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Sample records for particle localization accuracy

  1. Localization of relativistic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1997-01-01

    In order to discuss localization experiments and also to extend the consistent history interpretation of quantum mechanics to relativistic properties, the techniques introduced in a previous paper [J. Math. Phys. 38, 697 (1997)] are applied to the localization of a photon in a given region of space. An essential requirement is to exclude arbitrarily large wavelengths. The method is valid for a particle with any mass and spin. Though there is no proper position operator for a photon, one never needs one in practice. Causality is valid up to exponentially small corrections. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Particle localization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemand, R.

    1976-01-01

    A proportional detector for the localization of particles comprises a leak-tight chamber filled with fluid and fitted with an electrode of a first type consisting of one or more conducting wires and with an electrode of a second type consisting of one or more conducting plates having the shape of a portion of cylindrical surface and a contour which provides a one-to-one correspondence between the position of a point of the wires and the solid angle which subtends the plate at that point, means being provided for collecting the electrical signal which appears on the plates. 12 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures

  3. Accuracy of colonoscopy in localizing colonic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, C; Trifan, Anca; Khder, Saad Alla

    2007-01-01

    It is important to establish the precise localization of colonic cancer preoperatively; while colonoscopy is regarded as the diagnostic gold standard for colorectal cancer, its ability to localize the tumor is less reliable. To define the accuracy of colonoscopy in identifying the location of colonic cancer. All of the patients who had a colorectal cancer diagnosed by colonoscopy at the Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Iaşi and subsequently received a surgical intervention at three teaching hospitals in Iaşi, between January 2001 and December 2005, were included in this study. Endoscopic records and operative notes were carefully reviewed, and tumor localization was recorded. There were 161 patients (89 men, 72 women, aged 61.3 +/- 12.8 years) who underwent conventional surgery for colon cancer detected by colonoscopy during the study period. Twenty-two patients (13.66%) had erroneous colonoscopic localization of the tumors. The overall accuracy of preoperative colonoscopic localization was 87.58%. Colonoscopy is an accurate, reliable method for locating colon cancer, although additional techniques (i.e., endoscopic tattooing) should be performed at least for small lesions.

  4. The Accuracy of GBM GRB Localizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michael Stephen; Connaughton, V.; Meegan, C.; Hurley, K.

    2010-03-01

    We report an study of the accuracy of GBM GRB localizations, analyzing three types of localizations: those produced automatically by the GBM Flight Software on board GBM, those produced automatically with ground software in near real time, and localizations produced with human guidance. The two types of automatic locations are distributed in near real-time via GCN Notices; the human-guided locations are distributed on timescale of many minutes or hours using GCN Circulars. This work uses a Bayesian analysis that models the distribution of the GBM total location error by comparing GBM locations to more accurate locations obtained with other instruments. Reference locations are obtained from Swift, Super-AGILE, the LAT, and with the IPN. We model the GBM total location errors as having systematic errors in addition to the statistical errors and use the Bayesian analysis to constrain the systematic errors.

  5. Needle placement accuracy during stereotactic localization mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To derive a mathematical model to describe the relationship between lesion position in the breast and measurements derived from the stereoradiographs to enable more accurate sampling of a lesion during stereotactic mammographic needle placement. Materials and methods: The affect that registration errors have on the accuracy of needle placement when identifying the lesion on the stereoradiographs was investigated using the mathematical model. Results: The focus-to-film distance of the x-ray tube and the horizontal distance of the lesion from the centre of rotation have little effect on error. Registration errors for lesions lying at a greater perpendicular distance in the breast from the centre of rotation produce smaller localization errors when compared with lesions sited closer. Lesion registration errors during marking of the stereoradiographs are exacerbated by decreasing the angle of x-ray tube swing. Conclusions: When problems are encountered in making an accurate registration of the lesion on the stereoradiographs, consider the following error reducing strategies: (1) employ an approach that places the lesion the maximum distance away from the film cassette; (2) avoid reducing the angle of tube swing; and (3) consider sampling superficial and deep to, as well as at, the location indicated. The possibility of erroneous tissue sampling should be borne in mind when reviewing the pathology report.

  6. A dynamic global and local combined particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Bin; Lian Zhigang; Chen Qunxian

    2009-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has been developing rapidly and many results have been reported. PSO algorithm has shown some important advantages by providing high speed of convergence in specific problems, but it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution and one may find it difficult to improve solution accuracy by fine tuning. This paper presents a dynamic global and local combined particle swarm optimization (DGLCPSO) algorithm to improve the performance of original PSO, in which all particles dynamically share the best information of the local particle, global particle and group particles. It is tested with a set of eight benchmark functions with different dimensions and compared with original PSO. Experimental results indicate that the DGLCPSO algorithm improves the search performance on the benchmark functions significantly, and shows the effectiveness of the algorithm to solve optimization problems.

  7. Accuracy of a wireless localization system for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Wright, J. Nelson; Newell, Laurence J.; Friemel, Barry; Dimmer, Steven; Cheng, Yuki; Wong, John; Vertatschitsch, Edward; Mate, Timothy P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A system has been developed for patient positioning based on real-time localization of implanted electromagnetic transponders (beacons). This study demonstrated the accuracy of the system before clinical trials. Methods and materials: We describe the overall system. The localization component consists of beacons and a source array. A rigid phantom was constructed to place the beacons at known offsets from a localization array. Tests were performed at distances of 80 and 270 mm from the array and at positions in the array plane of up to 8 cm offset. Tests were performed in air and saline to assess the effect of tissue conductivity and with multiple transponders to evaluate crosstalk. Tracking was tested using a dynamic phantom creating a circular path at varying speeds. Results: Submillimeter accuracy was maintained throughout all experiments. Precision was greater proximal to the source plane (σx = 0.006 mm, σy = 0.01 mm, σz = 0.006 mm), but continued to be submillimeter at the end of the designed tracking range at 270 mm from the array (σx = 0.27 mm, σy = 0.36 mm, σz = 0.48 mm). The introduction of saline and the use of multiple beacons did not affect accuracy. Submillimeter accuracy was maintained using the dynamic phantom at speeds of up to 3 cm/s. Conclusion: This system has demonstrated the accuracy needed for localization and monitoring of position during treatment

  8. Accuracy of local exchange in the calculation of continuum wavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biava, D A; Bartschat, K; Saha, H P; Madison, D H

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that electron exchange can play an important role in electron-impact elastic, inelastic and ionization scattering from atoms and molecules. The proper theoretical treatment of exchange yields an inhomogeneous differential equation with a non-local exchange operator. To simplify the calculation, a local approximation is often made for this non-local operator. In this paper, we examine the accuracy of this approximation for the calculation of elastic scattering continuum waves in the presence of an argon ion with a single vacancy in the p-shell. It is found that one can reliably use the local exchange approximation for ionization leading to s-state vacancies but not p-state vacancies

  9. D-particles and the localization limit in quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, G; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Doplicher, Luisa

    2003-01-01

    Some recent studies of the properties of D-particles suggest that in string theory a rather conventional description of spacetime might be available up to scales that are significantly smaller than the Planck length. We test this expectation by analyzing the localization of a space-time event marked by the collision of two D-particles. We find that a spatial coordinate of the event can indeed be determined with better-than-Planckian accuracy, at the price of a rather large uncertainty in the time coordinate. We then explore the implications of these results for the popular quantum-gravity intuition which assigns to the Planck length the role of absolute limit on localization.

  10. Local indicators of geocoding accuracy (LIGA: theory and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquez Geoffrey M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sources of positional error in geographic locations (e.g. geocoding error used for describing and modeling spatial patterns are widely acknowledged, research on how such error impacts the statistical results has been limited. In this paper we explore techniques for quantifying the perturbability of spatial weights to different specifications of positional error. Results We find that a family of curves describes the relationship between perturbability and positional error, and use these curves to evaluate sensitivity of alternative spatial weight specifications to positional error both globally (when all locations are considered simultaneously and locally (to identify those locations that would benefit most from increased geocoding accuracy. We evaluate the approach in simulation studies, and demonstrate it using a case-control study of bladder cancer in south-eastern Michigan. Conclusion Three results are significant. First, the shape of the probability distributions of positional error (e.g. circular, elliptical, cross has little impact on the perturbability of spatial weights, which instead depends on the mean positional error. Second, our methodology allows researchers to evaluate the sensitivity of spatial statistics to positional accuracy for specific geographies. This has substantial practical implications since it makes possible routine sensitivity analysis of spatial statistics to positional error arising in geocoded street addresses, global positioning systems, LIDAR and other geographic data. Third, those locations with high perturbability (most sensitive to positional error and high leverage (that contribute the most to the spatial weight being considered will benefit the most from increased positional accuracy. These are rapidly identified using a new visualization tool we call the LIGA scatterplot. Herein lies a paradox for spatial analysis: For a given level of positional error increasing sample density

  11. Wigner particle theory and local quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassarella, Lucio; Schroer, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Wigner's irreducible positive energy representations of the Poincare group are often used to give additional justifications for the Lagrangian quantization formalism of standard QFT. Here we study another more recent aspect. We explain in this paper modular concepts by which we are able to construct the local operator algebras for all standard positive energy representations directly without going through field coordinations. In this way the artificial emphasis on Lagrangian field coordinates is avoided from the very beginning. These new concepts allow to treat also those cases of 'exceptional' Wigner representations associated with anyons and the famous Wigner spin tower which have remained inaccessible to Lagrangian quantization. Together with the d=1+1 factorizing models (whose modular construction has been studied previously), they form an interesting family of theories with a rich vacuum-polarization structure (but no on shell real particle creation) to which the modular methods can be applied for their explicit construction. We explain and illustrate the algebraic strategy of this construction. We also comment on possibilities of formulating the Wigner theory in a setting of a noncommutativity. (author)

  12. Wigner particle theory and local quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassarella, Lucio; Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: fassarel@cbpf.br; schroer@cbpf.br

    2002-01-01

    Wigner's irreducible positive energy representations of the Poincare group are often used to give additional justifications for the Lagrangian quantization formalism of standard QFT. Here we study another more recent aspect. We explain in this paper modular concepts by which we are able to construct the local operator algebras for all standard positive energy representations directly without going through field coordinations. In this way the artificial emphasis on Lagrangian field coordinates is avoided from the very beginning. These new concepts allow to treat also those cases of 'exceptional' Wigner representations associated with anyons and the famous Wigner spin tower which have remained inaccessible to Lagrangian quantization. Together with the d=1+1 factorizing models (whose modular construction has been studied previously), they form an interesting family of theories with a rich vacuum-polarization structure (but no on shell real particle creation) to which the modular methods can be applied for their explicit construction. We explain and illustrate the algebraic strategy of this construction. We also comment on possibilities of formulating the Wigner theory in a setting of a noncommutativity. (author)

  13. Many-body localization from one particle density matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Soumya; Bardarson, Jens [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); Schomerus, Henning [Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We show that the one-particle density matrix ρ can be used to characterize the interaction-driven many-body localization transition in isolated fermionic systems. The natural orbitals (the eigenstates) are localized in the many-body localized phase and spread out when one enters the delocalized phase, while the occupation spectrum (the set of eigenvalues) reveals the distinctive Fock- space structure of the many-body eigenstates, exhibiting a step-like discontinuity in the localized phase. The associated one-particle occupation entropy is small in the localized phase and large in the delocalized phase, with diverging fluctuations at the transition.

  14. Accuracy verification of a simple local three-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ming-Hsiang Shih

    2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of ... Small displacement; displacement measurement; local calibration; 3D digital image correlation. 1. ..... In order to eliminate the impact of environmental white.

  15. Relativistic local quantum field theory for m=0 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Villasevil, A.

    1965-01-01

    A method is introduced ta deal with relativistic quantum field theory for particles with m=0. Two mappings I and J, giving rise respectively to particle and anti particle states, are defined between a test space and the physical Hilbert space. The intrinsic field operator is then defined as the minimal causal linear combinations of operators belonging to the annihilation-creation algebra associated to the germ and antigerm parts of the element. Local elements are introduced as improper test elements and local field operators are constructed in the same way as the intrinsic ones. Commutation rules are given. (Author) 17 refs

  16. Distributed SLAM Using Improved Particle Filter for Mobile Robot Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Pei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed SLAM system has a similar estimation performance and requires only one-fifth of the computation time compared with centralized particle filter. However, particle impoverishment is inevitably because of the random particles prediction and resampling applied in generic particle filter, especially in SLAM problem that involves a large number of dimensions. In this paper, particle filter use in distributed SLAM was improved in two aspects. First, we improved the important function of the local filters in particle filter. The adaptive values were used to replace a set of constants in the computational process of importance function, which improved the robustness of the particle filter. Second, an information fusion method was proposed by mixing the innovation method and the number of effective particles method, which combined the advantages of these two methods. And this paper extends the previously known convergence results for particle filter to prove that improved particle filter converges to the optimal filter in mean square as the number of particles goes to infinity. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm improved the virtue of the DPF-SLAM system in isolate faults and enabled the system to have a better tolerance and robustness.

  17. Local characterization of hindered Brownian motion by using digital video microscopy and 3D particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmer, Simon L.; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Pagliara, Stefano [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    In this article we present methods for measuring hindered Brownian motion in the confinement of complex 3D geometries using digital video microscopy. Here we discuss essential features of automated 3D particle tracking as well as diffusion data analysis. By introducing local mean squared displacement-vs-time curves, we are able to simultaneously measure the spatial dependence of diffusion coefficients, tracking accuracies and drift velocities. Such local measurements allow a more detailed and appropriate description of strongly heterogeneous systems as opposed to global measurements. Finite size effects of the tracking region on measuring mean squared displacements are also discussed. The use of these methods was crucial for the measurement of the diffusive behavior of spherical polystyrene particles (505 nm diameter) in a microfluidic chip. The particles explored an array of parallel channels with different cross sections as well as the bulk reservoirs. For this experiment we present the measurement of local tracking accuracies in all three axial directions as well as the diffusivity parallel to the channel axis while we observed no significant flow but purely Brownian motion. Finally, the presented algorithm is suitable also for tracking of fluorescently labeled particles and particles driven by an external force, e.g., electrokinetic or dielectrophoretic forces.

  18. Fingerprinting Localization Method Based on TOA and Particle Filtering for Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boming Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate target localization technology plays a very important role in ensuring mine safety production and higher production efficiency. The localization accuracy of a mine localization system is influenced by many factors. The most significant factor is the non-line of sight (NLOS propagation error of the localization signal between the access point (AP and the target node (Tag. In order to improve positioning accuracy, the NLOS error must be suppressed by an optimization algorithm. However, the traditional optimization algorithms are complex and exhibit poor optimization performance. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method for mine time of arrival (TOA localization based on the idea of comprehensive optimization. The proposed method utilizes particle filtering to reduce the TOA data error, and the positioning results are further optimized with fingerprinting based on the Manhattan distance. This proposed method combines the advantages of particle filtering and fingerprinting localization. It reduces algorithm complexity and has better error suppression performance. The experimental results demonstrate that, as compared to the symmetric double-sided two-way ranging (SDS-TWR method or received signal strength indication (RSSI based fingerprinting method, the proposed method has a significantly improved localization performance, and the environment adaptability is enhanced.

  19. Spatially Localized Particle Energization by Landau Damping in Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.; McCubbin, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of particle energization through the removal of energy from turbulent fluctuations in heliospheric plasmas is a grand challenge problem in heliophysics. Under the weakly collisional conditions typical of heliospheric plasma, kinetic mechanisms must be responsible for this energization, but the nature of those mechanisms remains elusive. In recent years, the spatial localization of plasma heating near current sheets in the solar wind and numerical simulations has gained much attention. Here we show, using the innovative and new field-particle correlation technique, that the spatially localized particle energization occurring in a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation has the velocity space signature of Landau damping, suggesting that this well-known collisionless damping mechanism indeed actively leads to spatially localized heating in the vicinity of current sheets.

  20. D-particle-inspired analysis of localization limits in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Doplicher, Luisa

    2004-01-01

    Some recent studies of the properties of D-particles suggest that in string theory a rather conventional description of spacetime might be available up to scales that are significantly smaller than the Planck length. We explore this possibility in the framework of a Heisenberg-microscope setup for the analysis of localization of a spacetime event marked by the collision of two D-particles. For the string-theory aspects of our analysis, which only concern some general properties of D-particles, we rely on previous works. The results confirm that a spatial coordinate of the event can indeed be determined with better-than-Planckian accuracy, but we stress that this comes at the price of a rather large uncertainty in the time coordinate. We comment on the implications of these results for the popular quantum-gravity intuition which assigns to the Planck length the role of absolute limit on localization

  1. Particle localization and hyperuniformity of polymer-grafted nanoparticle materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chremos, Alexandros [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Douglas, Jack F.

    2017-05-15

    The properties of materials largely reflect the degree and character of the localization of the molecules comprising them so that the study and characterization of particle localization has central significance in both fundamental science and material design. Soft materials are often comprised of deformable molecules and many of their unique properties derive from the distinct nature of particle localization. We study localization in a model material composed of soft particles, hard nanoparticles with grafted layers of polymers, where the molecular characteristics of the grafted layers allow us to ''tune'' the softness of their interactions. Soft particles are particular interesting because spatial localization can occur such that density fluctuations on large length scales are suppressed, while the material is disordered at intermediate length scales; such materials are called ''disordered hyperuniform''. We use molecular dynamics simulation to study a liquid composed of polymer-grafted nanoparticles (GNP), which exhibit a reversible self-assembly into dynamic polymeric GNP structures below a temperature threshold, suggesting a liquid-gel transition. We calculate a number of spatial and temporal correlations and we find a significant suppression of density fluctuations upon cooling at large length scales, making these materials promising for the practical fabrication of ''hyperuniform'' materials. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. High-accuracy numerical integration of charged particle motion – with application to ponderomotive force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masaru; Ohkawa, Yushiro; Matsuyama, Akinobu

    2016-01-01

    A high-accuracy numerical integration algorithm for a charged particle motion is developed. The algorithm is based on the Hamiltonian mechanics and the operator decomposition. The algorithm is made to be time-reversal symmetric, and its order of accuracy can be increased to any order by using a recurrence formula. One of the advantages is that it is an explicit method. An effective way to decompose the time evolution operator is examined; the Poisson tensor is decomposed and non-canonical variables are adopted. The algorithm is extended to a time dependent fields' case by introducing the extended phase space. Numerical tests showing the performance of the algorithm are presented. One is the pure cyclotron motion for a long time period, and the other is a charged particle motion in a rapidly oscillating field. (author)

  3. Adaptive particle filter for localization problem in service robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heilig Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a statistical approach to the likelihood computation and adaptive resampling algorithm for particle filters using low cost ultrasonic sensors in the context of service robotics. This increases the efficiency of the particle filter in the Monte Carlo Localization problem by means of preventing sample impoverishment and ensuring it converges towards the most likely particle and simultaneously keeping less likely ones by systematic resampling. Proposed algorithms were developed in the ROS framework, simulation was done in Gazebo environment. Experiments using a differential drive mobile platform with 4 ultrasonic sensors in the office environment show that our approach provides strong improvement over particle filters with fixed sample sizes.

  4. A Support Vector Learning-Based Particle Filter Scheme for Target Localization in Communication-Constrained Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinbin; Zhang, Chenglin; Yan, Lei; Han, Song; Guan, Xinping

    2017-12-21

    Target localization, which aims to estimate the location of an unknown target, is one of the key issues in applications of underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs). However, the constrained property of an underwater environment, such as restricted communication capacity of sensor nodes and sensing noises, makes target localization a challenging problem. This paper relies on fractional sensor nodes to formulate a support vector learning-based particle filter algorithm for the localization problem in communication-constrained underwater acoustic sensor networks. A node-selection strategy is exploited to pick fractional sensor nodes with short-distance pattern to participate in the sensing process at each time frame. Subsequently, we propose a least-square support vector regression (LSSVR)-based observation function, through which an iterative regression strategy is used to deal with the distorted data caused by sensing noises, to improve the observation accuracy. At the same time, we integrate the observation to formulate the likelihood function, which effectively update the weights of particles. Thus, the particle effectiveness is enhanced to avoid "particle degeneracy" problem and improve localization accuracy. In order to validate the performance of the proposed localization algorithm, two different noise scenarios are investigated. The simulation results show that the proposed localization algorithm can efficiently improve the localization accuracy. In addition, the node-selection strategy can effectively select the subset of sensor nodes to improve the communication efficiency of the sensor network.

  5. Local protoplanetary disk ionisation by T Tauri star energetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, F.; Drake, J.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C.

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of protoplanetary disks is believed to be driven largely by viscosity. The ionization of the disk that gives rise to viscosity is caused by X-rays from the central star or by energetic particles released by shock waves travelling into the circumstellar medium. We have performed test-particle numerical simulations of GeV-scale protons traversing a realistic magnetised wind of a young solar mass star with a superposed small-scale turbulence. The large-scale field is generated via an MHD model of a T Tauri wind, whereas the isotropic (Kolmogorov power spectrum) turbulent component is synthesised along the particles' trajectories. We have combined Chandra observations of T Tauri flares with solar flare scaling for describing the energetic particle spectrum. In contrast with previous models, we find that the disk ionization is dominated by X-rays except within narrow regions where the energetic particles are channelled onto the disk by the strongly tangled and turbulent field lines; the radial thickness of such regions broadens with the distance from the central star (5 stellar radii or more). In those regions, the disk ionization due to energetic particles can locally dominate the stellar X-rays, arguably, out to large distances (10, 100 AU) from the star.

  6. Quasi-particle energy spectra in local reduced density matrix functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathiotakis, Nektarios N; Helbig, Nicole; Rubio, Angel; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I

    2014-10-28

    Recently, we introduced [N. N. Lathiotakis, N. Helbig, A. Rubio, and N. I. Gidopoulos, Phys. Rev. A 90, 032511 (2014)] local reduced density matrix functional theory (local RDMFT), a theoretical scheme capable of incorporating static correlation effects in Kohn-Sham equations. Here, we apply local RDMFT to molecular systems of relatively large size, as a demonstration of its computational efficiency and its accuracy in predicting single-electron properties from the eigenvalue spectrum of the single-particle Hamiltonian with a local effective potential. We present encouraging results on the photoelectron spectrum of molecular systems and the relative stability of C20 isotopes. In addition, we propose a modelling of the fractional occupancies as functions of the orbital energies that further improves the efficiency of the method useful in applications to large systems and solids.

  7. A Local and Global Search Combined Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitian Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA is an advantage optimization tool. However, it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution especially for middle and large size problems and it is difficult to improve solution accuracy by fine-tuning parameters. According to the insufficiency, this paper researches the local and global search combine particle swarm algorithm (LGSCPSOA, and its convergence and obtains its convergence qualification. At the same time, it is tested with a set of 8 benchmark continuous functions and compared their optimization results with original particle swarm algorithm (OPSOA. Experimental results indicate that the LGSCPSOA improves the search performance especially on the middle and large size benchmark functions significantly.

  8. Acute skin lesions due to localized ''hot particle'' radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small ( 2 at 70μm depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit

  9. Strongly Localized Image States of Spherical Graphitic Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Gumbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the localization of charged particles by the image potential of spherical shells, such as fullerene buckyballs. These spherical image states exist within surface potentials formed by the competition between the attractive image potential and the repulsive centripetal force arising from the angular motion. The image potential has a power law rather than a logarithmic behavior. This leads to fundamental differences in the nature of the effective potential for the two geometries. Our calculations have shown that the captured charge is more strongly localized closest to the surface for fullerenes than for cylindrical nanotube.

  10. Revivals of zitterbewegung of a bound localized Dirac particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romera, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a bound localized Dirac particle is shown to exhibit a revival of the zitterbewegung (ZB) oscillation amplitude. These revivals go beyond the known quasiclassical regenerations in which the ZB oscillation amplitude is decreasing from period to period. This phenomenon is studied in a Dirac oscillator and it is shown that it is possible to set up wave packets in which there is a regeneration of the initial ZB amplitude.

  11. On a novel low cost high accuracy experimental setup for tomographic particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discetti, Stefano; Ianiro, Andrea; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the critical aspects related to cost reduction of a Tomo PIV setup and to the bias errors introduced in the velocity measurements by the coherent motion of the ghost particles. The proposed solution consists of using two independent imaging systems composed of three (or more) low speed single frame cameras, which can be up to ten times cheaper than double shutter cameras with the same image quality. Each imaging system is used to reconstruct a particle distribution in the same measurement region, relative to the first and the second exposure, respectively. The reconstructed volumes are then interrogated by cross-correlation in order to obtain the measured velocity field, as in the standard tomographic PIV implementation. Moreover, differently from tomographic PIV, the ghost particle distributions of the two exposures are uncorrelated, since their spatial distribution is camera orientation dependent. For this reason, the proposed solution promises more accurate results, without the bias effect of the coherent ghost particles motion. Guidelines for the implementation and the application of the present method are proposed. The performances are assessed with a parametric study on synthetic experiments. The proposed low cost system produces a much lower modulation with respect to an equivalent three-camera system. Furthermore, the potential accuracy improvement using the Motion Tracking Enhanced MART (Novara et al 2010 Meas. Sci. Technol. 21 035401) is much higher than in the case of the standard implementation of tomographic PIV. (paper)

  12. Comparison of Accuracy of Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with Accuracy of Non-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Evaluation of Local Extension of Base of Tongue Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Rathod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of base of tongue malignancy can be obtained through clinical examination and biopsy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT are used to detect its local extension, nodal spread and distant metastases. The main aim of study was to compare the accuracy of MRI and contrast enhanced CT in determining the local extent of base of tongue malignancy. Twenty five patients, biopsy proven cases of squamous cell carcinoma of base of tongue were taken. 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Unit with T2 weighted axial, coronal image; T1 weighted axial, coronal image; and STIR (Short tau inversion recovery axial and coronal images were used. 16 slice Computed Tomography unit with non-contrast and contrast enhanced images were used. Accuracy of CT to detect midline crossing: 50%; accuracy of MRI to detect midline crossing: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect anterior extension: 92%; accuracy of MRI to detect anterior extension: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect tonsillar fossa invasion: 83%; accuracy of MRI to detect tonsillar fossa invasion: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect oro pharyngeal spread: 83%; accuracy of MRI to detect oro pharyngeal spread: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect bone involvement: 20%; accuracy of MRI to detect bone involvement: 100%. MRI proved to be a better investigation than CT, in terms of evaluation of depth of invasion, presence of bony involvement, extension to opposite side, anterior half of tongue, tonsillar fossa, floor of mouth or oropharynx.

  13. Source localization of rhythmic ictal EEG activity: a study of diagnostic accuracy following STARD criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Lantz, Göran; Rosenzweig, Ivana; Åkeson, Per; Pedersen, Birthe; Pinborg, Lars H; Ziebell, Morten; Jespersen, Bo; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-10-01

    Although precise identification of the seizure-onset zone is an essential element of presurgical evaluation, source localization of ictal electroencephalography (EEG) signals has received little attention. The aim of our study was to estimate the accuracy of source localization of rhythmic ictal EEG activity using a distributed source model. Source localization of rhythmic ictal scalp EEG activity was performed in 42 consecutive cases fulfilling inclusion criteria. The study was designed according to recommendations for studies on diagnostic accuracy (STARD). The initial ictal EEG signals were selected using a standardized method, based on frequency analysis and voltage distribution of the ictal activity. A distributed source model-local autoregressive average (LAURA)-was used for the source localization. Sensitivity, specificity, and measurement of agreement (kappa) were determined based on the reference standard-the consensus conclusion of the multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery team. Predictive values were calculated from the surgical outcome of the operated patients. To estimate the clinical value of the ictal source analysis, we compared the likelihood ratios of concordant and discordant results. Source localization was performed blinded to the clinical data, and before the surgical decision. Reference standard was available for 33 patients. The ictal source localization had a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 76%. The mean measurement of agreement (kappa) was 0.61, corresponding to substantial agreement (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.84). Twenty patients underwent resective surgery. The positive predictive value (PPV) for seizure freedom was 92% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 43%. The likelihood ratio was nine times higher for the concordant results, as compared with the discordant ones. Source localization of rhythmic ictal activity using a distributed source model (LAURA) for the ictal EEG signals selected with a standardized method

  14. Accuracy and speed feedback: Global and local effects on strategy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Background Skill acquisition often involves a shift from an effortful algorithm-based strategy to more fluent memory-based performance. Older adults’ slower strategy transitions can be ascribed to both slowed learning and metacognitive factors. Experimenters often provide feedback on response accuracy; this emphasis may either inadvertently reinforce older adults’ conservatism or might highlight that retrieval is generally quite accurate. RT feedback can lead to more rapid shift to retrieval (Hertzog, Touron, & Hines, 2007). Methods This study parametrically varied trial-by-trial feedback to examine whether strategy shifts in the noun-pair task in younger (M = 19) and older adults (M = 67) were influenced by type of performance feedback: none, trial accuracy, trial RT, or both accuracy and RT. Results Older adults who received accuracy feedback retrieved more often, particularly on difficult rearranged trials, and participants who receive speed feedback performed the scanning strategy more quickly. Age differences were also obtained in local (trial-level) reactivity to task performance, but these were not affected by feedback. Conclusions Accuracy and speed feedback had distinct global (general) influences on task strategies and performance. In particular, it appears that the standard practice of providing trial-by-trial accuracy feedback might facilitate older adults’ use of retrieval strategies in skill acquisition tasks. PMID:24785594

  15. Is wave-particle objectivity compatible with determinism and locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Jennewein, Thomas; Mann, Robert B; Terno, Daniel R

    2014-09-26

    Wave-particle duality, superposition and entanglement are among the most counterintuitive features of quantum theory. Their clash with our classical expectations motivated hidden-variable (HV) theories. With the emergence of quantum technologies, we can test experimentally the predictions of quantum theory versus HV theories and put strong restrictions on their key assumptions. Here, we study an entanglement-assisted version of the quantum delayed-choice experiment and show that the extension of HV to the controlling devices only exacerbates the contradiction. We compare HV theories that satisfy the conditions of objectivity (a property of photons being either particles or waves, but not both), determinism and local independence of hidden variables with quantum mechanics. Any two of the above conditions are compatible with it. The conflict becomes manifest when all three conditions are imposed and persists for any non-zero value of entanglement. We propose an experiment to test our conclusions.

  16. Is wave–particle objectivity compatible with determinism and locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Jennewein, Thomas; Mann, Robert B.; Terno, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Wave–particle duality, superposition and entanglement are among the most counterintuitive features of quantum theory. Their clash with our classical expectations motivated hidden-variable (HV) theories. With the emergence of quantum technologies, we can test experimentally the predictions of quantum theory versus HV theories and put strong restrictions on their key assumptions. Here, we study an entanglement-assisted version of the quantum delayed-choice experiment and show that the extension of HV to the controlling devices only exacerbates the contradiction. We compare HV theories that satisfy the conditions of objectivity (a property of photons being either particles or waves, but not both), determinism and local independence of hidden variables with quantum mechanics. Any two of the above conditions are compatible with it. The conflict becomes manifest when all three conditions are imposed and persists for any non-zero value of entanglement. We propose an experiment to test our conclusions. PMID:25256419

  17. Particle Filter-Based Target Tracking Algorithm for Magnetic Resonance-Guided Respiratory Compensation : Robustness and Accuracy Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourque, Alexandra E; Bedwani, Stéphane; Carrier, Jean-François; Ménard, Cynthia; Borman, Pim; Bos, Clemens; Raaymakers, Bas W; Mickevicius, Nikolai; Paulson, Eric; Tijssen, Rob H N

    PURPOSE: To assess overall robustness and accuracy of a modified particle filter-based tracking algorithm for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided radiation therapy treatments. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An improved particle filter-based tracking algorithm was implemented, which used a normalized

  18. Effect of Brain-to-Skull Conductivity Ratio on EEG Source Localization Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Wang; Doutian Ren

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the brain-to-skull conductivity ratio (BSCR) on EEG source localization accuracy. In this study, we evaluated four BSCRs: 15, 20, 25, and 80, which were mainly discussed according to the literature. The scalp EEG signals were generated by BSCR-related forward computation for each cortical dipole source. Then, for each scalp EEG measurement, the source reconstruction was performed to identify the estimated dipole sources by the actual ...

  19. Joint Testlet Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling for Paired Local Item Dependence in Response Times and Response Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peida Zhan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In joint models for item response times (RTs and response accuracy (RA, local item dependence is composed of local RA dependence and local RT dependence. The two components are usually caused by the same common stimulus and emerge as pairs. Thus, the violation of local item independence in the joint models is called paired local item dependence. To address the issue of paired local item dependence while applying the joint cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs, this study proposed a joint testlet cognitive diagnosis modeling approach. The proposed approach is an extension of Zhan et al. (2017 and it incorporates two types of random testlet effect parameters (one for RA and the other for RTs to account for paired local item dependence. The model parameters were estimated using the full Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method. The 2015 PISA computer-based mathematics data were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the proposed model. Further, a brief simulation study was conducted to demonstrate the acceptable parameter recovery and the consequence of ignoring paired local item dependence.

  20. Measuring true localization accuracy in super resolution microscopy with DNA-origami nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Matthias; Blom, Hans; Brismar, Hjalmar; Fördős, Ferenc; Högberg, Björn; Öktem, Ozan

    2017-01-01

    A common method to assess the performance of (super resolution) microscopes is to use the localization precision of emitters as an estimate for the achieved resolution. Naturally, this is widely used in super resolution methods based on single molecule stochastic switching. This concept suffers from the fact that it is hard to calibrate measures against a real sample (a phantom), because true absolute positions of emitters are almost always unknown. For this reason, resolution estimates are potentially biased in an image since one is blind to true position accuracy, i.e. deviation in position measurement from true positions. We have solved this issue by imaging nanorods fabricated with DNA-origami. The nanorods used are designed to have emitters attached at each end in a well-defined and highly conserved distance. These structures are widely used to gauge localization precision. Here, we additionally determined the true achievable localization accuracy and compared this figure of merit to localization precision values for two common super resolution microscope methods STED and STORM. (paper)

  1. Accuracy improvement in the TDR-based localization of water leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cataldo

    Full Text Available A time domain reflectometry (TDR-based system for the localization of water leaks has been recently developed by the authors. This system, which employs wire-like sensing elements to be installed along the underground pipes, has proven immune to the limitations that affect the traditional, acoustic leak-detection systems.Starting from the positive results obtained thus far, in this work, an improvement of this TDR-based system is proposed. More specifically, the possibility of employing a low-cost, water-absorbing sponge to be placed around the sensing element for enhancing the accuracy in the localization of the leak is addressed.To this purpose, laboratory experiments were carried out mimicking a water leakage condition, and two sensing elements (one embedded in a sponge and one without sponge were comparatively used to identify the position of the leak through TDR measurements. Results showed that, thanks to the water retention capability of the sponge (which maintains the leaked water more localized, the sensing element embedded in the sponge leads to a higher accuracy in the evaluation of the position of the leak. Keywords: Leak localization, TDR, Time domain reflectometry, Water leaks, Underground water pipes

  2. Image quality and localization accuracy in C-arm tomosynthesis-guided head and neck surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachar, G.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Daly, M. J.; Jaffray, D. A.; Irish, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The image quality and localization accuracy for C-arm tomosynthesis and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance of head and neck surgery were investigated. A continuum in image acquisition was explored, ranging from a single exposure (radiograph) to multiple projections acquired over a limited arc (tomosynthesis) to a full semicircular trajectory (CBCT). Experiments were performed using a prototype mobile C-arm modified to perform 3D image acquisition (a modified Siemens PowerMobil). The tradeoffs in image quality associated with the extent of the source-detector arc (θ tot ), the number of projection views, and the total imaging dose were evaluated in phantom and cadaver studies. Surgical localization performance was evaluated using three cadaver heads imaged as a function of θ tot . Six localization tasks were considered, ranging from high-contrast feature identification (e.g., tip of a K-wire pointer) to more challenging soft-tissue delineation (e.g., junction of the hard and soft palate). Five head and neck surgeons and one radiologist participated as observers. For each localization task, the 3D coordinates of landmarks pinpointed by each observer were analyzed as a function of θ tot . For all tomosynthesis angles, image quality was highest in the coronal plane, whereas sagittal and axial planes exhibited a substantial decrease in spatial resolution associated with out-of-plane blur and distortion. Tasks involving complex, lower-contrast features demonstrated steeper degradation with smaller tomosynthetic arc. Localization accuracy in the coronal plane was correspondingly high, maintained to tot ∼30 deg. , whereas sagittal and axial localization degraded rapidly below θ tot ∼60 deg. . Similarly, localization precision was better than ∼1 mm within the coronal plane, compared to ∼2-3 mm out-of-plane for tomosynthesis angles below θ tot ∼45 deg. . An overall 3D localization accuracy of ∼2.5 mm was achieved with θ tot ∼ 90 deg. for most

  3. High Accuracy Human Activity Recognition Based on Sparse Locality Preserving Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangbin; Qiu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Human activity recognition(HAR) from the temporal streams of sensory data has been applied to many fields, such as healthcare services, intelligent environments and cyber security. However, the classification accuracy of most existed methods is not enough in some applications, especially for healthcare services. In order to improving accuracy, it is necessary to develop a novel method which will take full account of the intrinsic sequential characteristics for time-series sensory data. Moreover, each human activity may has correlated feature relationship at different levels. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a three-stage continuous hidden Markov model (TSCHMM) approach to recognize human activities. The proposed method contains coarse, fine and accurate classification. The feature reduction is an important step in classification processing. In this paper, sparse locality preserving projections (SpLPP) is exploited to determine the optimal feature subsets for accurate classification of the stationary-activity data. It can extract more discriminative activities features from the sensor data compared with locality preserving projections. Furthermore, all of the gyro-based features are used for accurate classification of the moving data. Compared with other methods, our method uses significantly less number of features, and the over-all accuracy has been obviously improved.

  4. High Accuracy Human Activity Recognition Based on Sparse Locality Preserving Projections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbin Zhu

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition(HAR from the temporal streams of sensory data has been applied to many fields, such as healthcare services, intelligent environments and cyber security. However, the classification accuracy of most existed methods is not enough in some applications, especially for healthcare services. In order to improving accuracy, it is necessary to develop a novel method which will take full account of the intrinsic sequential characteristics for time-series sensory data. Moreover, each human activity may has correlated feature relationship at different levels. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a three-stage continuous hidden Markov model (TSCHMM approach to recognize human activities. The proposed method contains coarse, fine and accurate classification. The feature reduction is an important step in classification processing. In this paper, sparse locality preserving projections (SpLPP is exploited to determine the optimal feature subsets for accurate classification of the stationary-activity data. It can extract more discriminative activities features from the sensor data compared with locality preserving projections. Furthermore, all of the gyro-based features are used for accurate classification of the moving data. Compared with other methods, our method uses significantly less number of features, and the over-all accuracy has been obviously improved.

  5. Localization in small fcc-particles with surface irregularities and disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, J.P.; Bloomfield, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical eigenvector analysis is used to investigate Anderson localization in small fcc-particles of N = 309 and N = 147 atoms. Special attention is given to the way size and surface roughness of the particles influence the localization behavior. States begin to localize in a non-exponential regime several lattice spacings from the center of localization and finally converge to a fully exponentially-localized regime for strong disorder. For smooth surface particles, it is found that the states localize first at the band bottom and a mobility edge can clearly be defined for increasing disorder. This doesn't seem to be the case for the rougher particles, where the band middle and the band bottom show similar behavior towards localization. Although particles with surface irregularities show an onset of localization for smaller values of the disorder than smooth particles, the localization length is greater. (orig.)

  6. Low-latitude particle precipitation and associated local magnetic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassoul, H.K.; Rohrbaugh, R.P.; Tinsley, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    The time variations of optical emissions during low-latitude auroral events have been shown to correlate well with those of magnetograms in the region where the aurorae are observed. Two events not previously reported are analyzed and are shown to confirm the nature of the correlations found for two earlier events. The maximum optical emissions at mid-latitudes occur in concert with the maximum positive (northward) excursions in the H trace and with rapid fluctuations in the D trace of nearby magnetograms. The fluctuation in ΔD is usually from the east (positive) to the west (negative) in the vicinity of the ΔH perturbation. The positive excursions in H at low-latitude observatories at the time of the maximum optical emissions are associated with negative H excursions at high latitude observatories in the same longitude sector. The source of the particles has been inferred to be the ring current, with precipitation occurring when the |Dst| index is large at the time of the large short term excursions in the local magnetic field. This result is consistent with the funding of Voss and Smith (1979), derived from a series of rocket measurements of precipitating heavy particles, that the flux correlates better with the product of |Dst| and the exponential of K p than with either alone. In the present case it is shown that the product of |Dst| and the amplitude of the short term excursions in the horizontal component in local magnetograms has better time resolution and better correlation with the observed emission rates than the index using K p

  7. Particle Dark Matter Searches Outside the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Marco; Xia, Jun-Qing; Cuoco, Alessandro; Branchini, Enzo; Fornengo, Nicolao; Viel, Matteo

    2015-06-01

    If dark matter (DM) is composed by particles which are nongravitationally coupled to ordinary matter, their annihilations or decays in cosmic structures can result in detectable radiation. We show that the most powerful technique to detect a particle DM signal outside the Local Group is to study the angular cross-correlation of nongravitational signals with low-redshift gravitational probes. This method allows us to enhance the signal to noise from the regions of the Universe where the DM-induced emission is preferentially generated. We demonstrate the power of this approach by focusing on GeV-TeV DM and on the recent cross-correlation analysis between the 2MASS galaxy catalogue and the Fermi-LAT γ -ray maps. We show that this technique is more sensitive than other extragalactic γ -ray probes, such as the energy spectrum and angular autocorrelation of the extragalactic background, and emission from clusters of galaxies. Intriguingly, we find that the measured cross-correlation can be well fitted by a DM component, with a thermal annihilation cross section and mass between 10 and 100 GeV, depending on the small-scale DM properties and γ -ray production mechanism. This solicits further data collection and dedicated analyses.

  8. Accuracy of panoramic, panoramic with palpation and tube shift technique to localize maxillary impacted cuspid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GoodarziPour D.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Impaction of maxillary cuspids is the most common after third molars with 1% to 3% prevalence. Localization of these impacted teeth may affect orthodontic or surgical treatment plan. Therefore, different techniques have been introduced to localize impacted canines. The present study was conducted to compare the accuracy of panoramic, tube shift and panoramic plus palpation in determination of the position of maxillary impacted canine."nMaterials and Methods: 47 patients (20 females, 27 males with the age of more than 12 years (mean age of 25.4 years old whom referred to Dental School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, with at least one impacted maxillary canine included. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist localized impacted canine first by using panoramic then tube shift technique blindly. After that, an oral and maxillofacial surgeon localized the canine by panoramic and palpation of the area before surgery. Data obtained from radiologist and surgeon were compared with true location of canine after surgery. Statistical analysis was done using sensitivity and specificity."nResults: Among total 47 impacted maxillary canines, 11 cases (23.4% showed buccal impactions and 36 cases (76.6% palatal impactions. Sensitivity (ability of technique to localize palatal impaction of all of the techniques were same (100% but specificity (ability of technique to localize buccal impaction of tube shift (100% was more than two others (0%."nConclusion: The tube shift technique was the most accurate technique to localize maxillary unerupted canines compared to the others. Due to the ability of panoramic and panoramic with palpation in prediction of palatal canine impactions and failure of these techniques to predict buccal impactions, both methods are not suitable in localization of impacted maxillary canines and they must be used as adjunctive techniques.

  9. The Single-Molecule Centroid Localization Algorithm Improves the Accuracy of Fluorescence Binding Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Boyang; Wang, Yanbo; Park, Seongjin; Han, Kyu Young; Singh, Digvijay; Kim, Jin H; Cheng, Wei; Ha, Taekjip

    2018-03-13

    Here, we demonstrate that the use of the single-molecule centroid localization algorithm can improve the accuracy of fluorescence binding assays. Two major artifacts in this type of assay, i.e., nonspecific binding events and optically overlapping receptors, can be detected and corrected during analysis. The effectiveness of our method was confirmed by measuring two weak biomolecular interactions, the interaction between the B1 domain of streptococcal protein G and immunoglobulin G and the interaction between double-stranded DNA and the Cas9-RNA complex with limited sequence matches. This analysis routine requires little modification to common experimental protocols, making it readily applicable to existing data and future experiments.

  10. Localization of a polymer in random media: Relation to the localization of a quantum particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiferaw, Yohannes; Goldschmidt, Yadin Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we consider in detail the connection between the problem of a polymer in a random medium and that of a quantum particle in a random potential. We are interested in a system of finite volume where the polymer is known to be localized inside a low minimum of the potential. We show how the end-to-end distance of a polymer that is free to move can be obtained from the density of states of the quantum particle using extreme value statistics. We give a physical interpretation to the recently discovered one-step replica-symmetry-breaking solution for the polymer [Phys. Rev. E 61, 1729 (2000)] in terms of the statistics of localized tail states. Numerical solutions of the variational equations for chains of different length are performed and compared with quenched averages computed directly by using the eigenfunctions and eigenenergies of the Schro''dinger equation for a particle in a one-dimensional random potential. The quantities investigated are the radius of gyration of a free Gaussian chain, its mean square distance from the origin and the end-to-end distance of a tethered chain. The probability distribution for the position of the chain is also investigated. The glassiness of the system is explained and is estimated from the variance of the measured quantities

  11. Affine-Invariant Geometric Constraints-Based High Accuracy Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangchen Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe a new appearance-based loop-closure detection method for online incremental simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM using affine-invariant-based geometric constraints. Unlike other pure bag-of-words-based approaches, our proposed method uses geometric constraints as a supplement to improve accuracy. By establishing an affine-invariant hypothesis, the proposed method excludes incorrect visual words and calculates the dispersion of correctly matched visual words to improve the accuracy of the likelihood calculation. In addition, camera’s intrinsic parameters and distortion coefficients are adequate for this method. 3D measuring is not necessary. We use the mechanism of Long-Term Memory and Working Memory (WM to manage the memory. Only a limited size of the WM is used for loop-closure detection; therefore the proposed method is suitable for large-scale real-time SLAM. We tested our method using the CityCenter and Lip6Indoor datasets. Our proposed method results can effectively correct the typical false-positive localization of previous methods, thus gaining better recall ratios and better precision.

  12. Influence of the number of elongated fiducial markers on the localization accuracy of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, Johan; De Bois, Josien; Van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Implanting fiducial markers for localization purposes has become an accepted practice in radiotherapy for prostate cancer. While many correction strategies correct for translations only, advanced correction protocols also require knowledge of the rotation of the prostate. For this purpose, typically, three or more markers are implanted. Elongated fiducial markers provide more information about their orientation than traditional round or cylindrical markers. Potentially, fewer markers are required. In this study, we evaluate the effect of the number of elongated markers on the localization accuracy of the prostate. To quantify the localization error, we developed a model that estimates, at arbitrary locations in the prostate, the registration error caused by translational and rotational uncertainties of the marker registration. Every combination of one, two and three markers was analysed for a group of 24 patients. The average registration errors at the prostate surface were 0.3–0.8 mm and 0.4–1 mm for registrations on, respectively, three markers and two markers located on different sides of the prostate. Substantial registration errors (2.0–2.2 mm) occurred at the prostate surface contralateral to the markers when two markers were implanted on the same side of the prostate or only one marker was used. In conclusion, there is no benefit in using three elongated markers: two markers accurately localize the prostate if they are implanted at some distance from each other. (paper)

  13. Influence of the number of elongated fiducial markers on the localization accuracy of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Johan; de Bois, Josien; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2012-10-01

    Implanting fiducial markers for localization purposes has become an accepted practice in radiotherapy for prostate cancer. While many correction strategies correct for translations only, advanced correction protocols also require knowledge of the rotation of the prostate. For this purpose, typically, three or more markers are implanted. Elongated fiducial markers provide more information about their orientation than traditional round or cylindrical markers. Potentially, fewer markers are required. In this study, we evaluate the effect of the number of elongated markers on the localization accuracy of the prostate. To quantify the localization error, we developed a model that estimates, at arbitrary locations in the prostate, the registration error caused by translational and rotational uncertainties of the marker registration. Every combination of one, two and three markers was analysed for a group of 24 patients. The average registration errors at the prostate surface were 0.3-0.8 mm and 0.4-1 mm for registrations on, respectively, three markers and two markers located on different sides of the prostate. Substantial registration errors (2.0-2.2 mm) occurred at the prostate surface contralateral to the markers when two markers were implanted on the same side of the prostate or only one marker was used. In conclusion, there is no benefit in using three elongated markers: two markers accurately localize the prostate if they are implanted at some distance from each other.

  14. Local analyticity properties of the n particle scattering amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Bros, J; Glaser, Vladimir Jurko

    1972-01-01

    The connected part F/sub /c(p) of the scattering amplitude (p/sub 1 /...p/sub /r mod S-1 mod p/sub r+1/,..., p/sub n/) defined on the mass shell p/sub i//sup 2/=m/sub i//sup 2/ and deduced from a local field theory involving only (stable) particles with strictly positive masses can be represented in a suitable neighbourhood of any physical point p as a finite sum f/sub /c(p)= Sigma /sub 1//sup N/F/sub i/(p) of partial amplitudes', each F/sub i/(k) analytic in a certain domain F /sub i/ of the complex mass shell k/sub i//sup 2/=m/sub i//sup 2/. The mentioned real neighbourhood lies on the boundary of each F/sub i/. The above decomposition may fail to hold only at points p where any two incoming or any two outgoing four-momenta become parallel (thresholds). The number N as well as the shape of the domains F/sub i / depend on the number n and on the real neighbourhood considered. For a generic configuration p the intersection of the domains F/sub i/ is empty. When this does not happen, F/sub i/(p) is the boundar...

  15. Nonlinear simulations of particle source effects on edge localized mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, S. Y., E-mail: sychen531@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The effects of particle source (PS) with different intensities and located positions on Edge Localized Mode (ELM) are systematically studied with BOUT++ code. The results show the ELM size strongly decreases with increasing the PS intensity once the PS is located in the middle or bottom of the pedestal. The effects of PS on ELM depend on the located position of PS. When it is located at the top of the pedestal, peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes can extract more free energy from the pressure gradient and grow up to be a large filament at the initial crash phase and the broadening of mode spectrum can be suppressed by PS, which leads to more energy loss. When it is located in the middle or bottom of the pedestal, the extraction of free energy by P-B modes can be suppressed, and a small filament is generated. During the turbulence transport phase, the broader mode spectrum suppresses the turbulence transport when PS is located in the middle, while the zonal flow plays an important role in damping the turbulence transport when PS is located at the bottom.

  16. Evaluating the accuracy of perfusion/metabolism (SPET/PET) ratio in seizure localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch, K.; Zubal, I.G. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, New Haven, CT (United States); Blumenfeld, H.; Spencer, S.; Novotny, E. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, P.O. Box 208018, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The uncoupling between brain perfusion and metabolism was evaluated as a potential tool for seizure localization by creating an interictal SPET divided by interictal PET functional ratio-image and by evaluating its sensitivity and specificity to areas subsequently surgically resected. The uncoupling between brain perfusion and metabolism was evaluated through the creation of a functional SPET/PET ratio-image relying on interictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans in epilepsy patients. The uncoupling of these two physiological brain functions has been demonstrated to be a characteristic of epileptogenic tissue in temporal lobe epilepsy and could potentially serve as a diagnostic measure for localization of seizure onset areas in the brain. The accuracy of hemispheric localization, sensitivity, and specificity of perfusion to metabolism ratio-images were evaluated as compared to standard methods of PET reading. Interictal HMPAO-SPET and FDG-PET scans were obtained from 21 patients who then went on to remain seizure free for a minimum of 1 year post surgical resection. Using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2), the SPET and PET scans were spatially registered and spatially normalized to a standard template (geometric warping). A functional image was created by calculating the ratio of perfusion to metabolism. Discrete areas of uncoupling in the ratio-images were selected, quantified, and compared to visually interpreted PET readings as well as the actual site of subsequent surgical resection. Localization was determined by comparing the hemispheric location of these areas to sites of surgical resection. Sensitivity and specificity of ratio-images and PET readings were calculated by dividing the brains into four sections per hemisphere. When compared to known sites of successful surgical resection, the pre-surgical visually interpreted PET readings had a correct hemispheric localization in 69.6% of cases

  17. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Dominjon, A., E-mail: agnes.dominjon@nao.ac.jp [Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France)

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 µm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  18. The accuracy of a designed software for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on CBCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Soltanimehr, Elham; Zamani, Ali; Oshagh, Morteza; Moattari, Marzieh; Mehdizadeh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional projection radiographs have been traditionally considered the modality of choice for cephalometric analysis. To overcome the shortcomings of two-dimensional images, three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) has been used to evaluate craniofacial structures. However, manual landmark detection depends on medical expertise, and the process is time-consuming. The present study was designed to produce software capable of automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on cone beam (CB) CT images based on image registration and to evaluate its accuracy. The software was designed using MATLAB programming language. The technique was a combination of feature-based (principal axes registration) and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration. A total of 8 CBCT images were selected as our reference images for creating a head atlas. Then, 20 CBCT images were randomly selected as the test images for evaluating the method. Three experts twice located 14 landmarks in all 28 CBCT images during two examinations set 6 weeks apart. The differences in the distances of coordinates of each landmark on each image between manual and automated detection methods were calculated and reported as mean errors. The combined intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.89 and for interobserver reliability 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.93). The mean errors of all 14 landmarks were <4 mm. Additionally, 63.57% of landmarks had a mean error of <3 mm compared with manual detection (gold standard method). The accuracy of our approach for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks, which was based on combining feature-based and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration, was acceptable. Nevertheless we recommend repetition of this study using other techniques, such as intensity-based methods

  19. Accuracy of localization of acute myocardial infarction by 12 lead electrocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, T.; Ribeiro, L.G.; Holman, B.L.; Alpert, J.S.; Maroko, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    Until recently, ECG accuracy in localizing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) could be assessed only by comparing the ECGs with autopsy findings. This approach, however, preselected patients, including only those who died. It is possible that this postmortem group of patients would be different from the whole population of patients with AMI. Myocardial imaging with 99 mTc-pyrophosphate offers the advantage of directly localizing the region of injured myocardium in the acute phase of AMI. In 34 patients with confirmed AMI and focal uptake of 99 mTc-pyrophosphate, serial ECGs were obtained and interpreted by two independent observers. The sensitivity and specificity of serial ECGs in determining the location of AMI in the five left ventricular (LV) wall segments were determined: (1) in the anterior wall sensitivity was 86.7% and specificity was 89.5%; (2) in the lateral wall sensitivity was 73.7% and specificity was 80.0%; (3) in the high lateral wall sensitivity was 80.0% and specificity was 87.5%; (4) in the inferior wall sensitivity was 87.5% and specificity was 100%; (5) in the true posterior wall sensitivity was 83.3% and specificity was 86.4%. Overall, in the 170 LV wall segments (five per patient) examined, scans localized with a sensitivity of 81.9% and a specificity of 88.8%. After four patients with LBBB were excluded, sensitivity increased to 87.1%. Overall, localization of AMI by serial ECG was accurate in 85.9% of the 34 patients included in the study

  20. Real-Time and Accurate Indoor Localization with Fusion Model of Wi-Fi Fingerprint and Motion Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlong Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the development of Indoor Location Based Service (Indoor LBS, a timely localization and smooth tracking with high accuracy are desperately needed. Unfortunately, any single method cannot meet the requirement of both high accuracy and real-time ability at the same time. In this paper, we propose a fusion location framework with Particle Filter using Wi-Fi signals and motion sensors. In this framework, we use Extreme Learning Machine (ELM regression algorithm to predict position based on motion sensors and use Wi-Fi fingerprint location result to solve the error accumulation of motion sensors based location occasionally with Particle Filter. The experiments show that the trajectory is smoother as the real one than the traditional Wi-Fi fingerprint method.

  1. Hybrid Indoor-Based WLAN-WSN Localization Scheme for Improving Accuracy Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Farid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In indoor environments, WiFi (RSS based localization is sensitive to various indoor fading effects and noise during transmission, which are the main causes of localization errors that affect its accuracy. Keeping in view those fading effects, positioning systems based on a single technology are ineffective in performing accurate localization. For this reason, the trend is toward the use of hybrid positioning systems (combination of two or more wireless technologies in indoor/outdoor localization scenarios for getting better position accuracy. This paper presents a hybrid technique to implement indoor localization that adopts fingerprinting approaches in both WiFi and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. This model exploits machine learning, in particular Artificial Natural Network (ANN techniques, for position calculation. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid system improved the accuracy, reducing the average distance error to 1.05 m by using ANN. Applying Genetic Algorithm (GA based optimization technique did not incur any further improvement to the accuracy. Compared to the performance of GA optimization, the nonoptimized ANN performed better in terms of accuracy, precision, stability, and computational time. The above results show that the proposed hybrid technique is promising for achieving better accuracy in real-world positioning applications.

  2. Improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with local search strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolong Xi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization, which was motivated by analysis of particle swarm optimization and quantum system, has shown compared performance in finding the optimal solutions for many optimization problems to other evolutionary algorithms. To address the problem of premature, a local search strategy is proposed to improve the performance of quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. In proposed local search strategy, a super particle is presented which is a collection body of randomly selected particles’ dimension information in the swarm. The selected probability of particles in swarm is different and determined by their fitness values. To minimization problems, the fitness value of one particle is smaller; the selected probability is more and will contribute more information in constructing the super particle. In addition, in order to investigate the influence on algorithm performance with different local search space, four methods of computing the local search radius are applied in local search strategy and propose four variants of local search quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. Empirical studies on a suite of well-known benchmark functions are undertaken in order to make an overall performance comparison among the proposed methods and other quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. The simulation results show that the proposed quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization variants have better advantages over the original quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization.

  3. Fast weighted centroid algorithm for single particle localization near the information limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jeremie; Scrimgeour, Jan

    2015-07-10

    A simple weighting scheme that enhances the localization precision of center of mass calculations for radially symmetric intensity distributions is presented. The algorithm effectively removes the biasing that is common in such center of mass calculations. Localization precision compares favorably with other localization algorithms used in super-resolution microscopy and particle tracking, while significantly reducing the processing time and memory usage. We expect that the algorithm presented will be of significant utility when fast computationally lightweight particle localization or tracking is desired.

  4. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J; Chu, Kaiqin; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  5. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Smith

    Full Text Available We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  6. Relativistic local quantum field theory for m=0 particles; Campos cuanticos locales relativos a particulas de masa no nula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Villasevil, A

    1965-07-01

    A method is introduced ta deal with relativistic quantum field theory for particles with m=0. Two mappings I and J, giving rise respectively to particle and anti particle states, are defined between a test space and the physical Hilbert space. The intrinsic field operator is then defined as the minimal causal linear combinations of operators belonging to the annihilation-creation algebra associated to the germ and antigerm parts of the element. Local elements are introduced as improper test elements and local field operators are constructed in the same way as the intrinsic ones. Commutation rules are given. (Author) 17 refs.

  7. A conformal invariant model of localized spinning test particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, C.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille; Fliche, H.H.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille

    1977-02-01

    A purely classical model of massless test particle with spin s is introduced as the dynamical system defined by the 10 dimensional 0(4,2) co-adjoint orbit with Casimir numbers (s 2 ,0,0). The Mathisson Papapetrou et al. equations of motion in a gravitational field are recovered, and moreover the particle appears to travel on null geodesics. Several implications are discussed

  8. Evaluation and accuracy of the local velocity data measurements in an agitated vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kysela Bohuš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Velocity measurements of the flow field in an agitated vessel are necessary for the improvement and better understanding of the mixing processes. The obtained results are used for the calculations of the impeller pumping capacity, comparison of the power consumption etc. We performed various measurements of the local velocities in an agitated vessel final results of which should be processed for several purposes so it was necessary to make an analysis of the obtained data suitability and their quality. Analysed velocity data were obtained from the LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry measurements performed on a standard equipment where the flat bottomed vessel with four baffles was agitated by the six-blade Rushton turbine. The results from both used methods were compared. The frequency analyses were examined as well as the dependency of the data rates, time series lengths etc. The demands for the data processed in the form of the ensemble-averaged results were also established.

  9. Localized corrosion in AA2099-T83 aluminum–lithium alloy: The role of intermetallic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y., E-mail: myl@cqut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, 400054 (China); Zhou, X., E-mail: xiaorong.zhou@manchester.ac.uk [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Huang, W. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, 400054 (China); Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Luo, C.; Sun, Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing, 100095 (China)

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of intermetallic particles and their role in the process of localized corrosion in AA2099-T83 aluminum–lithium alloy has been investigated. It was found that both high- and low-copper containing Al–Fe–Mn–Cu-(Li) particles could result in superficial pits on the alloy, and the high level of lithium in the high-copper-containing particles rendered them electrochemically more active than the low-copper-containing particles. Additionally, severe localized corrosion was found not to be directly related to the distribution of constituent particles in the alloy. The findings are not only relevant to the understanding of corrosion mechanism but also beneficial to the evaluation of thermomechanical treatments of the alloy. - Highlights: • Lithium was detected in the high-copper-containing Al–Fe–Mn–Cu particles. • The high-copper-containing particles were relatively more active. • Localized corrosion induced by constituent particles was superficial. • Severe localized corrosion in the alloy propagated via grain/subgrain boundaries. • Severe localized corrosion was not related to constituent particles.

  10. Improved techniques of impedance calculation and localization in particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Biancacci, Nicolò; Migliorati, Mauro; Métral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit

    In this thesis we mainly focus on particle accelerators applied to high energy physics research where a fundamental parameter, the luminosity, is maximized in order to increase the rate of particle collisions useful to particle physicists. One way to increase this parameter is to increase the intensity of the circulating beams which is limited by the onset of collective effects that may drive the beam unstable and eventually provoke beam losses or reduce the beam quality required by the particle physics experiments. One major cause of collective effects is the beam coupling impedance, a quantity that quantifies the effect of the fields scattered by a beam passing through any accelerator device. The development of an impedance budget is required in those machines that are planning substantial upgrades as shown in this thesis for the CERN PS case. The main source of impedance in the CERN LHC are the collimators. Within an impedance reduction perspective, in order to reach the goals of the planned upgrades, it ...

  11. Stopping power accuracy and achievable spatial resolution of helium ion imaging using a prototype particle CT detector system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volz Lennart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A precise relative stopping power map of the patient is crucial for accurate particle therapy. Charged particle imaging determines the stopping power either tomographically – particle computed tomography (pCT – or by combining prior knowledge from particle radiography (pRad and x-ray CT. Generally, multiple Coulomb scattering limits the spatial resolution. Compared to protons, heavier particles scatter less due to their lower charge/mass ratio. A theoretical framework to predict the most likely trajectory of particles in matter was developed for light ions up to carbon and was found to be the most accurate for helium comparing for fixed initial velocity. To further investigate the potential of helium in particle imaging, helium computed tomography (HeCT and radiography (HeRad were studied at the Heidel-berg Ion-Beam Therapy Centre (HIT using a prototype pCT detector system registering individual particles, originally developed by the U.S. pCT collaboration. Several phantoms were investigated: modules of the Catphan QA phantom for analysis of spatial resolution and achievable stopping power accuracy, a paediatric head phantom (CIRS and a custom-made phantom comprised of animal meat enclosed in a 2 % agarose mixture representing human tissue. The pCT images were reconstructed applying the CARP iterative reconstruction algorithm. The MTF10% was investigated using a sharp edge gradient technique. HeRad provides a spatial resolution above that of protons (MTF1010%=6.07 lp/cm for HeRad versus MTF10%=3.35 lp/cm for proton radiography. For HeCT, the spatial resolution was limited by the number of projections acquired (90 projections for a full scan. The RSP accuracy for all inserts of the Catphan CTP404 module was found to be 2.5% or better and is subject to further optimisation. In conclusion, helium imaging appears to offer higher spatial resolution compared to proton imaging. In future studies, the advantage of helium imaging compared to other

  12. Interaction of Spatially Localized LHW with Banana Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krlín, Ladislav; Fuchs, Vladimír; Pánek, Radomír; Papřok, Richard; Seidl, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2014), s. 166-168 ISSN 2336-2626. [SPPT 2014 - 26th Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/26./. Prague, 16.06.2014-19.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anomalous acceleration * stochasticity * lower hybrid waves * banana particles * tokamaks Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://fyzika.feld.cvut.cz/misc/ppt/articles/2014/krlin.pdf

  13. Comparative accuracy evaluation of fine-scale global and local digital surface models: The Tshwane Case Study I

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Breytenbach, Andre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conducted in the City of Tshwane, South Africa, this study set about to test the accuracy of DSMs derived from different remotely sensed data locally. VHR digital mapping camera stereo-pairs, tri-stereo imagery collected by a Pléiades satellite...

  14. Drag coefficient accuracy improvement by means of particle image velocimetry for a transonic NACA0012 airfoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragni, D; Van Oudheusden, B W; Scarano, F

    2011-01-01

    A method to improve the reliability of the drag coefficient computation by means of particle image velocimetry measurements is made using experimental data acquired on a NACA0012 airfoil tested in the transonic regime, using the combination of a variable pulse separation with a new high-order Poisson spectral pressure reconstruction algorithm. (technical design note)

  15. Local lubrication model for spherical particles within incompressible Navier-Stokes flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, B.; Weynans, L.; Bergmann, M.

    2018-03-01

    The lubrication forces are short-range hydrodynamic interactions essential to describe suspension of the particles. Usually, they are underestimated in direct numerical simulations of particle-laden flows. In this paper, we propose a lubrication model for a coupled volume penalization method and discrete element method solver that estimates the unresolved hydrodynamic forces and torques in an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow. Corrections are made locally on the surface of the interacting particles without any assumption on the global particle shape. The numerical model has been validated against experimental data and performs as well as existing numerical models that are limited to spherical particles.

  16. Local lubrication model for spherical particles within incompressible Navier-Stokes flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, B; Weynans, L; Bergmann, M

    2018-03-01

    The lubrication forces are short-range hydrodynamic interactions essential to describe suspension of the particles. Usually, they are underestimated in direct numerical simulations of particle-laden flows. In this paper, we propose a lubrication model for a coupled volume penalization method and discrete element method solver that estimates the unresolved hydrodynamic forces and torques in an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow. Corrections are made locally on the surface of the interacting particles without any assumption on the global particle shape. The numerical model has been validated against experimental data and performs as well as existing numerical models that are limited to spherical particles.

  17. 20007: Quantum particle displacement by a moving localized potential trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, E.; Marchewka, A.

    2009-04-01

    We describe the dynamics of a bound state of an attractive δ-well under displacement of the potential. Exact analytical results are presented for the suddenly moved potential. Since this is a quantum system, only a fraction of the initially confined wave function remains confined to the moving potential. However, it is shown that besides the probability to remain confined to the moving barrier and the probability to remain in the initial position, there is also a certain probability for the particle to move at double speed. A quasi-classical interpretation for this effect is suggested. The temporal and spectral dynamics of each one of the scenarios is investigated.

  18. The effects of local street network characteristics on the positional accuracy of automated geocoding for geographic health studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Dale L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated geocoding of patient addresses for the purpose of conducting spatial epidemiologic studies results in positional errors. It is well documented that errors tend to be larger in rural areas than in cities, but possible effects of local characteristics of the street network, such as street intersection density and street length, on errors have not yet been documented. Our study quantifies effects of these local street network characteristics on the means and the entire probability distributions of positional errors, using regression methods and tolerance intervals/regions, for more than 6000 geocoded patient addresses from an Iowa county. Results Positional errors were determined for 6376 addresses in Carroll County, Iowa, as the vector difference between each 100%-matched automated geocode and its ground-truthed location. Mean positional error magnitude was inversely related to proximate street intersection density. This effect was statistically significant for both rural and municipal addresses, but more so for the former. Also, the effect of street segment length on geocoding accuracy was statistically significant for municipal, but not rural, addresses; for municipal addresses mean error magnitude increased with length. Conclusion Local street network characteristics may have statistically significant effects on geocoding accuracy in some places, but not others. Even in those locales where their effects are statistically significant, street network characteristics may explain a relatively small portion of the variability among geocoding errors. It appears that additional factors besides rurality and local street network characteristics affect accuracy in general.

  19. Enhancement of Localization Accuracy in Cellular Networks via Cooperative AdHoc Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lhomme, Edouard; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao

    2006-01-01

    Positioning information enables new applications for cellular phones, personal communication systems, and specialized mobile radios. The network heterogeneity emerging in the fourth generation (4G) of mobile networks can be utilized for enhancements of the location estimation accuracy...

  20. A Localization Method for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Mobility Prediction and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their special environment, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs are usually deployed over a large sea area and the nodes are usually floating. This results in a lower beacon node distribution density, a longer time for localization, and more energy consumption. Currently most of the localization algorithms in this field do not pay enough consideration on the mobility of the nodes. In this paper, by analyzing the mobility patterns of water near the seashore, a localization method for UWSNs based on a Mobility Prediction and a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (MP-PSO is proposed. In this method, the range-based PSO algorithm is used to locate the beacon nodes, and their velocities can be calculated. The velocity of an unknown node is calculated by using the spatial correlation of underwater object’s mobility, and then their locations can be predicted. The range-based PSO algorithm may cause considerable energy consumption and its computation complexity is a little bit high, nevertheless the number of beacon nodes is relatively smaller, so the calculation for the large number of unknown nodes is succinct, and this method can obviously decrease the energy consumption and time cost of localizing these mobile nodes. The simulation results indicate that this method has higher localization accuracy and better localization coverage rate compared with some other widely used localization methods in this field.

  1. A Localization Method for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Mobility Prediction and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Jixing; Jiang, Shengming; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-06

    Due to their special environment, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are usually deployed over a large sea area and the nodes are usually floating. This results in a lower beacon node distribution density, a longer time for localization, and more energy consumption. Currently most of the localization algorithms in this field do not pay enough consideration on the mobility of the nodes. In this paper, by analyzing the mobility patterns of water near the seashore, a localization method for UWSNs based on a Mobility Prediction and a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (MP-PSO) is proposed. In this method, the range-based PSO algorithm is used to locate the beacon nodes, and their velocities can be calculated. The velocity of an unknown node is calculated by using the spatial correlation of underwater object's mobility, and then their locations can be predicted. The range-based PSO algorithm may cause considerable energy consumption and its computation complexity is a little bit high, nevertheless the number of beacon nodes is relatively smaller, so the calculation for the large number of unknown nodes is succinct, and this method can obviously decrease the energy consumption and time cost of localizing these mobile nodes. The simulation results indicate that this method has higher localization accuracy and better localization coverage rate compared with some other widely used localization methods in this field.

  2. Fiducial-Based Translational Localization Accuracy of Electromagnetic Tracking System and On-Board Kilovoltage Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Malinowski, Kathleen; Hubenshmidt, James; Dimmer, Steve; Mayse, Martin L.; Bradley, Jeffrey; Chaudhari, Amir; Lechleiter, Kirsten; Goddu, Sree Krishna Murty; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Mutic, Sasa; Low, Daniel A.; Parikh, Parag

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The Calypso medical four-dimensional localization system uses AC electromagnetics, which do not require ionizing radiation, for accurate, real-time tumor tracking. This investigation compared the static and dynamic tracking accuracy of this system to that of an on-board imaging kilovoltage X-ray system for concurrent use of the two systems. Methods and Materials: The localization accuracies of a kilovoltage imaging system and a continuous electromagnetic tracking system were compared. Using an in-house developed four-dimensional stage, quality-assurance fixture containing three radiofrequency transponders was positioned at a series of static locations and then moved through the ellipsoidal and nonuniform continuous paths. The transponder positions were tracked concurrently by the Calypso system. For static localization, the transponders were localized using portal images and digitally reconstructed radiographs by commercial matching software. For dynamic localization, the transponders were fluoroscopically imaged, and their positions were determined retrospectively using custom-written image processing programs. The localization data sets were synchronized with and compared to the known quality assurance fixture positions. The experiment was repeated to retrospectively track three transponders implanted in a canine lung. Results: The root mean square error of the on-board imaging and Calypso systems was 0.1 cm and 0.0 cm, respectively, for static localization, 0.22 mm and 0.33 mm for dynamic phantom positioning, and 0.42 mm for the canine study. Conclusion: The results showed that both localization systems provide submillimeter accuracy. The Calypso and on-board imaging tracking systems offer distinct sets of advantages and, given their compatibility, patients could benefit from the complementary nature of the two systems when used concurrently

  3. Local particle flux reversal under strongly sheared flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Newman, D.E.; Ware, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The advection of electron density by turbulent ExB flow with linearly varying mean yields a particle flux that can reverse sign at certain locations along the direction of magnetic shear. The effect, calculated for strong flow shear, resides in the density-potential cross phase. It is produced by the interplay between the inhomogeneities of magnetic shear and flow shear, but subject to a variety of conditions and constraints. The regions of reversed flux tend to wash out if the turbulence consists of closely spaced modes of different helicities, but survive if modes of a single helicity are relatively isolated. The reversed flux becomes negligible if the electron density response is governed by electron scales while the eigenmode is governed by ion scales. The relationship of these results to experimentally observe flux reversals is discussed

  4. Parameter Selection and Performance Comparison of Particle Swarm Optimization in Sensor Networks Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanqing Cui

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Localization is a key technology in wireless sensor networks. Faced with the challenges of the sensors’ memory, computational constraints, and limited energy, particle swarm optimization has been widely applied in the localization of wireless sensor networks, demonstrating better performance than other optimization methods. In particle swarm optimization-based localization algorithms, the variants and parameters should be chosen elaborately to achieve the best performance. However, there is a lack of guidance on how to choose these variants and parameters. Further, there is no comprehensive performance comparison among particle swarm optimization algorithms. The main contribution of this paper is three-fold. First, it surveys the popular particle swarm optimization variants and particle swarm optimization-based localization algorithms for wireless sensor networks. Secondly, it presents parameter selection of nine particle swarm optimization variants and six types of swarm topologies by extensive simulations. Thirdly, it comprehensively compares the performance of these algorithms. The results show that the particle swarm optimization with constriction coefficient using ring topology outperforms other variants and swarm topologies, and it performs better than the second-order cone programming algorithm.

  5. Parameter Selection and Performance Comparison of Particle Swarm Optimization in Sensor Networks Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huanqing; Shu, Minglei; Song, Min; Wang, Yinglong

    2017-03-01

    Localization is a key technology in wireless sensor networks. Faced with the challenges of the sensors' memory, computational constraints, and limited energy, particle swarm optimization has been widely applied in the localization of wireless sensor networks, demonstrating better performance than other optimization methods. In particle swarm optimization-based localization algorithms, the variants and parameters should be chosen elaborately to achieve the best performance. However, there is a lack of guidance on how to choose these variants and parameters. Further, there is no comprehensive performance comparison among particle swarm optimization algorithms. The main contribution of this paper is three-fold. First, it surveys the popular particle swarm optimization variants and particle swarm optimization-based localization algorithms for wireless sensor networks. Secondly, it presents parameter selection of nine particle swarm optimization variants and six types of swarm topologies by extensive simulations. Thirdly, it comprehensively compares the performance of these algorithms. The results show that the particle swarm optimization with constriction coefficient using ring topology outperforms other variants and swarm topologies, and it performs better than the second-order cone programming algorithm.

  6. Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with a Collective Local Unimodal Search for Continuous Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasomwan, Martins Akugbe; Adewumi, Aderemi Oluyinka

    2014-01-01

    A new local search technique is proposed and used to improve the performance of particle swarm optimization algorithms by addressing the problem of premature convergence. In the proposed local search technique, a potential particle position in the solution search space is collectively constructed by a number of randomly selected particles in the swarm. The number of times the selection is made varies with the dimension of the optimization problem and each selected particle donates the value in the location of its randomly selected dimension from its personal best. After constructing the potential particle position, some local search is done around its neighbourhood in comparison with the current swarm global best position. It is then used to replace the global best particle position if it is found to be better; otherwise no replacement is made. Using some well-studied benchmark problems with low and high dimensions, numerical simulations were used to validate the performance of the improved algorithms. Comparisons were made with four different PSO variants, two of the variants implement different local search technique while the other two do not. Results show that the improved algorithms could obtain better quality solution while demonstrating better convergence velocity and precision, stability, robustness, and global-local search ability than the competing variants. PMID:24723827

  7. Exploiting Deep Matching and SAR Data for the Geo-Localization Accuracy Improvement of Optical Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Merkle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving the geo-localization of optical satellite images is an important pre-processing step for many remote sensing tasks like monitoring by image time series or scene analysis after sudden events. These tasks require geo-referenced and precisely co-registered multi-sensor data. Images captured by the high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite TerraSAR-X exhibit an absolute geo-location accuracy within a few decimeters. These images represent therefore a reliable source to improve the geo-location accuracy of optical images, which is in the order of tens of meters. In this paper, a deep learning-based approach for the geo-localization accuracy improvement of optical satellite images through SAR reference data is investigated. Image registration between SAR and optical images requires few, but accurate and reliable matching points. These are derived from a Siamese neural network. The network is trained using TerraSAR-X and PRISM image pairs covering greater urban areas spread over Europe, in order to learn the two-dimensional spatial shifts between optical and SAR image patches. Results confirm that accurate and reliable matching points can be generated with higher matching accuracy and precision with respect to state-of-the-art approaches.

  8. Evaluation of a finite-element reciprocity method for epileptic EEG source localization: Accuracy, computational complexity and noise robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirvany, Yazdan; Rubæk, Tonny; Edelvik, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of an EEG source localization method that combines a finite element method (FEM) and the reciprocity theorem.The reciprocity method is applied to solve the forward problem in a four-layer spherical head model for a large number of test dipoles...... noise and electrode misplacement.The results show approximately 3% relative error between numerically calculated potentials done by the reciprocity theorem and the analytical solutions. When adding EEG noise with SNR between 5 and 10, the mean localization error is approximately 4.3 mm. For the case...... with 10 mm electrode misplacement the localization error is 4.8 mm. The reciprocity EEG source localization speeds up the solution of the inverse problem with more than three orders of magnitude compared to the state-of-the-art methods.The reciprocity method has high accuracy for modeling the dipole...

  9. COMPARATIVE ACCURACY EVALUATION OF FINE-SCALE GLOBAL AND LOCAL DIGITAL SURFACE MODELS: THE TSHWANE CASE STUDY I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Breytenbach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conducted in the City of Tshwane, South Africa, this study set about to test the accuracy of DSMs derived from different remotely sensed data locally. VHR digital mapping camera stereo-pairs, tri-stereo imagery collected by a Pléiades satellite and data detected from the Tandem-X InSAR satellite configuration were fundamental in the construction of seamless DSM products at different postings, namely 2 m, 4 m and 12 m. The three DSMs were sampled against independent control points originating from validated airborne LiDAR data. The reference surfaces were derived from the same dense point cloud at grid resolutions corresponding to those of the samples. The absolute and relative positional accuracies were computed using well-known DEM error metrics and accuracy statistics. Overall vertical accuracies were also assessed and compared across seven slope classes and nine primary land cover classes. Although all three DSMs displayed significantly more vertical errors where solid waterbodies, dense natural and/or alien woody vegetation and, in a lesser degree, urban residential areas with significant canopy cover were encountered, all three surpassed their expected positional accuracies overall.

  10. Constraining particle dark matter using local galaxy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Shin’ichiro; Ishiwata, Koji

    2016-01-01

    It has been long discussed that cosmic rays may contain signals of dark matter. In the last couple of years an anomaly of cosmic-ray positrons has drawn a lot of attentions, and recently an excess in cosmic-ray anti-proton has been reported by AMS-02 collaboration. Both excesses may indicate towards decaying or annihilating dark matter with a mass of around 1–10 TeV. In this article we study the gamma rays from dark matter and constraints from cross correlations with distribution of galaxies, particularly in a local volume. We find that gamma rays due to inverse-Compton process have large intensity, and hence they give stringent constraints on dark matter scenarios in the TeV scale mass regime. Taking the recent developments in modeling astrophysical gamma-ray sources as well as comprehensive possibilities of the final state products of dark matter decay or annihilation into account, we show that the parameter regions of decaying dark matter that are suggested to explain the excesses are excluded. We also discuss the constrains on annihilating scenarios.

  11. Analysis of prostate cancer localization toward improved diagnostic accuracy of transperineal prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Sakamoto

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: The concordance of prostate cancer between prostatectomy specimens and biopsies is comparatively favorable. According to our study, the diagnostic accuracy of transperineal prostate biopsy can be improved in our institute by including the anterior portion of the Apex-Mid and Mid regions in the 12-core biopsy or 16-core biopsy, such that a 4-core biopsy of the anterior portion is included.

  12. Localization Accuracy and Immobilization Effectiveness of a Stereotactic Body Frame for a Variety of Treatment Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ryan, E-mail: Ryan.Foster@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Meyer, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Puneeth; Pistenmaa, David; Timmerman, Robert; Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Solberg, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the pretreatment setup errors and intrafraction motion using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for stereotactic body radiation therapy patients immobilized and localized with a stereotactic body frame for a variety of treatment sites. Methods and Materials: Localization errors were recorded for patients receiving SBRT for 141 lung, 29 liver, 48 prostate, and 45 spine tumors representing 1005 total localization sessions. All patients were treated in a stereotactic body frame with a large custom-molded vacuum pillow. Patients were first localized to the frame using tattoos placed during simulation. Subsequently, the frame was aligned to the room lasers according to the stereotactic coordinates determined from the treatment plan. Every patient received a pretreatment and an intrafraction CBCT. Abdominal compression was used for all liver patients and for approximately 40% of the lung patients to reduce tumor motion due to respiration. Results: The mean ± standard deviation pretreatment setup errors from all localizations were −2.44 ± 3.85, 1.31 ± 5.84, and 0.11 ± 3.76 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean pretreatment localization results among all treatment sites were not significantly different (F test, P<.05). For all treatment sites, the mean ± standard deviation intrafraction shifts were 0.33 ± 1.34, 0.15 ± 1.45, and −0.02 ± 1.17 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean unidimensional intrafraction shifts were statistically different for several of the comparisons (P<.05) as assessed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Conclusions: Despite the varied tumor locations, the pretreatment mean localization errors for all sites were found to be consistent among the treatment sites and not significantly different, indicating that the body frame is a suitable immobilization and localization device for a variety of

  13. Localization Accuracy and Immobilization Effectiveness of a Stereotactic Body Frame for a Variety of Treatment Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Ryan; Meyer, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Puneeth; Pistenmaa, David; Timmerman, Robert; Choy, Hak; Solberg, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the pretreatment setup errors and intrafraction motion using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for stereotactic body radiation therapy patients immobilized and localized with a stereotactic body frame for a variety of treatment sites. Methods and Materials: Localization errors were recorded for patients receiving SBRT for 141 lung, 29 liver, 48 prostate, and 45 spine tumors representing 1005 total localization sessions. All patients were treated in a stereotactic body frame with a large custom-molded vacuum pillow. Patients were first localized to the frame using tattoos placed during simulation. Subsequently, the frame was aligned to the room lasers according to the stereotactic coordinates determined from the treatment plan. Every patient received a pretreatment and an intrafraction CBCT. Abdominal compression was used for all liver patients and for approximately 40% of the lung patients to reduce tumor motion due to respiration. Results: The mean ± standard deviation pretreatment setup errors from all localizations were −2.44 ± 3.85, 1.31 ± 5.84, and 0.11 ± 3.76 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean pretreatment localization results among all treatment sites were not significantly different (F test, P<.05). For all treatment sites, the mean ± standard deviation intrafraction shifts were 0.33 ± 1.34, 0.15 ± 1.45, and −0.02 ± 1.17 mm in the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and lateral directions, respectively. The mean unidimensional intrafraction shifts were statistically different for several of the comparisons (P<.05) as assessed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Conclusions: Despite the varied tumor locations, the pretreatment mean localization errors for all sites were found to be consistent among the treatment sites and not significantly different, indicating that the body frame is a suitable immobilization and localization device for a variety of

  14. Single-Sided Deafness: Impact of Cochlear Implantation on Speech Perception in Complex Noise and on Auditory Localization Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döge, Julia; Baumann, Uwe; Weissgerber, Tobias; Rader, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    To assess auditory localization accuracy and speech reception threshold (SRT) in complex noise conditions in adult patients with acquired single-sided deafness, after intervention with a cochlear implant (CI) in the deaf ear. Nonrandomized, open, prospective patient series. Tertiary referral university hospital. Eleven patients with late-onset single-sided deafness (SSD) and normal hearing in the unaffected ear, who received a CI. All patients were experienced CI users. Unilateral cochlear implantation. Speech perception was tested in a complex multitalker equivalent noise field consisting of multiple sound sources. Speech reception thresholds in noise were determined in aided (with CI) and unaided conditions. Localization accuracy was assessed in complete darkness. Acoustic stimuli were radiated by multiple loudspeakers distributed in the frontal horizontal plane between -60 and +60 degrees. In the aided condition, results show slightly improved speech reception scores compared with the unaided condition in most of the patients. For 8 of the 11 subjects, SRT was improved between 0.37 and 1.70 dB. Three of the 11 subjects showed deteriorations between 1.22 and 3.24 dB SRT. Median localization error decreased significantly by 12.9 degrees compared with the unaided condition. CI in single-sided deafness is an effective treatment to improve the auditory localization accuracy. Speech reception in complex noise conditions is improved to a lesser extent in 73% of the participating CI SSD patients. However, the absence of true binaural interaction effects (summation, squelch) impedes further improvements. The development of speech processing strategies that respect binaural interaction seems to be mandatory to advance speech perception in demanding listening situations in SSD patients.

  15. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Horng, Jim-Tong; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Tseng, You-Chen; Lin, Shiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Localization of single virus particle. ► Force measurements. ► Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  16. Violation of local realism by a system with N spin-(1/2) particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiao-Hua; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2003-01-01

    Recently, it was found that Mermin's inequalities may not always be optimal for the refutation of a local realistic description [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 210402 (2002)]. To complete this work, we derive an inequality for the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type pure state for a system with N spin-(1/2) particles and the violation of the inequality can be shown for all the non product pure states. Mermin's inequality for a system of N spin-(1/2) particles and Gisin's theorem for a system of two spin-(1/2) particles are both included in our inequality

  17. Accuracy of panoramic radiography and linear tomography in mandibular canal localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashizadeh Fakhar H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Accurate bone measurements are essential to determine the optimal size and length of dental implants. The magnification factor of radiographic images may vary with the imaging technique used. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of linear tomography and panoramic radiography in vertical measurements, as well as the accuracy of linear tomography in mandibular width estimation. "nMaterials and Methods: In this test evaluation study, the vertical distances between the crest and the superior border of the inferior alveolar canal, marked with a metal ball, was measured by linear tomography and panoramic radiography in 23 sites of four dry mandible bones. Also the mandibular width was measured at the same sites. Then, the bones were sectioned through the marked spots and the radiographic measurements were compared with actual values. "nResults: The vertical magnification factor in tomograms and panoramic radiographs was 1.79 (SD=0.17 and 1.69 (SD=0.23, respectively. The horizontal magnification of tomograms was 1.47 (SD=0.17. A significant correlation was found between the linear tomographic and actual values, regarding vertical dimensions (p<0.001, r=0.968 and width (p<0.001, r=0.813. The correlation was significant but lower in panoramic radiographs (p<0.001, r=0.795. Applying the magnification values suggested by the manufacturer, the mean difference of vertical measurements between the tomographic sections was 2.5 mm (SD=3.4 but 3.8 mm (SD=1.65 in panoramic radiographs. The mean of absolute difference in mandibular width between the tomographic sections and reality was 0.3mm (SD=1.13. In the linear tomograms, 4.3% of vertical and 56.5% of the width measurements were in the ±1mm error limit. Only 4.3% of the vertical measurements were within this range in the panthomographs. The linear regression equation between the actual values and those obtained by radiography in vertical dimensions showed that 87.5% of

  18. Accuracy assessment of tree crown detection using local maxima and multi-resolution segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N; Hamid, J R A; Latif, Z A

    2014-01-01

    Diversity of trees forms an important component in the forest ecosystems and needs proper inventories to assist the forest personnel in their daily activities. However, tree parameter measurements are often constrained by physical inaccessibility to site locations, high costs, and time. With the advancement in remote sensing technology, such as the provision of higher spatial and spectral resolution of imagery, a number of developed algorithms fulfil the needs of accurate tree inventories information in a cost effective and timely manner over larger forest areas. This study intends to generate tree distribution map in Ampang Forest Reserve using the Local Maxima and Multi-Resolution image segmentation algorithm. The utilization of recent worldview-2 imagery with Local Maxima and Multi-Resolution image segmentation proves to be capable of detecting and delineating the tree crown in its accurate standing position

  19. Improving the Classification Accuracy for Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Chinese Salvia miltiorrhiza Using Local Variable Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianqing Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the classification accuracy of Chinese Salvia miltiorrhiza using near-infrared spectroscopy, a novel local variable selection strategy is thus proposed. Combining the strengths of the local algorithm and interval partial least squares, the spectra data have firstly been divided into several pairs of classes in sample direction and equidistant subintervals in variable direction. Then, a local classification model has been built, and the most proper spectral region has been selected based on the new evaluation criterion considering both classification error rate and best predictive ability under the leave-one-out cross validation scheme for each pair of classes. Finally, each observation can be assigned to belong to the class according to the statistical analysis of classification results of the local classification model built on selected variables. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through near-infrared spectra of cultivated or wild Salvia miltiorrhiza, which are collected from 8 geographical origins in 5 provinces of China. For comparison, soft independent modelling of class analogy and partial least squares discriminant analysis methods are, respectively, employed as the classification model. Experimental results showed that classification performance of the classification model with local variable selection was obvious better than that without variable selection.

  20. Localization and registration accuracy in image guided neurosurgery: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamir, Reuben R.; Joskowicz, Leo; Spektor, Sergey; Shoshan, Yigal

    2009-01-01

    To measure and compare the clinical localization and registration errors in image-guided neurosurgery, with the purpose of revising current assumptions. Twelve patients who underwent brain surgeries with a navigation system were randomly selected. A neurosurgeon localized and correlated the landmarks on preoperative MRI images and on the intraoperative physical anatomy with a tracked pointer. In the laboratory, we generated 612 scenarios in which one landmark pair was defined as the target and the remaining ones were used to compute the registration transformation. Four errors were measured: (1) fiducial localization error (FLE); (2) target registration error (TRE); (3) fiducial registration error (FRE); (4) Fitzpatrick's target registration error estimation (F-TRE). We compared the different errors and computed their correlation. The image and physical FLE ranges were 0.5-2.0 and 1.6-3.0 mm, respectively. The measured TRE, FRE and F-TRE were 4.1±1.6, 3.9±1.2, and 3.7±2.2 mm, respectively. Low correlations of 0.19 and 0.37 were observed between the FRE and TRE and between the F-TRE and the TRE, respectively. The differences of the FRE and F-TRE from the TRE were 1.3±1.0 mm (max=5.5 mm) and 1.3±1.2 mm (max=7.3 mm), respectively. Contrary to common belief, the FLE presents significant variations. Moreover, both the FRE and the F-TRE are poor indicators of the TRE in image-to-patient registration. (orig.)

  1. Localization and registration accuracy in image guided neurosurgery: a clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamir, Reuben R.; Joskowicz, Leo [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Jerusalem (Israel); Spektor, Sergey; Shoshan, Yigal [Hadassah University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2009-01-15

    To measure and compare the clinical localization and registration errors in image-guided neurosurgery, with the purpose of revising current assumptions. Twelve patients who underwent brain surgeries with a navigation system were randomly selected. A neurosurgeon localized and correlated the landmarks on preoperative MRI images and on the intraoperative physical anatomy with a tracked pointer. In the laboratory, we generated 612 scenarios in which one landmark pair was defined as the target and the remaining ones were used to compute the registration transformation. Four errors were measured: (1) fiducial localization error (FLE); (2) target registration error (TRE); (3) fiducial registration error (FRE); (4) Fitzpatrick's target registration error estimation (F-TRE). We compared the different errors and computed their correlation. The image and physical FLE ranges were 0.5-2.0 and 1.6-3.0 mm, respectively. The measured TRE, FRE and F-TRE were 4.1{+-}1.6, 3.9{+-}1.2, and 3.7{+-}2.2 mm, respectively. Low correlations of 0.19 and 0.37 were observed between the FRE and TRE and between the F-TRE and the TRE, respectively. The differences of the FRE and F-TRE from the TRE were 1.3{+-}1.0 mm (max=5.5 mm) and 1.3{+-}1.2 mm (max=7.3 mm), respectively. Contrary to common belief, the FLE presents significant variations. Moreover, both the FRE and the F-TRE are poor indicators of the TRE in image-to-patient registration. (orig.)

  2. Local exclusion principle for identical particles obeying intermediate and fractional statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundholm, Douglas; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2013-01-01

    A local exclusion principle is observed for identical particles obeying intermediate and fractional exchange statistics in one and two dimensions, leading to bounds for the kinetic energy in terms of the density. This has implications for models of Lieb-Liniger and Calogero-Sutherland type...

  3. Localized orbitals vs. pseudopotential-plane waves basis sets: performances and accuracy for molecular magnetic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Massobrio, C

    2003-01-01

    Density functional theory, in combination with a) a careful choice of the exchange-correlation part of the total energy and b) localized basis sets for the electronic orbital, has become the method of choice for calculating the exchange-couplings in magnetic molecular complexes. Orbital expansion on plane waves can be seen as an alternative basis set especially suited to allow optimization of newly synthesized materials of unknown geometries. However, little is known on the predictive power of this scheme to yield quantitative values for exchange coupling constants J as small as a few hundredths of eV (50-300 cm sup - sup 1). We have used density functional theory and a plane waves basis set to calculate the exchange couplings J of three homodinuclear Cu-based molecular complexes with experimental values ranging from +40 cm sup - sup 1 to -300 cm sup - sup 1. The plane waves basis set proves as accurate as the localized basis set, thereby suggesting that this approach can be reliably employed to predict and r...

  4. Localized orbitals vs. pseudopotential-plane waves basis sets: performances and accuracy for molecular magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massobrio, C.; Ruiz, E.

    2003-01-01

    Density functional theory, in combination with a) a careful choice of the exchange-correlation part of the total energy and b) localized basis sets for the electronic orbital, has become the method of choice for calculating the exchange-couplings in magnetic molecular complexes. Orbital expansion on plane waves can be seen as an alternative basis set especially suited to allow optimization of newly synthesized materials of unknown geometries. However, little is known on the predictive power of this scheme to yield quantitative values for exchange coupling constants J as small as a few hundredths of eV (50-300 cm -1 ). We have used density functional theory and a plane waves basis set to calculate the exchange couplings J of three homodinuclear Cu-based molecular complexes with experimental values ranging from +40 cm -1 to -300 cm -1 . The plane waves basis set proves as accurate as the localized basis set, thereby suggesting that this approach can be reliably employed to predict and rationalize the magnetic properties of molecular-based materials. (author)

  5. Localized and Delocalized Motion of Colloidal Particles on a Magnetic Bubble Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierno, Pietro; Fischer, Thomas M.; Johansen, Tom H.

    2007-01-01

    We study the motion of paramagnetic colloidal particles placed above magnetic bubble domains of a uniaxial garnet film and driven through the lattice by external magnetic field modulation. An external tunable precessing field propels the particles either in localized orbits around the bubbles or in superdiffusive or ballistic motion through the bubble array. This motion results from the interplay between the driving rotating signal, the viscous drag force and the periodic magnetic energy landscape. We explain the transition in terms of the incommensurability between the transit frequency of the particle through a unit cell and the modulation frequency. Ballistic motion dynamically breaks the symmetry of the array and the phase locked particles follow one of the six crystal directions

  6. Improvement of local position accuracy of robots for off-line programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borm, Jin Hwan; Choi, Jong Cheon

    1992-01-01

    For the implementation of industrial robots in a CIM environment, it is necessary to be able to position their end-effectors to an abstractly defined cartesian position with desired accuracy. In other words, it is necessary to find accurate actuator command values corresponding to given goal positions which are expressed with respect to a certain coordinate frame. If the teaching -by-doing method is used, very accurate actuator command values are obtained from transducer readings. For the case when the goal positions are mathematically expressed, however, the actuator command values for the goal positions must be calculated using robot kinematics. It is, however, well known that the position errors in the order of 10 mm is not unusual while many industrial robots have the repeatability in the order of 0.1mm. In here, the position error is referred to as the difference between the specified goal position and the position where a robot is actually controlled. To reduce the position errors, many researchers proposed calibration methods which are based on robot kinematic identification. However, those methods are quite complex and require an accurate position measuring device. In this paper, a new method which dose not require the accurate kinematic identification, is introduced. In this method, the accurate actuator command values are calculated using the nominal kinematic model which is appropriatly altered based on the available encoder readings of the several reference frames. To demonstrate the simplicity and the effectiveness of the method, computer simulations as well as experimental studies are performed and their results are discussed. (Author)

  7. High-accuracy local positioning network for the alignment of the Mu2e experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejdukova, Jana B. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-01

    This Diploma thesis describes the establishment of a high-precision local positioning network and accelerator alignment for the Mu2e physics experiment. The process of establishing new network consists of few steps: design of the network, pre-analysis, installation works, measurements of the network and making adjustments. Adjustments were performed using two approaches. First is a geodetic approach of taking into account the Earth’s curvature and the metrological approach of a pure 3D Cartesian system on the other side. The comparison of those two approaches is performed and evaluated in the results and compared with expected differences. The effect of the Earth’s curvature was found to be significant for this kind of network and should not be neglected. The measurements were obtained with Absolute Tracker AT401, leveling instrument Leica DNA03 and gyrotheodolite DMT Gyromat 2000. The coordinates of the points of the reference network were determined by the Least Square Meth od and the overall view is attached as Annexes.

  8. DROPOUTS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES: ASSOCIATED WITH LOCAL TRAPPING BOUNDARIES OR CURRENT SHEETS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seripienlert, A.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P.

    2010-01-01

    In recent observations by the Advanced Composition Explorer, the intensity of solar energetic particles exhibits sudden, large changes known as dropouts. These have been explained in terms of turbulence or a flux tube structure in the solar wind. Dropouts are believed to indicate filamentary magnetic connection to a localized particle source near the solar surface, and computer simulations of a random-phase model of magnetic turbulence have indicated a spatial association between dropout features and local trapping boundaries (LTBs) defined for a two-dimensional (2D) + slab model of turbulence. Previous observations have shown that dropout features are not well associated with sharp magnetic field changes, as might be expected in the flux tube model. Random-phase turbulence models do not properly treat sharp changes in the magnetic field, such as current sheets, and thus cannot be tested in this way. Here, we explore the properties of a more realistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence model (2D MHD), in which current sheets develop and the current and magnetic field have characteristic non-Gaussian statistical properties. For this model, computer simulations that trace field lines to determine magnetic connection from a localized particle source indicate that sharp particle gradients should frequently be associated with LTBs, sometimes with strong 2D magnetic fluctuations, and infrequently with current sheets. Thus, the 2D MHD + slab model of turbulent fluctuations includes some realistic features of the flux tube view and is consistent with the lack of an observed association between dropouts and intense magnetic fields or currents.

  9. Localized Models of Charged Particle Motion in Martian Crustal Magnetic Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, D. A.; Poppe, A. R.; Jarvinen, R.; Dong, Y.; Egan, H. L.; Fang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The induced magnetosphere of Mars is punctuated by localized but strong crustal magnetic fields that are observed to play host to a variety of phenomena typically associated with global magnetic fields, such as auroral processes and particle precipitation, field-aligned current systems, and ion outflow. Each of these phenomena occur on the night side, in small-scale magnetic `cusp' regions of vertically aligned field. Cusp regions are not yet capable of being spatially resolved in global scale models that include the ion kinetics necessary for simulating charged particle transport along cusps. Local models are therefore necessary if we are to understand how cusp processes operate at Mars. Here we present the first results of an effort to model the kinetic particle motion and electric fields in Martian cusps. We are adapting both a 1.5D Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model for lunar magnetic cusps regions to the Martian case and a hybrid model framework (used previously for the global Martian plasma interaction and for lunar magnetic anomaly regions) to cusps in 2D. By comparing the models we can asses the importance of electron kinetics in particle transport along cusp field lines. In this first stage of our study we model a moderately strong nightside cusp, with incident hot hydrogen plasma from above, and cold planetary (oxygen) plasma entering the simulation from below. We report on the spatial and temporal distribution of plasma along cusp field lines for this initial case.

  10. Asymptotic expansion in the local limit theorem for the particle number in the grand canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosian, S.

    1981-01-01

    It is known that in the grand canonical ensemble (for the case of small density of particles) the fluctuations (approximately mod(Λ)sup(1/2)) in the particle number have an asymptotic normal distribution as Λ→infinity. A similar statement holds for the distribution of the particle number in a bounded domain evaluated with respect to the limiting Gibbs distribution. The author obtains an asymptotic expansion in the local limit theorem for the particle number in the grand canonical ensemble, by using the asymptotic expansion of the grand canonical partition function. The coefficients of this expansion are not constants but depend on the form of the domain Λ. More precisely, they are constant up to a correction which is small (for large Λ). The author obtains an explicit form for the second term of the asymptotic expansion in the local limit theorem for the particle number, and also gets the first correction terms for the coefficients of this expansion. (Auth.)

  11. Dynamics of many-body localization in the presence of particle loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenburg, EPL; Yago Malo, J.; Daley, AJ; Fischer, MH

    2018-01-01

    At long times, residual couplings to the environment become relevant even in the most isolated experiments, a crucial difficulty for the study of fundamental aspects of many-body dynamics. A particular example is many-body localization in a cold-atom setting, where incoherent photon scattering introduces both dephasing and particle loss. Whereas dephasing has been studied in detail and is known to destroy localization already on the level of non-interacting particles, the effect of particle loss is less well understood. A difficulty arises due to the ‘non-local’ nature of the loss process, complicating standard numerical tools using matrix product decomposition. Utilizing symmetries of the Lindbladian dynamics, we investigate the particle loss on both the dynamics of observables, as well as the structure of the density matrix and the individual states. We find that particle loss in the presence of interactions leads to dissipation and a strong suppression of the (operator space) entanglement entropy. Our approach allows for the study of the interplay of dephasing and loss for pure and mixed initial states to long times, which is important for future experiments using controlled coupling of the environment.

  12. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Hao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong [Department of Biochemistry, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jeng-Shian [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chung-Fan [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Tseng, You-Chen [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiming, E-mail: til@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, College of Medicine, Nation Taiwan University, 1-1 Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  13. Local recurrence of rectal cancer: MR imaging before and after oral superparamagnetic particles vs contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, L.; Ohlsen, H.; Holm, T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three imaging strategies for the diagnosis of local recurrence of rectal cancer: (a) MR imaging; (b) MR imaging after administration of enteral superparamagnetic particles (Ferristene); and (c) contrast-enhanced CT. Seventeen patients with previous surgery for rectal cancer were examined, 12 patients with local tumour recurrence in the pelvis and 5 patients with postoperative changes. Pelvic multi-coil MR imaging before and after oral administration of superparamagnetic contrast medium [Abdoscan (Ferristene USAN), Nycomed-Amersham, Lidingoe, Sweden] as well as abdominal and pelvic CT was performed in all patients. The examinations were independently evaluated by three different radiologists. The general effect of the oral MR contrast medium, the delineation of normal and pathological structures as well as confidence in the diagnosis were registered on a visual analog scale (VAS). The diagnosis according to MR before and after oral contrast medium, and CT, was compared, in 16 patients, with the final diagnosis which was verified by biopsy (n = 3), surgery (n = 6), clinical follow-up (n = 4) and by follow-up with MR or CT (n = 3). No significant improvement in MR image quality was found after enteral contrast medium. The post-contrast MR diagnosis was not changed in any of the patients. The diagnosis on MR correlated with the final diagnosis in 12 of 16 patients (sensitivity 91 %, accuracy 62 %) and the diagnosis on CT in 11 of 16 patients (sensitivity 82 %, accuracy 56 %). The radiologists' ''confidence'' in the diagnosis and the degree of accordance with the final diagnosis did not score higher on MR after than before oral contrast administration; however, the accordance with the final diagnosis scored better on MR than on CT. No advantages of orally administered superparamagnetic contrast medium were observed in the examined patient group. Magnetic resonance is preferable to CT in diagnosing local tumour recurrence. (orig.)

  14. Quantum non-locality in a two-slit interferometer for short-lived particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new test of quantum nonlocality, using an interferometer for short-lived particles. The separation is large compared with the particle lifetimes. This interferometer is realized by vector meson production in distant heavy ion collisions. The mesons decay before waves from the two sources (ions) can overlap, so interference is only possible among the decay products. The post-decay wave function must retain amplitudes for all possible decays. The decay products are spatially separated, necessitating a non-local wave function. The interference is measurable by summing the product momenta. Alternately, the products positions could be observed, allowing new tests of the EPR paradox

  15. A model for particle and heat losses by type I edge localized modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokar, M Z; Gupta, A; Kalupin, D; Singh, R

    2007-01-01

    A model to estimate the particle and energy losses caused in tokamaks by type I edge localized modes (ELMs) is proposed. This model is based on the assumption that the increase in transport by ELM is due to flows along magnetic field lines perturbed by ballooning-peeling MHD modes. The model reproduces well the experimentally found variation of losses with the plasma collisionality ν*, namely, the weak dependence of the particle loss and significant reduction of the energy loss with increasing ν*. It is argued that the electron parallel heat conductivity is dominating in the energy loss at not very large ν*

  16. Local time asymmetry of Pc 4--5 pulsations and associated particle modulations at synchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, S.; Erickson, K.N.; Fritz, T.A.; McPherron, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic field and particle flux observations on board ATS 6 at synchronous altitude are used to examine the dawn-dusk asymmetry of characteristics of Pc 4--5 waves and associated particle flux modulation. Most waves at synchronous orbit having ground correlations are polarized in the azimuthal direction (A class) and are usually detected in the dawn sector. Waves with a radially oriented polarization ellipse (R-class) are almost never observed near the subsatellite point on the ground, except for the regular pulsations known as giant pulsation Pg, observed in the early morning. R class Pc 4 waves occur at all local times and have an occurrence peak in the afternoon

  17. Particle localization in a double-well potential by pseudo-supersymmetric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V. G.; Samsonov, B. F.; Shamshutdinova, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    We study properties of a particle moving in a double-well potential in the two-level approximation placed in an additional external time-dependent field. Using previously established property (J. Phys. A 41, 244023 (2008)) that any two-level system possesses a pseudo-supersymmetry we introduce the notion of pseudo-supersymmetric field. It is shown that these fields, even if their time dependence is not periodical, may produce the effect of localization of the particle in one of the wells of the double-well potential.

  18. Horizon wave function for single localized particles: GUP and quantum black-hole decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Scardigli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    A localized particle in Quantum Mechanics is described by a wave packet in position space, regardless of its energy. However, from the point of view of General Relativity, if the particle's energy density exceeds a certain threshold, it should be a black hole. To combine these two pictures, we introduce a horizon wave function determined by the particle wave function in position space, which eventually yields the probability that the particle is a black hole. The existence of a minimum mass for black holes naturally follows, albeit not in the form of a sharp value around the Planck scale, but rather like a vanishing probability that a particle much lighter than the Planck mass may be a black hole. We also show that our construction entails an effective generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), simply obtained by adding the uncertainties coming from the two wave functions associated with a particle. Finally, the decay of microscopic (quantum) black holes is also described in agreement with what the GUP predicts. (orig.)

  19. Path integral for spinning particle in the plane wave field: Global and local projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudiaf, N.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L.

    2001-01-01

    The Green function related to the problem of a Dirac particle interacting with a plane wave is calculated via the path integral formalism proposed recently by Alexandrou et al. according to the two so-called global and local projections. With the help of the incorporation of two simple identities, it is shown that the contribution to the calculation of the integrals comes essentially from classical solutions projected along the direction of wave propagation. (orig.)

  20. Current reversals and metastable states in the infinite Bose-Hubbard chain with local particle loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer-Emmanouilidis, M.; Sirker, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present an algorithm which combines the quantum trajectory approach to open quantum systems with a density-matrix renormalization-group scheme for infinite one-dimensional lattice systems. We apply this method to investigate the long-time dynamics in the Bose-Hubbard model with local particle loss starting from a Mott-insulating initial state with one boson per site. While the short-time dynamics can be described even quantitatively by an equation of motion (EOM) approach at the mean-field level, many-body interactions lead to unexpected effects at intermediate and long times: local particle currents far away from the dissipative site start to reverse direction ultimately leading to a metastable state with a total particle current pointing away from the lossy site. An alternative EOM approach based on an effective fermion model shows that the reversal of currents can be understood qualitatively by the creation of holon-doublon pairs at the edge of the region of reduced particle density. The doublons are then able to escape while the holes move towards the dissipative site, a process reminiscent—in a loose sense—of Hawking radiation.

  1. A fully-automated multiscale kernel graph cuts based particle localization scheme for temporal focusing two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xia; Li, Chunqiang; Xiao, Chuan; Sun, Wenqing; Qian, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The temporal focusing two-photon microscope (TFM) is developed to perform depth resolved wide field fluorescence imaging by capturing frames sequentially. However, due to strong nonignorable noises and diffraction rings surrounding particles, further researches are extremely formidable without a precise particle localization technique. In this paper, we developed a fully-automated scheme to locate particles positions with high noise tolerance. Our scheme includes the following procedures: noise reduction using a hybrid Kalman filter method, particle segmentation based on a multiscale kernel graph cuts global and local segmentation algorithm, and a kinematic estimation based particle tracking method. Both isolated and partial-overlapped particles can be accurately identified with removal of unrelated pixels. Based on our quantitative analysis, 96.22% isolated particles and 84.19% partial-overlapped particles were successfully detected.

  2. Bilayer Local Search Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Foysal Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The classical capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP is a very popular combinatorial optimization problem in the field of logistics and supply chain management. Although CVRP has drawn interests of many researchers, no standard way has been established yet to obtain best known solutions for all the different problem sets. We propose an efficient algorithm Bilayer Local Search-based Particle Swarm Optimization (BLS-PSO along with a novel decoding method to solve CVRP. Decoding method is important to relate the encoded particle position to a feasible CVRP solution. In bilayer local search, one layer of local search is for the whole population in any iteration whereas another one is applied only on the pool of the best particles generated in different generations. Such searching strategies help the BLS-PSO to perform better than the existing proposals by obtaining best known solutions for most of the existing benchmark problems within very reasonable computational time. Computational results also show that the performance achieved by the proposed algorithm outperforms other PSO-based approaches.

  3. A Nonlinear Framework of Delayed Particle Smoothing Method for Vehicle Localization under Non-Gaussian Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel nonlinear framework of smoothing method, non-Gaussian delayed particle smoother (nGDPS, is proposed, which enables vehicle state estimation (VSE with high accuracy taking into account the non-Gaussianity of the measurement and process noises. Within the proposed method, the multivariate Student’s t-distribution is adopted in order to compute the probability distribution function (PDF related to the process and measurement noises, which are assumed to be non-Gaussian distributed. A computation approach based on Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF is designed to cope with the mean and the covariance matrix of the proposal non-Gaussian distribution. A delayed Gibbs sampling algorithm, which incorporates smoothing of the sampled trajectories over a fixed-delay, is proposed to deal with the sample degeneracy of particles. The performance is investigated based on the real-world data, which is collected by low-cost on-board vehicle sensors. The comparison study based on the real-world experiments and the statistical analysis demonstrates that the proposed nGDPS has significant improvement on the vehicle state accuracy and outperforms the existing filtering and smoothing methods.

  4. Local System Matrix Compression for Efficient Reconstruction in Magnetic Particle Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Knopp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic particle imaging (MPI is a quantitative method for determining the spatial distribution of magnetic nanoparticles, which can be used as tracers for cardiovascular imaging. For reconstructing a spatial map of the particle distribution, the system matrix describing the magnetic particle imaging equation has to be known. Due to the complex dynamic behavior of the magnetic particles, the system matrix is commonly measured in a calibration procedure. In order to speed up the reconstruction process, recently, a matrix compression technique has been proposed that makes use of a basis transformation in order to compress the MPI system matrix. By thresholding the resulting matrix and storing the remaining entries in compressed row storage format, only a fraction of the data has to be processed when reconstructing the particle distribution. In the present work, it is shown that the image quality of the algorithm can be considerably improved by using a local threshold for each matrix row instead of a global threshold for the entire system matrix.

  5. The accuracy and utility of contrast-enhanced MR angiography for localization of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: the Toronto experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenholz, Arjen [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Neurosurgery AB71, PO Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Neuroradiology, Toronto, ON (Canada); TerBrugge, Karel G.; Farb, Richard I. [Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Neuroradiology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dijk, J.M.C. van [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Neurosurgery AB71, PO Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and utility of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) in spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF). A retrospective analysis from 1999-2012 identified 70 patients clinically suspected of harboring a SDAVF. Each patient underwent consecutive conventional MR-imaging, CE-MRA, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The presence or absence of serpentine flow voids, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and cord enhancement were evaluated, as well as location of the fistula as predicted by CE-MRA. DSA was used as the reference standard. Of the 70 cases, 53 were determined to be a SDAVF, 10 cases were shown to be other forms of vascular malformation, and 7 were DSA-negative. On MRI, all reported cases of SDAVF showed serpentine flow voids (100 %). T2-weighted hyperintensity was seen in 48 of 50 cases (96 %), extending to the conus in 41 of 48 cases (85 %). Cord enhancement was seen in 38 of 41 cases (93 %). CE-MRA correctly localized the SDAVF in 43 of the 53 cases (81 %). CE-MRA is a useful non-invasive examination for the detection and localization of SDAVF. CE-MRA facilitates but does not replace DSA as confirmation of location, fistula type, and arterial detail, which are required before treatment. (orig.)

  6. Multiphysics and Thermal Response Models to Improve Accuracy of Local Temperature Estimation in Rat Cortex under Microwave Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Sachiko; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Hirata, Akimasa; Masuda, Hiroshi; Arima, Takuji; Watanabe, Soichi

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of wireless technology has led to widespread concerns regarding adverse human health effects caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields. Temperature elevation in biological bodies is an important factor that can adversely affect health. A thermophysiological model is desired to quantify microwave (MW) induced temperature elevations. In this study, parameters related to thermophysiological responses for MW exposures were estimated using an electromagnetic-thermodynamics simulation technique. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study in which parameters related to regional cerebral blood flow in a rat model were extracted at a high degree of accuracy through experimental measurements for localized MW exposure at frequencies exceeding 6 GHz. The findings indicate that the improved modeling parameters yield computed results that match well with the measured quantities during and after exposure in rats. It is expected that the computational model will be helpful in estimating the temperature elevation in the rat brain at multiple observation points (that are difficult to measure simultaneously) and in explaining the physiological changes in the local cortex region. PMID:28358345

  7. Local behavior and lymph node metastases of Wilms' tumor: accuracy of computed tomography; Comportamento local e metastases linfonodais do tumor de Wilms: acuracia da tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eduardo Just da Costa e, E-mail: eduardojust@oi.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. Maternal Infantil

    2014-01-15

    Objective: to evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography for local and lymph node staging of Wilms' tumor. Materials and methods: each case of Wilms' tumor was evaluated for the presence of abdominal lymph nodes by a radiologist. Signs of capsule and adjacent organ invasion were analyzed. Surgical and histopathological results were taken as the gold standard. Results: sensitivity was 100% for both mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes detection, and specificity was, respectively, 12% and 33%, with positive predictive value of 8% and 11% and negative predictive value of 100%. Signs of capsular invasion presented sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 77%, positive predictive value of 63% and negative predictive value of 93%. Signs of adjacent organ invasion presented sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 78%, positive predictive value of 37% and negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: computed tomography tumor showed low specificity and low positive predictive value in the detection of lymph node dissemination. The absence of detectable lymph nodes makes their presence unlikely, and likewise regarding the evaluation of local behavior of tumors. (author)

  8. Many-body localization dynamics from a one-particle perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezama Mergold Love, Talia; Bera, Soumya; Bardarson, Jens Hjorleifur [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Systems exhibiting many-body localization (Anderson insulators in the presence of interactions) present a novel class of nonergodic phases of matter. The study of entanglement, in terms of both exact eigenstates and its time evolution after quenches, has been useful to reveal the salient signatures of these systems. Similarly to the entanglement entropy of exact eigenstates, the one-particle density matrix can be used as a tool to characterize the many-body localization transition with its eigenvalues showing a Fermi-liquid like step discontinuity in the localized phase. However, this analysis distinguishes the Fock-space structure of the eigenstates from the real space. Here, we present numerical evidence for dynamical signatures of the many-body localized phase for a closed fermionic system, using the one-particle density matrix and its time evolution after a global quench. We discuss and compare our results with the well-known logarithmic spreading of entanglement (a dynamical signature of this phase, absent in the Anderson insulator).

  9. Particle swarm optimization-based local entropy weighted histogram equalization for infrared image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Qian, Weixian; Ren, Kan; Chen, Qian; Maldague, Xavier

    2018-06-01

    Infrared image enhancement plays a significant role in intelligent urban surveillance systems for smart city applications. Unlike existing methods only exaggerating the global contrast, we propose a particle swam optimization-based local entropy weighted histogram equalization which involves the enhancement of both local details and fore-and background contrast. First of all, a novel local entropy weighted histogram depicting the distribution of detail information is calculated based on a modified hyperbolic tangent function. Then, the histogram is divided into two parts via a threshold maximizing the inter-class variance in order to improve the contrasts of foreground and background, respectively. To avoid over-enhancement and noise amplification, double plateau thresholds of the presented histogram are formulated by means of particle swarm optimization algorithm. Lastly, each sub-image is equalized independently according to the constrained sub-local entropy weighted histogram. Comparative experiments implemented on real infrared images prove that our algorithm outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of both visual and quantized evaluations.

  10. Response of energetic particles to local magnetic dipolarization inside geosynchronous orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic field dipolarization and energetic particle injections are the most distinct phenomena observed in the inner magnetosphere during the substorm expansion phase. Compared to a wealth of knowledge about the phenomenology of magnetic dipolarizations and particle injections at/outside geosynchronous orbit (GEO), our understanding of them inside GEO remains incomplete because of a very limited number of previous studies. In the present study, we statistically examine the response of 1-1000 keV energetic particles to local magnetic dipolarization by performing a superposed epoch analysis of energetic particle fluxes with the zero epoch defined as the dipolarization onset times. Based on data from the Van Allen Probes tail seasons in 2012-2016, we identified a total of 97 magnetic dipolarization events which occurred closer to the magnetic equator (i.e., BH, which is antiparallel to the Earth's dipole axis, is the dominant component of the local magnetic field at least for 5 min before the onset). For major ion species (hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions), the relative flux intensity to the pre-onset level increases at > 50 keV and decreases at inverse energy dispersion. For dipolarizations with strong impulsive westward electric fields, the relative electron flux intensity increases up to 5-10 times, in particular most significant at several tens of keV. This result suggests that the impulsive electric field acts as an efficient factor in the rapid energization of the tens-of-keV electrons. We also discuss how the response of energetic particles to dipolarization depends on MLT, radial distance, and pitch angle.

  11. Attempts of local irradiation of cells by microbeam. From ultraviolet to heavy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    This review describes the history of attempts of local irradiation of cells by microbeam and present status of the study. Local irradiation of cells was attempted as early as in 1912 with use of short {alpha}-particle range and of focused UV beams. After the war, laser microbeams were then developed for microsurgery in embryology. In addition, microbeams of electron generated from the gun and of X-ray collimated were developed. In 1950s, the electron microbeam was generated from Van de Graaff accelerator in Chicago University and proton, deuteron and He-ion microbeams from the cyclotron, in BNL. In 1980s, Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (Germany) used heavy ion microbeams from C to U generated from the linear accelerator and PNL, proton to {sup 4}He-ion microbeams from the tandem-electrostatic accelerator. At present in 2002, the equipments for microbeam for cell irradiation are the Van de Graaff accelerators in Gray Cancer Institute (England) and in Columbia University, and the cyclotron in TIARA in Japan. The purpose of the study in TIARA is to develop a system to generate heavy particle microbeams for cell irradiation for analysis of the biological effect of ultra-low fluence, high LET heavy particles like the galactic cosmic ray. Recently, the CHO-KI cell nucleus is irradiated by {sup 40}Ar and {sup 20}Ne ions. (K.H.)

  12. Attempts of local irradiation of cells by microbeam. From ultraviolet to heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the history of attempts of local irradiation of cells by microbeam and present status of the study. Local irradiation of cells was attempted as early as in 1912 with use of short α-particle range and of focused UV beams. After the war, laser microbeams were then developed for microsurgery in embryology. In addition, microbeams of electron generated from the gun and of X-ray collimated were developed. In 1950s, the electron microbeam was generated from Van de Graaff accelerator in Chicago University and proton, deuteron and He-ion microbeams from the cyclotron, in BNL. In 1980s, Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (Germany) used heavy ion microbeams from C to U generated from the linear accelerator and PNL, proton to 4 He-ion microbeams from the tandem-electrostatic accelerator. At present in 2002, the equipments for microbeam for cell irradiation are the Van de Graaff accelerators in Gray Cancer Institute (England) and in Columbia University, and the cyclotron in TIARA in Japan. The purpose of the study in TIARA is to develop a system to generate heavy particle microbeams for cell irradiation for analysis of the biological effect of ultra-low fluence, high LET heavy particles like the galactic cosmic ray. Recently, the CHO-KI cell nucleus is irradiated by 40 Ar and 20 Ne ions. (K.H.)

  13. Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya D. Feranchuk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ''physical'' electron (positron and it allows one to solve the following problems: i to express the ''primary'' charge $e_0$ and the mass $m_0$ of the ''bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of $e$ and $m$ of the ''physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii to consider $mu$-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio $m_mu/m$; iii to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass $m$; iv to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge $e ll 1$ corresponds to the strong coupling expansion in a power of the ''primary'' charge $e^{-1}_0 sim e$ when the interaction between the ''physical'' electron and the transverse electromagnetic field is considered by means of the perturbation theory and all terms of this series are free from the ultraviolet divergence.

  14. Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Local Attractors of Ordinary Differential Equation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle swarm optimization (PSO is inspired by sociological behavior. In this paper, we interpret PSO as a finite difference scheme for solving a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations (SODE. In this framework, the position points of the swarm converge to an equilibrium point of the SODE and the local attractors, which are easily defined by the present position points, also converge to the global attractor. Inspired by this observation, we propose a class of modified PSO iteration methods (MPSO based on local attractors of the SODE. The idea of MPSO is to choose the next update state near the present local attractor, rather than the present position point as in the original PSO, according to a given probability density function. In particular, the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization method turns out to be a special case of MPSO by taking a special probability density function. The MPSO methods with six different probability density functions are tested on a few benchmark problems. These MPSO methods behave differently for different problems. Thus, our framework not only gives an interpretation for the ordinary PSO but also, more importantly, provides a warehouse of PSO-like methods to choose from for solving different practical problems.

  15. Transport and Quantum Coherence in Graphene Rings: Aharonov-Bohm Oscillations, Klein Tunneling, and Particle Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filusch, Alexander; Wurl, Christian; Pieper, Andreas; Fehske, Holger

    2018-06-01

    Simulating quantum transport through mesoscopic, ring-shaped graphene structures, we address various quantum coherence and interference phenomena. First, a perpendicular magnetic field, penetrating the graphene ring, gives rise to Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the conductance as a function of the magnetic flux, on top of the universal conductance fluctuations. At very high fluxes, the interference gets suppressed and quantum Hall edge channels develop. Second, applying an electrostatic potential to one of the ring arms, nn'n- or npn-junctions can be realized with particle transmission due to normal tunneling or Klein tunneling. In the latter case, the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations weaken for smooth barriers. Third, if potential disorder comes in to play, both Aharonov-Bohm and Klein tunneling effects rate down, up to the point where particle localization sets in.

  16. Measurement of the local particle diffusion coefficient in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Levinton, F.M.

    1987-02-01

    Local impurity particle diffusion coefficients have been measured in a low temperature plasma by the injection of test particles at the center of the plasma. The injection is accomplished by a high voltage discharge between two small graphite electrodes on a probe. The probe can be located anywhere in the plasma. The diffusion is observed spectroscopically. An analysis of the spatial and temporal evolution of the CII radiation from the carbon discharge can determine the parallel and perpendicular diffusion of the impurity ions. Results with the diagnostic have been obtained in the Proto S-1/C spheromak. The measured value of the diffusion coefficient in the afterglow plasma is in good agreement with classical predictions

  17. Covariant interactions of two spinless particles: all local solutions of the angular condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutwyler, H.; Stern, J.

    1977-06-01

    The solutions of the algebraic problem posed by covariant Hamiltonian quantum mechanics are discussed. If, in the transverse relative coordinates, the mass and spin operators are differential operators of at most second order, the system is shown to be described by a manifestly covariant wave equation supplemented with a covariant constraint. If, in addition, one requires the wave equation and the constraint to be local in the coordinates of both particles, the freedom left in the interaction reduces to four constants. The resulting class of systems represents a generalization of the relativistic oscillator of Feynman, Kislinger and Ravndal

  18. A Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Approach with Local Search for Predicting Protein Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Lin, Yu-Shiun; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2017-10-01

    The hydrophobic-polar (HP) model is commonly used for predicting protein folding structures and hydrophobic interactions. This study developed a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based algorithm combined with local search algorithms; specifically, the high exploration PSO (HEPSO) algorithm (which can execute global search processes) was combined with three local search algorithms (hill-climbing algorithm, greedy algorithm, and Tabu table), yielding the proposed HE-L-PSO algorithm. By using 20 known protein structures, we evaluated the performance of the HE-L-PSO algorithm in predicting protein folding in the HP model. The proposed HE-L-PSO algorithm exhibited favorable performance in predicting both short and long amino acid sequences with high reproducibility and stability, compared with seven reported algorithms. The HE-L-PSO algorithm yielded optimal solutions for all predicted protein folding structures. All HE-L-PSO-predicted protein folding structures possessed a hydrophobic core that is similar to normal protein folding.

  19. Dissecting the sequential assembly and localization of intraflagellar transport particle complex B in Chlamydomonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Richey

    Full Text Available Intraflagellar transport (IFT, the key mechanism for ciliogenesis, involves large protein particles moving bi-directionally along the entire ciliary length. IFT particles contain two large protein complexes, A and B, which are constructed with proteins in a core and several peripheral proteins. Prior studies have shown that in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, IFT46, IFT52, and IFT88 directly interact with each other and are in a subcomplex of the IFT B core. However, ift46, bld1, and ift88 mutants differ in phenotype as ift46 mutants are able to form short flagella, while the other two lack flagella completely. In this study, we investigated the functional differences of these individual IFT proteins contributing to complex B assembly, stability, and basal body localization. We found that complex B is completely disrupted in bld1 mutant, indicating an essential role of IFT52 for complex B core assembly. Ift46 mutant cells are capable of assembling a relatively intact complex B, but such complex is highly unstable and prone to degradation. In contrast, in ift88 mutant cells the complex B core still assembles and remains stable, but the peripheral proteins no longer attach to the B core. Moreover, in ift88 mutant cells, while complex A and the anterograde IFT motor FLA10 are localized normally to the transition fibers, complex B proteins instead are accumulated at the proximal ends of the basal bodies. In addition, in bld2 mutant, the IFT complex B proteins still localize to the proximal ends of defective centrioles which completely lack transition fibers. Taken together, these results revealed a step-wise assembly process for complex B, and showed that the complex first localizes to the proximal end of the centrioles and then translocates onto the transition fibers via an IFT88-dependent mechanism.

  20. Phase controllable dynamical localization of a quantum particle in a driven optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Navinder

    2012-01-01

    The Dunlap–Kenkre (DK) result states that dynamical localization of a driven quantum particle in a periodic lattice happens when the ratio of the field magnitude to the field frequency of the diagonal drive is a root of the ordinary Bessel function of order 0. This has been experimentally verified. A generalization of the DK result is presented here. The hitherto considered DK model contains only the diagonal forcing. In the present extended version of the DK model we consider both off-diagonal and diagonal driving fields with different frequencies and a definite relative phase between them. We analytically show that new dynamical localizations conditions exist where an important role is played by the relative phase. In appropriate limits our results reduce to DK result. -- Highlights: ► We give a generalization of the Dunlap–Kenkre result on dynamical localization. ► We consider the case of both off-diagonal and diagonal fields with a relative phase. ► We show that new dynamical localizations conditions exist. ► An important role is played by the hitherto neglected relative phase.

  1. Novel Mobile Robot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using Rao-Blackwellised Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Bingrong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the novel method of mobile robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, which is implemented by using the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF for monocular vision-based autonomous robot in unknown indoor environment. The particle filter is combined with unscented Kalman filter (UKF to extending the path posterior by sampling new poses that integrate the current observation. The landmark position estimation and update is implemented through the unscented transform (UT. Furthermore, the number of resampling steps is determined adaptively, which seriously reduces the particle depletion problem. Monocular CCD camera mounted on the robot tracks the 3D natural point landmarks, which are structured with matching image feature pairs extracted through Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT. The matching for multi-dimension SIFT features which are highly distinctive due to a special descriptor is implemented with a KDTree in the time cost of O(log2N. Experiments on the robot Pioneer3 in our real indoor environment show that our method is of high precision and stability.

  2. Single-Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy Reveals Local Diffusion Coefficients in the Pore Network of an Individual Catalyst Particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412642697; Meirer, Florian; Kubarev, Alexey V.; Ristanovic, Zoran|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328233005; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Vogt, Eelco T. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073717398; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2017-01-01

    We used single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to study self-diffusion of a feedstock-like probe molecule with nanometer accuracy in the macropores of a micrometer-sized, real-life fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle. Movies of single fluorescent molecules allowed their movement through the

  3. Estimate of main local sources to ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-09-01

    Quantifying and apportioning the contribution of a range of sources to ultrafine particles (UFPs, D oil refineries, and seaport) sources to the total ambient particle number concentration (PNC) in a busy, inner-city area in Brisbane, Australia using Bayesian statistical modelling and other exploratory tools. The Bayesian model was trained on the PNC data on days where NP formations were known to have not occurred, hourly traffic counts, solar radiation data, and smooth daily trend. The model was applied to apportion and quantify the contribution of NP formations and local traffic and non-traffic sources to UFPs. The data analysis incorporated long-term measured time-series of total PNC (D ≥ 6 nm), particle number size distributions (PSD, D = 8 to 400 nm), PM2.5, PM10, NOx, CO, meteorological parameters and traffic counts at a stationary monitoring site. The developed Bayesian model showed reliable predictive performances in quantifying the contribution of NP formation events to UFPs (up to 4 × 104 particles cm- 3), with a significant day to day variability. The model identified potential NP formation and no-formations days based on PNC data and quantified the sources contribution to UFPs. Exploratory statistical analyses show that total mean PNC during the middle of the day was up to 32% higher than during peak morning and evening traffic periods, which were associated with NP formation events. The majority of UFPs measured during the peak traffic and NP formation periods were between 30-100 nm and smaller than 30 nm, respectively. To date, this is the first application of Bayesian model to apportion different sources contribution to UFPs, and therefore the importance of this study is not only in its modelling outcomes but in demonstrating the applicability and advantages of this statistical approach to air pollution studies.

  4. Accuracy of sun localization in the second step of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation for north determination: a planetarium experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Barta, András; Nehéz, Dóra; Bernáth, Balázs; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-07-01

    It is a widely discussed hypothesis that Viking seafarers might have been able to locate the position of the occluded sun by means of dichroic or birefringent crystals, the mysterious sunstones, with which they could analyze skylight polarization. Although the atmospheric optical prerequisites and certain aspects of the efficiency of this sky-polarimetric Viking navigation have been investigated, the accuracy of the main steps of this method has not been quantitatively examined. To fill in this gap, we present here the results of a planetarium experiment in which we measured the azimuth and elevation errors of localization of the invisible sun. In the planetarium sun localization was performed in two selected celestial points on the basis of the alignments of two small sections of two celestial great circles passing through the sun. In the second step of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation the navigator needed to determine the intersection of two such celestial circles. We found that the position of the sun (solar elevation θ(S), solar azimuth φ(S)) was estimated with an average error of +0.6°≤Δθ≤+8.8° and -3.9°≤Δφ≤+2.0°. We also calculated the compass direction error when the estimated sun position is used for orienting with a Viking sun-compass. The northern direction (ω(North)) was determined with an error of -3.34°≤Δω(North)≤+6.29°. The inaccuracy of the second step of this navigation method was high (Δω(North)=-16.3°) when the solar elevation was 5°≤θ(S)≤25°, and the two selected celestial points were far from the sun (at angular distances 95°≤γ(1), γ(2)≤115°) and each other (125°≤δ≤145°). Considering only this second step, the sky-polarimetric navigation could be more accurate in the mid-summer period (June and July), when in the daytime the sun is high above the horizon for long periods. In the spring (and autumn) equinoctial period, alternative methods (using a twilight board, for example) might be more

  5. Influence of silicon on local structure and morphology of γ-FeOOH and α-FeOOH particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang-Koo; Shinoda, Kozo; Suzuki, Shigeru; Waseda, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) method was used for investigating the local structures of lepidocrocite and goethite with and without silicon. The structure and morphology of these particles were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The bonding structure was examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). When silicon species was added, the structure and morphology changed while the linkage of FeO 6 octahedral units was distorted. The FT-IR spectra revealed the formation of the Fe-O-Si bond in particles containing silicate ions, and the characteristic bond affects the local structure and morphology of the particles

  6. Principles and biophysical applications of single particle super-localization and rotational tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan

    While conventional Single Particle Tracking (SPT) techniques acquire 2D or 3D trajectories of particle probes, we have developed Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) techniques to extract orientation and rotational information. Combined with DIC microscopy, the SPORT technique has been applied in biophysical studies, including membrane diffusion and intracellular transport. The rotational dynamics of nanoparticle vectors on live cell membranes was recorded and its influence on the fate of these nanoparticle vectors was elucidated. The rotational motions of gold nanorods with various surface modifiers were tracked continuously at a temporal resolution of 5 ms under a DIC microscope. We found that the rotational behaviors of gold nanorod vectors are strongly related to their surface charge, specific surface functional groups, and the availability of receptors on cell membranes. The study of rotational Brownian motion of nanoparticles on cell membranes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of drug delivery and provide guidance in designing surface modification strategies for drug delivery vectors under various circumstances. To characterize the rotation mode of surface functionalized gold nanorods on cell membranes, the SPORT technique is combined with the correlation analysis of the bright and dark DIC intensities. The unique capabilities of visualizing and understanding rotational motions of functionalized nanoparticles on live cell membranes allow us to correlate rotational and translational dynamics in unprecedented detail and provide new insights for complex membrane processes, including electrostatic interactions, ligand-receptor binding, and lateral (confined and hopping) diffusion of membrane receptors. Surface-functionalized nanoparticles interact with the membrane in fundamentally different ways and exhibit distinct rotational modes. The early events of particle-membrane approach and attachment are directly visualized

  7. Principles and biophysical applications of single particle super-localization and rotational tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    While conventional Single Particle Tracking (SPT) techniques acquire 2D or 3D trajectories of particle probes, we have developed Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) techniques to extract orientation and rotational information. Combined with DIC microscopy, the SPORT technique has been applied in biophysical studies, including membrane diffusion and intracellular transport. The rotational dynamics of nanoparticle vectors on live cell membranes was recorded and its influence on the fate of these nanoparticle vectors was elucidated. The rotational motions of gold nanorods with various surface modifiers were tracked continuously at a temporal resolution of 5 ms under a DIC microscope. We found that the rotational behaviors of gold nanorod vectors are strongly related to their surface charge, specific surface functional groups, and the availability of receptors on cell membranes. The study of rotational Brownian motion of nanoparticles on cell membranes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of drug delivery and provide guidance in designing surface modification strategies for drug delivery vectors under various circumstances. To characterize the rotation mode of surface functionalized gold nanorods on cell membranes, the SPORT technique is combined with the correlation analysis of the bright and dark DIC intensities. The unique capabilities of visualizing and understanding rotational motions of functionalized nanoparticles on live cell membranes allow us to correlate rotational and translational dynamics in unprecedented detail and provide new insights for complex membrane processes, including electrostatic interactions, ligand-receptor binding, and lateral (confined and hopping) diffusion of membrane receptors. Surface-functionalized nanoparticles interact with the membrane in fundamentally different ways and exhibit distinct rotational modes. The early events of particle-membrane approach and attachment are directly visualized

  8. Survey of atomic data base needs and accuracies for helium beam stopping and alpha particle diagnostics for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, H.P.; Hellermann, M. von.

    1992-01-01

    This report is concerned with establishing a recommended collection of atomic collision data for the modelling, experimental investigation and exploitation of helium beams. The motivation stems from proposals for diagnostic beams for the ITER tokamak, targeted at alpha particle measurement via double charge transfer, neutralized alpha particle analysis and spectroscopic analysis of recombination radiation. The report discusses the beam energies, species involved in collisions with the helium atom beam (fuel, helium ash and plasma impurities) and plasma conditions prevailing in large tokamak devices. It also lists the required cross-section data

  9. Translation-invariant global charges in a local scattering theory of massless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strube, D.

    1989-01-01

    The present thesis is dedicated to the study for specifically translation-invariant charges in the framework of a Wightman field theory without mass gap. The aim consists thereby in the determination of the effect of the charge operator on asymptotic scattering states of massless particles. In the first section the most important results in the massive case and of the present thesis in the massless case are presented. The object of the second section is the construction of asymptotic scattering states. In the third section the charge operator, which is first only defined on strictly local vectors, is extended to these scattering states, on which it acts additively. Finally an infinitesimal transformation of scalar asymptotic fields is determined. By this for the special case of translation-invariant generators and scalar massless asymptotic fields the same results is present as in the massive case. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Predominant membrane localization is an essential feature of the bacterial signal recognition particle receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graumann Peter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signal recognition particle (SRP receptor plays a vital role in co-translational protein targeting, because it connects the soluble SRP-ribosome-nascent chain complex (SRP-RNCs to the membrane bound Sec translocon. The eukaryotic SRP receptor (SR is a heterodimeric protein complex, consisting of two unrelated GTPases. The SRβ subunit is an integral membrane protein, which tethers the SRP-interacting SRα subunit permanently to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The prokaryotic SR lacks the SRβ subunit and consists of only the SRα homologue FtsY. Strikingly, although FtsY requires membrane contact for functionality, cell fractionation studies have localized FtsY predominantly to the cytosolic fraction of Escherichia coli. So far, the exact function of the soluble SR in E. coli is unknown, but it has been suggested that, in contrast to eukaryotes, the prokaryotic SR might bind SRP-RNCs already in the cytosol and only then initiates membrane targeting. Results In the current study we have determined the contribution of soluble FtsY to co-translational targeting in vitro and have re-analysed the localization of FtsY in vivo by fluorescence microscopy. Our data show that FtsY can bind to SRP-ribosome nascent chains (RNCs in the absence of membranes. However, these soluble FtsY-SRP-RNC complexes are not efficiently targeted to the membrane. In contrast, we observed effective targeting of SRP-RNCs to membrane-bond FtsY. These data show that soluble FtsY does not contribute significantly to cotranslational targeting in E. coli. In agreement with this observation, our in vivo analyses of FtsY localization in bacterial cells by fluorescence microscopy revealed that the vast majority of FtsY was localized to the inner membrane and that soluble FtsY constituted only a negligible species in vivo. Conclusion The exact function of the SRP receptor (SR in bacteria has so far been enigmatic. Our data show that the bacterial SR is

  11. Exploring one-particle orbitals in large many-body localized systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga, Benjamin; Yu, Xiongjie; Luitz, David J.; Clark, Bryan K.

    2018-03-01

    Strong disorder in interacting quantum systems can give rise to the phenomenon of many-body localization (MBL), which defies thermalization due to the formation of an extensive number of quasilocal integrals of motion. The one-particle operator content of these integrals of motion is related to the one-particle orbitals (OPOs) of the one-particle density matrix and shows a strong signature across the MBL transition as recently pointed out by Bera et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 046603 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.046603; Ann. Phys. 529, 1600356 (2017), 10.1002/andp.201600356]. We study the properties of the OPOs of many-body eigenstates of an MBL system in one dimension. Using shift-and-invert MPS, a matrix product state method to target highly excited many-body eigenstates introduced previously [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 017201 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.017201], we are able to obtain accurate results for large systems of sizes up to L =64 . We find that the OPOs drawn from eigenstates at different energy densities have high overlap and their occupations are correlated with the energy of the eigenstates. Moreover, the standard deviation of the inverse participation ratio of these orbitals is maximal at the nose of the mobility edge. Also, the OPOs decay exponentially in real space, with a correlation length that increases at low disorder. In addition, we find that the probability distribution of the strength of the large-range coupling constants of the number operators generated by the OPOs approach a log-uniform distribution at strong disorder.

  12. Electromagnetic interaction between a rising spherical particle in a conducting liquid and a localized magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Z.; Tran, N.; Boeck, T.; Karcher, C.

    2017-07-01

    Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) is a non-contact electromagnetic flow measurement technique for electrically conductive liquids. It is based on measuring the flow-induced force acting on an external permanent magnet. Motivated by extending LFV to liquid metal two-phase flow measurement, in a first test we consider the free rising of a non-conductive spherical particle in a thin tube of liquid metal (GaInSn) initially at rest. Here the measured force is due to the displacement flow induced by the rising particle. In this paper, numerical results are presented for three different analytical solutions of flows around a moving sphere under a localized magnetic field. This simplification is made since the hydrodynamic flow is difficult to measure or to compute. The Lorentz forces are compared to experiments. The aim of the present work is to check if our simple numerical model can provide Lorentz forces comparable to the experiments. The results show that the peak values of the Lorentz force from the analytical velocity fields provide us an upper limit to the measurement results. In the case of viscous flow around a moving sphere we recover the typical time-scale of Lorentz force signals.

  13. Localization accuracy of compact binary coalescences detected by the third-generation gravitational-wave detectors and implication for cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Wen, Linqing

    2018-03-01

    We use the Fisher information matrix to investigate the angular resolution and luminosity distance uncertainty for coalescing binary neutron stars (BNSs) and neutron star-black hole binaries (NSBHs) detected by the third-generation (3G) gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Our study focuses on an individual 3G detector and a network of up to four 3G detectors at different locations including the United States, Europe, China, and Australia for the proposed Einstein Telescope (ET) and Cosmic Explorer (CE) detectors. In particular, we examine the effect of the Earth's rotation, as GW signals from BNS and low-mass NSBH systems could be hours long for 3G detectors. In this case, an individual detector can be effectively treated as a detector network with long baselines formed by the trajectory of the detector as it rotates with the Earth. Therefore, a single detector or two-detector networks could also be used to localize the GW sources effectively. We find that a time-dependent antenna beam-pattern function can help better localize BNS and NSBH sources, especially edge-on ones. The medium angular resolution for one ET-D detector is around 150 deg2 for BNSs at a redshift of z =0.1 , which improves rapidly with a decreasing low-frequency cutoff flow in sensitivity. The medium angular resolution for a network of two CE detectors in the United States and Europe, respectively, is around 20 deg2 at z =0.2 for the simulated BNS and NSBH samples. While for a network of two ET-D detectors, the similar angular resolution can be achieved at a much higher redshift of z =0.5 . The angular resolution of a network of three detectors is mainly determined by the baselines between detectors regardless of the CE or ET detector type. The medium angular resolution of BNS for a network of three detectors of the ET-D or CE type in the United States, Europe, and Australia is around 10 deg2 at z =2 . We discuss the implications of our results for multimessenger astronomy and, in particular, for

  14. Automatic boiling water reactor control rod pattern design using particle swarm optimization algorithm and local search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-Der, E-mail: jdwang@iner.gov.tw [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chaung [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Engineering and System Science, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The PSO algorithm was adopted to automatically design a BWR CRP. ► The local search procedure was added to improve the result of PSO algorithm. ► The results show that the obtained CRP is the same good as that in the previous work. -- Abstract: This study developed a method for the automatic design of a boiling water reactor (BWR) control rod pattern (CRP) using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The PSO algorithm is more random compared to the rank-based ant system (RAS) that was used to solve the same BWR CRP design problem in the previous work. In addition, the local search procedure was used to make improvements after PSO, by adding the single control rod (CR) effect. The design goal was to obtain the CRP so that the thermal limits and shutdown margin would satisfy the design requirement and the cycle length, which is implicitly controlled by the axial power distribution, would be acceptable. The results showed that the same acceptable CRP found in the previous work could be obtained.

  15. Helium charged-particle radiotherapy of locally advanced carcinoma of the esophagus, stomach, and biliary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Pitluck, S.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty-five patients with squamous carcinoma of the esophagus (32 patients), carcinoma of the stomach (18 patients) and carcinoma of the biliary tract (15 patients) received from 6000 to 7000 equivalent rad (60-70 Gray equivalents) of helium radiotherapy at 2.0 GyE per fraction, four fractions per day, using multiportal, spread-out Bragg peak therapy. All patients had locally advanced disease without evidence of distant metastases. Partial compensation for tissue inhomogeneities was accomplished. Although palliation of symptoms and regression of tumor was commonly seen, local failure occurred in most patients (77%). The median survival was 8 months. It does not appear that an increase in tumor dose relative to normal tissues can be achieved that would be high enough to increase locoregional control rates over historical control rates with low-LET irradiation. Further studies will be carried out with heavier particles such as neon or silicon in hopes of achieving greater biological effect on these difficult-to-control tumors. 22 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  16. Local and global particle and power balance in large area capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Suwon; Lieberman, M A

    2003-01-01

    Large area radio frequency (rf) capacitive discharges have attracted recent interest for materials etching and deposition on large area substrates. A distinguishing feature is that the radial distribution of the absorbed rf power in these discharges depends on the rf voltage across the plates, independent of the radial variation of the plasma density n(r). A reduced set of steady-state fluid equations has been used to investigate the radial variation of n and electron temperature T e . The derived equations are shown to be invariant with respect to pL and pR, where p is the pressure, L is the plate separation and R is the discharge radius, and can be further reduced to the equations of the usual global balance model when R ε , the energy relaxation length. In this limit, the ionization frequency and T e are essentially independent of radius and n can be approximately described by the usual radial profile of a zeroth-order Bessel function. When R≥λ ε , n and T e are predominantly determined by local particle and power balance, and the n and T e radial profiles are flat over most of the volume except near the radial boundary, where n falls and T e rises to account for the increased losses at the boundary. The scale length of the edge density variation in the local balance regime is shown to be proportional to the energy relaxation length

  17. Localization of s-Wave and Quantum Effective Potential of a Quasi-free Particle with Position-Dependent Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Guoxing; Xiang Yang; Ren Zhongzhou

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the s-wave for a quasi-free particle with position-dependent mass (PDM) have been discussed in details. Differed from the system with constant mass in which the localization of the s-wave for the free quantum particle around the origin only occurs in two dimensions, the quasi-free particle with PDM can experience attractive forces in D dimensions except D = 1 when its mass function satisfies some conditions. The effective mass of a particle varying with its position can induce effective interaction, which may be attractive in some cases. The analytical expressions of the eigenfunctions and the corresponding probability densities for the s-waves of the two- and three-dimensional systems with a special PDM are given, and the existences of localization around the origin for these systems are shown.

  18. Behaviour of model particles of local precipitations of surface nuclear explosion in food chain and digestive tract of farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koz'min, G.V.; Epimakhov, V.G.; Sanzharova, N.I.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour regularities of radioactive particles - simulators of nuclear surface explosion local fall outs in food chain and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of farm animals are analyzed. The results show that there is a large difference in transport regularities of radioactive silicate particles and radioactive solutions in GIT. At intake of young fission products high concentrations of radionuclides in GIT content deal with sorption and concentrating of radionuclides on food particles and observe in third stomach, blind gut, terminals of middle and bung guts. Transport regularities of fused radioactive particles depend on digestive apparatus mobility, content consistency and morphological peculiarities of mucosa, which work towards transport slowing and storage of such particles in the part of sheep GIT with minimal dry substance content - abomasum [ru

  19. Fast readout algorithm for cylindrical beam position monitors providing good accuracy for particle bunches with large offsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieberger, P.; Gassner, D.; Hulsart, R.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T.; Minty, M.; Sorrell, Z.; Bartnik, A.

    2018-04-01

    A simple, analytically correct algorithm is developed for calculating "pencil" relativistic beam coordinates using the signals from an ideal cylindrical particle beam position monitor (BPM) with four pickup electrodes (PUEs) of infinitesimal widths. The algorithm is then applied to simulations of realistic BPMs with finite width PUEs. Surprisingly small deviations are found. Simple empirically determined correction terms reduce the deviations even further. The algorithm is then tested with simulations for non-relativistic beams. As an example of the data acquisition speed advantage, a Field Programmable Gate Array-based BPM readout implementation of the new algorithm has been developed and characterized. Finally, the algorithm is tested with BPM data from the Cornell Preinjector.

  20. Accuracy of the Hartree-Fock and local density approximations for electron densities: a study for light atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almbladh, C.-O.; Ekenberg, U.; Pedroza, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    The authors compare the electron densities and Hartree potentials in the local density and the Hartree-Fock approximations to the corresponding quantities obtained from more accurate correlated wavefunctions. The comparison is made for a number of two-electron atoms, Li, and for Be. The Hartree-Fock approximation is more accurate than the local density approximation within the 1s shell and for the spin polarization in Li, while the local density approximation is slightly better than the Hartree-Fock approximation for charge densities in the 2s shell. The inaccuracy of the Hartree-Fock and local density approximations to the Hartree potential is substantially smaller than the inaccuracy of the local density approximation to the ground-state exchange-correlation potential. (Auth.)

  1. Local energy deposited for alpha particles emitted from inhaled radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-affan, I.A.M.; Haque, A.K.M.M.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to calculate the local energy deposited by alpha particles emitted from radon daughters deposited on the mucus surface in the lung airways. For the particular case of 218 Po (Ra A) and 214 Bi (Ra C'), microdose spectra have been evaluated in test spheres of 1 μm diameter which were taken to lie within airways of diameters 18 000, 3500 and 600 μm. In each case, the contributions of the near and far wall were computed separately. The average microdosimetric parameters y-bar F and y-bar D have also been calculated. For the two smaller airways, y-bar F and y-bar D values were found to be about 110 and 135 keV μm -1 for 218 Po and about 87 and 107 keV μm -1 for 214 Bi respectively. The corresponding values were about 10% higher for the largest airway. (author)

  2. Performance Evaluation of Localization Accuracy for a Log-Normal Shadow Fading Wireless Sensor Network under Physical Barrier Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ahmed Abdulqader; Rahman, Tharek A; Leow, Chee Yen

    2015-12-04

    Localization is an apparent aspect of a wireless sensor network, which is the focus of much interesting research. One of the severe conditions that needs to be taken into consideration is localizing a mobile target through a dispersed sensor network in the presence of physical barrier attacks. These attacks confuse the localization process and cause location estimation errors. Range-based methods, like the received signal strength indication (RSSI), face the major influence of this kind of attack. This paper proposes a solution based on a combination of multi-frequency multi-power localization (C-MFMPL) and step function multi-frequency multi-power localization (SF-MFMPL), including the fingerprint matching technique and lateration, to provide a robust and accurate localization technique. In addition, this paper proposes a grid coloring algorithm to detect the signal hole map in the network, which refers to the attack-prone regions, in order to carry out corrective actions. The simulation results show the enhancement and robustness of RSS localization performance in the face of log normal shadow fading effects, besides the presence of physical barrier attacks, through detecting, filtering and eliminating the effect of these attacks.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Localization Accuracy for a Log-Normal Shadow Fading Wireless Sensor Network under Physical Barrier Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulqader Hussein, Ahmed; Rahman, Tharek A.; Leow, Chee Yen

    2015-01-01

    Localization is an apparent aspect of a wireless sensor network, which is the focus of much interesting research. One of the severe conditions that needs to be taken into consideration is localizing a mobile target through a dispersed sensor network in the presence of physical barrier attacks. These attacks confuse the localization process and cause location estimation errors. Range-based methods, like the received signal strength indication (RSSI), face the major influence of this kind of attack. This paper proposes a solution based on a combination of multi-frequency multi-power localization (C-MFMPL) and step function multi-frequency multi-power localization (SF-MFMPL), including the fingerprint matching technique and lateration, to provide a robust and accurate localization technique. In addition, this paper proposes a grid coloring algorithm to detect the signal hole map in the network, which refers to the attack-prone regions, in order to carry out corrective actions. The simulation results show the enhancement and robustness of RSS localization performance in the face of log normal shadow fading effects, besides the presence of physical barrier attacks, through detecting, filtering and eliminating the effect of these attacks. PMID:26690159

  4. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  5. The effect of six-point one-particle reducible local interactions in the dual fermion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanin, A A

    2013-01-01

    We formulate the dual fermion approach for strongly correlated electronic systems in terms of the lattice and dual effective interactions, obtained by using the covariation splitting formula. This allows us to consider the effect of six-point one-particle reducible interactions, which are usually neglected by the dual fermion approach. We show that the consideration of one-particle reducible six-point (as well as higher order) vertices is crucially important for the diagrammatic consistency of this approach. In particular, the relation between the dual and lattice self-energy, derived in the dual fermion approach, implicitly accounts for the effect of the diagrams, containing six-point and higher order local one-particle reducible vertices, and should be applied with caution, if these vertices are neglected. Apart from that, the treatment of the self-energy feedback is also modified by six-point and higher order vertices; these vertices are also important to account for some non-local corrections to the lattice self-energy, which have the same order in the local four-point vertices as the diagrams usually considered in the approach. These observations highlight an importance of six-point and higher order vertices in the dual fermion approach, and call for the development of new schemes of treatment of non-local fluctuations, which are based on one-particle irreducible quantities. (paper)

  6. Trapped fast particle destabilization of internal kink mode for the locally flattened q-profile with an inflection point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xian-Qu [Institute of Fusion Science, School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, Rui-Bin; Meng, Guo [State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The destabilization of ideal internal kink modes by trapped fast particles in tokamak plasmas with a “shoulder”-like equilibrium current is investigated. It is found that energetic particle branch of the mode is unstable with the driving of fast-particle precession drifts and corresponds to a precessional fishbone. The mode with a low stability threshold is also more easily excited than the conventional precessional fishbone. This is different from earlier studies for the same equilibrium in which the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) branch of the mode is stable. Furthermore, the stability and characteristic frequency of the mode are analyzed by solving the dispersion relation and comparing with the conventional fishbone. The results suggest that an equilibrium with a locally flattened q-profile, may be modified by localized current drive (or bootstrap current, etc.), is prone to the onset of the precessional fishbone branch of the mode.

  7. Examination of quantitative accuracy of PIXE analysis for atmospheric aerosol particle samples. PIXE analysis of NIST air particulate on filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Katsumi; Sera, Koichiro

    2005-01-01

    In order to confirm accuracy of the direct analysis of filter samples containing atmospheric aerosol particles collected on a polycarbonate membrane filter by PIXE, we carried out PIXE analysis on a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) air particulate on filter media (SRM 2783). For 16 elements with NIST certified values determined by PIXE analysis - Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb - quantitative values were 80-110% relative to NIST certified values except for Na, Al, Si and Ni. Quantitative values of Na, Al and Si were 140-170% relative to NIST certified values, which were all high, and Ni was 64%. One possible reason why the quantitative values of Na, Al and Si were higher than the NIST certified values could be the difference in the X-ray spectrum analysis method used. (author)

  8. SU-E-J-37: Feasibility of Utilizing Carbon Fiducials to Increase Localization Accuracy of Lumpectomy Cavity for Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Hieken, T; Mutter, R; Park, S; Yan, E; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy of lumpectomy cavity for partial breast irradiation (PBI). Methods Carbon fiducials were placed intraoperatively in the lumpectomy cavity following resection of breast cancer in 11 patients. The patients were scheduled to receive whole breast irradiation (WBI) with a boost or 3D-conformal PBI. WBI patients were initially setup to skin tattoos using lasers, followed by orthogonal kV on-board-imaging (OBI) matching to bone per clinical practice. Cone beam CT (CBCT) was acquired weekly for offline review. For the boost component of WBI and PBI, patients were setup with lasers, followed by OBI matching to fiducials, with final alignment by CBCT matching to fiducials. Using carbon fiducials as a surrogate for the lumpectomy cavity and CBCT matching to fiducials as the gold standard, setup uncertainties to lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials, and CBCT breast were compared. Results Minimal imaging artifacts were introduced by fiducials on the planning CT and CBCT. The fiducials were sufficiently visible on OBI for online localization. The mean magnitude and standard deviation of setup errors were 8.4mm ± 5.3 mm (n=84), 7.3mm ± 3.7mm (n=87), 2.2mm ± 1.6mm (n=40) and 4.8mm ± 2.6mm (n=87), for lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials and CBCT breast tissue, respectively. Significant migration occurred in one of 39 implanted fiducials in a patient with a large postoperative seroma. Conclusion OBI carbon fiducial-based setup can improve localization accuracy with minimal imaging artifacts. With increased localization accuracy, setup uncertainties can be reduced from 8mm using OBI bone matching to 3mm using OBI fiducial matching for PBI treatment. This work demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy to the lumpectomy cavity for PBI. This may be particularly attractive for localization in the setting of proton therapy and other scenarios

  9. SU-E-J-37: Feasibility of Utilizing Carbon Fiducials to Increase Localization Accuracy of Lumpectomy Cavity for Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Hieken, T; Mutter, R; Park, S; Yan, E; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy of lumpectomy cavity for partial breast irradiation (PBI). Methods Carbon fiducials were placed intraoperatively in the lumpectomy cavity following resection of breast cancer in 11 patients. The patients were scheduled to receive whole breast irradiation (WBI) with a boost or 3D-conformal PBI. WBI patients were initially setup to skin tattoos using lasers, followed by orthogonal kV on-board-imaging (OBI) matching to bone per clinical practice. Cone beam CT (CBCT) was acquired weekly for offline review. For the boost component of WBI and PBI, patients were setup with lasers, followed by OBI matching to fiducials, with final alignment by CBCT matching to fiducials. Using carbon fiducials as a surrogate for the lumpectomy cavity and CBCT matching to fiducials as the gold standard, setup uncertainties to lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials, and CBCT breast were compared. Results Minimal imaging artifacts were introduced by fiducials on the planning CT and CBCT. The fiducials were sufficiently visible on OBI for online localization. The mean magnitude and standard deviation of setup errors were 8.4mm ± 5.3 mm (n=84), 7.3mm ± 3.7mm (n=87), 2.2mm ± 1.6mm (n=40) and 4.8mm ± 2.6mm (n=87), for lasers, OBI bone, OBI fiducials and CBCT breast tissue, respectively. Significant migration occurred in one of 39 implanted fiducials in a patient with a large postoperative seroma. Conclusion OBI carbon fiducial-based setup can improve localization accuracy with minimal imaging artifacts. With increased localization accuracy, setup uncertainties can be reduced from 8mm using OBI bone matching to 3mm using OBI fiducial matching for PBI treatment. This work demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing carbon fiducials to increase localization accuracy to the lumpectomy cavity for PBI. This may be particularly attractive for localization in the setting of proton therapy and other scenarios

  10. Image-Guided Localization Accuracy of Stereoscopic Planar and Volumetric Imaging Methods for Stereotactic Radiation Surgery and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: A Phantom Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinkoo; Jin, Jian-Yue; Walls, Nicole; Nurushev, Teamour; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J.; Ryu, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the positioning accuracies of two image-guided localization systems, ExacTrac and On-Board Imager (OBI), in a stereotactic treatment unit. Methods and Materials: An anthropomorphic pelvis phantom with eight internal metal markers (BBs) was used. The center of one BB was set as plan isocenter. The phantom was set up on a treatment table with various initial setup errors. Then, the errors were corrected using each of the investigated systems. The residual errors were measured with respect to the radiation isocenter using orthogonal portal images with field size 3 x 3 cm 2 . The angular localization discrepancies of the two systems and the correction accuracy of the robotic couch were also studied. A pair of pre- and post-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images was acquired for each angular correction. Then, the correction errors were estimated by using the internal BBs through fiducial marker-based registrations. Results: The isocenter localization errors (μ ±σ) in the left/right, posterior/anterior, and superior/inferior directions were, respectively, -0.2 ± 0.2 mm, -0.8 ± 0.2 mm, and -0.8 ± 0.4 mm for ExacTrac, and 0.5 ± 0.7 mm, 0.6 ± 0.5 mm, and 0.0 ± 0.5 mm for OBI CBCT. The registration angular discrepancy was 0.1 ± 0.2 o between the two systems, and the maximum angle correction error of the robotic couch was 0.2 o about all axes. Conclusion: Both the ExacTrac and the OBI CBCT systems showed approximately 1 mm isocenter localization accuracies. The angular discrepancy of two systems was minimal, and the robotic couch angle correction was accurate. These positioning uncertainties should be taken as a lower bound because the results were based on a rigid dosimetry phantom.

  11. Automated characterisation of ultrasound images of ovarian tumours: the diagnostic accuracy of a support vector machine and image processing with a local binary pattern operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazendar, S; Sayasneh, A; Al-Assam, H; Du, H; Kaijser, J; Ferrara, L; Timmerman, D; Jassim, S; Bourne, T

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative characterisation of ovarian masses into benign or malignant is of paramount importance to optimise patient management. In this study, we developed and validated a computerised model to characterise ovarian masses as benign or malignant. Transvaginal 2D B mode static ultrasound images of 187 ovarian masses with known histological diagnosis were included. Images were first pre-processed and enhanced, and Local Binary Pattern Histograms were then extracted from 2 × 2 blocks of each image. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) was trained using stratified cross validation with randomised sampling. The process was repeated 15 times and in each round 100 images were randomly selected. The SVM classified the original non-treated static images as benign or malignant masses with an average accuracy of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.59-0.65). This performance significantly improved to an average accuracy of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.75-0.79) when images were pre-processed, enhanced and treated with a Local Binary Pattern operator (mean difference 0.15: 95% 0.11-0.19, p images of ovarian masses into benign and malignant categories. The accuracy improves if texture related LBP features extracted from the images are considered.

  12. Locality and nonlocality in geomorphic transport laws: Implications of a particle-based model of hillslope evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. E.; Bradley, D. N.

    2008-12-01

    Many geomorphic transport laws assume that the transport process is local, meaning that the space and time scales of particle displacement are short relative to those of the system as a whole. This assumption allows one to express sediment flux in terms of at-a-point properties such as the local surface gradient. However, while this assumption is quite reasonable for some processes (for example, grain displacement by raindrop impact), it is questionable for others (such as landsliding). Moreover, particle displacement distance may also depend on slope angle, becoming longer as gradient increases. For example, the average motion distance during sediment ravel events on very steep slopes may approach the length of the entire hillslope. In such cases, the mass flux through a given point may depend not only on the local topography but also on topography some distance upslope, thus violating the locality assumption. Here we use a stochastic, particle- based model of hillslope evolution to gain insight into the potential for, and consequences of, nonlocality in sediment transport. The model is designed as a simple analogy for a host of different processes that displace sediment grains on hillslopes. The hillslope is represented as a two-dimensional pile of particles. These particles undergo quasi-random motion according to the following rules: (1) during each iteration, a particle and a direction are selected at random; (2) the particle hops in the direction of motion with a probability that depends on the its height relative to that of its immediate neighbor; (3) the particle continues making hops in the same direction and with the same probability dependence, until coming to rest or exiting the base of the slope. The topography and motion statistics that emerge from these rules show a range of behavior that depends on a dimensionless relief parameter. At low relief, hillslope shape is parabolic, mean displacement length is on the order of two particle widths, and the

  13. 3D micro-particle image modeling and its application in measurement resolution investigation for visual sensing based axial localization in an optical microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolai; Bi, Shusheng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    Visual sensing based three dimensional (3D) particle localization in an optical microscope is important for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Compared with the lateral ( X and Y ) localization, it is more challenging to achieve a high resolution measurement of axial particle location. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of different factors on axial measurement resolution through an analytical approach. Analytical models were developed to simulate 3D particle imaging in an optical microscope. A radius vector projection method was applied to convert the simulated particle images into radius vectors. With the obtained radius vectors, a term of axial changing rate was proposed to evaluate the measurement resolution of axial particle localization. Experiments were also conducted for comparison with that obtained through simulation. Moreover, with the proposed method, the effects of particle size on measurement resolution were discussed. The results show that the method provides an efficient approach to investigate the resolution of axial particle localization. (paper)

  14. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA (III): constraints on particle dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, Marco; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Profumo, Stefano; De Blok, W.J.G.; Massardi, Marcella; Richter, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We performed a deep search for radio synchrotron emissions induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) annihilation or decay in six dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Local Group. Observations were conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 16 cm wavelength, with an rms sensitivity better than 0.05 mJy/beam in each field. In this work, we first discuss the uncertainties associated with the modeling of the expected signal, such as the shape of the dark matter (DM) profile and the dSph magnetic properties. We then investigate the possibility that point-sources detected in the proximity of the dSph optical center might be due to the emission from a DM cuspy profile. No evidence for an extended emission over a size of few arcmin (which is the DM halo size) has been detected. We present the associated bounds on the WIMP parameter space for different annihilation/decay final states and for different astrophysical assumptions. If the confinement of electrons and positrons in the dSph is such that the majority of their power is radiated within the dSph region, we obtain constraints on the WIMP annihilation rate which are well below the thermal value for masses up to few TeV. On the other hand, for conservative assumptions on the dSph magnetic properties, the bounds can be dramatically relaxed. We show however that, within the next 10 years and regardless of the astrophysical assumptions, it will be possible to progressively close in on the full parameter space of WIMPs by searching for radio signals in dSphs with SKA and its precursors

  15. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA (III): constraints on particle dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Colafrancesco, Sergio [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); De Blok, W.J.G. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Massardi, Marcella [INAF—Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Richter, Laura, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: sergio.colafrancesco@wits.ac.za, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu, E-mail: blok@astron.nl, E-mail: massardi@ira.inaf.it, E-mail: laura@ska.ac.za [SKA South Africa, 3rd Floor, The Park, Park Road, Pinelands, 7405 (South Africa)

    2014-10-01

    We performed a deep search for radio synchrotron emissions induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) annihilation or decay in six dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Local Group. Observations were conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 16 cm wavelength, with an rms sensitivity better than 0.05 mJy/beam in each field. In this work, we first discuss the uncertainties associated with the modeling of the expected signal, such as the shape of the dark matter (DM) profile and the dSph magnetic properties. We then investigate the possibility that point-sources detected in the proximity of the dSph optical center might be due to the emission from a DM cuspy profile. No evidence for an extended emission over a size of few arcmin (which is the DM halo size) has been detected. We present the associated bounds on the WIMP parameter space for different annihilation/decay final states and for different astrophysical assumptions. If the confinement of electrons and positrons in the dSph is such that the majority of their power is radiated within the dSph region, we obtain constraints on the WIMP annihilation rate which are well below the thermal value for masses up to few TeV. On the other hand, for conservative assumptions on the dSph magnetic properties, the bounds can be dramatically relaxed. We show however that, within the next 10 years and regardless of the astrophysical assumptions, it will be possible to progressively close in on the full parameter space of WIMPs by searching for radio signals in dSphs with SKA and its precursors.

  16. Propagation of localized structures in relativistic magnetized electron-positron plasmas using particle-in-cell simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386 (Chile); Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F. [Geospace Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, Juan A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología (CEDENNA), Santiago 9170124 (Chile)

    2015-09-15

    We use a particle-in-cell simulation to study the propagation of localized structures in a magnetized electron-positron plasma with relativistic finite temperature. We use as initial condition for the simulation an envelope soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, derived from the relativistic two fluid equations in the strongly magnetized limit. This envelope soliton turns out not to be a stable solution for the simulation and splits in two localized structures propagating in opposite directions. However, these two localized structures exhibit a soliton-like behavior, as they keep their profile after they collide with each other due to the periodic boundary conditions. We also observe the formation of localized structures in the evolution of a spatially uniform circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In both cases, the localized structures propagate with an amplitude independent velocity.

  17. Propagation of localized structures in relativistic magnetized electron-positron plasmas using particle-in-cell simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Muñoz, Víctor; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Valdivia, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    We use a particle-in-cell simulation to study the propagation of localized structures in a magnetized electron-positron plasma with relativistic finite temperature. We use as initial condition for the simulation an envelope soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, derived from the relativistic two fluid equations in the strongly magnetized limit. This envelope soliton turns out not to be a stable solution for the simulation and splits in two localized structures propagating in opposite directions. However, these two localized structures exhibit a soliton-like behavior, as they keep their profile after they collide with each other due to the periodic boundary conditions. We also observe the formation of localized structures in the evolution of a spatially uniform circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In both cases, the localized structures propagate with an amplitude independent velocity

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Can Spare Local Metacognition Despite Global Anosognosia: Revisiting the Confidence-Accuracy Relationship in Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A.; Cramer, Stefanie J.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair metacognition in addition to more basic cognitive functions like memory. However, while global metacognitive inaccuracies are well documented (i.e., low deficit awareness, or anosognosia), the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of AD on local or task-based metacognitive judgments. Here we investigated local…

  19. SU-G-JeP3-01: A Method to Quantify Lung SBRT Target Localization Accuracy Based On Digitally Reconstructed Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafata, K; Ren, L; Cai, J; Yin, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a methodology based on digitally-reconstructed-fluoroscopy (DRF) to quantitatively assess target localization accuracy of lung SBRT, and to evaluate using both a dynamic digital phantom and a patient dataset. Methods: For each treatment field, a 10-phase DRF is generated based on the planning 4DCT. Each frame is pre-processed with a morphological top-hat filter, and corresponding beam apertures are projected to each detector plane. A template-matching algorithm based on cross-correlation is used to detect the tumor location in each frame. Tumor motion relative beam aperture is extracted in the superior-inferior direction based on each frame’s impulse response to the template, and the mean tumor position (MTP) is calculated as the average tumor displacement. The DRF template coordinates are then transferred to the corresponding MV-cine dataset, which is retrospectively filtered as above. The treatment MTP is calculated within each field’s projection space, relative to the DRF-defined template. The field’s localization error is defined as the difference between the DRF-derived-MTP (planning) and the MV-cine-derived-MTP (delivery). A dynamic digital phantom was used to assess the algorithm’s ability to detect intra-fractional changes in patient alignment, by simulating different spatial variations in the MV-cine and calculating the corresponding change in MTP. Inter-and-intra-fractional variation, IGRT accuracy, and filtering effects were investigated on a patient dataset. Results: Phantom results demonstrated a high accuracy in detecting both translational and rotational variation. The lowest localization error of the patient dataset was achieved at each fraction’s first field (mean=0.38mm), with Fx3 demonstrating a particularly strong correlation between intra-fractional motion-caused localization error and treatment progress. Filtering significantly improved tracking visibility in both the DRF and MV-cine images. Conclusion: We have

  20. A Local and Global Search Combine Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Job-Shop Scheduling to Minimize Makespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Lian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP is a branch of production scheduling, which is among the hardest combinatorial optimization problems. Many different approaches have been applied to optimize JSSP, but for some JSSP even with moderate size cannot be solved to guarantee optimality. The original particle swarm optimization algorithm (OPSOA, generally, is used to solve continuous problems, and rarely to optimize discrete problems such as JSSP. In OPSOA, through research I find that it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution especially for middle and large size problems. The local and global search combine particle swarm optimization algorithm (LGSCPSOA is used to solve JSSP, where particle-updating mechanism benefits from the searching experience of one particle itself, the best of all particles in the swarm, and the best of particles in neighborhood population. The new coding method is used in LGSCPSOA to optimize JSSP, and it gets all sequences are feasible solutions. Three representative instances are made computational experiment, and simulation shows that the LGSCPSOA is efficacious for JSSP to minimize makespan.

  1. Simultaneous measurement of local particle movement, solids concentrations and bubble properties in fluidized bed reactors using a novel fiber optical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayebi, Davoud

    1999-12-31

    This thesis develops a new method for simultaneous measurements of local flow properties in highly concentrated multiphase flow systems such as gas-solid fluidized bed reactors. The method is based on fiber optical technique and tracer particles. A particle present in the measuring volume in front of the probe is marked with a fluorescent dye. A light source illuminates the particles and the detecting fibres receive reflected light from uncoated particles and fluorescent light from the tracer particle. Using optical filters, the fluorescent light can be distinguished and together with a small fraction of background light from uncoated particles can be used for determination of local flow properties. Using this method, one can simultaneously measure the local movement of a single tracer particle, local bubble properties and the local solids volume fractions in different positions in the bed. The method is independent of the physical properties of the tracer particles. It is also independent of the local solids concentrations in the range of 0 to 60 vol.-%, but is mainly designed for highly concentrated flow systems. A computer programme that uses good signals from at least three sensors simultaneously to calculate the tracer particle velocity in two dimensions have been developed. It also calculates the bubble properties and local solids volume fractions from the same time series. 251 refs., 150 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of local particle movement, solids concentrations and bubble properties in fluidized bed reactors using a novel fiber optical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayebi, Davoud

    1998-12-31

    This thesis develops a new method for simultaneous measurements of local flow properties in highly concentrated multiphase flow systems such as gas-solid fluidized bed reactors. The method is based on fiber optical technique and tracer particles. A particle present in the measuring volume in front of the probe is marked with a fluorescent dye. A light source illuminates the particles and the detecting fibres receive reflected light from uncoated particles and fluorescent light from the tracer particle. Using optical filters, the fluorescent light can be distinguished and together with a small fraction of background light from uncoated particles can be used for determination of local flow properties. Using this method, one can simultaneously measure the local movement of a single tracer particle, local bubble properties and the local solids volume fractions in different positions in the bed. The method is independent of the physical properties of the tracer particles. It is also independent of the local solids concentrations in the range of 0 to 60 vol.-%, but is mainly designed for highly concentrated flow systems. A computer programme that uses good signals from at least three sensors simultaneously to calculate the tracer particle velocity in two dimensions have been developed. It also calculates the bubble properties and local solids volume fractions from the same time series. 251 refs., 150 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Detection of PCT and urinary β2 -MG enhances the accuracy for localization diagnosing pediatric urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jian; Luan, Jiangwei; Zhu, Gaohong; Qi, Chang; Wang, Dandan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate whether the combination of urinary beta 2 microglobulin (urinary β 2 -MG) and procalcitonin (PCT) diagnosis could enhance the localization diagnostic precision of pediatric urinary tract infection comparing with single diagnosis. A study was conducted in the Nephrology Department of Wuhan women and children's health care centre. This study incorporated 85 participants, including 35 children who were diagnosed as upper urinary tract infection (UUTI) with the symptom of fever and 50 children who conducted lower urinary tract infection (LUTI). Levels of PCT and urinary β 2 -MG in both UUTI and LUTI patients were measured and compared. The level of PCT and β 2 -MG were both significantly higher in UUTI group compared with in LUTI group. AUC of urinary β 2 -MG ROC (sensitivity of 71.4%, specificity of 90.0%) was significantly smaller than that of PCT ROC (sensitivity of 77.1%, specificity of 96.0%) in the single diagnosis. Although in the combined diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 88.6% and 98%, respectively. Both PCT and β 2 -MG could be used to localize the UTI. Introducing urinary β 2 -MG into PCT diagnosis could increase the sensitivity and specificity of UTI lesion diagnosis in clinical practice. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shear-induced particle migration in plane Couette-Poiseuille flow: Local ordering of suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byoungjin; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun

    2017-12-01

    The shear-induced migration of concentrated non-Brownian monodisperse suspensions in combined plane Couette-Poiseuille (C-P) flows is studied using a lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulations are mainly performed for a particle volume fraction of ϕbulk = 0.4 and H/a = 44.3, 23.3, where H and a denote the channel height and radius of suspended particles, respectively. The simulation method is validated in two simple flows, plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flows. In the Poiseuille flow, particles migrate to the mid-plane of the channel where the local concentration is close to the limit of random-close-packing, and a random structure is also observed at the plane. In the Couette flow, the particle distribution remains in the initial uniform distribution. In the combined C-P flows, the behaviors of migration are categorized into three groups, namely, Poiseuille-dominant, Couette-dominant, and intermediate regimes, based on the value of a characteristic force, G, where G denotes the relative magnitude of the body force (P) against the wall-driving force (C). With respect to the Poiseuille-dominant regime, the location of the maximum concentration is shifted from the mid-plane to the lower wall moving in the same direction as the external body force, when G decreases. With respect to the Couette-dominant regime, the behavior is similar to that of a simple shear flow with the exception that a slightly higher concentration of particles is observed near the lower wall. However, with respect to the intermediate value of G, several layers of highly ordered particles are unexpectedly observed near the lower wall where the plane of maximum concentration is located. The locally ordered structure is mainly due to the lateral migration of particles and wall confinement. The suspended particles migrate toward a vanishingly small shear rate at the wall, and they are consequently layered into highly ordered two-dimensional structures at the high local volume fraction.

  5. Accuracy of the Electrocardiogram in Localizing the Accessory Pathway in Patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There are currently several electrocardiographic algorithms to locate the accessory pathway (AP in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome. Objective: To compare the ability of electrocardiographic algorithms in identifying the location of the AP in patients with WPW pattern referred for ablation. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study with 111 patients with WPW syndrome referred for AP ablation. The electrocardiogram (ECG obtained prior to the ablation was analyzed by an experienced observer who consecutively applied seven algorithms to identify non-invasively the AP. We then compared the location estimated with this assessment with that obtained in the electrophysiological study and calculated the agreement rates. Results: Among the APs, 59 (53.15% were distributed around the mitral annulus and the remaining 52 (46.85% were located around the tricuspid annulus. The overall absolute accuracy of the algorithms evaluated varied between 27% and 47%, increasing to between 40% and 76% when we included adjacent locations. The absolute agreement rate by AP location was 2.00-52.20% for septal APs (n = 51, increasing to 5.90-90.20% when considering adjacent locations; 7.70-69.20% for right APs (n = 13, increasing to 42.90-100% when considering adjacent locations; and 21.70-54.50% for left APs (n = 47, increasing to 50-87% when considering adjacent locations. Conclusion: The agreement rates observed for the analyzed scores indicated a low discriminative ability of the ECG in locating the AP in patients with WPW.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in predicting the local tumor stage and circumferential resection margin status of rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hoon; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kang, Sung Bum; Kim, Duck Woo; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Hye Seung [Dept. of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Min [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To measure the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer for a prediction of the local tumor stage and circumferential resection margin (CRM). Two independent radiologists reviewed CT and MRI obtained after neoadjuvant CRT. The accuracy of the local tumor staging and the diagnostic performance for the prediction of CRM involvement were calculated. The agreement between the measurements of the distance to potential CRM on both imaging modalities and the histopathology findings was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. 57 patients (mean age, 59.2 years; 24 females) were included. The accuracy of T and N staging were 43.9% (95% confidence interval, 30.8-57.7%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on CT and 63.2% (49.4-75.6%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on MRI for Observer 1. The accuracy of T and N staging were 54.4% (40.7-67.7%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on CT and 68.4% (54.7-80.1%) and 80.7% (68.1-90.0%) on MRI for Observer 2. Sensitivity and specificity on CRM involvement were 83.3% (43.7-97.0%) and 88.2% (76.6-94.5%) on CT and 100% (61.0-100%) and 90.2% (79.0-95.7%) on MRI for Observer 1. Sensitivity and specificity on CRM involvement were 66.7% (30.0-90.3%) and 88.2% (76.7-94.5%) on CT and 100% (61.0-100%) and 90.2% (79.0-95.7%) on MRI for Observer 2. Bland-Altman plots showed wide discrepancies between measurements of the distance to CRM on each CT and MRI and those on histopathology findings. CT and MRI showed limited performance in predicting the local tumor staging and CRM involvement in patients with neoadjuvant CRT although MRI tended to show a better performance than CT.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in predicting the local tumor stage and circumferential resection margin status of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Hoon; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kang, Sung Bum; Kim, Duck Woo; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    To measure the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer for a prediction of the local tumor stage and circumferential resection margin (CRM). Two independent radiologists reviewed CT and MRI obtained after neoadjuvant CRT. The accuracy of the local tumor staging and the diagnostic performance for the prediction of CRM involvement were calculated. The agreement between the measurements of the distance to potential CRM on both imaging modalities and the histopathology findings was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. 57 patients (mean age, 59.2 years; 24 females) were included. The accuracy of T and N staging were 43.9% (95% confidence interval, 30.8-57.7%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on CT and 63.2% (49.4-75.6%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on MRI for Observer 1. The accuracy of T and N staging were 54.4% (40.7-67.7%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on CT and 68.4% (54.7-80.1%) and 80.7% (68.1-90.0%) on MRI for Observer 2. Sensitivity and specificity on CRM involvement were 83.3% (43.7-97.0%) and 88.2% (76.6-94.5%) on CT and 100% (61.0-100%) and 90.2% (79.0-95.7%) on MRI for Observer 1. Sensitivity and specificity on CRM involvement were 66.7% (30.0-90.3%) and 88.2% (76.7-94.5%) on CT and 100% (61.0-100%) and 90.2% (79.0-95.7%) on MRI for Observer 2. Bland-Altman plots showed wide discrepancies between measurements of the distance to CRM on each CT and MRI and those on histopathology findings. CT and MRI showed limited performance in predicting the local tumor staging and CRM involvement in patients with neoadjuvant CRT although MRI tended to show a better performance than CT

  8. Accuracy of x-ray image-based 3D localization from two C-arm views: a comparison between an ideal system and a real device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Alexander; Strobel, Norbert; Yatziv, Liron; Gilson, Wesley; Meyer, Bernhard; Hornegger, Joachim; Lewin, Jonathan; Wacker, Frank

    2009-02-01

    arm X-ray imaging devices are commonly used for minimally invasive cardiovascular or other interventional procedures. Calibrated state-of-the-art systems can, however, not only be used for 2D imaging but also for three-dimensional reconstruction either using tomographic techniques or even stereotactic approaches. To evaluate the accuracy of X-ray object localization from two views, a simulation study assuming an ideal imaging geometry was carried out first. This was backed up with a phantom experiment involving a real C-arm angiography system. Both studies were based on a phantom comprising five point objects. These point objects were projected onto a flat-panel detector under different C-arm view positions. The resulting 2D positions were perturbed by adding Gaussian noise to simulate 2D point localization errors. In the next step, 3D point positions were triangulated from two views. A 3D error was computed by taking differences between the reconstructed 3D positions using the perturbed 2D positions and the initial 3D positions of the five points. This experiment was repeated for various C-arm angulations involving angular differences ranging from 15° to 165°. The smallest 3D reconstruction error was achieved, as expected, by views that were 90° degrees apart. In this case, the simulation study yielded a 3D error of 0.82 mm +/- 0.24 mm (mean +/- standard deviation) for 2D noise with a standard deviation of 1.232 mm (4 detector pixels). The experimental result for this view configuration obtained on an AXIOM Artis C-arm (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany) system was 0.98 mm +/- 0.29 mm, respectively. These results show that state-of-the-art C-arm systems can localize instruments with millimeter accuracy, and that they can accomplish this almost as well as an idealized theoretical counterpart. High stereotactic localization accuracy, good patient access, and CT-like 3D imaging capabilities render state-of-the-art C-arm systems ideal devices for X

  9. Dynamic localization and shear-induced hopping of particles: A way to understand the rheology of dense colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tianying; Zukoski, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, attempts have been made to understand the formation of colloidal glasses and gels by linking suspension mechanics to particle properties where details of size, shape, and spatial dependencies of pair potentials present a bewildering array of variables that can be manipulated to achieve observed properties. Despite the range of variables that control suspension properties, one consistent observation is the remarkably similarity of flow properties observed as particle properties are varied. Understanding the underlying origins of the commonality in those behaviors (e.g., shear-thinning with increasing stress, diverging zero shear rate viscosity with increasing volume fraction, development of a dynamic yield stress plateau with increases in volume faction or strength of attraction, development of two characteristic relaxation times probed in linear viscoelasticity, the creation of a rubbery plateau modulus at high strain frequencies, and shear-thickening) remains a challenge. Recently, naïve mode coupling and dynamic localization theories have been developed to capture collective behavior giving rise to formation of colloidal glasses and gels. This approach characterizes suspension mechanics of strongly interacting particles in terms of sluggish long-range particle diffusion modulated by varying particle interactions and volume fraction. These theories capture the scaling of the modulus with the volume fraction and strength of interparticle attraction, the frequency dependence of the moduli at the onset of the gel/glass transition, together with the divergence of the zero shear rate viscosity and cessation of diffusivity for hard sphere systems as close packing is approached. In this study, we explore the generality of the predictions of dynamic localization theory for systems of particles composed of bimodal particle size distributions experiencing weak interactions. We find that the mechanical properties of these suspensions are well captured within

  10. Dynamic localization and shear-induced hopping of particles: A way to understand the rheology of dense colloidal dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tianying; Zukoski, Charles F., E-mail: czukoski@illinois.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    For decades, attempts have been made to understand the formation of colloidal glasses and gels by linking suspension mechanics to particle properties where details of size, shape, and spatial dependencies of pair potentials present a bewildering array of variables that can be manipulated to achieve observed properties. Despite the range of variables that control suspension properties, one consistent observation is the remarkably similarity of flow properties observed as particle properties are varied. Understanding the underlying origins of the commonality in those behaviors (e.g., shear-thinning with increasing stress, diverging zero shear rate viscosity with increasing volume fraction, development of a dynamic yield stress plateau with increases in volume faction or strength of attraction, development of two characteristic relaxation times probed in linear viscoelasticity, the creation of a rubbery plateau modulus at high strain frequencies, and shear-thickening) remains a challenge. Recently, naïve mode coupling and dynamic localization theories have been developed to capture collective behavior giving rise to formation of colloidal glasses and gels. This approach characterizes suspension mechanics of strongly interacting particles in terms of sluggish long-range particle diffusion modulated by varying particle interactions and volume fraction. These theories capture the scaling of the modulus with the volume fraction and strength of interparticle attraction, the frequency dependence of the moduli at the onset of the gel/glass transition, together with the divergence of the zero shear rate viscosity and cessation of diffusivity for hard sphere systems as close packing is approached. In this study, we explore the generality of the predictions of dynamic localization theory for systems of particles composed of bimodal particle size distributions experiencing weak interactions. We find that the mechanical properties of these suspensions are well captured within

  11. SU-E-J-230: Effect of Metal Hip Prosthesis On the Accuracy of Electromagnetic Localization and Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, W; Merrick, G; Kurko, B; Bittner, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of metal hip prosthesis on the ability to track and localize electromagnetic transponders. Methods: Three Calypso transponders were implanted into two prostate phantoms. The geometric center of the transponders were identified on computed tomography and set as the isocenter. With the phantom stationary on the treatment table and the tracking array 14-cm above the isocenter, data was acquired by the Calypso system at 10 Hz to establish the uncertainty in measurements. Transponder positional data was acquired with unilateral hip prostheses of different metallic compositions and then with bilateral hips placed at variable separation from the phantom. Results: Regardless of hip prosthesis composition, the average vector displacement in the presence of a unilateral prosthesis was < 0.5 mm. The greatest contribution to overall vector displacement occurred in the lateral dimension. With bilateral hip prosthesis, the average vector displacement was 0.3 mm. The displacement in the lateral dimension was markedly reduced compared with a unilateral hip, suggesting that there was a countervailing effect with bilateral hip prosthesis. The greatest average vector displacement was 0.6 mm and occurred when bilateral hip prostheses were placed within 4 cm of the detector array. Conclusion: Unilateral and bilateral hip prostheses did not have any meaningful effect on the ability to accurately track electromagnetic transponders implanted in a prostate phantom. At clinically realistic distances between the hip and detection array, the average tracking error is negligible

  12. Accuracy of pelvic multiparametric MRI in diagnosing local recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Case report and revision of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pepe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Caucasian man (73 years old six years from radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer (PCa showed biochemical recurrence (BCR; the follow up based on PSA evaluated every 6 months was negative (0.1 ng/ml for 5 years, but in the last year PSA increased to 0.3 vs 0.5 ng/ml. The patient was asymptomatic and underwent 3.0 Tesla mpMRI equipped with surface 16 channels phased-array coil placed around the pelvic area; multiplanar turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (T2W, axial diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, axial dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE and spectroscopy were performed. Pelvic mpMRI demonstrated the presence of a nodular tissue with a diameter of 10 mm. located on the left of the prostatic fossa near the rectum that was higly sospicious for local PCa recurrence. The patient underwent salvage RT (64 Gy; one year from RT PSA was 0.1 ng/ml suggesting that the patient was free from recurrence. In conclusion, mpMRI could be combined with PSA kinetics in the evaluation of men with BRC also in the presence of PSA values < 1 ng/ml.

  13. The magnetic particle in a box: Analytic and micromagnetic analysis of probe-localized spin wave modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Manuilov, Sergei A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Fengyuan; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-01

    The dipole field from a probe magnet can be used to localize a discrete spectrum of standing spin wave modes in a continuous ferromagnetic thin film without lithographic modification to the film. Obtaining the resonance field for a localized mode is not trivial due to the effect of the confined and inhomogeneous magnetization precession. We compare the results of micromagnetic and analytic methods to find the resonance field of localized modes in a ferromagnetic thin film, and investigate the accuracy of these methods by comparing with a numerical minimization technique that assumes Bessel function modes with pinned boundary conditions. We find that the micromagnetic technique, while computationally more intensive, reveals that the true magnetization profiles of localized modes are similar to Bessel functions with gradually decaying dynamic magnetization at the mode edges. We also find that an analytic solution, which is simple to implement and computationally much faster than other methods, accurately describes the resonance field of localized modes when exchange fields are negligible, and demonstrating the accessibility of localized mode analysis.

  14. Recovering Sample Diversity in Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Andrew D

    2006-01-01

    ...) in simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) situations that arises when precise feature measurements yield a limited perceptual distribution relative to a motion-based proposal distribution...

  15. Automatic fuel lattice design in a boiling water reactor using a particle swarm optimization algorithm and local search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chaung; Lin, Tung-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The automatic procedure was developed to design the radial enrichment and gadolinia (Gd) distribution of fuel lattice. ► The method is based on a particle swarm optimization algorithm and local search. ► The design goal were to achieve the minimum local peaking factor. ► The number of fuel pins with Gd and Gd concentration are fixed to reduce search complexity. ► In this study, three axial sections are design and lattice performance is calculated using CASMO-4. - Abstract: The axial section of fuel assembly in a boiling water reactor (BWR) consists of five or six different distributions; this requires a radial lattice design. In this study, an automatic procedure based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and local search was developed to design the radial enrichment and gadolinia (Gd) distribution of the fuel lattice. The design goals were to achieve the minimum local peaking factor (LPF), and to come as close as possible to the specified target average enrichment and target infinite multiplication factor (k ∞ ), in which the number of fuel pins with Gd and Gd concentration are fixed. In this study, three axial sections are designed, and lattice performance is calculated using CASMO-4. Finally, the neutron cross section library of the designed lattice is established by CMSLINK; the core status during depletion, such as thermal limits, cold shutdown margin and cycle length, are then calculated using SIMULATE-3 in order to confirm that the lattice design satisfies the design requirements.

  16. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-02: Vernier Picket Fence Test: A Non-Imaging Method to Localize the Radiation Isocenter with Submillimeter Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J; Gallagher, K [Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Zhang, J [Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose a new non-imaging method to localize the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Methods: The Vernier picket fence (VPF) is a multileaf collimator (MLC) picket fence sequence in which the fence spacing is 1/N smaller than the detector spacing of the QA phantom, where N is the magnification factor, typically set to 10 or 20. Similar to reading a Vernier caliper, the user can easily achieve the resolution of 1/N of the detector spacing by visually inspecting the maximum signal. To achieve higher accuracy, a Gaussian model was used to interpolate the peak position, which can fall between adjacent detectors. In two separate tests, precise MLC offsets and imprecise couch offsets were applied to a 2D detector array (MapCheck, Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, Florida) to introduce setup errors. Two vertical VPF fields were delivered with collimator angles at 0° and 90° to detect the lateral and longitudinal setup errors, respectively. For a rotational QA phantom, an additional lateral VPF field is needed to detect the vertical setup error for three-dimensional capabilities. Results: With N set to 20 and a detector spacing of 5 mm for MapCheck, the resolution of the VPF’s visual analysis is 0.25 mm. With the Gaussian interpretation, the VPF can achieve an accuracy of 0.02 mm, as shown by the MLC offset test. The couch offset test measured the couch hysteresis and demonstrated that the setup error detected by the VPF differed from the ExacTrac™ (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) optical tracking by 0.055 mm in the lateral direction and 0.041 mm in the longitudinal direction on average. The VPF was also shown to be feasible in the vertical direction as well. Conclusion: This study verified the VPF as a non-imaging method to localize the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Funding is in part by the Portland Chapter of the Achievement Rewards for College Scientists. The content is solely the

  17. Measurement of Localized Corrosion Rates at Inclusion Particles in AA7075 by In Situ Three Dimensional (3D) X-ray Synchrotron Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sudhanshu S.; Williams, Jason J.; Stannard, Tyler J.; Xiao, Xianghui; De Carlo, Francesco; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2016-03-01

    In situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was used to measure the localized corrosion rate of Mg2Si particles present in 7075 aluminum alloys in deionized ultra-filtered (DIUF) water. The evolution of hydrogen bubbles was captured as a function of time and the measured volume was used to calculate the local corrosion rate of Mg2Si particles. It was shown that in the absence of chloride ions, stress was needed to create fresh particle surfaces, either by fracture or debonding, to initiate corrosion at the particles.

  18. Automatic multi-cycle reload design of pressurized water reactor using particle swarm optimization algorithm and local search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chaung; Hung, Shao-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An automatic multi-cycle core reload design tool, which searches the fresh fuel assembly composition, is developed. • The search method adopts particle swarm optimization and local search. • The design objectives are to achieve required cycle energy, minimum fuel cost, and the satisfactory constraints. • The constraints include the hot zero power moderator temperature coefficient and the hot channel factor. - Abstract: An automatic multi-cycle core reload design tool, which searches the fresh fuel assembly composition, is developed using particle swarm optimization and local search. The local search uses heuristic rules to change the current search result a little so that the result can be improved. The composition of the fresh fuel assemblies should provide the required cycle energy and satisfy the constraints, such as the hot zero power moderator temperature coefficient and the hot channel factor. Instead of designing loading pattern for each FA composition during search process, two fixed loading patterns are used to calculate the core status and the better fitness function value is used in the search process. The fitness function contains terms which reflect the design objectives such as cycle energy, constraints, and fuel cost. The results show that the developed tool can achieve the desire objective

  19. Flow behaviour and local concentration of coarse particles-water mixture in inclined pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Konfršt, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2017), s. 183-191 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse particle mixture * concentration distribution * effect of pipe inclination * gamma-ray radiometry * Hydraulic conveying * mixture flow behaviour Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  20. Localization and Poincaré catastrophe in the problem of a photon scattering on a pair of Rayleigh particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimenko, V. V.; Zagaynov, V. A.; Agranovski, I. E.

    2013-11-01

    It is shown that complexities in a problem of elastic scattering of a photon on a pair of Rayleigh particles (two small metallic spheres) are similar to the complexities of the classic problem of three bodies in celestial mechanics. In the latter problem, as is well known, the phase trajectory of a system becomes a nonanalytical function of its variables. In our problem, the trajectory of a virtual photon at some frequency could be considered such as the well-known Antoine set (Antoine's necklace) or a chain with interlaced sections having zero topological dimension and fractal structure. Such a virtual “zero-dimensional” photon could be localized between the particles of the pair. The topology suppresses the photon's exit to the real world with dimensional equal-to-or-greater-than units. The physical reason for this type of photon localization is related to the “mechanical rigidity” of interlaced sections of the photon trajectory due to a singularity of energy density along these sections. Within the approximations used in this paper, the effect is possible if the frequency of the incident radiation is equal to double the frequency of the dipole surface plasmon in an isolated particle, which is the only character frequency in the problem. This condition and transformation of the photon trajectory to the zero-dimensional Antoine set reminds of some of the simplest variants of Poincaré's catastrophe in the dynamics of some nonintegrable systems. The influence of the localization on elastic light scattering by the pair is investigated.

  1. Localized internal radiotherapy with 90Y particles embedded in a new thermosetting alginate gel: a feasibility study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holte, Oyvind; Skretting, Arne; Bach-Gansmo, Tore; Hol, Per Kristian; Johnsrud, Kjersti; Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth; Karlsen, Jan

    2006-02-01

    Internal radiotherapy requires the localization of the radionuclide to the site of action. A new injectable alginate gel formulation intended to undergo immediate gelation in tissues and capable of encapsulating radioactive particles containing 90Y was investigated. The formulation was injected intramuscularly, into the bone marrow compartment of the femur and intravenously, respectively, in pigs. The distribution of radioactivity in various tissues was determined. Following intramuscular injection, more than 90% of the radioactivity was found at the site of injection. Following injection into bone marrow, 30-40% of the radioactivity was retained at the site of injection, but a considerable amount of radioactivity was also detected in the lungs (35-45%) and the liver (5-18%). Following intravenous injection, 80-90% of the radioactivity was found in the lungs. The present formulation appears suitable for localized radiotherapy in organs and tissues having low perfusion.

  2. Quantum non-local charges and absence of particle production in the two-dimensional non-linear sigma-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, M.

    1977-12-01

    Conserved non-local charges are shown to exist in the quantum non-linear sigma-model by a non-perturbative method. They imply the absence of particle production and the 'factorization equations' for the two particle S-matrix, which can then be calculated explicitly. (Auth.)

  3. Toxic trace elements in solid airborne particles and ecological risk assessment in the vicinity of local boiler house plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, Anna V.; Osipova, Nina A.; Yazikov, Egor G.; Shakhova, Tatyana S.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with assessment of anthropogenic pollution in vicinity of local boilers using the data on microelement composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow. The anthropogenic feature of elevated accumulation levels of solid airborne particles deposited in snow in the vicinity of coal-fired boiler house is revealed in elevated concentrations (3-25 higher than background) of Cd, Sb, Mo, Pb, Sr, Ba, Ni, Mo, Zn and Co. In the vicinity oil-fired boiler house the specific elements as parts of solid airborne particles deposited in snow are V, Ni and Sb, as their content exceeds the background from 3 to 8 times. It is determined that the maximum shares in non-carcinogenic human health risk from chronic inhalation of trace elements to the human body in the vicinity of coal-fired boiler house belong to Al, Mn, Cu, Ba, Co, Pb, whereas in the vicinity of oil-fired boiler house - Al, Mn, Cu, Ni, V.

  4. Azimuthal Charged-Particle Correlations and Possible Local Strong Parity Violation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Coserea, R. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.S.M.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.; Tlustý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 25 (2009), 251601/1-251601/7 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0079; GA MŠk LC07048; GA MŠk LA09013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : heavy-ion collisions * local parity violation * strong interaction Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 7.328, year: 2009

  5. Accuracy of an infrared marker-based patient positioning system (ExacTrac®) for stereotactic body radiotherapy in localizing the planned isocenter using fiducial markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Rodríguez, María de los Ángeles; Hernández-Bojórquez, Mariana; Martínez-Gómez, Alma Angélica; Contreras-Pérez, Agustín; Negrete-Hernández, Ingrid Mireya; Hernández-Oviedo, Jorge Omar; Mitsoura, Eleni; Santiago-Concha, Bernardino Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) requires a controlled immobilization and position monitoring of patient and target. The purpose of this work is to analyze the performance of the imaging system ExacTrac® (ETX) using infrared and fiducial markers. Materials and methods: In order to assure the accuracy of isocenter localization, a Quality Assurance procedure was applied using an infrared marker-based positioning system. Scans were acquired of an inhouse-agar gel and solid water phantom with infrared spheres. In the inner part of the phantom, three reference markers were delineated as reference and one pellet was place internally; which was assigned as the isocenter. The iPlan® RT Dose treatment planning system. Images were exported to the ETX console. Images were acquired with the ETX to check the correctness of the isocenter placement. Adjustments were made in 6D the reference markers were used to fuse the images. Couch shifts were registered. The procedure was repeated for verification purposes. Results: The data recorded of the verifications in translational and rotational movements showed averaged 3D spatial uncertainties of 0.31 ± 0.42 mm respectively 0.82° ± 0.46° in the phantom and the first correction of these uncertainties were of 1.51 ± 1.14 mm respectively and 1.37° ± 0.61°. Conclusions: This study shows a high accuracy and repeatability in positioning the selected isocenter. The ETX-system for verifying the treatment isocenter position has the ability to monitor the tracing position of interest, making it possible to be used for SBRT positioning within uncertainty ≤1mm.

  6. Accuracy of an infrared marker-based patient positioning system (ExacTrac®) for stereotactic body radiotherapy in localizing the planned isocenter using fiducial markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes-Rodríguez, María de los Ángeles, E-mail: angy24538@yahoo.com; Mitsoura, Eleni [Medical Physics Graduate Programme, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan esquina Jesús Carranza Colonia Moderna de la Cruz, C.P. 50180, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Hernández-Bojórquez, Mariana; Martínez-Gómez, Alma Angélica; Contreras-Pérez, Agustín; Negrete-Hernández, Ingrid Mireya; Hernández-Oviedo, Jorge Omar; Santiago-Concha, Bernardino Gabriel [Centro de Cáncer ABC, The American British Cowdray Medical Center I.A.P. (CMABC), Calle Sur 136, no. 116, Colonia las Américas, C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) requires a controlled immobilization and position monitoring of patient and target. The purpose of this work is to analyze the performance of the imaging system ExacTrac® (ETX) using infrared and fiducial markers. Materials and methods: In order to assure the accuracy of isocenter localization, a Quality Assurance procedure was applied using an infrared marker-based positioning system. Scans were acquired of an inhouse-agar gel and solid water phantom with infrared spheres. In the inner part of the phantom, three reference markers were delineated as reference and one pellet was place internally; which was assigned as the isocenter. The iPlan® RT Dose treatment planning system. Images were exported to the ETX console. Images were acquired with the ETX to check the correctness of the isocenter placement. Adjustments were made in 6D the reference markers were used to fuse the images. Couch shifts were registered. The procedure was repeated for verification purposes. Results: The data recorded of the verifications in translational and rotational movements showed averaged 3D spatial uncertainties of 0.31 ± 0.42 mm respectively 0.82° ± 0.46° in the phantom and the first correction of these uncertainties were of 1.51 ± 1.14 mm respectively and 1.37° ± 0.61°. Conclusions: This study shows a high accuracy and repeatability in positioning the selected isocenter. The ETX-system for verifying the treatment isocenter position has the ability to monitor the tracing position of interest, making it possible to be used for SBRT positioning within uncertainty ≤1mm.

  7. Hybrid Firefly Variants Algorithm for Localization Optimization in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SrideviPonmalar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Localization is one of the key issues in wireless sensor networks. Several algorithms and techniques have been introduced for localization. Localization is a procedural technique of estimating the sensor node location. In this paper, a novel three hybrid algorithms based on firefly is proposed for localization problem. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Firefly Localization Algorithm (GA-FFLA, Hybrid Differential Evolution-Firefly Localization Algorithm (DE-FFLA and Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization -Firefly Localization Algorithm (PSO-FFLA are analyzed, designed and implemented to optimize the localization error. The localization algorithms are compared based on accuracy of estimation of location, time complexity and iterations required to achieve the accuracy. All the algorithms have hundred percent estimation accuracy but with variations in the number of firefliesr requirements, variation in time complexity and number of iteration requirements. Keywords: Localization; Genetic Algorithm; Differential Evolution; Particle Swarm Optimization

  8. Local fields and effective conductivity tensor of ellipsoidal particle composite with anisotropic constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushch, Volodymyr I.; Sevostianov, Igor; Giraud, Albert

    2017-11-01

    An accurate semi-analytical solution of the conductivity problem for a composite with anisotropic matrix and arbitrarily oriented anisotropic ellipsoidal inhomogeneities has been obtained. The developed approach combines the superposition principle with the multipole expansion of perturbation fields of inhomogeneities in terms of ellipsoidal harmonics and reduces the boundary value problem to an infinite system of linear algebraic equations for the induced multipole moments of inhomogeneities. A complete full-field solution is obtained for the multi-particle models comprising inhomogeneities of diverse shape, size, orientation and properties which enables an adequate account for the microstructure parameters. The solution is valid for the general-type anisotropy of constituents and arbitrary orientation of the orthotropy axes. The effective conductivity tensor of the particulate composite with anisotropic constituents is evaluated in the framework of the generalized Maxwell homogenization scheme. Application of the developed method to composites with imperfect ellipsoidal interfaces is straightforward. Their incorporation yields probably the most general model of a composite that may be considered in the framework of analytical approach.

  9. Determination of the hydrological properties of a small-scale catchment area in Northern Greece from ASTER and SRTM DEMs and accuracy assessment with a local DTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanou, E. A.; Vergos, G. S.

    2012-04-01

    The combined use of Geographic Information Systems and recent high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from Remote Sensing imagery offers a unique opportunity to study the hydrological properties of basin and catchment dynamics and derive the hydrological features of specific regions of various spatial scales. Until recently, the availability of global DEMs was restricted to low-resolution and accuracy models, e.g., ETOPO5, ETOPO2 and GTOPO30, compared to local Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from photogrammetric methods and offered usually in the form of topographic maps of various scales. The advent of the SRTM and ASTER missions, offer some new tools and opportunities in order to use their data within a GIS to study the hydrological properties of basins and consequently validate their performance both amongst each other, as well as in terms of the results derived from a local DTM. The present work focuses on the use of the recent SRTM v2 90 m and ASTER v2 30 m DEMs along with the national 500 m DTM generated by the Hellenic Military Geographic Service (HMGS), within a GIS in order to assess their performance in determining the hydrological properties of basins. To this respect, the ArcHydro extension tool of ArcGIS v9.3 and HEC-GeoRAS v4.3 have been exploited to determine the hydrographic data of the basins under study which are located in Northern Greece. The hydrological characteristics refer to stream geometry, curve number, flooding areas, etc. as well as the topographic characteristics of the basin itself, such as aspect, hillshade, slope e.t.c..

  10. MN15-L: A New Local Exchange-Correlation Functional for Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory with Broad Accuracy for Atoms, Molecules, and Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haoyu S; He, Xiao; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-08

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory is widely used for applications of electronic structure theory in chemistry, materials science, and condensed-matter physics, but the accuracy depends on the quality of the exchange-correlation functional. Here, we present a new local exchange-correlation functional called MN15-L that predicts accurate results for a broad range of molecular and solid-state properties including main-group bond energies, transition metal bond energies, reaction barrier heights, noncovalent interactions, atomic excitation energies, ionization potentials, electron affinities, total atomic energies, hydrocarbon thermochemistry, and lattice constants of solids. The MN15-L functional has the same mathematical form as a previous meta-nonseparable gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional, MN12-L, but it is improved because we optimized it against a larger database, designated 2015A, and included smoothness restraints; the optimization has a much better representation of transition metals. The mean unsigned error on 422 chemical energies is 2.32 kcal/mol, which is the best among all tested functionals, with or without nonlocal exchange. The MN15-L functional also provides good results for test sets that are outside the training set. A key issue is that the functional is local (no nonlocal exchange or nonlocal correlation), which makes it relatively economical for treating large and complex systems and solids. Another key advantage is that medium-range correlation energy is built in so that one does not need to add damped dispersion by molecular mechanics in order to predict accurate noncovalent binding energies. We believe that the MN15-L functional should be useful for a wide variety of applications in chemistry, physics, materials science, and molecular biology.

  11. Online corrections - Evidence based practice utilizing electronic portal imaging to improve the accuracy of field placement for locally advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, M.; Medwell, S.; Rolfo, A.; Joon, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The requirement of accurate field placement in the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer is of great significance given the onset of dose escalation and increased Planning Target Volume (PTV) conformity. With these factors in mind, it becomes essential to ensure accurate field placement for the duration of a course of Radiotherapy. This study examines the role of Online Corrections to increase accuracy of field placement, utilizing Varian Vision EPI equipment. The study also examines the hypothetical scenario of effect on three-dimensional computer dosimetry if Online Corrections were not performed, incorporating TCP and NTCP data. Field placement data was collected on patients receiving radical radiotherapy to the prostate utilizing the Varian Vision (TM)EPI software. Both intra and inter field data was collected with Online Corrections being carried out within the confines of the BAROC PROSTATE EPI POLICY. Analysis was performed on the data to illustrate the value of Online Corrections in the pursuit of accurate field placement. This evidence was further supported by computer dosimetry presenting the worst case possible impact upon a patients total course of treatment if Online Corrections were not performed. The use of Online Corrections can prove to be of enormous benefit to both patient and practitioner. For centres with the available technology, it places the responsibility of field placement upon the Radiation Therapist. This responsibility in turn impacts on the education, training and empowerment of the Radiation Therapy group. These are issues of the utmost importance to centres considering the use of Online Corrections

  12. A novel chaotic particle swarm optimization approach using Henon map and implicit filtering local search for economic load dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Leandro dos Santos; Mariani, Viviana Cocco

    2009-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population-based swarm intelligence algorithm driven by the simulation of a social psychological metaphor instead of the survival of the fittest individual. Based on the chaotic systems theory, this paper proposed a novel chaotic PSO combined with an implicit filtering (IF) local search method to solve economic dispatch problems. Since chaotic mapping enjoys certainty, ergodicity and the stochastic property, the proposed PSO introduces chaos mapping using Henon map sequences which increases its convergence rate and resulting precision. The chaotic PSO approach is used to produce good potential solutions, and the IF is used to fine-tune of final solution of PSO. The hybrid methodology is validated for a test system consisting of 13 thermal units whose incremental fuel cost function takes into account the valve-point loading effects. Simulation results are promising and show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. A novel cooperative localization algorithm using enhanced particle filter technique in maritime search and rescue wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huafeng; Mei, Xiaojun; Chen, Xinqiang; Li, Junjun; Wang, Jun; Mohapatra, Prasant

    2018-07-01

    Maritime search and rescue (MSR) play a significant role in Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). However, it suffers from scenarios that the measurement information is inaccurate due to wave shadow effect when utilizing wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology in MSR. In this paper, we develop a Novel Cooperative Localization Algorithm (NCLA) in MSR by using an enhanced particle filter method to reduce measurement errors on observation model caused by wave shadow effect. First, we take into account the mobility of nodes at sea to develop a motion model-Lagrangian model. Furthermore, we introduce both state model and observation model to constitute a system model for particle filter (PF). To address the impact of the wave shadow effect on the observation model, we develop an optimal parameter derived by Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD) to mitigate the error. After the optimal parameter is acquired, an improved likelihood function is presented. Finally, the estimated position is acquired. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphologies and elemental compositions of local biomass burning particles at urban and glacier sites in southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Results from an expedition in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tafeng; Cao, Junji; Zhu, Chongshu; Zhao, Zhuzi; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Daizhou

    2018-07-01

    Many studies indicate that the atmospheric environment over the southern part of the Tibetan Plateau is influenced by aged biomass burning particles that are transported over long distances from South Asia. However, our knowledge of the particles emitted locally (within the plateau region) is poor. We collected aerosol particles at four urban sites and one remote glacier site during a scientific expedition to the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in spring 2010. Weather and backward trajectory analyses indicated that the particles we collected were more likely dominated by particles emitted within the plateau. The particles were examined using an electron microscope and identified according to their sizes, shapes and elemental compositions. At three urban sites where the anthropogenic particles were produced mainly by the burning of firewood, soot aggregates were in the majority and made up >40% of the particles by number. At Lhasa, the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau, tar balls and mineral particles were also frequently observed because of the use of coal and natural gas, in addition to biofuel. In contrast, at the glacier site, large numbers of chain-like soot aggregates (~25% by number) were noted. The morphologies of these aggregates were similar to those of freshly emitted ones at the urban sites; moreover, physically or chemically processed ageing was rarely confirmed. These limited observations suggest that the biomass burning particles age slowly in the cold, dry plateau air. Anthropogenic particles emitted locally within the elevated plateau region may thus affect the environment within glaciated areas in Tibet differently than anthropogenic particles transported from South Asia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  16. The effect of the electronic structure, phase transition, and localized dynamics of atoms in the formation of tiny particles of gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mubarak, E-mail: mubarak74@comsats.edu.pk, E-mail: mubarak74@mail.com [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics (Pakistan); Lin, I-Nan [Tamkang University, Department of Physics (China)

    2017-01-15

    In addition to self-governing properties, tiny-sized particles of metallic colloids are the building blocks of large-sized particles; thus, their study has been the subject of a large number of publications. In the present work, it has been discussed that geometry structure of tiny particle made through atom-to-atom amalgamation depends on attained dynamics of gold atoms along with protruded orientations. The localized process conditions direct two-dimensional structure of a tiny particle at atomically flat air-solution interface while heating locally dynamically approached atoms, thus, negate the role of van der Waals interactions. At electronphoton-solution interface, impinging electrons stretch or deform atoms of tiny particles depending on the mechanism of impingement. In addition, to strike regular grid of electrons ejected on split of atoms not executing excitations and de-excitations of their electrons, atoms of tiny particles also deform or stretch while occupying various sites depending on the process of synergy. Under suitable impinging electron streams, those tiny particles in monolayer two-dimensional structure electron states of their atoms are diffused in the direction of transferred energy, thus, coincide to the next adjacent atoms in each one-dimensional array dealing the same sort of behavior. Instantaneously, photons of adequate energy propagate on the surfaces of such electronic structures and modify those into smooth elements, thus, disregard the phenomenon of localized surface plasmons. This study highlights the fundamental process of formation of tiny particles where the role of localized dynamics of atoms and their electronic structure along with interaction to light are discussed. Such a tool of processing materials, in nonequilibrium pulse-based process, opens a number of possibilities to develop engineered materials with specific chemical, optical, and electronic properties.

  17. A class of explicitly soluble, local, many-center hamiltonians for one-particle quantum mechanics in two and three dimensions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, A.; Mebkhout, M.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille

    1979-02-01

    An explicit formula for the resolvent of a class of one-particle, many-center, local Hamiltonians is derived. This formula gives, in particular, a full description of a model molecule given by point interactions at n arbitrarily placed fixed centers in three dimensions. It also gives a three-dimensional analogue of the Kronig-Penney model

  18. The determination of the local conditions for void initiation in front of a crack tip for materials with second-phase particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabirov, I. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)]. E-mail: sabirov@unileoben.ac.at; Duschlbauer, D. [Institute of Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Pettermann, H.E. [Institute of Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Kolednik, O. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2005-02-25

    A procedure is proposed to determine, for second-phase particles near a crack tip, the maximum particle stresses at the moment of void initiation by either particle fracture or particle/matrix interface separation. A digital image analysis system is applied to perform a quantitative analysis of corresponding fracture surface regions from stereo image pairs taken in the scanning electron microscope. The fracture surface analysis is used to measure, for individual particles, the crack tip opening displacement at the moment of void initiation and the particle location with respect to the crack tip. From these data, the stress tensor at the moment of void initiation is calculated from the Hutchinson-Rice-Rosengren (HRR) field theory. The corresponding average local stresses within the particle are evaluated by a non-linear Mori-Tanaka-type approach. These stresses are compared to estimates according to the models by Argon et al. [A.S. Argon, J. Im, R. Safoglu, Metall. Trans. 6 (1975) 825] and Beremin [F.M. Beremin, Metall. Trans. 12 (1981) 723]. The procedure is demonstrated on an Al6061-10% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal matrix composite.

  19. Local particle densities and global multiplicities in central heavy ion interactions at 3.7, 14.6, 60 and 200 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Aggarwal, M.M.

    1992-03-01

    The energy and centrality dependence of local particle pseudorapidity densities as well as validity of various parametrizations of the distributions are examined. The dispersion, σ, of the rapidity density distribution of produced particles varies slowly with centrality and is 0.80, 0.98, 1.21 and 1.41 for central interactions at 3.7, 14.6, 60 and 200 A GeV incident energy, respectively. σ is found to be independent of the size of the interacting system at fixed energy. A novel way of representing the window dependence of the multiplicity as normalized variance versus inverse average multiplicity is outlined. (au)

  20. Local particle densities and global multiplicities in central heavy ion interactions at 3.7, 14.6, 60 and 200 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Larionova, V.G.; Maslennikova, N.V.; Orlova, G.I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Rappoport, V.M.; Salmanova, N.A.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Arora, R.; Bhatia, V.S.; Mittra, I.S.; Andreeva, N.P.; Anson, Z.V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Eligbaeva, G.Z.; Eremenko, L.E.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Kalyachkina, G.S.; Kanygina, E.K.; Lepetan, V.N.; Shakhova, T.I.; Avetyan, F.A.; Marutyan, N.A.; Sarkisova, L.G.; Sarkisyan, V.R.; Badyal, S.K.; Bhasin, A.; Gupta, V.K.; Kachroo, S.; Kaul, G.L.; Kitroo, S.; Mangotra, L.K.; Rao, N.K.; Basova, E.; Nasrulaeva, H.; Nasyrov, S.H.; Petrov, N.V.; Qarshiev, D.A.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.; Bhalla, K.B.; Gupta, S.K.; Kumar, V.; Lal, P.; Lokanathan, S.; Mookerjee, S.; Palsania, H.S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Bogdanaov, V.G.; Plyushchev, V.A.; Solovjeva, Z.I.; Burnett, T.H.; Grote, J.; Lord, J.; Skelding, D.; Wilkes, R.J.; Chernova, L.P.; Gulamov, K.G.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Navotny, V.S.; Saidkhanov, N.; Shpilev, S.N.; Surin, E.L.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Zhochova, S.I.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Rhee, J.T.; Garpman, S.; Jakobsson, B.; Nystrand, J.; Otterlund, I.; Soederstroem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Heckman, H.H.; Cai, X.; Huang, H.; Liu, L.S.; Qian, W.Y.; Wang, H.Q.; Zhou, D.C.; Judek, B.; Just, L.; Tothova, M.; Karabova, M.; Vokal, S.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kulikova, S.; Maksimkina, T.N.; Shabratova, G.S.; Tolstov, K.D.; Luo, S.B.; Qin, Y.M.; Zhang, D.H.; Weng, Z.Q.; Xia, Y.L.; Xu, G.F.; Zheng, P.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The energy and centrality dependence of local particle pseudorapidity densities as well as validity of various parameterizations of the distributions are examined. The dispersion, σ, of the rapidity density distribution of produced particles varies slowly with centrality and is 0.80, 0.98, 1.21 and 1.41 for central interactions at 3.7, 14.6, 60 and 200 A GeV incident energy, respectively, σ is found to be independent of the size of the interacting system at fixed energy. A novel, way of representing the window dependence of the multiplicity as normalized variance versus inverse average multiplicity is outlined. (orig.)

  1. Skeletal muscle glycogen content and particle size of distinct subcellular localizations in the recovery period after a high-level soccer match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Krustrup, Peter; Nybo, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Whole muscle glycogen levels remain low for a prolonged period following a soccer match. The present study was conducted to investigate how this relates to glycogen content and particle size in distinct subcellular localizations. Seven high-level male soccer players had a vastus lateralis muscle...... biopsy collected immediately after and 24, 48, 72 and 120 h after a competitive soccer match. Transmission electron microscopy was used to estimate the subcellular distribution of glycogen and individual particle size. During the first day of recovery, glycogen content increased by ~60% in all...

  2. The local skin dose conversion coefficients of electrons, protons and alpha particles calculated using the Geant4 code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bintuan; Dang, Bingrong; Wang, Zhuanzi; Wei, Wei; Li, Wenjian

    2013-10-01

    The skin tissue-equivalent slab reported in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 116 to calculate the localised skin dose conversion coefficients (LSDCCs) was adopted into the Monte Carlo transport code Geant4. The Geant4 code was then utilised for computation of LSDCCs due to a circular parallel beam of monoenergetic electrons, protons and alpha particles electrons and alpha particles are found to be in good agreement with the results using the MCNPX code of ICRP 116 data. The present work thus validates the LSDCC values for both electrons and alpha particles using the Geant4 code.

  3. Deriving Physical Properties from Broadband Photometry with Prospector: Description of the Model and a Demonstration of its Accuracy Using 129 Galaxies in the Local Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leja, Joel; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dokkum, Pieter G. van [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Byler, Nell [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98185 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Broadband photometry of galaxies measures an unresolved mix of complex stellar populations, gas, and dust. Interpreting these data is a challenge for models: many studies have shown that properties derived from modeling galaxy photometry are uncertain by a factor of two or more, and yet answering key questions in the field now requires higher accuracy than this. Here, we present a new model framework specifically designed for these complexities. Our model, Prospector- α , includes dust attenuation and re-radiation, a flexible attenuation curve, nebular emission, stellar metallicity, and a six-component nonparametric star formation history. The flexibility and range of the parameter space, coupled with Monte Carlo Markov chain sampling within the Prospector inference framework, is designed to provide unbiased parameters and realistic error bars. We assess the accuracy of the model with aperture-matched optical spectroscopy, which was excluded from the fits. We compare spectral features predicted solely from fits to the broadband photometry to the observed spectral features. Our model predicts H α luminosities with a scatter of ∼0.18 dex and an offset of ∼0.1 dex across a wide range of morphological types and stellar masses. This agreement is remarkable, as the H α luminosity is dependent on accurate star formation rates, dust attenuation, and stellar metallicities. The model also accurately predicts dust-sensitive Balmer decrements, spectroscopic stellar metallicities, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mass fractions, and the age- and metallicity-sensitive features D{sub n}4000 and H δ . Although the model passes all these tests, we caution that we have not yet assessed its performance at higher redshift or the accuracy of recovered stellar masses.

  4. Electromagnetic scattering and emission by a fixed multi-particle object in local thermal equilibrium: General formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    The majority of previous studies of the interaction of individual particles and multi-particle groups with electromagnetic field have focused on either elastic scattering in the presence of an external field or self-emission of electromagnetic radiation. In this paper we apply semi-classical fluctuational electrodynamics to address the ubiquitous scenario wherein a fixed particle or a fixed multi-particle group is exposed to an external quasi-polychromatic electromagnetic field as well as thermally emits its own electromagnetic radiation. We summarize the main relevant axioms of fluctuational electrodynamics, formulate in maximally rigorous mathematical terms the general scattering-emission problem for a fixed object, and derive such fundamental corollaries as the scattering-emission volume integral equation, the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the dyadic transition operator, the multi-particle scattering-emission equations, and the far-field limit. We show that in the framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, the computation of the self-emitted component of the total field is completely separated from that of the elastically scattered field. The same is true of the computation of the emitted and elastically scattered components of quadratic/bilinear forms in the total electromagnetic field. These results pave the way to the practical computation of relevant optical observables.

  5. Accuracy of localizing radiopaque markers by abdominal radiography and correlation between their gastric emptying rate and that of a canned food in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilford, W.G.; Lawoko, C.R.O.; Allen, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To determine accuracy of abdominal radiography in locating radiopaque markers in the gastrointestinal tract and to assess correlation between gastric emptying rate of radiopaque markers and that of canned food. Animals: 17 healthy dogs. Procedure: Dogs were fed thirty 1.5-mm markers and ten 5-mm markers mixed in sufficient food to meet 25% of their daily caloric intake. They were then euthanatized by administration of an overdose of barbiturate at 1, 2, 5, 8, or 12 hours after eating and the abdomen was radiographed. The stomach, small intestine, and large intestine were then separated and radiographed in isolation. The wet and dry weights of the stomach contents were determined. The apparent and actual locations of the markers and the gastric emptying rates of markers, wet matter, and dry matter were compared, using rank correlation. Results: All comparisons indicated significant (P 0.92). The mean difference between the apparent and actual locations of the markers was < 3% for all comparisons. The mean difference between the percentage of small markers and large markers retained in the stomach and that of dry matter was 7.8 (SD, 6.2; range, 0 to 18)% and 11.9 (SD, 12.5; range, 0 to 44)%, respectively. Conclusions: The gastric emptying and orocolic transit rates of the markers were accurately predicted by abdominal radiography. The gastric emptying rate of the diet and the small markers and, to a lesser extent, the large markers was closely correlated. Clinical Relevance: When fed with a special canned food diet, radiopaque markers can be used to assess the gastric emptying rate of food with sufficient accuracy for clinical purposes

  6. Probing the quantum correlation and Bell non-locality for Dirac particles with Hawking effect in the background of Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuai; Song, Xue-ke; Shi, Jia-dong; Ye, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we analytically explore the effect of the Hawking radiation on the quantum correlation and Bell non-locality for Dirac particles in the background of Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that when the Hawking effect is almost nonexistent, corresponding to the case of an almost extreme black hole, the quantum properties of physically accessible state are the same for the initial situation. For finite Hawking temperature T, the accessible quantum correlation monotonously decreases along with increasing T owing to the thermal fields generated by the Hawking effect, and the accessible quantum non-locality will be disappeared when the Hawking temperature is more than a fixed value which increases with the parameter r of Werner state growing. Then we analyze the redistribution of quantum correlation, and find that for the case of the Hawking temperature being infinite, corresponding to the case of the black hole evaporating completely, the quantum correlation of physically accessible state is equal to the one of the inaccessible states. Moreover, due to the Pauli exclusion principle and the differences between Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein statistics, for the Dirac fields the accessible classical correlation decreases with increase of the Hawking temperature, which is different for the scalar fields. For Bell non-locality, we also find that the quantum non-locality is always extinct for physically inaccessible states, and the strength of the non-locality decreases with enlarging intensity of Hawking effect when the non-locality is existent in physically accessible state.

  7. SU-D-204-07: Retrospective Correlation of Dose Accuracy with Regions of Local Failure for Early Stage Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devpura, S; Li, H; Liu, C; Fraser, C; Ajlouni, M; Movsas, B; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To correlate dose distributions computed using six algorithms for recurrent early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), with outcome (local failure). Methods: Of 270 NSCLC patients treated with 12Gyx4, 20 were found to have local recurrence prior to the 2-year time point. These patients were originally planned with 1-D pencil beam (1-D PB) algorithm. 4D imaging was performed to manage tumor motion. Regions of local failures were determined from follow-up PET-CT scans. Follow-up CT images were rigidly fused to the planning CT (pCT), and recurrent tumor volumes (Vrecur) were mapped to the pCT. Dose was recomputed, retrospectively, using five algorithms: 3-D PB, collapsed cone convolution (CCC), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), AcurosXB, and Monte Carlo (MC). Tumor control probability (TCP) was computed using the Marsden model (1,2). Patterns of failure were classified as central, in-field, marginal, and distant for Vrecur ≥95% of prescribed dose, 95–80%, 80–20%, and ≤20%, respectively (3). Results: Average PTV D95 (dose covering 95% of the PTV) for 3-D PB, CCC, AAA, AcurosXB, and MC relative to 1-D PB were 95.3±2.1%, 84.1±7.5%, 84.9±5.7%, 86.3±6.0%, and 85.1±7.0%, respectively. TCP values for 1-D PB, 3-D PB, CCC, AAA, AcurosXB, and MC were 98.5±1.2%, 95.7±3.0, 79.6±16.1%, 79.7±16.5%, 81.1±17.5%, and 78.1±20%, respectively. Patterns of local failures were similar for 1-D and 3D PB plans, which predicted that the majority of failures occur in centraldistal regions, with only ∼15% occurring distantly. However, with convolution/superposition and MC type algorithms, the majority of failures (65%) were predicted to be distant, consistent with the literature. Conclusion: Based on MC and convolution/superposition type algorithms, average PTV D95 and TCP were ∼15% lower than the planned 1-D PB dose calculation. Patterns of failure results suggest that MC and convolution

  8. Uncovering the local inelastic interactions during manufacture of ductile cast iron: How the substructure of the graphite particles can induce residual stress concentrations in the matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Hellström, Kristina; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    2018-01-01

    Recent X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have revealed that plastic deformation and a residual elastic strain field can be present around the graphite particles in ductile cast iron after manufacturing, probably due to some local mismatch in thermal contraction. However, as only one component...... of the elastic strain tensor could be obtained from the XRD data, the shape and magnitude of the associated residual stress field have remained unknown. To compensate for this and to provide theoretical insight into this unexplored topic, a combined experimental-numerical approach is presented in this paper...... the graphite particles and the matrix during manufacturing of the industrial part considered in the XRD study. The model indicates that, besides the vis- coplastic deformation of the matrix, the effect of the inelastic deformation of the graphite has to be considered to explain the magnitude of the XRD strain...

  9. Linear-scaling time-dependent density-functional theory beyond the Tamm-Dancoff approximation: Obtaining efficiency and accuracy with in situ optimised local orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuehlsdorff, T. J., E-mail: tjz21@cam.ac.uk; Payne, M. C. [Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Hine, N. D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Haynes, P. D. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Thomas Young Centre for Theory and Simulation of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-28

    We present a solution of the full time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) eigenvalue equation in the linear response formalism exhibiting a linear-scaling computational complexity with system size, without relying on the simplifying Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). The implementation relies on representing the occupied and unoccupied subspaces with two different sets of in situ optimised localised functions, yielding a very compact and efficient representation of the transition density matrix of the excitation with the accuracy associated with a systematic basis set. The TDDFT eigenvalue equation is solved using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm that is very memory-efficient. The algorithm is validated on a small test molecule and a good agreement with results obtained from standard quantum chemistry packages is found, with the preconditioner yielding a significant improvement in convergence rates. The method developed in this work is then used to reproduce experimental results of the absorption spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll in an organic solvent, where it is demonstrated that the TDA fails to reproduce the main features of the low energy spectrum, while the full TDDFT equation yields results in good qualitative agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the need for explicitly including parts of the solvent into the TDDFT calculations is highlighted, making the treatment of large system sizes necessary that are well within reach of the capabilities of the algorithm introduced here. Finally, the linear-scaling properties of the algorithm are demonstrated by computing the lowest excitation energy of bacteriochlorophyll in solution. The largest systems considered in this work are of the same order of magnitude as a variety of widely studied pigment-protein complexes, opening up the possibility of studying their properties without having to resort to any semiclassical approximations to parts of the protein environment.

  10. Localization Accuracy of Distributed Inverse Solutions for Electric and Magnetic Source Imaging of Interictal Epileptic Discharges in Patients with Focal Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Marcel; Chowdhury, Rasheda A; Hedrich, Tanguy; Dubeau, François; Hall, Jeffery A; Lina, Jean-Marc; Grova, Christophe; Kobayashi, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Distributed inverse solutions aim to realistically reconstruct the origin of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) from noninvasively recorded electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. Our aim was to compare the performance of different distributed inverse solutions in localizing IEDs: coherent maximum entropy on the mean (cMEM), hierarchical Bayesian implementations of independent identically distributed sources (IID, minimum norm prior) and spatially coherent sources (COH, spatial smoothness prior). Source maxima (i.e., the vertex with the maximum source amplitude) of IEDs in 14 EEG and 19 MEG studies from 15 patients with focal epilepsy were analyzed. We visually compared their concordance with intracranial EEG (iEEG) based on 17 cortical regions of interest and their spatial dispersion around source maxima. Magnetic source imaging (MSI) maxima from cMEM were most often confirmed by iEEG (cMEM: 14/19, COH: 9/19, IID: 8/19 studies). COH electric source imaging (ESI) maxima co-localized best with iEEG (cMEM: 8/14, COH: 11/14, IID: 10/14 studies). In addition, cMEM was less spatially spread than COH and IID for ESI and MSI (p < 0.001 Bonferroni-corrected post hoc t test). Highest positive predictive values for cortical regions with IEDs in iEEG could be obtained with cMEM for MSI and with COH for ESI. Additional realistic EEG/MEG simulations confirmed our findings. Accurate spatially extended sources, as found in cMEM (ESI and MSI) and COH (ESI) are desirable for source imaging of IEDs because this might influence surgical decision. Our simulations suggest that COH and IID overestimate the spatial extent of the generators compared to cMEM.

  11. Refinement of Treatment Setup and Target Localization Accuracy Using Three-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiheng; Nelson, John W.; Yoo, Sua; Wu, Q. Jackie; Kirkpatrick, John P.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Yin Fangfang

    2009-01-01

    Purposes: To quantitatively compare two-dimensional (2D) orthogonal kV with three-dimensional (3D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) for target localization; and to assess intrafraction motion with kV images in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 50 patients with 58 lesions received 178 fractions of SBRT. After clinical setup using in-room lasers and skin/cradle marks placed at simulation, patients were imaged and repositioned according to orthogonal kV/MV registration of bony landmarks to digitally reconstructed radiographs from the planning CT. A subsequent CBCT was registered to the planning CT using soft tissue information, and the resultant 'residual error' was measured and corrected before treatment. Posttreatment 2D kV and/or 3D CBCT images were compared with pretreatment images to determine any intrafractional position changes. Absolute averages, statistical means, standard deviations, and root mean square (RMS) values of observed setup error were calculated. Results: After initial setup to external marks with laser guidance, 2D kV images revealed vector mean setup deviations of 0.67 cm (RMS). Cone-beam CT detected residual setup deviations of 0.41 cm (RMS). Posttreatment imaging demonstrated intrafractional variations of 0.15 cm (RMS). The individual shifts in three standard orthogonal planes showed no obvious directional biases. Conclusions: After localization based on superficial markings in patients undergoing SBRT, orthogonal kV imaging detects setup variations of approximately 3 to 4 mm in each direction. Cone-beam CT detects residual setup variations of approximately 2 to 3 mm

  12. Anatomical accuracy of lesion localization. Retrospective interactive rigid image registration between 18F-FDG-PET and X-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noemayr, A.; Roemer, W.; Kuwert, T.; Hothorn, T.; Pfahlberg, A.; Hornegger, J.; Bautz, W.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical accuracy and reproducibility of retrospective interactive rigid image registration (RIR) between routinely archived X-ray computer tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography performed with 18 F-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in oncological patients. Methods: two observers registered PET and CT data obtained in 37 patients using a commercially available image fusion tool. RIR was performed separately for the thorax and the abdomen using physiological FDG uptake in several organs as a reference. One observer performed the procedure twice (01a and 01b), another person once (02). For 94 malignant lesions, clearly visible in CT and PET, the signed and absolute distances between their representation on PET and CT were measured in X-, Y-, and Z-direction with reference to a coordinate system centered in the CT representation of each lesion (X-, Y-, Z-distances). Results: the mean differences of the signed and absolute distances between 01a, 01b, and 02 did not exceed 3 mm in any dimension. The absolute X-, Y-, and Z-distances ranged between 0.57 ± 0.58 cm for 01a (X-direction) and 1.12 ± 1.28 cm for 02 (Z-direction). When averaging the absolute distances measured by 01a, 01b, and 02, the percentage of lesions misregistered by less than 1.5 cm was 91% for the X-, 88% for the Y-, and 77% for the Z-direction. The larger error of fusion determined for the remaining lesions was caused by non-rigid body transformations due to differences in breathing, arm position, or bowel movements between the two examinations. Mixed effects analysis of the signed and absolute X-, Y-, and Z-distances disclosed a significantly greater misalignment in the thorax than in the abdomen as well as axially than transaxially. Conclusion: the anatomical inaccuracy of RIR can be expected to be <1.5 cm for the majority of neoplastic foci. errors of alignment are bigger in the thorax and in Z-direction, due to non-rigid body transformations caused, e

  13. Quantitative DCE-MRI for prediction of pathological complete response following neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced breast cancer: the impact of breast cancer subtypes on the diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisis, Stylianos; Stathopoulos, Konstantinos; Chao, Shih-Li; Lemort, Marc [Institute Jules Bordet, Radiology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Metens, Thierry [Erasme University Hospital, Radiology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Ignatiadis, Michael [Institute Jules Bordet, Oncology Department, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-05-15

    To assess whether DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters obtained before and during chemotherapy can predict pathological complete response (pCR) differently for different breast cancer groups. Eighty-four patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer were retrospectively included. All patients underwent two DCE-MRI examinations, one before (EX1) and one during treatment (EX2). Tumours were classified into different breast cancer groups, namely triple negative (TNBC), HER2+ and ER+/HER2-, and compared with the whole population (WP). PK parameters Ktrans and Ve were extracted using a two-compartment Tofts model. At EX1, Ktrans predicted pCR for WP and TNBC. At EX2, maximum diameter (Dmax) predicted pCR for WP and ER+/HER2-. Both PK parameters predicted pCR in WP and TNBC and only Ktrans for the HER2+. pCR was predicted from relative difference (EX1 - EX2)/EX1 of Dmax and both PK parameters in the WP group and only for Ve in the TNBC group. No PK parameter could predict response for ER+/HER-. ROC comparison between WP and breast cancer groups showed higher but not statistically significant values for TNBC for the prediction of pCR Quantitative DCE-MRI can better predict pCR after neoadjuvant treatment for TNBC but not for the ER+/HER2- group. (orig.)

  14. The Effects of Voxel Localization and Time of Echo on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Cystic Brain Tumors in 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Firouznia, Kavous; Salehi-Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Mohseni, Meisam; Gharaei, Dona; Ghanaati, Hossein; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza; Masoudnia, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been shown as an effective diagnostic tool in distinguishing inflammation from neoplasm in cystic brain lesions, the optimum approach in selecting the portions of lesions in MRS and the possible effects of different times of echoes (TEs) remains unknown. To determine the most effective TE in diagnosing neoplastic lesions based on detecting choline (Cho), N acetyl aspartate (NAA) and creatinine (Cr). Moreover, the role of voxel localization on the diagnosis of the neoplastic nature of the lesions is assessed through comparing the abovementioned metabolite ratios in the rim and center of each lesion with the same TE. In 16 patients with brain cystic tumors, MRS was performed at TEs of 30, 135 and 270 ms for detection of Cho, NAA and Cr metabolites using a 3 tesla MRI unit. The percentage of analyzed ratios greater than a cut-off point of 1.3 for Cho/Cr and 1.6 for Cho/NAA were calculated. Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratio means at all TEs were more at the central area in comparison with the periphery, although none of the differences were statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference among the compared TEs. The percentages of ratios above the cut-off point at all TEs were more in the rim compared to the center and in the union of both compared to the rim or center. All the patients had at least one voxel with a Cho/Cr ratio of more than 1.3 when the voxel was chosen according to the hotspots shown in the chemical shift imaging map, regardless of their location at all examined TEs. Selection of voxels with the guide of chemical shift imaging map yields to 100% diagnostic sensitivity. If not accessible, the use of the union of peripheral and central voxels enhances the sensitivity when compared to usage of peripheral or central voxels solely

  15. Endoscopic localization of colorectal cancer: Study of its accuracy and possible error factors Localización endoscópica del cáncer colorrectal: estudio de su precisión y posibles factores de error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Borda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: accurate preoperative localization of colorectal cancer (CRC is very important, with a wide range of published error rates. Aim: to determine accuracy of endoscopic localization of CRC in comparison with preoperative computed tomography (CT. To analyse variables that could be associated with a wrong endoscopic localization. Patients and methods: endoscopic and CT localization of a series of CRC without previous surgery were reviewed. We studied the concordance between endoscopic and radiologic localization against operative findings comparing accuracy of endoscopy and CT. We analysed the frequency of wrong endoscopic diagnoses with regard to a series of patient, endoscopy and tumor variables. Results: two hundred thirty seven CRC in 223 patients were studied. Concordance with surgical localization was: colonoscopy = 0.87 and CT = 0.69. Endoscopic localization accuracy was: 91.1%; CT: 76.2%: p = 0.00001; OR = 3.22 (1.82-5.72. Obstructive cancer presented a higher rate of wrong localization: 18 vs. 5.7% in non-obstructive tumors (p = 0.0034; OR = 3.65 (1.35-9.96. Endoscopic localization mistakes varied depending on tumor location, being more frequent in descending colon: 36.3%, p = 0.014; OR = 6.23 (1.38-26.87 and cecum: 23.1%, p = 0.007; OR = 3.92 (1.20-12.43. Conclusions: endoscopic accuracy for CRC localization was very high and significantly better than CT accuracy. Obstructive tumor and those located in the descending colon or cecum were associated with a significant increase of the error risk of CRC endoscopic localization.Introducción: una correcta localización preoperatoria del cáncer colorrectal (CCR es muy importante, siendo variables las tasas de error de localización endoscópica publicadas. Objetivo: determinar la precisión de la localización endoscópica del CCR, comparándola con la del TAC preoperatorio. Analizar las variables que pudieran asociarse a una localización endoscópica errónea. Pacientes y m

  16. Long-term retention of 133Ba in the rat trachea following local administration as barium sulfate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, S.; Patrick, G.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term retention of 133 Ba in the trachea from intratracheally administered BaSO 4 particles was determined by both serial sacrifice and external scanning methods up to 6 months after injection. The amount of 133 Ba retained 1 week after injection in the caudal region of the trachea, where the tip of the cannula had been at injection, was 0.41% of the initial dose. Thereafter the 133 Ba was cleared exponentially with a mean half-time of 88 days, as determined from the autopsy samples. The cranial region of the trachea, including the site of the tracheostomy, contained 133 Ba at 10 times the level in the caudal region 1 week after injection and was cleared with a half-time of 66 days. These clearance rates were confirmed by repeated external scanning over the trachea. The 133Ba was drained to the lymph nodes not only in the thoracic cavity but also in the cervical region, suggesting the possibility of lymphatic drainage from the trachea to the cervical lymph nodes

  17. Influence of Al7Cu2Fe intermetallic particles on the localized corrosion of high strength aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemin, Aline; Marques, Denys; Bisanha, Leandro; Motheo, Artur de Jesus; Bose Filho, Waldek Wladimir; Ruchert, Cassius Olivio Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The corrosion on new aerospace aluminum alloy is studied. • Al 7 Cu 2 Fe precipitate was detected in the 7475-T7351 and 7081 T73511 alloy by scanning electron microscopy. • Al 7 Cu 2 Fe particles have different morphologies depending on the forming process. • Corrosion pitting occurs around Al 7 Cu 2 Fe precipitates in 7475-T7351 and 7081-T73511 alloys. - Abstract: The development of aluminum alloys of the Al–Zn–Mg–Cu system is the primary factor that enabled the evolution of aircraft. However, it has been shown that these alloys tend to undergo pitting corrosion due to the presence of elements such as iron, copper and silicon. Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the behavior of the Al 7 Cu 2 Fe precipitate in 7475-T7351 and 7081-T73511 alloys based on microstructural characterization and polarization tests. The corrosion and pitting potentials were found to be very similar, and matrix dissolution occurred around the Al 7 Cu 2 Fe precipitate in both alloys, revealing the anodic behavior of the matrix

  18. Interaction, coalescence, and collapse of localized patterns in a quasi-one-dimensional system of interacting particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessup, Tommy; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel

    2017-01-01

    We study the path toward equilibrium of pairs of solitary wave envelopes (bubbles) that modulate a regular zigzag pattern in an annular channel. We evidence that bubble pairs are metastable states, which spontaneously evolve toward a stable single bubble. We exhibit the concept of topological frustration of a bubble pair. A configuration is frustrated when the particles between the two bubbles are not organized in a modulated staggered row. For a nonfrustrated (NF) bubble pair configuration, the bubbles interaction is attractive, whereas it is repulsive for a frustrated (F) configuration. We describe a model of interacting solitary wave that provides all qualitative characteristics of the interaction force: It is attractive for NF systems and repulsive for F systems and decreases exponentially with the bubbles distance. Moreover, for NF systems, the bubbles come closer and eventually merge as a single bubble, in a coalescence process. We also evidence a collapse process, in which one bubble shrinks in favor of the other one, overcoming an energetic barrier in phase space. This process is relevant for both NF systems and F systems. In NF systems, the coalescence prevails at low temperature, whereas thermally activated jumps make the collapse prevail at high temperature. In F systems, the path toward equilibrium involves a collapse process regardless of the temperature.

  19. Indoor Localization Accuracy Estimation from Fingerprint Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikitin, Artyom; Laoudias, Christos; Chatzimilioudis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    on arbitrary FMs coined ACCES. Our framework comprises a generic interpolation method using Gaussian Processes (GP), upon which a navigability score at any location is derived using the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). Our approach does not rely on the underlying physical model of the fingerprint data. Our...

  20. Uncovering the local inelastic interactions during manufacture of ductile cast iron: How the substructure of the graphite particles can induce residual stress concentrations in the matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriollo, Tito; Hellström, Kristina; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Thorborg, Jesper; Tiedje, Niels; Hattel, Jesper

    2018-02-01

    Recent X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have revealed that plastic deformation and a residual elastic strain field can be present around the graphite particles in ductile cast iron after manufacturing, probably due to some local mismatch in thermal contraction. However, as only one component of the elastic strain tensor could be obtained from the XRD data, the shape and magnitude of the associated residual stress field have remained unknown. To compensate for this and to provide theoretical insight into this unexplored topic, a combined experimental-numerical approach is presented in this paper. First, a material equivalent to the ductile cast iron matrix is manufactured and subjected to dilatometric and high-temperature tensile tests. Subsequently, a two-scale hierarchical top-down model is devised, calibrated on the basis of the collected data and used to simulate the interaction between the graphite particles and the matrix during manufacturing of the industrial part considered in the XRD study. The model indicates that, besides the viscoplastic deformation of the matrix, the effect of the inelastic deformation of the graphite has to be considered to explain the magnitude of the XRD strain. Moreover, the model shows that the large elastic strain perturbations recorded with XRD close to the graphite-matrix interface are not artifacts due to e.g. sharp gradients in chemical composition, but correspond to residual stress concentrations induced by the conical sectors forming the internal structure of the graphite particles. In contrast to common belief, these results thus suggest that ductile cast iron parts cannot be considered, in general, as stress-free at the microstructural scale.

  1. Dual color single particle tracking via nanobodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, David; Winterflood, Christian M; Ewers, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Single particle tracking is a powerful tool to investigate the function of biological molecules by following their motion in space. However, the simultaneous tracking of two different species of molecules is still difficult to realize without compromising the length or density of trajectories, the localization accuracy or the simplicity of the assay. Here, we demonstrate a simple dual color single particle tracking assay using small, bright, high-affinity labeling via nanobodies of accessible targets with widely available instrumentation. We furthermore apply a ratiometric step-size analysis method to visualize differences in apparent membrane viscosity. (paper)

  2. An exactly conservative particle method for one dimensional scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjoun, Yossi; Seibold, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    A particle scheme for scalar conservation laws in one space dimension is presented. Particles representing the solution are moved according to their characteristic velocities. Particle interaction is resolved locally, satisfying exact conservation of area. Shocks stay sharp and propagate at correct speeds, while rarefaction waves are created where appropriate. The method is variation diminishing, entropy decreasing, exactly conservative, and has no numerical dissipation away from shocks. Solutions, including the location of shocks, are approximated with second order accuracy. Source terms can be included. The method is compared to CLAWPACK in various examples, and found to yield a comparable or better accuracy for similar resolutions.

  3. Electrostatic imaging of particle trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpak, G.; Bouclier, R.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Lewiner, J. (Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France))

    1982-02-01

    The ions liberated in a high-pressure gas or in some liquids can be collected, by electric fields, on the surface of insulators and can be accurately localized. In a simulation of this method at atmospheric pressure, we applied it to ..cap alpha.. particles, with the additional amplification from a parallel grid gap. By directly measuring the static electric charges collected on mylar foils, we observe tracks of 1 mm fwhm and charge densities as low as 10/sup 4/ electrons/mm/sup 2/. The combination of multistep gated avalanche chambers with this read-out method should permit high-accuracy measurements of minimum ionizing particles. The limits of the method and some conditions for detection by liquid toners are discussed.

  4. SU-E-J-13: Six Degree of Freedom Image Fusion Accuracy for Cranial Target Localization On the Varian Edge Stereotactic Radiosurgery System: Comparison Between 2D/3D and KV CBCT Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Song, K; Chetty, I; Kim, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, West Bloomfield, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within ±0.3mm and ±0.3° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60±0.12mm and 0.63±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09±0.32mm, −0.22±0.51mm and −0.07±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12°±0.46°, −0.12°±0.39° and 0.06°±0.28° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF

  5. SU-E-J-13: Six Degree of Freedom Image Fusion Accuracy for Cranial Target Localization On the Varian Edge Stereotactic Radiosurgery System: Comparison Between 2D/3D and KV CBCT Image Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H; Song, K; Chetty, I; Kim, J; Wen, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within ±0.3mm and ±0.3° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60±0.12mm and 0.63±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09±0.32mm, −0.22±0.51mm and −0.07±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12°±0.46°, −0.12°±0.39° and 0.06°±0.28° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF

  6. Particle migration using local variation of the viscosity (LVOV) model in flow of a non-Newtonian fluid for ceramic tape casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the migration of secondary particles in a non-Newtonian ceramic slurry inthe tape casting process is investigated with the purpose of understanding the particle distribution patterns along the casting direction. The Ostwald-de Waele power law model for the non-Newtonian flow...... the substratevelocity (casting speed) leads to a more uniform distribution of the particles inside the ceramic slurry, in which case the shear induced particle migration is dominating over the gravity induced one....

  7. Study of the L-mode tokamak plasma “shortfall” with local and global nonlinear gyrokinetic δf particle-in-cell simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, J.; Wan, Weigang; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott E. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Groebner, Richard J. [General Atomics, Post Office Box 85068, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Howard, N. T. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The δ f particle-in-cell code GEM is used to study the transport “shortfall” problem of gyrokinetic simulations. In local simulations, the GEM results confirm the previously reported simulation results of DIII-D [Holland et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)] and Alcator C-Mod [Howard et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 123011 (2013)] tokamaks with the continuum code GYRO. Namely, for DIII-D the simulations closely predict the ion heat flux at the core, while substantially underpredict transport towards the edge; while for Alcator C-Mod, the simulations show agreement with the experimental values of ion heat flux, at least within the range of experimental error. Global simulations are carried out for DIII-D L-mode plasmas to study the effect of edge turbulence on the outer core ion heat transport. The edge turbulence enhances the outer core ion heat transport through turbulence spreading. However, this edge turbulence spreading effect is not enough to explain the transport underprediction.

  8. Natural radionuclides in the environment. A contribution for the localization and characterization of natural hot particles in solid samples; Natuerliche Radionuklide in der Umwelt. Ein Beitrag zur Lokalisierung und Charakterisierung natuerlicher Heisser Teilchen in festen Proben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, A.

    2006-07-01

    In the present thesis appearance, spreading, origin, and mineralogical properties of natural hot particles are studied and the radioecological relevance of these particles judged. For this first relevent quaestions on radioactivity in the environment and on hot particles are theoretically treated. In the following detailedly the method of the autoradiography and solid-state track detectors is considered, which make possible to quote the precise position, the number and distribution of radioactive particles on the cutting area or surface of a sample. Basing on these methodical considerations by laboratory experiments determined track pattern formations of alpha emitters are documentated and interpreted. Starting from the knowledge obtained from this in the further part of the thesis a detection technique is developed, by means of which it is possible, to determine and mark the position of natural hot particles in sold samples. Thereafter follows a description of the electron-microscopical studies for the identification of the localized natural hot particles. Using the developed detection technique, as well as the electron-microscopical methods, a broad spectrum of samples - anthropogeneous depositions (industrial residues, industry products, by-products) and natural depositions (rocks, sediments, minerals) - is studied.

  9. Local equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-12-15

    From 3-6 September the First International Workshop on Local Equilibrium in Strong Interaction Physics took place in Bad-Honnef at the Physics Centre of the German Physical Society. A number of talks covered the experimental and theoretical investigation of the 'hotspots' effect, both in high energy particle physics and in intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  10. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  11. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  12. Particle image velocimetry - Principles and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laporta, A.; Marechal, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a measurement technique elaborated towards the end of the 1970's, but which has developed considerably in recent years. The general principle of PIV is very simple and enables access to instantaneous velocity fields. It consists in recording images of tracer-particles injected into the flow and determining the distance covered by these particles. Since we know the time lapse between successive images of the same particle, we can derive the local fluid velocity. Among the many existing image acquisition and processing methods, the image inter-correlation analysis techniques, used with a pulsed laser source, is the most effective. Since we know the influence of different parameters (number of particles, beam power, time lapse between two successive images, size of query zones, etc.) on the quality of the final result, we can optimize practical adjustment of the PIV measurement scheme. The PIV was tested on the LAVITA hydraulic mockup (simulating the operation of a tangential fan). First results are, all in all, highly satisfactory. These have enabled the rapid drafting of instantaneous mean velocity field maps (20 images acquired in less than 90 seconds, with a post-processing time of about 10 minutes). Observation of the instantaneous fields has evidenced the presence of low frequency non-stationary phenomena which are not revealed by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Quantitative comparison between LDV and PIV, concerning average fields, showed close results, with, however, local divergences which could be relatively marked. It must nevertheless be noted that the PIV measurements performed on LAVITA have not been optimized with a view to obtaining a consistently good accuracy level. Priority in the present case was given to the scope of the field explored, with a view to observing the large non-stationary structures within a flow. The PIV measurement technique is thus operational for prompt flow characterization. However

  13. Local atomic structure of Pd and Ag in the SiC containment layer of TRISO fuel particles fissioned to 20% burn-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Rachel L.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Velázquez, Daniel; Hunn, John D.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Terry, Jeff

    2018-03-01

    The structure and speciation of fission products within the SiC barrier layer of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles irradiated to 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) burnup in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was investigated. As-irradiated fuel particles, as well as those subjected to simulated accident scenarios, were examined. The TRISO particles were characterized using synchrotron X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) at the Materials Research Collaborative Access Team (MRCAT) beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The TRISO particles were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program and sent to the ATR for irradiation. XAFS measurements on the palladium and silver K-edges were collected using the MRCAT undulator beamline. Analysis of the Pd edge indicated the formation of palladium silicides of the form PdxSi (2 ≤ x ≤ 3). In contrast, Ag was found to be metallic within the SiC shell safety tested to 1700 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first result demonstrating metallic bonding of silver from fissioned samples. Knowledge of these reaction pathways will allow for better simulations of radionuclide transport in the various coating layers of TRISO fuels for next generation nuclear reactors. They may also suggest different ways to modify TRISO particles to improve their fuel performance and to mitigate potential fission product release under both normal operation and accident conditions.

  14. Hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures

  15. Diagnosing Eyewitness Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Eyewitnesses frequently mistake innocent people for the perpetrator of an observed crime. Such misidentifications have led to the wrongful convictions of many people. Despite this, no reliable method yet exists to determine eyewitness accuracy. This thesis explored two new experimental methods for this purpose. Chapter 2 investigated whether repetition priming can measure prior exposure to a target and compared this with observers’ explicit eyewitness accuracy. Across three experiments slower...

  16. Comparison of particle confinement in the high confinement mode plasmas with the edge localized mode of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60 Upgrade and the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaga, H.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Baker, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Particle confinement was compared for the high confinement mode plasmas with the edge localized mode in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [S. Ishida, JT-60 Team, Nucl. Fusion 39, 1211 (1999)] and the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 159] considering separate confinement times for particles supplied by neutral beam injection (NBI) (center fueling) and by recycling and gas-puffing (edge fueling). Similar dependence on the NBI power was obtained in JT-60U and DIII-D. The particle confinement time for center fueling in DIII-D was smaller by a factor of 4 in the low density discharges and by a factor of 1.8 in the high density discharges than JT-60U scaling, respectively, suggesting the stronger dependence on the density in DIII-D. The particle confinement time for edge fueling in DIII-D was comparable with JT-60U scaling in the low density discharges. However, it decreased to a much smaller value in the high density discharges

  17. A solution algorithm for fluid-particle flows across all flow regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bo; Fox, Rodney O.

    2017-09-01

    Many fluid-particle flows occurring in nature and in technological applications exhibit large variations in the local particle volume fraction. For example, in circulating fluidized beds there are regions where the particles are close-packed as well as very dilute regions where particle-particle collisions are rare. Thus, in order to simulate such fluid-particle systems, it is necessary to design a flow solver that can accurately treat all flow regimes occurring simultaneously in the same flow domain. In this work, a solution algorithm is proposed for this purpose. The algorithm is based on splitting the free-transport flux solver dynamically and locally in the flow. In close-packed to moderately dense regions, a hydrodynamic solver is employed, while in dilute to very dilute regions a kinetic-based finite-volume solver is used in conjunction with quadrature-based moment methods. To illustrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed solution algorithm, it is implemented in OpenFOAM for particle velocity moments up to second order, and applied to simulate gravity-driven, gas-particle flows exhibiting cluster-induced turbulence. By varying the average particle volume fraction in the flow domain, it is demonstrated that the flow solver can handle seamlessly all flow regimes present in fluid-particle flows.

  18. Ab initio quasi-particle approximation bandgaps of silicon nanowires calculated at density functional theory/local density approximation computational effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, M., E-mail: ribeiro.jr@oorbit.com.br [Office of Operational Research for Business Intelligence and Technology, Principal Office, Buffalo, Wyoming 82834 (United States)

    2015-06-21

    Ab initio calculations of hydrogen-passivated Si nanowires were performed using density functional theory within LDA-1/2, to account for the excited states properties. A range of diameters was calculated to draw conclusions about the ability of the method to correctly describe the main trends of bandgap, quantum confinement, and self-energy corrections versus the diameter of the nanowire. Bandgaps are predicted with excellent accuracy if compared with other theoretical results like GW, and with the experiment as well, but with a low computational cost.

  19. Ab initio quasi-particle approximation bandgaps of silicon nanowires calculated at density functional theory/local density approximation computational effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ab initio calculations of hydrogen-passivated Si nanowires were performed using density functional theory within LDA-1/2, to account for the excited states properties. A range of diameters was calculated to draw conclusions about the ability of the method to correctly describe the main trends of bandgap, quantum confinement, and self-energy corrections versus the diameter of the nanowire. Bandgaps are predicted with excellent accuracy if compared with other theoretical results like GW, and with the experiment as well, but with a low computational cost

  20. Localized superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.; Lee, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    We study the effects of Anderson localization on superconductivity by using a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type trial wave function which pairs electrons in exact time-reversed eigenstates of the single-particle Hamiltonian. Within this approximation, and neglecting localization effects on the effective Coulomb repulsion and the electron-phonon coupling, we find that superconductivity persists below the mobility edge. In fact, Anderson's theorem is valid in the localized phase as long as rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ > 1 (rho is the density of states averaged over +- Δ 0 of the Fermi energy, Δ 0 the BCS gap parameter, and L the localization length). Hence the gap order parameter Δ(r) remains uniform in space at the BCS value Δ 0 . The superfluid density and response to electromagnetic perturbations, however, show marked differences from the ''dirty superconductor'' regime. For rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ < 1, Δ(r) fluctuates spatially and eventually drops to zero. In the limit when states are site localized, the system crosses over into the ''Anderson negative-U glass.'' Considerations beyond the trial wave-function approximation will speed up the destruction of superconductivity. The superconductor formed from localized states has the property that its quasiparticle excitations are also localized. Such excitations can be probed by observing the normal current in a tunneling junction

  1. Noiseless Vlasov–Poisson simulations with linearly transformed particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Pinto, Martin, E-mail: campos@ann.jussieu.fr [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); CNRS, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Sonnendrücker, Eric, E-mail: sonnen@math.unistra.fr [IRMA, UMR 7501, Université de Strasbourg and CNRS, 7 rue René Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Project-team CALVI, INRIA Nancy Grand Est, 7 rue René Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Friedman, Alex, E-mail: af@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grote, David P., E-mail: grote1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lund, Steve M., E-mail: smlund@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    We introduce a deterministic discrete-particle simulation approach, the Linearly-Transformed Particle-In-Cell (LTPIC) method, that employs linear deformations of the particles to reduce the noise traditionally associated with particle schemes. Formally, transforming the particles is justified by local first order expansions of the characteristic flow in phase space. In practice the method amounts of using deformation matrices within the particle shape functions; these matrices are updated via local evaluations of the forward numerical flow. Because it is necessary to periodically remap the particles on a regular grid to avoid excessively deforming their shapes, the method can be seen as a development of Denavit's Forward Semi-Lagrangian (FSL) scheme (Denavit, 1972 [8]). However, it has recently been established (Campos Pinto, 2012 [20]) that the underlying Linearly-Transformed Particle scheme converges for abstract transport problems, with no need to remap the particles; deforming the particles can thus be seen as a way to significantly lower the remapping frequency needed in the FSL schemes, and hence the associated numerical diffusion. To couple the method with electrostatic field solvers, two specific charge deposition schemes are examined, and their performance compared with that of the standard deposition method. Finally, numerical 1d1v simulations involving benchmark test cases and halo formation in an initially mismatched thermal sheet beam demonstrate some advantages of our LTPIC scheme over the classical PIC and FSL methods. Benchmarked test cases also indicate that, for numerical choices involving similar computational effort, the LTPIC method is capable of accuracy comparable to or exceeding that of state-of-the-art, high-resolution Vlasov schemes.

  2. Localization of plastic yield and fracture mechanism in high-strength niobium alloy with ultra-fine particles of non-metallic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyumentsev, A.N.; Gonchikov, V.Ch.; Korotaev, A.D.; Pinzhin, Yu.P.; Tyumentseva, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    The regularities of localization of plastic flow in high-strength dispersion-strengthened niobium alloy are studied. On the basis of investigations of the microstructure of strain localization zones the mechanism of stability losses of plastic flow including, the processes of diffusion of nonequilibrium vacancies in fields of nonuniform stresses, is proposed. The role of diffuse strain mechanisms during reorientation of the crystalline lattice is discussed. The regularities of fracture of high-strength alloy under conditions of rotational-shift instability of plastic flow are investigated

  3. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  4. Distinguishing regional and local sources of pollution by trace metals and magnetic particles in fluvial sediments of the Morava River, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Tereza; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Bábek, O.; Famera, M.; Mihaljevič, M.; Strnad, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2013), s. 460-473 ISSN 1439-0108 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Enrichment factors * Fluvial sediments * Heavy metals * Local sources * Normalisation * Regional contamination Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2013

  5. The Mini-SPT (Space Particle Telescope) for dual use: Precision flux measurement of low energy proton electron and heavy ion with tracking capability and A compact, low-cost realtime local radiation hazard/alarm detector to be used on board a satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpat, Behcet; Ergin, Tulun; Kalemci, Emrah

    2016-07-01

    The Mini-SPT project is the first, and most important, step towards the ambitious goal of creating a low-cost, compact, radiation hardened and high performance space particle telescope that can be mounted, in the near future, as standard particle detector on any satellite. Mini-SPT will be capable of providing high quality physics data on local space environment. In particular high precision flux measurement and tracking of low energy protons and electrons on different orbits with same instrumentation is of paramount importance for studies as geomagnetically trapped fluxes and space weather dynamics, dark matter search, low energy proton anisotropy and its effects on ICs as well as the solar protons studies. In addition, it will provide real-time "differentiable warnings" about the local space radiation hazard to other electronics systems on board the hosting satellite, including different criticality levels and alarm signals to activate mitigation techniques whenever this is strictly necessary to protect them from temporary/permanent failures. A real-time warning system will help satellite subsystems to save significant amount of power and memory with respect to other conventional techniques where the "mitigation" solutions are required to be active during entire mission life. The Mini-SPT will combine the use of technologies developed in cutting-edge high energy physics experiments (including technology from CMS experiments at CERN) and the development of new charged particle detecting systems for their use for the first time in space. The Mini-SPT essential objective is, by using for the first time in space SIPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers) technology for TOF and energy measurements, the production of high quality data with a good time, position and energy resolutions. The mini-SPT will consists of three main sub-units: a- A tracking and dE/dX measuring sub-detector which will be based on silicon pixel detectors (SPD) coupled to the rad-hard chip ROC-DIG (Read

  6. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  7. Particle tracking during Ostwald ripening using time-resolved laboratory X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, T., E-mail: thomas.werz@uni-ulm.de [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany); Baumann, M. [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany); Wolfram, U. [Ulm University, Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Helmholtzstrasse 14, 89081 (Germany); Krill, C.E. [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory X-ray microtomography is investigated as a method for obtaining time-resolved images of microstructural coarsening of the semisolid state of Al–5 wt.% Cu samples during Ostwald ripening. Owing to the 3D imaging capability of tomography, this technique uniquely provides access to the growth rates of individual particles, thereby not only allowing a statistical characterization of coarsening—as has long been possible by conventional metallography—but also enabling quantification of the influence of local environment on particle boundary migration. The latter information is crucial to understanding growth kinetics during Ostwald ripening at high volume fractions of the coarsening phase. Automated image processing and segmentation routines were developed to close gaps in the network of particle boundaries and to track individual particles from one annealing step to the next. The particle tracking success rate places an upper bound of only a few percent on the likelihood of segmentation errors for any given particle. The accuracy of particle size trajectories extracted from the time-resolved tomographic reconstructions is correspondingly high. Statistically averaged coarsening data and individual particle growth rates are in excellent agreement with the results of prior experimental studies and with computer simulations of Ostwald ripening. - Highlights: • Ostwald ripening in Al–5 wt.% Cu measured by laboratory X-ray microtomography • Time-resolved measurement of individual particle growth • Automated segmentation routines developed to close gaps in particle boundary network • Particle growth/shrinkage rates deviate from LSW model prediction.

  8. Chaotic particle swarm optimization with mutation for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assarzadeh, Zahra; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a chaotic particle swarm optimization with mutation-based classifier particle swarm optimization is proposed to classify patterns of different classes in the feature space. The introduced mutation operators and chaotic sequences allows us to overcome the problem of early convergence into a local minima associated with particle swarm optimization algorithms. That is, the mutation operator sharpens the convergence and it tunes the best possible solution. Furthermore, to remove the irrelevant data and reduce the dimensionality of medical datasets, a feature selection approach using binary version of the proposed particle swarm optimization is introduced. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed classifier, mutation-based classifier particle swarm optimization, it is checked out with three sets of data classifications namely, Wisconsin diagnostic breast cancer, Wisconsin breast cancer and heart-statlog, with different feature vector dimensions. The proposed algorithm is compared with different classifier algorithms including k-nearest neighbor, as a conventional classifier, particle swarm-classifier, genetic algorithm, and Imperialist competitive algorithm-classifier, as more sophisticated ones. The performance of each classifier was evaluated by calculating the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Matthews's correlation coefficient. The experimental results show that the mutation-based classifier particle swarm optimization unequivocally performs better than all the compared algorithms.

  9. Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization with Mutation for Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assarzadeh, Zahra; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a chaotic particle swarm optimization with mutation-based classifier particle swarm optimization is proposed to classify patterns of different classes in the feature space. The introduced mutation operators and chaotic sequences allows us to overcome the problem of early convergence into a local minima associated with particle swarm optimization algorithms. That is, the mutation operator sharpens the convergence and it tunes the best possible solution. Furthermore, to remove the irrelevant data and reduce the dimensionality of medical datasets, a feature selection approach using binary version of the proposed particle swarm optimization is introduced. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed classifier, mutation-based classifier particle swarm optimization, it is checked out with three sets of data classifications namely, Wisconsin diagnostic breast cancer, Wisconsin breast cancer and heart-statlog, with different feature vector dimensions. The proposed algorithm is compared with different classifier algorithms including k-nearest neighbor, as a conventional classifier, particle swarm-classifier, genetic algorithm, and Imperialist competitive algorithm-classifier, as more sophisticated ones. The performance of each classifier was evaluated by calculating the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Matthews's correlation coefficient. The experimental results show that the mutation-based classifier particle swarm optimization unequivocally performs better than all the compared algorithms. PMID:25709937

  10. Lagrangian particle method for compressible fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samulyak, Roman; Wang, Xingyu; Chen, Hsin-Chiang

    2018-06-01

    A new Lagrangian particle method for solving Euler equations for compressible inviscid fluid or gas flows is proposed. Similar to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), the method represents fluid cells with Lagrangian particles and is suitable for the simulation of complex free surface/multiphase flows. The main contributions of our method, which is different from SPH in all other aspects, are (a) significant improvement of approximation of differential operators based on a polynomial fit via weighted least squares approximation and the convergence of prescribed order, (b) a second-order particle-based algorithm that reduces to the first-order upwind method at local extremal points, providing accuracy and long term stability, and (c) more accurate resolution of entropy discontinuities and states at free interfaces. While the method is consistent and convergent to a prescribed order, the conservation of momentum and energy is not exact and depends on the convergence order. The method is generalizable to coupled hyperbolic-elliptic systems. Numerical verification tests demonstrating the convergence order are presented as well as examples of complex multiphase flows.

  11. Geoid undulation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the geoid and equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field, has long been of interest to geodesists and oceanographers. The geoid provides a surface to which the actual ocean surface can be compared with the differences implying information on the circulation patterns of the oceans. For use in oceanographic applications the geoid is ideally needed to a high accuracy and to a high resolution. There are applications that require geoid undulation information to an accuracy of +/- 10 cm with a resolution of 50 km. We are far from this goal today but substantial improvement in geoid determination has been made. In 1979 the cumulative geoid undulation error to spherical harmonic degree 20 was +/- 1.4 m for the GEM10 potential coefficient model. Today the corresponding value has been reduced to +/- 25 cm for GEM-T3 or +/- 11 cm for the OSU91A model. Similar improvements are noted by harmonic degree (wave-length) and in resolution. Potential coefficient models now exist to degree 360 based on a combination of data types. This paper discusses the accuracy changes that have taken place in the past 12 years in the determination of geoid undulations.

  12. A discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm with local search for a production-based two-echelon single-vendor multiple-buyer supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifbarghy, Mehdi; Kalani, Masoud Mirzaei; Hemmati, Mojtaba

    2016-03-01

    This paper formulates a two-echelon single-producer multi-buyer supply chain model, while a single product is produced and transported to the buyers by the producer. The producer and the buyers apply vendor-managed inventory mode of operation. It is assumed that the producer applies economic production quantity policy, which implies a constant production rate at the producer. The operational parameters of each buyer are sales quantity, sales price and production rate. Channel profit of the supply chain and contract price between the producer and each buyer is determined based on the values of the operational parameters. Since the model belongs to nonlinear integer programs, we use a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm (DPSO) to solve the addressed problem; however, the performance of the DPSO is compared utilizing two well-known heuristics, namely genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. A number of examples are provided to verify the model and assess the performance of the proposed heuristics. Experimental results indicate that DPSO outperforms the rival heuristics, with respect to some comparison metrics.

  13. Rigidity of a spherical capsule switches the localization of encapsulated particles between inner and peripheral regions under crowding condition: Simple model on cellular architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shew, Chwen-Yang, E-mail: chwenyang.shew@csi.cuny.edu; Kondo, Kenta [Department of Chemistry, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, New York 10314 (United States); Yoshikawa, Kenichi [Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan)

    2014-01-14

    We have investigated the inhomogeneous interior of confined spherical cavities as capsules containing encapsulated binary hard sphere mixtures for different compositions and cavity wall rigidity. Such a greatly simplified model manifests the effects of macromolecular crowding arising from excluded volume interactions in a tiny cell or a cellular nucleus. By fixing the number of large particles, the level of crowding is adjusted by changing the amount of small hard spheres in the cavity. For a rigid cavity, large spheres tend to pack in liquid-like order apart from the surface to the center of the cavity as the crowding level is increased. Whereas, for a soft cavity, larger spheres tend to blend with small spheres in the peripheral region at near the boundary of the cavity, and are susceptible to be depleted from the interior of the cavity as the cavity becomes more crowded. These results may help future elucidation of the thermodynamic pathways to stabilize the inhomogeneous structure of mixtures confined in cavities, such as the derepression of genome materials around the interior rim of the nucleus in a cancerous cell.

  14. Rigidity of a spherical capsule switches the localization of encapsulated particles between inner and peripheral regions under crowding condition: Simple model on cellular architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shew, Chwen-Yang; Kondo, Kenta; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the inhomogeneous interior of confined spherical cavities as capsules containing encapsulated binary hard sphere mixtures for different compositions and cavity wall rigidity. Such a greatly simplified model manifests the effects of macromolecular crowding arising from excluded volume interactions in a tiny cell or a cellular nucleus. By fixing the number of large particles, the level of crowding is adjusted by changing the amount of small hard spheres in the cavity. For a rigid cavity, large spheres tend to pack in liquid-like order apart from the surface to the center of the cavity as the crowding level is increased. Whereas, for a soft cavity, larger spheres tend to blend with small spheres in the peripheral region at near the boundary of the cavity, and are susceptible to be depleted from the interior of the cavity as the cavity becomes more crowded. These results may help future elucidation of the thermodynamic pathways to stabilize the inhomogeneous structure of mixtures confined in cavities, such as the derepression of genome materials around the interior rim of the nucleus in a cancerous cell

  15. Rare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to search for hypothetical particles and known particles of rare processes is discussed. The hypothetical particles considered include fractionally charged particles, anomalously heavy isotopes, and superheavy elements. The known particles produced in rare processes discussed include doubly-charged negative ions, counting neutrino-produced atoms in detectors for solar neutrino detection, and the spontaneous emission of 14 C from 223 Ra. 35 references

  16. Particle Swarm Optimization With Interswarm Interactive Learning Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Quande; Cheng, Shi; Zhang, Qingyu; Li, Li; Shi, Yuhui

    2016-10-01

    The learning strategy in the canonical particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is often blamed for being the primary reason for loss of diversity. Population diversity maintenance is crucial for preventing particles from being stuck into local optima. In this paper, we present an improved PSO algorithm with an interswarm interactive learning strategy (IILPSO) by overcoming the drawbacks of the canonical PSO algorithm's learning strategy. IILPSO is inspired by the phenomenon in human society that the interactive learning behavior takes place among different groups. Particles in IILPSO are divided into two swarms. The interswarm interactive learning (IIL) behavior is triggered when the best particle's fitness value of both the swarms does not improve for a certain number of iterations. According to the best particle's fitness value of each swarm, the softmax method and roulette method are used to determine the roles of the two swarms as the learning swarm and the learned swarm. In addition, the velocity mutation operator and global best vibration strategy are used to improve the algorithm's global search capability. The IIL strategy is applied to PSO with global star and local ring structures, which are termed as IILPSO-G and IILPSO-L algorithm, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithms with eight popular PSO variants. From the experimental results, IILPSO demonstrates the good performance in terms of solution accuracy, convergence speed, and reliability. Finally, the variations of the population diversity in the entire search process provide an explanation why IILPSO performs effectively.

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF 3D MONTE CARLO LOCALIZATION USING A DEPTH CAMERA AND TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective and accurate localization method in three-dimensional indoor environments is a key requirement for indoor navigation and lifelong robotic assistance. So far, Monte Carlo Localization (MCL has given one of the promising solutions for the indoor localization methods. Previous work of MCL has been mostly limited to 2D motion estimation in a planar map, and a few 3D MCL approaches have been recently proposed. However, their localization accuracy and efficiency still remain at an unsatisfactory level (a few hundreds millimetre error at up to a few FPS or is not fully verified with the precise ground truth. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to improve an accuracy and efficiency of 6DOF motion estimation in 3D MCL for indoor localization. Firstly, a terrestrial laser scanner is used for creating a precise 3D mesh model as an environment map, and a professional-level depth camera is installed as an outer sensor. GPU scene simulation is also introduced to upgrade the speed of prediction phase in MCL. Moreover, for further improvement, GPGPU programming is implemented to realize further speed up of the likelihood estimation phase, and anisotropic particle propagation is introduced into MCL based on the observations from an inertia sensor. Improvements in the localization accuracy and efficiency are verified by the comparison with a previous MCL method. As a result, it was confirmed that GPGPU-based algorithm was effective in increasing the computational efficiency to 10-50 FPS when the number of particles remain below a few hundreds. On the other hand, inertia sensor-based algorithm reduced the localization error to a median of 47mm even with less number of particles. The results showed that our proposed 3D MCL method outperforms the previous one in accuracy and efficiency.

  18. Evaluation of local versus remote areas of CH4 sources at IC3 stations using a combined analysis of 222Rn tracer and Atmospheric Particles Transport Model (APTM) results. Application at the Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3), Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Claudia; Morguí, Josep Anton; Curcoll, Roger; Àgueda, Alba; Arnold, Delia; Batet, Oscar; Cañas, Lidia; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Vogel, Felix; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3) is part of the IC3 (Institut Català de Ciències del Clima) atmospheric monitoring network. This station is located in the Gredos Natural Park (40.22º N; -5.14º E) in the Spanish central plateau. The IC3 network consists of 8 stations distributed across Spain. It has been developed with the aim of studying climatic processes and the responses of impacted systems at different temporal and spatial scales. Since 2012, CO2, CH4, 222Rn (a natural radioactive gas) and meteorological variables are continuously measured at GIC3 at 20 m a.g.l. (1100 m a.s.l.). Furthermore, 4-days backward simulations are run daily for each IC3 station using the FLEXPART model. Simulations use ECMWF meteorological data as input and a horizontal spatial resolution of 0.2 degrees. The Laboratory of the Atmosphere and the Oceans (LAO) of the IC3 has elaborated a new approach to evaluate the local or remote greenhouse gases emissions using the radon gas as tracer and the atmospheric particles transport model FLEXPART under nocturnal and winter conditions. The ratios between the normalized and rescaled measured concentrations of CH4 and 222Rn during nocturnal hours (21h, 00h, 03h and 06h) and in the winter season, in order to reduce local radon flux and methane source due to seasonal livestock migration and to get stable atmospheric conditions, have been analyzed in relation to the influence of the local area (set to an initial dimension of 20x20 km2). The influence area (IA) has been defined as the percentage of the ratio between the residence time of the fictitious particles released in FLEXPART simulations over the area of interest (TLocal Area) and the residence time of these fictitious particles over the total area included in the simulation (TTotal Area ), i.e. IA = (TLocal Area/TTotal Area * 100). First results considering an area of interest of 20x20 km2 show a linear increase of the radon concentration with IA until reaching a maximum when IA is

  19. Particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    2000-01-01

    In this article G.Charpak presents the principles on which particle detection is based. Particle accelerators are becoming more and more powerful and require new detectors able to track the right particle in a huge flux of particles. The gigantic size of detectors in high energy physics is often due to the necessity of getting a long enough trajectory in a magnetic field in order to deduce from the curvature an accurate account of impulses in the reaction. (A.C.)

  20. Strange particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinowsky, W.

    1989-01-01

    Work done in the mid 1950s at Brookhaven National Laboratory on strange particles is described. Experiments were done on the Cosmotron. The author describes his own and others' work on neutral kaons, lambda and theta particles and points out the theoretical gap between predictions and experimental findings. By the end of the decade, the theory of strange particles was better understood. (UK)

  1. PENTACLE: Parallelized particle-particle particle-tree code for planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasawa, Masaki; Oshino, Shoichi; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hori, Yasunori

    2017-10-01

    We have newly developed a parallelized particle-particle particle-tree code for planet formation, PENTACLE, which is a parallelized hybrid N-body integrator executed on a CPU-based (super)computer. PENTACLE uses a fourth-order Hermite algorithm to calculate gravitational interactions between particles within a cut-off radius and a Barnes-Hut tree method for gravity from particles beyond. It also implements an open-source library designed for full automatic parallelization of particle simulations, FDPS (Framework for Developing Particle Simulator), to parallelize a Barnes-Hut tree algorithm for a memory-distributed supercomputer. These allow us to handle 1-10 million particles in a high-resolution N-body simulation on CPU clusters for collisional dynamics, including physical collisions in a planetesimal disc. In this paper, we show the performance and the accuracy of PENTACLE in terms of \\tilde{R}_cut and a time-step Δt. It turns out that the accuracy of a hybrid N-body simulation is controlled through Δ t / \\tilde{R}_cut and Δ t / \\tilde{R}_cut ˜ 0.1 is necessary to simulate accurately the accretion process of a planet for ≥106 yr. For all those interested in large-scale particle simulations, PENTACLE, customized for planet formation, will be freely available from https://github.com/PENTACLE-Team/PENTACLE under the MIT licence.

  2. A novel particle filter approach for indoor positioning by fusing WiFi and inertial sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Nan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available WiFi fingerprinting is the method of recording WiFi signal strength from access points (AP along with the positions at which they were recorded, and later matching those to new measurements for indoor positioning. Inertial positioning utilizes the accelerometer and gyroscopes for pedestrian positioning. However, both methods have their limitations, such as the WiFi fluctuations and the accumulative error of inertial sensors. Usually, the filtering method is used for integrating the two approaches to achieve better location accuracy. In the real environments, especially in the indoor field, the APs could be sparse and short range. To overcome the limitations, a novel particle filter approach based on Rao Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF is presented in this paper. The indoor environment is divided into several local maps, which are assumed to be independent of each other. The local areas are estimated by the local particle filter, whereas the global areas are combined by the global particle filter. The algorithm has been investigated by real field trials using a WiFi tablet on hand with an inertial sensor on foot. It could be concluded that the proposed method reduces the complexity of the positioning algorithm obviously, as well as offers a significant improvement in position accuracy compared to other conventional algorithms, allowing indoor positioning error below 1.2 m.

  3. Optical Particle Characterization in Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropea, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Particle characterization in dispersed multiphase flows is important in quantifying transport processes both in fundamental and applied research: Examples include atomization and spray processes, cavitation and bubbly flows, and solid particle transport in gas and liquid carrier phases. Optical techniques of particle characterization are preferred owing to their nonintrusiveness, and they can yield information about size, velocity, composition, and to some extent the shape of individual particles. This review focuses on recent advances for measuring size, temperature, and the composition of particles, including several planar methods, various imaging techniques, laser-induced fluorescence, and the more recent use of femtosecond pulsed light sources. It emphasizes the main sources of uncertainty, the achievable accuracy, and the outlook for improvement of specific techniques and for specific applications. Some remarks are also directed toward the computational tools used to design and investigate the performance of optical particle diagnostic instruments.

  4. Adaptive Gradient Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Honggui; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Qiao, Junfei

    2017-10-09

    An adaptive gradient multiobjective particle swarm optimization (AGMOPSO) algorithm, based on a multiobjective gradient (stocktickerMOG) method and a self-adaptive flight parameters mechanism, is developed to improve the computation performance in this paper. In this AGMOPSO algorithm, the stocktickerMOG method is devised to update the archive to improve the convergence speed and the local exploitation in the evolutionary process. Meanwhile, the self-adaptive flight parameters mechanism, according to the diversity information of the particles, is then established to balance the convergence and diversity of AGMOPSO. Attributed to the stocktickerMOG method and the self-adaptive flight parameters mechanism, this AGMOPSO algorithm not only has faster convergence speed and higher accuracy, but also its solutions have better diversity. Additionally, the convergence is discussed to confirm the prerequisite of any successful application of AGMOPSO. Finally, with regard to the computation performance, the proposed AGMOPSO algorithm is compared with some other multiobjective particle swarm optimization algorithms and two state-of-the-art multiobjective algorithms. The results demonstrate that the proposed AGMOPSO algorithm can find better spread of solutions and have faster convergence to the true Pareto-optimal front.

  5. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusio...

  6. Meditation experience predicts introspective accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran C R Fox

    Full Text Available The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one's own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. It has been hypothesized that introspective accuracy may be heightened in persons who engage in meditation practices, due to the highly introspective nature of such practices. We undertook a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis, examining introspective accuracy in a cross-section of meditation practitioners (1-15,000 hrs experience. Introspective accuracy was assessed by comparing subjective reports of tactile sensitivity for each of 20 body regions during a 'body-scanning' meditation with averaged, objective measures of tactile sensitivity (mean size of body representation area in primary somatosensory cortex; two-point discrimination threshold as reported in prior research. Expert meditators showed significantly better introspective accuracy than novices; overall meditation experience also significantly predicted individual introspective accuracy. These results suggest that long-term meditators provide more accurate introspective reports than novices.

  7. High accuracy FIONA-AFM hybrid imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronczek, D.N.; Quammen, C.; Wang, H.; Kisker, C.; Superfine, R.; Taylor, R.; Erie, D.A.; Tessmer, I.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-protein complexes are ubiquitous and play essential roles in many biological mechanisms. Single molecule imaging techniques such as electron microscopy (EM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are powerful methods for characterizing the structural properties of multi-protein and multi-protein-DNA complexes. However, a significant limitation to these techniques is the ability to distinguish different proteins from one another. Here, we combine high resolution fluorescence microscopy and AFM (FIONA-AFM) to allow the identification of different proteins in such complexes. Using quantum dots as fiducial markers in addition to fluorescently labeled proteins, we are able to align fluorescence and AFM information to ≥8 nm accuracy. This accuracy is sufficient to identify individual fluorescently labeled proteins in most multi-protein complexes. We investigate the limitations of localization precision and accuracy in fluorescence and AFM images separately and their effects on the overall registration accuracy of FIONA-AFM hybrid images. This combination of the two orthogonal techniques (FIONA and AFM) opens a wide spectrum of possible applications to the study of protein interactions, because AFM can yield high resolution (5-10 nm) information about the conformational properties of multi-protein complexes and the fluorescence can indicate spatial relationships of the proteins in the complexes. -- Research highlights: → Integration of fluorescent signals in AFM topography with high (<10 nm) accuracy. → Investigation of limitations and quantitative analysis of fluorescence-AFM image registration using quantum dots. → Fluorescence center tracking and display as localization probability distributions in AFM topography (FIONA-AFM). → Application of FIONA-AFM to a biological sample containing damaged DNA and the DNA repair proteins UvrA and UvrB conjugated to quantum dots.

  8. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  9. Particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  10. Particle cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.

  11. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  12. Magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.

  13. Particle sizes from sectional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new statistical method for obtaining information about particle size distributions from sectional data without specific assumptions about particle shape. The method utilizes recent advances in local stereology. We show how to estimate separately from sectional data the variance due t...

  14. Particle localization using fibre optic hodoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, H.; Bourdinaud, M.; Theevenin, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this talk is to give a brief tour of different detectors whose design is at present being actively pursued at Saclay, with an emphasis being placed on the problems encountered from the point of view of fiber technology. (orig./HSI)

  15. Particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, R.I.

    1976-01-01

    Charged particles are entrained in a predetermined direction, independent of their polarity, in a circular orbit by a magnetic field rotating at high speed about an axis in a closed cylindrical or toroidal vessel. The field may be generated by a cylindrical laser structure, whose beam is polygonally reflected from the walls of an excited cavity centered on the axis, or by high-frequency energization of a set of electromagnets perpendicular to the axis. In the latter case, a separate magnetostatic axial field limits the orbital radius of the particles. These rotating and stationary magnetic fields may be generated centrally or by individual magnets peripherally spaced along its circular orbit. Chemical or nuclear reactions can be induced by collisions between the orbiting particles and an injected reactant, or by diverting high-speed particles from one doughnut into the path of counterrotating particles in an adjoining doughnut

  16. Image segmentation and particles classification using texture analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayar Aly Atteya

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ingredients of oily fish include a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are important elements in various metabolic processes of humans, and have also been used to prevent diseases. However, in an attempt to reduce cost, recent developments are starting a replace the ingredients of fish oil with products of microalgae, that also produce polyunsaturated fatty acids. To do so, it is important to closely monitor morphological changes in algae cells and monitor their age in order to achieve the best results. This paper aims to describe an advanced vision-based system to automatically detect, classify, and track the organic cells using a recently developed SOPAT-System (Smart On-line Particle Analysis Technology, a photo-optical image acquisition device combined with innovative image analysis software. Methods The proposed method includes image de-noising, binarization and Enhancement, as well as object recognition, localization and classification based on the analysis of particles’ size and texture. Results The methods allowed for correctly computing cell’s size for each particle separately. By computing an area histogram for the input images (1h, 18h, and 42h, the variation could be observed showing a clear increase in cell. Conclusion The proposed method allows for algae particles to be correctly identified with accuracies up to 99% and classified correctly with accuracies up to 100%.

  17. An analysis of 3D particle path integration algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmofal, D.L.; Haimes, R.

    1996-01-01

    Several techniques for the numerical integration of particle paths in steady and unsteady vector (velocity) fields are analyzed. Most of the analysis applies to unsteady vector fields, however, some results apply to steady vector field integration. Multistep, multistage, and some hybrid schemes are considered. It is shown that due to initialization errors, many unsteady particle path integration schemes are limited to third-order accuracy in time. Multistage schemes require at least three times more internal data storage than multistep schemes of equal order. However, for timesteps within the stability bounds, multistage schemes are generally more accurate. A linearized analysis shows that the stability of these integration algorithms are determined by the eigenvalues of the local velocity tensor. Thus, the accuracy and stability of the methods are interpreted with concepts typically used in critical point theory. This paper shows how integration schemes can lead to erroneous classification of critical points when the timestep is finite and fixed. For steady velocity fields, we demonstrate that timesteps outside of the relative stability region can lead to similar integration errors. From this analysis, guidelines for accurate timestep sizing are suggested for both steady and unsteady flows. In particular, using simulation data for the unsteady flow around a tapered cylinder, we show that accurate particle path integration requires timesteps which are at most on the order of the physical timescale of the flow

  18. Colloids exposed to random potential energy landscapes: From particle number density to particle-potential and particle-particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewerunge, Jörg; Capellmann, Ronja F.; Platten, Florian; Egelhaaf, Stefan U.; Sengupta, Ankush; Sengupta, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal particles were exposed to a random potential energy landscape that has been created optically via a speckle pattern. The mean particle density as well as the potential roughness, i.e., the disorder strength, were varied. The local probability density of the particles as well as its main characteristics were determined. For the first time, the disorder-averaged pair density correlation function g (1) (r) and an analogue of the Edwards-Anderson order parameter g (2) (r), which quantifies the correlation of the mean local density among disorder realisations, were measured experimentally and shown to be consistent with replica liquid state theory results.

  19. Localization Algorithm Based on a Spring Model (LASM for Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A navigation method for a lunar rover based on large scale wireless sensornetworks is proposed. To obtain high navigation accuracy and large exploration area, highnode localization accuracy and large network scale are required. However, thecomputational and communication complexity and time consumption are greatly increasedwith the increase of the network scales. A localization algorithm based on a spring model(LASM method is proposed to reduce the computational complexity, while maintainingthe localization accuracy in large scale sensor networks. The algorithm simulates thedynamics of physical spring system to estimate the positions of nodes. The sensor nodesare set as particles with masses and connected with neighbor nodes by virtual springs. Thevirtual springs will force the particles move to the original positions, the node positionscorrespondingly, from the randomly set positions. Therefore, a blind node position can bedetermined from the LASM algorithm by calculating the related forces with the neighbornodes. The computational and communication complexity are O(1 for each node, since thenumber of the neighbor nodes does not increase proportionally with the network scale size.Three patches are proposed to avoid local optimization, kick out bad nodes and deal withnode variation. Simulation results show that the computational and communicationcomplexity are almost constant despite of the increase of the network scale size. The time consumption has also been proven to remain almost constant since the calculation steps arealmost unrelated with the network scale size.

  20. An Indoor Localization Strategy for a Mini-UAV in the Presence of Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel approach to mini-UAV localization in a wireless sensor network. We firstly employ the environment adaptive RSS parameters' estimation method to estimate the parameters of range estimation model. However, the direct path from the target to a beacon is blocked by obstacles in a complicated indoor environment. So the proposed method, which employs a sequential probability ratio test to identify whether the measurement contains non-line of sight (NLOS errors, is tolerant to parameter fluctuations. Finally, a particle swarm optimization-based method is proposed to solve the established objective function. Simulation results show that the proposed method achieved relatively higher localization accuracy. In addition, the performance analyses, carried out for a realistic indoor environment, shows that the proposed method still preserves the same localization accuracy.

  1. Rapid, topology-based particle tracking for high-resolution measurements of large complex 3D motion fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mohak; Leggett, Susan E; Landauer, Alexander K; Wong, Ian Y; Franck, Christian

    2018-04-03

    Spatiotemporal tracking of tracer particles or objects of interest can reveal localized behaviors in biological and physical systems. However, existing tracking algorithms are most effective for relatively low numbers of particles that undergo displacements smaller than their typical interparticle separation distance. Here, we demonstrate a single particle tracking algorithm to reconstruct large complex motion fields with large particle numbers, orders of magnitude larger than previously tractably resolvable, thus opening the door for attaining very high Nyquist spatial frequency motion recovery in the images. Our key innovations are feature vectors that encode nearest neighbor positions, a rigorous outlier removal scheme, and an iterative deformation warping scheme. We test this technique for its accuracy and computational efficacy using synthetically and experimentally generated 3D particle images, including non-affine deformation fields in soft materials, complex fluid flows, and cell-generated deformations. We augment this algorithm with additional particle information (e.g., color, size, or shape) to further enhance tracking accuracy for high gradient and large displacement fields. These applications demonstrate that this versatile technique can rapidly track unprecedented numbers of particles to resolve large and complex motion fields in 2D and 3D images, particularly when spatial correlations exist.

  2. A hybridized discontinuous Galerkin framework for high-order particle-mesh operator splitting of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jakob M.; Labeur, Robert Jan; Möller, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    A generic particle-mesh method using a hybridized discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) framework is presented and validated for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Building upon particle-in-cell concepts, the method is formulated in terms of an operator splitting technique in which Lagrangian particles are used to discretize an advection operator, and an Eulerian mesh-based HDG method is employed for the constitutive modeling to account for the inter-particle interactions. Key to the method is the variational framework provided by the HDG method. This allows to formulate the projections between the Lagrangian particle space and the Eulerian finite element space in terms of local (i.e. cellwise) ℓ2-projections efficiently. Furthermore, exploiting the HDG framework for solving the constitutive equations results in velocity fields which excellently approach the incompressibility constraint in a local sense. By advecting the particles through these velocity fields, the particle distribution remains uniform over time, obviating the need for additional quality control. The presented methodology allows for a straightforward extension to arbitrary-order spatial accuracy on general meshes. A range of numerical examples shows that optimal convergence rates are obtained in space and, given the particular time stepping strategy, second-order accuracy is obtained in time. The model capabilities are further demonstrated by presenting results for the flow over a backward facing step and for the flow around a cylinder.

  3. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  4. Smartphone-Based Cooperative Indoor Localization with RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Seco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In GPS-denied indoor environments, localization and tracking of people can be achieved with a mobile device such as a smartphone by processing the received signal strength (RSS of RF signals emitted from known location beacons (anchor nodes, combined with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR estimates of the user motion. An enhacement of this localization technique is feasible if the users themselves carry additional RF emitters (mobile nodes, and the cooperative position estimates of a group of persons incorporate the RSS measurements exchanged between users. We propose a centralized cooperative particle filter (PF formulation over the joint state of all users that permits to process RSS measurements from both anchor and mobile emitters, as well as PDR motion estimates and map information (if available to increase the overall positioning accuracy, particularly in regions with low density of anchor nodes. Smartphones are used as a convenient mobile platform for sensor measurements acquisition, low-level processing, and data transmission to a central unit, where cooperative localization processing takes place. The cooperative method is experimentally demonstrated with four users moving in an area of 1600 m 2 , with 7 anchor nodes comprised of active RFID (radio frequency identification tags, and additional mobile tags carried by each user. Due to the limited coverage provided by the anchor beacons, RSS-based individual localization is inaccurate (6.1 m median error, but this improves to 4.9 m median error with the cooperative PF. Further gains are produced if the PDR information is added to the filter: median error of 3.1 m (individual and 2.6 m (cooperative; and if map information is also considered, the results are 1.8 m (individual and 1.6 m (cooperative. Thus, for each version of the particle filter, cooperative localization outperforms individual localization in terms of positioning accuracy.

  5. Photon caliper to achieve submillimeter positioning accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kyle J.; Wong, Jennifer; Zhang, Junan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a commercial two-dimensional (2D) detector array with an inherent detector spacing of 5 mm to achieve submillimeter accuracy in localizing the radiation isocenter. This was accomplished by delivering the Vernier ‘dose’ caliper to a 2D detector array where the nominal scale was the 2D detector array and the non-nominal Vernier scale was the radiation dose strips produced by the high-definition (HD) multileaf collimators (MLCs) of the linear accelerator. Because the HD MLC sequence was similar to the picket fence test, we called this procedure the Vernier picket fence (VPF) test. We confirmed the accuracy of the VPF test by offsetting the HD MLC bank by known increments and comparing the known offset with the VPF test result. The VPF test was able to determine the known offset within 0.02 mm. We also cross-validated the accuracy of the VPF test in an evaluation of couch hysteresis. This was done by using both the VPF test and the ExacTrac optical tracking system to evaluate the couch position. We showed that the VPF test was in agreement with the ExacTrac optical tracking system within a root-mean-square value of 0.07 mm for both the lateral and longitudinal directions. In conclusion, we demonstrated the VPF test can determine the offset between a 2D detector array and the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Until now, no method to locate the radiation isocenter using a 2D detector array has been able to achieve such accuracy.

  6. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions.

  7. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions. PMID:27681458

  8. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen

    1992-01-01

    We shall discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection (including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a few ideas on future developments.

  9. Recommendations, requirements, and radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Hot particles consisting of activated metal debris and fuel fragments have received increased attention in the last five years. This increased attention resulted from the increased use of more sensitive whole body friskers at nuclear power plants, the relatively high local skin doses associated with the particles, and skin dose limits that were established before hot particles, and skin dose limits that were established before hot particles became a problem and before radiobiological effects data for the particles became available. The skin dose distribution and biological effects associated with hot particles differ from those associated with more uniform skin contamination and differences exist in the scientific community as to which effects should be protected against by a limit on exposures from particles. The NRC staff recognized the need for provisions in the Federal regulations specific to hot particle exposures and requested guidance from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). NCRP Report No. 106 was provided to the NRC early in 1990. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is also developing recommendations for limits on exposures from hot particles. The NRC is supporting research on hot particle effects and will likely develop a rule for hot particle exposures

  10. Auroral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries

  11. Elementary particles and particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Schroeder, U.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a textbook for an introductory course of elementary particle physics. After a general introduction the symmetry principles governing the interactions of elementary particles are discussed. Then the phenomenology of the electroweak and strong interactions are described together with a short introduction to the Weinberg-Salam theory respectively to quantum chromodynamics. Finally a short outlook is given to grand unification with special regards to SU(5) and cosmology in the framework of the current understanding of the fundamental principles of nature. In the appendix is a table of particle properties and physical constants. (HSI) [de

  12. Stochastic localization of microswimmers by photon nudging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregulla, Andreas P; Yang, Haw; Cichos, Frank

    2014-07-22

    Force-free trapping and steering of single photophoretically self-propelled Janus-type particles using a feedback mechanism is experimentally demonstrated. Realtime information on particle position and orientation is used to switch the self-propulsion mechanism of the particle optically. The orientational Brownian motion of the particle thereby provides the reorientation mechanism for the microswimmer. The particle size dependence of the photophoretic propulsion velocity reveals that photon nudging provides an increased position accuracy for decreasing particle radius. The explored steering mechanism is suitable for navigation in complex biological environments and in-depth studies of collective swimming effects.

  13. Automatic size analysis of coated fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallisch, K.; Koss, P.

    1977-01-01

    The determination of the diameter, coating thickness, and sphericity of coated fuel particles by conventional methods is very time consuming. Therefore, statistical data can only be obtained with limited accuracy. An alternative method is described that avoids these disadvantages by utilizing a fast optical data-collecting system of high accuracy. This system allows the determination of the diameter of particles in the range between 100 and 1500 μm, with an accuracy of better than +-2 μm and with a rate of 100 particles per second. The density and thickness of coating layers can be determined by comparing the data obtained before and after coating, taking into account the relative increase of weight. A special device allows the automatic determination of the sphericity of single particles as well as the distribution in a batch. This device measures 50 to 100 different diameters of each particle per second. An on-line computer stores the measured data and calculates all parameters required, e.g., number of particles measured, particle diameter, standard deviation, diameter limiting values, average particle volume, average particle surface area, and the distribution of sphericity in absolute and percent form

  14. Derivative discontinuity with localized Hartree-Fock potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarov, V. U. [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Vignale, G. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The localized Hartree-Fock potential has proven to be a computationally efficient alternative to the optimized effective potential, preserving the numerical accuracy of the latter and respecting the exact properties of being self-interaction free and having the correct −1/r asymptotics. In this paper we extend the localized Hartree-Fock potential to fractional particle numbers and observe that it yields derivative discontinuities in the energy as required by the exact theory. The discontinuities are numerically close to those of the computationally more demanding Hartree-Fock method. Our potential enjoys a “direct-energy” property, whereby the energy of the system is given by the sum of the single-particle eigenvalues multiplied by the corresponding occupation numbers. The discontinuities c{sub ↑} and c{sub ↓} of the spin-components of the potential at integer particle numbers N{sub ↑} and N{sub ↓} satisfy the condition c{sub ↑}N{sub ↑} + c{sub ↓}N{sub ↓} = 0. Thus, joining the family of effective potentials which support a derivative discontinuity, but being considerably easier to implement, the localized Hartree-Fock potential becomes a powerful tool in the broad area of applications in which the fundamental gap is an issue.

  15. Test expectancy affects metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and practice tests. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the accuracy metacognitive monitoring was affected by the nature of the test expected. Students (N= 59) were randomly assigned to one of two test expectancy groups (memory vs. inference). Then after reading texts, judging learning, completed both memory and inference tests. Test performance and monitoring accuracy were superior when students received the kind of test they had been led to expect rather than the unexpected test. Tests influence students' perceptions of what constitutes learning. Our findings suggest that this could affect how students prepare for tests and how they monitoring their own learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Forecast Accuracy Uncertainty and Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Han; Dong Hong; Mitch Warachka

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that stock price momentum and earnings momentum can result from uncertainty surrounding the accuracy of cash flow forecasts. Our model has multiple information sources issuing cash flow forecasts for a stock. The investor combines these forecasts into an aggregate cash flow estimate that has minimal mean-squared forecast error. This aggregate estimate weights each cash flow forecast by the estimated accuracy of its issuer, which is obtained from their past forecast errors. Mome...

  17. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrad Moeini-Jazani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental condition outperformed those in the control and low-power conditions in the Schandry heartbeat-detection task. We demonstrate that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is not explained by participants’ physiological arousal, affective state, or general intention for accuracy. Rather, consistent with our reasoning that experiencing power shifts attentional resources inward, we show that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is dependent on individuals’ chronic tendency to focus on their internal sensations. Moreover, we demonstrate that individuals’ chronic sense of power also predicts interoceptive accuracy similar to, and independent of, how their situationally induced feeling of power does. We therefore provide further support on the relation between power and enhanced perception of bodily signals. Our findings offer a novel perspective–a psychophysiological account–on how power might affect judgments and behavior. We highlight and discuss some of these intriguing possibilities for future research.

  18. A Novel Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Foraging Behavior in Optimization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of repeated trial and proofreading is generally used to the convention reducer design, but these methods is low efficiency and the size of the reducer is often large. Aiming the problems, this paper presents an adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm with foraging behavior, in this method, the bacterial foraging process is introduced into the adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm, which can provide the function of particle chemotaxis, swarming, reproduction, elimination and dispersal, to improve the ability of local search and avoid premature behavior. By test verification through typical function and the application of the optimization design in the structure of the reducer with discrete and continuous variables, the results are shown that the new algorithm has the advantages of good reliability, strong searching ability and high accuracy. It can be used in engineering design, and has a strong applicability.

  19. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  20. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  1. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  2. Trait Perception Accuracy and Acquaintance Within Groups: Tracking Accuracy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill A; Bernieri, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Previous work on trait perception has evaluated accuracy at discrete stages of relationships (e.g., strangers, best friends). A relatively limited body of literature has investigated changes in accuracy as acquaintance within a dyad or group increases. Small groups of initially unacquainted individuals spent more than 30 hr participating in a wide range of activities designed to represent common interpersonal contexts (e.g., eating, traveling). We calculated how accurately each participant judged others in their group on the big five traits across three distinct points within the acquaintance process: zero acquaintance, after a getting-to-know-you conversation, and after 10 weeks of interaction and activity. Judgments of all five traits exhibited accuracy above chance levels after 10 weeks. An examination of the trait rating stability revealed that much of the revision in judgments occurred not over the course of the 10-week relationship as suspected, but between zero acquaintance and the getting-to-know-you conversation.

  3. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2009-01-01

    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  4. String-localized quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mund, Jens; Santos, Jose Amancio dos; Silva, Cristhiano Duarte; Oliveira, Erichardson de

    2009-01-01

    Full text. The principles of physics admit (unobservable) quantum fields which are localized not on points, but on strings in the sense of Mandelstam: a string emanates from a point in Minkowski space and extends to infinity in some space-like direction. This type of localization might permit the construction of new models, for various reasons: (a) in general, weaker localization implies better UV behaviour. Therefore, the class of renormalizable interactions in the string-localized has a chance to be larger than in the point-localized case; (b) for certain particle types, there are no point-localized (free) quantum fields - for example Anyons in d = 2 + 1, and Wigner's massless 'infinite spin' particles. For the latter, free string-localized quantum fields have been constructed; (c) in contrast to the point-localized case, string-localization admits covariant vector/tensor potentials for fotons and gravitons in a Hilbert space representation with positive energy. We shall present free string-localized quantum fields for various particle types, and some ideas about the perturbative construction of interacting string-localized fields. A central point will be an analogue of gauge theories, completely within a Hilbert space and without ghosts, trading gauge dependence with dependence on the direction of the localization string. In order to discuss renormalizability (item (a)), methods from microlocal analysis (wave front set and scaling degree) are needed. (author)

  5. Elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.

    1984-01-01

    Two previous monographs report on investigations into the extent to which a unified field theory can satisfactorily describe physical reality. The first, Unified field Theory, showed that the paths within a non-Riemannian space are governed by eigenvalue equations. The second, Fundamental Constants, show that the field tensors satisfy sets of differential equations with solutions which represent the evolution of the fields along the paths of the space. The results from the first two monographs are used in this one to make progress on the theory of elementary particles. The five chapters are as follows - Quantum mechanics, gravitation and electromagnetism are aspects of the Unified theory; the fields inside the particle; the quadratic and linear theories; the calculation of the eigenvalues and elementary particles as stable configurations of interacting fields. It is shown that it is possible to construct an internal structure theory for elementary particles. The theory lies within the framework of Einstein's programme-to identify physical reality with a specified geometrical structure. (U.K.)

  6. Pinpointing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, David J.

    1987-01-01

    The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics

  7. Particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mais, H.; Ripken, G.; Wrulich, A.; Schmidt, F.

    1986-02-01

    After a brief description of typical applications of particle tracking in storage rings and after a short discussion of some limitations and problems related with tracking we summarize some concepts and methods developed in the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. We show how these concepts can be applied to the proton ring HERA. (orig.)

  8. Pinpointing particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David J.

    1987-10-15

    The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics.

  9. Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    While biomedicine and geoscience use grids to bring together many different sub-disciplines, particle physicists use grid computing to increase computing power and storage resources, and to access and analyze vast amounts of data collected from detectors at the world's most powerful accelerators (1 page)

  10. Measurement of cylindrical particles with phase Doppler anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, H; Gréhan, G; Gouesbet, G; Xu, T H; Tropea, C

    1996-09-01

    Light scattering from cylindrical particles has been described with geometric optics. The feasibility of determining the particle diameter with a planar phase Doppler anemometer has been examined by simulations and experiments. In particular, the influence of particle orientation on measurability and measurement accuracy has been investigated. Some recommendations for realizing a practical-measurement instrument have been presented.

  11. Impact Localization Method for Composite Plate Based on Low Sampling Rate Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors have been increasingly used in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM in recent years. In this paper, we proposed an impact localization algorithm based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD and Particle Swarm Optimization-Support Vector Machine (PSO-SVM to achieve better localization accuracy for the FBG-embedded plate. In our method, EMD is used to extract the features of FBG signals, and PSO-SVM is then applied to automatically train a classification model for the impact localization. Meanwhile, an impact monitoring system for the FBG-embedded composites has been established to actually validate our algorithm. Moreover, the relationship between the localization accuracy and the distance from impact to the nearest sensor has also been studied. Results suggest that the localization accuracy keeps increasing and is satisfactory, ranging from 93.89% to 97.14%, on our experimental conditions with the decrease of the distance. This article reports an effective and easy-implementing method for FBG signal processing on SHM systems of the composites.

  12. Study and realization of a parallel plate avalanche counter used for time of flight and localization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    A parallel Plates Avalanche Counter (P.P.A.C.) allowing high resolution training and localization is studied. It is designed to be placed on the beam trajectory-including the magnetic spectrometer of SARA accelerator at ISN Grenoble. Two purposes are searched: firstly to improve the time-of-flight measurement due to the very high intrinsic time resolution (it can be less than 150 ps), secondly to measure with accuracy the scattering angle of the particle on the target, due to its localization. The detector thickness has been reduced to set aside as unimportant the disturbance produced on the particle trajectory. The theoretical aspect of the detector operation and a quantitative study of the disturbances it causes on particle energy are presented. The set-up and its necessary surroundings are described with experimental results of its characteristics [fr

  13. Diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Kempf, W.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual microscopy is used for teaching medical students and residents and for in-training and certification examinations in the United States. However, no existing studies compare diagnostic accuracy using virtual slides and photomicrographs. The objective of this study was to compare...... diagnostic accuracy of dermatopathologists and pathologists using photomicrographs vs. digitized images, through a self-assessment examination, and to elucidate assessment of virtual dermatopathology. Methods Forty-five dermatopathologists and pathologists received a randomized combination of 15 virtual...... slides and photomicrographs with corresponding clinical photographs and information in a self-assessment examination format. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups were performed using a chi-square test. Results Diagnostic accuracy in dermatopathology using virtual dermatopathology...

  14. Electron microscopy of atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Fu

    Electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EM/EDS) is a powerful tool for single particle analysis. However, the accuracy with which atmospheric particle compositions can be quantitatively determined by EDS is often hampered by substrate-particle interactions, volatilization losses in the low pressure microscope chamber, electron beam irradiation and use of inaccurate quantitation factors. A pseudo-analytical solution was derived to calculate the temperature rise due to the dissipation of the electron energy on a particle-substrate system. Evaporative mass loss for a spherical cap-shaped sulfuric acid particle resting on a thin film supported by a TEM grid during electron beam impingement has been studied. Measured volatilization rates were found to be in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. The method proposed can also be used to estimate the vapor pressure of a species by measuring the decay of X-ray intensities. Several types of substrates were studied. We found that silver-coated silicon monoxide substrates give carbon detection limits comparable to commercially available substrates. An advantage of these substrates is that the high thermal conductivity of the silver reduces heating due to electron beam impingement. In addition, exposure of sulfuric acid samples to ammonia overnight substantially reduces sulfur loss in the electron beam. Use of size-dependent k-factors determined from particles of known compositions shows promise for improving the accuracy of atmospheric particle compositions measured by EM/EDS. Knowledge accumulated during the course of this thesis has been used to analyze atmospheric particles (Minneapolis, MN) selected by the TDMA and collected by an aerodynamic focusing impactor. 'Less' hygroscopic particles, which do not grow to any measurable extent when humidified to ~90% relative humidity, included chain agglomerates, spheres, flakes, and irregular shapes. Carbon was the predominant element detected in

  15. Methodology for GPS Synchronization Evaluation with High Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zan; Braun Torsten; Dimitrova Desislava

    2015-01-01

    Clock synchronization in the order of nanoseconds is one of the critical factors for time based localization. Currently used time synchronization methods are developed for the more relaxed needs of network operation. Their usability for positioning should be carefully evaluated. In this paper we are particularly interested in GPS based time synchronization. To judge its usability for localization we need a method that can evaluate the achieved time synchronization with nanosecond accuracy. Ou...

  16. Methodology for GPS Synchronization Evaluation with High Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zan; Braun, Torsten; Dimitrova, Desislava Cvetanova

    2015-01-01

    Clock synchronization in the order of nanoseconds is one of the critical factors for time-based localization. Currently used time synchronization methods are developed for the more relaxed needs of network operation. Their usability for positioning should be carefully evaluated. In this paper, we are particularly interested in GPS-based time synchronization. To judge its usability for localization we need a method that can evaluate the achieved time synchronization with nanosecond accuracy. O...

  17. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  18. Particle diffusion in a spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Levinton, F.M.; Yamada, M.

    1988-01-01

    The local carbon particle diffusion coefficient was measured in the Proto S-1/C spheromak using a test particle injection scheme. When the plasma was not in a force-free Taylor state, and when there were pressure gradients in the plasma, the particle diffusion was five times that predicted by Bohm and was consistent with collisional drift wave diffusion. The diffusion appears to be driven by correlations of the fluctuating electric field and density. During the decay phase of the discharge when the plasma was in the Taylor state, the diffusion coefficient of the carbon was classical. 23 refs., 4 figs

  19. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  20. Cadastral Database Positional Accuracy Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. M.; Omar, A. H.; Ramli, S. N. M.; Omar, K. M.; Din, N.

    2017-10-01

    Positional Accuracy Improvement (PAI) is the refining process of the geometry feature in a geospatial dataset to improve its actual position. This actual position relates to the absolute position in specific coordinate system and the relation to the neighborhood features. With the growth of spatial based technology especially Geographical Information System (GIS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the PAI campaign is inevitable especially to the legacy cadastral database. Integration of legacy dataset and higher accuracy dataset like GNSS observation is a potential solution for improving the legacy dataset. However, by merely integrating both datasets will lead to a distortion of the relative geometry. The improved dataset should be further treated to minimize inherent errors and fitting to the new accurate dataset. The main focus of this study is to describe a method of angular based Least Square Adjustment (LSA) for PAI process of legacy dataset. The existing high accuracy dataset known as National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) is then used as bench mark to validate the results. It was found that the propose technique is highly possible for positional accuracy improvement of legacy spatial datasets.

  1. Classification Accuracy Is Not Enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A recent review of the research literature evaluating music genre recognition (MGR) systems over the past two decades shows that most works (81\\%) measure the capacity of a system to recognize genre by its classification accuracy. We show here, by implementing and testing three categorically...

  2. The hidden KPI registration accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrosh, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Determining the registration accuracy rate is fundamental to improving revenue cycle key performance indicators. A registration quality assurance (QA) process allows errors to be corrected before bills are sent and helps registrars learn from their mistakes. Tools are available to help patient access staff who perform registration QA manually.

  3. Error Estimation and Accuracy Improvements in Nodal Transport Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamonsky, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of the solutions produced by the Discrete Ordinates neutron transport nodal methods is analyzed.The obtained new numerical methodologies increase the accuracy of the analyzed scheems and give a POSTERIORI error estimators. The accuracy improvement is obtained with new equations that make the numerical procedure free of truncation errors and proposing spatial reconstructions of the angular fluxes that are more accurate than those used until present. An a POSTERIORI error estimator is rigurously obtained for one dimensional systems that, in certain type of problems, allows to quantify the accuracy of the solutions. From comparisons with the one dimensional results, an a POSTERIORI error estimator is also obtained for multidimensional systems. LOCAL indicators, which quantify the spatial distribution of the errors, are obtained by the decomposition of the menctioned estimators. This makes the proposed methodology suitable to perform adaptive calculations. Some numerical examples are presented to validate the theoretical developements and to illustrate the ranges where the proposed approximations are valid

  4. Accuracy in Optical Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan Aslan

    Low computational accuracy is an important obstacle for optical processors which blocks their way to becoming a practical reality and a serious challenger for classical computing paradigms. This research presents a comprehensive solution approach to the problem of accuracy enhancement in discrete analog optical information processing systems. Statistical analysis of a generic three-plane optical processor is carried out first, taking into account the effects of diffraction, interchannel crosstalk, and background radiation. Noise sources included in the analysis are photon, excitation, and emission fluctuations in the source array, transmission and polarization fluctuations in the modulator, and photoelectron, gain, dark, shot, and thermal noise in the detector array. Means and mutual coherence and probability density functions are derived for both optical and electrical output signals. Next, statistical models for a number of popular optoelectronic devices are studied. Specific devices considered here are light-emitting and laser diode sources, an ideal noiseless modulator and a Gaussian random-amplitude-transmittance modulator, p-i-n and avalanche photodiode detectors followed by electronic postprocessing, and ideal free-space geometrical -optics propagation and single-lens imaging systems. Output signal statistics are determined for various interesting device combinations by inserting these models into the general formalism. Finally, based on these special-case output statistics, results on accuracy limitations and enhancement in optical processors are presented. Here, starting with the formulation of the accuracy enhancement problem as (1) an optimal detection problem and (2) as a parameter estimation problem, the potential accuracy improvements achievable via the classical multiple-hypothesis -testing and maximum likelihood and Bayesian parameter estimation methods are demonstrated. Merits of using proper normalizing transforms which can potentially stabilize

  5. RB Particle Filter Time Synchronization Algorithm Based on the DPM Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunsheng; Shen, Jia; Sun, Yao; Ying, Na

    2015-09-03

    Time synchronization is essential for node localization, target tracking, data fusion, and various other Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. To improve the estimation accuracy of continuous clock offset and skew of mobile nodes in WSNs, we propose a novel time synchronization algorithm, the Rao-Blackwellised (RB) particle filter time synchronization algorithm based on the Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) model. In a state-space equation with a linear substructure, state variables are divided into linear and non-linear variables by the RB particle filter algorithm. These two variables can be estimated using Kalman filter and particle filter, respectively, which improves the computational efficiency more so than if only the particle filter was used. In addition, the DPM model is used to describe the distribution of non-deterministic delays and to automatically adjust the number of Gaussian mixture model components based on the observational data. This improves the estimation accuracy of clock offset and skew, which allows achieving the time synchronization. The time synchronization performance of this algorithm is also validated by computer simulations and experimental measurements. The results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher time synchronization precision than traditional time synchronization algorithms.

  6. Ubiquitous and Seamless Localization: Fusing GNSS Pseudoranges and WLAN Signal Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Richter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous global positioning is not feasible by GNSS alone, as it lacks accurate position fixes in dense urban centres and indoors. Hybrid positioning methods have been developed to aid GNSS in those environments. Fingerprinting localization in wireless local area networks (WLANs is a promising aiding system because of its availability, accuracy, and error mechanisms opposed to that of GNSS. This article presents a low-cost approach to ubiquitous, seamless positioning based on a particle filter integrating GNSS pseudoranges and WLAN received signal strength indicators (RSSIs. To achieve accurate location estimates indoors/outdoors and in the transition zones, appropriate likelihood functions are essential as they determine the influence of each sensor information on the position estimate. We model the spatial RSSI distributions with Gaussian processes and use these models to predict RSSIs at the particle’s positions to obtain point estimates of the RSSI likelihood function. The particle filter’s performance is assessed with real data of two test trajectories in an environment challenging for GNSS and WLAN fingerprinting localization. Outcomes of an extended Kalman filter using pseudoranges and a WLAN position as observation is included as benchmark. The proposed algorithm achieves accurate and robust seamless localization with a median accuracy of five meters.

  7. Stochastic motion of particles in tandem mirror devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Kamimura, T.

    1982-01-01

    Stochastic motion of particles in tandem mirror devices is examined on basis of a nonlinear mapping of particle positions on the equatorial plane. Local stability analysis provides detailed informations on particle trajectories. The rate of stochastic plasma diffusion is estimated from numerical observations of motions of particles over a large number of time steps. (author)

  8. High accuracy satellite drag model (HASDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Mark F.; Bowman, Bruce R.; Branson, Major James I.; Casali, Stephen J.; Tobiska, W. Kent

    The dominant error source in force models used to predict low-perigee satellite trajectories is atmospheric drag. Errors in operational thermospheric density models cause significant errors in predicted satellite positions, since these models do not account for dynamic changes in atmospheric drag for orbit predictions. The Air Force Space Battlelab's High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) estimates and predicts (out three days) a dynamically varying global density field. HASDM includes the Dynamic Calibration Atmosphere (DCA) algorithm that solves for the phases and amplitudes of the diurnal and semidiurnal variations of thermospheric density near real-time from the observed drag effects on a set of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) calibration satellites. The density correction is expressed as a function of latitude, local solar time and altitude. In HASDM, a time series prediction filter relates the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) energy index E10.7 and the geomagnetic storm index ap, to the DCA density correction parameters. The E10.7 index is generated by the SOLAR2000 model, the first full spectrum model of solar irradiance. The estimated and predicted density fields will be used operationally to significantly improve the accuracy of predicted trajectories for all low-perigee satellites.

  9. New particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, A.

    1980-07-01

    Current state of art in the discovery of new elementary particles is reviewed. At present, quarks and mesons are accepted as the basic constituents of matter. The charmonium model (canti-c system), and the 'open charm' are discussed. Explanations are offered for the recent discovery of the heavy lepton tau. Quark states such as the beauty and taste are also dealt with at length. The properties of the tanti-t bound system are speculated. It is concluded that the understanding of canti-c and banti-b families is facilitated by the assumption of the quarkonium model. Implications at the astrophysical level are indicated.

  10. Particle Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Collinson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    * Assumes no prior knowledge* Adopts a modelling approach* Numerous tutorial problems, worked examples and exercises included* Elementary topics augmented by planetary motion and rotating framesThis text provides an invaluable introduction to mechanicsm confining attention to the motion of a particle. It begins with a full discussion of the foundations of the subject within the context of mathematical modelling before covering more advanced topics including the theory of planetary orbits and the use of rotating frames of reference. Truly introductory , the style adoped is perfect for those u

  11. Some Thoughts on Commutation Relations and Measurement Accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-01-01

    We show that measuring the trajectories of charged particles to finite accuracy leads to the commutation relations needed for the derivation of the free space Maxwell equations using the discrete ordered calculus (DOC). We note that the finite step length derivation of the discrete difference version of the single particle Dirac equation implies the discrete version of the p, q commutation relations for a free particle. We speculate that a careful operational analysis of the change in momenta occurring in a step-wise continuous solution of the discrete Dirac equation could supply the missing source-sink terms in the DOC derivation of the Maxwell equations, and lead to a finite and discrete (''renormalized'') quantum electrodynamics (QED)

  12. The energetic alpha particle transport method EATM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-02-01

    The EATM method is an evolving attempt to find an efficient method of treating the transport of energetic charged particles in a dynamic magnetized (MHD) plasma for which the mean free path of the particles and the Larmor radius may be long compared to the gradient lengths in the plasma. The intent is to span the range of parameter space with the efficiency and accuracy thought necessary for experimental analysis and design of magnetized fusion targets

  13. Gauge theory and elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirn, H.

    1982-01-01

    The present orientation of particle physics, founded on local gauge invariance theories and spontaneous symmetry breaking is described in a simple formalism. The application of these ideas to the latest theories describing electromagnetic and weak interactions (Glashow, Weinberg, Salam models) and strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics, is presented so as to give a general picture of the mechanisms subtending these theories [fr

  14. Modelling free surface flows with smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Di G.Sigalotti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH is extended to include an adaptive density kernel estimation (ADKE procedure. It is shown that for a van der Waals (vdW fluid, this method can be used to deal with free-surface phenomena without difficulties. In particular, arbitrary moving boundaries can be easily handled because surface tension is effectively simulated by the cohesive pressure forces. Moreover, the ADKE method is seen to increase both the accuracy and stability of SPH since it allows the width of the kernel interpolant to vary locally in a way that only the minimum necessary smoothing is applied at and near free surfaces and sharp fluid-fluid interfaces. The method is robust and easy to implement. Examples of its resolving power are given for both the formation of a circular liquid drop under surface tension and the nonlinear oscillation of excited drops.

  15. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  16. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  17. Fermilab | Particle Physics Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversity Education Safety Sustainability and Environment Contact Science Science Particle Physics Neutrinos Scientific Computing Research & Development Key Discoveries Benefits of Particle Physics Particle Superconducting Test Accelerator LHC and Future Accelerators Accelerators for Science and Society Particle Physics

  18. [Application of an Adaptive Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Algorithm in the Magnetic Resonance Bias Field Correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Qin, Xin; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Wenchao

    2016-06-01

    An adaptive inertia weight particle swarm algorithm is proposed in this study to solve the local optimal problem with the method of traditional particle swarm optimization in the process of estimating magnetic resonance(MR)image bias field.An indicator measuring the degree of premature convergence was designed for the defect of traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm.The inertia weight was adjusted adaptively based on this indicator to ensure particle swarm to be optimized globally and to avoid it from falling into local optimum.The Legendre polynomial was used to fit bias field,the polynomial parameters were optimized globally,and finally the bias field was estimated and corrected.Compared to those with the improved entropy minimum algorithm,the entropy of corrected image was smaller and the estimated bias field was more accurate in this study.Then the corrected image was segmented and the segmentation accuracy obtained in this research was 10% higher than that with improved entropy minimum algorithm.This algorithm can be applied to the correction of MR image bias field.

  19. Treatment accuracy of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shaleen; Burke, Kevin; Nalder, Colin; Jarrett, Paula; Mubata, Cephas; A'Hern, Roger; Humphreys, Mandy; Bidmead, Margaret; Brada, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the geometric accuracy of the delivery of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for brain tumours using the Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) relocatable frame. Accuracy of treatment delivery was measured via portal images acquired with an amorphous silicon based electronic portal imager (EPI). Results were used to assess the existing verification process and to review the current margins used for the expansion of clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV). Patients and methods: Patients were immobilized in a GTC frame. Target volume definition was performed on localization CT and MRI scans and a CTV to PTV margin of 5 mm (based on initial experience) was introduced in 3D. A Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) fiducial system was used for stereotactic coordinate definition. The existing verification process consisted of an intercomparison of the coordinates of the isocentres and anatomy between the localization and verification CT scans. Treatment was delivered with 6 MV photons using four fixed non-coplanar conformal fields using a multi-leaf collimator. Portal imaging verification consisted of the acquisition of orthogonal images centred through the treatment isocentre. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) created from the CT localization scans were used as reference images. Semi-automated matching software was used to quantify set up deviations (displacements and rotations) between reference and portal images. Results: One hundred and twenty six anterior and 123 lateral portal images were available for analysis for set up deviations. For displacements, the total errors in the cranial/caudal direction were shown to have the largest SD's of 1.2 mm, while systematic and random errors reached SD's of 1.0 and 0.7 mm, respectively, in the cranial/caudal direction. The corresponding data for rotational errors (the largest deviation was found in the sagittal plane) was 0.7 deg. SD (total error), 0.5 deg. (systematic) and 0

  20. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  1. A multilevel particle method for gas dynamics: application to multi-fluids simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weynans, Lisl

    2006-12-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, laser implosions require to know hydrodynamic flow in presence of shocks. This work is devoted to the evaluation of the ability of a particle-mesh method, inspired from Vortex-In-Cell methods, to simulate gas dynamics, especially multi-fluids. First, we develop a particle method, associated with a conservative re-meshing step, which is performed with high order interpolating kernels. We study theoretically and numerically this method. This analysis gives evidence of a strong relationship between the particle method and high order Lax-Wendroff-like finite difference schemes. We introduce a new scheme for the advection of particles. Then we implement a multilevel technique, inspired from AMR, which allows us to increase locally the accuracy of the computations. Finally we develop a level set-like technique, discretized on the particles, to simulate the interface between compressible flows. We use the multilevel technique to improve the interface resolution and the conservation of partial masses. (author)

  2. Particle kickers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    These devices are designed to provide a current pulse of 5000 Amps which will in turn generate a fast magnetic pulse that steers the incoming beam into the LHC. Today, the comprehensive upgrade of the LHC injection kicker system is entering its final stages. The upgraded system will ensure the LHC can be refilled without needing to wait for the kicker magnets to cool, thus enhancing the performance of the whole accelerator.   An upgraded kicker magnet in its vacuum tank, with an upgraded beam screen. The LHC is equipped with two kicker systems installed at the injection points (near points 2 and 8, see schematic diagram) where the particle beams coming from the SPS are injected into the accelerator’s orbit. Each system comprises four magnets and four pulse generators in which the field rises to 0.12 Tesla in less than 900 nanoseconds and for a duration of approximately 8 microseconds. Although the injection kickers only pulse 12 times to fill the LHC up with beam, the LHC beam circ...

  3. Numerical and experimental validation of a particle Galerkin method for metal grinding simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. T.; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Wu, Youcai; Luo, Tzui-Liang; Wang, Morris; Liao, Chien-Chih; Chen, Pei-Yin; Lai, Yu-Sheng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a numerical approach with an experimental validation is introduced for modelling high-speed metal grinding processes in 6061-T6 aluminum alloys. The derivation of the present numerical method starts with an establishment of a stabilized particle Galerkin approximation. A non-residual penalty term from strain smoothing is introduced as a means of stabilizing the particle Galerkin method. Additionally, second-order strain gradients are introduced to the penalized functional for the regularization of damage-induced strain localization problem. To handle the severe deformation in metal grinding simulation, an adaptive anisotropic Lagrangian kernel is employed. Finally, the formulation incorporates a bond-based failure criterion to bypass the prospective spurious damage growth issues in material failure and cutting debris simulation. A three-dimensional metal grinding problem is analyzed and compared with the experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed numerical approach.

  4. Accuracy of Cartosat-1 DEM and its derived attribute at multiple ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and information content was compared using mean elevation, variance and entropy statistics. Various ... required, but for local studies large scale represen- tation is ... been made to examine the effect of DEM accuracy ... accuracy of DEM is evaluated with respect to grid .... that loss of entropy is a measure of DEM quality or.

  5. Data accuracy assessment using enterprise architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närman, Per; Holm, Hannes; Johnson, Pontus; König, Johan; Chenine, Moustafa; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2011-02-01

    Errors in business processes result in poor data accuracy. This article proposes an architecture analysis method which utilises ArchiMate and the Probabilistic Relational Model formalism to model and analyse data accuracy. Since the resources available for architecture analysis are usually quite scarce, the method advocates interviews as the primary data collection technique. A case study demonstrates that the method yields correct data accuracy estimates and is more resource-efficient than a competing sampling-based data accuracy estimation method.

  6. Is local equilibrium a useful concept in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of multiparticle production phenomena are reviewed, which bear on the existence of local equilibrium in all or part of a collision event. Several universal features of purely hadronic events, such as the p/sub perpendicular/ distribution of secondaries, the independence of multiplicities and multiplicity distributions on the quantum numbers of the colliding particles are easily interpreted by postulating the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium for the dominant nondiffractive events. Except in the case of the multiplicity distribution, other interpretations often do not exist. Equilibration mechanisms which might establish local equilibrium are examined. We point out that several mechanisms besides the usual kinetic relaxation have not been seriously studied. These include collective instabilities, turbulence and chaos, which could be more effective in establishing equilibrium. Developments in the use of the hydrodynamic model are reviewed, with particular attention to the initial conditions appropriate to hadronic and nuclear collisions. We conclude that local equilibrium is indeed a useful concept but that much effort is needed to assess its accuracy and domain of applicability

  7. Surgical smoke and ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Dennis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrocautery, laser tissue ablation, and ultrasonic scalpel tissue dissection all generate a 'surgical smoke' containing ultrafine ( Methods To measure the amount of generated particulates in 'surgical smoke' during different surgical procedures and to quantify the particle number concentration for operation room personnel a condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Inc. was applied. Results Electro-cauterization and argon plasma tissue coagulation induced the production of very high number concentration (> 100000 cm-3 of particles in the diameter range of 10 nm to 1 μm. The peak concentration was confined to the immediate local surrounding of the production side. In the presence of a very efficient air conditioning system the increment and decrement of ultrafine particle occurrence was a matter of seconds, with accumulation of lower particle number concentrations in the operation room for only a few minutes. Conclusion Our investigation showed a short term very high exposure to ultrafine particles for surgeons and close assisting operating personnel – alternating with longer periods of low exposure.

  8. The accuracy of the ATLAS muon X-ray tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidou, R.; Berbiers, J.; Boudineau, C.; Dechelette, C.; Drakoulakos, D.; Fabjan, C.; Grau, S.; Gschwendtner, E.; Maugain, J.-M.; Rieder, H.; Rangod, S.; Rohrbach, F.; Sbrissa, E.; Sedykh, E.; Sedykh, I.; Smirnov, Y.; Vertogradov, L.; Vichou, I.

    2003-01-01

    A gigantic detector, the ATLAS project, is under construction at CERN for particle physics research at the Large Hadron Collider which is to be ready by 2006. An X-ray tomograph has been developed, designed and constructed at CERN in order to control the mechanical quality of the ATLAS muon chambers. We reached a measurement accuracy of 2 μm systematic and 2 μm statistical uncertainties in the horizontal and vertical directions in the working area 220 cm (horizontal)×60 cm (vertical). Here we describe in detail the fundamental approach of the basic principle chosen to achieve such good accuracy. In order to crosscheck our precision, key results of measurements are presented.

  9. The accuracy of the ATLAS muon X-ray tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramidou, R.; Berbiers, J.; Boudineau, C.; Dechelette, C.; Drakoulakos, D.; Fabjan, C.; Grau, S.; Gschwendtner, E.; Maugain, J.-M.; Rieder, H.; Rangod, S.; Rohrbach, F.; Sbrissa, E.; Sedykh, E.; Sedykh, I.; Smirnov, Y.; Vertogradov, L.; Vichou, I.

    2003-01-01

    A gigantic detector, the ATLAS project, is under construction at CERN for particle physics research at the Large Hadron Collider which is to be ready by 2006. An X-ray tomograph has been developed, designed and constructed at CERN in order to control the mechanical quality of the ATLAS muon chambers. We reached a measurement accuracy of 2 μm systematic and 2 μm statistical uncertainties in the horizontal and vertical directions in the working area 220 cm (horizontal)x60 cm (vertical). Here we describe in detail the fundamental approach of the basic principle chosen to achieve such good accuracy. In order to crosscheck our precision, key results of measurements are presented

  10. Algorithms and parameters for improved accuracy in physics data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batič, M; Hoff, G; Pia, M G; Saracco, P; Han, M; Kim, C H; Hauf, S; Kuster, M; Seo, H

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts for the improvement of the accuracy of physics data libraries used in particle transport are summarized. Results are reported about a large scale validation analysis of atomic parameters used by major Monte Carlo systems (Geant4, EGS, MCNP, Penelope etc.); their contribution to the accuracy of simulation observables is documented. The results of this study motivated the development of a new atomic data management software package, which optimizes the provision of state-of-the-art atomic parameters to physics models. The effect of atomic parameters on the simulation of radioactive decay is illustrated. Ideas and methods to deal with physics models applicable to different energy ranges in the production of data libraries, rather than at runtime, are discussed.

  11. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photos and videos Latest news For the media Particle Physics Neutrinos Fermilab and the LHC Dark matter initiatives Research and development Key discoveries Benefits of particle physics Particle Accelerators society Particle Physics 101 Science of matter, energy, space and time How particle physics discovery

  12. Diffusion of oriented particles in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, René [Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Centre for Nonlinear Studies, Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Prehl, Janett [Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Herrmann, Heiko [Centre for Nonlinear Studies, Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Hoffmann, Karl Heinz, E-mail: hoffmann@physik.tu-chemnitz.de [Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-11-29

    Diffusion of particles in porous media often shows subdiffusive behavior. Here, we analyze the dynamics of particles exhibiting an orientation. The features we focus on are geometrical restrictions and the dynamical consequences of the interactions between the local surrounding structure and the particle orientation. This interaction can lead to particles getting temporarily stuck in parts of the structure. Modeling this interaction by a particular random walk dynamics on fractal structures we find that the random walk dimension is not affected while the diffusion constant shows a variety of interesting and surprising features.

  13. Diffusion of oriented particles in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, René; Prehl, Janett; Herrmann, Heiko; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion of particles in porous media often shows subdiffusive behavior. Here, we analyze the dynamics of particles exhibiting an orientation. The features we focus on are geometrical restrictions and the dynamical consequences of the interactions between the local surrounding structure and the particle orientation. This interaction can lead to particles getting temporarily stuck in parts of the structure. Modeling this interaction by a particular random walk dynamics on fractal structures we find that the random walk dimension is not affected while the diffusion constant shows a variety of interesting and surprising features.

  14. Particle swarm genetic algorithm and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengxiang; Yan Changxiang; Wang Jianjun; Liu Zhenhai

    2012-01-01

    To solve the problems of slow convergence speed and tendency to fall into the local optimum of the standard particle swarm optimization while dealing with nonlinear constraint optimization problem, a particle swarm genetic algorithm is designed. The proposed algorithm adopts feasibility principle handles constraint conditions and avoids the difficulty of penalty function method in selecting punishment factor, generates initial feasible group randomly, which accelerates particle swarm convergence speed, and introduces genetic algorithm crossover and mutation strategy to avoid particle swarm falls into the local optimum Through the optimization calculation of the typical test functions, the results show that particle swarm genetic algorithm has better optimized performance. The algorithm is applied in nuclear power plant optimization, and the optimization results are significantly. (authors)

  15. Accuracy of the manufacture of electrodes for a 433 MHz RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budtov, A.A.; Gruzdev, V.A.; Petrov, V.I.; Svistunov, Y.A.; Marinin, G.V.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the dependence of the accuracy of the interelectrode distance on the accuracy of electrode surface machining for a 433 MHz four-segment radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) resonator is reported. The aim of the research was to determine the requirements for measurement methods and machining of the RFQ segments. Analysis of particle capture into acceleration as a function of the electrode modulation amplitude at the RFQ input is discussed

  16. Accuracy of the manufacture of electrodes for a 433 MHz RFQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budtov, A.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), Scientific Production Complex of Linear Accelerators and Cyclotrons (NPK LUTS), 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gruzdev, V.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), Scientific Production Complex of Linear Accelerators and Cyclotrons (NPK LUTS), 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Petrov, V.I. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), Scientific Production Complex of Linear Accelerators and Cyclotrons (NPK LUTS), 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: npkluts@niiefa.spb.su; Svistunov, Y.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), Scientific Production Complex of Linear Accelerators and Cyclotrons (NPK LUTS), 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Marinin, G.V. [Russian Technologies Ltd., 195030 St. Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-01

    Analysis of the dependence of the accuracy of the interelectrode distance on the accuracy of electrode surface machining for a 433 MHz four-segment radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) resonator is reported. The aim of the research was to determine the requirements for measurement methods and machining of the RFQ segments. Analysis of particle capture into acceleration as a function of the electrode modulation amplitude at the RFQ input is discussed.

  17. Technical accuracy in historical writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    A guest editorial is presented on the question of accuracy in the writing of radiation protection history. The author has written several books and articles dealing with various aspects of the development of radiation protection standards and philosophy; some of his own minor errors which have been picked up and frequently repeated are confessed. The author also outlines some of the general faults he has encountered in other articles on the subject. A common complaint is that many writers give source references without checking back to the original sources which leads to much carelessness and misunderstanding in technical writing. In addition, some writers all too frequently refer mainly to review articles which can be especially troublesome if the review is of the interpretative type. The limited outlook of some writers is also deplored in that the scope of the literature referred to is often limited to the author's country. A few glaring examples of factual errors encountered in various radiation protection articles are highlighted; these errors have since been repeated in subsequent review articles. (U.K.)

  18. Mammography: Technique and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Ja; Bahk, Yong Whee; Lee, Don Young

    1974-01-01

    Mammography is now in world wide use, But this has received rather scanty attention in Korea. The purposes of the present communication are twofold: (1) Detailing of technical and photographic aspects of mam in ography and (2) an assessment of its diagnostic accuracy as experienced by us. The clinical materials consisted of 88 cases of mammography performed at the Department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the 2 years-period from April 1972. We used nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine- grain films, and a special mammographic device that can be attached to any of the ordinary radiographic machine. Technical factors are shown in Table II. Of 88 cases 19 were operated on or biopsied. There were 7 cases of carcinoma. 8 cases of inflammatory diseases, and 4 cases of benign tumor. Mammographic diagnosis was correct in 85.7% of carcinoma and 87.5% of inflammatory diseases. One misdiagnosis of 7 cases of carcinoma was turned out to be cystosarcoma phylloides. Of 4 cases of benign tumors 2 were correctly diagnosed, and the other 2 mistaken for either inflammatory disease or simple lactating breast. However, none of the benign conditions were diagnosed as malignant process. We found that nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine-grain films, and hand-processing were necessary in obtaining the mammograms of desirable quality

  19. Accuracy of recumbent height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Crider, J B; Kelley, C; Dickinson, L C

    1985-01-01

    Since many patients requiring specialized nutritional support are bedridden, measurement of height for purposes of nutritional assessment or prescription must often be done with the patient in bed. This study examined the accuracy of measuring body height in bed in the supine position. Two measurements were performed on 108 ambulatory inpatients: (1) standing height using a standard height-weight scale, and (2) bed height using a flexible tape. Patients were divided into four groups based on which of two researchers performed each of the two measurements. Each patient was also weighed and self-reported height, weight, sex, and age were recorded. Bed height was significantly longer than standing height by 3.68 cm, but the two measurements were equally precise. It was believed, however, that this 2% difference was probably not clinically significant in most circumstances. Bed height correlated highly with standing height (r = 0.95), and the regression equation was standing height = 13.82 +/- 0.09 bed height. Patients overestimated their heights. Heights recorded by nurses were more accurate when patients were measured than when asked about their heights, but the patients were more often asked than measured.

  20. IGS polar motion measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ray

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate an error budget for the long-term accuracy of IGS (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service polar motion estimates, concluding that it is probably about 25–30 μas (1-sigma overall, although it is not possible to quantify possible contributions (mainly annual that might transfer directly from aliases of subdaily rotational tide errors. The leading sources are biases arising from the need to align daily, observed terrestrial frames, within which the pole coordinates are expressed and which are continuously deforming, to the secular, linear international reference frame. Such biases are largest over spans longer than about a year. Thanks to the very large number of IGS tracking stations, the formal covariance errors are much smaller, around 5 to 10 μas. Large networks also permit the systematic frame-related errors to be more effectively minimized but not eliminated. A number of periodic errors probably also influence polar motion results, mainly at annual, GPS (Global Positioning System draconitic, and fortnightly periods, but their impact on the overall error budget is unlikely to be significant except possibly for annual tidal aliases. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised in interpreting geophysical excitations near any of the suspect periods.

  1. Adaptive optics stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (AO-STORM) by particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan F; Zhang, Yiwen; Shen, Ping; Kner, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) can achieve resolutions of better than 20nm imaging single fluorescently labeled cells. However, when optical aberrations induced by larger biological samples degrade the point spread function (PSF), the localization accuracy and number of localizations are both reduced, destroying the resolution of STORM. Adaptive optics (AO) can be used to correct the wavefront, restoring the high resolution of STORM. A challenge for AO-STORM microscopy is the development of robust optimization algorithms which can efficiently correct the wavefront from stochastic raw STORM images. Here we present the implementation of a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach with a Fourier metric for real-time correction of wavefront aberrations during STORM acquisition. We apply our approach to imaging boutons 100 μm deep inside the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila melanogaster larvae achieving a resolution of 146 nm.

  2. The accurate particle tracer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi; Yao, Yicun

    2017-11-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for systematic large-scale applications of geometric algorithms for particle dynamical simulations. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and nonlinear problems. To provide a flexible and convenient I/O interface, the libraries of Lua and Hdf5 are used. Following a three-step procedure, users can efficiently extend the libraries of electromagnetic configurations, external non-electromagnetic forces, particle pushers, and initialization approaches by use of the extendible module. APT has been used in simulations of key physical problems, such as runaway electrons in tokamaks and energetic particles in Van Allen belt. As an important realization, the APT-SW version has been successfully distributed on the world's fastest computer, the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer, by supporting master-slave architecture of Sunway many-core processors. Based on large-scale simulations of a runaway beam under parameters of the ITER tokamak, it is revealed that the magnetic ripple field can disperse the pitch-angle distribution significantly and improve the confinement of energetic runaway beam on the same time.

  3. Particle theory and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Shafi, Q.; Barr, S.M.; Seckel, D.; Rusjan, E.; Fletcher, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research of professor at Bartol research institute in the following general areas: particle phenomenology and non-accelerator physics; particle physics and cosmology; theories with higher symmetry; and particle astrophysics and cosmology

  4. A new global particle swarm optimization for the economic emission dispatch with or without transmission losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Dexuan; Li, Steven; Li, Zongyan; Kong, Xiangyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new global particle swarm optimization (NGPSO) is proposed. • NGPSO has strong convergence and desirable accuracy. • NGPSO is used to handle the economic emission dispatch with or without transmission losses. • The equality constraint can be satisfied by solving a quadratic equation. • The inequality constraints can be satisfied by using penalty function method. - Abstract: A new global particle swarm optimization (NGPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the economic emission dispatch (EED) problems in this paper. NGPSO is different from the traditional particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in two aspects. First, NGPSO uses a new position updating equation which relies on the global best particle to guide the searching activities of all particles. Second, it uses the randomization based on the uniform distribution to slightly disturb the flight trajectories of particles during the late evolutionary process. The two steps enable NGPSO to effectively execute a number of global searches, and thus they increase the chance of exploring promising solution space, and reduce the probabilities of getting trapped into local optima for all particles. On the other hand, the two objective functions of EED are normalized separately according to all candidate solutions, and then they are incorporated into one single objective function. The transformation steps are very helpful in eliminating the difference caused by the different dimensions of the two functions, and thus they strike a balance between the fuel cost and emission. In addition, a simple and common penalty function method is employed to facilitate the satisfactions of EED’s constraints. Based on these improvements in PSO, objective functions and constraints handling, high-quality solutions can be obtained for EED problems. Five examples are chosen to testify the performance of three improved PSOs on solving EED problems with or without transmission losses. Experimental results show that

  5. Localized Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Is Localized Scleroderma Diagnosed? Doctors who are familiar with scleroderma, or who are experts at examining ... systemic treatment with a medication or other treatment interventions (for example, ultraviolet light), are reserved for more ...

  6. Numerical Simulation of Transitional, Hypersonic Flows using a Hybrid Particle-Continuum Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoff, Ashley Marie

    Analysis of hypersonic flows requires consideration of multiscale phenomena due to the range of flight regimes encountered, from rarefied conditions in the upper atmosphere to fully continuum flow at low altitudes. At transitional Knudsen numbers there are likely to be localized regions of strong thermodynamic nonequilibrium effects that invalidate the continuum assumptions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Accurate simulation of these regions, which include shock waves, boundary and shear layers, and low-density wakes, requires a kinetic theory-based approach where no prior assumptions are made regarding the molecular distribution function. Because of the nature of these types of flows, there is much to be gained in terms of both numerical efficiency and physical accuracy by developing hybrid particle-continuum simulation approaches. The focus of the present research effort is the continued development of the Modular Particle-Continuum (MPC) method, where the Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques in regions of the flow field where continuum assumptions are valid, and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used where strong thermodynamic nonequilibrium effects are present. Numerical solutions of transitional, hypersonic flows are thus obtained with increased physical accuracy relative to CFD alone, and improved numerical efficiency is achieved in comparison to DSMC alone because this more computationally expensive method is restricted to those regions of the flow field where it is necessary to maintain physical accuracy. In this dissertation, a comprehensive assessment of the physical accuracy of the MPC method is performed, leading to the implementation of a non-vacuum supersonic outflow boundary condition in particle domains, and more consistent initialization of DSMC simulator particles along hybrid interfaces. The relative errors between MPC and full DSMC results are greatly reduced as a

  7. High accuracy ion optics computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, R.J.; Evans, G.A.; Smith, R.

    1986-01-01

    Computer simulation of focused ion beams for surface analysis of materials by SIMS, or for microfabrication by ion beam lithography plays an important role in the design of low energy ion beam transport and optical systems. Many computer packages currently available, are limited in their applications, being inaccurate or inappropriate for a number of practical purposes. This work describes an efficient and accurate computer programme which has been developed and tested for use on medium sized machines. The programme is written in Algol 68 and models the behaviour of a beam of charged particles through an electrostatic system. A variable grid finite difference method is used with a unique data structure, to calculate the electric potential in an axially symmetric region, for arbitrary shaped boundaries. Emphasis has been placed upon finding an economic method of solving the resulting set of sparse linear equations in the calculation of the electric field and several of these are described. Applications include individual ion lenses, extraction optics for ions in surface analytical instruments and the design of columns for ion beam lithography. Computational results have been compared with analytical calculations and with some data obtained from individual einzel lenses. (author)

  8. Effect of Finite Particle Size on Convergence of Point Particle Models in Euler-Lagrange Multiphase Dispersed Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nili, Samaun; Park, Chanyoung; Haftka, Raphael T.; Kim, Nam H.; Balachandar, S.

    2017-11-01

    Point particle methods are extensively used in simulating Euler-Lagrange multiphase dispersed flow. When particles are much smaller than the Eulerian grid the point particle model is on firm theoretical ground. However, this standard approach of evaluating the gas-particle coupling at the particle center fails to converge as the Eulerian grid is reduced below particle size. We present an approach to model the interaction between particles and fluid for finite size particles that permits convergence. We use the generalized Faxen form to compute the force on a particle and compare the results against traditional point particle method. We apportion the different force components on the particle to fluid cells based on the fraction of particle volume or surface in the cell. The application is to a one-dimensional model of shock propagation through a particle-laden field at moderate volume fraction, where the convergence is achieved for a well-formulated force model and back coupling for finite size particles. Comparison with 3D direct fully resolved numerical simulations will be used to check if the approach also improves accuracy compared to the point particle model. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  9. Variational formalism for spin particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathy, P.

    1977-11-01

    The geometrical formulation of Hamilton's principle presented in a previous paper has been related to the usual one in terms of Lagrangian functions. The exact conditions for their equivalence are obtained and a method is given for the construction of a Lagrangian function. The formalism is extended to spin particles and a local Lagrangian is constructed in this case, too. However, this function cannot be extended to a global one. (D.P.)

  10. Hollywood log-homotopy: movies of particle flow for nonlinear filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we show five movies of particle flow to provide insight and intuition about this new algorithm. The particles flow solves the well known and important problem of particle degeneracy. Bayes' rule is implemented by particle flow rather than as a pointwise multiplication. This theory is roughly seven orders of magnitude faster than standard particle filters, and it often beats the extended Kalman filter by two orders of magnitude in accuracy for difficult nonlinear problems.

  11. Coordinate determination of high energy charged particles by silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    2002-01-01

    The coordinate determination accuracy of minimum ionizing and short-range particles by silicon strip detectors has been considered. The charge collection on neighboring strips of the detector is studied and the influence of diffusion and the electric field distribution on the accuracy of the coordinate determination is analyzed. It has been shown that coordinates of both minimum ionizing and short-range particles can be determined with accuracy to a few microns using silicon strip detectors. 11 refs.; 8 figs

  12. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  13. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  14. Source localization of rhythmic ictal EEG activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Lantz, Göran; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Although precise identification of the seizure-onset zone is an essential element of presurgical evaluation, source localization of ictal electroencephalography (EEG) signals has received little attention. The aim of our study was to estimate the accuracy of source localization of rhythmic ictal...... EEG activity using a distributed source model....

  15. Localization in smart dust sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Y.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2010-01-01

    Our research goal is to design a robust localization system that offers good accuracy even in the harsh indoor and outdoor environments by handling problems in the physical layer. In this respect, localization based on ultra-wide band (UWB) technology with time-based ranging is a good candidate

  16. ACCURACY DIMENSIONS IN REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Barsi

    2018-04-01

    selected, practice-oriented approaches are evaluated too, finally widely-used dimension metrics like Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE or confusion matrix are discussed. The authors present data quality features of well-defined and poorly defined object. The central part of the study is the land cover mapping, describing its accuracy management model, presented relevance and uncertainty measures of its influencing quality dimensions. In the paper theory is supported by a case study, where the remote sensing technology is used for supporting the area-based agricultural subsidies of the European Union, in Hungarian administration.

  17. Accuracy Dimensions in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Á.; Kugler, Zs.; László, I.; Szabó, Gy.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    -oriented approaches are evaluated too, finally widely-used dimension metrics like Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) or confusion matrix are discussed. The authors present data quality features of well-defined and poorly defined object. The central part of the study is the land cover mapping, describing its accuracy management model, presented relevance and uncertainty measures of its influencing quality dimensions. In the paper theory is supported by a case study, where the remote sensing technology is used for supporting the area-based agricultural subsidies of the European Union, in Hungarian administration.

  18. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timounay Yousra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  19. Experimental study of sediment particle diffusion on a granular bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, Federica; Sanches, Pedro; Fent, Ilaria; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2016-04-01

    Particle diffusion in a cohesionless granular bed, hydraulically fully rough, subjected to a steady-uniform turbulent open-channel flow is investigated. Experiments were carried out under conditions of weak bedload transport in a 12.5 m long and 40.5 cm wide glass-sided flume recirculating water and sediment through independent circuits at the Laboratory of Hydraulics and Environment of Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon. The flume bed was divided in two reaches: a fixed reach comprising 1.5 m of large boulders, followed by 3.0 m of smooth bottom (PVC) and 2.5 m of one layer glued 5.0 mm diameter spherical glass beads; a mobile reach 4.0 m long and 2.5 cm deep filled with 5.0 mm diameter glass packed beads. Particle velocities were obtained introducing 5.0 mm diameter white-coated beads in the flow. Particle motion was registered from above using a high-speed camera AVT Bonito CL-400 with resolution set to 2320 x 1000 px2and frame rate of 170 fps. The field of view recorded was 77.0 cm long and 38.0 cm wide, covering almost all the width of the flume. Image processing allowed detecting and locating the centre of mass of the particles with sub-pixel accuracy. Particle trajectories were reconstructed by tracking the beads in the images; particle velocities were obtained as bead displacement over time interval between two consecutive frames (1/170 s). The computation of lagrangian statistics of particle velocities for a Shields parameter θ=0.014, Froude number Fr=0.756, boundary Reynolds number Re*=182.9 and run duration of 20 min (during which 1218 particle trajectories were collected) provided information about particle diffusion within the local and intermediate range of temporal and space scales. Mean particle velocities, second, third and fourth order moments were obtained for both longitudinal and transverse velocity components. A relatively large ballistic range, approximately two particle diameters, was observed, mainly due to the simple bed topography of

  20. Particle transport in 3He-rich events: wave-particle interactions and particle anisotropy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths lW - P are calculated using the measured wave intensities, polarizations, and k directions. The values of lW - P are found to be ~ 5 times less than the value of lHe , the latter derived from He intensity and anisotropy time profiles. It is demonstrated by computer simulation that scattering rates through a 90° pitch angle are lower than that of other pitch angles, and that this is a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the lW - P and lHe values. At this time the scattering mechanism(s is unknown. We suggest a means where a direct comparison between the two l values could be made. Computer simulations indicate that although scattering through 90° is lower, it still occurs. Possibilities are either large pitch angle scattering through resonant interactions, or particle mirroring off of field compression regions. The largest solar proton events are analyzed to investigate the possibilities of local wave generation at 1 AU. In accordance with the results of a previous calculation (Gary et al., 1985 of beam stability, proton beams at 1 AU are found to be marginally stable. No evidence for substantial wave amplitude was found. Locally generated waves, if present, were less than 10-3 nT 2 Hz-1 at the leading

  1. Particle transport in 3He-rich events: wave-particle interactions and particle anisotropy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hada

    Full Text Available Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths lW - P are calculated using the measured wave intensities, polarizations, and k directions. The values of lW - P are found to be ~ 5 times less than the value of lHe , the latter derived from He intensity and anisotropy time profiles. It is demonstrated by computer simulation that scattering rates through a 90° pitch angle are lower than that of other pitch angles, and that this is a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the lW - P and lHe values. At this time the scattering mechanism(s is unknown. We suggest a means where a direct comparison between the two l values could be made. Computer simulations indicate that although scattering through 90° is lower, it still occurs. Possibilities are either large pitch angle scattering through resonant interactions, or particle mirroring off of field compression regions. The largest solar proton events are analyzed to investigate the possibilities of local wave generation at 1 AU. In accordance with the results of a previous calculation (Gary et al., 1985 of beam stability, proton beams at 1 AU are found to be marginally stable. No evidence for substantial wave amplitude was found. Locally generated waves, if present, were less than 10-3 nT 2 Hz-1 at the leading

  2. Markerless human motion tracking using hierarchical multi-swarm cooperative particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sanjay; Zakaria, Nordin; Rambli, Dayang Rohaya Awang; Sulaiman, Suziah

    2015-01-01

    The high-dimensional search space involved in markerless full-body articulated human motion tracking from multiple-views video sequences has led to a number of solutions based on metaheuristics, the most recent form of which is Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). However, the classical PSO suffers from premature convergence and it is trapped easily into local optima, significantly affecting the tracking accuracy. To overcome these drawbacks, we have developed a method for the problem based on Hierarchical Multi-Swarm Cooperative Particle Swarm Optimization (H-MCPSO). The tracking problem is formulated as a non-linear 34-dimensional function optimization problem where the fitness function quantifies the difference between the observed image and a projection of the model configuration. Both the silhouette and edge likelihoods are used in the fitness function. Experiments using Brown and HumanEva-II dataset demonstrated that H-MCPSO performance is better than two leading alternative approaches-Annealed Particle Filter (APF) and Hierarchical Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO). Further, the proposed tracking method is capable of automatic initialization and self-recovery from temporary tracking failures. Comprehensive experimental results are presented to support the claims.

  3. Fully implicit Particle-in-cell algorithms for multiscale plasma simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-16

    The outline of the paper is as follows: Particle-in-cell (PIC) methods for fully ionized collisionless plasmas, explicit vs. implicit PIC, 1D ES implicit PIC (charge and energy conservation, moment-based acceleration), and generalization to Multi-D EM PIC: Vlasov-Darwin model (review and motivation for Darwin model, conservation properties (energy, charge, and canonical momenta), and numerical benchmarks). The author demonstrates a fully implicit, fully nonlinear, multidimensional PIC formulation that features exact local charge conservation (via a novel particle mover strategy), exact global energy conservation (no particle self-heating or self-cooling), adaptive particle orbit integrator to control errors in momentum conservation, and canonical momenta (EM-PIC only, reduced dimensionality). The approach is free of numerical instabilities: ωpeΔt >> 1, and Δx >> λD. It requires many fewer dofs (vs. explicit PIC) for comparable accuracy in challenging problems. Significant CPU gains (vs explicit PIC) have been demonstrated. The method has much potential for efficiency gains vs. explicit in long-time-scale applications. Moment-based acceleration is effective in minimizing NFE, leading to an optimal algorithm.

  4. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  5. Accuracies Of Optical Processors For Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    Paper presents analysis of accuracies and requirements concerning accuracies of optical linear-algebra processors (OLAP's) in adaptive-optics imaging systems. Much faster than digital electronic processor and eliminate some residual distortion. Question whether errors introduced by analog processing of OLAP overcome advantage of greater speed. Paper addresses issue by presenting estimate of accuracy required in general OLAP that yields smaller average residual aberration of wave front than digital electronic processor computing at given speed.

  6. Efficient particle filtering through residual nudging

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2013-05-15

    We introduce an auxiliary technique, called residual nudging, to the particle filter to enhance its performance in cases where it performs poorly. The main idea of residual nudging is to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the residual norm of a state estimate in the observation space so that it does not exceed a pre-specified threshold. We suggest a rule to choose the pre-specified threshold, and construct a state estimate accordingly to achieve this objective. Numerical experiments suggest that introducing residual nudging to a particle filter may (substantially) improve its performance, in terms of filter accuracy and/or stability against divergence, especially when the particle filter is implemented with a relatively small number of particles. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.

  7. The relations of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book presents papers on elementary particle physics, relations between various particles, and the connections between particle physics with other branches of physics. The papers include: Contemporary status and prospects of high-energy physics; Particle physics prospects; and High energy physics

  8. Relevance of intracellular polarity to accuracy of eukaryotic chemotaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Shibata, Tatsuo; Nagamatsu, Akihiro; Akuzawa, Naohiro

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic chemotaxis is usually mediated by intracellular signals that tend to localize at the front or back of the cell. Such intracellular polarities frequently require no extracellular guidance cues, indicating that spontaneous polarization occurs in the signal network. Spontaneous polarization activity is considered relevant to the persistent motions in random cell migrations and chemotaxis. In this study, we propose a theoretical model that connects spontaneous intracellular polarity and motile ability in a chemoattractant solution. We demonstrate that the intracellular polarity can enhance the accuracy of chemotaxis. Chemotactic accuracy should also depend on chemoattractant concentration through the concentration-dependent correlation time in the polarity direction. Both the polarity correlation time and the chemotactic accuracy depend on the degree of responsiveness to the chemical gradient. We show that optimally accurate chemotaxis occurs at an intermediate responsiveness of intracellular polarity. Experimentally, we find that the persistence time of randomly migrating Dictyostelium cells depends on the chemoattractant concentration, as predicted by our theory. At the optimum responsiveness, this ameboid cell can enhance its chemotactic accuracy tenfold. (paper)

  9. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  10. Dyson Orbitals, Quasi-Particle effects and Compton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dyson orbitals play an important role in understanding quasi-particle effects in the correlated ground state of a many-particle system and are relevant for describing the Compton scattering cross section beyond the frameworks of the impulse approximation (IA) and the independent particle model (IPM). Here we discuss corrections to the Kohn-Sham energies due to quasi-particle effects in terms of Dyson orbitals and obtain a relatively simple local form of the exchange-correlation energy. Illust...

  11. Simultaneous Perturbation Particle Swarm Optimization and Its FPGA Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Yutaka; Matsushita, Naoto

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we presented hardware implementation of the particle swarm optimization algorithm which is combination of the ordinary particle swarm optimization and the simultaneous perturbation method. FPGA is used to realize the system. This algorithm utilizes local information of objective function effectively without lack of advantage of the original particle swarm optimization. Moreover, the FPGA implementation gives higher operation speed effectively using parallelism of the particle s...

  12. Are quantum particles really particulate or Bell theorems without inequalities for two and three spinless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of applying perfect correlation type arguments to two particles is investigated. A disproof of local realism for two spinless particles has been found, but it requires a different extension of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) approach. This extension adopts an additional assumption beyond those enunciated by EPR, an assumption consistent with a very strongly particulate view of the nature of a quantum mechanical system. Moreover, without extending the EPR program, one can still prove EPR local realism incompatible with quantum mechanics, using only experiments with definite outcomes, if one considers a three-particle system. (R.P.) 9 refs.; 1 fig

  13. Review of particle properties. Particle Data Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Rev. Mod. Phys. 48 (1976) No. 2, Part II; and Supplement, Phys. Lett. 68B (1977) 1]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available

  14. Spectroscopy on localized and cooled ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschek, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    This article examines the use of localization and storage of a small number of atomic particles in an electric or magnetic field configuration as a means of distinguishing it from other methods of sample preparation. Current experiments on the storage of isolated cold ions have opened a new experimental approach for studies in atomic physics. In contrast to one dimensional atomic beams, trapped particles are quasi-non-dimensional ensembles. They lend themselves to interaction with light (their spectroscopy) and various other research techniques such as: cooperative effects in the interaction with radiation by comparison of two particle clouds with a single particle; single-particle scattering on background gas particles; single-particle chemical reactions

  15. Complete-arch accuracy of intraoral scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treesh, Joshua C; Liacouras, Peter C; Taft, Robert M; Brooks, Daniel I; Raiciulescu, Sorana; Ellert, Daniel O; Grant, Gerald T; Ye, Ling

    2018-04-30

    Intraoral scanners have shown varied results in complete-arch applications. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the complete-arch accuracy of 4 intraoral scanners based on trueness and precision measurements compared with a known reference (trueness) and with each other (precision). Four intraoral scanners were evaluated: CEREC Bluecam, CEREC Omnicam, TRIOS Color, and Carestream CS 3500. A complete-arch reference cast was created and printed using a 3-dimensional dental cast printer with photopolymer resin. The reference cast was digitized using a laboratory-based white light 3-dimensional scanner. The printed reference cast was scanned 10 times with each intraoral scanner. The digital standard tessellation language (STL) files from each scanner were then registered to the reference file and compared with differences in trueness and precision using a 3-dimensional modeling software. Additionally, scanning time was recorded for each scan performed. The Wilcoxon signed rank, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests were used to detect differences for trueness, precision, and scanning time (α=.05). Carestream CS 3500 had the lowest overall trueness and precision compared with Bluecam and TRIOS Color. The fourth scanner, Omnicam, had intermediate trueness and precision. All of the scanners tended to underestimate the size of the reference file, with exception of the Carestream CS 3500, which was more variable. Based on visual inspection of the color rendering of signed differences, the greatest amount of error tended to be in the posterior aspects of the arch, with local errors exceeding 100 μm for all scans. The single capture scanner Carestream CS 3500 had the overall longest scan times and was significantly slower than the continuous capture scanners TRIOS Color and Omnicam. Significant differences in both trueness and precision were found among the scanners. Scan times of the continuous capture scanners were faster than the single capture scanners

  16. A deformable particle-in-cell method for advective transport in geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Henri

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an improvement of the particle-in-cell method commonly used in geodynamic modeling for solving pure advection of sharply varying fields. Standard particle-in-cell approaches use particle kernels to transfer the information carried by the Lagrangian particles to/from the Eulerian grid. These kernels are generally one-dimensional and non-evolutive, which leads to the development of under- and over-sampling of the spatial domain by the particles. This reduces the accuracy of the solution, and may require the use of a prohibitive amount of particles in order to maintain the solution accuracy to an acceptable level. The new proposed approach relies on the use of deformable kernels that account for the strain history in the vicinity of particles. It results in a significant improvement of the spatial sampling by the particles, leading to a much higher accuracy of the numerical solution, for a reasonable computational extra cost. Various 2D tests were conducted to compare the performances of the deformable particle-in-cell method with the particle-in-cell approach. These consistently show that at comparable accuracy, the deformable particle-in-cell method was found to be four to six times more efficient than standard particle-in-cell approaches. The method could be adapted to 3D space and generalized to cases including motionless transport.

  17. Electromagnetic wave scattering by many small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves by many small particles of arbitrary shapes is reduced rigorously to solving linear algebraic system of equations bypassing the usual usage of integral equations. The matrix elements of this linear algebraic system have physical meaning. They are expressed in terms of the electric and magnetic polarizability tensors. Analytical formulas are given for calculation of these tensors with any desired accuracy for homogeneous bodies of arbitrary shapes. An idea to create a 'smart' material by embedding many small particles in a given region is formulated

  18. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S.; Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc −1 and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc −1 . We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc −1 . In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h −1 Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M p =10 9 h −1 M ⊙ is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  19. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S. [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Smith, Robert E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Scoccimarro, Roman, E-mail: aurel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teyssier@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: dpotter@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: stadel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: julian.onions@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: reed@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: r.e.smith@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: volker.springel@h-its.org, E-mail: Frazer.Pearce@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: rs123@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, NY 10003, New York (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc{sup −1} and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc{sup −1}. We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc{sup −1}. In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h {sup −1}Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M {sub p}=10{sup 9} h {sup −1}M{sub ⊙} is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  20. Quality of reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, N.; Rutjes, A.W.; Windt - Mens, van der D.A.W.M.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Reitsma, J.B.; Bouter, L.M.; Vet, de H.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate quality of reporting in diagnostic accuracy articles published in 2000 in journals with impact factor of at least 4 by using items of Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement published later in 2003. MATERIALS AND METHODS: English-language articles on

  1. Accuracy of Parent Identification of Stuttering Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinicians rely on parents to provide information regarding the onset and development of stuttering in their own children. The accuracy and reliability of their judgments of stuttering is therefore important and is not well researched. Aim: To investigate the accuracy of parent judgements of stuttering in their own children's speech…

  2. Improving Accuracy of Processing Through Active Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Barbashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important task of modern mathematical statistics with its methods based on the theory of probability is a scientific estimate of measurement results. There are certain costs under control, and under ineffective control when a customer has got defective products these costs are significantly higher because of parts recall.When machining the parts, under the influence of errors a range scatter of part dimensions is offset towards the tolerance limit. To improve a processing accuracy and avoid defective products involves reducing components of error in machining, i.e. to improve the accuracy of machine and tool, tool life, rigidity of the system, accuracy of the adjustment. In a given time it is also necessary to adapt machine.To improve an accuracy and a machining rate there, currently  become extensively popular various the in-process gaging devices and controlled machining that uses adaptive control systems for the process monitoring. Improving the accuracy in this case is compensation of a majority of technological errors. The in-cycle measuring sensors (sensors of active control allow processing accuracy improvement by one or two quality and provide a capability for simultaneous operation of several machines.Efficient use of in-cycle measuring sensors requires development of methods to control the accuracy through providing the appropriate adjustments. Methods based on the moving average, appear to be the most promising for accuracy control since they include data on the change in some last measured values of the parameter under control.

  3. Test Particles with Acceleration-Dependent Lagrangian

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, M.

    2005-01-01

    We consider a classical test particle subject to electromagnetic and gravitational fields, described by a Lagrangian depending on the acceleration and on a fundamental length. We associate to the particle a moving local reference frame and we study its trajectory in the principal fibre bundle of all the Lorentz frames. We discuss in this framework the general form of the Lagrange equations and the connection between symmetries and conservation laws (Noether theorem). We apply these results to...

  4. High energy electromagnetic particle transportation on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canal, P. [Fermilab; Elvira, D. [Fermilab; Jun, S. Y. [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, J. [Fermilab; Paterno, M. [Fermilab; Apostolakis, J. [CERN

    2014-01-01

    We present massively parallel high energy electromagnetic particle transportation through a finely segmented detector on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Simulating events of energetic particle decay in a general-purpose high energy physics (HEP) detector requires intensive computing resources, due to the complexity of the geometry as well as physics processes applied to particles copiously produced by primary collisions and secondary interactions. The recent advent of hardware architectures of many-core or accelerated processors provides the variety of concurrent programming models applicable not only for the high performance parallel computing, but also for the conventional computing intensive application such as the HEP detector simulation. The components of our prototype are a transportation process under a non-uniform magnetic field, geometry navigation with a set of solid shapes and materials, electromagnetic physics processes for electrons and photons, and an interface to a framework that dispatches bundles of tracks in a highly vectorized manner optimizing for spatial locality and throughput. Core algorithms and methods are excerpted from the Geant4 toolkit, and are modified and optimized for the GPU application. Program kernels written in C/C++ are designed to be compatible with CUDA and OpenCL and with the aim to be generic enough for easy porting to future programming models and hardware architectures. To improve throughput by overlapping data transfers with kernel execution, multiple CUDA streams are used. Issues with floating point accuracy, random numbers generation, data structure, kernel divergences and register spills are also considered. Performance evaluation for the relative speedup compared to the corresponding sequential execution on CPU is presented as well.

  5. Particle acceleration by pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arons, Jonathan.

    1980-06-01

    The evidence that pulsars accelerate relativistic particles is reviewed, with emphasis on the γ-ray observations. The current state of knowledge of acceleration in strong waves is summarized, with emphasis on the inability of consistent theories to accelerate very high energy particles without converting too much energy into high energy photons. The state of viable models for pair creation by pulsars is summarized, with the conclusion that pulsars very likely lose rotational energy in winds instead of in superluminous strong waves. The relation of the pair creation models to γ-ray observations and to soft X-ray observations of pulsars is outlined, with the conclusion that energetically viable models may exist, but none have yet yielded useful agreement with the extant data. Some paths for overcoming present problems are discussed. The relation of the favored models to cosmic rays is discussed. It is pointed out that the pairs made by the models may have observable consequences for observation of positrons in the local cosmic ray flux and for observations of the 511 keV line from the interstellar medium. Another new point is that asymmetry of plasma supply from at least one of the models may qualitatively explain the gross asymmetry of the X-ray emission from the Crab nebula. It is also argued that acceleration of cosmic ray nuclei by pulsars, while energetically possible, can occur only at the boundary of the bubbles blown by the pulsars, if the cosmic ray composition is to be anything like that of the known source spectrum

  6. Deposition Uniformity of Coal Dust on Filters and Its Effect on the Accuracy of FTIR Analyses for Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur L; Drake, Pamela L; Murphy, Nathaniel C; Cauda, Emanuele G; LeBouf, Ryan F; Markevicius, Gediminas

    Miners are exposed to silica-bearing dust which can lead to silicosis, a potentially fatal lung disease. Currently, airborne silica is measured by collecting filter samples and sending them to a laboratory for analysis. Since this may take weeks, a field method is needed to inform decisions aimed at reducing exposures. This study investigates a field-portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) method for end-of-shift (EOS) measurement of silica on filter samples. Since the method entails localized analyses, spatial uniformity of dust deposition can affect accuracy and repeatability. The study, therefore, assesses the influence of radial deposition uniformity on the accuracy of the method. Using laboratory-generated Minusil and coal dusts and three different types of sampling systems, multiple sets of filter samples were prepared. All samples were collected in pairs to create parallel sets for training and validation. Silica was measured by FTIR at nine locations across the face of each filter and the data analyzed using a multiple regression analysis technique that compared various models for predicting silica mass on the filters using different numbers of "analysis shots." It was shown that deposition uniformity is independent of particle type (kaolin vs. silica), which suggests the role of aerodynamic separation is negligible. Results also reflected the correlation between the location and number of shots versus the predictive accuracy of the models. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the models when predicting mass of validation samples was 4%-51% depending on the number of points analyzed and the type of sampler used, which affected the uniformity of radial deposition on the filters. It was shown that using a single shot at the center of the filter yielded predictivity adequate for a field method, (93% return, CV approximately 15%) for samples collected with 3-piece cassettes.

  7. A Comprehensive Comparison of Relativistic Particle Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripperda, B.; Bacchini, F.; Teunissen, J.; Xia, C.; Porth, O.; Sironi, L.; Lapenta, G.; Keppens, R.

    2018-03-01

    We compare relativistic particle integrators commonly used in plasma physics, showing several test cases relevant for astrophysics. Three explicit particle pushers are considered, namely, the Boris, Vay, and Higuera–Cary schemes. We also present a new relativistic fully implicit particle integrator that is energy conserving. Furthermore, a method based on the relativistic guiding center approximation is included. The algorithms are described such that they can be readily implemented in magnetohydrodynamics codes or Particle-in-Cell codes. Our comparison focuses on the strengths and key features of the particle integrators. We test the conservation of invariants of motion and the accuracy of particle drift dynamics in highly relativistic, mildly relativistic, and non-relativistic settings. The methods are compared in idealized test cases, i.e., without considering feedback onto the electrodynamic fields, collisions, pair creation, or radiation. The test cases include uniform electric and magnetic fields, {\\boldsymbol{E}}× {\\boldsymbol{B}} fields, force-free fields, and setups relevant for high-energy astrophysics, e.g., a magnetic mirror, a magnetic dipole, and a magnetic null. These tests have direct relevance for particle acceleration in shocks and in magnetic reconnection.

  8. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  9. Local supertwistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Geometry of local supertwistors is investigated. It is proved that the Yang-Mills equations for the introduced ansatz for supertwistor connection are equivalent to free bach equations, describing the dynamics of N=1 conformal supergravity. Analogous interpretation of the dynamics of N=1 conformal supergravity coupled to a vector superfield is proposed. It is proved that any complex conformally right or left flat superspace automatically satisfies the Bach equations

  10. High accuracy magnetic field mapping of the LEP spectrometer magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, F

    2000-01-01

    The Large Electron Positron accelerator (LEP) is a storage ring which has been operated since 1989 at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), located in the Geneva area. It is intended to experimentally verify the Standard Model theory and in particular to detect with high accuracy the mass of the electro-weak force bosons. Electrons and positrons are accelerated inside the LEP ring in opposite directions and forced to collide at four locations, once they reach an energy high enough for the experimental purposes. During head-to-head collisions the leptons loose all their energy and a huge amount of energy is concentrated in a small region. In this condition the energy is quickly converted in other particles which tend to go away from the interaction point. The higher the energy of the leptons before the collisions, the higher the mass of the particles that can escape. At LEP four large experimental detectors are accommodated. All detectors are multi purpose detectors covering a solid angle of alm...

  11. Clinical accuracy of ExacTrac intracranial frameless stereotactic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerly, T.; Lancaster, C. M.; Geso, M.; Roxby, K. J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper, the authors assess the accuracy of the Brainlab ExacTrac system for frameless intracranial stereotactic treatments in clinical practice. Methods: They recorded couch angle and image fusion results (comprising lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts, and rotation corrections about these axes) for 109 stereotactic radiosurgery and 166 stereotactic radiotherapy patient treatments. Frameless stereotactic treatments involve iterative 6D image fusion corrections applied until the results conform to customizable pass criteria, theirs being 0.7 mm and 0.5 deg. for each axis. The planning CT slice thickness was 1.25 mm. It has been reported in the literature that the CT slices' thickness impacts the accuracy of localization to bony anatomy. The principle of invariance with respect to patient orientation was used to determine spatial accuracy. Results: The data for radiosurgery comprised 927 image pairs, of which 532 passed (pass ratio of 57.4%). The data for radiotherapy comprised 15983 image pairs, of which 10 050 passed (pass ratio of 62.9%). For stereotactic radiotherapy, the combined uncertainty of ExacTrac calibration, image fusion, and intrafraction motion was (95% confidence interval) 0.290-0.302 and 0.306-0.319 mm in the longitudinal and lateral axes, respectively. The combined uncertainty of image fusion and intrafraction motion in the anterior-posterior coordinates was 0.174-0.182 mm. For stereotactic radiosurgery, the equivalent ranges are 0.323-0.393, 0.337-0.409, and 0.231-0.281 mm. The overall spatial accuracy was 1.24 mm for stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and 1.35 mm for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Conclusions: The ExacTrac intracranial frameless stereotactic system spatial accuracy is adequate for clinical practice, and with the same pass criteria, SRT is more accurate than SRS. They now use frameless stereotaxy exclusively at their center.

  12. Resonating group calculation for a three particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Kiran; Jain, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    The elastic scattering of a projectile comprising of a loosely bound pair of particles by a target has been investigated in the Resonating Group Method (RGM). An effective interaction between the projectile and the target has also been derived in terms of the individual particle-target interaction. Phenomenological potentials are employed to describe, with reasonable accuracy, the antisymmetrized particle-target wavefunctions. This simplifies the analysis from an N-particle calculation to a three body RGM calculation. Results obtained for d-α scattering are compared with a full six nucleon calculation as well as with experiment. Results on 6 Li scattering on 40 Ca are discussed. (auth.)

  13. A proposal on alternative sampling-based modeling method of spherical particles in stochastic media for Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Lee, Jae Yong; KIm, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jae Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Chord length sampling method in Monte Carlo simulations is a method used to model spherical particles with random sampling technique in a stochastic media. It has received attention due to the high calculation efficiency as well as user convenience; however, a technical issue regarding boundary effect has been noted. In this study, after analyzing the distribution characteristics of spherical particles using an explicit method, an alternative chord length sampling method is proposed. In addition, for modeling in finite media, a correction method of the boundary effect is proposed. Using the proposed method, sample probability distributions and relative errors were estimated and compared with those calculated by the explicit method. The results show that the reconstruction ability and modeling accuracy of the particle probability distribution with the proposed method were considerably high. Also, from the local packing fraction results, the proposed method can successfully solve the boundary effect problem. It is expected that the proposed method can contribute to the increasing of the modeling accuracy in stochastic media.

  14. A proposal on alternative sampling-based modeling method of spherical particles in stochastic media for Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Lee, Jae Yong; KIm, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung; Noh, Jae Man

    2015-01-01

    Chord length sampling method in Monte Carlo simulations is a method used to model spherical particles with random sampling technique in a stochastic media. It has received attention due to the high calculation efficiency as well as user convenience; however, a technical issue regarding boundary effect has been noted. In this study, after analyzing the distribution characteristics of spherical particles using an explicit method, an alternative chord length sampling method is proposed. In addition, for modeling in finite media, a correction method of the boundary effect is proposed. Using the proposed method, sample probability distributions and relative errors were estimated and compared with those calculated by the explicit method. The results show that the reconstruction ability and modeling accuracy of the particle probability distribution with the proposed method were considerably high. Also, from the local packing fraction results, the proposed method can successfully solve the boundary effect problem. It is expected that the proposed method can contribute to the increasing of the modeling accuracy in stochastic media

  15. Prediction of Skin Sensitization with a Particle Swarm Optimized Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhong Cao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin sensitization is the most commonly reported occupational illness, causing much suffering to a wide range of people. Identification and labeling of environmental allergens is urgently required to protect people from skin sensitization. The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT and murine local lymph node assay (LLNA are the two most important in vivo models for identification of skin sensitizers. In order to reduce the number of animal tests, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs are strongly encouraged in the assessment of skin sensitization of chemicals. This paper has investigated the skin sensitization potential of 162 compounds with LLNA results and 92 compounds with GPMT results using a support vector machine. A particle swarm optimization algorithm was implemented for feature selection from a large number of molecular descriptors calculated by Dragon. For the LLNA data set, the classification accuracies are 95.37% and 88.89% for the training and the test sets, respectively. For the GPMT data set, the classification accuracies are 91.80% and 90.32% for the training and the test sets, respectively. The classification performances were greatly improved compared to those reported in the literature, indicating that the support vector machine optimized by particle swarm in this paper is competent for the identification of skin sensitizers.

  16. Prediction of Skin Sensitization with a Particle Swarm Optimized Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hua; Huang, Jianping; Cao, Chenzhong

    2009-01-01

    Skin sensitization is the most commonly reported occupational illness, causing much suffering to a wide range of people. Identification and labeling of environmental allergens is urgently required to protect people from skin sensitization. The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) are the two most important in vivo models for identification of skin sensitizers. In order to reduce the number of animal tests, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are strongly encouraged in the assessment of skin sensitization of chemicals. This paper has investigated the skin sensitization potential of 162 compounds with LLNA results and 92 compounds with GPMT results using a support vector machine. A particle swarm optimization algorithm was implemented for feature selection from a large number of molecular descriptors calculated by Dragon. For the LLNA data set, the classification accuracies are 95.37% and 88.89% for the training and the test sets, respectively. For the GPMT data set, the classification accuracies are 91.80% and 90.32% for the training and the test sets, respectively. The classification performances were greatly improved compared to those reported in the literature, indicating that the support vector machine optimized by particle swarm in this paper is competent for the identification of skin sensitizers. PMID:19742136

  17. Software compensation in Particle Flow reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Lan Tran, Huong; Sefkow, Felix; Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark; Simon, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The Particle Flow approach to calorimetry requires highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analog energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in Particle Flow reconstruct...

  18. Flow induced crystallisation of penetrable particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Alberto; Brader, Joseph M.

    2018-03-01

    For a system of Brownian particles interacting via a soft exponential potential we investigate the interaction between equilibrium crystallisation and spatially varying shear flow. For thermodynamic state points within the liquid part of the phase diagram, but close to the crystallisation phase boundary, we observe that imposing a Poiseuille flow can induce nonequilibrium crystalline ordering in regions of low shear gradient. The physical mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is shear-induced particle migration, which causes particles to drift preferentially towards the center of the flow channel, thus increasing the local density in the channel center. The method employed is classical dynamical density functional theory.

  19. Relative-locality effects in Snyder spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignemi, S.; Samsarov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Most models of noncommutative geometry and doubly special relativity suggest that the principle of absolute locality should be replaced by the milder notion of relative locality. In particular, they predict the occurrence of a delay in the time of arrival of massless particle of different energies emitted by a distant observer. In this letter, we show that this is not the case with Snyder spacetime, essentially because the Lorentz invariance is not deformed in this case. Distant observers may however measure different times of flight for massive particles. - Highlights: • We discuss the dynamics of the Snyder model from the point of view of relative locality. • We show that no time delay is present for particles emitted by distant observers. • We ascribe this fact to the Lorentz invariance of the model. • Distant observers may however measure different times of flight for massive particle.

  20. Relative-locality effects in Snyder spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignemi, S., E-mail: smignemi@unica.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Samsarov, A., E-mail: andjelo.samsarov@irb.hr [Rudjer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2017-05-18

    Most models of noncommutative geometry and doubly special relativity suggest that the principle of absolute locality should be replaced by the milder notion of relative locality. In particular, they predict the occurrence of a delay in the time of arrival of massless particle of different energies emitted by a distant observer. In this letter, we show that this is not the case with Snyder spacetime, essentially because the Lorentz invariance is not deformed in this case. Distant observers may however measure different times of flight for massive particles. - Highlights: • We discuss the dynamics of the Snyder model from the point of view of relative locality. • We show that no time delay is present for particles emitted by distant observers. • We ascribe this fact to the Lorentz invariance of the model. • Distant observers may however measure different times of flight for massive particle.

  1. Precision siting of a particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra, Jorge Pimentel

    1996-01-01

    Precise location is a specific survey job that involves a high skilled work to avoid unrecoverable results at the project installation. As a function of the different process stages, different specifications can be applied, invoking different instruments: theodolite, measurement tape, distanciometer, invar wire. This paper, based on experience obtained at the installation of particle accelerator equipment, deals with general principles of precise location: tolerance definitions, increasing accuracy techniques, schedule of locations, sensitivity analysis, quality control methods. (author)

  2. Elementary particles in curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The theories in particle physics are developed currently, in Minkowski space-time starting from the Poincare group. A physical theory in flat space can be seen as the limit of a more general physical theory in a curved space. At the present time, a theory of particles in curved space does not exist, and thus the only possibility is to extend the existent theories in these spaces. A formidable obstacle to the extension of physical models is the absence of groups of motion in more general Riemann spaces. A space of constant curvature has a group of motion that, although differs from that of a flat space, has the same number of parameters and could permit some generalisations. In this contribution we try to investigate some physical implications of the presumable existence of elementary particles in curved space. In de Sitter space (dS) the invariant rest mass is a combination of the Poincare rest mass and the generalised angular momentum of a particle and it permits to establish a correlation with the vacuum energy and with the cosmological constant. The consequences are significant because in an experiment the local structure of space-time departs from the Minkowski space and becomes a dS or AdS space-time. Discrete symmetry characteristics of the dS/AdS group suggest some arguments for the possible existence of the 'mirror matter'. (author)

  3. Accuracy Limitations in Optical Linear Algebra Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, Stephen Gordon

    1990-01-01

    One of the limiting factors in applying optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) to real-world problems has been the poor achievable accuracy of these processors. Little previous research has been done on determining noise sources from a systems perspective which would include noise generated in the multiplication and addition operations, noise from spatial variations across arrays, and from crosstalk. In this dissertation, we propose a second-order statistical model for an OLAP which incorporates all these system noise sources. We now apply this knowledge to determining upper and lower bounds on the achievable accuracy. This is accomplished by first translating the standard definition of accuracy used in electronic digital processors to analog optical processors. We then employ our second-order statistical model. Having determined a general accuracy equation, we consider limiting cases such as for ideal and noisy components. From the ideal case, we find the fundamental limitations on improving analog processor accuracy. From the noisy case, we determine the practical limitations based on both device and system noise sources. These bounds allow system trade-offs to be made both in the choice of architecture and in individual components in such a way as to maximize the accuracy of the processor. Finally, by determining the fundamental limitations, we show the system engineer when the accuracy desired can be achieved from hardware or architecture improvements and when it must come from signal pre-processing and/or post-processing techniques.

  4. Multiple sequence alignment accuracy and phylogenetic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, T Heath; Rosenberg, Michael S

    2006-04-01

    Phylogenies are often thought to be more dependent upon the specifics of the sequence alignment rather than on the method of reconstruction. Simulation of sequences containing insertion and deletion events was performed in order to determine the role that alignment accuracy plays during phylogenetic inference. Data sets were simulated for pectinate, balanced, and random tree shapes under different conditions (ultrametric equal branch length, ultrametric random branch length, nonultrametric random branch length). Comparisons between hypothesized alignments and true alignments enabled determination of two measures of alignment accuracy, that of the total data set and that of individual branches. In general, our results indicate that as alignment error increases, topological accuracy decreases. This trend was much more pronounced for data sets derived from more pectinate topologies. In contrast, for balanced, ultrametric, equal branch length tree shapes, alignment inaccuracy had little average effect on tree reconstruction. These conclusions are based on average trends of many analyses under different conditions, and any one specific analysis, independent of the alignment accuracy, may recover very accurate or inaccurate topologies. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian, in general, outperformed neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in terms of tree reconstruction accuracy. Results also indicated that as the length of the branch and of the neighboring branches increase, alignment accuracy decreases, and the length of the neighboring branches is the major factor in topological accuracy. Thus, multiple-sequence alignment can be an important factor in downstream effects on topological reconstruction.

  5. Systematic review of discharge coding accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E.M.; Rigby, E.; Mamidanna, R.; Bottle, A.; Aylin, P.; Ziprin, P.; Faiz, O.D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Routinely collected data sets are increasingly used for research, financial reimbursement and health service planning. High quality data are necessary for reliable analysis. This study aims to assess the published accuracy of routinely collected data sets in Great Britain. Methods Systematic searches of the EMBASE, PUBMED, OVID and Cochrane databases were performed from 1989 to present using defined search terms. Included studies were those that compared routinely collected data sets with case or operative note review and those that compared routinely collected data with clinical registries. Results Thirty-two studies were included. Twenty-five studies compared routinely collected data with case or operation notes. Seven studies compared routinely collected data with clinical registries. The overall median accuracy (routinely collected data sets versus case notes) was 83.2% (IQR: 67.3–92.1%). The median diagnostic accuracy was 80.3% (IQR: 63.3–94.1%) with a median procedure accuracy of 84.2% (IQR: 68.7–88.7%). There was considerable variation in accuracy rates between studies (50.5–97.8%). Since the 2002 introduction of Payment by Results, accuracy has improved in some respects, for example primary diagnoses accuracy has improved from 73.8% (IQR: 59.3–92.1%) to 96.0% (IQR: 89.3–96.3), P= 0.020. Conclusion Accuracy rates are improving. Current levels of reported accuracy suggest that routinely collected data are sufficiently robust to support their use for research and managerial decision-making. PMID:21795302

  6. A Wireless Sensor Network with Soft Computing Localization Techniques for Track Cycling Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharghan, Sadik Kamel; Nordin, Rosdiadee; Ismail, Mahamod

    2016-08-06

    In this paper, we propose two soft computing localization techniques for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The two techniques, Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), focus on a range-based localization method which relies on the measurement of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the three ZigBee anchor nodes distributed throughout the track cycling field. The soft computing techniques aim to estimate the distance between bicycles moving on the cycle track for outdoor and indoor velodromes. In the first approach the ANFIS was considered, whereas in the second approach the ANN was hybridized individually with three optimization algorithms, namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), and Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA). The results revealed that the hybrid GSA-ANN outperforms the other methods adopted in this paper in terms of accuracy localization and distance estimation accuracy. The hybrid GSA-ANN achieves a mean absolute distance estimation error of 0.02 m and 0.2 m for outdoor and indoor velodromes, respectively.

  7. Accuracy and precision in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.O.

    1984-01-01

    The question of accuracy and precision in thermoluminescent dosimetry, particularly in relation to lithium fluoride phosphor, is discussed. The more important sources of error, including those due to the detectors, the reader, annealing and dosemeter design, are identified and methods of reducing their effects on accuracy and precision to a minimum are given. Finally, the accuracy and precision achievable for three quite different applications are discussed, namely, for personal dosimetry, environmental monitoring and for the measurement of photon dose distributions in phantoms. (U.K.)

  8. Local supertwistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The geometry of local supertwistors is investigated. An ansatz on the form of the supertwistor superconnection is introduced. Because of this restriction on the form of such a superconnection the Yang-Mills equations for the superconnection turn out to be equivalent to the free Bach equations describing the dynamics of simple conformal supergravity. It is shown that the equations of motion of conformal supergravity interacting with a vector superfield admit an analogous interpretation. It is proved that an arbitrary conformally right-flat or left-flat superspace is automatically a solution of the Bach equations

  9. Accelerators of atomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarancev, V.

    1975-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of accelerators and methods of accelerating elementary particles. The principle of collective accelerating of elementary particles is clarified and the problems are discussed of its realization. (B.S.)

  10. Elementary particles and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Paty, M.

    2000-01-01

    The universe is the most efficient laboratory of particle physics and the understanding of cosmological processes implies the knowledge of how elementary particles interact. This article recalls the mutual influences between on the one hand: astrophysics and cosmology and on the other hand: nuclear physics and particle physics. The big-bang theory relies on nuclear physics to explain the successive stages of nucleo-synthesis and the study of solar neutrinos has led to discover new aspects of this particle: it is likely that neutrinos undergo oscillations from one neutrino type to another. In some universe events such as the bursting of a super-nova, particles are released with a kinetic energy that would be impossible to reach on earth with a particle accelerator. These events are become common points of interest between astrophysicists and particle physicists and have promoted a deeper cooperation between astrophysics and elementary particle physics. (A.C.)

  11. Particle Physics Education Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to home page Particle Physics Education Sites quick reference Education and Information - National Laboratory Education Programs - Women and Minorities in Physics - Other Physics Sites - Physics Alliance - Accelerators at National Laboratories icon Particle Physics Education and Information sites: top

  12. madSTORM: a superresolution technique for large-scale multiplexing at single-molecule accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jason; Manna, Asit; Barr, Valarie A.; Hong, Jennifer; Neuman, Keir C.; Samelson, Lawrence E.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of heterogeneous cellular structures using single-molecule localization microscopy has been limited by poorly defined localization accuracy and inadequate multiplexing capacity. Using fluorescent nanodiamonds as fiducial markers, we define and achieve localization precision required for single-molecule accuracy in dSTORM images. Coupled with this advance, our new multiplexing strategy, madSTORM, allows accurate targeting of multiple molecules using sequential binding and elution of fluorescent antibodies. madSTORM is used on an activated T-cell to localize 25 epitopes, 14 of which are on components of the same multimolecular T-cell receptor complex. We obtain an average localization precision of 2.6 nm, alignment error of 2.0 nm, and molecules within structures. Probing the molecular topology of complex signaling cascades and other heterogeneous networks is feasible with madSTORM. PMID:27708141

  13. Non-local charges in local quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, D.; Lopuszanski, J.T.; Rabsztyn, S.

    1985-05-01

    Non-local charges are studied in the general setting of local quantum field theory. It is shown, that these charges can be represented as polynomials in the incoming respectively outgoing fields with coefficients (kernels) which are subject to specific constraints. For the restricted class of models of a scalar, massive, self interacting particle in four dimensions, a more detailed analysis shows that all non-local charges of the generic type (genus 2) are products of generators of the Poincare group. This analysis, which is based on the macroscopic causality properties of the S-matrix, seems to indicate that less trivial examples of non-local charges can only exist in two dimensions. (orig.)

  14. Biological effects of particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1988-01-01

    Conventional radiations such as photons, gamma rays or electrons show several physical or biological disadvantages to bring tumors to cure, therefore, more and more attentions is being paid to new modalitie such as fast neutrons, protons, negative pions and heavy ions, which are expected to overcome some of the defects of the conventional radiations. Except for fast neutrons, these particle radiations show excellet physical dose localization in tissue, moreover, in terms of biological effects, they demonstrate several features compared to conventional radiations, namely low oxygen enhancement ratio, high value of relative biological effectiveness, smaller cellular recovery, larger therapeutic gain factor and less cell cycle dependency in radiation sensitivity. In present paper the biological effects of particle radiations are shown comparing to the effects of conventional radiations. (author)

  15. Review of particle properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, G P; Barnett, R M; Hinchliffe, I; Lynch, G R; Rittenberg, A; Ross, R R; Suzuki, M; Trippe, T G; Wohl, C G; Armstrong, B

    1988-04-14

    This review of the properties of gauge bosons, leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of the Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group (Phys. Lett. 170B (1986)). Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. We continue the more orderly set of particle names implemented in the 1986 edition. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available.

  16. Beyond the God particle

    CERN Document Server

    Lederman, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    On July 4, 2012, the long-sought Higgs Boson--aka "the God Particle"--was discovered at the world's largest particle accelerator, the LHC, in Geneva, Switzerland. On March 14, 2013, physicists at CERN confirmed it. This elusive subatomic particle forms a field that permeates the entire universe, creating the masses of the elementary particles that are the basic building blocks of everything in the known world--from viruses to elephants, from atoms to quasars.

  17. Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Guildenbecher, Daniel R; Reu, Phillip L; Chen, Jun

    2013-11-04

    In the detection of particles using digital in-line holography, measurement accuracy is substantially influenced by the hologram processing method. In particular, a number of methods have been proposed to determine the out-of-plane particle depth (z location). However, due to the lack of consistent uncertainty characterization, it has been unclear which method is best suited to a given measurement problem. In this work, depth determination accuracies of seven particle detection methods, including a recently proposed hybrid method, are systematically investigated in terms of relative depth measurement errors and uncertainties. Both synthetic and experimental holograms of particle fields are considered at conditions relevant to particle sizing and tracking. While all methods display a range of particle conditions where they are most accurate, in general the hybrid method is shown to be the most robust with depth uncertainty less than twice the particle diameter over a wide range of particle field conditions.

  18. Three-Jet Production in Electron-Positron Collisions at Next-to-Next-to-Leading Order Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, Vittorio; Duhr, Claude; Kardos, Adam; Somogyi, Gábor; Trócsányi, Zoltán

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a completely local subtraction method for fully differential predictions at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) accuracy for jet cross sections and use it to compute event shapes in three-jet production in electron-positron collisions. We validate our method on two event shapes, thrust and C parameter, which are already known in the literature at NNLO accuracy and compute for the first time oblateness and the energy-energy correlation at the same accuracy.

  19. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  20. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Turner, M.S.

    1982-06-01

    work is described in these areas: cosmological baryon production; cosmological production of free quarks and other exotic particle species; the quark-hadron transition in the early universe; astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties; massive neutrinos; phase transitions in the early universe; and astrophysical implications of an axion-like particle

  1. Particle-nuclear intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    With the traditional distinctions between particle and nuclear physics becoming increasing blurred, the Fifth Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics, held from May 31 to June 6 in St. Petersburg, Florida, brought together particle and nuclear physicists to discuss common research efforts and to define and plan a united approach

  2. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippe, T.G.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Kelly, R.L.; Rittenberg, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Yost, G.P.; Barash-Schmidt, N.; Bricman, C.; Hemingway, R.J.; Losty, M.J.; Roos, M.; Chaloupka, V.; Armstrong, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Phys. Letters 50B, No.1 (1974), and Supplement, Rev. Mod. Phys. 47 (1975) 535]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available

  3. Atomic Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1970-01-01

    This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.

  4. Eye Tracker Accuracy: Quantitative Evaluation of the Invisible Eye Center Location

    OpenAIRE

    Wyder, Stephan; Cattin, Philippe C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. We present a new method to evaluate the accuracy of an eye tracker based eye localization system. Measuring the accuracy of an eye tracker's primary intention, the estimated point of gaze, is usually done with volunteers and a set of fixation points used as ground truth. However, verifying the accuracy of the location estimate of a volunteer's eye center in 3D space is not easily possible. This is because the eye center is an intangible point hidden by the iris. Methods. We evaluate ...

  5. Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff in Olfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rinberg, Dmitry; Koulakov, ALexel; Gelperin, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The basic psychophysical principle of speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) has been used to understand key aspects of neuronal information processing in vision and audition, but the principle of SAT is still debated in olfaction...

  6. Social Security Administration Data for Enumeration Accuracy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides data at the national level from federal fiscal year 2006 onwards for the accuracy of the assignment of Social Security numbers (SSN) based on...

  7. A Note on "Accuracy" and "Precision"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Gillmore, Gerald M.

    1971-01-01

    Advocates the use of precision" rather than accuracy" in defining reliability. These terms are consistently differentiated in certain sciences. Review of psychological and measurement literature reveals, however, interchangeable usage of the terms in defining reliability. (Author/GS)

  8. Predictive accuracy of backpropagation neural network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    incorporated into the BP model for high accuracy management purpose of irrigation water, which relies on accurate values of ET ... as seen from the recent food crisis demonstra- tion in most .... layers by using Geographical Information System.

  9. Strategies to Increase Accuracy in Text Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Blommesteijn (Dennis)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractText classification via supervised learning involves various steps from processing raw data, features extraction to training and validating classifiers. Within these steps implementation decisions are critical to the resulting classifier accuracy. This paper contains a report of the

  10. Accuracy Assessment of Different Digital Surface Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Alganci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models (DEMs, which can occur in the form of digital surface models (DSMs or digital terrain models (DTMs, are widely used as important geospatial information sources for various remote sensing applications, including the precise orthorectification of high-resolution satellite images, 3D spatial analyses, multi-criteria decision support systems, and deformation monitoring. The accuracy of DEMs has direct impacts on specific calculations and process chains; therefore, it is important to select the most appropriate DEM by considering the aim, accuracy requirement, and scale of each study. In this research, DSMs obtained from a variety of satellite sensors were compared to analyze their accuracy and performance. For this purpose, freely available Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER 30 m, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM 30 m, and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS 30 m resolution DSM data were obtained. Additionally, 3 m and 1 m resolution DSMs were produced from tri-stereo images from the SPOT 6 and Pleiades high-resolution (PHR 1A satellites, respectively. Elevation reference data provided by the General Command of Mapping, the national mapping agency of Turkey—produced from 30 cm spatial resolution stereo aerial photos, with a 5 m grid spacing and ±3 m or better overall vertical accuracy at the 90% confidence interval (CI—were used to perform accuracy assessments. Gross errors and water surfaces were removed from the reference DSM. The relative accuracies of the different DSMs were tested using a different number of checkpoints determined by different methods. In the first method, 25 checkpoints were selected from bare lands to evaluate the accuracies of the DSMs on terrain surfaces. In the second method, 1000 randomly selected checkpoints were used to evaluate the methods’ accuracies for the whole study area. In addition to the control point approach, vertical cross

  11. Crack identification method in beam-like structures using changes in experimentally measured frequencies and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatir, Samir; Dekemele, Kevin; Loccufier, Mia; Khatir, Tawfiq; Abdel Wahab, Magd

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a technique is presented for the detection and localization of an open crack in beam-like structures using experimentally measured natural frequencies and the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. The technique considers the variation in local flexibility near the crack. The natural frequencies of a cracked beam are determined experimentally and numerically using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The optimization algorithm is programmed in MATLAB. The algorithm is used to estimate the location and severity of a crack by minimizing the differences between measured and calculated frequencies. The method is verified using experimentally measured data on a cantilever steel beam. The Fourier transform is adopted to improve the frequency resolution. The results demonstrate the good accuracy of the proposed technique.

  12. Surrogate-driven deformable motion model for organ motion tracking in particle radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassi, Aurora; Seregni, Matteo; Riboldi, Marco; Cerveri, Pietro; Sarrut, David; Battista Ivaldi, Giovanni; Tabarelli de Fatis, Paola; Liotta, Marco; Baroni, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is the development and experimental testing of a tumor tracking method for particle radiation therapy, providing the daily respiratory dynamics of the patient’s thoraco-abdominal anatomy as a function of an external surface surrogate combined with an a priori motion model. The proposed tracking approach is based on a patient-specific breathing motion model, estimated from the four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomography (CT) through deformable image registration. The model is adapted to the interfraction baseline variations in the patient’s anatomical configuration. The driving amplitude and phase parameters are obtained intrafractionally from a respiratory surrogate signal derived from the external surface displacement. The developed technique was assessed on a dataset of seven lung cancer patients, who underwent two repeated 4D CT scans. The first 4D CT was used to build the respiratory motion model, which was tested on the second scan. The geometric accuracy in localizing lung lesions, mediated over all breathing phases, ranged between 0.6 and 1.7 mm across all patients. Errors in tracking the surrounding organs at risk, such as lungs, trachea and esophagus, were lower than 1.3 mm on average. The median absolute variation in water equivalent path length (WEL) within the target volume did not exceed 1.9 mm-WEL for simulated particle beams. A significant improvement was achieved compared with error compensation based on standard rigid alignment. The present work can be regarded as a feasibility study for the potential extension of tumor tracking techniques in particle treatments. Differently from current tracking methods applied in conventional radiotherapy, the proposed approach allows for the dynamic localization of all anatomical structures scanned in the planning CT, thus providing complete information on density and WEL variations required for particle beam range adaptation.

  13. Improving coding accuracy in an academic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dana; O'Mara, Heather; Powell, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Practice management has become an increasingly important component of graduate medical education. This applies to every practice environment; private, academic, and military. One of the most critical aspects of practice management is documentation and coding for physician services, as they directly affect the financial success of any practice. Our quality improvement project aimed to implement a new and innovative method for teaching billing and coding in a longitudinal fashion in a family medicine residency. We hypothesized that implementation of a new teaching strategy would increase coding accuracy rates among residents and faculty. Design: single group, pretest-posttest. military family medicine residency clinic. Study populations: 7 faculty physicians and 18 resident physicians participated as learners in the project. Educational intervention: monthly structured coding learning sessions in the academic curriculum that involved learner-presented cases, small group case review, and large group discussion. overall coding accuracy (compliance) percentage and coding accuracy per year group for the subjects that were able to participate longitudinally. Statistical tests used: average coding accuracy for population; paired t test to assess improvement between 2 intervention periods, both aggregate and by year group. Overall coding accuracy rates remained stable over the course of time regardless of the modality of the educational intervention. A paired t test was conducted to compare coding accuracy rates at baseline (mean (M)=26.4%, SD=10%) to accuracy rates after all educational interventions were complete (M=26.8%, SD=12%); t24=-0.127, P=.90. Didactic teaching and small group discussion sessions did not improve overall coding accuracy in a residency practice. Future interventions could focus on educating providers at the individual level.

  14. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlicek, V.; Pokorny, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper

  15. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlíček, V.; Pokorný, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper.

  16. Study of particle swarm optimization particle trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Bergh, F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available . These theoretical studies concentrate mainly on simplified PSO systems. This paper overviews current theoretical studies, and extend these studies to investigate particle trajectories for general swarms to include the influence of the inertia term. The paper also...

  17. Light scattering by cosmic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, J.W.; Min, M.

    2008-01-01

    We define cosmic particles as particles outside the Earth. Two types of cosmic particles can be distinguished, namely liquid and solid particles. The solid particles are often called grains or cosmic dust particles. Cosmic particles occur in a great variety of astronomical objects and environments.

  18. Slowing of charged particles by particle methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-03-01

    We review some facts about particle methods for solving linear hyperbolic equations. We show how one gets an evaluation of integral quantities like: ∫ u(x,t) zeta(x,t) dxdt where u denotes the solution and zeta an arbitrary weight function. Then, we apply the method to the equation describing charged particle transport in a plasma with emphasis on the evaluation of energy deposition on ions and electrons [fr

  19. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Dust Particle Trajectories in the NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeglin, W.U.; Roquemore, A.L.; Maqueda, R.

    2009-01-01

    Highly mobile incandescent dust particles are routinely observed on NSTX using two fast cameras operating in the visible region. An analysis method to reconstruct dust particle trajectories in space using two fast cameras is presented in this paper. Position accuracies of a few millimeters depending on the particle's location have been achieved and particle velocities between 10 and 200 m/s have been observed

  20. Elementary particles. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this part the subject is covered under the following headings, methods for producing high-energy particles; interaction of high-energy particles with matter; methods for the detection of high-energy particles; symmetry properties and conservation laws; quantum number and selection rules; theorem of scattering behaviour at asymptotically high energies; statistical methods in elementary particle physics; interaction of high-energy particles with nuclei; relations of high-energy physics to other branches of science and its response to engineering. Intended as information on high-energy physics for graduate students and research workers familiar with the fundamentals of classical and quantum physics

  1. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanet, L.; Gieselmann, K. Technical Associate; Barnett, R.M.; Groom, D.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. Technical Associate; Wagman, G.S. Technical Associate; Murayama, H.; Stone, J.; Hernandez, J.J.; Porter, F.C.; Morrison, R.J.; Manohar, A.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Caso, C.; Lantero, P. Technical Associate; Crawford, R.L.; Roos, M.; Toernqvist, N.A.; Hayes, K.G.; Hoehler, G.

    1994-01-01

    This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2300 new measurements from 700 papers, we list evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, monopoles, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review

  2. Scene Recognition for Indoor Localization Using a Multi-Sensor Fusion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyun Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After decades of research, there is still no solution for indoor localization like the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System solution for outdoor environments. The major reasons for this phenomenon are the complex spatial topology and RF transmission environment. To deal with these problems, an indoor scene constrained method for localization is proposed in this paper, which is inspired by the visual cognition ability of the human brain and the progress in the computer vision field regarding high-level image understanding. Furthermore, a multi-sensor fusion method is implemented on a commercial smartphone including cameras, WiFi and inertial sensors. Compared to former research, the camera on a smartphone is used to “see” which scene the user is in. With this information, a particle filter algorithm constrained by scene information is adopted to determine the final location. For indoor scene recognition, we take advantage of deep learning that has been proven to be highly effective in the computer vision community. For particle filter, both WiFi and magnetic field signals are used to update the weights of particles. Similar to other fingerprinting localization methods, there are two stages in the proposed system, offline training and online localization. In the offline stage, an indoor scene model is trained by Caffe (one of the most popular open source frameworks for deep learning and a fingerprint database is constructed by user trajectories in different scenes. To reduce the volume requirement of training data for deep learning, a fine-tuned method is adopted for model training. In the online stage, a camera in a smartphone is used to recognize the initial scene. Then a particle filter algorithm is used to fuse the sensor data and determine the final location. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, an Android client and a web server are implemented. The Android client is used to collect data and locate a user. The web

  3. The localized quantum vacuum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoman, D

    2008-01-01

    A model for the localized quantum vacuum is proposed in which the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the quantum electromagnetic field originates in energy- and momentum-conserving transitions of material systems from their ground state to an unstable state with negative energy. These transitions are accompanied by emissions and re-absorptions of real photons, which generate a localized quantum vacuum in the neighborhood of material systems. The model could help resolve the cosmological paradox associated with the ZPE of electromagnetic fields, while reclaiming quantum effects associated with quantum vacuum such as the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift. It also offers a new insight into the Zitterbewegung of material particles

  4. The localized quantum vacuum field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragoman, D [Physics Department, University of Bucharest, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: danieladragoman@yahoo.com

    2008-03-15

    A model for the localized quantum vacuum is proposed in which the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the quantum electromagnetic field originates in energy- and momentum-conserving transitions of material systems from their ground state to an unstable state with negative energy. These transitions are accompanied by emissions and re-absorptions of real photons, which generate a localized quantum vacuum in the neighborhood of material systems. The model could help resolve the cosmological paradox associated with the ZPE of electromagnetic fields, while reclaiming quantum effects associated with quantum vacuum such as the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift. It also offers a new insight into the Zitterbewegung of material particles.

  5. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2018-01-01

    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Fluidization of spherocylindrical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vinay V.; Nijssen, Tim M. J.; Fitzgerald, Barry W.; Hofman, Jeroen; Kuipers, Hans; Padding, Johan T.

    2017-06-01

    Multiphase (gas-solid) flows are encountered in numerous industrial applications such as pharmaceutical, food, agricultural processing and energy generation. A coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) approach is a popular way to study such flows at a particle scale. However, most of these studies deal with spherical particles while in reality, the particles are rarely spherical. The particle shape can have significant effect on hydrodynamics in a fluidized bed. Moreover, most studies in literature use inaccurate drag laws because accurate laws are not readily available. The drag force acting on a non-spherical particle can vary considerably with particle shape, orientation with the flow, Reynolds number and packing fraction. In this work, the CFD-DEM approach is extended to model a laboratory scale fluidized bed of spherocylinder (rod-like) particles. These rod-like particles can be classified as Geldart D particles and have an aspect ratio of 4. Experiments are performed to study the particle flow behavior in a quasi-2D fluidized bed. Numerically obtained results for pressure drop and bed height are compared with experiments. The capability of CFD-DEM approach to efficiently describe the global bed dynamics for fluidized bed of rod-like particles is demonstrated.

  7. Monosodium titanate particle characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.T.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    A characterization study was performed on monosodium titanate (MST) particles to determine the effect of high shear forces expected from the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process pumps on the particle size distribution. The particles were characterized using particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant changes in particle size distributions were observed between as-received MST and after 2--4 hours of shearing. Both as-received and sheared MST particles contained a large percentage of porosity with pore sizes on the order of 500 to 2,000 Angstroms. Because of the large percentage of porosity, the overall surface area of the MST is dominated by the internal surfaces. The uranium and plutonium species present in the waste solution will have access to both interior and exterior surfaces. Therefore, uranium and plutonium loading should not be a strong function of MST particle size

  8. Dimensional accuracy of aluminium extrusions in mechanical calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raknes, Christian Arne; Welo, Torgeir; Paulsen, Frode

    2018-05-01

    Reducing dimensional variations in the extrusion process without increasing cost is challenging due to the nature of the process itself. An alternative approach—also from a cost perspective—is using extruded profiles with standard tolerances and utilize downstream processes, and thus calibrate the part within tolerance limits that are not achievable directly from the extrusion process. In this paper, two mechanical calibration strategies for the extruded product are investigated, utilizing the forming lines of the manufacturer. The first calibration strategy is based on global, longitudinal stretching in combination with local bending, while the second strategy utilizes the principle of transversal stretching and local bending of the cross-section. An extruded U-profile is used to make a comparison between the two methods using numerical analyses. To provide response surfaces with the FEA program, ABAQUS is used in combination with Design of Experiment (DOE). DOE is conducted with a two-level fractional factorial design to collect the appropriate data. The aim is to find the main factors affecting the dimension accuracy of the final part obtained by the two calibration methods. The results show that both calibration strategies have proven to reduce cross-sectional variations effectively form standard extrusion tolerances. It is concluded that mechanical calibration is a viable, low-cost alternative for aluminium parts that demand high dimensional accuracy, e.g. due to fit-up or welding requirements.

  9. High performance stream computing for particle beam transport simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, R; Bailey, D; Higham, J; Salt, M

    2008-01-01

    Understanding modern particle accelerators requires simulating charged particle transport through the machine elements. These simulations can be very time consuming due to the large number of particles and the need to consider many turns of a circular machine. Stream computing offers an attractive way to dramatically improve the performance of such simulations by calculating the simultaneous transport of many particles using dedicated hardware. Modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are powerful and affordable stream computing devices. The results of simulations of particle transport through the booster-to-storage-ring transfer line of the DIAMOND synchrotron light source using an NVidia GeForce 7900 GPU are compared to the standard transport code MAD. It is found that particle transport calculations are suitable for stream processing and large performance increases are possible. The accuracy and potential speed gains are compared and the prospects for future work in the area are discussed

  10. Magnetic particle imaging an introduction to imaging principles and scanner instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Knopp, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This is an overview of recent progress in magnetic particle imaging, which uses various static and oscillating magnetic fields and tracer materials made from iron oxide nanoparticles to perform background-free measurements of the particles' local concentration.

  11. Comparison of STIM and particle backscattering spectrometry mass determination for quantitative microanalysis of cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deves, G.; Ortega, R.

    2001-01-01

    In biological sample microanalysis, a mass-normalisation method is commonly used as a quantitative index of elemental concentrations determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The organic mass can either be determined using particle backscattering spectrometry (BS) or scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). However, the accuracy of quantitative microanalysis in samples such as cultured cells is affected by beam-induced loss of organic mass during analysis. The aim of this paper is to compare mass measurements determined by particle BS or by STIM. In order to calibrate STIM and BS analyses, we measured by both techniques the thickness of standard foils of polycarbonate (3 and 6 μm), Mylar[reg] (4 μm), Kapton[reg] (7.5 μm) and Nylon[reg] (15 μm), as well as biological samples of mono-layered cultured cells. Non-damaging STIM analysis of samples before PIXE irradiation is certainly one of the most accurate ways to determine the sample mass, however, this requires strong experimental handling. On the other hand, BS performed simultaneously to PIXE is the simplest method to determine the local mass in polymer foils, but appears less accurate in the case of cultured cells

  12. An Adaptive Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Multiple Adaptive Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Honggui; Lu, Wei; Qiao, Junfei

    2017-09-01

    Multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithms have attracted much attention for their promising performance in solving multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs). In this paper, an adaptive MOPSO (AMOPSO) algorithm, based on a hybrid framework of the solution distribution entropy and population spacing (SP) information, is developed to improve the search performance in terms of convergent speed and precision. First, an adaptive global best (gBest) selection mechanism, based on the solution distribution entropy, is introduced to analyze the evolutionary tendency and balance the diversity and convergence of nondominated solutions in the archive. Second, an adaptive flight parameter adjustment mechanism, using the population SP information, is proposed to obtain the distribution of particles with suitable diversity and convergence, which can balance the global exploration and local exploitation abilities of the particles. Third, based on the gBest selection mechanism and the adaptive flight parameter mechanism, this proposed AMOPSO algorithm not only has high accuracy, but also attain a set of optimal solutions with better diversity. Finally, the performance of the proposed AMOPSO algorithm is validated and compared with other five state-of-the-art algorithms on a number of benchmark problems and water distribution system. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AMOPSO algorithm, as well as demonstrate that AMOPSO outperforms other MOPSO algorithms in solving MOPs.

  13. Accuracy assessment of seven global land cover datasets over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongke; Xiao, Pengfeng; Feng, Xuezhi; Li, Haixing

    2017-03-01

    Land cover (LC) is the vital foundation to Earth science. Up to now, several global LC datasets have arisen with efforts of many scientific communities. To provide guidelines for data usage over China, nine LC maps from seven global LC datasets (IGBP DISCover, UMD, GLC, MCD12Q1, GLCNMO, CCI-LC, and GlobeLand30) were evaluated in this study. First, we compared their similarities and discrepancies in both area and spatial patterns, and analysed their inherent relations to data sources and classification schemes and methods. Next, five sets of validation sample units (VSUs) were collected to calculate their accuracy quantitatively. Further, we built a spatial analysis model and depicted their spatial variation in accuracy based on the five sets of VSUs. The results show that, there are evident discrepancies among these LC maps in both area and spatial patterns. For LC maps produced by different institutes, GLC 2000 and CCI-LC 2000 have the highest overall spatial agreement (53.8%). For LC maps produced by same institutes, overall spatial agreement of CCI-LC 2000 and 2010, and MCD12Q1 2001 and 2010 reach up to 99.8% and 73.2%, respectively; while more efforts are still needed if we hope to use these LC maps as time series data for model inputting, since both CCI-LC and MCD12Q1 fail to represent the rapid changing trend of several key LC classes in the early 21st century, in particular urban and built-up, snow and ice, water bodies, and permanent wetlands. With the highest spatial resolution, the overall accuracy of GlobeLand30 2010 is 82.39%. For the other six LC datasets with coarse resolution, CCI-LC 2010/2000 has the highest overall accuracy, and following are MCD12Q1 2010/2001, GLC 2000, GLCNMO 2008, IGBP DISCover, and UMD in turn. Beside that all maps exhibit high accuracy in homogeneous regions; local accuracies in other regions are quite different, particularly in Farming-Pastoral Zone of North China, mountains in Northeast China, and Southeast Hills. Special

  14. A new ARMAX model based on evolutionary algorithm and particle swarm optimization for short-term load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bo; Tai, Neng-ling; Zhai, Hai-qing; Ye, Jian; Zhu, Jia-dong; Qi, Liang-bo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new ARMAX model based on evolutionary algorithm and particle swarm optimization for short-term load forecasting is proposed. Auto-regressive (AR) and moving average (MA) with exogenous variables (ARMAX) has been widely applied in the load forecasting area. Because of the nonlinear characteristics of the power system loads, the forecasting function has many local optimal points. The traditional method based on gradient searching may be trapped in local optimal points and lead to high error. While, the hybrid method based on evolutionary algorithm and particle swarm optimization can solve this problem more efficiently than the traditional ways. It takes advantage of evolutionary strategy to speed up the convergence of particle swarm optimization (PSO), and applies the crossover operation of genetic algorithm to enhance the global search ability. The new ARMAX model for short-term load forecasting has been tested based on the load data of Eastern China location market, and the results indicate that the proposed approach has achieved good accuracy. (author)

  15. Dose delivery verification and accuracy assessment of stereotaxy in stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelagade, S.M.; Bopche, T.T.; Namitha, K.; Munshi, M.; Bhola, S.; Sharma, H.; Patel, B.K.; Vyas, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in both benign and malignant tumors within the cranial region highly depends on precision in dosimetry, dose delivery and the accuracy assessment of stereotaxy associated with the unit. The frames BRW (Brown-Roberts-Wells) and GTC (Gill- Thomas-Cosman) can facilitate accurate patient positioning as well as precise targeting of tumours. The implementation of this technique may result in a significant benefit as compared to conventional therapy. As the target localization accuracy is improved, the demand for treatment planning accuracy of a TPS is also increased. The accuracy of stereotactic X Knife treatment planning system has two components to verify: (i) the dose delivery verification and the accuracy assessment of stereotaxy; (ii) to ensure that the Cartesian coordinate system associated is well established within the TPS for accurate determination of a target position. Both dose delivery verification and target positional accuracy affect dose delivery accuracy to a defined target. Hence there is a need to verify these two components in quality assurance protocol. The main intention of this paper is to present our dose delivery verification procedure using cylindrical wax phantom and accuracy assessment (target position) of stereotaxy using Geometric Phantom on Elekta's Precise linear accelerator for stereotactic installation

  16. A nested sampling particle filter for nonlinear data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Elsheikh, Ahmed H.

    2014-04-15

    We present an efficient nonlinear data assimilation filter that combines particle filtering with the nested sampling algorithm. Particle filters (PF) utilize a set of weighted particles as a discrete representation of probability distribution functions (PDF). These particles are propagated through the system dynamics and their weights are sequentially updated based on the likelihood of the observed data. Nested sampling (NS) is an efficient sampling algorithm that iteratively builds a discrete representation of the posterior distributions by focusing a set of particles to high-likelihood regions. This would allow the representation of the posterior PDF with a smaller number of particles and reduce the effects of the curse of dimensionality. The proposed nested sampling particle filter (NSPF) iteratively builds the posterior distribution by applying a constrained sampling from the prior distribution to obtain particles in high-likelihood regions of the search space, resulting in a reduction of the number of particles required for an efficient behaviour of particle filters. Numerical experiments with the 3-dimensional Lorenz63 and the 40-dimensional Lorenz96 models show that NSPF outperforms PF in accuracy with a relatively smaller number of particles. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.

  17. A morphing strategy to couple non-local to local continuum mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles; Azdoud, Yan; Han, Fei; Rey, Christian C.; Askari, Abe H.

    2012-01-01

    A method for coupling non-local continuum models with long-range central forces to local continuum models is proposed. First, a single unified model that encompasses both local and non-local continuum representations is introduced. This model can be purely non-local, purely local or a hybrid depending on the constitutive parameters. Then, the coupling between the non-local and local descriptions is performed through a transition (morphing) affecting only the constitutive parameters. An important feature is the definition of the morphing functions, which relies on energy equivalence. This approach is useful in large-scale modeling of materials that exhibit strong non-local effects. The computational cost can be reduced while maintaining a reasonable level of accuracy. Efficiency, robustness and basic properties of the approach are discussed using one- and two-dimensional examples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A morphing strategy to couple non-local to local continuum mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2012-06-01

    A method for coupling non-local continuum models with long-range central forces to local continuum models is proposed. First, a single unified model that encompasses both local and non-local continuum representations is introduced. This model can be purely non-local, purely local or a hybrid depending on the constitutive parameters. Then, the coupling between the non-local and local descriptions is performed through a transition (morphing) affecting only the constitutive parameters. An important feature is the definition of the morphing functions, which relies on energy equivalence. This approach is useful in large-scale modeling of materials that exhibit strong non-local effects. The computational cost can be reduced while maintaining a reasonable level of accuracy. Efficiency, robustness and basic properties of the approach are discussed using one- and two-dimensional examples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Interaction range perturbation theory for three-particle problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenog, I.V.; Shapoval, D.V.

    1988-01-01

    The limit of zero interaction range is correctly defined for a system of three spinless particles and three particles in a doublet state. The scattering amplitude is expanded with respect to the interaction range r, and the corrections of order r ln r, r, and r 2 ln2 r are found. An explicit model-independent asymptotic expression is obtained for the scattering amplitude in terms of the scattering length, and its accuracy is established

  20. A Program to Generate a Particle Distribution from Emittance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, DS; Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    We have written a program to generate a particle distribution based on emittance measurements in x-x’ and y-y’. The accuracy of this program has been tested using real and constructed emittance measurements. Based on these tests, the distribution generated by the program can be used to accurately simulate the beam in multi-particle tracking codes, as an alternative to a Gaussian or uniform distribution.