finite difference is used to solve the general form of the equation yielding solutions for gas-phase temperatures, velocities, turbulence intensities and species concentrations. The code has been extended through this work in order to include two-phase flow simulation of particles and gas combustion. The Favre-averaged gas equations are solved in a Eulerian framework while the submodels for particle motion and combustion are used in the framework of a Lagrangian approach. Numerical simulations and measurement data of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), CO, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and temperature on the top of the fixed bed are used to model the amount of tar and char formed during pyrolysis and combustion of biomass fuel in the bed. Different operating conditions are examined. Numerical calculations are compared with the measured data. It is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flandrin, N.
2005-09-15
During the exploitation of an oil reservoir, it is important to predict the recovery of hydrocarbons and to optimize its production. A better comprehension of the physical phenomena requires to simulate 3D multiphase flows in increasingly complex geological structures. In this thesis, we are interested in this spatial discretization and we propose to extend in 3D the 2D hybrid model proposed by IFP in 1998 that allows to take directly into account in the geometry the radial characteristics of the flows. In these hybrid meshes, the wells and their drainage areas are described by structured radial circular meshes and the reservoirs are represented by structured meshes that can be a non uniform Cartesian grid or a Corner Point Geometry grids. In order to generate a global conforming mesh, unstructured transition meshes based on power diagrams and satisfying finite volume properties are used to connect the structured meshes together. Two methods have been implemented to generate these transition meshes: the first one is based on a Delaunay triangulation, the other one uses a frontal approach. Finally, some criteria are introduced to measure the quality of the transition meshes and optimization procedures are proposed to increase this quality under finite volume properties constraints. (author)
Simulations of reactive transport and precipitation with smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Meakin, Paul; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Eichler West, Rogene M.
2007-03-01
A numerical model based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) was developed for reactive transport and mineral precipitation in fractured and porous materials. Because of its Lagrangian particle nature, SPH has several advantages for modeling Navier-Stokes flow and reactive transport including: (1) in a Lagrangian framework there is no non-linear term in the momentum conservation equation, so that accurate solutions can be obtained for momentum dominated flows and; (2) complicated physical and chemical processes such as surface growth due to precipitation/dissolution and chemical reactions are easy to implement. In addition, SPH simulations explicitly conserve mass and linear momentum. The SPH solution of the diffusion equation with fixed and moving reactive solid-fluid boundaries was compared with analytical solutions, Lattice Boltzmann [Q. Kang, D. Zhang, P. Lichtner, I. Tsimpanogiannis, Lattice Boltzmann model for crystal growth from supersaturated solution, Geophysical Research Letters, 31 (2004) L21604] simulations and diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) [P. Meakin, Fractals, scaling and far from equilibrium. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998] model simulations. To illustrate the capabilities of the model, coupled three-dimensional flow, reactive transport and precipitation in a fracture aperture with a complex geometry were simulated.
Load management strategy for Particle-In-Cell simulations in high energy particle acceleration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beck, A., E-mail: beck@llr.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS-IN2P3, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Frederiksen, J.T. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 København Ø (Denmark); Dérouillat, J. [CEA, Maison de La Simulation, 91400 Saclay (France)
2016-09-01
In the wake of the intense effort made for the experimental CILEX project, numerical simulation campaigns have been carried out in order to finalize the design of the facility and to identify optimal laser and plasma parameters. These simulations bring, of course, important insight into the fundamental physics at play. As a by-product, they also characterize the quality of our theoretical and numerical models. In this paper, we compare the results given by different codes and point out algorithmic limitations both in terms of physical accuracy and computational performances. These limitations are illustrated in the context of electron laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). The main limitation we identify in state-of-the-art Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes is computational load imbalance. We propose an innovative algorithm to deal with this specific issue as well as milestones towards a modern, accurate high-performance PIC code for high energy particle acceleration.
Verification of Gyrokinetic Particle of Turbulent Simulation of Device Size Scaling Transport
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Zhihong; S. ETHIER; T. S. HAHM; W. M. TANG
2012-01-01
Verification and historical perspective are presented on the gyrokinetic particle simulations that discovered the device size scaling of turbulent transport and indentified the geometry model as the source of the long-standing disagreement between gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulations.
Parallelization of a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code
Hadjidoukas, P.; Bousis, C.; Emfietzoglou, D.
2010-05-01
We have developed a high performance version of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code MC4. The original application code, developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) for Microsoft Excel, was first rewritten in the C programming language for improving code portability. Several pseudo-random number generators have been also integrated and studied. The new MC4 version was then parallelized for shared and distributed-memory multiprocessor systems using the Message Passing Interface. Two parallel pseudo-random number generator libraries (SPRNG and DCMT) have been seamlessly integrated. The performance speedup of parallel MC4 has been studied on a variety of parallel computing architectures including an Intel Xeon server with 4 dual-core processors, a Sun cluster consisting of 16 nodes of 2 dual-core AMD Opteron processors and a 200 dual-processor HP cluster. For large problem size, which is limited only by the physical memory of the multiprocessor server, the speedup results are almost linear on all systems. We have validated the parallel implementation against the serial VBA and C implementations using the same random number generator. Our experimental results on the transport and energy loss of electrons in a water medium show that the serial and parallel codes are equivalent in accuracy. The present improvements allow for studying of higher particle energies with the use of more accurate physical models, and improve statistics as more particles tracks can be simulated in low response time.
Mesh-free Hamiltonian implementation of two dimensional Darwin model
Siddi, Lorenzo; Lapenta, Giovanni; Gibbon, Paul
2017-08-01
A new approach to Darwin or magnetoinductive plasma simulation is presented, which combines a mesh-free field solver with a robust time-integration scheme avoiding numerical divergence errors in the solenoidal field components. The mesh-free formulation employs an efficient parallel Barnes-Hut tree algorithm to speed up the computation of fields summed directly from the particles, avoiding the necessity of divergence cleaning procedures typically required by particle-in-cell methods. The time-integration scheme employs a Hamiltonian formulation of the Lorentz force, circumventing the development of violent numerical instabilities associated with time differentiation of the vector potential. It is shown that a semi-implicit scheme converges rapidly and is robust to further numerical instabilities which can develop from a dominant contribution of the vector potential to the canonical momenta. The model is validated by various static and dynamic benchmark tests, including a simulation of the Weibel-like filamentation instability in beam-plasma interactions.
A system for designing and simulating particle physics experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelazny, R.; Strzalkowski, P.
1987-01-01
In view of the rapid development of experimental facilities and their costs, the systematic design and preparation of particle physics experiments have become crucial. A software system is proposed as an aid for the experimental designer, mainly for experimental geometry analysis and experimental simulation. The following model is adopted: the description of an experiment is formulated in a language (here called XL) and put by its processor in a data base. The language is based on the entity-relationship-attribute approach. The information contained in the data base can be reported and analysed by an analyser (called XA) and modifications can be made at any time. In particular, the Monte Carlo methods can be used in experiment simulation for both physical phenomena in experimental set-up and detection analysis. The general idea of the system is based on the design concept of ISDOS project information systems. The characteristics of the simulation module are similar to those of the CERN Geant system, but some extensions are proposed. The system could be treated as a component of greater, integrated software environment for the design of particle physics experiments, their monitoring and data processing. (orig.)
Alpha-particle simulation using NBI beam and ICRF wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogawa, Y.; Hamada, Y.
1984-07-01
A new idea to produce the distribution function similar to that of alpha-particles in an ignited plasma has been proposed. This concept is attributed to the acceleration of the injected beam up to about 1 MeV/nucleon by the ICRF wave with cyclotron higher harmonics. This new method makes it possible to perform the simulation experiments for alpha-particles under the condition of moderate plasma parameters (e.g., Tsub(e) = 4 keV, nsub(e) = 3.5x10 19 m -3 and B sub(T) = 3 T). And it is found that 3ωsub(ci) ICRF wave is preferable compared with other cyclotron harmonics, from the viewpoints of the effective tail formation with smaller bulk ion heating and lower amplitude of the applied electric field. The formula for the maximum energy of the extended beam is also derived. (author)
Tavassoli Estahbanati, H.; Peters, E.A.J.F.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2015-01-01
Direct numerical simulations are conducted to characterize the fluid-particle heat transfer coefficient in fixed random arrays of non-spherical particles. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of well-known heat transfer correlations, that are proposed for spherical particles,
Dissipative particle dynamics simulations for biological tissues: rheology and competition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basan, Markus; Prost, Jacques; Joanny, Jean-François; Elgeti, Jens
2011-01-01
In this work, we model biological tissues using a simple, mechanistic simulation based on dissipative particle dynamics. We investigate the continuum behavior of the simulated tissue and determine its dependence on the properties of the individual cell. Cells in our simulation adhere to each other, expand in volume, divide after reaching a specific size checkpoint and undergo apoptosis at a constant rate, leading to a steady-state homeostatic pressure in the tissue. We measure the dependence of the homeostatic state on the microscopic parameters of our model and show that homeostatic pressure, rather than the unconfined rate of cell division, determines the outcome of tissue competitions. Simulated cell aggregates are cohesive and round up due to the effect of tissue surface tension, which we measure for different tissues. Furthermore, mixtures of different cells unmix according to their adhesive properties. Using a variety of shear and creep simulations, we study tissue rheology by measuring yield stresses, shear viscosities, complex viscosities as well as the loss tangents as a function of model parameters. We find that cell division and apoptosis lead to a vanishing yield stress and fluid-like tissues. The effects of different adhesion strengths and levels of noise on the rheology of the tissue are also measured. In addition, we find that the level of cell division and apoptosis drives the diffusion of cells in the tissue. Finally, we present a method for measuring the compressibility of the tissue and its response to external stress via cell division and apoptosis
Study of asymmetrical electric discharges using particle simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, M.V.
1990-11-01
Asymmetrical electric discharges are been widely used in the microelectronic industry. The asymmetry in the electrode areas determines the magnitude of the plasma-to-electrode voltage, V sub(a), at the powered electrode, which determines the ion bombarding energy, a critical plasma processing parameter. Two many-particle simulation codes, called P D C 1 and P D S 1, were developed. These codes are electrostatic, one-dimensional (radial) and model (a bounded plasma between two infinite cylinders or two concentric spheres that can be connected to a RLC external circuit. Both codes consider asymmetrical electrodes areas. In order to simulate electrical discharges, Monte-Carlo simulation of electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions were included. These codes were used to study the relationship between the voltage area ratio across the sheaths, V sub(a) / V sub(b), and the electrode area ratio A sub(b) / A sub(a). Simulation results agree with experimental results and also with the analytical model that includes local ionization near the electrodes, observed to occur in almost all our simulations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, Rong; Li, Yongdong; Liu, Chunliang; Wang, Hongguang
2016-01-01
The output power fluctuations caused by weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a backward wave oscillator and a travelling wave tube are statistically analyzed. It is found that the velocities of electrons passed a specific slow-wave structure form a specific electron velocity distribution. The electron velocity distribution obtained in PIC simulation with a relative small weight of macro particles is considered as an initial distribution. By analyzing this initial distribution with a statistical method, the estimations of the output power fluctuations caused by different weights of macro particles are obtained. The statistical method is verified by comparing the estimations with the simulation results. The fluctuations become stronger with increasing weight of macro particles, which can also be determined reversely from estimations of the output power fluctuations. With the weights of macro particles optimized by the statistical method, the output power fluctuations in PIC simulations are relatively small and acceptable.
Augmenting Sand Simulation Environments through Subdivision and Particle Refinement
Clothier, M.; Bailey, M.
2012-12-01
Recent advances in computer graphics and parallel processing hardware have provided disciplines with new methods to evaluate and visualize data. These advances have proven useful for earth and planetary scientists as many researchers are using this hardware to process large amounts of data for analysis. As such, this has provided opportunities for collaboration between computer graphics and the earth sciences. Through collaboration with the Oregon Space Grant and IGERT Ecosystem Informatics programs, we are investigating techniques for simulating the behavior of sand. We are also collaborating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) DARTS Lab to exchange ideas and gain feedback on our research. The DARTS Lab specializes in simulation of planetary vehicles, such as the Mars rovers. Their simulations utilize a virtual "sand box" to test how a planetary vehicle responds to different environments. Our research builds upon this idea to create a sand simulation framework so that planetary environments, such as the harsh, sandy regions on Mars, are more fully realized. More specifically, we are focusing our research on the interaction between a planetary vehicle, such as a rover, and the sand beneath it, providing further insight into its performance. Unfortunately, this can be a computationally complex problem, especially if trying to represent the enormous quantities of sand particles interacting with each other. However, through the use of high-performance computing, we have developed a technique to subdivide areas of actively participating sand regions across a large landscape. Similar to a Level of Detail (LOD) technique, we only subdivide regions of a landscape where sand particles are actively participating with another object. While the sand is within this subdivision window and moves closer to the surface of the interacting object, the sand region subdivides into smaller regions until individual sand particles are left at the surface. As an example, let's say
Simulating Sand Behavior through Terrain Subdivision and Particle Refinement
Clothier, M.
2013-12-01
Advances in computer graphics, GPUs, and parallel processing hardware have provided researchers with new methods to visualize scientific data. In fact, these advances have spurred new research opportunities between computer graphics and other disciplines, such as Earth sciences. Through collaboration, Earth and planetary scientists have benefited by using these advances in hardware technology to process large amounts of data for visualization and analysis. At Oregon State University, we are collaborating with the Oregon Space Grant and IGERT Ecosystem Informatics programs to investigate techniques for simulating the behavior of sand. In addition, we have also been collaborating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's DARTS Lab to exchange ideas on our research. The DARTS Lab specializes in the simulation of planetary vehicles, such as the Mars rovers. One aspect of their work is testing these vehicles in a virtual "sand box" to test their performance in different environments. Our research builds upon this idea to create a sand simulation framework to allow for more complex and diverse environments. As a basis for our framework, we have focused on planetary environments, such as the harsh, sandy regions on Mars. To evaluate our framework, we have used simulated planetary vehicles, such as a rover, to gain insight into the performance and interaction between the surface sand and the vehicle. Unfortunately, simulating the vast number of individual sand particles and their interaction with each other has been a computationally complex problem in the past. However, through the use of high-performance computing, we have developed a technique to subdivide physically active terrain regions across a large landscape. To achieve this, we only subdivide terrain regions where sand particles are actively participating with another object or force, such as a rover wheel. This is similar to a Level of Detail (LOD) technique, except that the density of subdivisions are determined by
Release of ultrafine particles from three simulated building processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Prashant; Mulheron, Mike; Som, Claudia
2012-01-01
Building activities are recognised to produce coarse particulate matter but less is known about the release of airborne ultrafine particles (UFPs; those below 100 nm in diameter). For the first time, this study has investigated the release of particles in the 5–560 nm range from three simulated building activities: the crushing of concrete cubes, the demolition of old concrete slabs, and the recycling of concrete debris. A fast response differential mobility spectrometer (Cambustion DMS50) was used to measure particle number concentrations (PNC) and size distributions (PNDs) at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz in a confined laboratory room providing controlled environment and near–steady background PNCs. The sampling point was intentionally kept close to the test samples so that the release of new UFPs during these simulated processes can be quantified. Tri–modal particle size distributions were recorded for all cases, demonstrating different peak diameters in fresh nuclei ( 4 cm −3 . These background modal peaks shifted towards the larger sizes during the work periods (i.e. actual experiments) and the total PNCs increased between 2 and 17 times over the background PNCs for different activities. After adjusting for background concentrations, the net release of PNCs during cube crushing, slab demolition, and ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ recycling events were measured as ∼0.77, 19.1, 22.7 and 1.76 (×10 4 ) cm −3 , respectively. The PNDs were converted into particle mass concentrations (PMCs). While majority of new PNC release was below 100 nm (i.e. UFPs), the bulk of new PMC emissions were constituted by the particles over 100 nm; ∼95, 79, 73 and 90% of total PNCs, and ∼71, 92, 93 and 91% of total PMCs, for cube crushing, slab demolition, dry recycling and wet recycling, respectively. The results of this study firmly elucidate the release of UFPs and raise a need for further detailed studies and designing health and safety related exposure guidelines for
Micromagnetic simulation of thermally activated switching in fine particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scholz, Werner; Schrefl, Thomas; Fidler, J.
2001-01-01
Effects of thermal activation are included in micromagnetic simulations by adding a random thermal field to the effective magnetic field. As a result, the Landau-Lifshitz equation is converted into a stochastic differential equation of Langevin type with multiplicative noise. The Stratonovich interpretation of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz equation leads to the correct thermal equilibrium properties. The proper generalization of Taylor expansions to stochastic calculus gives suitable time integration schemes. For a single rigid magnetic moment the thermal equilibrium properties are investigated. It is found, that the Heun scheme is a good compromise between numerical stability and computational complexity. Small cubic and spherical ferromagnetic particles are studied
DART: A simulation code for charged particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, R.C.; Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.
1989-01-01
This paper presents a recently modified version of the 2-D code, DART, which can simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose trajectories are determined by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation includes space charge, secondary electrons, and the ionization of neutral gas. A beam can contain up to nine superimposed beamlets of different energy and species. The calculation of energy conversion efficiency and the method of specifying the electrode geometry are described. Basic procedures for using the code are given, and sample input and output fields are shown. 7 refs., 18 figs
Electron sub-cycling in particle simulation of plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, J.C.; Serveniere, A.G.; Langdon, A.B.
1982-01-01
A straightforward modification which reduces by half the computational cost of standard particle-in-cell algorithms for simulation of plasmas is described. The saving is obtained by integrating only the electrons through a number of time steps (sub-cycle) in order to resolve their evolution, while integrating the much slower ions only once per cycle, i.e., to match the time step of each species to their characteristic frequencies. A dispersion relation is derived which describes the numerical instabilities expected by sampling frequency arguments. Simulations support the broad features of the analytical results, viz., the maximum growth rate and domain of the instability, and its stabilization by the addition of weak damping. An implicit sub-cycling algorithm is suggested which may provide further saving while avoiding a limitation of implicit algorithms described elsewhere
Micellar polymerization: Computer simulations by dissipative particle dynamics.
Shupanov, Ruslan; Chertovich, Alexander; Kos, Pavel
2018-07-15
Nowadays, micellar polymerization is widely used in different fields of industry and research, including modern living polymerization technique. However, this process has many variables and there is no comprehensive model to describe all features. This research presents simulation methodology which describes key properties of such reactions to take a guide through a variety of their modifications. Dissipative particle dynamics is used in addition to Monte Carlo scheme to simulate initiation, propagation, and termination events. Influence of initiation probability and different termination processes on final conversion and molecular-weight distribution are presented. We demonstrate that prolonged initiation leads to increasing in polymer average molecular weight, and surface termination events play major role in conversion limitation, in comparison with recombination. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dobravec, Tadej; Mavrič, Boštjan; Šarler, Božidar
2017-11-01
A two-dimensional model to simulate the dendritic and eutectic growth in binary alloys is developed. A cellular automaton method is adopted to track the movement of the solid-liquid interface. The diffusion equation is solved in the solid and liquid phases by using an explicit finite volume method. The computational domain is divided into square cells that can be hierarchically refined or coarsened using an adaptive mesh based on the quadtree algorithm. Such a mesh refines the regions of the domain near the solid-liquid interface, where the highest concentration gradients are observed. In the regions where the lowest concentration gradients are observed the cells are coarsened. The originality of the work is in the novel, adaptive approach to the efficient and accurate solution of the posed multiscale problem. The model is verified and assessed by comparison with the analytical results of the Lipton-Glicksman-Kurz model for the steady growth of a dendrite tip and the Jackson-Hunt model for regular eutectic growth. Several examples of typical microstructures are simulated and the features of the method as well as further developments are discussed.
Numerical simulation of evolutionary erodible bedforms using the particle finite element method
Bravo, Rafael; Becker, Pablo; Ortiz, Pablo
2017-07-01
This paper presents a numerical strategy for the simulation of flows with evolutionary erodible boundaries. The fluid equations are fully resolved in 3D, while the sediment transport is modelled using the Exner equation and solved with an explicit Lagrangian procedure based on a fixed 2D mesh. Flow and sediment are coupled in geometry by deforming the fluid mesh in the vertical direction and in velocities with the experimental sediment flux computed using the Meyer Peter Müller model. A comparison with real experiments on channels is performed, giving good agreement.
A particle based simulation model for glacier dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Åström
2013-10-01
Full Text Available A particle-based computer simulation model was developed for investigating the dynamics of glaciers. In the model, large ice bodies are made of discrete elastic particles which are bound together by massless elastic beams. These beams can break, which induces brittle behaviour. At loads below fracture, beams may also break and reform with small probabilities to incorporate slowly deforming viscous behaviour in the model. This model has the advantage that it can simulate important physical processes such as ice calving and fracturing in a more realistic way than traditional continuum models. For benchmarking purposes the deformation of an ice block on a slip-free surface was compared to that of a similar block simulated with a Finite Element full-Stokes continuum model. Two simulations were performed: (1 calving of an ice block partially supported in water, similar to a grounded marine glacier terminus, and (2 fracturing of an ice block on an inclined plane of varying basal friction, which could represent transition to fast flow or surging. Despite several approximations, including restriction to two-dimensions and simplified water-ice interaction, the model was able to reproduce the size distributions of the debris observed in calving, which may be approximated by universal scaling laws. On a moderate slope, a large ice block was stable and quiescent as long as there was enough of friction against the substrate. For a critical length of frictional contact, global sliding began, and the model block disintegrated in a manner suggestive of a surging glacier. In this case the fragment size distribution produced was typical of a grinding process.
2016-06-12
Particle Size in Discrete Element Method to Particle Gas Method (DEM_PGM) Coupling in Underbody Blast Simulations Venkatesh Babu, Kumar Kulkarni, Sanjay...buried in soil viz., (1) coupled discrete element & particle gas methods (DEM-PGM) and (2) Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE), are investigated. The...DEM_PGM and identify the limitations/strengths compared to the ALE method. Discrete Element Method (DEM) can model individual particle directly, and
A novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes
Fu, Lin; Litvinov, Sergej; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2017-07-01
We propose a novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes utilizing the meshless Lagrangian particle concept. With the observation that an optimum partitioning has high analogy to the relaxation of a multi-phase fluid to steady state, physically motivated model equations are developed to characterize the background mesh topology and are solved by multi-phase smoothed-particle hydrodynamics. In contrast to well established partitioning approaches, all optimization objectives are implicitly incorporated and achieved during the particle relaxation to stationary state. Distinct partitioning sub-domains are represented by colored particles and separated by a sharp interface with a surface tension model. In order to obtain the particle relaxation, special viscous and skin friction models, coupled with a tailored time integration algorithm are proposed. Numerical experiments show that the present method has several important properties: generation of approximately equal-sized partitions without dependence on the mesh-element type, optimized interface communication between distinct partitioning sub-domains, continuous domain decomposition which is physically localized and implicitly incremental. Therefore it is particularly suitable for load-balancing of high-performance CFD simulations.
A novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Lin, E-mail: lin.fu@tum.de; Litvinov, Sergej, E-mail: sergej.litvinov@aer.mw.tum.de; Hu, Xiangyu Y., E-mail: xiangyu.hu@tum.de; Adams, Nikolaus A., E-mail: nikolaus.adams@tum.de
2017-07-15
We propose a novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes utilizing the meshless Lagrangian particle concept. With the observation that an optimum partitioning has high analogy to the relaxation of a multi-phase fluid to steady state, physically motivated model equations are developed to characterize the background mesh topology and are solved by multi-phase smoothed-particle hydrodynamics. In contrast to well established partitioning approaches, all optimization objectives are implicitly incorporated and achieved during the particle relaxation to stationary state. Distinct partitioning sub-domains are represented by colored particles and separated by a sharp interface with a surface tension model. In order to obtain the particle relaxation, special viscous and skin friction models, coupled with a tailored time integration algorithm are proposed. Numerical experiments show that the present method has several important properties: generation of approximately equal-sized partitions without dependence on the mesh-element type, optimized interface communication between distinct partitioning sub-domains, continuous domain decomposition which is physically localized and implicitly incremental. Therefore it is particularly suitable for load-balancing of high-performance CFD simulations.
Discrete Particle Method for Simulating Hypervelocity Impact Phenomena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erkai Watson
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a computational model for the simulation of hypervelocity impact (HVI phenomena which is based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM. Our paper constitutes the first application of DEM to the modeling and simulating of impact events for velocities beyond 5 kms-1. We present here the results of a systematic numerical study on HVI of solids. For modeling the solids, we use discrete spherical particles that interact with each other via potentials. In our numerical investigations we are particularly interested in the dynamics of material fragmentation upon impact. We model a typical HVI experiment configuration where a sphere strikes a thin plate and investigate the properties of the resulting debris cloud. We provide a quantitative computational analysis of the resulting debris cloud caused by impact and a comprehensive parameter study by varying key parameters of our model. We compare our findings from the simulations with recent HVI experiments performed at our institute. Our findings are that the DEM method leads to very stable, energy–conserving simulations of HVI scenarios that map the experimental setup where a sphere strikes a thin plate at hypervelocity speed. Our chosen interaction model works particularly well in the velocity range where the local stresses caused by impact shock waves markedly exceed the ultimate material strength.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Ko, K.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.
2007-01-01
Over the past years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the parallel finite element (FE) particle-in-cell code Pic3P (Pic2P) for simulations of beam-cavity interactions dominated by space-charge effects. As opposed to standard space-charge dominated beam transport codes, which are based on the electrostatic approximation, Pic3P (Pic2P) includes space-charge, retardation and boundary effects as it self-consistently solves the complete set of Maxwell-Lorentz equations using higher-order FE methods on conformal meshes. Use of efficient, large-scale parallel processing allows for the modeling of photoinjectors with unprecedented accuracy, aiding the design and operation of the next-generation of accelerator facilities. Applications to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) RF gun are presented
Lattice Boltzmann method used to simulate particle motion in a conduit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dolanský Jindřich
2017-06-01
Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical simulation of particle motion in a pipe with a rough bed is presented. The simulation based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM employs the hybrid diffuse bounce-back approach to model moving boundaries. The bed of the pipe is formed by stationary spherical particles of the same size as the moving particles. Particle movements are induced by gravitational and hydrodynamic forces. To evaluate the hydrodynamic forces, the Momentum Exchange Algorithm is used. The LBM unified computational frame makes it possible to simulate both the particle motion and the fluid flow and to study mutual interactions of the carrier liquid flow and particles and the particle–bed and particle–particle collisions. The trajectories of simulated and experimental particles are compared. The Particle Tracking method is used to track particle motion. The correctness of the applied approach is assessed.
Computer simulation of phenomena in plasma via particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, M.V.; Bittencourt, J.A.
1988-06-01
The method of plasma computer simulation via particles has become an efficient tool to investigate the time and spatial evolution of various physical phenomena in plasmas. This method is based on the study of the individual plasma particle motions interacting with one another and with the externally applied fields. Although fairly simple, it allows a non-linear analysis of complex plasma physical phenomena and to obtain diagnostics even for regions of the system where experimental measurements would be difficult to make. In this report, a general view of the electrostatic one-dimensional computer code ES1, originally developed by A. Bruce Langdon, is presented. The main mathematical artifice in this code is the use of a spatial grid in which various plasma particles are represented by ''superparticles'', using a given shape function. The principal characteristics of the model, the approximations made and the mathematical methods used to solve the equations involved, are described. The specification of the input parameters which characterize the system, the initial conditions and the graphic diagnostics which can be utilized, are also described. Results are presented illustrating graphically the behavior of the plasma oscillations, the two-stream instability and the beam-plasma instability. (author) [pt
Exploring Kupffer's Vescicle Through Self Propelled Particle Simulations
Lundy, Kassidy; Dasgupta, Agnik; Amack, Jeff; Manning, M. Lisa
Early development is an important stage in the formation of functional, relatively healthy organisms. In zebrafish embryos, a transient organ in the tailbud called Kupffer's Vescicle (KV) is responsible for the initial left-right (L-R) asymmetry that results in asymmetric organ and tissue placement in the adult zebrafish. Originating as a collection of symmetrically organized monociliated cells, the KV experiences a shift in cell shapes over time that leaves more cells on the anterior or top side of the KV. This arrangement helps to generate a stronger counter-clockwise fluid flow across the anterior side of the organ, which is required for L-R asymmetry. In seeking to understand the source of the shape changes occurring within the KV, we simulate a Self Propelled Particle (SPP) model that includes parameters for cell polarization and speed. We model the KV as a large particle moving in a straight line with constant velocity to mimic the physical forces of the notochord acting on this organ, and we model the surrounding tailbud cells as smaller, slower active particles with an orientation that changes over time due to rotational noise. Our goal is to calculate the forces exerted on the KV by the surrounding tissue, to see if they are sufficient to explain the shape changes we observe in the KV that lead to L-R asymmetry.
Direct Simulation of Extinction in a Slab of Spherical Particles
Mackowski, D.W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.
2013-01-01
The exact multiple sphere superposition method is used to calculate the coherent and incoherent contributions to the ensemble-averaged electric field amplitude and Poynting vector in systems of randomly positioned nonabsorbing spherical particles. The target systems consist of cylindrical volumes, with radius several times larger than length, containing spheres with positional configurations generated by a Monte Carlo sampling method. Spatially dependent values for coherent electric field amplitude, coherent energy flux, and diffuse energy flux, are calculated by averaging of exact local field and flux values over multiple configurations and over spatially independent directions for fixed target geometry, sphere properties, and sphere volume fraction. Our results reveal exponential attenuation of the coherent field and the coherent energy flux inside the particulate layer and thereby further corroborate the general methodology of the microphysical radiative transfer theory. An effective medium model based on plane wave transmission and reflection by a plane layer is used to model the dependence of the coherent electric field on particle packing density. The effective attenuation coefficient of the random medium, computed from the direct simulations, is found to agree closely with effective medium theories and with measurements. In addition, the simulation results reveal the presence of a counter-propagating component to the coherent field, which arises due to the internal reflection of the main coherent field component by the target boundary. The characteristics of the diffuse flux are compared to, and found to be consistent with, a model based on the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer theory.
Short-duration Electron Precipitation Studied by Test Particle Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaejin Lee
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Energy spectra of electron microbursts from 170 keV to 340 keV have been measured by the solid-state detectors aboard the low-altitude (680 km polar-orbiting Korean STSAT-1 (Science and Technology SATellite. These measurements have revealed two important characteristics unique to the microbursts: (1 They are produced by a fast-loss cone-filling process in which the interaction time for pitch-angle scattering is less than 50 ms and (2 The e-folding energy of the perpendicular component is larger than that of the parallel component, and the loss cone is not completely filled by electrons. To understand how wave-particle interactions could generate microbursts, we performed a test particle simulation and investigated how the waves scattered electron pitch angles within the timescale required for microburst precipitation. The application of rising-frequency whistler-mode waves to electrons of different energies moving in a dipole magnetic field showed that chorus magnetic wave fields, rather than electric fields, were the main cause of microburst events, which implied that microbursts could be produced by a quasi-adiabatic process. In addition, the simulation results showed that high-energy electrons could resonate with chorus waves at high magnetic latitudes where the loss cone was larger, which might explain the decreased e-folding energy of precipitated microbursts compared to that of trapped electrons.
Two-way coupling of magnetohydrodynamic simulations with embedded particle-in-cell simulations
Makwana, K. D.; Keppens, R.; Lapenta, G.
2017-12-01
We describe a method for coupling an embedded domain in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with a particle-in-cell (PIC) method. In this two-way coupling we follow the work of Daldorff et al. (2014) [19] in which the PIC domain receives its initial and boundary conditions from MHD variables (MHD to PIC coupling) while the MHD simulation is updated based on the PIC variables (PIC to MHD coupling). This method can be useful for simulating large plasma systems, where kinetic effects captured by particle-in-cell simulations are localized but affect global dynamics. We describe the numerical implementation of this coupling, its time-stepping algorithm, and its parallelization strategy, emphasizing the novel aspects of it. We test the stability and energy/momentum conservation of this method by simulating a steady-state plasma. We test the dynamics of this coupling by propagating plasma waves through the embedded PIC domain. Coupling with MHD shows satisfactory results for the fast magnetosonic wave, but significant distortion for the circularly polarized Alfvén wave. Coupling with Hall-MHD shows excellent coupling for the whistler wave. We also apply this methodology to simulate a Geospace Environmental Modeling (GEM) challenge type of reconnection with the diffusion region simulated by PIC coupled to larger scales with MHD and Hall-MHD. In both these cases we see the expected signatures of kinetic reconnection in the PIC domain, implying that this method can be used for reconnection studies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z; Rewoldt, G; Ethier, S; Hahm, T S; Lee, W W; Lewandowski, J L V; Nishimura, Y; Wang, W X
2005-01-01
Recent progress in gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of turbulent plasmas using the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) is surveyed. In particular, recent results for electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes and their resulting transport are presented. Also, turbulence spreading, and the effects of the parallel nonlinearity, are described. The GTC code has also been generalized for non-circular plasma cross-section, and initial results are presented. In addition, two distinct methods of generalizing the GTC code to be electromagnetic are described, along with preliminary results. Finally, a related code, GTC-Neo, for calculating neoclassical fluxes, electric fields, and velocities, are described
Simurda, Matej; Duggen, Lars; Basse, Nils T; Lassen, Benny
2018-02-01
A numerical model for transit-time ultrasonic flowmeters operating under multiphase flow conditions previously presented by us is extended by mesh refinement and grid point redistribution. The method solves modified first-order stress-velocity equations of elastodynamics with additional terms to account for the effect of the background flow. Spatial derivatives are calculated by a Fourier collocation scheme allowing the use of the fast Fourier transform, while the time integration is realized by the explicit third-order Runge-Kutta finite-difference scheme. The method is compared against analytical solutions and experimental measurements to verify the benefit of using mapped grids. Additionally, a study of clamp-on and in-line ultrasonic flowmeters operating under multiphase flow conditions is carried out.
Direct numerical simulation of 3D particle motion in an evaporating liquid film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Ho Chan; Son, Gi Hun
2016-01-01
A direct numerical simulation method is developed for 3D particle motion in liquid film evaporation. The liquid-gas and fluid-solid interfaces are tracked by a sharp-interface Level-set (LS) method, which includes the effects of evaporation, contact line and solid particles. The LS method is validated through simulation of the interaction between two particles falling in a single-phase fluid. The LS based DNS method is applied to computation of the particle motion in liquid film evaporation to investigate the particle-interface and particle-particle interactions
The simulation status of particle transport system JPTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, L.
2015-01-01
'Full text:' Particle transport system JPTS has been developed by IAPCM. It is based on the three support frustrations (JASMIN, JAUMIN and JCOGIN) and is used to simulate the reactor full core and radiation shielding problems. The system has been realized the high fidelity. In this presentation, analysis of the H-M, BEAVRS, VENUS-III and SG-III models are shown. Analyze HZP conditions of BEAVRS model with Monte Carlo code JMCT, MC21 and OpenMC to assess code accuracy against available data. Assess the feasibility of analysis of a PWR using JMCT. The large scale depletion solver is also shown. Assess the feasibility of analysis of radiation shielding using JSNT. JPTS has been proved with the capability of the full-core pin-by-pin and radiation shielding. (author)
The Particle-in-Cell and Kinetic Simulation Software Center
Mori, W. B.; Decyk, V. K.; Tableman, A.; Fonseca, R. A.; Tsung, F. S.; Hu, Q.; Winjum, B. J.; An, W.; Dalichaouch, T. N.; Davidson, A.; Hildebrand, L.; Joglekar, A.; May, J.; Miller, K.; Touati, M.; Xu, X. L.
2017-10-01
The UCLA Particle-in-Cell and Kinetic Simulation Software Center (PICKSC) aims to support an international community of PIC and plasma kinetic software developers, users, and educators; to increase the use of this software for accelerating the rate of scientific discovery; and to be a repository of knowledge and history for PIC. We discuss progress towards making available and documenting illustrative open-source software programs and distinct production programs; developing and comparing different PIC algorithms; coordinating the development of resources for the educational use of kinetic software; and the outcomes of our first sponsored OSIRIS users workshop. We also welcome input and discussion from anyone interested in using or developing kinetic software, in obtaining access to our codes, in collaborating, in sharing their own software, or in commenting on how PICKSC can better serve the DPP community. Supported by NSF under Grant ACI-1339893 and by the UCLA Institute for Digital Research and Education.
Hydration Phase Diagram of Clay Particles from Molecular Simulations.
Honorio, Tulio; Brochard, Laurent; Vandamme, Matthieu
2017-11-07
Adsorption plays a fundamental role in the behavior of clays. Because of the confinement between solid clay layers on the nanoscale, adsorbed water is structured in layers, which can occupy a specific volume. The transition between these states is intimately related to key features of clay thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior. In this article, we consider the hydration states of clays as phases and the transition between these states as phase changes. The thermodynamic formulation supporting this idea is presented. Then, the results from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of sodium montmorillonite are used to derive hydration phase diagrams. The stability analysis presented here explains the coexistence of different hydration states at clay particle scale and improves our understanding of the irreversibilities of clay thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior. Our results provide insights into the mechanics of the elementary constituents of clays, which is crucial for a better understanding of the macroscopic behavior of clay-rich rocks and soils.
Particle tracking code of simulating global RF feedback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mestha, L.K.
1991-09-01
It is well known in the ''control community'' that a good feedback controller design is deeply rooted in the physics of the system. For example, when accelerating the beam we must keep several parameters under control so that the beam travels within the confined space. Important parameters include the frequency and phase of the rf signal, the dipole field, and the cavity voltage. Because errors in these parameters will progressively mislead the beam from its projected path in the tube, feedback loops are used to correct the behavior. Since the feedback loop feeds energy to the system, it changes the overall behavior of the system and may drive it to instability. Various types of controllers are used to stabilize the feedback loop. Integrating the beam physics with the feedback controllers allows us to carefully analyze the beam behavior. This will not only guarantee optimal performance but will also significantly enhance the ability of the beam control engineer to deal effectively with the interaction of various feedback loops. Motivated by this theme, we developed a simple one-particle tracking code to simulate particle behavior with feedback controllers. In order to achieve our fundamental objective, we can ask some key questions: What are the input and output parameters? How can they be applied to the practical machine? How can one interface the rf system dynamics such as the transfer characteristics of the rf cavities and phasing between the cavities? Answers to these questions can be found by considering a simple case of a single cavity with one particle, tracking it turn-by-turn with appropriate initial conditions, then introducing constraints on crucial parameters. Critical parameters are rf frequency, phase, and amplitude once the dipole field has been given. These are arranged in the tracking code so that we can interface the feedback system controlling them
Aqueous alteration of VHTR fuels particles under simulated geological conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ait Chaou, Abdelouahed, E-mail: aitchaou@subatech.in2p3.fr; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Karakurt, Gökhan; Grambow, Bernd
2014-05-01
Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) fuels consist of the bistructural-isotropic (BISO) or tristructural-isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles embedded in a graphite matrix. Management of the spent fuel generated during VHTR operation would most likely be through deep geological disposal. In this framework we investigated the alteration of BISO (with pyrolytic carbon) and TRISO (with SiC) particles under geological conditions simulated by temperatures of 50 and 90 °C and in the presence of synthetic groundwater. Solid state (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) and solution analyses (ICP-MS, ionique chromatography (IC)) showed oxidation of both pyrolytic carbon and SiC at 90 °C. Under air this led to the formation of SiO{sub 2} and a clay-like Mg–silicate, while under reducing conditions (H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmosphere) SiC and pyrolytic carbon were highly stable after a few months of alteration. At 50 °C, in the presence and absence of air, the alteration of the coatings was minor. In conclusion, due to their high stability in reducing conditions, HTR fuel disposal in reducing deep geological environments may constitute a viable solution for their long-term management.
Non-Maxwellian fast particle effects in gyrokinetic GENE simulations
Di Siena, A.; Görler, T.; Doerk, H.; Bilato, R.; Citrin, J.; Johnson, T.; Schneider, M.; Poli, E.; JET Contributors
2018-04-01
Fast ions have recently been found to significantly impact and partially suppress plasma turbulence both in experimental and numerical studies in a number of scenarios. Understanding the underlying physics and identifying the range of their beneficial effect is an essential task for future fusion reactors, where highly energetic ions are generated through fusion reactions and external heating schemes. However, in many of the gyrokinetic codes fast ions are, for simplicity, treated as equivalent-Maxwellian-distributed particle species, although it is well known that to rigorously model highly non-thermalised particles, a non-Maxwellian background distribution function is needed. To study the impact of this assumption, the gyrokinetic code GENE has recently been extended to support arbitrary background distribution functions which might be either analytical, e.g., slowing down and bi-Maxwellian, or obtained from numerical fast ion models. A particular JET plasma with strong fast-ion related turbulence suppression is revised with these new code capabilities both with linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. It appears that the fast ion stabilization tends to be less strong but still substantial with more realistic distributions, and this improves the quantitative power balance agreement with experiments.
Numerical Simulations of Particle Deposition in Metal Foam Heat Exchangers
Sauret, Emilie; Saha, Suvash C.; Gu, Yuantong
2013-01-01
Australia is a high-potential country for geothermal power with reserves currently estimated in the tens of millions of petajoules, enough to power the nation for at least 1000 years at current usage. However, these resources are mainly located in isolated arid regions where water is scarce. Therefore, wet cooling systems for geothermal plants in Australia are the least attractive solution and thus air-cooled heat exchangers are preferred. In order to increase the efficiency of such heat exchangers, metal foams have been used. One issue raised by this solution is the fouling caused by dust deposition. In this case, the heat transfer characteristics of the metal foam heat exchanger can dramatically deteriorate. Exploring the particle deposition property in the metal foam exchanger becomes crucial. This paper is a numerical investigation aimed to address this issue. Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of a standard one-row tube bundle wrapped with metal foam in cross-flow are performed and highlight preferential particle deposition areas.
Numerical simulation of microstructure formation of suspended particles in magnetorheological fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ido, Y; Inagaki, T; Yamaguchi, T
2010-01-01
Microstructure formation of magnetic particles and nonmagnetic particles in magnetorheological (MR) fluids is investigated using the particle method simulation based on simplified Stokesian dynamics. Spherical nonmagnetic particles are rearranged in the field direction due to the formation of magnetic particles in chain-like clusters. Cluster formation of spherocylindrical magnetic particles forces spherical nonmagnetic particles to arrange in the direction of the field. In contrast, the spherocylindrical nonmagnetic particles, with an aspect ratio of two or three, are not sufficiently rearranged in the field direction by cluster formation of spherical magnetic particles. Even after cluster formation in the presence of a magnetic field, the uniformity of distribution of particles on the plane perpendicular to the field direction shows very little change. However, the deviation of uniformity in particle distribution is reduced when the volume fraction of magnetic particles is the same as that of nonmagnetic particles.
Mesh Processing in Medical Image Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The following topics are dealt with: mesh processing; medical image analysis; interactive freeform modeling; statistical shape analysis; clinical CT images; statistical surface recovery; automated segmentation; cerebral aneurysms; and real-time particle-based representation....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hoffmann Alex C.
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Particle tracks in a hydrocyclone generated both experimentally by positron emission particle tracking (PEPT and numerically with Eulerian-Lagranian CFD have been studied and compared. A hydrocyclone with a cylinder-on-cone design was used in this study, the geometries used in the CFD simulations and in the experiments being identical. It is shown that it is possible to track a fast-moving particle in a hydrocyclone using PEPT with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The numerical 3-D particle trajectories were generated using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES turbulence model for the fluid and Lagrangian particle tracking for the particles. The behaviors of the particles were analyzed in detail and were found to be consistent between experiments and CFD simulations. The tracks of the particles are discussed and related to the fluid flow field visualized in the CFD simulations using the cross-sectional static pressure distribution.
Simulating Magnetized Laboratory Plasmas with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Jeffrey N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
2009-01-01
The creation of plasmas in the laboratory continues to generate excitement in the physics community. Despite the best efforts of the intrepid plasma diagnostics community, the dynamics of these plasmas remains a difficult challenge to both the theorist and the experimentalist. This dissertation describes the simulation of strongly magnetized laboratory plasmas with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), a method born of astrophysics but gaining broad support in the engineering community. We describe the mathematical formulation that best characterizes a strongly magnetized plasma under our circumstances of interest, and we review the SPH method and its application to astrophysical plasmas based on research by Phillips [1], Buerve [2], and Price and Monaghan [3]. Some modifications and extensions to this method are necessary to simulate terrestrial plasmas, such as a treatment of magnetic diffusion based on work by Brookshaw [4] and by Atluri [5]; we describe these changes as we turn our attention toward laboratory experiments. Test problems that verify the method are provided throughout the discussion. Finally, we apply our method to the compression of a magnetized plasma performed by the Compact Toroid Injection eXperiment (CTIX) [6] and show that the experimental results support our computed predictions.
Particle simulation of grid system for krypton ion thrusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maolin CHEN
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The transport processes of plasmas in grid systems of krypton (Kr ion thrusters at different acceleration voltages were simulated with a 3D-PIC model, and the result was compared with xenon (Xe ion thrusters. The variation of the screen grid transparency, the accelerator grid current ratio and the divergence loss were explored. It is found that the screen grid transparency increases with the acceleration voltage and decreases with the beam current, while the accelerator grid current ratio and divergence loss decrease first and then increase with the beam current. This result is the same with Xe ion thrusters. Simulation results also show that Kr ion thrusters have more advantages than Xe ion thrusters, such as higher screen grid transparency, smaller accelerator grid current ratio, larger cut-off current threshold, and better divergence loss characteristic. These advantages mean that Kr ion thrusters have the ability of operating in a wide range of current. Through comprehensive analyses, it can be concluded that using Kr as propellant is very suitable for a multi-mode ion thruster design. Keywords: Grid system, Ion thrusters, Krypton, Particle in cell method, Plasma
Simulation of deterministic energy-balance particle agglomeration in turbulent liquid-solid flows
Njobuenwu, Derrick O.; Fairweather, Michael
2017-08-01
An efficient technique to simulate turbulent particle-laden flow at high mass loadings within the four-way coupled simulation regime is presented. The technique implements large-eddy simulation, discrete particle simulation, a deterministic treatment of inter-particle collisions, and an energy-balanced particle agglomeration model. The algorithm to detect inter-particle collisions is such that the computational costs scale linearly with the number of particles present in the computational domain. On detection of a collision, particle agglomeration is tested based on the pre-collision kinetic energy, restitution coefficient, and van der Waals' interactions. The performance of the technique developed is tested by performing parametric studies on the influence of the restitution coefficient (en = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8), particle size (dp = 60, 120, 200, and 316 μm), Reynolds number (Reτ = 150, 300, and 590), and particle concentration (αp = 5.0 × 10-4, 1.0 × 10-3, and 5.0 × 10-3) on particle-particle interaction events (collision and agglomeration). The results demonstrate that the collision frequency shows a linear dependency on the restitution coefficient, while the agglomeration rate shows an inverse dependence. Collisions among smaller particles are more frequent and efficient in forming agglomerates than those of coarser particles. The particle-particle interaction events show a strong dependency on the shear Reynolds number Reτ, while increasing the particle concentration effectively enhances particle collision and agglomeration whilst having only a minor influence on the agglomeration rate. Overall, the sensitivity of the particle-particle interaction events to the selected simulation parameters is found to influence the population and distribution of the primary particles and agglomerates formed.
VARIABLE MESH STIFFNESS OF SPUR GEAR TEETH USING ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
gear engagement. A gear mesh kinematic simulation ... model is appropnate for VMS of a spur gear tooth. The assumptions for ... This process has been continued until one complete tooth meshing cycle is ..... Element Method. Using MATLAB,.
Unstructured mesh adaptivity for urban flooding modelling
Hu, R.; Fang, F.; Salinas, P.; Pain, C. C.
2018-05-01
Over the past few decades, urban floods have been gaining more attention due to their increase in frequency. To provide reliable flooding predictions in urban areas, various numerical models have been developed to perform high-resolution flood simulations. However, the use of high-resolution meshes across the whole computational domain causes a high computational burden. In this paper, a 2D control-volume and finite-element flood model using adaptive unstructured mesh technology has been developed. This adaptive unstructured mesh technique enables meshes to be adapted optimally in time and space in response to the evolving flow features, thus providing sufficient mesh resolution where and when it is required. It has the advantage of capturing the details of local flows and wetting and drying front while reducing the computational cost. Complex topographic features are represented accurately during the flooding process. For example, the high-resolution meshes around the buildings and steep regions are placed when the flooding water reaches these regions. In this work a flooding event that happened in 2002 in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom has been simulated to demonstrate the capability of the adaptive unstructured mesh flooding model. The simulations have been performed using both fixed and adaptive unstructured meshes, and then results have been compared with those published 2D and 3D results. The presented method shows that the 2D adaptive mesh model provides accurate results while having a low computational cost.
Particle Tracking and Deposition from CFD Simulations using a Viscoelastic Particle Model
Losurdo, M.
2009-01-01
In the present dissertation the mathematical modelling of particle deposition is studied and the solution algorithms for particle tracking, deposition and deposit growth are developed. Particle deposition is modelled according to mechanical impact and contact mechanics taking into account the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandra M Bavo
Full Text Available In recent years the role of FSI (fluid-structure interaction simulations in the analysis of the fluid-mechanics of heart valves is becoming more and more important, being able to capture the interaction between the blood and both the surrounding biological tissues and the valve itself. When setting up an FSI simulation, several choices have to be made to select the most suitable approach for the case of interest: in particular, to simulate flexible leaflet cardiac valves, the type of discretization of the fluid domain is crucial, which can be described with an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian or an Eulerian formulation. The majority of the reported 3D heart valve FSI simulations are performed with the Eulerian formulation, allowing for large deformations of the domains without compromising the quality of the fluid grid. Nevertheless, it is known that the ALE-FSI approach guarantees more accurate results at the interface between the solid and the fluid. The goal of this paper is to describe the same aortic valve model in the two cases, comparing the performances of an ALE-based FSI solution and an Eulerian-based FSI approach. After a first simplified 2D case, the aortic geometry was considered in a full 3D set-up. The model was kept as similar as possible in the two settings, to better compare the simulations' outcomes. Although for the 2D case the differences were unsubstantial, in our experience the performance of a full 3D ALE-FSI simulation was significantly limited by the technical problems and requirements inherent to the ALE formulation, mainly related to the mesh motion and deformation of the fluid domain. As a secondary outcome of this work, it is important to point out that the choice of the solver also influenced the reliability of the final results.
Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rodlike particles: A numerical simulation method
Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsuoka, Takaaki
1994-02-01
The recently developed simulation method, named as the particle simulation method (PSM), is extended to predict the viscosity of dilute suspensions of rodlike particles. In this method a rodlike particle is modeled by bonded spheres. Each bond has three types of springs for stretching, bending, and twisting deformation. The rod model can therefore deform by changing the bond distance, bond angle, and torsion angle between paired spheres. The rod model can represent a variety of rigidity by modifying the bond parameters related to Young's modulus and the shear modulus of the real particle. The time evolution of each constituent sphere of the rod model is followed by molecular-dynamics-type approach. The intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of rodlike particles is derived from calculating an increased energy dissipation for each sphere of the rod model in a viscous fluid. With and without deformation of the particle, the motion of the rodlike particle was numerically simulated in a three-dimensional simple shear flow at a low particle Reynolds number and without Brownian motion of particles. The intrinsic viscosity of the suspension of rodlike particles was investigated on orientation angle, rotation orbit, deformation, and aspect ratio of the particle. For the rigid rodlike particle, the simulated rotation orbit compared extremely well with theoretical one which was obtained for a rigid ellipsoidal particle by use of Jeffery's equation. The simulated dependence of the intrinsic viscosity on various factors was also identical with that of theories for suspensions of rigid rodlike particles. For the flexible rodlike particle, the rotation orbit could be obtained by the particle simulation method and it was also cleared that the intrinsic viscosity decreased as occurring of recoverable deformation of the rodlike particle induced by flow.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of expanding HII regions
Bisbas, Thomas G.
2009-09-01
This thesis deals with numerical simulations of expanding ionized regions, known as HII regions. We implement a new three dimensional algorithm in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for including the dynamical effects of the interaction between ionizing radiation and the interstellar medium. This interaction plays a crucial role in star formation at all epochs. We study the influence of ionizing radiation in spherically symmetric clouds. In particular, we study the spherically symmetric expansion of an HII region inside a uniform-density, non-self-gravitating cloud. We examine the ability of our algorithm to reproduce the known theoretical solution and we find that the agreement is very good. We also study the spherically symmetric expansion inside a uniform-density, self-gravitating cloud. We propose a new differential equation of motion for the expanding shell that includes the effects of gravity. Comparing its numerical solution with the simulations, we find that the equation predicts the position of the shell accurately. We also study the expansion of an off-centre HII region inside a uniform-density, non- self-gravitating cloud. This results in an evolution known as the rocket effect, where the ionizing radiation pushes and accelerates the cloud away from the exciting star leading to its dispersal. During this evolution, cometary knots appear as a result of Rayleigh-Taylor and Vishniac instabilities. The knots are composed of a dense head with a conic tail behind them, a structure that points towards the ionizing source. Our simulations show that these knots are very reminiscent of the observed structures in planetary nebula, such as in the Helix nebula. The last part of this thesis is dedicated to the study of cores ionized by an exciting source which is placed outside and far away from them. The evolution of these cores is known as radiation driven compression (or implosion). We perform simulations and compare our findings with results of other workers and we
Elastic Property Simulation of Nano-particle Reinforced Composites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He Jiawei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A series of numerical micro-mechanical models for two kinds of particle (cylindrical and discal particle reinforced composites are developed to investigate the effect of microstructural parameters on the elastic properties of composites. The effects of both the degree of particle clustering and particle’s shape on the elastic mechanical properties of composites are investigated. In addition, single particle unit cell approximation is good enough for the analysis of the effect of averaged parameters when only linear elastic response is considered without considering the particle clustering in particle-reinforced composites.
Particle-in-cell Simulation of Dipolarization Front Associated Whistlers
Lin, D.; Scales, W.; Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C. E.
2017-12-01
Dipolarization fronts (DFs) are dipolarized magnetic field embedded in the Earthward propagating bursty bulk flows (BBFs), which separates the hot, tenuous high-speed flow from the cold, dense, and slowly convecting surrounding plasma [Runov et al. 2011]. Broadband fluctuations have been observed at DFs including the electromagnetic whistler waves and electrostatic lower hybrid waves in the Very Low Frequency (VLF) range [e.g., Zhou et al. 2009, Deng et al. 2010]. There waves are suggested to be able heat electrons and play a critical role in the plasma sheet dynamics [Chaston et al., 2012, Angelopoulos et al., 2013]. However, their generation mechanism and role in the energy conversion are still under debate. The gradient scale of magnetic field, plasma density at DFs in the near-Earth magnetotail is comparable to or lower than the ion gyro radius [Runov et al., 2011, Fu et al., 2012, Breuillard et al., 2016]. Such strongly inhomogeneous configuration could be unstable to the electron-ion hybrid (EIH) instability, which arises from strongly sheared transverse flow and is in the VLF range [Ganguli et al. 1988, Ganguli et al. 2014]. The equilibrium of the EIH theory implies an anisotropy of electron temperature, which are likely to drive the whistler waves observed in DFs [Deng et al., 2010, Gary et al., 2011]. In order to better understand how the whistler waves are generated in DFs and whether the EIH theory is applicable, a fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EMPIC) model is used to simulate the EIH instability with similar equilibrium configurations in DF observations. The EMPIC model deals with three dimensions in the velocity space and two dimensions in the configuration space, which is quite ready to include the third configuration dimension. Simulation results will be shown in this presentation.
Low-noise Collision Operators for Particle-in-cell Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, J.L.V.
2005-01-01
A new method to implement low-noise collision operators in particle-in-cell simulations is presented. The method is based on the fact that relevant collision operators can be included naturally in the Lagrangian formulation that exemplifies the particle-in-cell simulation method. Numerical simulations show that the momentum and energy conservation properties of the simulated plasma associated with the low-noise collision operator are improved as compared with standard collision algorithms based on random numbers
Adaptive hybrid mesh refinement for multiphysics applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khamayseh, Ahmed; Almeida, Valmor de
2007-01-01
The accuracy and convergence of computational solutions of mesh-based methods is strongly dependent on the quality of the mesh used. We have developed methods for optimizing meshes that are comprised of elements of arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral type. We present in this research the development of r-h hybrid adaptive meshing technology tailored to application areas relevant to multi-physics modeling and simulation. Solution-based adaptation methods are used to reposition mesh nodes (r-adaptation) or to refine the mesh cells (h-adaptation) to minimize solution error. The numerical methods perform either the r-adaptive mesh optimization or the h-adaptive mesh refinement method on the initial isotropic or anisotropic meshes to equidistribute weighted geometric and/or solution error function. We have successfully introduced r-h adaptivity to a least-squares method with spherical harmonics basis functions for the solution of the spherical shallow atmosphere model used in climate modeling. In addition, application of this technology also covers a wide range of disciplines in computational sciences, most notably, time-dependent multi-physics, multi-scale modeling and simulation
Pelties, Christian; de la Puente, Josep; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Brietzke, Gilbert B.; Kä ser, Martin
2012-01-01
Accurate and efficient numerical methods to simulate dynamic earthquake rupture and wave propagation in complex media and complex fault geometries are needed to address fundamental questions in earthquake dynamics, to integrate seismic and geodetic
Particle Number Dependence of the N-body Simulations of Moon Formation
Sasaki, Takanori; Hosono, Natsuki
2018-04-01
The formation of the Moon from the circumterrestrial disk has been investigated by using N-body simulations with the number N of particles limited from 104 to 105. We develop an N-body simulation code on multiple Pezy-SC processors and deploy Framework for Developing Particle Simulators to deal with large number of particles. We execute several high- and extra-high-resolution N-body simulations of lunar accretion from a circumterrestrial disk of debris generated by a giant impact on Earth. The number of particles is up to 107, in which 1 particle corresponds to a 10 km sized satellitesimal. We find that the spiral structures inside the Roche limit radius differ between low-resolution simulations (N ≤ 105) and high-resolution simulations (N ≥ 106). According to this difference, angular momentum fluxes, which determine the accretion timescale of the Moon also depend on the numerical resolution.
Particle-in-cell simulations of the lasertron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, M.E.; Peter, W.K.
1985-01-01
The lasertron is a device (either rf or dc) for producing intense, very short, pulsed electron beams (tens of picoseconds). In the dc lasertron, a laser is pulsed repetitively onto a photoemissive cathode. In general, the current is not space-charge limited and follows the laser intensity. The electron pulse is then accelerated out of the device by a constant voltage. By using the laser the need for a subharmonic buncher is eliminated. In the rf lasertron, the diode becomes an rf cavity. This improves the breakdown characteristics of the device, allowing higher voltages to be applied and hence higher currents to be obtained. The calculations are aimed at producing a 10 nC electron beam with an emittance of less than 40π mm-mrad for use in free-electron laser experiments at Los Alamos. Other applications of the lasertron include efficient microwave or rf generation. A class of electrode shapes has been obtained which in the absence of space charge produces no emittance growth. These shapes have been studied with the particle-in-cell simulation model ISIS, and the electrodes which produce minimum emittance including the effect of space charge have been determined. Unique emittance problems associated with the time dependence of the beam pulse are studied and conditions for reducing these effects are discussed. 5 refs., 5 figs
Numerical Simulation of Particle Motion in a Curved Channel
Liu, Yi; Nie, Deming
2018-01-01
In this work the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to numerically study the motion of a circular particle in a curved channel at intermediate Reynolds numbers (Re). The effects of the Reynolds number and the initial particle position are taken into account. Numerical results include the streamlines, particle trajectories and final equilibrium positions. It has been found that the particle is likely to migrate to a similar equilibrium position irrespective of its initial position when Re is large.
Numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flow
Li, Y.; McLaughlin, J.B.; Kontomaris, K.; Portela, L.
2001-01-01
This paper presents results for the behavior of particle-laden gases in a small Reynolds number vertical channel down flow. Results will be presented for the effects of particle feedback on the gas-phase turbulence and for the concentration profile of the particles. The effects of density ratio,
Chang, Mingyu; Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Zhenyue; Hu, Wanpeng; Wang, Dezhen
2018-05-01
A Particle-In-Cell (PIC) with Monte Carlo Collision (MCC) model is applied to study the effects of particle recycling on divertor plasma in the present work. The simulation domain is the scrape-off layer of the tokamak in one-dimension along the magnetic field line. At the divertor plate, the reflected deuterium atoms (D) and thermally released deuterium molecules (D2) are considered. The collisions between the plasma particles (e and D+) and recycled neutral particles (D and D2) are described by the MCC method. It is found that the recycled neutral particles have a great impact on divertor plasma. The effects of different collisions on the plasma are simulated and discussed. Moreover, the impacts of target materials on the plasma are simulated by comparing the divertor with Carbon (C) and Tungsten (W) targets. The simulation results show that the energy and momentum losses of the C target are larger than those of the W target in the divertor region even without considering the impurity particles, whereas the W target has a more remarkable influence on the core plasma.
Ten Cate, A.; Nieuwstad, C.H.; Derksen, J.J.; Van den Akker, H.E.A.
2002-01-01
A comparison is made between experiments and simulations on a single sphere settling in silicon oil in a box. Cross-correlation particle imaging velocimetry measurements were carried out at particle Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.5 to 31.9. The particle Stokes number varied from 0.2 to 4 and at
Auxiliary plasma heating and fueling models for use in particle simulation codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Procassini, R.J.; Cohen, B.I.
1989-01-01
Computational models of a radiofrequency (RF) heating system and neutral-beam injector are presented. These physics packages, when incorporated into a particle simulation code allow one to simulate the auxiliary heating and fueling of fusion plasmas. The RF-heating package is based upon a quasilinear diffusion equation which describes the slow evolution of the heated particle distribution. The neutral-beam injector package models the charge exchange and impact ionization processes which transfer energy and particles from the beam to the background plasma. Particle simulations of an RF-heated and a neutral-beam-heated simple-mirror plasma are presented. 8 refs., 5 figs
Numerical simulations on a high-temperature particle moving in coolant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiaoyan; Shang Zhi; Xu Jijun
2006-01-01
This study considers the coupling effect between film boiling heat transfer and evaporation drag around a hot-particle in cold liquid. Taking momentum and energy equations of the vapor film into account, a transient single particle model under FCI conditions has been established. The numerical simulations on a high-temperature particle moving in coolant have been performed using Gear algorithm. Adaptive dynamic boundary method is adopted during simulating to matching the dynamic boundary that is caused by vapor film changing. Based on the method presented above, the transient process of high-temperature particles moving in coolant can be simulated. The experimental results prove the validity of the HPMC model. (authors)
Granular dynamics, contact mechanics and particle system simulations a DEM study
Thornton, Colin
2015-01-01
This book is devoted to the Discrete Element Method (DEM) technique, a discontinuum modelling approach that takes into account the fact that granular materials are composed of discrete particles which interact with each other at the microscale level. This numerical simulation technique can be used both for dispersed systems in which the particle-particle interactions are collisional and compact systems of particles with multiple enduring contacts. The book provides an extensive and detailed explanation of the theoretical background of DEM. Contact mechanics theories for elastic, elastic-plastic, adhesive elastic and adhesive elastic-plastic particle-particle interactions are presented. Other contact force models are also discussed, including corrections to some of these models as described in the literature, and important areas of further research are identified. A key issue in DEM simulations is whether or not a code can reliably simulate the simplest of systems, namely the single particle oblique impact wit...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jea Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
To the high computational efficiency and user convenience, the implicit method had received attention; however, it is noted that the implicit method in the previous studies has low accuracy at high packing fraction. In this study, a new implicit method, which can be used at any packing fraction with high accuracy, is proposed. In this study, the implicit modeling method in the spherical particle distributed medium for using the MC simulation is proposed. A new concept in the spherical particle sampling was developed to solve the problems in the previous implicit methods. The sampling method was verified by simulating the sampling method in the infinite and finite medium. The results show that the particle implicit modeling with the proposed method was accurately performed in all packing fraction boundaries. It is expected that the proposed method can be efficiently utilized for the spherical particle distributed mediums, which are the fusion reactor blanket, VHTR reactors, and shielding analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. D. Parkinson
2014-09-01
Full Text Available High-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNSs are an important tool for the detailed analysis of turbidity current dynamics. Models that resolve the vertical structure and turbulence of the flow are typically based upon the Navier–Stokes equations. Two-dimensional simulations are known to produce unrealistic cohesive vortices that are not representative of the real three-dimensional physics. The effect of this phenomena is particularly apparent in the later stages of flow propagation. The ideal solution to this problem is to run the simulation in three dimensions but this is computationally expensive. This paper presents a novel finite-element (FE DNS turbidity current model that has been built within Fluidity, an open source, general purpose, computational fluid dynamics code. The model is validated through re-creation of a lock release density current at a Grashof number of 5 × 106 in two and three dimensions. Validation of the model considers the flow energy budget, sedimentation rate, head speed, wall normal velocity profiles and the final deposit. Conservation of energy in particular is found to be a good metric for measuring model performance in capturing the range of dynamics on a range of meshes. FE models scale well over many thousands of processors and do not impose restrictions on domain shape, but they are computationally expensive. The use of adaptive mesh optimisation is shown to reduce the required element count by approximately two orders of magnitude in comparison with fixed, uniform mesh simulations. This leads to a substantial reduction in computational cost. The computational savings and flexibility afforded by adaptivity along with the flexibility of FE methods make this model well suited to simulating turbidity currents in complex domains.
Particle simulation of intense electron cyclotron heating and beat-wave current drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, B.I.
1987-01-01
High-power free-electron lasers make new methods possible for heating plasmas and driving current in toroidal plasmas with electromagnetic waves. We have undertaken particle simulation studies with one and two dimensional, relativistic particle simulation codes of intense pulsed electron cyclotron heating and beat-wave current drive. The particle simulation methods here are conventional: the algorithms are time-centered, second-order-accurate, explicit, leap-frog difference schemes. The use of conventional methods restricts the range of space and time scales to be relatively compact in the problems addressed. Nevertheless, experimentally relevant simulations have been performed. 10 refs., 2 figs
A Level-set based framework for viscous simulation of particle-laden supersonic flows
Das, Pratik; Sen, Oishik; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H. S.
2017-06-01
Particle-laden supersonic flows are important in natural and industrial processes, such as, volcanic eruptions, explosions, pneumatic conveyance of particle in material processing etc. Numerical study of such high-speed particle laden flows at the mesoscale calls for a numerical framework which allows simulation of supersonic flow around multiple moving solid objects. Only a few efforts have been made toward development of numerical frameworks for viscous simulation of particle-fluid interaction in supersonic flow regime. The current work presents a Cartesian grid based sharp-interface method for viscous simulations of interaction between supersonic flow with moving rigid particles. The no-slip boundary condition is imposed at the solid-fluid interfaces using a modified ghost fluid method (GFM). The current method is validated against the similarity solution of compressible boundary layer over flat-plate and benchmark numerical solution for steady supersonic flow over cylinder. Further validation is carried out against benchmark numerical results for shock induced lift-off of a cylinder in a shock tube. 3D simulation of steady supersonic flow over sphere is performed to compare the numerically obtained drag co-efficient with experimental results. A particle-resolved viscous simulation of shock interaction with a cloud of particles is performed to demonstrate that the current method is suitable for large-scale particle resolved simulations of particle-laden supersonic flows.
Bui, H. H.; Kodikara, J. A.; Pathegama, R.; Bouazza, A.; Haque, A.
2015-01-01
Numerical methods are extremely useful in gaining insights into the behaviour of reinforced soil retaining walls. However, traditional numerical approaches such as limit equilibrium or finite element methods are unable to simulate large deformation and post-failure behaviour of soils and retaining wall blocks in the reinforced soil retaining walls system. To overcome this limitation, a novel numerical approach is developed aiming to predict accurately the large deformation and post-failure be...
Mesh Excision: Is Total Mesh Excision Necessary?
Wolff, Gillian F; Winters, J Christian; Krlin, Ryan M
2016-04-01
Nearly 29% of women will undergo a secondary, repeat operation for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptom recurrence following a primary repair, as reported by Abbott et al. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 210:163.e1-163.e1, 2014). In efforts to decrease the rates of failure, graft materials have been utilized to augment transvaginal repairs. Following the success of using polypropylene mesh (PPM) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the use of PPM in the transvaginal repair of POP increased. However, in recent years, significant concerns have been raised about the safety of PPM mesh. Complications, some specific to mesh, such as exposures, erosion, dyspareunia, and pelvic pain, have been reported with increased frequency. In the current literature, there is not substantive evidence to suggest that PPM has intrinsic properties that warrant total mesh removal in the absence of complications. There are a number of complications that can occur after transvaginal mesh placement that do warrant surgical intervention after failure of conservative therapy. In aggregate, there are no high-quality controlled studies that clearly demonstrate that total mesh removal is consistently more likely to achieve pain reduction. In the cases of obstruction and erosion, it seems clear that definitive removal of the offending mesh is associated with resolution of symptoms in the majority of cases and reasonable practice. There are a number of complications that can occur with removal of mesh, and patients should be informed of this as they formulate a choice of treatment. We will review these considerations as we examine the clinical question of whether total versus partial removal of mesh is necessary for the resolution of complications following transvaginal mesh placement.
Kinetic-Monte-Carlo-Based Parallel Evolution Simulation Algorithm of Dust Particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaomei Hu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The evolution simulation of dust particles provides an important way to analyze the impact of dust on the environment. KMC-based parallel algorithm is proposed to simulate the evolution of dust particles. In the parallel evolution simulation algorithm of dust particles, data distribution way and communication optimizing strategy are raised to balance the load of every process and reduce the communication expense among processes. The experimental results show that the simulation of diffusion, sediment, and resuspension of dust particles in virtual campus is realized and the simulation time is shortened by parallel algorithm, which makes up for the shortage of serial computing and makes the simulation of large-scale virtual environment possible.
A Generalized Weight-Based Particle-In-Cell Simulation Scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.; Jenkins, T.G.; Ethier, S.
2010-01-01
A generalized weight-based particle simulation scheme suitable for simulating magnetized plasmas, where the zeroth-order inhomogeneity is important, is presented. The scheme is an extension of the perturbative simulation schemes developed earlier for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The new scheme is designed to simulate both the perturbed distribution ((delta)f) and the full distribution (full-F) within the same code. The development is based on the concept of multiscale expansion, which separates the scale lengths of the background inhomogeneity from those associated with the perturbed distributions. The potential advantage for such an arrangement is to minimize the particle noise by using (delta)f in the linear stage stage of the simulation, while retaining the flexibility of a full-F capability in the fully nonlinear stage of the development when signals associated with plasma turbulence are at a much higher level than those from the intrinsic particle noise.
High-Fidelity RF Gun Simulations with the Parallel 3D Finite Element Particle-In-Cell Code Pic3P
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Candel, A; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; /SLAC
2009-06-19
SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the first parallel Finite Element 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code, Pic3P, for simulations of RF guns and other space-charge dominated beam-cavity interactions. Pic3P solves the complete set of Maxwell-Lorentz equations and thus includes space charge, retardation and wakefield effects from first principles. Pic3P uses higher-order Finite Elementmethods on unstructured conformal meshes. A novel scheme for causal adaptive refinement and dynamic load balancing enable unprecedented simulation accuracy, aiding the design and operation of the next generation of accelerator facilities. Application to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) RF gun is presented.
Moreno-Casas, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.
2015-12-01
A 3D Lagrangian particle tracking model is coupled to a 3D channel velocity field to simulate the saltation motion of a single sediment particle moving in saltation mode. The turbulent field is a high-resolution three dimensional velocity field that reproduces a by-pass transition to turbulence on a flat plate due to free-stream turbulence passing above de plate. In order to reduce computational costs, a decoupled approached is used, i.e., the turbulent flow is simulated independently from the tracking model, and then used to feed the 3D Lagrangian particle model. The simulations are carried using the point-particle approach. The particle tracking model contains three sub-models, namely, particle free-flight, a post-collision velocity and bed representation sub-models. The free-flight sub-model considers the action of the following forces: submerged weight, non-linear drag, lift, virtual mass, Magnus and Basset forces. The model also includes the effect of particle angular velocity. The post-collision velocities are obtained by applying conservation of angular and linear momentum. The complete model was validated with experimental results from literature within the sand range. Results for particle velocity time series and distribution of particle turbulent intensities are presented.
Resolved-particle simulation by the Physalis method: Enhancements and new capabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sierakowski, Adam J., E-mail: sierakowski@jhu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Prosperetti, Andrea [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Faculty of Science and Technology and J.M. Burgers Centre for Fluid Dynamics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)
2016-03-15
We present enhancements and new capabilities of the Physalis method for simulating disperse multiphase flows using particle-resolved simulation. The current work enhances the previous method by incorporating a new type of pressure-Poisson solver that couples with a new Physalis particle pressure boundary condition scheme and a new particle interior treatment to significantly improve overall numerical efficiency. Further, we implement a more efficient method of calculating the Physalis scalar products and incorporate short-range particle interaction models. We provide validation and benchmarking for the Physalis method against experiments of a sedimenting particle and of normal wall collisions. We conclude with an illustrative simulation of 2048 particles sedimenting in a duct. In the appendix, we present a complete and self-consistent description of the analytical development and numerical methods.
Numerical Simulation of the Motion of Charged Suspended Particle in Multi-Phase Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abd-El Khalek, M.M.
1998-01-01
A method for computing Numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow between two-long parallel plates is described in detail. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. Numerical solutions of the resulting ordinary differential equations provide velocity distributions for both fluid and solid phases and density distributions for the solid. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically
Numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abd Elkhalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)
1997-12-31
A method for computing numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow between two-long parallel plates is described in detail. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. Numerical solutions of the resulting ordinary differential equations provide velocity distributions for both fluid and solid phases and density distributions for the solid. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically. 4 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Nobuatsu; Maseguchi, Ryo; Ogawara, Takuya
2008-01-01
This study is concerned with improvement of numerical code called CRIMSON (Civa RefIned Multiphase SimulatiON), which has been developed to evaluate multi-phase flow behaviors based on the recent CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technologies. The CRIMSON employs a finite-volume method combined with the high order interpolation scheme, CIVA (cubic-interpolation with area/volume coordinates). The CRIMSON solves gas-liquid two phases by a unified scheme of CUP (combined unified procedure). The conventional CIVA method has two problems of interface blurring in long-term calculation and non-conservativeness. In this study, the problems were solved by introducing the ideas of the level set method and the phase field method. We verified out method by applying it to some popular benchmark problems of single bubble rising and collapse of water column problems. (author)
Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Worley, P. H.; Chang, C. S.
2015-11-01
We describe the implementation, and application of a time-dependent, fully nonlinear multi-species Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator based on the single-species work of Yoon and Chang [Phys. Plasmas 21, 032503 (2014)] in the full-function gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 [Ku et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 115021 (2009)] and XGCa. XGC simulations include the pedestal and scrape-off layer, where significant deviations of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian can occur. Thus, in order to describe collisional effects on neoclassical and turbulence physics accurately, the use of a non-linear collision operator is a necessity. Our collision operator is based on a finite volume method using the velocity-space distribution functions sampled from the marker particles. Since the same fine configuration space mesh is used for collisions and the Poisson solver, the workload due to collisions can be comparable to or larger than the workload due to particle motion. We demonstrate that computing time spent on collisions can be kept affordable by applying advanced parallelization strategies while conserving mass, momentum, and energy to reasonable accuracy. We also show results of production scale XGCa simulations in the H-mode pedestal and compare to conventional theory. Work supported by US DOE OFES and OASCR.
High viscosity fluid simulation using particle-based method
Chang, Yuanzhang; Bao, Kai; Zhu, Jian; Wu, Enhua
2011-01-01
the boundary, ghost particles are employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. Compared with Finite Element Methods with complicated and time-consuming remeshing operations, our method is much more straightforward to implement. Moreover, our method doesn
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Schoombie, Janine
2017-10-01
Full Text Available -CCM+ (1) • Why STAR-CCM+? – In 2017 only a STAR-CCM+ v11.06 commercial licence was available – Didn’t want to start from scratch – Test solver with identical mesh STEP 1: • Import Fluent .cas files - Imported as a volume mesh - No mesh continuum... stream_source_info Schoombie_19954_2017.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3069 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Schoombie_19954_2017.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 A comparison of ANSYS...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Feekings, Jordan P.
2016-01-01
described by a double logistic selection curve, implying that two different size selection processes occur in the cod end. The double selection process could be explained by an additional selection process occurring through slack meshes. The results imply that the escapement of 46% and 34% of the larger...... Atlantic Cod and Haddock (those above 48 cm), respectively, would be through wide-open or slack meshes. Since these mesh states are only likely to be present in the latest stage of the fishing process (e.g., when the cod end is near the surface), a large fraction of the bigger fish probably escaped near...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mimoun Maurice
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling airborne contamination is of major importance in burn units because of the high susceptibility of burned patients to infections and the unique environmental conditions that can accentuate the infection risk. In particular the required elevated temperatures in the patient room can create thermal convection flows which can transport airborne contaminates throughout the unit. In order to estimate this risk and optimize the design of an intensive care room intended to host severely burned patients, we have relied on a computational fluid dynamic methodology (CFD. Methods The study was carried out in 4 steps: i patient room design, ii CFD simulations of patient room design to model air flows throughout the patient room, adjacent anterooms and the corridor, iii construction of a prototype room and subsequent experimental studies to characterize its performance iv qualitative comparison of the tendencies between CFD prediction and experimental results. The Electricité De France (EDF open-source software Code_Saturne® (http://www.code-saturne.org was used and CFD simulations were conducted with an hexahedral mesh containing about 300 000 computational cells. The computational domain included the treatment room and two anterooms including equipment, staff and patient. Experiments with inert aerosol particles followed by time-resolved particle counting were conducted in the prototype room for comparison with the CFD observations. Results We found that thermal convection can create contaminated zones near the ceiling of the room, which can subsequently lead to contaminate transfer in adjacent rooms. Experimental confirmation of these phenomena agreed well with CFD predictions and showed that particles greater than one micron (i.e. bacterial or fungal spore sizes can be influenced by these thermally induced flows. When the temperature difference between rooms was 7°C, a significant contamination transfer was observed to
Wollherr, Stephanie; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Uphoff, Carsten
2018-05-01
The dynamics and potential size of earthquakes depend crucially on rupture transfers between adjacent fault segments. To accurately describe earthquake source dynamics, numerical models can account for realistic fault geometries and rheologies such as nonlinear inelastic processes off the slip interface. We present implementation, verification, and application of off-fault Drucker-Prager plasticity in the open source software SeisSol (www.seissol.org). SeisSol is based on an arbitrary high-order derivative modal Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method using unstructured, tetrahedral meshes specifically suited for complex geometries. Two implementation approaches are detailed, modelling plastic failure either employing sub-elemental quadrature points or switching to nodal basis coefficients. At fine fault discretizations the nodal basis approach is up to 6 times more efficient in terms of computational costs while yielding comparable accuracy. Both methods are verified in community benchmark problems and by three dimensional numerical h- and p-refinement studies with heterogeneous initial stresses. We observe no spectral convergence for on-fault quantities with respect to a given reference solution, but rather discuss a limitation to low-order convergence for heterogeneous 3D dynamic rupture problems. For simulations including plasticity, a high fault resolution may be less crucial than commonly assumed, due to the regularization of peak slip rate and an increase of the minimum cohesive zone width. In large-scale dynamic rupture simulations based on the 1992 Landers earthquake, we observe high rupture complexity including reverse slip, direct branching, and dynamic triggering. The spatio-temporal distribution of rupture transfers are altered distinctively by plastic energy absorption, correlated with locations of geometrical fault complexity. Computational cost increases by 7% when accounting for off-fault plasticity in the demonstrating application. Our results
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Collision between 2D Circular Particles Suspension in Couette Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Zhong Huang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Collision between 2D circular particles suspension in Couette flow is simulated by using multiple-relaxation-time based lattice Boltzmann and direct forcing/fictitious domain method in this paper. The patterns of particle collisions are simulated and analyzed in detail by changing the velocity of top and bottom walls in the Couette flow. It can be seen from the simulation results that, while the velocity is large enough, the number of collisions between particles will change little as this velocity varies.
STUDY ON SIMULATION METHOD OF AVALANCHE : FLOW ANALYSIS OF AVALANCHE USING PARTICLE METHOD
塩澤, 孝哉
2015-01-01
In this paper, modeling for the simulation of the avalanche by a particle method is discussed. There are two kinds of the snow avalanches, one is the surface avalanche which shows a smoke-like flow, and another is the total-layer avalanche which shows a flow like Bingham fluid. In the simulation of the surface avalanche, the particle method in consideration of a rotation resistance model is used. The particle method by Bingham fluid is used in the simulation of the total-layer avalanche. At t...
Lagrangian Particle Tracking Simulation for Warm-Rain Processes in Quasi-One-Dimensional Domain
Kunishima, Y.; Onishi, R.
2017-12-01
Conventional cloud simulations are based on the Euler method and compute each microphysics process in a stochastic way assuming infinite numbers of particles within each numerical grid. They therefore cannot provide the Lagrangian statistics of individual particles in cloud microphysics (i.e., aerosol particles, cloud particles, and rain drops) nor discuss the statistical fluctuations due to finite number of particles. We here simulate the entire precipitation process of warm-rain, with tracking individual particles. We use the Lagrangian Cloud Simulator (LCS), which is based on the Euler-Lagrangian framework. In that framework, flow motion and scalar transportation are computed with the Euler method, and particle motion with the Lagrangian one. The LCS tracks particle motions and collision events individually with considering the hydrodynamic interaction between approaching particles with a superposition method, that is, it can directly represent the collisional growth of cloud particles. It is essential for trustworthy collision detection to take account of the hydrodynamic interaction. In this study, we newly developed a stochastic model based on the Twomey cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation for the Lagrangian tracking simulation and integrated it into the LCS. Coupling with the Euler computation for water vapour and temperature fields, the initiation and condensational growth of water droplets were computed in the Lagrangian way. We applied the integrated LCS for a kinematic simulation of warm-rain processes in a vertically-elongated domain of, at largest, 0.03×0.03×3000 (m3) with horizontal periodicity. Aerosol particles with a realistic number density, 5×107 (m3), were evenly distributed over the domain at the initial state. Prescribed updraft at the early stage initiated development of a precipitating cloud. We have confirmed that the obtained bulk statistics fairly agree with those from a conventional spectral-bin scheme for a vertical column
Euler-Lagrange Simulations of Shock Wave-Particle Cloud Interaction
Koneru, Rahul; Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Park, Chanyoung; Balachandar, S.
2017-11-01
Numerical experiments of shock interacting with an evolving and fixed cloud of particles are performed. In these simulations we use Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with state-of-the-art point-particle force and heat transfer models. As validation, we use Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments and particle-resolved simulations. The particle curtain upon interaction with the shock wave is expected to experience Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. In the simulations evolving the particle cloud, the initial volume fraction profile matches with that of Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments, and the shock Mach number is limited to M =1.66. Measurements of particle dispersion are made at different initial volume fractions. A detailed analysis of the influence of initial conditions on the evolution of the particle cloudis presented. The early time behavior of the models is studied in the fixed bed simulations at varying volume fractions and shock Mach numbers.The mean gas quantities are measured in the context of 1-way and 2-way coupled simulations. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-Nanofluidics Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis
Qian, Shizhi
2012-01-01
Numerous applications of micro-/nanofluidics are related to particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels, and electrokinetics has proved to be one of the most promising tools to manipulate particles in micro/nanofluidics. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels is crucial to the development of micro/nano-fluidic devices. Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-/Nanofluidics: Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis provides a fundamental understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanofluidics involving elect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hærvig, Jakob; Kleinhans, Ulrich; Wieland, Christoph
2017-01-01
particle stiffness to experimental data. Then two well-defined test cases are investigated to show the applicability of the guidelines. When introducing a reduced particle stiffness in DEM simulations by reducing the effective Young's modulus from E to Emod, the surface energy density γ in the adhesive......, this criterion can be used to estimate how much the time step size can be changed when a reduced particle stiffness is introduced. Introducing particles with a reduced particle stiffness has some limitations when strong external forces are acting to break-up formed agglomerates or re-entrain particles deposited...... on a surface out into the free stream. Therefore, care should be taken in flows with high local shear to make sure that an external force, such as a fluid drag force, acting to separate agglomerated particles, is several orders of magnitude lower than the critical force required to separate particles....
Numerical simulations of glass impacts using smooth particle hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandell, D.A.; Wingate, C.A.
1995-01-01
As part of a program to develop advanced hydrocode design tools, we have implemented a brittle fracture model for glass into the SPHINX smooth particle hydrodynamics code. We have evaluated this model and the code by predicting data from one-dimensional flyer plate impacts into glass. Since fractured glass properties, which are needed in the model, are not available, we did sensitivity studies of these properties, as well as sensitivity studies to determine the number of particles needed in the calculations. The numerical results are in good agreement with the data
Numerical Schemes for Charged Particle Movement in PIC Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulhanek, P.
2001-01-01
A PIC model of plasma fibers is developed in the Department of Physics of the Czech Technical University for several years. The program code was written in FORTRAN 95, free-style (without compulsory columns). Fortran compiler and linker were used from Compaq Visual Fortran 6.1A embedded in the Microsoft Development studio GUI. Fully three-dimensional code with periodical boundary conditions was developed. Electromagnetic fields are localized on a grid and particles move freely through this grid. One of the partial problems of the PIC model is the numerical particle solver, which will be discussed in this paper. (author)
Classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations of particle confinement using dual levitated coils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Lane
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The particle confinement properties of plasma confinement systems that employ dual levitated magnetic coils are investigated using classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations. Two model systems are examined. In one, two identical current-carrying loops are coaxial and separated axially. In the second, two concentric and coplanar loops have different radii and carry equal currents. In both systems, a magnetic null circle is present between the current loops. Simulations are carried out for seven current loop separations for each system and at numerous values of magnetic field strength. Particle confinement is investigated at three locations between the loops at different distances from the magnetic null circle. Each simulated particle that did not escape the system exhibited one of four modes of confinement. Reduced results are given for both systems as the lowest magnetic field strength that exhibits complete confinement of all simulated particles for a particular loop separation.
Bagli, Enrico; Guidi, Vincenzo
2013-08-01
A toolkit for the simulation of coherent interactions between high-energy charged particles and complex crystal structures, called DYNECHARM++ has been developed. The code has been written in C++ language taking advantage of this object-oriented programing method. The code is capable to evaluating the electrical characteristics of complex atomic structures and to simulate and track the particle trajectory within them. Calculation method of electrical characteristics based on their expansion in Fourier series has been adopted. Two different approaches to simulate the interaction have been adopted, relying on the full integration of particle trajectories under the continuum potential approximation and on the definition of cross-sections of coherent processes. Finally, the code has proved to reproduce experimental results and to simulate interaction of charged particles with complex structures.
RadSim: a program to simulate individual particle interactions for educational purposes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verhaegen, Frank; Palefsky, Steven; DeBlois, Francois
2006-01-01
A program was developed, RadSim, which can be used to simulate certain individual interactions of photons, electrons, positrons and alpha particles with a single atom for educational purposes. The program can be run in two modes: manual and simulated. In the manual mode, an individual particle undergoing a specified interaction with a target atom can be simulated, which essentially comes down to a graphical evaluation of kinematic equations. In the simulated mode, a preset number of identical particles are allowed to undergo a specified interaction type with a target atom. The exit channel of the interaction is sampled from probability distributions using Monte Carlo methods. The incoming and outgoing particles are visualized and the frequency distribution of the kinematic variables of the exit channel is displayed graphically. It has to be emphasized that RadSim was mainly developed for educational purposes. (note)
Numerical Simulation of the Motion of Aerosol Particles in Open Cell Foam Materials
Solovev, S. A.; Soloveva, O. V.; Popkova, O. S.
2018-03-01
The motion of aerosol particles in open cell foam material is studied. The porous medium is investigated for a three-dimensional case with detailed simulation of cellular structures within an ordered geometry. Numerical calculations of the motion of particles and their deposition due to inertial and gravitational mechanisms are performed. Deposition efficiency curves for a broad range of particle sizes are constructed. The effect deposition mechanisms have on the efficiency of the porous material as a filter is analyzed.
Towards better integrators for dissipative particle dynamics simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Besold, Gerhard; Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio; Karttunen, Mikko
2000-01-01
Coarse-grained models that preserve hydrodynamics provide a natural approach to study collective properties of soft-matter systems. Here, we demonstrate that commonly used integration schemes in dissipative particle dynamics give rise to pronounced artifacts in physical quantities such as the com...
HFI energetic particle effects: characterization, removal, and simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2014-01-01
We describe the detection, interpretation, and removal of the signal resulting from interactions of high energy particles with the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI). There are two types of interactions: heating of the 0.1 K bolometer plate; and glitches in each detector time stream. The tran...
DEM Simulation of Particle Stratification and Segregation in Stockpile Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Dizhe
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Granular stockpiles are commonly observed in nature and industry, and their formation has been extensively investigated experimentally and mathematically in the literature. One of the striking features affecting properties of stockpiles are the internal patterns formed by the stratification and segregation processes. In this work, we conduct a numerical study based on DEM (discrete element method model to study the influencing factors and triggering mechanisms of these two phenomena. With the use of a previously developed mixing index, the effects of parameters including size ratio, injection height and mass ratio are investigated. We found that it is a void-filling mechanism that differentiates the motions of particles with different sizes. This mechanism drives the large particles to flow over the pile surface and segregate at the pile bottom, while it also pushes small particles to fill the voids between large particles, giving rise to separate layers. Consequently, this difference in motion will result in the observed stratification and segregation phenomena.
Huang, R.W.J.M.; Chung, F.; Kelder, E.M.
2006-01-01
We present a semimathematical model for the simulation of the impedance spectra of a rechargeable lithium batteries consisting of porous electrodes with spherical Li+ intercalation particles. The particles are considered to have two distinct homogeneous phases as a result of the intercalation and
Constraining Diameters of Ash Particles in Io's Pele Plume by DSMC Simulation
McDoniel, William; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.
2013-10-01
The black “butterfly wings” seen at Pele are produced by silicate ash which is to some extent entrained in the gas flow from very low altitudes. These particles are key to understanding the volcanism at Pele. However, the Pele plume is not nearly as dusty as Prometheus, and these are not the only particles in the plume, as the SO2 in the plume will also condense as it cools. It is therefore difficult to estimate a size distribution for the ash particles by observation, and the drag on ash particles from the plume flow is significant enough that ballistic models are also of limited use. Using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo, we can simulate a gas plume at Pele which demonstrates very good agreement with observations. By extending this model down to nearly the surface of the lava lake, ash particles can be included in the simulation by assuming that they are initially entrained in the very dense (for Io) gas immediately above the magma. Particles are seen to fall to the ground to the east and west of the vent, agreeing with the orientation of the “butterfly wings”, and particles with larger diameters fall to the ground closer to the lava lake. We present a model for mapping simulated deposition density to the coloration of the surface and we use it to estimate the size distribution of ash particles in the plume.
Simulation of distributed parameter system consisting of charged and neutral particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grover, P.S.; Sinha, K.V.
1986-01-01
The time-dependent behavior of positively charged light particles have been simulated in an assembly of heavy gas atoms. The system is formulated in terms of partial differential equation. The stability and convergence of the numerical algorithm has been examined. Using this formulation effects of external electric field and temperature have been investigated on the lifetime and distribution function characteristics of charged particles
Theory and simulation of epitaxial rotation. Light particles adsorbed on graphite
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vives, E.; Lindgård, P.-A.
1993-01-01
We present a theory and Monte Carlo simulations of adsorbed particles on a corrugated substrate. We have focused on the case of rare gases and light molecules, H-2 and D2, adsorbed on graphite. The competition between the particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions gives rise to frustra...... found a modulated 4 x 4 structure. Energy, structure-factor intensities, peak positions, and epitaxial rotation angles as a function of temperature and coverage have been determined from the simulations. Good agreement with theory and experimental data is found.......We present a theory and Monte Carlo simulations of adsorbed particles on a corrugated substrate. We have focused on the case of rare gases and light molecules, H-2 and D2, adsorbed on graphite. The competition between the particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions gives rise...... between the commensurate and incommensurate phase for the adsorbed systems. From our simulations and our theory, we are, able to understand the gamma phase of D2 as an ordered phase stabilized by disorder. It can be described as a 2q-modulated structure. In agreement with the experiments, we have also...
Large shear deformation of particle gels studied by Brownian Dynamics simulations
Rzepiela, A.A.; Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Vliet, van T.
2004-01-01
Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations have been performed to study structure and rheology of particle gels under large shear deformation. The model incorporates soft spherical particles, and reversible flexible bond formation. Two different methods of shear deformation are discussed, namely affine and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Moubin; Meakin, Paul; Huang Hai
2007-01-01
Multiphase fluid motion in unsaturated fractures and fracture networks involves complicated fluid dynamics, which is difficult to model using grid-based continuum methods. In this paper, the application of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), a relatively new mesoscale method to simulate fluid motion in unsaturated fractures is described. Unlike the conventional DPD method that employs a purely repulsive conservative (non-dissipative) particle-particle interaction to simulate the behavior of gases, we used conservative particle-particle interactions that combine short-range repulsive and long-range attractive interactions. This new conservative particle-particle interaction allows the behavior of multiphase systems consisting of gases, liquids and solids to be simulated. Our simulation results demonstrate that, for a fracture with flat parallel walls, the DPD method with the new interaction potential function is able to reproduce the hydrodynamic behavior of fully saturated flow, and various unsaturated flow modes including thin film flow, wetting and non-wetting flow. During simulations of flow through a fracture junction, the fracture junction can be fully or partially saturated depending on the wetting property of the fluid, the injection rate and the geometry of the fracture junction. Flow mode switching from a fully saturated flow to a thin film flow can also be observed in the fracture junction
A splitting integration scheme for the SPH simulation of concentrated particle suspensions
Bian, Xin; Ellero, Marco
2014-01-01
Simulating nearly contacting solid particles in suspension is a challenging task due to the diverging behavior of short-range lubrication forces, which pose a serious time-step limitation for explicit integration schemes. This general difficulty limits severely the total duration of simulations of concentrated suspensions. Inspired by the ideas developed in [S. Litvinov, M. Ellero, X.Y. Hu, N.A. Adams, J. Comput. Phys. 229 (2010) 5457-5464] for the simulation of highly dissipative fluids, we propose in this work a splitting integration scheme for the direct simulation of solid particles suspended in a Newtonian liquid. The scheme separates the contributions of different forces acting on the solid particles. In particular, intermediate- and long-range multi-body hydrodynamic forces, which are computed from the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, are taken into account using an explicit integration; for short-range lubrication forces, velocities of pairwise interacting solid particles are updated implicitly by sweeping over all the neighboring pairs iteratively, until convergence in the solution is obtained. By using the splitting integration, simulations can be run stably and efficiently up to very large solid particle concentrations. Moreover, the proposed scheme is not limited to the SPH method presented here, but can be easily applied to other simulation techniques employed for particulate suspensions.
Progress of laser-plasma interaction simulations with the particle-in-cell code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakagami, Hitoshi; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Taguchi, Toshihiro
2005-01-01
As the laser-plasma interaction is a non-equilibrium, non-linear and relativistic phenomenon, we must introduce a microscopic method, namely, the relativistic electromagnetic PIC (Particle-In-Cell) simulation code. The PIC code requires a huge number of particles to validate simulation results, and its task is very computation-intensive. Thus simulation researches by the PIC code have been progressing along with advances in computer technology. Recently, parallel computers with tremendous computational power have become available, and thus we can perform three-dimensional PIC simulations for the laser-plasma interaction to investigate laser fusion. Some simulation results are shown with figures. We discuss a recent trend of large-scale PIC simulations that enable direct comparison between experimental facts and computational results. We also discharge/lightning simulations by the extended PIC code, which include various atomic and relaxation processes. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoolcraft, Tracy A.; Constable, Gregory S.; Jackson, Bryan; Zhigilei, Leonid V.; Garrison, Barbara J.
2001-01-01
A series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed in order to provide qualitative information on the mechanisms of disintegration of aerosol particles as used in aerosol mass spectrometry. Three generic types of aerosol particles are considered: strongly absorbing particles with homogeneous composition, transparent particles with absorbing inclusion, and absorbing particles with transparent inclusion. To study the effect of the mechanical properties of the aerosol material on the disintegration process, the results for crystalline (brittle) and amorphous (ductile) particles are compared. For large laser fluences, nearly complete dissociation of the absorbing material is observed, whereas the nonabsorbing portions remain fairly intact. Because large fluences can cause photofragmentation of constituent molecules, multiple pulses at low laser fluence and/or lasers with different wavelengths are recommended for the best representative sampling of multicomponent aerosol particles in laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry
Monte Carlo simulations of the Galileo energetic particle detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jun, I.; Ratliff, J.M.; Garrett, H.B.; McEntire, R.W.
2002-01-01
Monte Carlo radiation transport studies have been performed for the Galileo spacecraft energetic particle detector (EPD) in order to study its response to energetic electrons and protons. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, MCNP version 4B (for electrons) and MCNPX version 2.2.3 (for protons), were used throughout the study. The results are presented in the form of 'geometric factors' for the high-energy channels studied in this paper: B1, DC2, and DC3 for electrons and B0, DC0, and DC1 for protons. The geometric factor is the energy-dependent detector response function that relates the incident particle fluxes to instrument count rates. The trend of actual data measured by the EPD was successfully reproduced using the geometric factors obtained in this study
3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adelmann, A
2002-10-01
For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density ({approx} 10{sup 9} protons/cm{sup 3}) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)
Monte Carlo simulations of the Galileo energetic particle detector
Jun, I; Garrett, H B; McEntire, R W
2002-01-01
Monte Carlo radiation transport studies have been performed for the Galileo spacecraft energetic particle detector (EPD) in order to study its response to energetic electrons and protons. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, MCNP version 4B (for electrons) and MCNPX version 2.2.3 (for protons), were used throughout the study. The results are presented in the form of 'geometric factors' for the high-energy channels studied in this paper: B1, DC2, and DC3 for electrons and B0, DC0, and DC1 for protons. The geometric factor is the energy-dependent detector response function that relates the incident particle fluxes to instrument count rates. The trend of actual data measured by the EPD was successfully reproduced using the geometric factors obtained in this study.
3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adelmann, A.
2002-10-01
For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density (∼ 10 9 protons/cm 3 ) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)
Implementing particle-in-cell plasma simulation code on the BBN TC2000
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sturtevant, J.E.; Maccabe, A.B.
1990-01-01
The BBN TC2000 is a multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) machine that combines a physically distributed memory with a logically shared memory programming environment using the unique Butterfly switch. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) plasma simulations model the interaction of charged particles with electric and magnetic fields. This paper describes the implementation of both a 1-D electrostatic and a 2 1/2-D electromagnetic PIC (particle-in-cell) plasma simulation code on a BBN TC2000. Performance is compared to implementations of the same code on the shared memory Sequent Balance and distributed memory Intel iPSC hypercube
Fu, Hai-Huan; Tian, Na; Shang, Hui-Bin; Zhang, Bin; Ye, Su-Fen; Chen, Xiao-Qiu; Wu, Shui-Ping
2014-01-01
Particles from cooking lampblack, biomass and plastics burning smoke, gasoline vehicular exhausts and gasoline generator exhausts were prepared in a resuspension test chamber and collected using a cascade MOUDI impactor. A total of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particles were analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that there were two peaks in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm and 2.5-10 microm for cooking lampblack, and only one peak in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm for straw and wood burning smoke. But there were no clear peak for plastics burning smoke. The peak for gasoline vehicular exhausts was found in the range of 2.5-10 microm due to the influence of water vapor associated with particles, while the particles from gasoline generator exhausts were mainly in the range of lampblack and gasoline vehicular exhausts. The peak in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm became more and more apparent with the increase of PAHs molecular weight. The fraction of PAH on particles less than 1.0 microm to that on the total particles increased along with PAH's molecular weight. Phenanthrene was the dominant compound for cooking lampblack and combustion smoke, while gasoline vehicular exhausts and generator exhausts were characterized with significantly high levels of naphthalene and benzo[g, h, i] perylene, respectively. The distribution of source characteristic ratios indicated that PAHs from cooking lampblack and biomass burning were close and they were different from those of vehicular exhausts and generator exhausts.
Cooper, Andrew P.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; Le Bret, Theo; Pontzen, Andrew
2017-08-01
Particle tagging is an efficient, but approximate, technique for using cosmological N-body simulations to model the phase-space evolution of the stellar populations predicted, for example, by a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. We test the technique developed by Cooper et al. (which we call stings here) by comparing particle tags with stars in a smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulation. We focus on the spherically averaged density profile of stars accreted from satellite galaxies in a Milky Way (MW)-like system. The stellar profile in the SPH simulation can be recovered accurately by tagging dark matter (DM) particles in the same simulation according to a prescription based on the rank order of particle binding energy. Applying the same prescription to an N-body version of this simulation produces a density profile differing from that of the SPH simulation by ≲10 per cent on average between 1 and 200 kpc. This confirms that particle tagging can provide a faithful and robust approximation to a self-consistent hydrodynamical simulation in this regime (in contradiction to previous claims in the literature). We find only one systematic effect, likely due to the collisionless approximation, namely that massive satellites in the SPH simulation are disrupted somewhat earlier than their collisionless counterparts. In most cases, this makes remarkably little difference to the spherically averaged distribution of their stellar debris. We conclude that, for galaxy formation models that do not predict strong baryonic effects on the present-day DM distribution of MW-like galaxies or their satellites, differences in stellar halo predictions associated with the treatment of star formation and feedback are much more important than those associated with the dynamical limitations of collisionless particle tagging.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kajzer, A; Pozorski, J; Szewc, K
2014-01-01
In the paper we present Large-eddy simulation (LES) results of 3D Taylor- Green vortex obtained by the three different computational approaches: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM). The Smagorinsky model was chosen as a subgrid-scale closure in LES for all considered methods and a selection of spatial resolutions have been investigated. The SPH and LBM computations have been carried out with the use of the in-house codes executed on GPU and compared, for validation purposes, with the FVM results obtained using the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. A comparative study in terms of one-point statistics and turbulent energy spectra shows a good agreement of LES results for all methods. An analysis of the GPU code efficiency and implementation difficulties has been made. It is shown that both SPH and LBM may offer a significant advantage over mesh-based CFD methods.
BOA, Beam Optics Analyzer A Particle-In-Cell Code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bui, Thuc
2007-01-01
The program was tasked with implementing time dependent analysis of charges particles into an existing finite element code with adaptive meshing, called Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA). BOA was initially funded by a DOE Phase II program to use the finite element method with adaptive meshing to track particles in unstructured meshes. It uses modern programming techniques, state-of-the-art data structures, so that new methods, features and capabilities are easily added and maintained. This Phase II program was funded to implement plasma simulations in BOA and extend its capabilities to model thermal electrons, secondary emissions, self magnetic field and implement a more comprehensive post-processing and feature-rich GUI. The program was successful in implementing thermal electrons, secondary emissions, and self magnetic field calculations. The BOA GUI was also upgraded significantly, and CCR is receiving interest from the microwave tube and semiconductor equipment industry for the code. Implementation of PIC analysis was partially successful. Computational resource requirements for modeling more than 2000 particles begin to exceed the capability of most readily available computers. Modern plasma analysis typically requires modeling of approximately 2 million particles or more. The problem is that tracking many particles in an unstructured mesh that is adapting becomes inefficient. In particular memory requirements become excessive. This probably makes particle tracking in unstructured meshes currently unfeasible with commonly available computer resources. Consequently, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. is exploring hybrid codes where the electromagnetic fields are solved on the unstructured, adaptive mesh while particles are tracked on a fixed mesh. Efficient interpolation routines should be able to transfer information between nodes of the two meshes. If successfully developed, this could provide high accuracy and reasonable computational efficiency.
Explicit simulation of ice particle habits in a Numerical Weather Prediction Model
Hashino, Tempei
2007-05-01
This study developed a scheme for explicit simulation of ice particle habits in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) Models. The scheme is called Spectral Ice Habit Prediction System (SHIPS), and the goal is to retain growth history of ice particles in the Eulerian dynamics framework. It diagnoses characteristics of ice particles based on a series of particle property variables (PPVs) that reflect history of microphysieal processes and the transport between mass bins and air parcels in space. Therefore, categorization of ice particles typically used in bulk microphysical parameterization and traditional bin models is not necessary, so that errors that stem from the categorization can be avoided. SHIPS predicts polycrystals as well as hexagonal monocrystals based on empirically derived habit frequency and growth rate, and simulates the habit-dependent aggregation and riming processes by use of the stochastic collection equation with predicted PPVs. Idealized two dimensional simulations were performed with SHIPS in a NWP model. The predicted spatial distribution of ice particle habits and types, and evolution of particle size distributions showed good quantitative agreement with observation This comprehensive model of ice particle properties, distributions, and evolution in clouds can be used to better understand problems facing wide range of research disciplines, including microphysics processes, radiative transfer in a cloudy atmosphere, data assimilation, and weather modification.
Johnson, B. T.; Olson, W. S.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.
2016-01-01
A simplified approach is presented for assessing the microwave response to the initial melting of realistically shaped ice particles. This paper is divided into two parts: (1) a description of the Single Particle Melting Model (SPMM), a heuristic melting simulation for ice-phase precipitation particles of any shape or size (SPMM is applied to two simulated aggregate snow particles, simulating melting up to 0.15 melt fraction by mass), and (2) the computation of the single-particle microwave scattering and extinction properties of these hydrometeors, using the discrete dipole approximation (via DDSCAT), at the following selected frequencies: 13.4, 35.6, and 94.0GHz for radar applications and 89, 165.0, and 183.31GHz for radiometer applications. These selected frequencies are consistent with current microwave remote-sensing platforms, such as CloudSat and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Comparisons with calculations using variable-density spheres indicate significant deviations in scattering and extinction properties throughout the initial range of melting (liquid volume fractions less than 0.15). Integration of the single-particle properties over an exponential particle size distribution provides additional insight into idealized radar reflectivity and passive microwave brightness temperature sensitivity to variations in size/mass, shape, melt fraction, and particle orientation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berkov, D.V.; Gorn, N.L.; Stock, D.
2007-01-01
For numerical studies of a ferrofluid dynamics we have developed a model which includes internal magnetic degrees of freedom of ferrofluid particles. Contrary to standard models, we take into account that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of a ferrofluid particle material is finite, so that the particle moment is allowed to rotate with respect to the particle itself. Simulating magnetization relaxation of a ferrofluid after switching off the external field and comparing results with those obtained for rigid dipoles model, we demonstrate that for anisotropy typical for commonly used ferrofluid materials inclusion of 'magnetic' degrees of freedom is essential for a correct description of ferrofluid dynamics
Khaokom, Adisorn; Thongsri, Jatuporn
2017-10-01
Ventilation system inside production line for electronic component production needs to meet the factory standard. Because it can eliminate small particles which may cause of human or machine in production as well as it can distribute the circulating air temperature uniformly. CFD is used in this research in order to study the feasibility and plan for machine layout in production line before actual installation. The simulation shows the airflow in every area inside production line. From simulation with releasing the particles from human and machine is found that this ventilation system generates airflow that makes most particles float out of the machines and no particle downs to the conveyor, it results to contamination. In addition, the simulation also shows the range of 19-26 °C air temperature that meets the factory standard. The results of this research are the parts of the data to renovate the production line to get more efficiency and proper on the production.
Ef: Software for Nonrelativistic Beam Simulation by Particle-in-Cell Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boytsov A. Yu.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Understanding of particle dynamics is crucial in construction of electron guns, ion sources and other types of nonrelativistic beam devices. Apart from external guiding and focusing systems, a prominent role in evolution of such low-energy beams is played by particle-particle interaction. Numerical simulations taking into account these effects are typically accomplished by a well-known particle-in-cell method. In practice, for convenient work a simulation program should not only implement this method, but also support parallelization, provide integration with CAD systems and allow access to details of the simulation algorithm. To address the formulated requirements, development of a new open source code - Ef - has been started. It's current features and main functionality are presented. Comparison with several analytical models demonstrates good agreement between the numerical results and the theory. Further development plans are discussed.
Ef: Software for Nonrelativistic Beam Simulation by Particle-in-Cell Algorithm
Boytsov, A. Yu.; Bulychev, A. A.
2018-04-01
Understanding of particle dynamics is crucial in construction of electron guns, ion sources and other types of nonrelativistic beam devices. Apart from external guiding and focusing systems, a prominent role in evolution of such low-energy beams is played by particle-particle interaction. Numerical simulations taking into account these effects are typically accomplished by a well-known particle-in-cell method. In practice, for convenient work a simulation program should not only implement this method, but also support parallelization, provide integration with CAD systems and allow access to details of the simulation algorithm. To address the formulated requirements, development of a new open source code - Ef - has been started. It's current features and main functionality are presented. Comparison with several analytical models demonstrates good agreement between the numerical results and the theory. Further development plans are discussed.
Numerical simulation of DPF filter for selected regimes with deposited soot particles
Lávička, David; Kovařík, Petr
2012-04-01
For the purpose of accumulation of particulate matter from Diesel engine exhaust gas, particle filters are used (referred to as DPF or FAP filters in the automotive industry). However, the cost of these filters is quite high. As the emission limits become stricter, the requirements for PM collection are rising accordingly. Particulate matters are very dangerous for human health and these are not invisible for human eye. They can often cause various diseases of the respiratory tract, even what can cause lung cancer. Performed numerical simulations were used to analyze particle filter behavior under various operating modes. The simulations were especially focused on selected critical states of particle filter, when engine is switched to emergency regime. The aim was to prevent and avoid critical situations due the filter behavior understanding. The numerical simulations were based on experimental analysis of used diesel particle filters.
Large-scale particle simulations in a virtual-memory computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, P.C.; Wagner, J.S.; Tajima, T.; Million, R.
1982-08-01
Virtual memory computers are capable of executing large-scale particle simulations even when the memory requirements exceed the computer core size. The required address space is automatically mapped onto slow disc memory by the operating system. When the simulation size is very large, frequent random accesses to slow memory occur during the charge accumulation and particle pushing processes. Accesses to slow memory significantly reduce the execution rate of the simulation. We demonstrate in this paper that with the proper choice of sorting algorithm, a nominal amount of sorting to keep physically adjacent particles near particles with neighboring array indices can reduce random access to slow memory, increase the efficiency of the I/O system, and hence, reduce the required computing time
Development of 2D particle-in-cell code to simulate high current, low ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A code for 2D space-charge dominated beam dynamics study in beam trans- port lines is developed. The code is used for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of z-uniform beam in a channel containing solenoids and drift space. It can also simulate a transport line where quadrupoles are used for focusing the beam.
Simulation study of effects of initial particle size distribution on dissolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, G.; Xu, D.S.; Ma, N.; Zhou, N.; Payton, E.J.; Yang, R.; Mills, M.J.; Wang, Y.
2009-01-01
Dissolution kinetics of γ' particles in binary Ni-Al alloys with different initial particle size distributions (PSD) is studied using a three-dimensional (3D) quantitative phase field model. By linking model inputs directly to thermodynamic and atomic mobility databases, microstructural evolution during dissolution is simulated in real time and length scales. The model is first validated against analytical solution for dissolution of a single γ' particle in 1D and numerical solution in 3D before it is applied to investigate the effects of initial PSD on dissolution kinetics. Four different types of PSD, uniform, normal, log-normal and bimodal, are considered. The simulation results show that the volume fraction of γ' particles decreases exponentially with time, while the temporal evolution of average particle size depends strongly on the initial PSD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou-Hui, Yi; Cai-Feng, Wang; Xiao-Feng, Yang; Hua-Bing, Li
2009-01-01
The rolling massage is one of the most important manipulations in Chinese massage, which is expected to eliminate many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on a pair of particles moving in blood vessels under rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulated results show that the motion of each particle is considerably modified by the rolling massage, and it depends on the relative rolling velocity, the rolling depth, and the distance between particle position and rolling position. Both particles' translational average velocities increase almost linearly as the rolling velocity increases, and obey the same law. The increment of the average relative angular velocity for the leading particle is smaller than that of the trailing one. The result is helpful for understanding the mechanism of the massage and to further develop the rolling techniques. (classical areas of phenomenology)
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of flow separation at bends
Hou, Q.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.; Pearce, F.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Yue, T.
2014-01-01
The separated flow in two-dimensional bends is numerically simulated for a right-angled bend with different ratios of the channel widths and for a symmetric bend with different turning angles. Unlike the potential flow solutions that have several restrictive assumptions, the Euler equations are
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of flow separation at bends
Hou, Q.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.; Pearce, F.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Yue, T.
2013-01-01
The separated flow in two-dimensional bends is numerically simulated for a right-angled bend with different ratios of the channel widths and for a symmetric bend with different turning angles. Unlike the potential flow solutions that have several restrictive assumptions, the Euler equations are
3d particle simulations on ultra short laser interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishihara, Katsunobu; Okamoto, Takashi; Yasui, Hidekazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering
1998-03-01
Two topics related to ultra short laser interaction with matter, linear and nonlinear high frequency conductivity of a solid density hydrogen plasma and anisotropic self-focusing of an intense laser in an overdense plasma, have been investigated with the use of 3-d particle codes. Frequency dependence of linear conductivity in a dense plasma is obtained, which shows anomalous conductivity near plasma frequency. Since nonlinear conductivity decreases with v{sub o}{sup -3}, where v{sub o} is a quivering velocity, an optimum amplitude exists leading to a maximum electron heating. Anisotropic self-focusing of a linear polarized intense laser is observed in an overdense plasma. (author)
Simulation of isotropic scattering of charged particles by composed potentials
Gerasimov, O Y
2003-01-01
The analytical model of scattering of charged particles by a multicentered adiabatic potential which consists of the long-range Coulomb and short-range potentials is used for the parametrization of experiments of elastic low-energy proton-deuteron scattering. For the energies 2.26-13 MeV, the analytical expressions for the phase scattering function in terms of identical parameters which depend on the lengths and effective radii of proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering and on the effective size of deuteron are obtained. The results are in good qualitative accordance with experiments.
Investigation on the cohesive silt/clay-particle sediment via the coupled CFD-DEM simulations
Xu, S.; Sun, H.; Sun, R.
2017-12-01
Sedimentation of silt/clay particles happens ubiquitously in nature and engineering field. There have been abundant studies focusing on the settling velocity of the cohesive particles, while studies on the sediment deposited from silt/clay irregular particles, including the vertical concentration profile of sediment and the various forces among the deposited particles are still lacking. This paper aims to investigate the above topics by employing the CFD-DEM (Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method) simulations. In this work, we simulate the settling of the mono- and poly- dispersed silt/clay particles and mainly study the characteristics of the deposited cohesive sediment. We use the bonded particles to simulate the irregular silt/clay aggregates at the initial state and utilize the van der Waals force for all micro-particles to consider the cohesive force among silt/clay particles. The interparticle collision force and the fluid-particle interaction forces are also considered in our numerical model. The value of the mean structural density of cohesive sediment obtained from simulations is in good agreement with the previous research, and it is obviously smaller than no-cohesive sediment because of the existence of the silt/clay flocs. Moreover, the solid concentration of sediment increases with the growth of the depth. It is because the silt/clay flocs are more easily to break up due to the gradually increased submerged gravity of the deposited particles along the depth. We also obtain the noncontacted cohesive force and contact force profiles during the sedimentation and the self-weight consolidation process. The study of the concentration profile and the forces among silt/clay sediment will help to give an accurate initial condition for calculating the speed of the reconsolidation process by employing the artificial loads, which is necessary for practical designs of the land reclamation projects.
Numerical and analytical simulation of the production process of ZrO2 hollow particles
Safaei, Hadi; Emami, Mohsen Davazdah
2017-12-01
In this paper, the production process of hollow particles from the agglomerated particles is addressed analytically and numerically. The important parameters affecting this process, in particular, the initial porosity level of particles and the plasma gun types are investigated. The analytical model adopts a combination of quasi-steady thermal equilibrium and mechanical balance. In the analytical model, the possibility of a solid core existing in agglomerated particles is examined. In this model, a range of particle diameters (50μm ≤ D_{p0} ≤ 160 μ m) and various initial porosities ( 0.2 ≤ p ≤ 0.7) are considered. The numerical model employs the VOF technique for two-phase compressible flows. The production process of hollow particles from the agglomerated particles is simulated, considering an initial diameter of D_{p0} = 60 μm and initial porosity of p = 0.3, p = 0.5, and p = 0.7. Simulation results of the analytical model indicate that the solid core diameter is independent of the initial porosity, whereas the thickness of the particle shell strongly depends on the initial porosity. In both models, a hollow particle may hardly develop at small initial porosity values ( p disintegrates at high initial porosity values ( p > 0.6.
Particle acceleration inside PWN: Simulation and observational constraints with INTEGRAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forot, M.
2006-12-01
The context of this thesis is to gain new constraints on the different particle accelerators that occur in the complex environment of neutron stars: in the pulsar magnetosphere, in the striped wind or wave outside the light cylinder, in the jets and equatorial wind, and at the wind terminal shock. An important tool to constrain both the magnetic field and primary particle energies is to image the synchrotron ageing of the population, but it requires a careful modelling of the magnetic field evolution in the wind flow. The current models and understanding of these different accelerators, the acceleration processes and open questions have been reviewed in the first part of the thesis. The instrumental part of this work involves the IBIS imager, on board the INTEGRAL satellite, that provides images with 12' resolution from 17 keV to MeV where the SPI spectrometer takes over up, to 10 MeV, but with a reduced 2 degrees resolution. A new method for using the double-layer IBIS imager as a Compton telescope with coded mask aperture. Its performance has been measured. The Compton scattering information and the achieved sensitivity also open a new window for polarimetry in gamma rays. A method has been developed to extract the linear polarization properties and to check the instrument response for fake polarimetric signals in the various backgrounds and projection effects
Dagum, Leonardo
1989-01-01
The data parallel implementation of a particle simulation for hypersonic rarefied flow described by Dagum associates a single parallel data element with each particle in the simulation. The simulated space is divided into discrete regions called cells containing a variable and constantly changing number of particles. The implementation requires a global sort of the parallel data elements so as to arrange them in an order that allows immediate access to the information associated with cells in the simulation. Described here is a very fast algorithm for performing the necessary ranking of the parallel data elements. The performance of the new algorithm is compared with that of the microcoded instruction for ranking on the Connection Machine.
Gatsonis, Nikolaos; Yang, Jun
2013-11-01
The SDPD-DV is implemented in our work for arbitrary 3D wall bounded geometries. The particle position and momentum equations are integrated with a velocity-Verlet algorithm and the entropy equation is integrated with a Runge-Kutta algorithm. Simulations of nitrogen gas are performed to evaluate the effects of timestep and particle scale on temperature, self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity. The hydrodynamic fluctuations in temperature, density, pressure and velocity from the SDPD-DV simulations are evaluated and compared with theoretical predictions. Steady planar thermal Couette flows are simulated and compared with analytical solutions. Simulations cover the hydrodynamic and mesocopic regime and show thermal fluctuations and their dependence on particle size.
... knitted mesh or non-knitted sheet forms. The synthetic materials used can be absorbable, non-absorbable or a combination of absorbable and non-absorbable materials. Animal-derived mesh are made of animal tissue, such as intestine or skin, that has been processed and disinfected to be ...
Thrust calculation of electric solar wind sail by particle-in-cell simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoshi, Kento [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Sustainable Humanosphere; Muranaka, Takanobu [Chukyo Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
2016-07-01
In this study, thrust characteristics of an electric solar wind sail were numerically evaluated using full threedimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The thrust obtained from the PIC simulation was lower than the thrust estimations obtained in previous studies. The PIC simulation indicated that ambient electrons strongly shield the electrostatic potential of the tether of the sail, and the strong shield effect causes a greater thrust reduction than has been obtained in previous studies. Additionally, previous expressions of the thrust estimation were modified by using the shielded potential structure derived from the present simulation results. The modified thrust estimation agreed very well with the thrust obtained from the PIC simulation.
Thrust calculation of electric solar wind sail by particle-in-cell simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoshi, Kento; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Muranaka, Takanobu
2016-01-01
In this study, thrust characteristics of an electric solar wind sail were numerically evaluated using full threedimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The thrust obtained from the PIC simulation was lower than the thrust estimations obtained in previous studies. The PIC simulation indicated that ambient electrons strongly shield the electrostatic potential of the tether of the sail, and the strong shield effect causes a greater thrust reduction than has been obtained in previous studies. Additionally, previous expressions of the thrust estimation were modified by using the shielded potential structure derived from the present simulation results. The modified thrust estimation agreed very well with the thrust obtained from the PIC simulation.
The common component architecture for particle accelerator simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dechow, D.R.; Norris, B.; Amundson, J.
2007-01-01
Synergia2 is a beam dynamics modeling and simulation application for high-energy accelerators such as the Tevatron at Fermilab and the International Linear Collider, which is now under planning and development. Synergia2 is a hybrid, multilanguage software package comprised of two separate accelerator physics packages (Synergia and MaryLie/Impact) and one high-performance computer science package (PETSc). We describe our approach to producing a set of beam dynamics-specific software components based on the Common Component Architecture specification. Among other topics, we describe particular experiences with the following tasks: using Python steering to guide the creation of interfaces and to prototype components; working with legacy Fortran codes; and an example component-based, beam dynamics simulation.
Particle simulation on a distributed memory highly parallel processor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Hiroyuki; Ikesaka, Morio
1990-01-01
This paper describes parallel molecular dynamics simulation of atoms governed by local force interaction. The space in the model is divided into cubic subspaces and mapped to the processor array of the CAP-256, a distributed memory, highly parallel processor developed at Fujitsu Labs. We developed a new technique to avoid redundant calculation of forces between atoms in different processors. Experiments showed the communication overhead was less than 5%, and the idle time due to load imbalance was less than 11% for two model problems which contain 11,532 and 46,128 argon atoms. From the software simulation, the CAP-II which is under development is estimated to be about 45 times faster than CAP-256 and will be able to run the same problem about 40 times faster than Fujitsu's M-380 mainframe when 256 processors are used. (author)
Large-eddy simulation of heavy particle dispersion in wall-bounded turbulent flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salvetti, M.V. [DICI, University of Pisa, I-56122 Pisa (Italy)
2015-03-10
Capabilities and accuracy issues in Lagrangian tracking of heavy particles in velocity fields obtained from large-eddy simulations (LES) of wall-bounded turbulent flows are reviewed. In particular, it is shown that, if no subgrid scale (SGS) model is added to the particle motion equations, particle preferential concentration and near-wall accumulation are significantly underestimated. Results obtained with SGS modeling for the particle motion equations based on approximate deconvolution are briefly recalled. Then, the error purely due to filtering in particle tracking in LES flow fields is singled out and analyzed. The statistical properties of filtering errors are characterized in turbulent channel flow both from an Eulerian and a Lagrangian viewpoint. Implications for stochastic SGS modeling in particle motion equations are briefly outlined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yue Liyang; Wang Zengbo; Li Lin
2012-01-01
Light could interact differently with thin-film contaminants and particle contaminates because of their different surface morphologies. In the case of dry laser cleaning of small transparent particles, it is well known that particles could function like mini-lenses, causing a localized near-field hot spot effect on the cleaning process. This paper looks into a special, yet important, phenomenon of dry laser cleaning of particles trapped in micro-sized slots. The effects of slot size, particle size and particle aggregate states in the cleaning process have been theoretically investigated, based on a coupled electromagnetic-thermal-mechanical multiphysics modelling and simulation approach. The study is important for the development and optimization of laser cleaning processes for contamination removal from cracks and slots. (paper)
FDTD simulations of forces on particles during holographic assembly.
Benito, David C; Simpson, Stephen H; Hanna, Simon
2008-03-03
We present finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the forces and torques on dielectric particles of various shapes, held in one or many Gaussian optical traps, as part of a study of the physical limitations involved in the construction of micro- and nanostructures using a dynamic holographic assembler (DHA). We employ a full 3-dimensional FDTD implementation, which includes a complete treatment of optical anisotropy. The Gaussian beams are sourced using a multipole expansion of a fifth order Davis beam. Force and torques are calculated for pairs of silica spheres in adjacent traps, for silica cylinders trapped by multiple beams and for oblate silica spheroids and calcite spheres in both linearly and circularly polarized beams. Comparisons are drawn between the magnitudes of the optical forces and the Van der Waals forces acting on the systems. The paper also considers the limitations of the FDTD approach when applied to optical trapping.
Waves and particles in the Fermi accelerator model. Numerical simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meplan, O.
1996-01-01
This thesis is devoted to a numerical study of the quantum dynamics of the Fermi accelerator which is classically chaotic: it is particle in a one dimensional box with a oscillating wall. First, we study the classical dynamics: we show that the time of impact of the particle with the moving wall and its energy in the wall frame are conjugated variables and that Poincare surface of sections in these variables are more understandable than the usual stroboscopic sections. Then, the quantum dynamics of this systems is studied by the means of two numerical methods. The first one is a generalization of the KKR method in the space-time; it is enough to solve an integral equation on the boundary of a space-time billiard. The second method is faster and is based on successive free propagations and kicks of potential. This allows us to obtain Floquet states which we can on one hand, compare to the classical dynamics with the help of Husimi distributions and on the other hand, study as a function of parameters of the system. This study leads us to nice illustrations of phenomenons such as spatial localizations of a wave packet in a vibrating well or tunnel effects. In the adiabatic situation, we give a formula for quasi-energies which exhibits a phase term independent of states. In this regime, there exist some particular situations where the quasi-energy spectrum presents a total quasi-degeneracy. Then, the wave packet energy can increase significantly. This phenomenon is quite surprising for smooth motion of the wall. The third part deals with the evolution of a classical wave in the Fermi accelerator. Using generalized KKR method, we show a surprising phenomenon: in most of situations (so long as the wall motion is periodic), a wave is localized exponentially in the well and its energy increases in a geometric way. (author). 107 refs., 66 figs., 5 tabs. 2 appends
Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.
2011-01-01
Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.
Maity, Srimanta; Das, Amita; Kumar, Sandeep; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar
2018-04-01
The collective response of the plasma medium is well known and has been explored extensively in the context of dusty plasma medium. On the other hand, the individual particle response associated with the collisional character giving rise to the dissipative phenomena has not been explored adequately. In this paper, two-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation of dust particles interacting via Yukawa potential has been considered. It has been shown that disturbances induced in a dust crystal elicit both collective and single particle responses. Generation of a few particles moving at speeds considerably higher than acoustic and/or shock speed (excited by the external disturbance) is observed. This is an indication of a single particle response. Furthermore, as these individual energetic particles propagate, the dust crystal is observed to crack along their path. Initially when the energy is high, these particles generate secondary energetic particles by the collisional scattering process. However, ultimately as these particles slow down they excite a collective response in the dust medium at secondary locations in a region which is undisturbed by the primary external disturbance. The condition when the cracking of the crystal stops and collective excitations get initiated has been identified quantitatively. The trailing collective primary disturbances would thus often encounter a disturbed medium with secondary and tertiary collective perturbations, thereby suffering significant modification in its propagation. It is thus clear that there is an interesting interplay (other than mere dissipation) between the single particle and collective response which governs the dynamics of any disturbance introduced in the medium.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen
2012-01-01
Steam reforming of hydrocarbons using a catalytic plate-type-heat-exchanger (CPHE) reformer is an attractive method of producing hydrogen for a fuel cell-based micro combined-heat-and-power system. In this study the flow distribution in a CPHE reformer, which uses a coated wire-mesh catalyst...
Martinez, R C; Roshchenko, A; Minev, P; Finlay, W H
2013-02-01
Aerosolized chemotherapy has been recognized as a potential treatment for lung cancer. The challenge of providing sufficient therapeutic effects without reaching dose-limiting toxicity levels hinders the development of aerosolized chemotherapy. This could be mitigated by increasing drug-delivery efficiency with a noninvasive drug-targeting delivery method. The purpose of this study is to use direct numerical simulations to study the resulting local enhancement of deposition due to magnetic field alignment of high aspect ratio particles. High aspect ratio particles were approximated by a rigid ellipsoid with a minor diameter of 0.5 μm and fluid particle density ratio of 1,000. Particle trajectories were calculated by solving the coupled fluid particle equations using an in-house micro-macro grid finite element algorithm based on a previously developed fictitious domain approach. Particle trajectories were simulated in a morphologically realistic geometry modeling a symmetrical terminal bronchiole bifurcation. Flow conditions were steady inspiratory air flow due to typical breathing at 18 L/min. Deposition efficiency was estimated for two different cases: [1] particles aligned with the streamlines and [2] particles with fixed angular orientation simulating the magnetic field alignment of our previous in vitro study. The local enhancement factor defined as the ratio between deposition efficiency of Case [1] and Case [2] was found to be 1.43 and 3.46 for particles with an aspect ratio of 6 and 20, respectively. Results indicate that externally forcing local alignment of high aspect ratio particles can increase local deposition considerably.
Parallel-vector algorithms for particle simulations on shared-memory multiprocessors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishiura, Daisuke; Sakaguchi, Hide
2011-01-01
Over the last few decades, the computational demands of massive particle-based simulations for both scientific and industrial purposes have been continuously increasing. Hence, considerable efforts are being made to develop parallel computing techniques on various platforms. In such simulations, particles freely move within a given space, and so on a distributed-memory system, load balancing, i.e., assigning an equal number of particles to each processor, is not guaranteed. However, shared-memory systems achieve better load balancing for particle models, but suffer from the intrinsic drawback of memory access competition, particularly during (1) paring of contact candidates from among neighboring particles and (2) force summation for each particle. Here, novel algorithms are proposed to overcome these two problems. For the first problem, the key is a pre-conditioning process during which particle labels are sorted by a cell label in the domain to which the particles belong. Then, a list of contact candidates is constructed by pairing the sorted particle labels. For the latter problem, a table comprising the list indexes of the contact candidate pairs is created and used to sum the contact forces acting on each particle for all contacts according to Newton's third law. With just these methods, memory access competition is avoided without additional redundant procedures. The parallel efficiency and compatibility of these two algorithms were evaluated in discrete element method (DEM) simulations on four types of shared-memory parallel computers: a multicore multiprocessor computer, scalar supercomputer, vector supercomputer, and graphics processing unit. The computational efficiency of a DEM code was found to be drastically improved with our algorithms on all but the scalar supercomputer. Thus, the developed parallel algorithms are useful on shared-memory parallel computers with sufficient memory bandwidth.
Dissolution of uranium and plutonium particles: simulations using the Mercer equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.
1983-10-01
There is a need to be able to predict the amount of plutonium that will be in solution at a given time from dissolution of particles in order to better predict the environmental behavior and possible adverse effects of plutonium spills. The equation developed by Mercer (1967) to simulate the dissolution of particles in lungs was parameterized and used to simulate the dissolution of a population of plutonium or uranium particles in the soil. Parameter values for the size distribution of particles in soil, and the density of the particles were found; however, values for the shape factors, and the dissolution rate were virtually non-existent. The calculated mass dissolved was most sensitive to the median diameter of the population of particles and least sensitive to the geometric standard deviation. A given percent change in the shape parameter and the dissolution rate resulted in approximately an equal percent change in the mass dissolved. Provided that the population of particles follows a log-normal distribution, the particles are homogeneous in composition and the dissolution can be represented by first-order kinetics, this equation can probably be applied with slight modification to estimate the mass dissolved at a given time. 66 references, 7 figures, 4 tables
Simulation and scaling analysis of a spherical particle-laden blast wave
Ling, Y.; Balachandar, S.
2018-05-01
A spherical particle-laden blast wave, generated by a sudden release of a sphere of compressed gas-particle mixture, is investigated by numerical simulation. The present problem is a multiphase extension of the classic finite-source spherical blast-wave problem. The gas-particle flow can be fully determined by the initial radius of the spherical mixture and the properties of gas and particles. In many applications, the key dimensionless parameters, such as the initial pressure and density ratios between the compressed gas and the ambient air, can vary over a wide range. Parametric studies are thus performed to investigate the effects of these parameters on the characteristic time and spatial scales of the particle-laden blast wave, such as the maximum radius the contact discontinuity can reach and the time when the particle front crosses the contact discontinuity. A scaling analysis is conducted to establish a scaling relation between the characteristic scales and the controlling parameters. A length scale that incorporates the initial pressure ratio is proposed, which is able to approximately collapse the simulation results for the gas flow for a wide range of initial pressure ratios. This indicates that an approximate similarity solution for a spherical blast wave exists, which is independent of the initial pressure ratio. The approximate scaling is also valid for the particle front if the particles are small and closely follow the surrounding gas.
Simulation and scaling analysis of a spherical particle-laden blast wave
Ling, Y.; Balachandar, S.
2018-02-01
A spherical particle-laden blast wave, generated by a sudden release of a sphere of compressed gas-particle mixture, is investigated by numerical simulation. The present problem is a multiphase extension of the classic finite-source spherical blast-wave problem. The gas-particle flow can be fully determined by the initial radius of the spherical mixture and the properties of gas and particles. In many applications, the key dimensionless parameters, such as the initial pressure and density ratios between the compressed gas and the ambient air, can vary over a wide range. Parametric studies are thus performed to investigate the effects of these parameters on the characteristic time and spatial scales of the particle-laden blast wave, such as the maximum radius the contact discontinuity can reach and the time when the particle front crosses the contact discontinuity. A scaling analysis is conducted to establish a scaling relation between the characteristic scales and the controlling parameters. A length scale that incorporates the initial pressure ratio is proposed, which is able to approximately collapse the simulation results for the gas flow for a wide range of initial pressure ratios. This indicates that an approximate similarity solution for a spherical blast wave exists, which is independent of the initial pressure ratio. The approximate scaling is also valid for the particle front if the particles are small and closely follow the surrounding gas.
Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa
2014-07-01
The current study developed a coupled computational model to simulate the transient fluid flow, solidification, and particle transport processes in a slab continuous-casting mold. Transient flow of molten steel in the mold is calculated using the large eddy simulation. An enthalpy-porosity approach is used for the analysis of solidification processes. The transport of bubble and non-metallic inclusion inside the liquid pool is calculated using the Lagrangian approach based on the transient flow field. A criterion of particle entrapment in the solidified shell is developed using the user-defined functions of FLUENT software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The predicted results of this model are compared with the measurements of the ultrasonic testing of the rolled steel plates and the water model experiments. The transient asymmetrical flow pattern inside the liquid pool exhibits quite satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements. The predicted complex instantaneous velocity field is composed of various small recirculation zones and multiple vortices. The transport of particles inside the liquid pool and the entrapment of particles in the solidified shell are not symmetric. The Magnus force can reduce the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell, especially for smaller particles, but the effect is not obvious. The Marangoni force can play an important role in controlling the motion of particles, which increases the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell obviously.
WHIZARD. Simulating multi-particle processes at LHC and ILC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilian, Wolfgang; Ohl, Thorsten; Reuter, Juergen; Edinburgh Univ.; Freiburg Univ.
2011-11-01
We describe the universal Monte-Carlo (parton-level) event generator WHIZARD, version 2. The program automatically computes complete tree-level matrix elements, integrates them over phase space, evaluates distributions of observables, and generates unweighted partonic event samples. These are showered and hadronized by calling external codes, either automatically from within the program or via standard interfaces. There is no conceptual limit on the process complexity; using current hardware, the program has successfully been applied to hard scattering processes with up to eight particles in the final state. Matrix elements are computed as helicity amplitudes, so spin and color correlations are retained. For event generation, processes can be concatenated with full spin correlation, so factorized approximations to cascade decays are possible when complete matrix elements are not desired. The Standard Model, the MSSM, and many alternative models such as Little Higgs, anomalous couplings, or effects of extra dimensions or noncommutative SM extensions have been implemented. Using standard interfaces to parton shower and hadronization programs, WHIZARD covers physics at hadron, lepton, and photon colliders. (orig.)
Nonlinear simulations of particle source effects on edge localized mode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, J.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, S. Y., E-mail: sychen531@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)
2015-12-15
The effects of particle source (PS) with different intensities and located positions on Edge Localized Mode (ELM) are systematically studied with BOUT++ code. The results show the ELM size strongly decreases with increasing the PS intensity once the PS is located in the middle or bottom of the pedestal. The effects of PS on ELM depend on the located position of PS. When it is located at the top of the pedestal, peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes can extract more free energy from the pressure gradient and grow up to be a large filament at the initial crash phase and the broadening of mode spectrum can be suppressed by PS, which leads to more energy loss. When it is located in the middle or bottom of the pedestal, the extraction of free energy by P-B modes can be suppressed, and a small filament is generated. During the turbulence transport phase, the broader mode spectrum suppresses the turbulence transport when PS is located in the middle, while the zonal flow plays an important role in damping the turbulence transport when PS is located at the bottom.
WHIZARD. Simulating multi-particle processes at LHC and ILC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kilian, Wolfgang [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Theoretische Physik I; Ohl, Thorsten [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik; Reuter, Juergen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.
2011-11-15
We describe the universal Monte-Carlo (parton-level) event generator WHIZARD, version 2. The program automatically computes complete tree-level matrix elements, integrates them over phase space, evaluates distributions of observables, and generates unweighted partonic event samples. These are showered and hadronized by calling external codes, either automatically from within the program or via standard interfaces. There is no conceptual limit on the process complexity; using current hardware, the program has successfully been applied to hard scattering processes with up to eight particles in the final state. Matrix elements are computed as helicity amplitudes, so spin and color correlations are retained. For event generation, processes can be concatenated with full spin correlation, so factorized approximations to cascade decays are possible when complete matrix elements are not desired. The Standard Model, the MSSM, and many alternative models such as Little Higgs, anomalous couplings, or effects of extra dimensions or noncommutative SM extensions have been implemented. Using standard interfaces to parton shower and hadronization programs, WHIZARD covers physics at hadron, lepton, and photon colliders. (orig.)
A general concurrent algorithm for plasma particle-in-cell simulation codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liewer, P.C.; Decyk, V.K.
1989-01-01
We have developed a new algorithm for implementing plasma particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation codes on concurrent processors with distributed memory. This algorithm, named the general concurrent PIC algorithm (GCPIC), has been used to implement an electrostatic PIC code on the 33-node JPL Mark III Hypercube parallel computer. To decompose at PIC code using the GCPIC algorithm, the physical domain of the particle simulation is divided into sub-domains, equal in number to the number of processors, such that all sub-domains have roughly equal numbers of particles. For problems with non-uniform particle densities, these sub-domains will be of unequal physical size. Each processor is assigned a sub-domain and is responsible for updating the particles in its sub-domain. This algorithm has led to a a very efficient parallel implementation of a well-benchmarked 1-dimensional PIC code. The dominant portion of the code, updating the particle positions and velocities, is nearly 100% efficient when the number of particles is increased linearly with the number of hypercube processors used so that the number of particles per processor is constant. For example, the increase in time spent updating particles in going from a problem with 11,264 particles run on 1 processor to 360,448 particles on 32 processors was only 3% (parallel efficiency of 97%). Although implemented on a hypercube concurrent computer, this algorithm should also be efficient for PIC codes on other parallel architectures and for large PIC codes on sequential computers where part of the data must reside on external disks. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc
Simulation of Particle Fluxes at the DESY-II Test Beam Facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuetz, Anne
2015-05-01
In the course of this Master's thesis ''Simulation of Particle Fluxes at the DESY-II Test Beam Facility'' the test beam generation for the DESY test beam line was studied in detail and simulated with the simulation software SLIC. SLIC uses the Geant4 toolkit for realistic Monte Carlo simulations of particles passing through detector material.After discussing the physics processes relevant for the test beam generation and the principles of the beam generation itself, the software used is introduced together with a description of the functionality of the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation of the test beam line follows the sequence of the test beam generation. Therefore, it starts with the simulation of the beam bunch of the synchrotron accelerator DESY-II, and proceeds step by step with the single test beam line components. An additional benefit of this thesis is the provision of particle flux and trajectory maps, which make fluxes directly visible by following the particle tracks through the simulated beam line. These maps allow us to see each of the test beam line components, because flux rates and directions change rapidly at these points. They will also guide the decision for placements of future test beam line components and measurement equipment.In the end, the beam energy and its spread, and the beam rate of the final test beam in the test beam area were studied in the simulation, so that the results can be compared to the measured beam parameters. The test beam simulation of this Master's thesis will serve as a key input for future test beam line improvements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yi; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei; Xu, Ben; Hu, Shenyang; Li, Yulan
2015-01-01
The magnetic hysteresis loops and Barkhausen noise of a single α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated to investigate into the magnetic hardening due to Cu-rich precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Phase field method basing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is used for this simulation. The results show that the presence of the nonmagnetic particle could result in magnetic hardening by making the nucleation of reversed domains difficult. The coercive field is found to increase, while the intensity of Barkhausen noise voltage is decreased when the nonmagnetic particle is introduced. Simulations demonstrate the impact of nucleation field of reversed domains on the magnetization reversal behavior and the magnetic properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ColIn, Pedro; Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Valenzuela, Octavio; Ceverino, Daniel
2010-01-01
We present numerical simulations aimed at exploring the effects of varying the sub-grid physics parameters on the evolution and the properties of the galaxy formed in a low-mass dark matter halo (∼7 x 10 10 h -1 M sun at redshift z = 0). The simulations are run within a cosmological setting with a nominal resolution of 218 pc comoving and are stopped at z = 0.43. For simulations that cannot resolve individual molecular clouds, we propose the criterion that the threshold density for star formation, n SF , should be chosen such that the column density of the star-forming cells equals the threshold value for molecule formation, N ∼ 10 21 cm -2 , or ∼8 M sun pc -2 . In all of our simulations, an extended old/intermediate-age stellar halo and a more compact younger stellar disk are formed, and in most cases, the halo's specific angular momentum is slightly larger than that of the galaxy, and sensitive to the SF/feedback parameters. We found that a non-negligible fraction of the halo stars are formed in situ in a spheroidal distribution. Changes in the sub-grid physics parameters affect significantly and in a complex way the evolution and properties of the galaxy: (1) lower threshold densities n SF produce larger stellar effective radii R e , less peaked circular velocity curves V c (R), and greater amounts of low-density and hot gas in the disk mid-plane; (2) when stellar feedback is modeled by temporarily switching off radiative cooling in the star-forming regions, R e increases (by a factor of ∼2 in our particular model), the circular velocity curve becomes flatter, and a complex multi-phase gaseous disk structure develops; (3) a more efficient local conversion of gas mass to stars, measured by a stellar particle mass distribution biased toward larger values, increases the strength of the feedback energy injection-driving outflows and inducing burstier SF histories; (4) if feedback is too strong, gas loss by galactic outflows-which are easier to produce in low
Monte Carlo simulations of the particle transport in semiconductor detectors of fast neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedlačková, Katarína; Zaťko, Bohumír; Šagátová, Andrea; Nečas, Vladimír
2013-01-01
Several Monte Carlo all-particle transport codes are under active development around the world. In this paper we focused on the capabilities of the MCNPX code (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) to follow the particle transport in semiconductor detector of fast neutrons. Semiconductor detector based on semi-insulating GaAs was the object of our investigation. As converter material capable to produce charged particles from the (n, p) interaction, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was employed. As the source of fast neutrons, the 239 Pu–Be neutron source was used in the model. The simulations were performed using the MCNPX code which makes possible to track not only neutrons but also recoiled protons at all interesting energies. Hence, the MCNPX code enables seamless particle transport and no other computer program is needed to process the particle transport. The determination of the optimal thickness of the conversion layer and the minimum thickness of the active region of semiconductor detector as well as the energy spectra simulation were the principal goals of the computer modeling. Theoretical detector responses showed that the best detection efficiency can be achieved for 500 μm thick HDPE converter layer. The minimum detector active region thickness has been estimated to be about 400 μm. -- Highlights: ► Application of the MCNPX code for fast neutron detector design is demonstrated. ► Simulations of the particle transport through conversion film of HDPE are presented. ► Simulations of the particle transport through detector active region are presented. ► The optimal thickness of the HDPE conversion film has been calculated. ► Detection efficiency of 0.135% was reached for 500 μm thick HDPE conversion film
Nonlinear δf Simulation Studies of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Temperature Anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Qin, Hong
2002-01-01
In this paper, a 3-D nonlinear perturbative particle simulation code (BEST) [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson and W.W. Lee, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 3 (2000) 084401] is used to systematically study the stability properties of intense nonneutral charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy (T perpendicularb >> T parallelb ). The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure, and nonlinear dynamics are determined for axisymmetric perturbations with ∂/∂θ = 0
Predicting patchy particle crystals: variable box shape simulations and evolutionary algorithms.
Bianchi, Emanuela; Doppelbauer, Günther; Filion, Laura; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Kahl, Gerhard
2012-06-07
We consider several patchy particle models that have been proposed in literature and we investigate their candidate crystal structures in a systematic way. We compare two different algorithms for predicting crystal structures: (i) an approach based on Monte Carlo simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble and (ii) an optimization technique based on ideas of evolutionary algorithms. We show that the two methods are equally successful and provide consistent results on crystalline phases of patchy particle systems.
Baräo, Fernando; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Távora, Luis; Vaz, Pedro
2001-01-01
This book focusses on the state of the art of Monte Carlo methods in radiation physics and particle transport simulation and applications, the latter involving in particular, the use and development of electron--gamma, neutron--gamma and hadronic codes. Besides the basic theory and the methods employed, special attention is paid to algorithm development for modeling, and the analysis of experiments and measurements in a variety of fields ranging from particle to medical physics.
SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS FROM SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Linghua [Institute of Space Physics and Applied Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Gang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Shih, Albert Y. [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Lin, Robert P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F., E-mail: wanglhwang@gmail.com [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, University of Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)
2014-10-01
Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe the acceleration site of coronal-mass-ejection-driven (CME-driven) shock-accelerated solar energetic particles (SEPs). In gradual SEP events, energetic protons can charge exchange with the ambient solar wind or interstellar neutrals to become ENAs. Assuming a CME-driven shock with a constant speed of 1800 km s{sup –1} and compression ratio of 3.5, propagating from 1.5 to 40 R{sub S} , we calculate the accelerated SEPs at 5-5000 keV and the resulting ENAs via various charge-exchange interactions. Taking into account the ENA losses in the interplanetary medium, we obtain the flux-time profiles of these solar ENAs reaching 1 AU. We find that the arriving ENAs at energies above ∼100 keV show a sharply peaked flux-time profile, mainly originating from the shock source below 5 R{sub S} , whereas the ENAs below ∼20 keV have a flat-top time profile, mostly originating from the source beyond 10 R{sub S} . Assuming the accelerated protons are effectively trapped downstream of the shock, we can reproduce the STEREO ENA fluence observations at ∼2-5 MeV/nucleon. We also estimate the flux of ENAs coming from the charge exchange of energetic storm protons, accelerated by the fast CME-driven shock near 1 AU, with interstellar hydrogen and helium. Our results suggest that appropriate instrumentation would be able to detect ENAs from SEPs and to even make ENA images of SEPs at energies above ∼10-20 keV.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Visser, Andre
1997-01-01
Random walk simulation has the potential to be an extremely powerful tool in the investigation of turbulence in environmental processes. However, care must be taken in applying such simulations to the motion of particles in turbulent marine systems where turbulent diffusivity is commonly spatially...... are incorrect, and a simple technique that can properly simulate turbulent diffusion in the marine environment is discussed...... non-uniform. The problems associated with this nonuniformity are far from negligible and have been recognised for quite some time. However, incorrect implementations continue to appear in the Literature. In this note computer simulations are presented to illustrate how and why these implementations...
Bolhuis, Peter
Important reaction-diffusion processes, such as biochemical networks in living cells, or self-assembling soft matter, span many orders in length and time scales. In these systems, the reactants' spatial dynamics at mesoscopic length and time scales of microns and seconds is coupled to the reactions between the molecules at microscopic length and time scales of nanometers and milliseconds. This wide range of length and time scales makes these systems notoriously difficult to simulate. While mean-field rate equations cannot describe such processes, the mesoscopic Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (GFRD) method enables efficient simulation at the particle level provided the microscopic dynamics can be integrated out. Yet, many processes exhibit non-trivial microscopic dynamics that can qualitatively change the macroscopic behavior, calling for an atomistic, microscopic description. The recently developed multiscale Molecular Dynamics Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (MD-GFRD) approach combines GFRD for simulating the system at the mesocopic scale where particles are far apart, with microscopic Molecular (or Brownian) Dynamics, for simulating the system at the microscopic scale where reactants are in close proximity. The association and dissociation of particles are treated with rare event path sampling techniques. I will illustrate the efficiency of this method for patchy particle systems. Replacing the microscopic regime with a Markov State Model avoids the microscopic regime completely. The MSM is then pre-computed using advanced path-sampling techniques such as multistate transition interface sampling. I illustrate this approach on patchy particle systems that show multiple modes of binding. MD-GFRD is generic, and can be used to efficiently simulate reaction-diffusion systems at the particle level, including the orientational dynamics, opening up the possibility for large-scale simulations of e.g. protein signaling networks.
Predicting mesh density for adaptive modelling of the global atmosphere.
Weller, Hilary
2009-11-28
The shallow water equations are solved using a mesh of polygons on the sphere, which adapts infrequently to the predicted future solution. Infrequent mesh adaptation reduces the cost of adaptation and load-balancing and will thus allow for more accurate mapping on adaptation. We simulate the growth of a barotropically unstable jet adapting the mesh every 12 h. Using an adaptation criterion based largely on the gradient of the vorticity leads to a mesh with around 20 per cent of the cells of a uniform mesh that gives equivalent results. This is a similar proportion to previous studies of the same test case with mesh adaptation every 1-20 min. The prediction of the mesh density involves solving the shallow water equations on a coarse mesh in advance of the locally refined mesh in order to estimate where features requiring higher resolution will grow, decay or move to. The adaptation criterion consists of two parts: that resolved on the coarse mesh, and that which is not resolved and so is passively advected on the coarse mesh. This combination leads to a balance between resolving features controlled by the large-scale dynamics and maintaining fine-scale features.
Particle-in-Cell Laser-Plasma Simulation on Xeon Phi Coprocessors
Surmin, I. A.; Bastrakov, S. I.; Efimenko, E. S.; Gonoskov, A. A.; Korzhimanov, A. V.; Meyerov, I. B.
2015-01-01
This paper concerns development of a high-performance implementation of the Particle-in-Cell method for plasma simulation on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. We discuss suitability of the method for Xeon Phi architecture and present our experience of porting and optimization of the existing parallel Particle-in-Cell code PICADOR. Direct porting with no code modification gives performance on Xeon Phi close to 8-core CPU on a benchmark problem with 50 particles per cell. We demonstrate step-by-step...
Particle-in-cell simulations on spontaneous thermal magnetic field fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simões, F. J. R. Jr.; Pavan, J. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Gaelzer, R.; Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2013-10-15
In this paper an electromagnetic particle code is used to investigate the spontaneous thermal emission. Specifically we perform particle-in-cell simulations employing a non-relativistic isotropic Maxwellian particle distribution to show that thermal fluctuations are related to the origin of spontaneous magnetic field fluctuation. These thermal fluctuations can become seed for further amplification mechanisms and thus be considered at the origin of the cosmological magnetic field, at microgauss levels. Our numerical results are in accordance with theoretical results presented in the literature.
Simulation of neutron transport process, photons and charged particles within the Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Androsenko, A.A.; Androsenko, P.A.; Artamonov, S.N.; Bolonkina, G.V.; Lomtev, V.L.; Pupko, S.V.
1991-01-01
Description is given to the program system BRAND designed for the accurate solution of non-stationary transport equation of neutrons, photons and charged particles in the conditions of real three-dimensional geometry. An extensive set of local and non-local estimates provides an opportunity of calculating a great set of linear functionals normally being of interest in the calculation of reactors, radiation protection and experiment simulation. The process of particle interaction with substance is simulated on the basis of individual non-group data on each isotope of the composition. 24 refs
Multi-grid Particle-in-cell Simulations of Plasma Microturbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, J.L.V.
2003-01-01
A new scheme to accurately retain kinetic electron effects in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the case of electrostatic drift waves is presented. The splitting scheme, which is based on exact separation between adiabatic and on adiabatic electron responses, is shown to yield more accurate linear growth rates than the standard df scheme. The linear and nonlinear elliptic problems that arise in the splitting scheme are solved using a multi-grid solver. The multi-grid particle-in-cell approach offers an attractive path, both from the physics and numerical points of view, to simulate kinetic electron dynamics in global toroidal plasmas
Global Hybrid Simulations of Energetic Particle-driven Modes in Toroidal Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, G.Y.; Breslau, J.; Fredrickson, E.; Park, W.; Strauss, H.R.
2004-01-01
Global hybrid simulations of energetic particle-driven MHD modes have been carried out for tokamaks and spherical tokamaks using the hybrid code M3D. The numerical results for the National Spherical Tokamak Experiments (NSTX) show that Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes are excited by beam ions with their frequencies consistent with the experimental observations. Nonlinear simulations indicate that the n=2 mode frequency chirps down as the mode moves out radially. For ITER, it is shown that the alpha-particle effects are strongly stabilizing for internal kink mode when central safety factor q(0) is sufficiently close to unity. However, the elongation of ITER plasma shape reduces the stabilization significantly
Particle-in-Cell Code BEAMPATH for Beam Dynamics Simulations in Linear Accelerators and Beamlines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batygin, Y.
2004-01-01
A code library BEAMPATH for 2 - dimensional and 3 - dimensional space charge dominated beam dynamics study in linear particle accelerators and beam transport lines is developed. The program is used for particle-in-cell simulation of axial-symmetric, quadrupole-symmetric and z-uniform beams in a channel containing RF gaps, radio-frequency quadrupoles, multipole lenses, solenoids and bending magnets. The programming method includes hierarchical program design using program-independent modules and a flexible combination of modules to provide the most effective version of the structure for every specific case of simulation. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented
Initial particle loadings for a nonuniform simulation plasma in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitou, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo; Tokuda, Sinji.
1978-09-01
Improved methods for initially loading particles in a magnetized simulation plasma with nonuniform density and temperature distributions are proposed. In the usual guiding center loading (GCL), a charge separation coming from finite Larmor radius effects remains due to the difference between the guiding center density and the actual density. The modified guiding center loading (MGCL) presented here eliminates the electric field so generated and can be used for arbitrary density and temperature profiles. Some applications of these methods to actual simulations are given for comparison. The significance of these methods of initial particle loadings is also discussed. (author)
Particle-in-Cell Code BEAMPATH for Beam Dynamics Simulations in Linear Accelerators and Beamlines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batygin, Y.
2004-10-28
A code library BEAMPATH for 2 - dimensional and 3 - dimensional space charge dominated beam dynamics study in linear particle accelerators and beam transport lines is developed. The program is used for particle-in-cell simulation of axial-symmetric, quadrupole-symmetric and z-uniform beams in a channel containing RF gaps, radio-frequency quadrupoles, multipole lenses, solenoids and bending magnets. The programming method includes hierarchical program design using program-independent modules and a flexible combination of modules to provide the most effective version of the structure for every specific case of simulation. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingnian Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic calculation plays an important role in both military and civic fields. Some methods and models proposed for calculation of electromagnetic wave propagation in a large range bring heavy burden in CPU computation and also require huge amount of memory. Using the GPU to accelerate computation and visualization can reduce the computational burden on the CPU. Based on forward ray-tracing method, a transmission particle model (TPM for calculating electromagnetic field is presented to combine the particle method. The movement of a particle obeys the principle of the propagation of electromagnetic wave, and then the particle distribution density in space reflects the electromagnetic distribution status. The algorithm with particle transmission, movement, reflection, and diffraction is described in detail. Since the particles in TPM are completely independent, it is very suitable for the parallel computing based on GPU. Deduction verification of TPM with the electric dipole antenna as the transmission source is conducted to prove that the particle movement itself represents the variation of electromagnetic field intensity caused by diffusion. Finally, the simulation comparisons are made against the forward and backward ray-tracing methods. The simulation results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Scaling Properties of Particle Density Fields Formed in Simulated Turbulent Flows
Hogan, Robert C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of particle concentrations in fully developed 3D turbulence were carried out in order to study the nonuniform structure of the particle density field. Three steady-state turbulent fluid fields with Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers (Re(sub lambda)) of 40, 80 and 140 were generated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with pseudospectral methods. Large scale forcing was used to drive the turbulence and maintain temporal stationarity. The response of the particles to the fluid was parameterized by the particle Stokes number St, defined as the ratio of the particle's stopping time to the mean period of eddies on the Kolmogorov scale (eta). In this paper, we consider only passive particles optimally coupled to these eddies (St approx. = 1) because of their tendency to concentrate more than particles with lesser or greater St values. The trajectories of up to 70 million particles were tracked in the equilibrated turbulent flows until the particle concentration field reached a statistically stationary state. The nonuniform structure of the concentration fields was characterized by the multifractal singularity spectrum, f(alpha), derived from measures obtained after binning particles into cells ranging from 2(eta) to 15(eta) in size. We observed strong systematic variations of f(alpha) across this scale range in all three simulations and conclude that the particle concentration field is not statistically self similar across the scale range explored. However, spectra obtained at the 2(eta), 4(eta), and 8(eta) scales of each flow case were found to be qualitatively similar. This result suggests that the local structure of the particle concentration field may be flow-Independent. The singularity spectra found for 2n-sized cells were used to predict concentration distributions in good agreement with those obtained directly from the particle data. This Singularity spectrum has a shape similar to the analogous spectrum derived for the
Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.
2011-09-21
The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.
Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.
2011-01-01
The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.
Particle-in-cell simulations of plasma accelerators and electron-neutral collisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David L. Bruhwiler
2001-10-01
Full Text Available We present 2D simulations of both beam-driven and laser-driven plasma wakefield accelerators, using the object-oriented particle-in-cell code XOOPIC, which is time explicit, fully electromagnetic, and capable of running on massively parallel supercomputers. Simulations of laser-driven wakefields with low \\(∼10^{16} W/cm^{2}\\ and high \\(∼10^{18} W/cm^{2}\\ peak intensity laser pulses are conducted in slab geometry, showing agreement with theory and fluid simulations. Simulations of the E-157 beam wakefield experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, in which a 30 GeV electron beam passes through 1 m of preionized lithium plasma, are conducted in cylindrical geometry, obtaining good agreement with previous work. We briefly describe some of the more significant modifications to XOOPIC required by this work, and summarize the issues relevant to modeling relativistic electron-neutral collisions in a particle-in-cell code.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-12, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Wang, Yue; Qiao, Hailiang; Zhang, Dianhui [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-12, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Guo, Weijie [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)
2013-11-15
Optimal design method of high-power microwave source using particle simulation and parallel genetic algorithms is presented in this paper. The output power, simulated by the fully electromagnetic particle simulation code UNIPIC, of the high-power microwave device is given as the fitness function, and the float-encoding genetic algorithms are used to optimize the high-power microwave devices. Using this method, we encode the heights of non-uniform slow wave structure in the relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWO), and optimize the parameters on massively parallel processors. Simulation results demonstrate that we can obtain the optimal parameters of non-uniform slow wave structure in the RBWO, and the output microwave power enhances 52.6% after the device is optimized.
Realistic simulations of a cyclotron spiral inflector within a particle-in-cell framework
Winklehner, Daniel; Adelmann, Andreas; Gsell, Achim; Kaman, Tulin; Campo, Daniela
2017-12-01
We present an upgrade to the particle-in-cell ion beam simulation code opal that enables us to run highly realistic simulations of the spiral inflector system of a compact cyclotron. This upgrade includes a new geometry class and field solver that can handle the complicated boundary conditions posed by the electrode system in the central region of the cyclotron both in terms of particle termination, and calculation of self-fields. Results are benchmarked against the analytical solution of a coasting beam. As a practical example, the spiral inflector and the first revolution in a 1 MeV /amu test cyclotron, located at Best Cyclotron Systems, Inc., are modeled and compared to the simulation results. We find that opal can now handle arbitrary boundary geometries with relative ease. Simulated injection efficiencies and beam shape compare well with measured efficiencies and a preliminary measurement of the beam distribution after injection.
Fortran interface layer of the framework for developing particle simulator FDPS
Namekata, Daisuke; Iwasawa, Masaki; Nitadori, Keigo; Tanikawa, Ataru; Muranushi, Takayuki; Wang, Long; Hosono, Natsuki; Nomura, Kentaro; Makino, Junichiro
2018-06-01
Numerical simulations based on particle methods have been widely used in various fields including astrophysics. To date, various versions of simulation software have been developed by individual researchers or research groups in each field, through a huge amount of time and effort, even though the numerical algorithms used are very similar. To improve the situation, we have developed a framework, called FDPS (Framework for Developing Particle Simulators), which enables researchers to develop massively parallel particle simulation codes for arbitrary particle methods easily. Until version 3.0, FDPS provided an API (application programming interface) for the C++ programming language only. This limitation comes from the fact that FDPS is developed using the template feature in C++, which is essential to support arbitrary data types of particle. However, there are many researchers who use Fortran to develop their codes. Thus, the previous versions of FDPS require such people to invest much time to learn C++. This is inefficient. To cope with this problem, we developed a Fortran interface layer in FDPS, which provides API for Fortran. In order to support arbitrary data types of particle in Fortran, we design the Fortran interface layer as follows. Based on a given derived data type in Fortran representing particle, a PYTHON script provided by us automatically generates a library that manipulates the C++ core part of FDPS. This library is seen as a Fortran module providing an API of FDPS from the Fortran side and uses C programs internally to interoperate Fortran with C++. In this way, we have overcome several technical issues when emulating a `template' in Fortran. Using the Fortran interface, users can develop all parts of their codes in Fortran. We show that the overhead of the Fortran interface part is sufficiently small and a code written in Fortran shows a performance practically identical to the one written in C++.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Song Hi
2010-01-01
We presented a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of friction behavior between two very massive Brownian particles (BPs) oriented along the z axis with BP centers at -R 12 /2 and R 12 /2 in a Lennard-Jones solvent as a function of the inter-particle separation, R 12 . In order to fix the BPs in space an MD simulation method with the mass of the BP as 10 90 g/mol was employed in which the total momentum of the system was conserved. The cross friction coefficients of x- and y-components are nearly insensitive to R 12 but that of z-component varies with R 12 in good accord with the simple hydrodynamic approximation. On the other hand, the self-friction coefficients are estimated as a very small difference from the single particle friction coefficients, ξ 0 , at all inter-particle separations which agrees with the simple hydrodynamic approximation. Consequently ξ (-) xx is nearly independent of R 12 and equal to its asymptotic value of twice the single particle friction coefficient, and the other relative friction, ξ (-) zz , is in good agreement with the simple hydrodynamic approximation. Molecular theory of Brownian motion of a single heavy particle in a fluid had received a considerable attention in earlier years. After molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique was utilized, this subject has been widely studied by a variety of MD simulation methods. The common issues here were about the long time behavior of the force and velocity autocorrelation functions, the system size dependent friction coefficient of a massive Brownian particle, and test of the Stokes-Einstein law
Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification
Bonito, A.
2010-01-01
A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Artificial cooling due to quiet injection in bounded plasma particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, W.S.
1988-01-01
An explanation is proposed for an artificial cooling effect seen in electrostatic particle-in-cell plasma simulations. The effect hinges on heat transport from the trapped electrons to fluctuations of the electric field, which are kept at a sub-thermal level through the continuous ''quiet'' injection of passing electrons. Further simulations are done which test and support the explanation. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc
Influence of lubrication forces in direct numerical simulations of particle-laden flows
Maitri, Rohit; Peters, Frank; Padding, Johan; Kuipers, Hans
2016-11-01
Accurate numerical representation of particle-laden flows is important for fundamental understanding and optimizing the complex processes such as proppant transport in fracking. Liquid-solid flows are fundamentally different from gas-solid flows because of lower density ratios (solid to fluid) and non-negligible lubrication forces. In this interface resolved model, fluid-solid coupling is achieved by incorporating the no-slip boundary condition implicitly at particle's surfaces by means of an efficient second order ghost-cell immersed boundary method. A fixed Eulerian grid is used for solving the Navier-Stokes equations and the particle-particle interactions are implemented using the soft sphere collision and sub-grid scale lubrication model. Due to the range of influence of lubrication force on a smaller scale than the grid size, it is important to implement the lubrication model accurately. In this work, different implementations of the lubrication model on particle dynamics are studied for various flow conditions. The effect of a particle surface roughness on lubrication force and the particle transport is also investigated. This study is aimed at developing a validated methodology to incorporate lubrication models in direct numerical simulation of particle laden flows. This research is supported from Grant 13CSER014 of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).
Analytical solutions and particle simulations of cross-field plasma sheaths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerver, M.J.; Parker, S.E.; Theilhaber, K.
1989-01-01
Particles simulations have been made of an infinite plasma slab, bounded by absorbing conducting walls, with a magnetic field parallel to the walls. The simulations have been either 1-D, or 2-D, with the magnetic field normal to the simulation plane. Initially, the plasma has a uniform density between the walls, and there is a uniform source of ions and electrons to replace particles lost to the walls. In the 1-D case, there is no diffusion of the particle guiding centers, and the plasma remains uniform in density and potential over most of the slab, with sheaths about a Debye length wide where the potential rises to the wall potential. In the 2-D case, the density profile becomes parabolic, going almost to zero at the walls, and there is a quasineutral presheath in the bulk of the plasma, in addition to sheaths near the walls. Analytic expressions are found for the density and potential profiles in both cases, including, in the 2-D case, the magnetic presheath due to finite ion Larmor radius, and the effects of the guiding center diffusion rate being either much less than or much grater than the energy diffusion rate. These analytic expressions are shown to agree with the simulations. A 1-D simulation with Monte Carlo guiding center diffusion included gives results that are good agreement with the much more expensive 2-D simulation. 17 refs., 10 figs
Simulating variable source problems via post processing of individual particle tallies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bleuel, D.L.; Donahue, R.J.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Vujic, J.
2000-01-01
Monte Carlo is an extremely powerful method of simulating complex, three dimensional environments without excessive problem simplification. However, it is often time consuming to simulate models in which the source can be highly varied. Similarly difficult are optimization studies involving sources in which many input parameters are variable, such as particle energy, angle, and spatial distribution. Such studies are often approached using brute force methods or intelligent guesswork. One field in which these problems are often encountered is accelerator-driven Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of cancers. Solving the reverse problem of determining the best neutron source for optimal BNCT treatment can be accomplished by separating the time-consuming particle-tracking process of a full Monte Carlo simulation from the calculation of the source weighting factors which is typically performed at the beginning of a Monte Carlo simulation. By post-processing these weighting factors on a recorded file of individual particle tally information, the effect of changing source variables can be realized in a matter of seconds, instead of requiring hours or days for additional complete simulations. By intelligent source biasing, any number of different source distributions can be calculated quickly from a single Monte Carlo simulation. The source description can be treated as variable and the effect of changing multiple interdependent source variables on the problem's solution can be determined. Though the focus of this study is on BNCT applications, this procedure may be applicable to any problem that involves a variable source