WorldWideScience

Sample records for particle concentrator electrostatic

  1. Field evaluation of a new particle concentrator- electrostatic precipitator system for measuring chemical and toxicological properties of particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakbin Payam

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A newly designed electrostatic precipitator (ESP in tandem with Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (VACES was developed by the University of Southern California to collect ambient aerosols on substrates appropriate for chemical and toxicological analysis. The laboratory evaluation of this sampler is described in a previous paper. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the new VACES-ESP system in the field by comparing the chemical characteristics of the PM collected in the ESP to those of reference samplers operating in parallel. Results The field campaign was carried out in the period from August, 2007 to March, 2008 in a typical urban environment near downtown Los Angeles. Each sampling set was restricted to 2–3 hours to minimize possible sampling artifacts in the ESP. The results showed that particle penetration increases and ozone concentration decreases with increasing sampling flow rate, with highest particle penetration observed between 100 nm and 300 nm. A reference filter sampler was deployed in parallel to the ESP to collect concentration-enriched aerosols, and a MOUDI sampler was used to collect ambient aerosols. Chemical analysis results showed very good agreement between the ESP and MOUDI samplers in the concentrations of trace elements and inorganic ions. The overall organic compound content of PM collected by the ESP, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, hopanes, steranes, and alkanes, was in good agreement with that of the reference sampler, with an average ESP -to -reference concentration ratio of 1.07 (± 0.38. While majority of organic compound ratios were close to 1, some of the semi-volatile organic species had slightly deviated ratios from 1, indicating the possibility of some sampling artifacts in the ESP due to reactions of PM with ozone and radicals generated from corona discharge, although positive and negative sampling artifacts in the

  2. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within −3%–8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s.

  3. Filtration efficiency of an electrostatic fibrous filter: Studying filtration dependency on ultrafine particle exposure and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnson, Matthew S.; Yazdi, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship between ultrafine particle concentrations and removal efficiencies for an electrostatic fibrous filter in a laboratory environment. Electrostatic fibrous filters capture particles efficiently, with a low pressure drop. Therefor...

  4. The electrostatic interaction between interfacial colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, A. J.

    1985-11-01

    The electrostatic interaction between charged, colloidal particles trapped at an air-water interface is considered using linearised Poisson-Boltzmann results for point particles. In addition to the expected screened-Coulomb contribution, which decays exponentially, an algebraic dipole-dipole interaction occurs that may account for long-range interactions in interfacial colloidal systems.

  5. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M.J.

    1998-10-13

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility. 7 figs.

  6. SUBMICRON PARTICLES EMISSION CONTROL BY ELECTROSTATIC AGGLOMERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krupa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop a device for more effective treatment of flue gases from submicron particles emitted by power plants burning bituminous coal and by this way the reduction of environment pollution. Electrostatic processes were employed to this goal, as the most effective solution. The solutions hitherto applied in electrostatic precipitation techniques were designed for large particles, typically with sizes> 5 µm, which are easily removed by the action of electrostatic force on the electrically charged particles. In submicron size range (0.1-1 µm the collection efficiency of an ESP is minimal, because of the low value of electric charge on such particles. In order to avoid problems with the removal of submicron particles of fly ash from the flue gases electrostatic agglomeration has been used. In this process, by applying an alternating electric field, larger charged particles (> 1 µm oscillate, and the particles "collect" smaller uncharged particles. In the developed agglomerator with alternating electric field, the charging of particles and the coagulation takes place in one stage that greatly simplified the construction of the device, compared to other solutions. The scope of this study included measurements of fractional collection efficiency of particles in the system comprising of agglomerator and ESP for PM1 and PM2.5 ranges, in device made in pilot scale. The collection efficiency for PM2.5 was greater than 90% and PM1 slightly dropped below 90%. The mass collection efficiency for PM2.5 was greater than 95%. The agglomerator stage increases the collection efficiency for PM1 at a level of 5-10%.

  7. Electrostatic imaging of particle trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpak, G.; Bouclier, R.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Lewiner, J. (Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France))

    1982-02-01

    The ions liberated in a high-pressure gas or in some liquids can be collected, by electric fields, on the surface of insulators and can be accurately localized. In a simulation of this method at atmospheric pressure, we applied it to ..cap alpha.. particles, with the additional amplification from a parallel grid gap. By directly measuring the static electric charges collected on mylar foils, we observe tracks of 1 mm fwhm and charge densities as low as 10/sup 4/ electrons/mm/sup 2/. The combination of multistep gated avalanche chambers with this read-out method should permit high-accuracy measurements of minimum ionizing particles. The limits of the method and some conditions for detection by liquid toners are discussed.

  8. Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.

  9. Theory of electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ohshima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate theoretically the electrostatics and electrokinetics of a soft particle, i.e. a hard particle covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. The electric properties of soft particles in an electrolyte solution, which differ from those of hard particles, are essentially determined by the Donnan potential in the surface layer. In particular, the Donnan potential plays an essential role in the electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles. Furthermore, the concept of zeta potential, which is important in the electrokinetics of hard particles, loses its physical meaning in the electrokinetics of soft particles. In this review, we discuss the potential distribution around a soft particle, the electrostatic interaction between two soft particles, and the motion of a soft particle in an electric field.

  10. Electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities associated with electrostatic shocks: Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsunehiko N.; Takabe, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation with the realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio of 1836 is carried out to investigate the electrostatic collisionless shocks in relatively high-speed (∼3000 km s -1 ) plasma flows and also the influence of both electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities, which can develop around the shocks, on the shock dynamics. It is shown that the electrostatic ion-ion instability can develop in front of the shocks, where the plasma is under counterstreaming condition, with highly oblique wave vectors as was shown previously. The electrostatic potential generated by the electrostatic ion-ion instability propagating obliquely to the shock surface becomes comparable with the shock potential and finally the shock structure is destroyed. It is also shown that in front of the shock the beam-Weibel instability gradually grows as well, consequently suggesting that the magnetic field generated by the beam-Weibel instability becomes important in long-term evolution of the shock and the Weibel-mediated shock forms long after the electrostatic shock vanished. It is also observed that the secondary electrostatic shock forms in the reflected ions in front of the primary electrostatic shock.

  11. Electrostatics of spherical metallic particles in cylinder electrostatic separators/sizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongzhou; Li Jia; Guo Jie; Xu Zhenming

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamics of spherical metallic particles in electrostatic separators/sizers (ESSs). A computational algorithm is employed to depict the cylinder-type electrode arrangements applied in some electrostatic processes generating non-uniform electric fields. The ESS consists of a pair of conducting cylinders. The upper cylinder is energized by HVdc, while the lower one is grounded and mounted horizontally on a revolvable axis. The aim of this paper is to present a new electrode configuration and demonstrate the usefulness of numerical techniques for the evaluation of the particle's motion. A computer program was employed for analysing the behavior of spherical particles in a two-dimensional electrode arrangement that models the actual electric field configuration of cylinder-type electrostatic separators/sizers. The analysis is needed for the development of any new application of this cylinder-type electrode arrangement as an electrostatic separation method. The results reveal that the particle's motion depends on its radius and density and amplitude of the applied voltage. The actual granular mixtures with different specific mass and radius could be separated applying this cylinder-type electrostatic separation method; the lift voltage is an important parameter for separation. With a program for two-dimensional analysis of the electric field, the computational procedure presented in this paper could be employed for any particle shapes

  12. Electrostatic Properties of Particles for Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Rowland, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) aredevices used to deliver therapeutic agents to the lungs. Typically, inhaled activepharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are electrically resistive materials and are prone toaccumulating electrostatic charge. The build-up of charge on inhaled therapeutics hastraditionally been viewed as a nuisance as it may result in problems such as weighingerrors, agglomeration, adhesion to surfaces and poor flow. Energetic processing st...

  13. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow throughout the assembly

  14. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of [le] 10 [mu]m dia.

  15. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm ...

  16. Electrostatic Charging and Particle Interactions in Microscopic Insulating Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor

    In this thesis, we experimentally investigate the electrostatic charging as well as the particle interactions in microscopic insulating grains. First, by tracking individual grains accelerated in an electric field, we quantitatively demonstrate that tribocharging of same-material grains depends on particle size. Large grains tend to charge positively, and small ones tend to charge negatively. Theories based on the transfer of trapped electrons can explain this tendency but have not been validated. Here we show that the number of trapped electrons, measured independently by a thermoluminescence technique, is orders of magnitude too small to be responsible for the amount of charge transferred. This result reveals that trapped electrons are not responsible for same-material tribocharging of dielectric particles. Second, same-material tribocharging in grains can result in important long-range electrostatic interactions. However, how these electrostatic interactions contribute to particle clustering remains elusive, primarily due to the lack of direct, detailed observations. Using a high-speed camera that falls with a stream charged grains, we observe for the first time how charged grains can undergo attractive as well as repulsive Kepler-like orbits. Charged particles can be captured in their mutual electrostatic potential and form clusters via multiple bounces. Dielectric polarization effects are directly observed, which lead to additional attractive forces and stabilize "molecule-like" arrangements of charged particles. Third, we have developed a new method to study the charge transfer of microscopic particles based on acoustic levitation techniques. This method allows us to narrow the complex problem of many-particle charging down to precise charge measurements of a single sub-millimeter particle colliding with a target plate. By simply attaching nonpolar groups onto glass surfaces, we show that the contact charging of a particle is highly dependent on

  17. Self focusing in a spatially modulated electrostatic field particle accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russman, F.; Marini, S.; Peter, E.; de Oliveira, G. I.; Rizzato, F. B.

    2018-02-01

    In the present analysis, we study the action of a three-dimensional (3D) modulated electrostatic wave over a charged particle. Meanwhile, the particle's velocity is smaller than the phase-velocity of the carrier, and the particle could be reflected by the potential or could pass through the potential with no significant change in the longitudinal velocity—and its dynamics could be described by a ponderomotive approximation. Otherwise, the particle is trapped by the potential and it is accelerated towards the speed of light, independently of the initial particle's phase—in this case, the ponderomotive approximation is no longer valid. During the acceleration process, numerical simulations show the particle is focused, simultaneously. These results suggest the accelerator proposed here is promising.

  18. Electrostatic plasma lens for focusing negatively charged particle beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A A; Dobrovolskiy, A M; Dunets, S M; Litovko, I V; Gushenets, V I; Oks, E M

    2012-02-01

    We describe the current status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating intense negatively charged particle beams, electrons, and negative ions. The physical principle of this kind of plasma lens is based on magnetic isolation electrons providing creation of a dynamical positive space charge cloud in shortly restricted volume propagating beam. Here, the new results of experimental investigations and computer simulations of wide-aperture, intense electron beam focusing by plasma lens with positive space charge cloud produced due to the cylindrical anode layer accelerator creating a positive ion stream towards an axis system is presented.

  19. Heating of charged particles by electrostatic wave propagating perpendicularly to uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Keishiro; Shimojo, Takashi.

    1978-02-01

    Increase in kinetic energy of a charged particle, affected by an electrostatic wave propagating perpendicularly to a uniform magnetic field, is obtained for both the initial and later stages. Detrapping time of the particle from the potential dent of the electrostatic wave and energy increase during trapping of the particle is analytically derived. Numerical simulations are carried out to support theoretical results. (auth.)

  20. Nanoparticle electrostatic loss within corona needle charger during particle-charging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chenghsiung; Alonso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A numerical investigation has been carried out to examine the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles in a corona needle charger. Two-dimensional flow field, electric field, particle charge, and particle trajectory were simulated to obtain the electrostatic deposition loss at different conditions. Simulation of particle trajectories shows that the number of charges per particle during the charging process depends on the particle diameter, radial position from the symmetry axis, applied voltage, Reynolds number, and axial distance along the charger. The numerical results of nanoparticle electrostatic loss agreed fairly well with available experimental data. The results reveal that the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles increases with increasing applied voltage and electrical mobility of particles; and with decreasing particle diameter and Reynolds number. A regression equation closely fitted the obtained numerical results for different conditions. The equation is useful for directly calculating the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles in the corona needle charger during particle-charging process.

  1. Electrostatically mediated adsorption by nanodiamond and nanocarbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Natalie M.; Luo, Tzy-Jiun Mark; Shenderova, Olga; Koscheev, Alexey P.; Brenner, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) and other nanocarbon particles are popular platforms for the immobilization of molecular species. In the present research, factors affecting adsorption and desorption of propidium iodide (PI) dye, chosen as a charged molecule model, on ND and sp 2 carbon nanoparticles were studied, with a size ranging from 75 to 4,305 nm. It was found that adsorption of PI molecules, as characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, on ND particles is strongly influenced by sorbent-sorbate electrostatic interactions. Different types of NDs with a negative zeta potential were found to adsorb positively charged PI molecules, while no PI adsorption was observed for NDs with a positive zeta potential. The type and density of surface groups of negatively charged NDs greatly influenced the degree and capacity of the PI adsorbed. Ozone-purified NDs had the highest capacity for PI adsorption, due to its greater density of oxygen containing groups, i.e., acid anhydrides and carboxyls, as assessed by TDMS and TOF–SIMS. Single wall nanohorns and carbon onion particles were found to adsorb PI regardless of their zeta potential; this is likely due to π bonding between the aromatic rings of PI and the graphitic surface of the materials and the internal cavity of the horns.

  2. Electrostatically mediated adsorption by nanodiamond and nanocarbon particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Natalie M.; Luo, Tzy-Jiun Mark, E-mail: tluo@ncsu.edu; Shenderova, Olga [North Carolina State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Koscheev, Alexey P. [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, State Scientific Center of Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Brenner, Donald W. [North Carolina State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Nanodiamond (ND) and other nanocarbon particles are popular platforms for the immobilization of molecular species. In the present research, factors affecting adsorption and desorption of propidium iodide (PI) dye, chosen as a charged molecule model, on ND and sp{sup 2} carbon nanoparticles were studied, with a size ranging from 75 to 4,305 nm. It was found that adsorption of PI molecules, as characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, on ND particles is strongly influenced by sorbent-sorbate electrostatic interactions. Different types of NDs with a negative zeta potential were found to adsorb positively charged PI molecules, while no PI adsorption was observed for NDs with a positive zeta potential. The type and density of surface groups of negatively charged NDs greatly influenced the degree and capacity of the PI adsorbed. Ozone-purified NDs had the highest capacity for PI adsorption, due to its greater density of oxygen containing groups, i.e., acid anhydrides and carboxyls, as assessed by TDMS and TOF-SIMS. Single wall nanohorns and carbon onion particles were found to adsorb PI regardless of their zeta potential; this is likely due to {pi} bonding between the aromatic rings of PI and the graphitic surface of the materials and the internal cavity of the horns.

  3. Measurement of the electrostatic charge in airborne particles: I - development of the equipment and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Jr. W.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and construction of a equipment capable of measuring the electrostatic charges in aerosols, named the electrostatic charge classifier, were carried out. They were based on the concept of particle electromobility and the charge classifier was intended to classify the nature and the distribution of electrostatic charges as a function of particle size. The resulting piece of equipment is easy to dismount, which facilitates its cleaning and transport, and easy to operate. Early results indicate that the values of electrostatic charge measured on test particles are inside the range reported in the literature, indicating the adequacy of the technique utilized.

  4. The impact of electrostatic correlations on Dielectrophoresis of Non-conducting Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidoosti, Elaheh; Zhao, Hui

    2017-11-01

    The dipole moment of a charged, dielectric, spherical particle under the influence of a uniform alternating electric field is computed theoretically and numerically by solving the modified continuum Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations accounting for ion-ion electrostatic correlations that is important at concentrated electrolytes (Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 2011). The dependence on the frequency, zeta potential, electrostatic correlation lengths, and double layer thickness is thoroughly investigated. In the limit of thin double layers, we carry out asymptotic analysis to develop simple models which are in good agreement with the modified PNP model. Our results suggest that the electrostatic correlations have a complicated impact on the dipole moment. As the electrostatic correlations length increases, the dipole moment decreases, initially, reach a minimum, and then increases since the surface conduction first decreases and then increases due to the ion-ion correlations. The modified PNP model can improve the theoretical predictions particularly at low frequencies where the simple model can't qualitatively predict the dipole moment. This work was supported, in part, by NIH R15GM116039.

  5. Study of talcum charging status in parallel plate electrostatic separator based on particle trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxiao, CAO; Zhiqiang, WANG; Jinjun, WANG; Guofeng, LI

    2018-05-01

    Electrostatic separation has been extensively used in mineral processing, and has the potential to separate gangue minerals from raw talcum ore. As for electrostatic separation, the particle charging status is one of important influence factors. To describe the talcum particle charging status in a parallel plate electrostatic separator accurately, this paper proposes a modern images processing method. Based on the actual trajectories obtained from sequence images of particle movement and the analysis of physical forces applied on a charged particle, a numerical model is built, which could calculate the charge-to-mass ratios represented as the charging status of particle and simulate the particle trajectories. The simulated trajectories agree well with the experimental results obtained by images processing. In addition, chemical composition analysis is employed to reveal the relationship between ferrum gangue mineral content and charge-to-mass ratios. Research results show that the proposed method is effective for describing the particle charging status in electrostatic separation.

  6. Particle simulation of a two-dimensional electrostatic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.

    1989-01-01

    Computer simulation is a growing field of research and plasma physics is one of the important areas where it is being applied today. This report describes the particle method of simulating a two-dimensional electrostatic plasma. The methods used to discretise the plasma equations and integrate the equations of motion are outlined. The algorithm used in building a simulation program is described. The program is applied to simulating the Two-stream Instability occurring within an infinite plasma. The results of the simulation are presented. The growth rate of the instability as simulated is in excellent agreement with the growth rate as calculated using linear theory. Diagnostic techniques used in interpreting the data generated by the simulation program are discussed. A comparison of the computing environment of the ND and PC from a user's viewpoint is presented. It is observed that the PC is an acceptable computing tool for certain (non-trivial) physics problems, and that more extensive use of its computing power should be made. (author). 5 figs

  7. An electrostatic beam line for accelerator mass spectroscopy of exotic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, D.; Kubik, P.W.; Hemmick, T.; Teng, R.; Kagan, H.; Haas, P.; Boyd, R.N.; Turner, R.; Nitz, D.; Ciampa, D.; Olsen, S.L.; Gentile, T.; Haelen, T.

    1985-01-01

    An all-electrostatic charged particle spectrometer has been constructed to perform high sensitivity searches for exotic states of matter. This spectrometer consists of an electrosatic beam line capable of mass independent charged particle transport and selection together with time-of-flight, energy loss and total energy detectors. This system has been used in conjunction with the tandem electrostatic accelerator at the Nuclear Structure Research Laboratory of the University of Rochester to search for fractionally charged or anomalously heavy particles. (orig.)

  8. Charged patchy particle models in explicit salt: Ion distributions, electrostatic potentials, and effective interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Cemil; Heyda, Jan; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a set of charged patchy particle models (CPPMs) in order to systematically study the influence of electrostatic charge patchiness and multipolarity on macromolecular interactions by means of implicit-solvent, explicit-ion Langevin dynamics simulations employing the Gromacs software. We consider well-defined zero-, one-, and two-patched spherical globules each of the same net charge and (nanometer) size which are composed of discrete atoms. The studied mono- and multipole moments of the CPPMs are comparable to those of globular proteins with similar size. We first characterize ion distributions and electrostatic potentials around a single CPPM. Although angle-resolved radial distribution functions reveal the expected local accumulation and depletion of counter- and co-ions around the patches, respectively, the orientation-averaged electrostatic potential shows only a small variation among the various CPPMs due to space charge cancellations. Furthermore, we study the orientation-averaged potential of mean force (PMF), the number of accumulated ions on the patches, as well as the CPPM orientations along the center-to-center distance of a pair of CPPMs. We compare the PMFs to the classical Derjaguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek theory and previously introduced orientation-averaged Debye-Hückel pair potentials including dipolar interactions. Our simulations confirm the adequacy of the theories in their respective regimes of validity, while low salt concentrations and large multipolar interactions remain a challenge for tractable theoretical descriptions.

  9. Electrostatic quadrupole array for focusing parallel beams of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodowski, J.

    1982-01-01

    An array of electrostatic quadrupoles, capable of providing strong electrostatic focusing simultaneously on multiple beams, is easily fabricated from a single array element comprising a support rod and multiple electrodes spaced at intervals along the rod. The rods are secured to four terminals which are isolated by only four insulators. This structure requires bias voltage to be supplied to only two terminals and eliminates the need for individual electrode bias and insulators, as well as increases life by eliminating beam plating of insulators

  10. Manufacture of electrostatic septum for extracting particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumoto, Shuichi

    1979-01-01

    In the main ring of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, fast and slow extractions of accelerated proton beam are carried out by using electrostatic septa. The electrostatic septum is an apparatus to deflect beam by an electrostatic field, basically composed of a couple of parallel plate electrodes installed in a vacuum chamber. The electrostatic septum is required to satisfy the following two conditions: it must be very thin and flat to reduce the loss of extracted beam, and sufficiently high electric field must be generated to deflect beam in a limited length. The structure and manufacture of electrostatic septa are described. The manufacturing is explained by dividing a septum into an anode and a cathode, terminals introducing high voltage, a vacuum chamber, and high voltage circuit. The performance is also described on the experiments for no-beam condition and beam extraction. Beam extraction has been carried out over 1500 hours thus far, the average beam intensity being 1 x 10 12 ppp, and extraction efficiency more than 90%. There have been no serious failure to affect the performance nor metal wire breakage. They have satisfied their purposes, being used for both fast and slow extractions. Presently, lengthening of the electrostatic field region is being planned to increase the length of the septa to 1.5 m per unit. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Coupled electrostatic and material surface stresses yield anomalous particle interactions and deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, B. A., E-mail: bkemp@astate.edu; Nikolayev, I. [College of Engineering, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, Arkansas 72467 (United States); Sheppard, C. J. [College of Sciences and Mathematics, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, Arkansas 72467 (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Like-charges repel, and opposite charges attract. This fundamental tenet is a result of Coulomb's law. However, the electrostatic interactions between dielectric particles remain topical due to observations of like-charged particle attraction and the self-assembly of colloidal systems. Here, we show, using both an approximate description and an exact solution of Maxwell's equations, that nonlinear charged particle forces result even for linear material systems and can be responsible for anomalous electrostatic interactions such as like-charged particle attraction and oppositely charged particle repulsion. Furthermore, these electrostatic interactions and the deformation of such particles have fundamental implications for our understanding of macroscopic electrodynamics.

  12. Particle interactions in concentrated suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, L.A.; Graham, A.L.; Abbott, J.R.; Brenner, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of research that focuses on slow flows of suspensions in which colloidal and inertial effects are negligibly small. The authors describe nuclear magnetic resonance imaging experiments to quantitatively measure particle migration occurring in concentrated suspensions undergoing a flow with a nonuniform shear rate. These experiments address the issue of how the flow field affects the microstructure of suspensions. In order to understand the local viscosity in a suspension with such a flow-induced, spatially varying concentration, one must know how the viscosity of a homogeneous suspension depends on such variables as solids concentration and particle orientation. The authors suggest the technique of falling ball viscometry, using small balls, as a method to determine the effective viscosity of a suspension without affecting the original microstructure significantly. They also describe data from experiments in which the detailed fluctuations of a falling ball's velocity indicate the noncontinuum nature of the suspension and may lead to more insights into the effects of suspension microstructure on macroscopic properties. Finally, they briefly describe other experiments that can be performed in quiescent suspensions (in contrast to the use of conventional shear rotational viscometers) in order to learn more about boundary effects in concentrated suspensions

  13. Electrostatic fields and charged particle acceleration in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.

    1983-01-01

    Some new aspects pioneered recently by Alfven in the theory of cosmic plasmas, indicate the possibility of a new treatment of the action of electrostatic double layers in the periphery of an expanding laser produced plasma. The thermally produced electrostatic double layer which has been re-derived for a homogeneous plasma shows that a strong upshift of ion energies is possible, in agreement with experiments. The number of accelerated ions is many orders of magnitude smaller than observed at keV and MeV energies. The nonlinear force acceleration could explain the number and energy of the observed fast ions. It is shown, however, that electrostatic double layers can be generated which should produce super-fast ions. A derivation of the spread double layers in the case of inhomogeneous plasmas is presented. It is concluded that the hydrodynamically expected multi GeV heavy ions for 10 TW laser pulses should produce super-fast ions up to the TeV range. Further conclusions are drawn from the electrostatically measured upshifted (by 300 keV) DT fusion alphas from laser compressed plasma. An analysis of alpha spectra attempts to distinguish between different models of the stopping power in the plasmas. The analysis preliminarily arrives at a preference for the collective model. (author)

  14. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Antti J; Jensen, Alexander C Ø; Kling, Kirsten I; Kling, Jens; Budtz, Hans Christian; Koponen, Ismo K; Tuinman, Ilse; Hussein, Tareq; Jensen, Keld A; Nørgaard, Asger; Levin, Marcus

    2018-01-05

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO 2 )-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m 3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm to 31μm-size particles and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as well as particle deposition onto room surfaces and on the spray gun user hand. The particle emission and deposition rates were quantified using aerosol mass balance modelling. The geometric mean particle number emission rate was 1.9×10 10 s -1 and the mean mass emission rate was 381μgs -1 . The respirable mass emission-rate was 65% lower than observed for the entire measured size-range. The mass emission rates were linearly scalable (±ca. 20%) to the process duration. The particle deposition rates were up to 15h -1 for deposited particles consisted of mainly TiO 2 , TiO 2 mixed with Cl and/or Ag, TiO 2 particles coated with carbon, and Ag particles with size ranging from 60nm to ca. 5μm. As expected, no significant VOC emissions were observed as a result of spraying. Finally, we provide recommendations for exposure model parameterization. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of electrostatic Interactions on the Percolation Concentration of Fibrillar ß-Lactoglobuline Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, C.; Ruis, H.G.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of electrostatic interactions on the critical percolation concentration (cp) of fibrillar -lactoglobulin gels at pH 2 was investigated using rheological measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and performing conversion experiments. A decreasing cp with increasing ionic

  16. pH-Responsive Particle-Liquid Aggregates—Electrostatic Formation Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Ireland

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-particle aggregates were formed electrostatically using pH-responsive poly[2-(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate] (PDEA-coated polystyrene particles. This novel non-contact electrostatic method has been used to assess the particle stimulus-responsive wettability in detail. Video footage and fractal analysis were used in conjunction with a two-stage model to characterize the kinetics of transfer of particles to a water droplet surface, and internalization of particles by the droplet. While no stable liquid marbles were formed, metastable marbles were manufactured, whose duration of stability depended strongly on drop pH. Both transfer and internalization were markedly faster for droplets at low pH, where the particles were expected to be hydrophilic, than at high pH where they were expected to be hydrophobic. Increasing the driving electrical potential produced greater transfer and internalization times. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  17. Design of a device for simultaneous particle size and electrostatic charge measurement of inhalation drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kewu; Ng, Wai Kiong; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H; Heng, Paul W S

    2008-11-01

    To develop a device for simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic diameter and electrostatic charge of inhalation aerosols. An integrated system consisting of an add-on charge measurement device and a liquid impinger was developed to simultaneously determine particle aerodynamic diameter and electrostatic charge. The accuracy in charge measurement and fine particle fraction characterization of the new system was evaluated. The integrated system was then applied to analyze the electrostatic charges of a DPI formulation composed of salbutamol sulphate-Inhalac 230 dispersed using a Rotahaler. The charge measurement accuracy was comparable with the Faraday cage method, and incorporation of the charge measurement module had no effect on the performance of the liquid impinger. Salbutamol sulphate carried negative charges while the net charge of Inhalac 230 and un-dispersed salbutamol sulphate was found to be positive after being aerosolized from the inhaler. The instantaneous current signal was strong with small noise to signal ratio, and good reproducibility of charge to mass ratio was obtained for the DPI system investigated. A system for simultaneously measuring particle aerodynamic diameter and aerosol electrostatic charges has been developed, and the system provides a non-intrusive and reliable electrostatic charge characterization method for inhalation dosage forms.

  18. The spatial filtering method for solid particle velocity measurement based on an electrostatic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chuanlong; Tang, Guanghua; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Shimin

    2009-01-01

    The spatial filtering method for particle velocity measurement has the advantages of simplicity of the measurement system and convenience of data processing. In this paper, the relationship between solid particles mean velocity in a pneumatic pipeline and the power spectrum of the output signal of an electrostatic sensor was mathematically modeled. The effects of the length of the sensor, the thickness of the dielectric pipe and its length on the spatial filtering characteristics of the sensor were also investigated using the finite element method. As for the roughness of and the difficult determination of the peak frequency f max of the power spectrum characteristics of the output signal of the sensor, a wavelet analysis based filtering method was applied to smooth the curve, which can accurately determine the peak frequency f max . Finally, experiments were performed on a pilot dense phase pneumatic conveying rig at high pressure to test the performance of the velocity measurement system. The experimental results show that the system repeatability is within ±4% over a gas superficial velocity range of 8.63–18.62 m s −1 for a particle concentration range of 0.067–0.130 m 3 m −3

  19. A view on thermodynamics of concentrated electrolytes: Modification necessity for electrostatic contribution of osmotic coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jyoti; Juvekar, Vinay A.

    2018-05-01

    Prediction of the osmotic coefficient of concentrated electrolytes is needed in a wide variety of industrial applications. There is a need to correctly segregate the electrostatic contribution to osmotic coefficient from nonelectrostatic contribution. This is achieved in a rational way in this work. Using the Robinson-Stokes-Glueckauf hydrated ion model to predict non-electrostatic contribution to the osmotic coefficient, it is shown that hydration number should be independent of concentration so that the observed linear dependence of osmotic coefficient on electrolyte concentration in high concentration range could be predicted. The hydration number of several electrolytes (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and MgSO4) has been estimated by this method. The hydration number predicted by this model shows correct dependence on temperature. It is also shown that the electrostatic contribution to osmotic coefficient is underpredicted by the Debye-Hückel theory at concentration beyond 0.1 m. The Debye-Hückel theory is modified by introducing a concentration dependent hydrated ionic size. Using the present analysis, it is possible to correctly estimate the electrostatic contribution to the osmotic coefficient, beyond the range of validation of the D-H theory. This would allow development of a more fundamental model for electrostatic interaction at high electrolyte concentrations.

  20. Particle collection by a pilot plant venturi scrubber downstream from a pilot plant electrostatic precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L. E.; Ramsey, G. H.; Daniel, B. E.

    The results of pilot plant experiments of particulate collection by a venturi scrubber downstream from an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are presented. The data, which cover a range of scrubber operating conditions and ESP efficiencies, show that particle collection by the venturi scrubber is not affected by the upstream ESP; i.e., for a given scrubber pressure drop, particle collection efficiency as a function of particle diameter is the same for both ESP on and ESP off. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Order of magnitude cost estimates indicate that particle collection by ESP scrubber systems may be economically attractive when scrubbers must be used for SO x control.

  1. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  2. Variation in penetration of submicrometric particles through electrostatic filtering facepieces during exposure to paraffin oil aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Carmela; Listrani, Stefano; Tranfo, Giovanna; Tombolini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Several studies show the increase of penetration through electrostatic filters during exposure to an aerosol flow, because of particle deposition on filter fibers. We studied the effect of increasing loads of paraffin oil aerosol on the penetration of selected particle sizes through an electrostatic filtering facepiece. FFP2 facepieces were exposed for 8 hr to a flow rate of 95.0 ± 0.5 L/min of polydisperse paraffin aerosol at 20.0 ± 0.5 mg/m(3). The penetration of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (DEHS) monodisperse neutralized aerosols, with selected particle size in the 0.03-0.40 μm range, was measured immediately prior to the start of the paraffin aerosol loading and at 1, 4, and 8 hr after the start of paraffin aerosol loading. Penetration through isopropanol-treated facepieces not oil paraffin loaded was also measured to evaluate facepiece behavior when electrostatic capture mechanisms are practically absent. During exposure to paraffin aerosol, DEHS penetration gradually increased for all aerosol sizes, and the most penetrating particle size (0.05 μm at the beginning of exposure) shifted slightly to larger diameters. After the isopropanol treatment, the higher penetration value was 0.30 μm. In addition to an increased penetration during paraffin loading at a given particle size, the relative degree of increase was greater as the particle size increased. Penetration value measured after 8 hr for 0.03-μm particles was on average 1.6 times the initial value, whereas it was about 8 times for 0.40-μm particles. This behavior, as well evidenced in the measurements of isopropanol-treated facepieces, can be attributed to the increasing action in particle capture of the electrostatic forces (Coulomb and polarization), which depend strictly on the diameter and electrical charge of neutralized aerosol particles. With reference to electrostatic filtering facepieces as personal protective equipment, results suggest the importance of complying with the manufacturer

  3. Simulation of particle diffusion in a spectrum of electrostatic turbulence. Low frequency Bohm or percolation scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, J.D.; Misguich, J.H.

    1996-02-01

    An important point for turbulent transport consists in determining the scaling law for the diffusion coefficient D due to electrostatic turbulence. It is well-known that for weak amplitudes or large frequencies, the reduced diffusion coefficient has a quasi-linear like (or gyro-Bohm like) scaling, while for large amplitudes or small frequencies it has been traditionally believed that the scaling is Bohm-like. The aim of this work consists to test this prediction for a given realistic model. This problem is studied by direct simulation of particle trajectories. Guiding centre diffusion in a spectrum of electrostatic turbulence is computed for test particles in a model spectrum, by means of a new parallelized code RADIGUET 2. The results indicate a continuous transition for large amplitudes toward a value which is compatible with the Isichenko percolation prediction. (author)

  4. Characteristics of particle beam acceleration on KUMS tandem electrostatic accelerator 5SDH-2

    OpenAIRE

    谷池, 晃; 古山, 雄一; 北村, 晃

    2006-01-01

    The KUMS tandem electrostatic accelerator, 5SDH-2, was installed in 1996. Ten years have passed since it installed and we obtain some data for accelerator operations. We report the particle beam characteristics such as relation between beam species and switcher magnet current, and dependence of ion charge fraction on stripper gas thickness. We also try to generate nitrogen ion beams, and low energy ion beams.

  5. Trajectory Analysis of Copper and Glass Particles in Electrostatic Separation for the Recycling of ASR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-uk Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Automobile-shredder-residue (ASR recycling techniques have been widely applied for improving the total recycling rate of end-of-life vehicles. In this study, to obtain useful information for predicting or improving ASR-separation efficiency, trajectory analyses of conductors (copper and non-conductors (glass were performed using a lab-scale induction electrostatic separator. The copper-wire trajectories obtained showed a good agreement depending significantly on the electric field strength and particle size. The observed copper-wire trajectories showed consistent congruity with the coarse-particles simulation (0.5 and 0.25 mm. The observed fine-particles (0.06 mm trajectory was deflected toward the (− attractive electrode, owing to the charge density effects due to the particle characteristics and relative humidity. This results in superior separation performance because more copper enters the conductor products bin. The actual dielectric-glass trajectory was deflected toward the (− attractive electrode, thus showing characteristics similar to conductive-particle characteristics. Through analyses conducted using a stereoscopic microscope, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscope, we found heterogeneous materials (fine ferrous particles and conductive organics on the glass surface. This demonstrates the separation-efficiency decrease for non-ferrous metals during electrostatic separation in the recycling of ASR. Future work should include a pretreatment process for eliminating impurities from the glass and advanced trajectory-simulation processes.

  6. EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

  7. Note: Electrostatic detection of stainless steel dust particles for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landy, P. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Skinner, C. H.; Schneider, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Dust accumulation inside next-step fusion devices poses a significant safety concern and dust diagnostics will be needed to assure safe operations. An electrostatic dust detection device has been successfully demonstrated in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, Tore Supra, and the Large Helical Device, and the detector's response to carbon particles was previously characterized in laboratory experiments. This paper presents laboratory results showing that detection of stainless steel particles at levels as low as several μg/cm{sup 2} is also possible.

  8. On the Impact of Electrostatic Correlations on the Double-Layer Polarization of a Spherical Particle in an Alternating Current Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidoosti, Elaheh; Zhao, Hui

    2018-05-15

    At concentrated electrolytes, the ion-ion electrostatic correlation effect is considered an important factor in electrokinetics. In this paper, we compute, in theory and simulation, the dipole moment for a spherical particle (charged, dielectric) under the action of an alternating electric field using the modified continuum Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model by Bazant et al. [ Double Layer in Ionic Liquids: Overscreening Versus Crowding . Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011 , 106 , 046102 ] We investigate the dependency of the dipole moment in terms of frequency and its variation with such quantities like ζ-potential, electrostatic correlation length, and double-layer thickness. With thin electric double layers, we develop simple models through performing an asymptotic analysis of the modified PNP model. We also present numerical results for an arbitrary Debye screening length and electrostatic correlation length. From the results, we find a complicated impact of electrostatic correlations on the dipole moment. For instance, with increasing the electrostatic correlation length, the dipole moment decreases and reaches a minimum and then it goes up. This is because of initially decreasing of surface conduction and finally increasing due to the impact of ion-ion electrostatic correlations on ion's convection and migration. Also, we show that in contrast to the standard PNP model, the modified PNP model can qualitatively explain the data from the experimental results in multivalent electrolytes.

  9. Electrostatic plasma simulation by Particle-In-Cell method using ANACONDA package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandón, J S; Grisales, J P; Riascos, H

    2017-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma is the most representative and basic case in plasma physics field. One of its main characteristics is its ideal behavior, since it is assumed be in thermal equilibrium state. Through this assumption, it is possible to study various complex phenomena such as plasma oscillations, waves, instabilities or damping. Likewise, computational simulation of this specific plasma is the first step to analyze physics mechanisms on plasmas, which are not at equilibrium state, and hence plasma is not ideal. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is widely used because of its precision for this kind of cases. This work, presents PIC method implementation to simulate electrostatic plasma by Python, using ANACONDA packages. The code has been corroborated comparing previous theoretical results for three specific phenomena in cold plasmas: oscillations, Two-Stream instability (TSI) and Landau Damping(LD). Finally, parameters and results are discussed. (paper)

  10. Energy dispersion of charged particles decelerated in a two-dimensional electrostatic field of the type x1/n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zashkvara, V.V.; Bok, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Two components of the spatial dispersion of particles with respect to kinetic energy can be distinguished of the motion of charged particle beams in electrostatic mirros with a two-dimensional field φ(x,y) ans xz symmetry plane. The first is the longitudinal dispersion, which is along the z axis perpendicular to the field; the second is the transverse dispersion, along the x axis parallel to the field vector in the plane of symmetry. The longitudinal dispersion is a basic characteristic of electrostatic mirrors used as energy analyzers. It has been shown that for first-order angular focusing, the longitudinal dispersion, divided by the focal length, is independent of the structure of the two-dimensional field and is a function only of the angle at which the charged particle beam enters the mirror. The transverse dispersion stems from the energy dependence of the penetration depth of the beam as it is decelerated, and it plays an important role when the energy of a charged particle beam is analyzed by the filtering principle, making use of the property of an electrostatic mirror to transmit or reflect charged particles with kinetic energy in a specified interval. This type of dispersion in electrostatic mirrors with two-dimensional fields has not been analyzed systematically. In the present note the authors consider a particular type of two-dimensional electrostatic field which is characterized by a large transverse dispersion, many times larger than in existing electrostatic reflecting filters employing planar and cylindrical fields

  11. Charged particle reflection by a planar artificially structured boundary with electrostatic plugging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Hedlof

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation is used to investigate an artificially structured boundary for confinement and control of charged particles. The artificially structured boundary considered here incorporates a planar sequence of conducting wires, where adjacent wires carry current in opposite directions. Such a configuration creates a sequence of magnetic cusps and was studied previously [C. A. Ordonez, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 024905 (2009]. The effect of introducing a sequence of electrodes for electrostatic plugging of the cusps is investigated. The results of the simulations are used to identify regions of parameter space in which particle losses through the cusps may be negligible in the single particle limit. A trap based on a cylindrical generalization of the artificially structured boundary presented here may lead to a method for confining non-neutral and partially neutralized plasmas along the edge, such that the bulk of a confined plasma is effectively free of externally applied electromagnetic fields.

  12. Dynamics of spherical metallic particles in cylinder electrostatic separators/purifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-Zhou; Li, Jia; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhen-Ming

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamics of spherical metallic particles in electrostatic separators/purifiers (ESPs). The particle equations of motion are numerically solved in two dimensions using a computational algorithm. The ESPs consist of a pair of conductor cylinder electrodes. The upper cylinder is energized by HVdc, while the lower one is grounded and fixed horizontally on a revolvable axis. Some phenomena and aspects of separation process are explained and depicted including lifting off, impact, "motion collapse" and "sudden bouncing". The results reveal that the several phenomena depend on initial position, radius and density of the particle, curvature of the cylinder electrodes, distance between the electrodes and amplitude of the applied voltage. Optimization of the parameters is presented in order to get better separation/purification processes.

  13. An innovative device for powders classification based on combined aerodynamic and electrostatic separation of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriou, Bruno; Mayer-Laigle, Claire; Maalel, Firas; Plissot, Jorys; Rouau, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    An innovative separator have been developed which aims at sorting out powders fractions according to aerodynamic and electrostatic properties of particles. The prototype is composed of a projection unit, a separation module and a classification/collection zone. The projection part is ensured by a pressurized gun. The separation module is conceived to disperse particles according to front and transverse directions. At the output of the gun, electrodes can be disposed to deviate the trajectory of charged particles. The classification part is made of a series of collecting bins. Starch, fine ash powders, and mixtures of these two materials were used to test the working of the separator. The efficiency of the separation was assessed by yields and particle sizes distribution of the collected fractions in the different bins. An aerodynamic classification was achieved along the main axis, with the finest particles crossing larger distances. With a blend of starch and ash, particles from both materials were unevenly distributed in the classifyier, opening the way to a possible separation based simply on aerodynamic properties. When an electric deviation was applied in addition to the projection of powders, the distribution of particles in the collecting part was modified.

  14. An innovative device for powders classification based on combined aerodynamic and electrostatic separation of particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriou Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative separator have been developed which aims at sorting out powders fractions according to aerodynamic and electrostatic properties of particles. The prototype is composed of a projection unit, a separation module and a classification/collection zone. The projection part is ensured by a pressurized gun. The separation module is conceived to disperse particles according to front and transverse directions. At the output of the gun, electrodes can be disposed to deviate the trajectory of charged particles. The classification part is made of a series of collecting bins. Starch, fine ash powders, and mixtures of these two materials were used to test the working of the separator. The efficiency of the separation was assessed by yields and particle sizes distribution of the collected fractions in the different bins. An aerodynamic classification was achieved along the main axis, with the finest particles crossing larger distances. With a blend of starch and ash, particles from both materials were unevenly distributed in the classifyier, opening the way to a possible separation based simply on aerodynamic properties. When an electric deviation was applied in addition to the projection of powders, the distribution of particles in the collecting part was modified.

  15. In situ measurement of electrostatic charge and charge distribution on flyash particles in power station exhaust stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang, D.

    1992-01-01

    The electrostatic charges and charge distributions on individual flyash particles were experimentally measured in situ at four power stations in New South Wales and in the laboratory with an Electrostatic Charge Classifier. The global charge of these flyashes was also measured. The electrostatic charge on flyash particles of four power stations was found to be globally native. The median charge on the flyash particles varies linearly with particle diameter for all four flyashes. The electrostatic charge on the Tallawarra flyash particles was found to increase after passage through the air heater having huge metal surface areas, suggesting that triboelectrification was the primary charging mechanism for flyash particles. Distinctly different characteristics of the electrostatic charge, particle size and particle shape were found between the Eraring and the Tallawarra flyashes. The spherical Eraring ash has the highest proportion of lines and positively charged particles, but the lowest global charge level among the four flyashes. In contrast, the Tallawarra flyash has just the opposite. It is the distinct characteristics of the flyashes from Eraring and Tallawarra power stations that are responsible for the significant differences in their baghouse performance. The napping feature on the surface of the filter bags used in the Eraring and Tallawarra power stations provides an upstream surface of low fibre density above the fabric bulk. This feature presents and advantage to highly charged particles, like the Tallawarra flyash particles. Highly charged particles tend to deposit on such an upstream surface resulting in a porous dust cake with much less contact areas with the fabric medium than would otherwise be formed. This cake is easy to remove and provides less resistance to the gas flow. After singeing the naps on the filter bag surface at the Eraring power station, the problems of high pressure drop and retention of dust cake on the bas surface have been resolved.

  16. Novel parallel plate condenser for single particle electrostatic force measurements in atomic force microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Kwek, Jin Wang

    2011-07-01

    A combination of small parallel plate condenser with Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass slides as electrodes and an atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to characterize the electrostatic behavior of single glass bead microparticles (105-150 μm) glued to the AFM cantilever. This novel setup allows measurements of the electrostatic forces acting on a particle in an applied electrical field to be performed in ambient air conditions. By varying the position of the microparticle between the electrodes and the strength of the applied electric field, the relative contributions of the particle net charge, induced and image charges were investigated. When the microparticle is positioned in the middle of the electrodes, the force acting on the microparticle was linear with the applied electric field and proportional to the microparticle net charge. At distances close to the bottom electrode, the force follows a parabolic relationship with the applied electric field reflecting the contributions of induced and image charges. The method can be used for the rapid evaluation of the charging and polarizability properties of the microparticle as well as an alternative to the conventional Faraday\\'s pail technique. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Determination of particle concentrations in multitemperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richley, E.; Tuma, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The use of the multitemperature Saha equation (MSE) of Prigogine 1 and Patapov 2 for calculating particle concentrations in plasmas is shown to be an invalid procedure. Errors greater than one order of magnitude in the electron density in high-pressure argon and nitrogen electric arc plasmas can be easily incurred by using the multitemperature Saha equation. The alternative kinetic method for calculating concentrations is shown to be based on firm concepts. Simpliying procedures and computational techniques for calculating concentrations with the kinetic method are illustrated with examples

  18. particle simulation for electrostatic oscillation of virtual cathode in relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deming; Wang Min

    1990-01-01

    The virtual cathode oscillation in relativistic electron beams is studied by a 1-D electrostatic particle simulation code with finite-size-particle model. When injection current is less than the space charge limiting current, electron beam propagates stably and transsmits completely. When injection current exceeds the space charge limit, its propagation is unstable, a part of electrons reflect and the other electrons transsmit. The position and potential of the virtual cathode caused by space charge effects oscillate periodically. When the beam current increases, the virtual cathode position closer to the injection plane and its oscillating region gets narrower, the virtual cathode potential decreases and its amplitude increases, the oscillation frequency increases above the beam plasma frequency

  19. Charged particle tracking through electrostatic wire meshes using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, L. J.; Karamyshev, O.; Welsch, C. P., E-mail: carsten.welsch@cockcroft.ac.uk [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Wire meshes are used across many disciplines to accelerate and focus charged particles, however, analytical solutions are non-exact and few codes exist which simulate the exact fields around a mesh with physical sizes. A tracking code based in Matlab-Simulink using field maps generated using finite element software has been developed which tracks electrons or ions through electrostatic wire meshes. The fields around such a geometry are presented as an analytical expression using several basic assumptions, however, it is apparent that computational calculations are required to obtain realistic values of electric potential and fields, particularly when multiple wire meshes are deployed. The tracking code is flexible in that any quantitatively describable particle distribution can be used for both electrons and ions as well as other benefits such as ease of export to other programs for analysis. The code is made freely available and physical examples are highlighted where this code could be beneficial for different applications.

  20. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  1. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael W.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2017-08-15

    Disclosed herein is a acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow that includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  2. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  3. A hybrid parallel architecture for electrostatic interactions in the simulation of dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Chun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Qian, Hu-Jun; Wang, Yong-Lei; Han, Jie-Ping

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we upgraded the electrostatic interaction method of CU-ENUF (Yang, et al., 2016) which first applied CUNFFT (nonequispaced Fourier transforms based on CUDA) to the reciprocal-space electrostatic computation and made the computation of electrostatic interaction done thoroughly in GPU. The upgraded edition of CU-ENUF runs concurrently in a hybrid parallel way that enables the computation parallelizing on multiple computer nodes firstly, then further on the installed GPU in each computer. By this parallel strategy, the size of simulation system will be never restricted to the throughput of a single CPU or GPU. The most critical technical problem is how to parallelize a CUNFFT in the parallel strategy, which is conquered effectively by deep-seated research of basic principles and some algorithm skills. Furthermore, the upgraded method is capable of computing electrostatic interactions for both the atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) and the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Finally, the benchmarks conducted for validation and performance indicate that the upgraded method is able to not only present a good precision when setting suitable parameters, but also give an efficient way to compute electrostatic interactions for huge simulation systems. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/zncf24fhpv.1 Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License 3 (GPL) Programming language: C, C++, and CUDA C Supplementary material: The program is designed for effective electrostatic interactions of large-scale simulation systems, which runs on particular computers equipped with NVIDIA GPUs. It has been tested on (a) single computer node with Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-3770@ 3.40 GHz (CPU) and GTX 980 Ti (GPU), and (b) MPI parallel computer nodes with the same configurations. Nature of problem: For molecular dynamics simulation, the electrostatic interaction is the most time-consuming computation because of its long-range feature and slow convergence in simulation space

  4. Interaction of particles with complex electrostatic structures and 3D clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, Tetyana

    2007-01-01

    Particles of micrometer size externally introduced in plasmas usually find their positions of levitation in the plasma sheath, where the gravity force is compensated by the strong electric field. Here due to electrostatic interaction they form different structures, which are interesting objects for the investigation of strongly coupled systems and critical phenomena. Because of the low damping (e.g. in comparison to colloidal suspension) it is possible to measure the dynamics up to the relevant highest frequency (e.g. Einstein frequency) at the most elementary level of single particle motion. The task of this work was to analyze the three dimensional structure, dynamical processes and the limit of the cooperative behavior in small plasma crystals. In addition to the study of the systems formed, the immersed particles themselves may be used for diagnostics of the plasma environment: estimation of parameters or monitoring of the processes inside plasma. The laboratory experiments are performed in two radio-frequency (RF) plasma reactors with parallel plate electrodes, where the lower electrode is a so-called ''adaptive electrode''. This electrode is segmented into 57 small ''pixels'' independently driven in DC (direct current) and/or RF voltage. When RF voltage is applied to one of these pixels, a bright localized glow, ''secondary plasma ball'', appears above. Three dimensional dust crystals with less than 100 particles are formed inside this ''plasma ball'' - the ideal conditions for the investigation of the transition from cluster systems to collective systems. The investigation of the particle interactions in crystals is performed with an optical diagnostic, which allows determination of all three particle coordinates simultaneously with time resolution of 0.04 sec. The experimental results are: 1. The binary interaction among particles in addition to the repelling Coulomb force exhibits also an attractive part, which is experimentally determined for the first

  5. Interaction of particles with complex electrostatic structures and 3D clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, Tetyana

    2007-10-16

    Particles of micrometer size externally introduced in plasmas usually find their positions of levitation in the plasma sheath, where the gravity force is compensated by the strong electric field. Here due to electrostatic interaction they form different structures, which are interesting objects for the investigation of strongly coupled systems and critical phenomena. Because of the low damping (e.g. in comparison to colloidal suspension) it is possible to measure the dynamics up to the relevant highest frequency (e.g. Einstein frequency) at the most elementary level of single particle motion. The task of this work was to analyze the three dimensional structure, dynamical processes and the limit of the cooperative behavior in small plasma crystals. In addition to the study of the systems formed, the immersed particles themselves may be used for diagnostics of the plasma environment: estimation of parameters or monitoring of the processes inside plasma. The laboratory experiments are performed in two radio-frequency (RF) plasma reactors with parallel plate electrodes, where the lower electrode is a so-called 'adaptive electrode'. This electrode is segmented into 57 small 'pixels' independently driven in DC (direct current) and/or RF voltage. When RF voltage is applied to one of these pixels, a bright localized glow, 'secondary plasma ball', appears above. Three dimensional dust crystals with less than 100 particles are formed inside this 'plasma ball' - the ideal conditions for the investigation of the transition from cluster systems to collective systems. The investigation of the particle interactions in crystals is performed with an optical diagnostic, which allows determination of all three particle coordinates simultaneously with time resolution of 0.04 sec. The experimental results are: 1. The binary interaction among particles in addition to the repelling Coulomb force exhibits also an attractive part, which is

  6. On the Relativistic Correction of Particles Trajectory in Tandem Type Electrostatic Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minárik, Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    A constant potential is applied to the acceleration of the ion-beam in the tandem type electrostatic accelerator. However, not just one voltage is applied, but instead a number of applications can be made in succession by means of the tandem arrangement of high voltage tubes. This number of voltage applications, which is the number of so-called "stages" of a tandem accelerator, may be two, three, or four, depending on the chosen design. Electrostatic field with approximately constant intensity acts on ions in any stage. In general, non-relativistic dynamics is used for the description of the ion transport in tandem accelerator. Energies of accelerated ions are too low and relativistic effects cannot be commonly observed by standard experimental technique. Estimation of possible relativistic correction of ion trajectories is therefore only a matter of calculation. In this note, we briefly present such calculation. Our aim is to show how using the relativistic dynamics modifies the particles trajectory in tandem type accelerator and what parameters determine this modification.

  7. A simple derivation for amplitude and time period of charged particles in an electrostatic bathtub potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathap Reddy, K

    2016-01-01

    An ‘electrostatic bathtub potential’ is defined and analytical expressions for the time period and amplitude of charged particles in this potential are obtained and compared with simulations. These kinds of potentials are encountered in linear electrostatic ion traps, where the potential along the axis appears like a bathtub. Ion traps are used in basic physics research and mass spectrometry to store ions; these stored ions make oscillatory motion within the confined volume of the trap. Usually these traps are designed and studied using ion optical software, but in this work the bathtub potential is reproduced by making two simple modifications to the harmonic oscillator potential. The addition of a linear ‘ k 1 | x |’ potential makes the simple harmonic potential curve steeper with a sharper turn at the origin, while the introduction of a finite-length zero potential region at the centre reproduces the flat region of the bathtub curve. This whole exercise of modelling a practical experimental situation in terms of a well-known simple physics problem may generate interest among readers. (paper)

  8. Green's function enriched Poisson solver for electrostatics in many-particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutmann, Godehard

    2016-06-01

    A highly accurate method is presented for the construction of the charge density for the solution of the Poisson equation in particle simulations. The method is based on an operator adjusted source term which can be shown to produce exact results up to numerical precision in the case of a large support of the charge distribution, therefore compensating the discretization error of finite difference schemes. This is achieved by balancing an exact representation of the known Green's function of regularized electrostatic problem with a discretized representation of the Laplace operator. It is shown that the exact calculation of the potential is possible independent of the order of the finite difference scheme but the computational efficiency for higher order methods is found to be superior due to a faster convergence to the exact result as a function of the charge support.

  9. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Effects of Concentrated Solutes on Protein Hydration, Dynamics, and Electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriata, Luciano A; Spiga, Enrico; Peraro, Matteo Dal

    2016-08-23

    Most studies of protein structure and function are performed in dilute conditions, but proteins typically experience high solute concentrations in their physiological scenarios and biotechnological applications. High solute concentrations have well-known effects on coarse protein traits like stability, diffusion, and shape, but likely also perturb other traits through finer effects pertinent at the residue and atomic levels. Here, NMR and molecular dynamics investigations on ubiquitin disclose variable interactions with concentrated solutes that lead to localized perturbations of the protein's surface, hydration, electrostatics, and dynamics, all dependent on solute size and chemical properties. Most strikingly, small polar uncharged molecules are sticky on the protein surface, whereas charged small molecules are not, but the latter still perturb the internal protein electrostatics as they diffuse nearby. Meanwhile, interactions with macromolecular crowders are favored mainly through hydrophobic, but not through polar, surface patches. All the tested small solutes strongly slow down water exchange at the protein surface, whereas macromolecular crowders do not exert such strong perturbation. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations predict that unspecific interactions slow down microsecond- to millisecond-timescale protein dynamics despite having only mild effects on pico- to nanosecond fluctuations as corroborated by NMR. We discuss our results in the light of recent advances in understanding proteins inside living cells, focusing on the physical chemistry of quinary structure and cellular organization, and we reinforce the idea that proteins should be studied in native-like media to achieve a faithful description of their function. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An electrostatic charge measurement of blowing snow particles focusing on collision frequency to the snow surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, S.; Sato, A.

    2010-12-01

    Blowing snow particles are known to have an electrostatic charge. This charge may be a contributing factor in the formation of snow drifts and snow cornices and changing of the trajectory of blowing snow particles. These formations and phenomena can cause natural disaster such as an avalanche and a visibility deterioration, and obstruct transportation during winter season. Therefore, charging phenomenon of the blowing snow particles is an important issue in terms of not only precise understanding of the particle motion but disaster prevention. The primary factor of charge accumulation to the blowing snow particles is thought to be due to “saltation” of them. The “saltation” is one of movement forms of blowing snow: when the snow particles are transported by the wind, they repeat frictional collisions with the snow surface. In previous studies, charge-to-mass ratios measured in the field were approximately -50 to -10 μC/kg, and in the wind tunnel were approximately -0.8 to -0.1 μC/kg. While there were qualitatively consistent in sign, negative, there were huge gaps quantitatively between them. One reason of those gaps is speculated to be due to differences in fetch. In other words, the difference of the collision frequency of snow particles to the snow surface has caused the gaps. But it is merely a suggestion and that has not been confirmed. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the charge of blowing snow particles focusing on the collision frequency and clarify the relationship between them. Experiments were carried out in the cryogenic wind tunnel of Snow and Ice Research Center (NIED, JAPAN). A Faraday cage and an electrometer were used to measure the charge of snow particles. These experiments were conducted over the hard snow surface condition to prevent the erosion of the snow surface and the generation of new snow particles from the surface. The collision frequency of particle was controlled by changing the wind velocity (4.5 to 7 m/s) under

  12. Enhanced performance of electrostatic precipitators through chemical modification of particle resistivity and cohesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Control of fine particles, including particulate air toxics, from utility boilers is required near-term by state and federal air regulations. Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) serve as the primary air pollution control device for the majority of coal-fired utility boilers in the Eastern and Midwestern united States. Cost-effective retrofit technologies for fine particle control, including flue gas conditioning, are needed for the large base of existing ESPs. Flue has conditioning is an attractive option because it requires minimal structural changes and lower capital costs. For flue gas conditioning to be effective for fine particle control, cohesive and particle agglomerating agents are needed to reduce reentrainment losses, since a large percentage of particulate emissions from well-performing ESPs are due to erosion, rapping, and non-rapping reentrainment. A related and somewhat ironic development is that emissions reductions of SO{sub 2} from utility boilers, as required by the Title IV acid rain program of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, has the potential to substantially increase particulate air toxics from existing ESPs. The switch to low-sulfur coals as an SO{sub 2} control strategy by many utilities has exacerbated ESP performance problems associated with high resistivity flyash. The use of flue gas conditioning has increased in the past several years to maintain adequate performance in ESPs which were not designed for high resistivity ash. However, commercially available flue gas conditioning systems, including NH{sub 3}/SO{sub 3} dual gas conditioning systems, have problems and inherent drawbacks which create a need for alternative conditioning agents. in particular, NH{sub 3}/SO{sub 3} systems can create odor and ash disposal problems due to ammonia outgassing. In addition, there are concerns over chemical handling safety and the potential for accidental releases.

  13. Stochastic plasma heating by electrostatic waves: a comparison between a particle-in-cell simulation and a laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivaz, M.; Fasoli, A.; Appert, K.; Trans, T.M.; Tran, M.Q.; Skiff, F.

    1993-08-01

    Dynamical chaos is produced by the interaction between plasma particles and two electrostatic waves. Experiments performed in a linear magnetized plasma and a 1D particle-in-cell simulation agree qualitatively: above a threshold wave amplitude, ion stochastic diffusion and heating occur on a fast time scale. Self-consistency appears to limit the extent of the heating process. (author) 5 figs., 18 refs

  14. Spray dried microparticles of chia oil using emulsion stabilized by whey protein concentrate and pectin by electrostatic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noello, C; Carvalho, A G S; Silva, V M; Hubinger, M D

    2016-11-01

    Chia seed oil has a high content of α-linolenic acid (60%) and linoleic acid (20%). Use of this oil in different products is limited due to its liquid state, and the presence of insaturation is a trigger for oxidation. In this context, to facilitate the incorporation of chia oil in food products and increase its protection against oxidation, the aim of this work was to produce chia oil microparticles by spray drying using emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate (ζ-potential +13.4 at pH3.8) and pectin (ζ-potential -40.4 at pH3.8) through the electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition technique and emulsions prepared with only whey protein concentrate. Emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate and stabilized by whey protein concentrate-pectin were prepared using maltodextrin (10 DE) and modified starch (Hi-Cap® 100). They were characterized in relation to stability, droplet size, ζ-Potential and optical microscopy. The microparticles were characterized in relation to moisture content, water activity, particle size, microstructure and oxidative stability by the Rancimat method. Emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate-pectin with added maltodextrin 10 DE and emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate with added modified starch (Hi-Cap® 100) were stable after 24h. Emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate and by whey protein concentrate-pectin showed droplets with mean diameter ranging from 0.80 to 1.31μm, respectively and ζ-potential varying from -6.9 to -27.43mV, respectively. After spray drying, the microparticles showed an mean diameter ranging from 7.00 to 9.00μm. All samples presented high encapsulation efficiency values, above 99%. Microparticles produced with modified starch showed a smoother spherical surface than particles with maltodextrin 10 DE, which presented a wrinkled surface. All microparticles exhibited higher oxidative stability than chia oil in pure form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Kinetics of charged particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in a nonuniform electrostatic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpakov, V. A., E-mail: kolpakov683@gmail.com; Krichevskii, S. V.; Markushin, M. A. [Korolev Samara National Research University (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    A high-voltage gas discharge is of interest as a possible means of generating directed flows of low-temperature plasma in the off-electrode space distinguished by its original features [1–4]. We propose a model for calculating the trajectories of charges particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in nitrogen at a pressure of 0.15 Torr existing in a nonuniform electrostatic field and the strength of this field. Based on the results of our calculations, we supplement and refine the extensive experimental data concerning the investigation of such a discharge published in [1, 2, 5–8]; good agreement between the theory and experiment has been achieved. The discharge burning is initiated and maintained through bulk electron-impact ionization and ion–electron emission. We have determined the sizes of the cathode surface regions responsible for these processes, including the sizes of the axial zone involved in the discharge generation. The main effect determining the kinetics of charged particles consists in a sharp decrease in the strength of the field under consideration outside the interelectrode space, which allows a free motion of charges with specific energies and trajectories to be generated in it. The simulation results confirm that complex electrode systems that allow directed plasma flows to be generated at a discharge current of hundreds or thousands of milliamperes and a voltage on the electrodes of 0.3–1 kV can be implemented in practice [3, 9, 10].

  16. Electron Debye scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: Electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Lee, Ensang; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Lee, Dong-Hun; Seon, Jongho; Jin, Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the electron Debye scale Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability using two-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations. We introduced a velocity shear layer with a thickness comparable to the electron Debye length and examined the generation of the KH instability. The KH instability occurs in a similar manner as observed in the KH instabilities in fluid or ion scales producing surface waves and rolled-up vortices. The strength and growth rate of the electron Debye scale KH instability is affected by the structure of the velocity shear layer. The strength depends on the magnitude of the velocity and the growth rate on the velocity gradient of the shear layer. However, the development of the electron Debye scale KH instability is mainly determined by the electric field generated by charge separation. Significant mixing of electrons occurs across the shear layer, and a fraction of electrons can penetrate deeply into the opposite side fairly far from the vortices across the shear layer

  17. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Min-Jung, E-mail: dslim@korea.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Device Materials, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-17

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a {zeta}-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and {approx} 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  18. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon; Song, Min-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a ζ-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and ∼ 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 ± 0.4 x 10 11 cm -2 ) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  19. Importance of core electrostatic properties on the electrophoresis of a soft particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Simanta; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Gopmandal, Partha P.

    2016-08-01

    The impact of the volumetric charged density of the dielectric rigid core on the electrophoresis of a soft particle is analyzed numerically. The volume charge density of the inner core of a soft particle can arise for a dendrimer structure or bacteriophage MS2. We consider the electrokinetic model based on the conservation principles, thus no conditions for Debye length or applied electric field is imposed. The fluid flow equations are coupled with the ion transport equations and the equation for the electric field. The occurrence of the induced nonuniform surface charge density on the outer surface of the inner core leads to a situation different from the existing analysis of a soft particle electrophoresis. The impact of this induced surface charge density together with the double-layer polarization and relaxation due to ion convection and electromigration is analyzed. The dielectric permittivity and the charge density of the core have a significant impact on the particle electrophoresis when the Debye length is in the order of the particle size. We find that by varying the ionic concentration of the electrolyte, the particle can exhibit reversal in its electrophoretic velocity. The role of the polymer layer softness parameter is addressed in the present analysis.

  20. Simulation of concentration distribution of urban particles under wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanghou; Yang, Hangsheng

    2018-02-01

    The concentration of particulate matter in the air is too high, which seriously affects people’s health. The concentration of particles in densely populated towns is also high. Understanding the distribution of particles in the air helps to remove them passively. The concentration distribution of particles in urban streets is simulated by using the FLUENT software. The simulation analysis based on Discrete Phase Modelling (DPM) of FLUENT. Simulation results show that the distribution of the particles is caused by different layout of buildings. And it is pointed out that in the windward area of the building and the leeward sides of the high-rise building are the areas with high concentration of particles. Understanding the concentration of particles in different areas is also helpful for people to avoid and reduce the concentration of particles in high concentration areas.

  1. Euler-Lagrangian Model of Particle Motion and Deposition Effects in Electro-Static Fields based on OpenFoam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Boiger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the powder coating process of metal substrates, a comprehensive, numerical 3D Eulerian-LaGrangian model, featuring two particle sub-models, has been developed. The model considers the effects of electro-static, fluid-dynamic and gravity forces. The code has been implemented in C++ within the open source CFD platform OpenFoam®, is transient in nature with respect to the applied LaGrangian particle implementation and the electro-static field calculation and is stationary regarding fluid-dynamic phenomena. Qualitative validation of the developed solver has already been achieved by comparison to simple coating experiments and will hereby be presented alongside a thorough description of the model itself. Upon combining knowledge of the relevant dimensionless groups and the numerical model, a dimensionless chart, representing all possible states of coating, was populated with comprehensive, exemplary cases, which are shown here as well.

  2. Particle-based simulation of charge transport in discrete-charge nano-scale systems: the electrostatic problem

    OpenAIRE

    Berti, Claudio; Gillespie, Dirk; Eisenberg, Robert S; Fiegna, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The fast and accurate computation of the electric forces that drive the motion of charged particles at the nanometer scale represents a computational challenge. For this kind of system, where the discrete nature of the charges cannot be neglected, boundary element methods (BEM) represent a better approach than finite differences/finite elements methods. In this article, we compare two different BEM approaches to a canonical electrostatic problem in a three-dimensional space with inhomogeneous...

  3. Concentration and size distribution of particles in abstracted groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, C G E M; de Zwart, A H; Balemans, M; Kooiman, J W; van Rosmalen, C; Timmer, H; Vandersluys, J; Stuyfzand, P J

    2010-02-01

    Particle number concentrations have been counted and particle size distributions calculated in groundwater derived by abstraction wells. Both concentration and size distribution are governed by the discharge rate: the higher this rate the higher the concentration and the higher the proportion of larger particles. However, the particle concentration in groundwater derived from abstraction wells, with high groundwater flow velocities, is much lower than in groundwater from monitor wells, with minimal flow velocities. This inconsistency points to exhaustion of the particle supply in the aquifer around wells due to groundwater abstraction for many years. The particle size distribution can be described with the help of a power law or Pareto distribution. Comparing the measured particle size distribution with the Pareto distribution shows that particles with a diameter >7 microm are under-represented. As the particle size distribution is dependent on the flow velocity, so is the value of the "Pareto" slope beta. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrostatic settling of catalyst particles in hydrogenation of methyl benzoate. Denkai chinkoho ni yoru ansokukosan mechiru suisoka hannoeki kara no shokubai ryushi bunri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K. (Japan Energy Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Lab.)

    1994-03-01

    As benzyl alcohol (BA), which is one of the simplest alcohol having aromatic ring, has been used widely for the fields related to soap, perfume and chemicals industry, its usage has not always been so much because of its expensiveness. Authors developed previously a new process technique to produce cheaper and higher purity BA not through chlorination process using toluene as its raw materials. The BA can be obtained by hydrogenating methyl benzoate (MB) at a dispersion babble tower using cupper-chromium type powder catalyst in mixed solvent of methanol and toluene. The catalyst becomes much fine particles after the reaction. In this study, it is examined to separate MB hydrogenation reaction solution obtained by electrostatic settling into solid and liquid phases as an aim to improve the BA production process. Rate of electrostatic settling does not depend upon solid concentration, slurry forming conditions, electrode materials, specific resistance of slurry layer and others, but is in proportion to electric field intensity. Furthermore, process of the electrostatic settling is expressed by an equation. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Evidences of Changes in Surface Electrostatic Charge Distribution during Stabilization of HPV16 Virus-Like Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Vega

    Full Text Available The stabilization of human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles has been examined by means of different techniques including dynamic and static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility. All these techniques provide different and often complementary perspectives about the aggregation process and generation of stabilized virus-like particles after a period of time of 48 hours at a temperature of 298 K. Interestingly, static light scattering results point towards a clear colloidal instability in the initial systems, as suggested by a negative value of the second virial coefficient. This is likely related to small repulsive electrostatic interactions among the particles, and in agreement with relatively small absolute values of the electrophoretic mobility and, hence, of the net surface charges. At this initial stage the small repulsive interactions are not able to compensate binding interactions, which tend to aggregate the particles. As time proceeds, an increase of the size of the particles is accompanied by strong increases, in absolute values, of the electrophoretic mobility and net surface charge, suggesting enhanced repulsive electrostatic interactions and, consequently, a stabilized colloidal system. These results show that electrophoretic mobility is a useful methodology that can be applied to screen the stabilization factors for virus-like particles during vaccine development.

  6. Hetero-Colloidal Metal Particle Multilayer Films Grown Using Electrostatic Interactions at the Air-water Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, Murali; Mayya, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of nanoparticle multilayer films by electrostatic immobilization of surface-modified colloidal particles at the air-water interface has been recently demonstrated by us. In this paper, we extend our study to show that multilayer assemblies consisting of metal particles of different chemical nature (hetero-colloidal particle superlattices) and size can be deposited by the versatile Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Multilayer films consisting of a different number of bilayers of gold and silver colloidal particles have been deposited and characterized using quartz crystal microgravimetry and UV-visible spectroscopy measurements. It is observed that while layer-by-layer deposition of the different colloidal particle assemblies is possible by this technique without a detectable variation in the cluster density in the different layers, a degree of post-deposition reorganization of the clusters occurs in the film. In addition to this aging behavior, the effect of different organic solvents on the reorganization process has also been studied

  7. Particle-based simulation of charge transport in discrete-charge nano-scale systems: the electrostatic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Claudio; Gillespie, Dirk; Eisenberg, Robert S; Fiegna, Claudio

    2012-02-16

    The fast and accurate computation of the electric forces that drive the motion of charged particles at the nanometer scale represents a computational challenge. For this kind of system, where the discrete nature of the charges cannot be neglected, boundary element methods (BEM) represent a better approach than finite differences/finite elements methods. In this article, we compare two different BEM approaches to a canonical electrostatic problem in a three-dimensional space with inhomogeneous dielectrics, emphasizing their suitability for particle-based simulations: the iterative method proposed by Hoyles et al. and the Induced Charge Computation introduced by Boda et al.

  8. On the Relativistic Correction of Particles Trajectory in Tandem Type Electrostatic Accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Minárik Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    A constant potential is applied to the acceleration of the ion-beam in the tandem type electrostatic accelerator. However, not just one voltage is applied, but instead a number of applications can be made in succession by means of the tandem arrangement of high voltage tubes. This number of voltage applications, which is the number of so-called "stages" of a tandem accelerator, may be two, three, or four, depending on the chosen design. Electrostatic field with approximately constant intensit...

  9. Concentration and size distribution of particles in abstracted groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beek, C.G.E.M.; de Zwart, A.H.; Balemans, M.; Kooiman, J.W.; van Rosmalen, C.; Timmer, H.; Vandersluys, J.; Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Particle number concentrations have been counted and particle size distributions calculated in groundwater derived by abstraction wells. Both concentration and size distribution are governed by the discharge rate: the higher this rate the higher the concentration and the higher the proportion of

  10. Radon concentration and exhalation measurements with semiconductor detector and electrostatic precipitator working in a closed circulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, M.; Morawska, L.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus is described and a method presented for the determination of concentration of radon emanated from solid and liquid samples. In this method an object or a sample of air is closed in an hermetically sealed chamber. The air contaminated by radon and its daughters is circulated in a closed system a few times through an electrostatic precipitator mounted in one housing with a semiconductor Si Li detector. The concentration of radon is determined by the alpha activity measurement of its daughters. The sensitivity of the apparatus is very high. While calculating a radon concentration from an activity measurement of RaA (fast method) the sensitivity is about 0.07 pCi/l and when measuring the activity of RaC' (slow method) it is 0.008 pCi/l. Due to the application of an electrostatic precipitator and a silicon detector it is possible to perform alpha spectrometric measurements and thus separate activities of RaA, RaC', and ThC and to calculate 222 Rn or 220 Rn concentrations. The efficiency of RaA, RaB, RaC, ThB and ThC collection is constant, due to the method involving the circulation of the air through the electrostatic precipitator several times. (author)

  11. Particle deposition in a realistic geometry of the human conducting airways: Effects of inlet velocity profile, inhalation flowrate and electrostatic charge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koullapis, P. G.; Kassinos, S. C.; Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova

    2016-01-01

    of inlet flow conditions, particle size, electrostatic charge, and flowrate. While most computer simulations assume a uniform velocity at the mouth inlet, we found that using a more realistic inlet profile based on Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements resulted in enhanced deposition, mostly on the tongue...... between particle size, electrostatic charge, and flowrate. Our results suggest that in silico models should be customized for specific applications, ensuring all relevant physical effects are accounted for in a self-consistent fashion....

  12. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  13. On the Relativistic Correction of Particles Trajectory in Tandem Type Electrostatic Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minárik Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A constant potential is applied to the acceleration of the ion-beam in the tandem type electrostatic accelerator. However, not just one voltage is applied, but instead a number of applications can be made in succession by means of the tandem arrangement of high voltage tubes. This number of voltage applications, which is the number of so-called "stages" of a tandem accelerator, may be two, three, or four, depending on the chosen design. Electrostatic field with approximately constant intensity acts on ions in any stage.

  14. Brownian coagulation at high particle concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzeciak, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of Brownian coagulation, whereby particles are brought together by thermal motion and grow by collisions, is one of the most fundamental processes influencing the final properties of particulate matter in a variety of technically important systems. It is of importance in colloids,

  15. Relative magnitudes of the effects of electrostatic image and thermo-phoretic forces on particles in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board's Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation has recommended research into the deposition, in the lung, of charged particles in the size range 0.005-1 μm. In vivo measurements of the temperature distribution in the respiratory tract have been used to estimate the temperature gradients in the generations up to the segmental bronchus. These gradients define the thermo-phoretic velocities, which oppose deposition during inhalation and assist it during exhalation. The thermo-phoretic forces are effective over a longer range than those due to the electrostatic image of a single charge; and, at distances greater than a few microns from the airway wall, the thermo-phoretic velocities of 0.02 and 0.1 μn particles are greater than those due to electrostatic drift. It is concluded that models describing the effects of electric charge on the deposition of particles with diameters of order 0.1 μm need to take account of the thermal conditions in the respiratory tract. (authors)

  16. Particle size- and concentration-dependent separation of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Kerstin, E-mail: witte@micromod.de [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 23, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Str. 4, 18119 Rostock (Germany); Müller, Knut; Grüttner, Cordula; Westphal, Fritz [Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Str. 4, 18119 Rostock (Germany); Johansson, Christer [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, 40014 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Small magnetic nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution are of great interest for several biomedical applications. When the size of the particles decreases, the magnetic moment of the particles decreases. This leads to a significant increase in the separation time by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, in the present study the separation processes of bionized nanoferrites (BNF) with different sizes and concentrations were investigated with the commercial Sepmag Q system. It was found that an increasing initial particle concentration leads to a reduction of the separation time for large nanoparticles due to the higher probability of building chains. Small nanoparticles showed exactly the opposite behavior with rising particle concentration up to 0.1 mg(Fe)/ml. For higher iron concentrations the separation time remains constant and the measured Z-average decreases in the supernatant at same time intervals. At half separation time a high yield with decreasing hydrodynamic diameter of particles can be obtained using higher initial particle concentrations. - Highlights: • Size dependent separation processes of multicore nanoparticles. • Concentration dependent separation processes of multicore nanoparticles. • Increasing separation time with rising concentrations for small particles. • Large particles show typical cooperative magnetophoresis behavior.

  17. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2013-05-10

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip ('dendritic nanotip') with a single terminal nanotip ('single nanotip') for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4-5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10(4) particles ml(-1). The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles.

  18. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip (‘dendritic nanotip’) with a single terminal nanotip (‘single nanotip’) for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4–5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10 4 particles ml −1 . The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles. (paper)

  19. The effects of electrostatic particle filtration and supply-air filter condition in classrooms on the performance of schoolwork by children (RP-1257)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter; Jensen, Kasper Lynge

    2008-01-01

    the lower the outdoor air supply rate. There were no consistent effects of this reduction on the performance of schoolwork, on the children's perception of the classroom environment, on symptom intensiiy, or on air quality as perceived by the sensory panel. This suggests there are no short-term (acute...... the filters in use in other schools were not changed. The conditions were established for one week at a time in a blind crossover design with repeated measures on ten-to-twelve-year-old children. Pupils performed six exercises exemplifying different aspects of schoolwork as part of normal lessons...... and indicated their environmental perceptions and the intensity of any symptoms. A sensory panel of adults judged the air quality in the classrooms soon after the pupils left. Operating the electrostatic air cleaners considerably reduced the concentration of particles in the classrooms. The effect was greater...

  20. Detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to air bubbles in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, CG; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1999-01-01

    The detachment of polystyrene particles adhering to collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to a passing air bubble has been studied in a parallel plate flow chamber. Particle detachment decreased linearly with increasing air bubble velocity and

  1. Correlated particle dynamics in concentrated quasi-two-dimensional suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamant, H; Cui, B; Lin, B; Rice, S A

    2005-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally how the hydrodynamically correlated lateral motion of particles in a suspension confined between two surfaces is affected by the suspension concentration. Despite the long range of the correlations (decaying as 1/r 2 with the inter-particle distance r), the concentration effect is present only at short inter-particle distances for which the static pair correlation is nonuniform. This is in sharp contrast with the effect of hydrodynamic screening in unconfined suspensions, where increasing the concentration changes the prefactor of the large-distance correlation

  2. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 μm-25 μm.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 μg/m3 to 1344 μg/m3 with an average of 532 μg/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 μm to 2.43 μm with an average of 1.5 μm ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for

  3. Multisite study of particle number concentrations in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M; Jones, Alan M

    2005-08-15

    Particle number concentration data are reported from a total of eight urban site locations in the United Kingdom. Of these, six are central urban background sites, while one is an urban street canyon (Marylebone Road) and another is influenced by both a motorway and a steelworks (Port Talbot). The concentrations are generally of a similar order to those reported in the literature, although higher than those in some of the other studies. Highest concentrations are at the Marylebone Road site and lowest are at the Port Talbot site. The central urban background locations lie somewhere between with concentrations typically around 20 000 cm(-3). A seasonal pattern affects all sites, with highest concentrations in the winter months and lowest concentrations in the summer. Data from all sites show a diurnal variation with a morning rush hour peak typical of an anthropogenic pollutant. When the dilution effects of windspeed are accounted for, the data show little directionality at the central urban background sites indicating the influence of sources from all directions as might be expected if the major source were road traffic. At the London Marylebone Road site there is high directionality driven by the air circulation in the street canyon, and at the Port Talbot site different diurnal patterns are seen for particle number count and PM10 influenced by emissions from road traffic (particle number count) and the steelworks (PM10) and local meteorological factors. Hourly particle number concentrations are generally only weakly correlated to NO(x) and PM10, with the former showing a slightly closer relationship. Correlations between daily average particle number count and PM10 were also weak. Episodes of high PM10 concentration in summer typically show low particle number concentrations consistent with transport of accumulation mode secondary aerosol, while winter episodes are frequently associated with high PM10 and particle number count arising from poor dispersion of

  4. Hybrid electrokinetics for separation, mixing, and concentration of colloidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, Mandy L Y; Shimabukuro, Yusuke; Wong, Pak Kin

    2009-01-01

    The advent of nanotechnology has facilitated the preparation of colloidal particles with adjustable sizes and the control of their size-dependent properties. Physical manipulation, such as separation, mixing, and concentration, of these colloidal particles represents an essential step for fully utilizing their potential in a wide spectrum of nanotechnology applications. In this study, we investigate hybrid electrokinetics, the combination of dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamics, for active manipulation of colloidal particles ranging from nanometers to micrometers in size. A concentric electrode configuration, which is optimized for generating electrohydrodynamic flow, has been designed to elucidate the effectiveness of hybrid electrokinetics and define the operating regimes for different microfluidic operations. The results indicate that the relative importance of electrohydrodynamics increases with decreasing particle size as predicted by a scaling analysis and that electrohydrodynamics is pivotal for manipulating nanoscale particles. Using the concentric electrodes, we demonstrate separation, mixing, and concentration of colloidal particles by adjusting the relative strengths of different electrokinetic phenomena. The effectiveness of hybrid electrokinetics indicates its potential to serve as a generic technique for active manipulation of colloidal particles in various nanotechnology applications.

  5. [Ultrafine particle number concentration and size distribution of vehicle exhaust ultrafine particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ye-qiang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Sun, Zai; Cai, Zhi-liang; Yang, Wen-jun

    2014-09-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations obtained from three different vehicles were measured using fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and automobile exhaust gas analyzer. UFP number concentration and size distribution were studied at different idle driving speeds. The results showed that at a low idle speed of 800 rmin-1 , the emission particle number concentration was the lowest and showed a increasing trend with the increase of idle speed. The majority of exhaust particles were in Nuclear mode and Aitken mode. The peak sizes were dominated by 10 nm and 50 nm. Particle number concentration showed a significantly sharp increase during the vehicle acceleration process, and was then kept stable when the speed was stable. In the range of 0. 4 m axial distance from the end of the exhaust pipe, the particle number concentration decayed rapidly after dilution, but it was not obvious in the range of 0. 4-1 m. The number concentration was larger than the background concentration. Concentration of exhaust emissions such as CO, HC and NO showed a reducing trend with the increase of idle speed,which was in contrast to the emission trend of particle number concentration.

  6. Source contributions to atmospheric fine carbon particle concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Gray, H.; Cass, Glen R.

    A Lagrangian particle-in-cell air quality model has been developed that facilitates the study of source contributions to atmospheric fine elemental carbon and fine primary total carbon particle concentrations. Model performance was tested using spatially and temporally resolved emissions and air quality data gathered for this purpose in the Los Angeles area for the year 1982. It was shown that black elemental carbon (EC) particle concentrations in that city were dominated by emissions from diesel engines including both on-highway and off-highway applications. Fine primary total carbon particle concentrations (TC=EC+organic carbon) resulted from the accumulation of small increments from a great variety of emission source types including both gasoline and diesel powered highway vehicles, stationary source fuel oil and gas combustion, industrial processes, paved road dust, fireplaces, cigarettes and food cooking (e.g. charbroilers). Strategies for black elemental carbon particle concentration control will of necessity need to focus on diesel engines, while controls directed at total carbon particle concentrations will have to be diversified over a great many source types.

  7. Surface engineering of zirconium particles by molecular layer deposition: Significantly enhanced electrostatic safety at minimum loss of the energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lijun; Yan, Ning; Hao, Haixia; An, Ting; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Because of its high volumetric heat of oxidation, Zr powder is a promising high energy fuel/additive for rocket propellants. However, the application of Zr powder is restricted by its ultra-high electrostatic discharge sensitivity, which poses great hazards for handling, transportation and utilization of this material. By performing molecular layer deposition of polyimide using 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic anhydride and ethylenediamine as the precursors, Zr particles can be uniformly encapsulated by thin layers of the polymer. The thicknesses of the encapsulation layers can be precisely controlled by adjusting the number of deposition cycle. High temperature annealing converts the polymer layer into a carbon coating. Results of thermal analyses reveal that the polymer or carbon coatings have little negative effect on the energy release process of the Zr powder. By varying the thickness of the polyimide or carbon coating, electrostatic discharge sensitivity of the Zr powder can be tuned in a wide range and its uncontrolled ignition hazard can be virtually eliminated. This research demonstrates the great potential of molecular layer deposition in effectively modifying the surface properties of highly reactive metal based energetic materials with minimum sacrifices of their energy densities.

  8. How comparable are size-resolved particle number concentrations from different instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, K. E.; Pryor, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The need for comparability of particle size resolved measurements originates from multiple drivers including: (i) Recent suggestions that air quality standards for particulate matter should migrate from being mass-based to incorporating number concentrations. This move would necessarily be predicated on measurement comparability which is absolutely critical to compliance determination. (ii) The need to quantify and diagnose causes of variability in nucleation and growth rates in nano-particle experiments conducted in different locations. (iii) Epidemiological research designed to identify key parameters in human health responses to fine particle exposure. Here we present results from a detailed controlled laboratory instrument inter-comparison experiment designed to investigate data comparability in the size range of 2.01-523.3 nm across a range of particle composition, modal diameter and absolute concentration. Particle size distributions were generated using a TSI model 3940 Aerosol Generation System (AGS) diluted using zero air, and sampled using four TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) configurations and a TSI model 3091 Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS). The SMPS configurations used two Electrostatic Classifiers (EC) (model 3080) attached to either a Long DMA (LDMA) (model 3081) or a Nano DMA (NDMA) (model 3085) plumbed to either a TSI model 3025A Butanol Condensed Particle Counting (CPC) or a TSI model 3788 Water CPC. All four systems were run using both high and low flow conditions, and were operated with both the internal diffusion loss and multiple charge corrections turned on. The particle compositions tested were sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate and olive oil diluted in ethanol. Particles of all three were generated at three peak concentration levels (spanning the range observed at our experimental site), and three modal particle diameters. Experimental conditions were maintained for a period of 20 minutes to ensure experimental

  9. Numerical investigation of the effect of particle concentration on particle measurement by digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huafeng; Zhou, Binwu; Wu, Xuecheng; Wu, Yingchun; Gao, Xiang; Gréhan, Gérard; Cen, Kefa

    2014-04-01

    Digital holography plays a key role in particle field measurement, and appears to be a strong contender as the next-generation technology for diagnostics of 3D particle field. However, various recording parameters, such as the recording distance, the particle size, the wavelength, the size of the CCD chip, the pixel size and the particle concentration, will affect the results of the reconstruction, and may even determine the success or failure of a measurement. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effect of particle concentration, the volume depth to evaluate the capability of digital holographic microscopy. Standard particles holograms with all known recording parameters are numerically generated by using a common procedure based on Lorenz-Mie scattering theory. Reconstruction of those holograms are then performed by a wavelet-transform based method. Results show that the reconstruction efficiency decreases quickly until particle concentration reaches 50×104 (mm-3), and decreases linearly with the increase of particle concentration from 50 × 104 (mm-3) to 860 × 104 (mm-3) in the same volume. The first half of the line waves larger than the second half. It also indicates that the increase of concentration leads the rise in average diameter error and z position error of particles. Besides, the volume depth also plays a key role in reconstruction.

  10. Preferrential Concentration of Particles in Protoplanetary Nebula Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlep, Thomas; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Preferential concentration in turbulence is a process that causes inertial particles to cluster in regions of high strain (in-between high vorticity regions), with specifics depending on their stopping time or Stokes number. This process is thought to be of importance in various problems including cloud droplet formation and aerosol transport in the atmosphere, sprays, and also in the formation of asteroids and comets in protoplanetary nebulae. In protoplanetary nebulae, the initial accretion of primitive bodies from freely-floating particles remains a problematic subject. Traditional growth-by-sticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" [1] in turbulent nebulae. One scenario that can lead directly from independent nebula particulates to large objects, avoiding the problematic m-km size range, involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in protoplanetary turbulence. There is evidence that at least the ordinary chondrite parent bodies were initially composed entirely of a homogeneous mix of such particles generally known as "chondrules" [2]. Thus, while it is arcane, turbulent preferential concentration acting directly on chondrule size particles are worthy of deeper study. Here, we present the statistical determination of particle multiplier distributions from numerical simulations of particle-laden isotopic turbulence, and a cascade model for modeling turbulent concentration at lengthscales and Reynolds numbers not accessible by numerical simulations. We find that the multiplier distributions are scale dependent at the very largest scales but have scale-invariant properties under a particular variable normalization at smaller scales.

  11. Dry powder inhaler formulation of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles via electrostatically-driven nanoparticle assembly onto microscale carrier particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2012-09-15

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles have emerged as promising nanoscale carriers of therapeutics as they combine the attractive characteristics of liposomes and polymers. Herein we develop dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of hybrid nanoparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and soybean lecithin as the polymer and lipid constituents, respectively. The hybrid nanoparticles are transformed into inhalable microscale nanocomposite structures by a novel technique based on electrostatically-driven adsorption of nanoparticles onto polysaccharide carrier particles, which eliminates the drawbacks of conventional techniques based on controlled drying (e.g. nanoparticle-specific formulation, low yield). First, we engineer polysaccharide carrier particles made up of chitosan cross-linked with tripolyphosphate and dextran sulphate to exhibit the desired aerosolization characteristics and physical robustness. Second, we investigate the effects of nanoparticle to carrier mass ratio and salt inclusion on the adsorption efficiency, in terms of the nanoparticle loading and yield, from which the optimal formulation is determined. Desorption of the nanoparticles from the carrier particles in phosphate buffer saline is also examined. Lastly, we characterize aerosolization efficiency of the nanocomposite product in vitro, where the emitted dose and respirable fraction are found to be comparable to the values of conventional DPI formulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A three-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell methodology on unstructured Delaunay-Voronoi grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos A.; Spirkin, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The mathematical formulation and computational implementation of a three-dimensional particle-in-cell methodology on unstructured Delaunay-Voronoi tetrahedral grids is presented. The method allows simulation of plasmas in complex domains and incorporates the duality of the Delaunay-Voronoi in all aspects of the particle-in-cell cycle. Charge assignment and field interpolation weighting schemes of zero- and first-order are formulated based on the theory of long-range constraints. Electric potential and fields are derived from a finite-volume formulation of Gauss' law using the Voronoi-Delaunay dual. Boundary conditions and the algorithms for injection, particle loading, particle motion, and particle tracking are implemented for unstructured Delaunay grids. Error and sensitivity analysis examines the effects of particles/cell, grid scaling, and timestep on the numerical heating, the slowing-down time, and the deflection times. The problem of current collection by cylindrical Langmuir probes in collisionless plasmas is used for validation. Numerical results compare favorably with previous numerical and analytical solutions for a wide range of probe radius to Debye length ratios, probe potentials, and electron to ion temperature ratios. The versatility of the methodology is demonstrated with the simulation of a complex plasma microsensor, a directional micro-retarding potential analyzer that includes a low transparency micro-grid.

  13. Concentrating small particles in protoplanetary disks through the streaming instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.-C.; Johansen, A.; Carrera, D.

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory experiments indicate that direct growth of silicate grains via mutual collisions can only produce particles up to roughly millimeters in size. On the other hand, recent simulations of the streaming instability have shown that mm/cm-sized particles require an excessively high metallicity for dense filaments to emerge. Using a numerical algorithm for stiff mutual drag force, we perform simulations of small particles with significantly higher resolutions and longer simulation times than in previous investigations. We find that particles of dimensionless stopping time τs = 10-2 and 10-3 - representing cm- and mm-sized particles interior of the water ice line - concentrate themselves via the streaming instability at a solid abundance of a few percent. We thus revise a previously published critical solid abundance curve for the regime of τs ≪ 1. The solid density in the concentrated regions reaches values higher than the Roche density, indicating that direct collapse of particles down to mm sizes into planetesimals is possible. Our results hence bridge the gap in particle size between direct dust growth limited by bouncing and the streaming instability.

  14. Fast monitoring of indoor bioaerosol concentrations with ATP bioluminescence assay using an electrostatic rod-type sampler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woon Park

    Full Text Available A culture-based colony counting method is the most widely used analytical technique for monitoring bioaerosols in both indoor and outdoor environments. However, this method requires several days for colony formation. In this study, our goal was fast monitoring (Sampling: 3 min, Detection: < 1 min of indoor bioaerosol concentrations with ATP bioluminescence assay using a bioaerosol sampler. For this purpose, a novel hand-held electrostatic rod-type sampler (110 mm wide, 115 mm long, and 200 mm tall was developed and used with a commercial luminometer, which employs the Adenosine triphosphate (ATP bioluminescence method. The sampler consisted of a wire-rod type charger and a cylindrical collector, and was operated with an applied voltage of 4.5 kV and a sampling flow rate of 150.7 lpm. Its performance was tested using Staphylococcus epidermidis which was aerosolized with an atomizer. Bioaerosol concentrations were measured using ATP bioluminescence method with our sampler and compared with the culture-based method using Andersen cascade impactor under controlled laboratory conditions. Indoor bioaerosol concentrations were also measured using both methods in various indoor environments. A linear correlation was obtained between both methods in lab-tests and field-tests. Our proposed sampler with ATP bioluminescence method may be effective for fast monitoring of indoor bioaerosol concentrations.

  15. Influence of ionic strength and surfactant concentration on electrostatic surfacial assembly of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-capped gold nanorods on fully immersed glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhan, Abdul Rahim; Guo, Longhua; Kim, Dong-Hwan

    2010-07-20

    The effect of ionic strength as well as surfactant concentration on the surface assembly of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-capped gold nanorods (GNRs) has been studied. Glass substrates were modified to yield a net negative charge through electrostatic coating of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) over a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of positively charged aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS). The substrates were then fully immersed in GNR solutions at different CTAB concentrations and ionic strengths. Under slightly excess CTAB concentrations, it was observed that the density of GNRs immobilized on a substrate was predictably tunable through the adjustment of NaCl concentration over a wide range. Motivated by the experimental observation, we hypothesize that electrostatic shielding of charges around the GNRs affects the density of GNR immobilization. This model ultimately explains that at moderate to high CTAB concentrations a second electrostatic shielding effect contributed by excess CTAB molecules occurs, resulting in a parabolic trend of nanorod surface density when ionic strength is continually increased. In contrast, at a low CTAB concentration, the effect of ionic strength becomes much less significant due to insufficient CTAB molecules to provide for the second electrostatic shielding effect. The tunability of electrostatic-based surface assembly of GNRs enables the attainment of a dense surface assembly of nanorods without significant removal of CTAB or any other substituted stabilizing agent, both of which could compromise the stability and morphology of GNRs in solution. An additional study performed to investigate the robustness of such electrostatic-based surface assembly also proved its reliability to be used as biosensing platforms.

  16. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  17. Outdoor ultrafine particle concentrations in front of fast food restaurants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vert, Cristina; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been associated with negative effects on human health. Emissions from motor vehicles are the principal source of UFPs in urban air. A study in Vancouver suggested that UFP concentrations were related to density of fast food restaurants near the monitoring sites. A

  18. A parallel electrostatic Particle-in-Cell method on unstructured tetrahedral grids for large-scale bounded collisionless plasma simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averkin, Sergey N.; Gatsonis, Nikolaos A.

    2018-06-01

    An unstructured electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (EUPIC) method is developed on arbitrary tetrahedral grids for simulation of plasmas bounded by arbitrary geometries. The electric potential in EUPIC is obtained on cell vertices from a finite volume Multi-Point Flux Approximation of Gauss' law using the indirect dual cell with Dirichlet, Neumann and external circuit boundary conditions. The resulting matrix equation for the nodal potential is solved with a restarted generalized minimal residual method (GMRES) and an ILU(0) preconditioner algorithm, parallelized using a combination of node coloring and level scheduling approaches. The electric field on vertices is obtained using the gradient theorem applied to the indirect dual cell. The algorithms for injection, particle loading, particle motion, and particle tracking are parallelized for unstructured tetrahedral grids. The algorithms for the potential solver, electric field evaluation, loading, scatter-gather algorithms are verified using analytic solutions for test cases subject to Laplace and Poisson equations. Grid sensitivity analysis examines the L2 and L∞ norms of the relative error in potential, field, and charge density as a function of edge-averaged and volume-averaged cell size. Analysis shows second order of convergence for the potential and first order of convergence for the electric field and charge density. Temporal sensitivity analysis is performed and the momentum and energy conservation properties of the particle integrators in EUPIC are examined. The effects of cell size and timestep on heating, slowing-down and the deflection times are quantified. The heating, slowing-down and the deflection times are found to be almost linearly dependent on number of particles per cell. EUPIC simulations of current collection by cylindrical Langmuir probes in collisionless plasmas show good comparison with previous experimentally validated numerical results. These simulations were also used in a parallelization

  19. Plasma and BIAS Modeling: Self-Consistent Electrostatic Particle-in-Cell with Low-Density Argon Plasma for TiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Geiser

    2011-01-01

    processes. In this paper we present a new model taken into account a self-consistent electrostatic-particle in cell model with low density Argon plasma. The collision model are based of Monte Carlo simulations is discussed for DC sputtering in lower pressure regimes. In order to simulate transport phenomena within sputtering processes realistically, a spatial and temporal knowledge of the plasma density and electrostatic field configuration is needed. Due to relatively low plasma densities, continuum fluid equations are not applicable. We propose instead a Particle-in-cell (PIC method, which allows the study of plasma behavior by computing the trajectories of finite-size particles under the action of an external and self-consistent electric field defined in a grid of points.

  20. Studies of charged particle distributions in an electrostatic confinement system. Progress report, 1 November 1971--31 January 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    Microwave cavity techniques were used to measure electron density in a spherical, inertial-electrostatic confinement device using six ion guns. The density was roughly proportional to ion current (1 to 17 mA) and decreased somewhat with increasing ion energy (10 to 37 keV). With D 2 pressure decrease from 10 to 3 mTorr, n/sub e/ decreased faster than linearly and below approximately 3 mTorr decreased linearly with pressure down to the lowest pressure of 0.4 mTorr. At 1 mTorr and 10 mA, measurements (with poor spatial resolution) were consistent with 10 10 total electrons and a central n/sub e/ of 10 9 electrons/cm 3 . Neutron flux (at 50 keV) was about one sixth that of Hirsch (J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4522 (1967)). Six- vs. three-gun operation showed a small enhancement of both n/sub e/ and neutron flux that may indicate some particle trapping

  1. An electrostatic particle-in-cell model for a lower hybrid grill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantamaeki, K.

    1998-01-01

    In recent lower hybrid (LH) current drive experiments, generation of hot spots and impurities in the grill region have been observed on Tore Supra and Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV). A possible explanation is the parasitic absorption of the LH power in front of the grill. In parasitic absorption, the short-wavelength part of the lower hybrid spectrum can resonantly interact with the cold edge electrons. In this work, the absorption of the LH waves and the generation of fast electrons near the waveguide mouth is investigated with a new tool in this context: particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The advantage of this new method is that the electric field is calculated self-consistently. The PIC simulations also provide the key parameters for the hot spot problem: the absorbed power, the radial deposition profiles and the absorption length. A grill model has been added to the 2d3v PIC code XPDP2. Two sets of simulations were made. The first simulations used a phenomenological grill model. Strong absorption in the edge plasma was obtained. About 5% of the coupled power was absorbed within 1.7 mm in the case with fairly large amount of power in the modes with large parallel refractive index. Consequently, a rapid generation of fast electrons took place in the same region. In order to model experiments with realistic wave spectra, the PIC code was coupled to the slow wave antenna coupling code SWAN. The absorption within 1.7 mm in front of the grill was found to be between 2 and 5%. In the short time of a few wave periods, part of the initially thermal electrons (T e = 100 eV) were accelerated to velocities corresponding to a few keV. (orig.)

  2. An electrostatic particle-in-cell model for a lower hybrid grill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantamaeki, K

    1998-07-01

    In recent lower hybrid (LH) current drive experiments, generation of hot spots and impurities in the grill region have been observed on Tore Supra and Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV). A possible explanation is the parasitic absorption of the LH power in front of the grill. In parasitic absorption, the short-wavelength part of the lower hybrid spectrum can resonantly interact with the cold edge electrons. In this work, the absorption of the LH waves and the generation of fast electrons near the waveguide mouth is investigated with a new tool in this context: particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The advantage of this new method is that the electric field is calculated self-consistently. The PIC simulations also provide the key parameters for the hot spot problem: the absorbed power, the radial deposition profiles and the absorption length. A grill model has been added to the 2d3v PIC code XPDP2. Two sets of simulations were made. The first simulations used a phenomenological grill model. Strong absorption in the edge plasma was obtained. About 5% of the coupled power was absorbed within 1.7 mm in the case with fairly large amount of power in the modes with large parallel refractive index. Consequently, a rapid generation of fast electrons took place in the same region. In order to model experiments with realistic wave spectra, the PIC code was coupled to the slow wave antenna coupling code SWAN. The absorption within 1.7 mm in front of the grill was found to be between 2 and 5%. In the short time of a few wave periods, part of the initially thermal electrons (T{sub e} = 100 eV) were accelerated to velocities corresponding to a few keV. (orig.)

  3. Electrostatics effects in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saurabh; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2013-06-01

    This purpose of this study is to investigate the role of physiochemical properties and operational conditions in determining the electrostatic interactions between two species on a surface under typical industrial conditions. The variables considered for the study were particle type, particle size and shape, loading mass, surface type, angle of inclination of chute, nature and concentration of additive. Triboelectrification of simple and binary mixtures in a simple hopper and chute geometry was observed to be strongly linked to work function and moisture content of the powdered material.

  4. The role of electrostatic interactions in the Streptococcus thermophilus adhesion on human erythrocytes in media with different 2:1 electrolyte concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Гордієнко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the two-stage sorption model at the first stage is mostly reversible attachment, while at the second irreversible stage molecular and cellular adhesion processes take place. An important factor, influencing the adhesion processes, is physical-chemical characteristics of the medium, in particular, the presence of divalent cations therein. The aim of this work is to assess the role of electrostatic component of the intercellular interactions in media with different 2:1 electrolyte concentration at the first reversible stage of adhesion and probability of further occurrence of specific binding. Electrostatic interactions play a decisive role in intercellular adhesion process. The obtained experimental results and theoretical calculations of the electrostatic interaction parameters once again confirmed the acceptability of a two-stage model of sorption and DLVO theory to describe a cell-cell adhesion.

  5. Outdoor ultrafine particle concentrations in front of fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vert, Cristina; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been associated with negative effects on human health. Emissions from motor vehicles are the principal source of UFPs in urban air. A study in Vancouver suggested that UFP concentrations were related to density of fast food restaurants near the monitoring sites. A previous monitoring campaign could not separate the contribution of restaurants from road traffic. The main goal of this study has been the quantification of fast food restaurants' contribution to outdoor UFP concentrations. A portable particle number counter (DiscMini) has been used to carry out mobile monitoring in a largely pedestrianized area in the city center of Utrecht. A fixed route passing 17 fast food restaurants was followed on 8 days. UFP concentrations in front of the restaurants were 1.61 times higher than in a nearby square without any local sources used as control area and 1.22 times higher compared with all measurements conducted in between the restaurants. Adjustment for other sources such as passing mopeds, smokers or candles did not explain the increase. In conclusion, fast food restaurants result in significant increases in outdoor UFP concentrations in front of the restaurant.

  6. Particle analysis on concentrated particle suspensions by transmission fluctuation spectrometry with band-pass filters: part 2. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yamin; Shen, Jianqi; Cai, Xiaoshu; Riebel, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Transmission fluctuation spectrometry (TFS), as a new method of online and real-time particle analysis developed in recent years, can measure the particle size distribution and particle concentration simultaneously. In the preceding paper, high concentration effects on the TFS using band-pass filters were investigated by numerical simulation, and empirical expressions to correct the effects were obtained. This paper presents a study on the TFS measurements in which the particle concentration varies in a very wide dynamic range. Finally, reasonable results on both the particle size distribution and particle concentration are obtained by introducing empirical corrections into the inversion algorithm

  7. Electrode geometry effects on the collection efficiency of submicron and ultra-fine dust particles in spike-plate electrostatic precipitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocilo, D; Podlinski, J; Chang, J S; Mizeraczyk, J; Findlay, R D

    2008-01-01

    The collection efficiency of electrostatic precipitators for the submicron particles ranging from 0.1 to 1 μm and ultrafine particles smaller than 0. lμm is below the requirements of new PM2.5 emission regulations. In this work, numerical and experimental studies were conducted to examine the effect of discharge and collecting electrode geometries on the ion density and electric field profiles and consequently their effect on the particle surface charge and collection efficiency. The collection efficiency prediction was based on a modified Deutsche's equation after calculation of three dimensional electric field and ion density profiles. Whereas, the particle surface charge was obtained from diffusion and field charging models. Results show that the collection efficiency of fine particles for the spike-type discharge electrode when compared to the conventional wire-type was improved. Experimental validations were conducted on a bench scale electrostatic precipitator for total and partial collection efficiency of particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 20 μm and the results indicated that the model can be effectively applied for prototype design, modification, and scale-up of collecting and discharge electrodes.

  8. Decreasing particle number concentrations in a warming atmosphere and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation contributes significantly to the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN as well as cloud CN (CCN, a key factor determining aerosol indirect radiative forcing of the climate system. Using a physics-based nucleation mechanism that is consistent with a range of field observations of aerosol formation, it is shown that projected increases in global temperatures could significantly inhibit new particle, and CCN, formation rates worldwide. An analysis of CN concentrations observed at four NOAA ESRL/GMD baseline stations since the 1970s and two other sites since 1990s reveals long-term decreasing trends that are consistent in sign with, but are larger in magnitude than, the predicted temperature effects. The possible reasons for larger observed long-term CN reductions at remote sites are discussed. The combined effects of rising temperatures on aerosol nucleation rates and other chemical and microphysical processes may imply substantial decreases in future tropospheric particle abundances associated with global warming, delineating a potentially significant feedback mechanism that increases Earth's climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. Further research is needed to quantify the magnitude of such a feedback process.

  9. Optical sensor technology for simultaneous measurement of particle speed and concentration of micro sized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper; Han, Anpan; Kristensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Experimental characterization of a sensor technology that can measure particle speed and concentration simultaneously in liquids and gases is presented here. The basic sensor principle is based on an optical element that shapes a light beam into well-defined fringes. The technology can be described...

  10. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors: Existing data and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Thatcher, T.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Sohn, M.D.; Delp, W.W.; Riley, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments. It is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. For health scientists, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this paper, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles indoors. To achieve this goal, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information on how particle behavior during air leakage, HVAC operation, and particle filtration effects indoor particle concentration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful; and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations

  11. Atherogenic lipoprotein particle size and concentrations and the effect of pravastatin in children with familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anouk; Rodenburg, Jessica; Vissers, Maud N.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Wiegman, Albert; Trip, Mieke D.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Otvos, James D.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine lipoprotein particle concentrations and size in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and investigate the effect of pravastatin therapy on these measures. STUDY DESIGN: Lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

  12. Electrostatic micromanipulation of a conductive particle by a single probe with consideration of an error in the evaluated mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Kenji; Saito, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Recently, micromanipulation techniques for handling a conductive microparticle have been in demand. Electrostatic micromanipulation with a single probe is a promising technique for such manipulation. While the feasibility of the technique has been proved experimentally, the success rate of manipulation was 25%, and further improvements are required. To enhance the success rate and realize highly reliable electrostatic micromanipulation, this paper proposes an improved design of a voltage sequence which is applied to deposit a microparticle onto a substrate plate. It was found through investigation that the error in the evaluated mass of a microparticle must be considered in order to improve the success rate of the manipulation. Behavior of a microparticle during the electrostatic micromanipulation is calculated by a boundary element method, and the influence of error is discussed. An improved design of the applied voltage sequence that can tolerate an error in the evaluated mass is described. Moreover, the effectiveness of the newly designed voltage sequence in the electrostatic micromanipulation is experimentally shown.

  13. Studies on upgrading quality of zircon concentrate to meet the standard for frit by a combination of using a screen plate electrostatic separator and other beneficiation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Hung

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, researches on qualitative upgrade of zircon concentrate in order to meet the standard for frit were carried out by combinations of a screen plate type electrostatic separator with other physical beneficiation methods such as magnetic separation, flotation, gravity by air-table along with chemical treatment on laboratory scale was itself manufactured for studied scopes, after that zircon concentrate about 63.9-64.8% of ZrO 2 , less than 0.13% of TiO 2 and 0.128% of Fe 2 O 3 values were recovered. (NDH)

  14. Gravitational settling of a highly concentrated system of solid spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Usanina, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, we report on the results of an experimental study of the process of gravity sedimentation of a cloud of monodispersed solid spherical particles with initial volume concentration C > 0.03, which was performed in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. An analytical estimate of the settling regimes of spherical particle clouds is presented. A new method for creating a spherical particle cloud with a high concentration of particles is proposed. A qualitative picture of the settling process of a highly concentrated particle cloud under gravity is revealed. A criterial dependence for the drag coefficient of a sedimenting spherical particle cloud as an entity is obtained.

  15. Yukawa multipole electrostatics and nontrivial coupling between electrostatic and dispersion interactions in electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellander, Roland; Ramirez, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    An exact treatment of screened electrostatics in electrolyte solutions is presented. In electrolytes the anisotropy of the exponentially decaying electrostatic potential from a molecule extends to the far field region. The full directional dependence of the electrostatic potential from a charged or uncharged molecule remains in the longest range tail (i.e. from all multipole moments). In particular, the range of the potential from an ion and that from an electroneutral polar particle is generally exactly the same. This is in contrast to the case in vacuum or pure polar liquids, where the potential from a single charge is longer ranged than that from a dipole, which is, itself, longer ranged than the one from a quadrupole etc. The orientational dependence of the exponentially screened electrostatic interaction between two molecules in electrolytes is therefore rather complex even at long distances. These facts are formalized in Yukawa multipole expansions of the electrostatic potential and the pair interaction free energy based on the Yukawa function family exp(-κr)/r m , where r is the distance, κ is a decay parameter and m is a positive integer. The expansion is formally exact for electrolytes with molecular solvent and in the primitive model, provided the non-Coulombic interactions between the particles are sufficiently short ranged. The results can also be applied in the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Differences and similarities to the ordinary multipole expansion of electrostatics are pointed out. On the other hand, when the non-Coulombic interactions between the constituent particles of the electrolyte solution contain a dispersion 1/r 6 potential, the electrostatic potential from a molecule decays like a power law for long distances rather than as a Yukawa function. This is due to nontrivial coupling between the electrostatic and dispersion interactions. There remains an exponentially decaying component in the electrostatic potential, but it becomes

  16. Concentration and characterization of airborne particles in Tehran's subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Hosein; Hoseini, Mohammad; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Yousef; Jaafari, Jalil; Safari, Gholam Hosein

    2014-06-01

    Particulate matter is an important air pollutant, especially in closed environments like underground subway stations. In this study, a total of 13 elements were determined from PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected at two subway stations (Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiye) in Tehran's subway system. Sampling was conducted in April to August 2011 to measure PM concentrations in platform and adjacent outdoor air of the stations. In the Imam Khomeini station, the average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 94.4 ± 26.3 and 52.3 ± 16.5 μg m(-3) in the platform and 81.8 ± 22.2 and 35 ± 17.6 μg m(-3) in the outdoor air, respectively. In the Sadeghiye station, mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 87.6 ± 23 and 41.3 ± 20.4 μg m(-3) in the platform and 73.9 ± 17.3 and 30 ± 15 μg m(-3), in the outdoor air, respectively. The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction were accounted for 43% (PM10) and 47.7% (PM2.5) in platform of Imam Khomeini station and 15.9% (PM10) and 18.5% (PM2.5) in the outdoor air of this station. Also, at the Sadeghiye station, each fraction accounted for 31.6% (PM10) and 39.8% (PM2.5) in platform and was 11.7% (PM10) and 14.3% (PM2.5) in the outdoor. At the Imam Khomeini station, Fe was the predominant element to represent 32.4 and 36 % of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 11.5 and 13.3% in the outdoor, respectively. At the Sadeghiye station, this element represented 22.7 and 29.8% of total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 8.7 and 10.5% in the outdoor air, respectively. Other major crustal elements were 5.8% (PM10) and 5.3% (PM2.5) in the Imam Khomeini station platform and 2.3 and 2.4% in the outdoor air, respectively. The proportion of other minor elements was significantly lower, actually less than 7% in total samples, and V was the minor concentration in total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in both platform stations.

  17. Relationship between dioxin concentration and particle size for suspended sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, K.; Sakurai, T.; Choi, J.W.; Suzuki, N.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to find out how the amounts of adsorbed dioxins, i.e., polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), mono-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and non-ortho-PCBs, vary with the particle size of suspended sediment. As dioxins are hydrophobic, they tend to adsorb onto particles suspended in water, and the determination of which dioxin congeners readily dissolve in water or adsorb onto particles is central to the characterization of dioxin behavior in water/sediment systems. Presumably suspension of sediments and the size of the particles govern the transfer of dioxins to aquatic organisms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the relationship between the amount of dioxins and the particle-size distribution of resuspended, rather than settled, sediment.

  18. Combination of ozone feed and wet electrostatic precipitator. Experimental study of an innovative system to filter gaseous iodine and iodine containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouëllo, Mélany; Hokkinen, Jouni; Kärkelä, Teemu; Auvinen, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Efficient mitigation systems capable of reducing as much as possible the radioactive discharge to the environment in a severe Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident are a necessity. Nuclear Power Plants are equipped with filtration systems which have been characterized for aerosol retention in a short term, but to a far lesser extent for the retention of volatile iodine or for the long-term behaviour of the system. After the Fukushima accident, one of the main concerns of the nuclear industry has been to verify the ability of filtration systems to mitigate the possible source term to the environment. Radiotoxic iodine has a significant contribution to a possible source term in a severe NPP accident. An innovative system has been developed at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. to filter gaseous iodine and iodine containing particles (e.g. I x O y ). The system consists of a combination of an ozone feed and a modern wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). The electrostatic precipitation (ESP) technique is widely used in the industry to filter out impurities (i.e. particles) in gases. The advantage of a WESP is that the impurities are removed from the system with a solution. They can thus directly be transported to a water container, such as the sump in a nuclear power plant. The addition of ozone feed at the inlet of the WESP allows the oxidation of gaseous iodine into particles. The efficiency of the system for the filtration of gaseous molecular iodine and methyl iodine has been tested and the subsequent observations are further discussed in this paper. The results showed that the combination of WESP together with ozone feed results in a good filtering efficiency against molecular iodine under air atmosphere and air/steam atmosphere. (author)

  19. The particle concentration effect on magnetic resonance linewidth for magnetic liquids with chain aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the assumption of particle chains formation within a magnetic liquid, computer simulation of the magnetic resonance line is presented. The dependence on particle concentration within a magnetic liquid of magnetic resonance linewidth is analyzed. The computer simulation demonstrates that the particles chaining has an important effect on the enlargement of the magnetic resonance line. Increasing the particle concentration within magnetic liquid leads to an increase in the linewidth. The agreement with some experimental findings is discussed

  20. Electrostatic deposition of a micro solder particle using a single probe by applying a single rectangular pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabayashi, Daizo; Sawai, Kenji; Saito, Shigeki; Takahashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, micromanipulation techniques have been in high demand. A technique to deposit a metal microparticle onto a metal substrate by using a single metal probe has been proposed as one of the techniques. A solder particle with a diameter of 20–30 µm, initially adhering to the probe tip, is detached and deposited onto a substrate. The success rate of the particle deposition was 44% in the previous research, and is insufficient for industrial applications. In this paper, a technique of particle deposition by applying a single rectangular pulse is proposed, and the mechanism of the deposition is described. In the mechanism, an electric discharge between the probe and the particle when the particle reaches the substrate plays an important role in the particle deposition. Moreover, the mechanism of the proposed technique is verified by experiments of particle deposition, which are observed using a high-speed camera, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an oscilloscope. The success rate of the particle deposition has increased to 93% by the proposed technique. Furthermore, the damage to the particle by the electric discharge is evaluated using an RC circuit model, and the applicability of the proposed technique is discussed. (paper)

  1. Electrostatic mirror of time-of-flight focusing of charged particles and its application to mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is more particularly aimed at the electrostatic devices used in time-of-flight mass spectrometers. To obtain a better resolution and a maximum transmission, the mirror is characterized by three annular electrodes with same radius R: - having at least an inner conductor surface related to an electric source, - delimiting by their facing ends cross-sections, - spaced successively with coaxial arrangement, - having an axial length for the center electrode equal to 0,9 R and for the end electrodes a length enough to give to them a behaviour equivalent to a infinite length tube cylinder. Ion beams are reflected by the mirror which in the same time realizes the time-of-flight unicity for ion. TOF unicity means that time of flight will be the same for equal mass ions [fr

  2. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steelman, Ryan; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  3. Electrostatic curtain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.C.

    1992-05-01

    This report presents the results of experiments using electrostatic curtains (ESCS) as a transuranic (TRU) contamination control technique. The TRU contaminants included small (micrometer to sub micrometer) particles of plutonium and americium compounds associated with defense-related waste. Three series of experiments were conducted. The first was with uncontaminated Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) soil, the second used contaminated soil containing plutonium-239 (from a mixture of Rocky Flats Plant contaminated soil and INEL uncontaminated soil), and the third was uncontaminated INEL soil spiked with plutonium-239. All experiments with contaminated soil were conducted inside a glove box containing a dust generator, low volume cascade impactor (LVCI), electrostatic separator, and electrostatic materials. The data for these experiments consisted of the mass of dust collected on the various material coupons, plates, and filters; radiochemical analysis of selected samples; and photographs, as well as computer printouts giving particle size distributions and dimensions from the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The following results were found: (a) plutonium content (pCi/g) was found to increase with smaller soil particle sizes and (b) the electrostatic field had a stronger influence on smaller particle sizes compared to larger particle sizes. The SEM analysis indicated that the particle size of the tracer Pu239 used in the spiked soil experiments was below the detectable size limit (0.5 μm) of the SEM and, thus, may not be representative of plutonium particles found in defense-related waste. The use of radiochemical analysis indicated that plutonium could be found on separator plates of both polarities, as well as passing through the electric field and collecting on LVCI filters

  4. COOKING-RELATED PARTICLE CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED IN AN OCCUPIED TOWNHOME IN RESTON, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In non-smoking households, cooking is one of the most significant sources of indoor particles. To date, there are limited data available regarding indoor particle concentrations generated by different types of cooking. To increase the knowledge base associated with particles ...

  5. Effects of types of ventilation system on indoor particle concentrations in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S; Jee, N-Y; Jeong, J-W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of ventilation systems on indoor particle concentrations in residential buildings. Fifteen occupied, single-family apartments were selected from three sites. The three sites have three different ventilation systems: unbalanced mechanical ventilation, balanced mechanical ventilation, and natural ventilation. Field measurements were conducted between April and June 2012, when outdoor air temperatures were comfortable. Number concentrations of particles, PM2.5 and CO2 , were continuously measured both outdoors and indoors. In the apartments with natural ventilation, I/O ratios of particle number concentrations ranged from 0.56 to 0.72 for submicron particles, and from 0.25 to 0.60 for particles larger than 1.0 μm. The daily average indoor particle concentration decreased to 50% below the outdoor level for submicron particles and 25% below the outdoor level for fine particles, when the apartments were mechanically ventilated. The two mechanical ventilation systems reduced the I/O ratios by 26% for submicron particles and 65% for fine particles compared with the natural ventilation. These results showed that mechanical ventilation can reduce exposure to outdoor particles in residential buildings. Results of this study confirm that mechanical ventilation with filtration can significantly reduce indoor particle levels compared with natural ventilation. The I/O ratios of particles substantially varied at the naturally ventilated apartments because of the influence of variable window opening conditions and unsteadiness of wind flow on the penetration of outdoor air particles. For better prediction of the exposure to outdoor particles in naturally ventilated residential buildings, it is important to understand the penetration of outdoor particles with variable window opening conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Indoor particle dynamics in a school office: determination of particle concentrations, deposition rates and penetration factors under naturally ventilated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, X C; Zhao, J J; Jing, Z; Wang, Q G; Ni, P F

    2018-05-09

    Recently, the problem of indoor particulate matter pollution has received much attention. An increasing number of epidemiological studies show that the concentration of atmospheric particulate matter has a significant effect on human health, even at very low concentrations. Most of these investigations have relied upon outdoor particle concentrations as surrogates of human exposures. However, considering that the concentration distribution of the indoor particulate matter is largely dependent on the extent to which these particles penetrate the building and on the degree of suspension in the indoor air, human exposures to particles of outdoor origin may not be equal to outdoor particle concentration levels. Therefore, it is critical to understand the relationship between the particle concentrations found outdoors and those found in indoor micro-environments. In this study, experiments were conducted using a naturally ventilated office located in Qingdao, China. The indoor and outdoor particle concentrations were measured at the same time using an optical counter with four size ranges. The particle size distribution ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 μm, and the experimental period was from April to September, 2016. Based on the experimental data, the dynamic and mass balance model based on time was used to estimate the penetration rate and deposition rate at air exchange rates of 0.03-0.25 h -1 . The values of the penetration rate and deposition velocity of indoor particles were determined to range from 0.45 to 0.82 h -1 and 1.71 to 2.82 m/h, respectively. In addition, the particulate pollution exposure in the indoor environment was analyzed to estimate the exposure hazard from indoor particulate matter pollution, which is important for human exposure to particles and associated health effects. The conclusions from this study can serve to provide a better understanding the dynamics and behaviors of airborne particle entering into buildings. And they will also highlight

  7. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-08-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs.

  8. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  9. Electrostatic fluctuation and fluctuation-induced particle flux during formation of the edge transport barrier in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, T.; Hamada, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.; Miura, Y.; Hoshino, K.; Ogawa, H.; Shinohara, K.; Kamiya, K.; Kusama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The electrostatic fluctuation with Geodesic-Acoustic-Mode (GAM) frequency is observed in L-mode plasmas. The fluctuation has the poloidal wave number (k θ ) of (-2 ± 24) x 10 -3 (cm -1 ), that corresponds to the poloidal mode number of 1.5 or less, and the radial wave number (k r ) of 0.94 ± 0.05 (cm -1 ), that is corresponds to k r ρ i = 0.26 < 1. The amplitude of the fluctuation changes in the radial direction; it is small near the separatrix and it has maximum at 3 cm inside the separatrix. The relation between the amplitude of potential fluctuation and that of density fluctuation is the same as that of the predicted GAM. The fluctuation is probably GAM. The envelope of ambient density fluctuation and the potential fluctuation have a significant coherence at the GAM frequency. Thus, it is clearly verified that the fluctuation with the GAM frequency correlates with the ambient density fluctuation. The fluctuation with the GAM frequency affects the particle transport through the modulation of the ambient fluctuation. But the effect is not large, and it is not a sufficient condition to form the edge transport barrier and to drive the intermittent particle flux. (author)

  10. Electrostatic fluctuation and fluctuation-induced particle flux during formation of the edge transport barrier in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, T.; Miura, K.; Hoshino, K.

    2005-01-01

    The electrostatic fluctuation with Geodesic-Acoustic-Mode (GAM) frequency is observed in L-mode plasmas. The fluctuation has the poloidal wave number (k θ ) of (-2 ± 24) x 10 -3 (cm -1 ), that corresponds to the poloidal mode number of 1.5 or less, and the radial wave number (k γ ) of 0.94±0.05 (cm -1 ), that is corresponds to k γ ρ i =0.26 < 1. The amplitude of the fluctuation changes in the radial direction; it is small near the separatrix and it has maximum at 3 cm inside the separatrix. The relation between the amplitude of potential fluctuation and that of density fluctuation is the same as that of the predicted GAM. The fluctuation is probably GAM. The envelope of ambient density fluctuation and the potential fluctuation have a significant coherence at the GAM frequency. Thus, it is clearly verified that the fluctuation with the GAM frequency correlates with the ambient density fluctuation. The fluctuation with the GAM frequency affects the particle transport through the modulation of the ambient fluctuation. But the effect is not large, and it is not a sufficient condition to form the edge transport barrier and to drive the intermittent particle flux. (author)

  11. Contribution from indoor sources to particle number and mass concentrations in residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Hitchins, Jane; Gilbert, Dale

    As part of a large study investigating indoor air in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia, the purpose of this work was to quantify emission characteristics of indoor particle sources in 15 houses. Submicrometer particle number and approximation of PM 2.5 concentrations were measured simultaneously for more than 48 h in the kitchen of all the houses by using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a photometer (DustTrak), respectively. In addition, characterizations of particles resulting from cooking conducted in an identical way in all the houses were measured by using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a DustTrak. All the events of elevated particle concentrations were linked to indoor activities using house occupants diary entries, and catalogued into 21 different types of indoor activities. This enabled quantification of the effect of indoor sources on indoor particle concentrations as well as quantification of emission rates from the sources. For example, the study found that frying, grilling, stove use, toasting, cooking pizza, cooking, candle vaporizing eucalyptus oil and fan heater use, could elevate the indoor submicrometer particle number concentration levels by more than five times, while PM 2.5 concentrations could be up to 3, 30 and 90 times higher than the background levels during smoking, frying and grilling, respectively.

  12. Contribution of ship traffic to aerosol particle concentrations downwind of a major shipping lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivekäs, N.; Massling, Andreas; Grythe, H.

    2014-01-01

    at a remote location. We studied the particle number concentration (12 to 490 nm in diameter), the mass concentration (12 to 150 nm in diameter) and number and volume size distribution of aerosol particles in ship plumes for a period of 4.5 months at Hovsore, a coastal site on the western coast of Jutland...... in Denmark. During episodes of western winds, the site is about 50 km downwind of a major shipping lane and the plumes are approximately 1 hour old when they arrive at the site. We have used a sliding percentile-based method for separating the plumes from the measured background values and to calculate...... the ship plume contribution to the total particle number and PM0.15 mass concentration (mass of particles below 150 nm in diameter, converted from volume assuming sphericity) at the site. The method is not limited to particle number or volume concentration, but can also be used for different chemical...

  13. Multipolar electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Salvatore; Hughes, Timothy J; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-06-14

    Atomistic simulation of chemical systems is currently limited by the elementary description of electrostatics that atomic point-charges offer. Unfortunately, a model of one point-charge for each atom fails to capture the anisotropic nature of electronic features such as lone pairs or π-systems. Higher order electrostatic terms, such as those offered by a multipole moment expansion, naturally recover these important electronic features. The question remains as to why such a description has not yet been widely adopted by popular molecular mechanics force fields. There are two widely-held misconceptions about the more rigorous formalism of multipolar electrostatics: (1) Accuracy: the implementation of multipole moments, compared to point-charges, offers little to no advantage in terms of an accurate representation of a system's energetics, structure and dynamics. (2) Efficiency: atomistic simulation using multipole moments is computationally prohibitive compared to simulation using point-charges. Whilst the second of these may have found some basis when computational power was a limiting factor, the first has no theoretical grounding. In the current work, we disprove the two statements above and systematically demonstrate that multipole moments are not discredited by either. We hope that this perspective will help in catalysing the transition to more realistic electrostatic modelling, to be adopted by popular molecular simulation software.

  14. Influential parameters on particle concentration and size distribution in the mainstream of e-cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuoco, F.C.; Buonanno, G.; Stabile, L.; Vigo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of particle number concentrations and size distributions through a Condensation Particle Counter and a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer spectrometer, respectively. A thermodilution system was also used to properly sample and dilute the mainstream aerosol. Different types of electronic cigarettes, liquid flavors, liquid nicotine contents, as well as different puffing times were tested. Conventional tobacco cigarettes were also investigated. The total particle number concentration peak (for 2-s puff), averaged across the different electronic cigarette types and liquids, was measured equal to 4.39 ± 0.42 × 10 9 part. cm −3 , then comparable to the conventional cigarette one (3.14 ± 0.61 × 10 9 part. cm −3 ). Puffing times and nicotine contents were found to influence the particle concentration, whereas no significant differences were recognized in terms of flavors and types of cigarettes used. Particle number distribution modes of the electronic cigarette-generated aerosol were in the 120–165 nm range, then similar to the conventional cigarette one. -- Highlights: • High particle number concentrations measured in e-cigarettes' mainstream aerosol. • Particle concentrations were higher than conventional tobacco cigarette ones. • Nicotine content and puffing times influenced particle concentrations. • Flavoring and type of cigarette did not affect the particle number concentration. • Particle number distribution mode of e-cigarette aerosol was equal to 120–165 nm. -- The mainstream aerosol generated by electronic cigarettes was characterized and the effect of each operating parameter was evaluated: results were similar to conventional cigarette ones

  15. Tire-tread and bitumen particle concentrations in aerosol and soil samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans

    2002-01-01

    % of the mass of airborne particulate tire debris have aerodynamic diameters smaller than 1 mum. The mean aerodynamic diameter is about I gm for the bitumen particles. This size range enables the possibility for far range transport and inhalation by humans. Soil concentrations in the vicinity of a highway...... indicate an approximate exponential decrease with increasing distance from the road. Constant values are reached after about 5 m for the tire particles and 10 m for the bitumen particles. Concentrations in soil that has not been touched for at least 30 years show a decrease in tire concentration...

  16. Correlation of Air Quality Data to Ultrafine Particles (UFP Concentration and Size Distribution in Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study monitored ultrafine particles (UFP concurrent with environmental air quality data, investigating whether already existing instrumentation used by environmental authorities can provide reference values for estimating UFP concentrations. Of particular interest was the relation of UFP to PM10 (particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO2 in ambient air. Existing PM measurement methods alone did not correspond exactly enough with the actual particle number, but we observed a link between NOx and NO2 to UFP concentration. The combined data could act as proxy-indicator for authorities in estimating particle number concentrations, but cannot replace UFP monitoring.

  17. Theory and uses of electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descolas, M

    1974-01-01

    Factors influencing the efficiency of electrostatic precipitators, and the principal uses of this type of dust separator are reviewed. The counter-ionization caused by very high resistivity of the dust can be avoided theoretically by increasing the temperature. The resistance of the settled dust layer is determined not only by the inherent resistivity of the dust but also that of impurities adsorbed by the dust particles, such as water vapor and sulfur dioxide, which tend to decrease the resistance. The maximum possible current intensity decreases with increasing temperature. The current intensity decreases with increasing dust concentration in the waste gas. Electrostatic dust precipitators are successfully used in thermal power plants, waste incinerators, open-hearth furnaces, and oxygen converters. In the pulp industry, they are used to recover sodium sulfate and carbonate between the soda lye boiler and the economizer.

  18. Measurement of particle size distribution and mass concentration of nuclear fuel aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.

    1982-01-01

    The particle size distribution and particle mass concentration of a nuclear fuel aerosol is measured by admitting the aerosol into a vertically-extending container, positioning an alpha particle detector within the container so that its window is horizontal and directed vertically, stopping the admission of aerosol into the container, detecting the alpha-activity of the particles of the aerosol sedimenting onto the detector window (for example in a series of equal time intervals until a constant level is reached), and converting the alpha-activity measurements into particle size distribution and/or particle mass concentration measurements. The detector is attached to a pivotted arm and by raising a counterweight can be lowered from the container for cleaning. (author)

  19. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  20. Electrostatic accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We ...

  1. Efficiency determination of an electrostatic lunar dust collector by discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Wu, Chang-Yu; Sorloaica-Hickman, Nicoleta

    2012-07-01

    Lunar grains become charged by the sun's radiation in the tenuous atmosphere of the moon. This leads to lunar dust levitation and particle deposition which often create serious problems in the costly system deployed in lunar exploration. In this study, an electrostatic lunar dust collector (ELDC) is proposed to address the issue and the discrete element method (DEM) is used to investigate the effects of electrical particle-particle interactions, non-uniformity of the electrostatic field, and characteristics of the ELDC. The simulations on 20-μm-sized lunar particles reveal the electrical particle-particle interactions of the dust particles within the ELDC plates require 29% higher electrostatic field strength than that without the interactions for 100% collection efficiency. For the given ELDC geometry, consideration of non-uniformity of the electrostatic field along with electrical interactions between particles on the same ELDC geometry leads to a higher requirement of ˜3.5 kV/m to ensure 100% particle collection. Notably, such an electrostatic field is about 103 times less than required for electrodynamic self-cleaning methods. Finally, it is shown for a "half-size" system that the DEM model predicts greater collection efficiency than the Eulerian-based model at all voltages less than required for 100% efficiency. Halving the ELDC dimensions boosts the particle concentration inside the ELDC, as well as the resulting field strength for a given voltage. Though a lunar photovoltaic system was the subject, the results of this study are useful for evaluation of any system for collecting charged particles in other high vacuum environment using an electrostatic field.

  2. Number concentrations of solid particles from the spinning top aerosol generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.

    1983-02-01

    A spinning top aerosol generator has been used to generate monodisperse methylene blue particles in the size range from 0.6 to 6 μm. The number concentrations of these aerosols have been determined by means of an optical particle counter and compared with the equivalent measurements obtained by filter collection and microscopy. (author)

  3. Radon in indoor concentrations and indoor concentrations of metal dust particles in museums and other public buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, G L; Braz, D; de Jesus, E F; Santos, S M; Cardoso, K; Hecht, A A; Dias da Cunha, Moore K

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the public and occupational exposure to radon and metal-bearing particles in museums and public buildings located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For this study, four buildings were selected: two historic buildings, which currently house an art gallery and an art museum; and two modern buildings, a chapel and a club. Integrated radon concentration measurements were performed using passive radon detectors with solid state nuclear track detector-type Lexan used as nuclear track detector. Air samplers with a cyclone were used to collect the airborne particle samples that were analyzed by the particle-induced X-ray emission technique. The average unattached-radon concentrations in indoor air in the buildings were above 40 Bq/m(3), with the exception of Building D as measured in 2009. The average radon concentrations in indoor air in the four buildings in 2009 were below the recommended reference level by World Health Organization (100 Bq/m(3)); however, in 2011, the average concentrations of radon in Buildings A and C were above this level, though lower than 300 Bq/m(3). The average concentrations of unattached radon were lower than 148 Bq/m(3) (4pCi/L), the USEPA level recommended to take action to reduce the concentrations of radon in indoor air. The unattached-radon average concentrations were also lower than the value recommended by the European Union for new houses. As the unattached-radon concentrations were below the international level recommended to take action to reduce the radon concentration in air, it was concluded that during the period of sampling, there was low risk to human health due to the inhalation of unattached radon in these four buildings.

  4. Inertial electrostatic confinement and nuclear fusion in the interelectrode plasma of a nanosecond vacuum discharge. II: Particle-in-cell simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurilenkov, Yu. K.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Results of particle-in-sell simulations of ion acceleration by using the KARAT code in a cylindrical geometry in the problem formulation corresponding to an actual experiment with a low-energy vacuum discharge with a hollow cathode are presented. The fundamental role of the formed virtual cathode is analyzed. The space-time dynamics of potential wells related to the formation of the virtual cathode is discussed. Quasi-steady potential wells (with a depth of ∼80% of the applied voltage) cause acceleration of deuterium ions to energies about the electron beam energy (∼50 keV). In the well, a quasi-isotropic velocity distribution function of fast ions forms. The results obtained are compared with available data on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF). In particular, similar correlations between the structure of potential wells and the neutron yield, as well as the scaling of the fusion power density, which increases with decreasing virtual cathode radius and increasing potential well depth, are considered. The chosen electrode configuration and potential well parameters provide power densities of nuclear DD fusion in a nanosecond vacuum discharge noticeably higher than those achieved in other similar IECF systems.

  5. The effect of particle size and concentration on the flow properties of a homogeneous slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.A.; Crowe, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the effects of particle size and concentration on the velocity distribution in the fully developed flow of a homogeneous slurry. The slurry consisted of chloroform and silica gel with matched index of refraction to enable Laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements through the mixture. Slurries with two particle sizes and solids concentration up to 30% by volume were studied. Measurements were made over a Reynolds number range of 1,200 to 30,000

  6. Real-time measurement of aerosol particle concentration at high temperatures; Hiukkaspitoisuuden reaaliaikainen mittaaminen korkeassa laempoetilassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, J; Hautanen, J; Laitinen, A [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Physics

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a new method for continuous aerosol particle concentration measurement at elevated temperatures (up to 800-1000 deg C). The measured property of the aerosol particles is the so called Fuchs surface area. This quantity is relevant for diffusion limited mass transfer to particles. The principle of the method is as follows. First, aerosol particles are charged electrically by diffusion charging process. The charging takes place at high temperature. After the charging, aerosol is diluted and cooled. Finally, aerosol particles are collected and the total charge carried by the aerosol particles is measured. Particle collection and charge measurement take place at low temperature. Benefits of this measurement method are: particles are charged in-situ, charge of the particles is not affected by the temperature and pressure changes after sampling, particle collection and charge measurement are carried out outside the process conditions, and the measured quantity is well defined. The results of this study can be used when the formation of the fly ash particles is studied. Another field of applications is the study and the development of gasification processes. Possibly, the method can also be used for the monitoring the operation of the high temperature particle collection devices. (orig.)

  7. Search for Effects of an Electrostatic Potential on Clocks in the Frame of Reference of a Charged Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringermacher, Harry I.; Conradi, Mark S.; Cassenti, Brice

    2005-01-01

    Results of experiments to confirm a theory that links classical electromagnetism with the geometry of spacetime are described. The theory, based on the introduction of a Torsion tensor into Einstein s equations and following the approach of Schroedinger, predicts effects on clocks attached to charged particles, subject to intense electric fields, analogous to the effects on clocks in a gravitational field. We show that in order to interpret this theory, one must re-interpret all clock changes, both gravitational and electromagnetic, as arising from changes in potential energy and not merely potential. The clock is provided naturally by proton spins in hydrogen atoms subject to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance trials. No frequency change of clocks was observed to a resolution of 6310(exp -9). A new "Clock Principle" was postulated to explain the null result. There are two possible implications of the experiments: (a) The Clock Principle is invalid and, in fact, no metric theory incorporating electromagnetism is possible; (b) The Clock Principle is valid and it follows that a negative rest mass cannot exist.

  8. Improvement of charged particles transport across a transverse magnetic filter field by electrostatic trapping of magnetized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B. K.; Hazarika, P.; Chakraborty, M.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2014-01-01

    A study on the transport of charged particles across a magnetic filter field has been carried out in a double plasma device (DPD) and presented in this manuscript. The DPD is virtually divided into two parts viz. source and target regions by a transverse magnetic field (TMF) which is constructed by inserting strontium ferrite magnets into two stainless steel rectangular tubes. Plasma electrons are magnetized but ions are unmagnetized inside the TMF region. Negative voltages are applied to the TMF tubes in order to reduce the loss of electrons towards them. Plasma is produced in the source region by filament discharge method and allowed to flow towards the target region through this negatively biased TMF. It is observed that in the target region, plasma density can be increased and electron temperature decreased with the help of negatively biased TMF. This observation is beneficial for negative ion source development. Plasma diffusion across the negatively biased TMF follows Bohm or anomalous diffusion process when negative bias voltage is very less. At higher negative bias, diffusion coefficient starts deviating from the Bohm diffusion value, associated with enhanced plasma flow in the target region

  9. Improvement of charged particles transport across a transverse magnetic filter field by electrostatic trapping of magnetized electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B. K., E-mail: bdyt.ds@rediffmail.com; Hazarika, P.; Chakraborty, M. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Tepesia-782402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M., E-mail: mainak@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar-382025, Gujarat (India)

    2014-07-15

    A study on the transport of charged particles across a magnetic filter field has been carried out in a double plasma device (DPD) and presented in this manuscript. The DPD is virtually divided into two parts viz. source and target regions by a transverse magnetic field (TMF) which is constructed by inserting strontium ferrite magnets into two stainless steel rectangular tubes. Plasma electrons are magnetized but ions are unmagnetized inside the TMF region. Negative voltages are applied to the TMF tubes in order to reduce the loss of electrons towards them. Plasma is produced in the source region by filament discharge method and allowed to flow towards the target region through this negatively biased TMF. It is observed that in the target region, plasma density can be increased and electron temperature decreased with the help of negatively biased TMF. This observation is beneficial for negative ion source development. Plasma diffusion across the negatively biased TMF follows Bohm or anomalous diffusion process when negative bias voltage is very less. At higher negative bias, diffusion coefficient starts deviating from the Bohm diffusion value, associated with enhanced plasma flow in the target region.

  10. Differences in airborne particle and gaseous concentrations in urban air between weekdays and weekends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, L.; Jayaratne, E. R.; Mengersen, K.; Jamriska, M.; Thomas, S.

    Airborne particle number concentrations and size distributions as well as CO and NO x concentrations monitored at a site within the central business district of Brisbane, Australia were correlated with the traffic flow rate on a nearby freeway with the aim of investigating differences between weekday and weekend pollutant characteristics. Observations over a 5-year monitoring period showed that the mean number particle concentration on weekdays was (8.8±0.1)×10 3 cm -3 and on weekends (5.9±0.2)×10 3 cm -3—a difference of 47%. The corresponding mean particle number median diameters during weekdays and weekends were 44.2±0.3 and 50.2±0.2 nm, respectively. The differences in mean particle number concentration and size between weekdays and weekends were found to be statistically significant at confidence levels of over 99%. During a 1-year period of observation, the mean traffic flow rate on the freeway was 14.2×10 4 and 9.6×10 4 vehicles per weekday and weekend day, respectively—a difference of 48%. The mean diurnal variations of the particle number and the gaseous concentrations closely followed the traffic flow rate on both weekdays and weekends (correlation coefficient of 0.86 for particles). The overall conclusion, as to the effect of traffic on concentration levels of pollutant concentration in the vicinity of a major road (about 100 m) carrying traffic of the order of 10 5 vehicles per day, is that about a 50% increase in traffic flow rate results in similar increases of CO and NO x concentrations and a higher increase of about 70% in particle number concentration.

  11. The variation of particle gas-borne concentration with time in a gas cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J; Hall, D; Reeks, M W [Central Electricity Generating Board, Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (United Kingdom)

    1985-07-01

    If volatile fission products are released from fuel during a reactor fault, a significant fraction could become attached to small particles also present in the coolant. In such circumstances the retention of those particles by the reactor circuit will limit the level of gas-borne particle concentration and hence be important in reducing the potential release of fission product activity to the atmosphere. Clearly the retention of particles will be influenced by both the deposition and resuspension of particles from surfaces exposed to the coolant flow. In this paper we consider deposition and resuspension but pay particular attention to the role of resuspension, which in the past has been given little consideration. A recently developed model for the resuspension of small particles by a turbulent flow is outlined. Traditionally, resuspension has been interpreted as a force balance between the aerodynamic removal forces and the surface adhesive forces. In contrast, this new approach embodies an energy balance criterion for particle resuspension. Furthermore, the stochastic nature of this new model has shown that resuspension can be sub-divided into two regimes: (i) initial resuspension (resuspension occurring in times less than a second) which reduces the net deposition of particles to a surface; and (ii) longer term resuspension (resuspension after 1 second) which determines the asymptotic decay of particle gas-borne concentration. It is seen that the asymptotic decay varies almost inversely as the decay time. Force balance models are unsuccessful in accounting for the experimentally observed longer term resuspension. We show that a Volterra integro-differential equation best describes the variation of particle gas-borne concentration with time in a recirculating gas flow such as a gas cooled reactor. It is seen that the longer term resuspension has a major influence in the final decay of particle concentration. (author)

  12. The variation of particle gas-borne concentration with time in a gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.; Hall, D.; Reeks, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    If volatile fission products are released from fuel during a reactor fault, a significant fraction could become attached to small particles also present in the coolant. In such circumstances the retention of those particles by the reactor circuit will limit the level of gas-borne particle concentration and hence be important in reducing the potential release of fission product activity to the atmosphere. Clearly the retention of particles will be influenced by both the deposition and resuspension of particles from surfaces exposed to the coolant flow. In this paper we consider deposition and resuspension but pay particular attention to the role of resuspension, which in the past has been given little consideration. A recently developed model for the resuspension of small particles by a turbulent flow is outlined. Traditionally, resuspension has been interpreted as a force balance between the aerodynamic removal forces and the surface adhesive forces. In contrast, this new approach embodies an energy balance criterion for particle resuspension. Furthermore, the stochastic nature of this new model has shown that resuspension can be sub-divided into two regimes: (i) initial resuspension (resuspension occurring in times less than a second) which reduces the net deposition of particles to a surface; and (ii) longer term resuspension (resuspension after 1 second) which determines the asymptotic decay of particle gas-borne concentration. It is seen that the asymptotic decay varies almost inversely as the decay time. Force balance models are unsuccessful in accounting for the experimentally observed longer term resuspension. We show that a Volterra integro-differential equation best describes the variation of particle gas-borne concentration with time in a recirculating gas flow such as a gas cooled reactor. It is seen that the longer term resuspension has a major influence in the final decay of particle concentration. (author)

  13. Separation of submicron particles from biofuel combustion with flue gas condensation or wet condensing electrostatic precipitator. Analysis of possibilities; Avskiljning av submikrona partiklar vid biobraenslefoerbraenning med roekgaskondensering eller kondenserande vaata elfilter. Analys av moejligheterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Gustavsson, Lennart [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    Dust particles in flue gas larger than 1 {mu}m are well separated by conventional techniques, while submicron particles are poorly separated. As the use of biofuels with high ash content is increasing, as well as knowledge about negative health effects from inhalation of submicron particles, the interest for reduction of emissions of submicron particles will probably increase. The aim of this project is to investigate possible techniques for separation of submicron particles during flue gas condensation through modification of conventional technique, or with available techniques not usually used with combustion of biofuels, e.g. a wet electrostatic precipitator. Mechanisms for separation of dust particles are briefly described. Cyclones separates particles larger than about 1 {mu}m. Fabric filters separates all particles sizes, but the efficiency reduces as the size reduces. In flue gas condensers and scrubbers the speed and size of water droplets are important for the reduction efficiency. Dry electrostatic precipitators work for all particle sizes, but with reduced efficiency for sizes between 0.1 and 3 {mu}m. Wet electrostatic precipitators separates submicron particles much better. One reason for this is that the potential between the electrodes can be higher. Among conventional flue gas condensers and scrubbers there are two types that, properly designed, can separate submicron particles, namely 'type venturi scrubbers', i.e. a scrubber where a high flue gas velocity is used to form many, small water droplets by friction forces in a nozzle, and 'type scrubber with nozzles', i.e. a scrubber where nozzles supply droplets to the flue gas. For a scrubber with nozzles, the falling velocity of the droplets must be lower and the size smaller than is common today. Also the wet electrostatic precipitator separates submicron particles with high efficiency. They are used today mainly for problematic particles, e.g. sticky or corrosive ones, or for

  14. Determination of particles concentration in Black Sea waters from spectral beam attenuation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchemkina, E. N.; Latushkin, A. A.; Lee, M. E.

    2017-11-01

    The methods of determination of concentration and scattering by suspended particles in seawater are compared. The methods considered include gravimetric measurements of the mass concentration of suspended matter, empirical and analytical calculations based on measurements of the light beam attenuation coefficient (BAC) in 4 spectral bands, calculation of backscattering by particles using satellite measurements in the visible spectral range. The data were obtained in two cruises of the R/V "Professor Vodyanitsky" in the deep-water part of the Black Sea in July and October 2016., Spatial distribution of scattering by marine particles according to satellite data is in good agreement with the contact measurements.

  15. Scattering by a plane-parallel layer with high concentration of optically soft particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiko, Valery A.; Berdnik, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    A method describing light propagation in a plane-parallel light-scattering layer with large concentration of homogeneous particles is developed. It is based on the radiative transfer equation and the doubling method. The interference approximation is used to take into account collective scattering effects. Spectral dependence of transmitted light for a layer of nonabsorbing optically soft particles with subwavelength-sized particles is investigated. At small volume concentration of the particles the weak spectral dependences of wave exponents for coherently transmitted and diffuse light are observed. It is shown that in a layer with large volume concentration of the subwavelength-sized particles the wave exponent can exceed considerably the value of four, which takes place for the Rayleigh particles. The dependence of wave exponents for coherently transmitted and diffuse light on the refractive index and concentration of particles is investigated in detail. Multiple scattering of light results in the reduction of the exponent. The quantitative results are presented and discussed. It is shown that there is a range of wavelengths where the negative values of the wave exponent at the regime of multiple scattering are implemented.

  16. Fine particle number and mass concentration measurements in urban Indian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkkönen, P; Pai, P; Maynard, A; Lehtinen, K E J; Hämeri, K; Rechkemmer, P; Ramachandran, G; Prasad, B; Kulmala, M

    2005-07-15

    Fine particle number concentration (D(p)>10 nm, cm(-3)), mass concentrations (approximation of PM(2.5), microg m(-3)) and indoor/outdoor number concentration ratio (I/O) measurements have been conducted for the first time in 11 urban households in India, 2002. The results indicate remarkable high indoor number and mass concentrations and I/O number concentration ratios caused by cooking. Besides cooking stoves that used liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or kerosene as the main fuel, high indoor concentrations can be explained by poor ventilation systems. Particle number concentrations of more than 300,000 cm(-3) and mass concentrations of more than 1000 microg m(-3) were detected in some cases. When the number and mass concentrations during cooking times were statistically compared, a correlation coefficient r>0.50 was observed in 63% of the households. Some households used other fuels like wood and dung cakes along with the main fuel, but also other living activities influenced the concentrations. In some areas, outdoor combustion processes had a negative impact on indoor air quality. The maximum concentrations observed in most cases were due to indoor combustion sources. Reduction of exposure risk and health effects caused by poor indoor air in urban Indian households is possible by improving indoor ventilation and reducing penetration of outdoor particles.

  17. Particle number concentration, size distribution and chemical composition during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Tiantao; Zhang, Renyi; Wang, Xinming

    2014-09-01

    The aerosol number concentration and size distribution as well as size-resolved particle chemical composition were measured during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai in 2009. The number of haze days accounted for 43%, of which 30% was severe (visibilitysmog episodes, about 5.89 times and 4.29 times those of clean days. The particle volume concentration and surface concentration in haze, photochemical smog and clean days were 102, 49, 15μm(3)/cm(3) and 949, 649, 206μm(2)/cm(3), respectively. As haze events got more severe, the number concentration of particles smaller than 50nm decreased, but the particles of 50-200nm and 0.5-1μm increased. The diurnal variation of particle number concentration showed a bimodal pattern in haze days. All soluble ions were increased during haze events, of which NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) increased greatly, followed by Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-). These ions were very different in size-resolved particles during haze and photochemical smog episodes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Spatial & temporal variations of PM10 and particle number concentrations in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Norman, Michael; Gidhagen, Lars

    2007-04-01

    The size of particles in urban air varies over four orders of magnitude (from 0.001 microm to 10 microm in diameter). In many cities only particle mass concentrations (PM10, i.e. particles tires and traction sand on streets during winter; up to 90% of the locally emitted PM10 may be due to road abrasion. PM10 emissions and concentrations, but not PNC, at kerbside are controlled by road moisture. Annual mean urban background PM10 levels are relatively uniformly distributed over the city, due to the importance of long range transport. For PNC local sources often dominate the concentrations resulting in large temporal and spatial gradients in the concentrations. Despite these differences in the origin of PM10 and PNC, the spatial gradients of annual mean concentrations due to local sources are of equal magnitude due to the common source, namely traffic. Thus, people in different areas experiencing a factor of 2 different annual PM10 exposure due to local sources will also experience a factor of 2 different exposure in terms of PNC. This implies that health impact studies based solely on spatial differences in annual exposure to PM10 may not separate differences in health effects due to ultrafine and coarse particles. On the other hand, health effect assessments based on time series exposure analysis of PM10 and PNC, should be able to observe differences in health effects of ultrafine particles versus coarse particles.

  19. Oblique Propagation of Electrostatic Waves in a Magnetized Electron-Positron-Ion Plasma in the Presence of Heavy Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, M.; Hossen, M. R.; Shah, M. G.; Hosen, B.; Mamun, A. A.

    2018-06-01

    A theoretical investigation is carried out to understand the basic features of nonlinear propagation of heavy ion-acoustic (HIA) waves subjected to an external magnetic field in an electron-positron-ion plasma that consists of cold magnetized positively charged heavy ion fluids and superthermal distributed electrons and positrons. In the nonlinear regime, the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations describing the propagation of HIA waves are derived. The latter admits a solitary wave solution with both positive and negative potentials (for K-dV equation) and only positive potential (for mK-dV equation) in the weak amplitude limit. It is observed that the effects of external magnetic field (obliqueness), superthermal electrons and positrons, different plasma species concentration, heavy ion dynamics, and temperature ratio significantly modify the basic features of HIA solitary waves. The application of the results in a magnetized EPI plasma, which occurs in many astrophysical objects (e.g. pulsars, cluster explosions, and active galactic nuclei) is briefly discussed.

  20. Mass and elemental concentrations of air bone particles at Kuala Lumpur site in 2000 to 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Wood; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric Pollution due to air bone particle is a major concern to many cities in the Southeast Asian region, including Kuala Lumpur. Within the last six years air particulate samples have been collected from a site in Kuala Lumpur and measured for their PM10, PM2.5 and elemental concentrations. The results showed that the daily PM10 (<10μ diameter) concentrations were generally acceptable but the values occasionally very high, especially during the haze episodes. The PM10 annual average values were just below the national set standard and these values were mostly contributed by the fine particles (<2μ diameter) concentration. The annual average for PM2.5 (fine particle) concentrations over the past few years were considerably high where elemental carbon, sulfur and potassium were the main components. (Author)

  1. Suspended particle and drug ingredient concentrations in hospital dispensaries and implications for pharmacists' working environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Hioki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Hiroki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the present status of working environments for pharmacists, including the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients in dispensaries. We conducted a survey on the work processes and working environment in 15 hospital dispensaries, and measured the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients using digital dust counter and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. Of 25 types of powdered drugs that were frequently handled in the 15 dispensaries surveyed, 11 could be quantitatively determined. The amounts of suspended particles were relatively high, but below the reference value, in three dispensaries without dust collectors. The sedative-hypnotic drug zopiclone was detected in the suspended particles at one dispensary that was not equipped with dust collectors, and the antipyretic and analgesic drug acetaminophen was detected in two dispensaries equipped with dust collectors. There was no correlation between the daily number of prescriptions containing powdered drugs and the concentration of suspended particles in dispensaries. On the basis of the suspended particle concentrations measured, we concluded that dust collectors were effective in these dispensaries. However, suspended drug ingredients were detected also in dispensaries with dust collectors. These results suggest that the drug dust control systems of individual dispensaries should be properly installed and managed.

  2. Concentrations and size distributions of fine aerosol particles measured at roof level in urban zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despiau, S.; Croci, D.

    2007-05-01

    During the experimental Field Experiments to Constrain Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions (ESCOMPTE) campaign in June-July 2001, concentrations and size distributions of fine particles (14-722 nm) were measured at roof level in downtown Marseille (France). Part of the campaign was dedicated to the study of aerosol behavior in relation to strong photochemical events (which were identified as "IOP" days) and their regional modeling. The analysis of the concentration variations and the evolution of average diurnal size distribution showed that an "IOP day" is not characterized by a specific concentration or its variation, nor by a specific evolution of the average size distribution. The morning traffic rush is detected at roof level by a net increase in particle concentration over the whole size range measured, indicating a production of ultrafine particles by the traffic but also the raising to roof level of particles of the accumulation mode. The increase is observed about 1 hour after the traffic peak at street level, which is characterized by strong increases in NOx and CO concentrations. The corresponding flux of particles at roof level has been estimated around 3 × 104 cm-2 s-1. A specific signature characterized by a strong and rapid burst of concentration (factor 2 to 4 in 15 min) of particles between 25 and 50 nm, independent of the traffic source, has been detected on six occasions during the campaign. These events occur systematically around noon, in cases of strong radiation, low relative humidity, and common wind direction. Despite the high-diameter value of these particles, it is suggested that they could result from a specific "secondary aerosol process" event involving ozone, biogenic, and/or anthropogenic gas precursors like iodine and VOCs.

  3. In situ formation and spatial variability of particle number concentration in a European megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, M.; Sciare, J.; Freutel, F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Borbon, A.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Merkel, M.; Crippa, M.; Kostenidou, E.; Psichoudaki, M.; Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Petäjä, T.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Beekmann, M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particle number size distributions were measured in Paris, France, during summer (1-31 July 2009) and winter (15 January to 15 February 2010) at three fixed ground sites and using two mobile laboratories and one airplane. The campaigns were part of the Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation (MEGAPOLI) project. New particle formation (NPF) was observed only during summer on approximately 50 % of the campaign days, assisted by the low condensation sink (about 10.7 ± 5.9 × 10-3 s-1). NPF events inside the Paris plume were also observed at 600 m altitude onboard an aircraft simultaneously with regional events identified on the ground. Increased particle number concentrations were measured aloft also outside of the Paris plume at the same altitude, and were attributed to NPF. The Paris plume was identified, based on increased particle number and black carbon concentration, up to 200 km away from the Paris center during summer. The number concentration of particles with diameters exceeding 2.5 nm measured on the surface at the Paris center was on average 6.9 ± 8.7 × 104 and 12.1 ± 8.6 × 104 cm-3 during summer and winter, respectively, and was found to decrease exponentially with distance from Paris. However, further than 30 km from the city center, the particle number concentration at the surface was similar during both campaigns. During summer, one suburban site in the NE was not significantly affected by Paris emissions due to higher background number concentrations, while the particle number concentration at the second suburban site in the SW increased by a factor of 3 when it was downwind of Paris.

  4. Fluidized bed combustion of single coal char particles at high CO{sub 2} concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, F.; Chirone, R. [CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Combustion of single coal char particles was studied at 850{sup o}C in a lab-scale fluidized bed at high CO{sub 2} concentration, typical of oxyfiring conditions. The burning rate of the particles was followed as a function of time by continuously measuring the outlet CO and O{sub 2} concentrations. Some preliminary evaluations on the significance of homogeneous CO oxidation in the reactor and of carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} in the char were also carried out. Results showed that the carbon burning rate increases with oxygen concentration and char particle size. The particle temperature is approximately equal to that of the bed up to an oxygen concentration of 2%, but it is considerably higher for larger oxygen concentrations. Both CO{sub 2} gasification of char and homogeneous CO oxidation are not negligible. The gasification reaction rate is slow and it is likely to be controlled by intrinsic kinetics. During purely gasification conditions the extent of carbon loss due to particle attrition by abrasion (estimated from the carbon mass balance) appears to be much more important than under combustion conditions.

  5. Air pollutant concentrations near three Texas roadways, Part I: Ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifang; Pudota, Jayanth; Collins, Donald; Allen, David; Clements, Andrea; DenBleyker, Allison; Fraser, Matt; Jia, Yuling; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Michel, Edward

    Vehicular emitted air pollutant concentrations were studied near three types of roadways in Austin, Texas: (1) State Highway 71 (SH-71), a heavily traveled arterial highway dominated by passenger vehicles; (2) Interstate 35 (I-35), a limited access highway north of Austin in Georgetown; and (3) Farm to Market Road 973 (FM-973), a heavily traveled surface roadway dominated by truck traffic. Air pollutants examined include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO x), and carbonyl species in the gas-phase. In the particle phase, ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations (diameter road were found to be the most important factors determining UFP concentrations near the roadways. Since wind directions were not consistent during the sampling periods, distances along wind trajectories from the roadway to the sampling points were used to study the decay characteristics of UFPs. Under perpendicular wind conditions, for all studied roadway types, particle number concentrations increased dramatically moving from the upwind side to the downwind side. The elevated particle number concentrations decay exponentially with increasing distances from the roadway with sharp concentration gradients observed within 100-150 m, similar to previously reported studies. A single exponential decay curve was found to fit the data collected from all three roadways very well under perpendicular wind conditions. No consistent pattern was observed for UFPs under parallel wind conditions. However, regardless of wind conditions, particle concentrations returned to background levels within a few hundred meters of the roadway. Within measured UFP size ranges, smaller particles (6-25 nm) decayed faster than larger ones (100-300 nm). Similar decay rates were observed among UFP number, surface, and volume.

  6. Magnetofluidic concentration and separation of non-magnetic particles using two magnet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Majid

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports the use of diluted ferrofluid and two arrays of permanent magnets for the size-selective concentration of non-magnetic particles. The micro magnetofluidic device consists of a straight channels sandwiched between two arrays of permanent magnets. The permanent magnets create multiple capture zones with minimum magnetic field strength along the channel. The complex interaction between magnetic forces and hydrodynamic force allows the device to operate in different regimes suitable for concentration of non-magnetic particles with small difference in size. Our experimental results show that non-magnetic particles with diameters of 3.1 μm and 4.8 μm can be discriminated and separated with this method. The results from this study could be used as a guide for the design of size-sensitive separation devices for particle and cell based on negative magnetophoresis. PMID:27478527

  7. Measurement of airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughter products by alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Ryan, M.T.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of naturally occurring uranium-238 and thorium-232 produces radon-222 and radon-220 isotopes which can escape into the atmosphere. If these radon gases become concentrated in air, their daughter products may present an inhalation hazard to man. The airborne concentrations of radon-222 can usually be measured very accurately in the presence of normal airborne concentrations of radon-220 and its daughters. In contrast, the measurements of the airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughters are usually complicated by the presence of radon-222 and its daughters even at normally occurring airborne concentrations. The complications involved in these measurements can be overcome in most situations by using an alpha particle spectrometer to distinguish the activity of radon-222 daughters from that due to radon-220 daughters collected on a filter. A practical spectrometer for field measurements of alpha particle activity on a filter is discussed

  8. Ice-nucleating particle concentrations unaffected by urban air pollution in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Wu, Zhijun; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Grawe, Sarah; Hartmann, Markus; Pei, Xiangyu; Liu, Zirui; Ji, Dongsheng; Wex, Heike

    2018-03-01

    Exceedingly high levels of PM2.5 with complex chemical composition occur frequently in China. It has been speculated whether anthropogenic PM2.5 may significantly contribute to ice-nucleating particles (INP). However, few studies have focused on the ice-nucleating properties of urban particles. In this work, two ice-nucleating droplet arrays have been used to determine the atmospheric number concentration of INP (NINP) in the range from -6 to -25 °C in Beijing. No correlations between NINP and either PM2.5 or black carbon mass concentrations were found, although both varied by more than a factor of 30 during the sampling period. Similarly, there were no correlations between NINP and either total particle number concentration or number concentrations for particles with diameters > 500 nm. Furthermore, there was no clear difference between day and night samples. All these results indicate that Beijing air pollution did not increase or decrease INP concentrations in the examined temperature range above values observed in nonurban areas; hence, the background INP concentrations might not be anthropogenically influenced as far as urban air pollution is concerned, at least in the examined temperature range.

  9. A novel electrostatic precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Minkang; Wang, Liqian; Lin, Zhigui

    2013-01-01

    ESP (Electrostatic Precipitation) has been widely used in the mining, building materials, metallurgy and power industries. Dust particles or other harmful particles from the airstream can be precipitated by ESP with great collecting efficiency. Because of its' large size, high cost and energy consumption, the scope of application of ESP has been limited to a certain extent. By means of the theory of electrostatics and fluid dynamics, a corona assembly with a self-cleaning function and a threshold voltage automatic tracking technology has been developed and used in ESP. It is indicated that compared with conventional ESP, the electric field length has been reduced to 1/10 of the original, the current density on the collecting electrode increased 3-5 times at the maximum, the approach speed of dust particles in the electric field towards the collecting electrode is 4 times that in conventional ESP and the electric field wind speed may be enhanced by 2-3 times the original. Under the premise of ESP having a high efficiency of dust removal, equipment volume may be actually reduced to 1/5 to 1/10 of the original volume and energy consumption may be reduced by more than 50%.

  10. Evaluation of correlating factors between 238U concentration measured in fine and course atmospheric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Barreto, Alberto Avelar; Dias, Vagner Silva; Dias, Fabiana Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    Air quality is ever more important in function of the enormous proportion of human actions that have affected the environment over the last two centuries. Particulate material is one among many pollutants that can cause great risk to human health and the environment. It can be classified as: Total Suspended Particles (TSP), defined simply as particles with less than 50 μm aerodynamic diameter (one group of these particles can be inhaled and may cause health problems, while others may unfavorably affect the population's quality of life, interfering in environmental conditions and impairing normal community activities); and Inhalable Particles (PM 10 ), defined as those particles with less than 10 μm aerodynamic diameter. These particles penetrate the respiratory system and can reach pulmonary alveoli due to their small size, causing serious health damage. The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has monitored air quality around its installations since 2000. CDTN's Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP) includes monitoring radioactivity levels contained in atmospheric TSP. In order to optimize its program, CDTN is carrying out a study to estimate the correlation between concentrations of particulate material measured in TSP and those measured in PM 10 , PI 2.5 and PI 1 , as well as determination of activity concentration for each controlled radionuclide in all parts. The objective of this study is to present preliminary results and report 238 U activity concentration results. (author)

  11. Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kristin A.; Halterman, Jill S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Fagnano, Maria; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increased air pollutant concentrations have been linked to several asthma-related outcomes in children, including respiratory symptoms, medication use, and hospital visits. However, few studies have examined effects of ultrafine particles in a pediatric population. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles on asthma exacerbation among urban children and determine whether consistent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids could attenuate these effects. We also explored the relationship between asthma exacerbation and ambient concentrations of accumulation mode particles, fine particles (≤ 2.5 micrograms [μm]; PM2.5), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. We hypothesized that increased 1 to 7 day concentrations of ultrafine particles and other pollutants would be associated with increases in the relative odds of an asthma exacerbation, but that this increase in risk would be attenuated among children receiving school-based corticosteroid therapy. Methods We conducted a pilot study using data from 3–10 year-old children participating in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit treated with prednisone (n=96 visits among 74 children) associated with increased pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 days. We re-ran these analyses separately for children receiving medications through the school-based intervention and children in a usual care control group. Results Interquartile range increases in ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations in the previous 7 days were associated with increases in the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit, with the largest increases observed for 4-day mean ultrafine particles (interquartile range=2088 p/cm3; OR=1.27; 95% CI=0.90–1.79) and 7-day mean carbon monoxide (interquartile range=0.17 ppm; OR=1.63; 95

  12. Effect of precursor concentration and spray pyrolysis temperature upon hydroxyapatite particle size and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    In the synthesis of hydroxyapatite powders by spray pyrolysis, control of the particle size was investigated by varying the initial concentration of the precursor solution and the pyrolysis temperature. Calcium phosphate solutions (Ca/P ratio of 1.67) with a range of concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0 mol/L were prepared by dissolving calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate in deionized water and subsequently adding nitric acid. Hydroxyapatite powders were then synthesized by spray pyrolysis at 900°C and at 1500°C, using these calcium phosphate precursor solutions, under the fixed carrier gas flow rate of 10 L/min. The particle size decreased as the precursor concentration decreased and the spray pyrolysis temperature increased. Sinterability tests conducted at 1100°C for 1 h showed that the smaller and denser the particles were, the higher the relative densities were of sintered hydroxyapatite disks formed from these particles. The practical implication of these results is that highly sinterable small and dense hydroxyapatite particles can be synthesized by means of spray pyrolysis using a low-concentration precursor solution and a high pyrolysis temperature under a fixed carrier gas flow rate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Particle Size Affects Concentration-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Chitosan Nanoparticles towards Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, S. S. O.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Katas, H.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) have been extensively applied in medical and pharmaceutical fields as promising drug delivery systems. Despite that, the safety of CSNPs remains inadequate and needs further investigation, particularly on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). CSNPs were prepared by ionic gelation method and later were characterized for their physical characteristics (particle size and zeta potential). Cytotoxicity of CSNPs was assessed by MTT assay. Particle size was highly influenced by chitosan concentration and molecular weight (medium and high molecular weight (MMW and HMW)). Higher chitosan concentration and molecular weight produced larger nanoparticles. Zeta potential of CSNPs was not significantly affected by chitosan concentrations and molecular weights used in the present study. MMW had a better stability than HMW CSNPs as their particle size and zeta potential were not significantly altered after autoclaving. Cytotoxicity of CSNPs was influenced by zeta potential and particle size. On the other hand, chitosan concentration and molecular weight indirectly influenced cytotoxicity by affecting particle size and zeta potential of CSNPs. In conclusion, cytotoxicity of CSNPs was mainly attributed to their physical characteristics and this opens a strategy to ensure the safety of CSNPs applications in stem cell technology.

  14. Explaining global surface aerosol number concentrations in terms of primary emissions and particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Spracklen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We synthesised observations of total particle number (CN concentration from 36 sites around the world. We found that annual mean CN concentrations are typically 300–2000 cm−3 in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere (FT and 1000–10 000 cm−3 in the continental boundary layer (BL. Many sites exhibit pronounced seasonality with summer time concentrations a factor of 2–10 greater than wintertime concentrations. We used these CN observations to evaluate primary and secondary sources of particle number in a global aerosol microphysics model. We found that emissions of primary particles can reasonably reproduce the spatial pattern of observed CN concentration (R2=0.46 but fail to explain the observed seasonal cycle (R2=0.1. The modeled CN concentration in the FT was biased low (normalised mean bias, NMB=−88% unless a secondary source of particles was included, for example from binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water (NMB=−25%. Simulated CN concentrations in the continental BL were also biased low (NMB=−74% unless the number emission of anthropogenic primary particles was increased or a mechanism that results in particle formation in the BL was included. We ran a number of simulations where we included an empirical BL nucleation mechanism either using the activation-type mechanism (nucleation rate, J, proportional to gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration to the power one or kinetic-type mechanism (J proportional to sulfuric acid to the power two with a range of nucleation coefficients. We found that the seasonal CN cycle observed at continental BL sites was better simulated by BL particle formation (R2=0.3 than by increasing the number emission from primary anthropogenic sources (R2=0.18. The nucleation constants that resulted in best overall match between model and observed CN concentrations were

  15. Explaining global surface aerosol number concentrations in terms of primary emissions and particle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Merikanto, J.; Mann, G. W.; Reddington, C. L.; Pickering, S.; Ogren, J. A.; Andrews, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.; Boy, M.; Kulmala, M.; Laakso, L.; Lihavainen, H.; Kivekäs, N.; Komppula, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kouvarakis, G.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.; Weller, R.; Gras, J.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.; Bonn, B.; Krejci, R.; Laaksonen, A.; Hamed, A.; Minikin, A.; Harrison, R. M.; Talbot, R.; Sun, J.

    2010-05-01

    We synthesised observations of total particle number (CN) concentration from 36 sites around the world. We found that annual mean CN concentrations are typically 300-2000 cm-3 in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere (FT) and 1000-10 000 cm-3 in the continental boundary layer (BL). Many sites exhibit pronounced seasonality with summer time concentrations a factor of 2-10 greater than wintertime concentrations. We used these CN observations to evaluate primary and secondary sources of particle number in a global aerosol microphysics model. We found that emissions of primary particles can reasonably reproduce the spatial pattern of observed CN concentration (R2=0.46) but fail to explain the observed seasonal cycle (R2=0.1). The modeled CN concentration in the FT was biased low (normalised mean bias, NMB=-88%) unless a secondary source of particles was included, for example from binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water (NMB=-25%). Simulated CN concentrations in the continental BL were also biased low (NMB=-74%) unless the number emission of anthropogenic primary particles was increased or a mechanism that results in particle formation in the BL was included. We ran a number of simulations where we included an empirical BL nucleation mechanism either using the activation-type mechanism (nucleation rate, J, proportional to gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration to the power one) or kinetic-type mechanism (J proportional to sulfuric acid to the power two) with a range of nucleation coefficients. We found that the seasonal CN cycle observed at continental BL sites was better simulated by BL particle formation (R2=0.3) than by increasing the number emission from primary anthropogenic sources (R2=0.18). The nucleation constants that resulted in best overall match between model and observed CN concentrations were consistent with values derived in previous studies from detailed case studies at individual sites. In our model, kinetic and activation

  16. Preferential Concentration Of Solid Particles In Turbulent Horizontal Circular Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehee; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2017-11-01

    In particle-laden turbulent pipe flow, turbophoresis can lead to a preferential concentration of particles near the wall. To investigate this phenomenon, one-way coupled Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) has been performed. Fully-developed turbulent pipe flow of the carrier fluid (air) is at Reτ = 200 based on the pipe radius and the mean friction velocity, whereas the Stokes numbers of the particles (solid) are St+ = 0.1 , 1 , 10 based on the mean friction velocity and the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. The computational domain for particle simulation is extended along the axial direction by duplicating the domain of the fluid simulation. By doing so, particle statistics in the spatially developing region as well as in the fully-developed region can be obtained. Accumulation of particles has been noticed at St+ = 1 and 10 mostly in the viscous sublayer, more intensive in the latter case. Compared with other authors' previous results, our results suggest that drag force on the particles should be computed by using an empirical correlation and a higher-order interpolation scheme even in a low-Re regime in order to improve the accuracy of particle simulation. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1A2A2A01002981).

  17. Estimation of inhaled airborne particle number concentration by subway users in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minhae; Park, Sechan; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) causes several diseases in the human body. The smaller particles, which have relatively large surface areas, are actually more harmful to the human body since they can penetrate deeper parts of the lungs or become secondary pollutants by bonding with other atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study is to present the number of PM inhaled by subway users as a possible reference material for any analysis of the hazards to the human body arising from the inhalation of such PM. Two transfer stations in Seoul, Korea, which have the greatest number of users, were selected for this study. For 0.3–0.422 μm PM, particle number concentration (PNC) was highest outdoors but decreased as the tester moved deeper underground. On the other hand, the PNC between 1 and 10 μm increased as the tester moved deeper underground and showed a high number concentration inside the subway train as well. An analysis of the particles to which subway users are actually exposed to (inhaled particle number), using particle concentration at each measurement location, the average inhalation rate of an adult, and the average stay time at each location, all showed that particles sized 0.01–0.422 μm are mostly inhaled from the outdoor air whereas particles sized 1–10 μm are inhaled as the passengers move deeper underground. Based on these findings, we expect that the inhaled particle number of subway users can be used as reference data for an evaluation of the hazards to health caused by PM inhalation. - Highlights: • Size-dependent aerosol number was measured along the path of subway user. • Particles less than 0.4 μm were inhaled in outdoor but less so as deeper underground. • Coarse particles were inhaled significantly as users moved deeper underground. - We estimated the inhaled aerosol number concentration depending on particle size along the path of subway users.

  18. Estimation of inhaled airborne particle number concentration by subway users in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minhae; Park, Sechan; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) causes several diseases in the human body. The smaller particles, which have relatively large surface areas, are actually more harmful to the human body since they can penetrate deeper parts of the lungs or become secondary pollutants by bonding with other atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study is to present the number of PM inhaled by subway users as a possible reference material for any analysis of the hazards to the human body arising from the inhalation of such PM. Two transfer stations in Seoul, Korea, which have the greatest number of users, were selected for this study. For 0.3-0.422 μm PM, particle number concentration (PNC) was highest outdoors but decreased as the tester moved deeper underground. On the other hand, the PNC between 1 and 10 μm increased as the tester moved deeper underground and showed a high number concentration inside the subway train as well. An analysis of the particles to which subway users are actually exposed to (inhaled particle number), using particle concentration at each measurement location, the average inhalation rate of an adult, and the average stay time at each location, all showed that particles sized 0.01-0.422 μm are mostly inhaled from the outdoor air whereas particles sized 1-10 μm are inhaled as the passengers move deeper underground. Based on these findings, we expect that the inhaled particle number of subway users can be used as reference data for an evaluation of the hazards to health caused by PM inhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contributions of Organic Sources to Atmospheric Aerosol Particle Concentrations and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Organic molecules are important contributors to aerosol particle mass and number concentrations through primary emissions as well as secondary growth in the atmosphere. New techniques for measuring organic aerosol components in atmospheric particles have improved measurements of this contribution in the last 20 years, including Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (STXM-NEXAFS), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS). STXM-NEXAFS individual aerosol particle composition illustrated the variety of morphology of organic components in marine aerosols, the inherent relationships between organic composition and shape, and the links between atmospheric aerosol composition and particles produced in smog chambers. This type of single particle microscopy has also added to size distribution measurements by providing evidence of how surface-controlled and bulk-controlled processes contribute to the growth of particles in the atmosphere. FTIR analysis of organic functional groups are sufficient to distinguish combustion, marine, and terrestrial organic particle sources and to show that each of those types of sources has a surprisingly similar organic functional group composition over four different oceans and four different continents. Augmenting the limited sampling of these off-line techniques with side-by-side inter-comparisons to online AMS provides complementary composition information and consistent quantitative attribution to sources (despite some clear method differences). Single-particle AMS techniques using light scattering and event trigger modes have now also characterized the types of particles found in urban, marine, and ship emission aerosols. Most recently, by combining with off-line techniques, single particle composition measurements have separated and quantified the contributions of organic, sulfate and salt components from ocean biogenic and sea spray

  20. A concentrated solar cavity absorber with direct heat transfer through recirculating metallic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, M. R. I., E-mail: islamrabiul@yahoo.com; Saha, Manabendra, E-mail: manabendra.saha@adelaide.edu.au, E-mail: manab04me@gmail.com; Beg, R. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi-6204 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    A recirculating flow solar particle cavity absorber (receiver) is modeled to investigate the flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics of a novel developing concept. It features a continuous recirculating flow of non-reacting metallic particles (black silicon carbide) with air which are used as a thermal enhancement medium. The aim of the present study is to numerically investigate the thermal behavior and flow characteristics of the proposed concept. The proposed solar particle receiver is modeled using two phase discrete particle model (DPM), RNG k-flow model and discrete ordinate (DO) radiation model. Numerical analysis is carried out considering a solar receiver with only air and the mixture of non-reacting particles and air as a heat transfer as well as heat carrying medium. The parametric investigation is conducted considering the incident solar flux on the receiver aperture and changing air flow rate and recirculation rate inside the receiver. A stand-alone feature of the recirculating flow solar particle receiver concept is that the particles are directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation monotonously through recirculating flow inside the receiver and results in efficient irradiation absorption and convective heat transfer to air that help to achieve high temperature air and consequently increase in thermal efficiency. This paper presents, results from the developed concept and highlights its flow behavior and potential to enhance the heat transfer from metallic particles to air by maximizing heat carrying capacity of the heat transfer medium. The imposed milestones for the present system will be helpful to understand the radiation absorption mechanism of the particles in a recirculating flow based receiver, the thermal transport between the particles, the air and the cavity, and the fluid dynamics of the air and particle in the cavity.

  1. Extinction of polarized light in ferrofluids with different magnetic particle concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socoliuc, V.; Popescu, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic field intensity and nanoparticle concentration dependence of the polarized light extinction in a ferrofluid made of magnetite particles stabilized with technical grade oleic acid dispersed in transformer oil was experimentally investigated. The magnetically induced optical anisotropy, i.e. the dichroism divided by concentration, was found to decrease with increasing sample concentration from 2% to 8%. The magnetically induced change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o with respect to the magnetic field direction was found to be positive for the less concentrated sample (2%) and negative for the samples with 4% and 8% magnetic nanoparticle concentrations, the more negative the higher the concentration and field intensity. Based on the theoretically proven fact that the particle orientation mechanism has no effect on the extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o with respect to the field direction, we analyzed the experimental findings in the frames of the agglomeration and long-range pair correlations theories for the magnetically induced optical anisotropy in ferrofluids. We developed a theoretical model in the approximation of single scattering for the optical extinction coefficient of a ferrofluid with magnetically induced particle agglomeration. The model predicts the existence of a polarization independent component of the optical extinction coefficient that is experimentally measurable at 54.74 o polarization angle. The change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o is positive if only the formation of straight n-particle chains is considered and may become negative in the hypothesis that the longer chains degenerate to more isotropic structures (polymer-like coils, globules or bundles of chains). The model for the influence on the light absorption of the long-range pair correlations, published elsewhere, predicts that the change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o is always negative, the more

  2. Characterization study of cesium concentrated particles in the soils near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    Radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated a vast area. Two types of contamination, spread and spot types, were observed in soils with autoradiography using an imaging plate. Other samples such as dust filters, vegetation, X-ray films, and so on, also indicate the spot type contamination in the early stage of the FDNPP accident. The source of spot type contamination is well known as hot particles at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident in 1986. Hot particles were divided into two groups, fuel hot particles and fission product particles, and they were emitted directly from reactor core with phreatic explosion and fire. In contrast, the official reports of the FDNPP accident did not conforme core explosion. In addition, the emitted total amount of Uranium was very few (Yamamoto et al., 2014). Thus, the spot type contaminations were not identified as the same of hot particles yet. Therefore, the present study aimed to pick up and identify the spot contaminations in soils. Surface soil samples were collected at 20 km northwest from the FDNPP in June 2013. Soils were spread in plastic bags for autoradiography with imaging plate analysis. Then, the soil particles were collected on a sticky carbon tape and analyzed by SEM-EDS to detect radioactive particles. Finally, particles were confirmed to contain photo peaks in the γ-spectrum by a germanium semiconductor detector. Four radioactive particles were isolated from the soil samples in the present study. Detected γ-ray emission radionuclides were only Cs-134 and Cs-137. The X-ray spectra on the SEM-EDS of all particles showed a Cs peak as well as O, Fe, Zn, and Rb peaks, and these elements were distributed uniformly within the particles. In addition, uniform distribution of Si was also shown. Moreover, U was detected from one of the particles, but U concentration was very low and existed locally in the particle. These characters are very similar to previous

  3. Behaviour of solute and particle markers in the stomach of sheep given a concentrate diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faichney, G.J.; Griffiths, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Fistulated sheep given a concentrate diet were used to study the behaviour of solute ([ 51 Cr]EDTA) and particle ([ 103 Ru]phenanthroline) markers in the stomach under conditions of continuous feeding. An injection of a mixed dose of [ 51 Cr]EDTA and [ 103 Ru]phenanthroline was given into the rumen and the time course of marker concentrations in the rumen and the abomasum was recorded. The curves were analysed on the assumption that the stomach of the sheep could be represented as two mixing compartments (reticulo-rumen and abomasum) and a time delay (omasum). This model provided a very good description of the data. [ 103 Ru]-phenanthroline associated with small particles was retained in the rumen much longer than [ 51 Cr]EDTA. Although exchange of [ 103 Ru] phenanthroline occurred between large and small particle fractions, the results suggested that small particles may have been retained somewhat longer in the rumen than solutes. However, it was clear from the results that the mean retention times for particulate matter in the rumen could not be simply obtained using adsorbable markers. Cyclical fluctuations in the concentration of [ 51 Cr]EDTA in the rumen indicated that there were daily variations in net water flux in the rumen. The presence of protozoa was associated with much shorter retention times of both solutes and particles in the rumen. Protozoa were also associated with reduced rumen volumes. (author)

  4. A splitting integration scheme for the SPH simulation of concentrated particle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xin; Ellero, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Simulating nearly contacting solid particles in suspension is a challenging task due to the diverging behavior of short-range lubrication forces, which pose a serious time-step limitation for explicit integration schemes. This general difficulty limits severely the total duration of simulations of concentrated suspensions. Inspired by the ideas developed in [S. Litvinov, M. Ellero, X.Y. Hu, N.A. Adams, J. Comput. Phys. 229 (2010) 5457-5464] for the simulation of highly dissipative fluids, we propose in this work a splitting integration scheme for the direct simulation of solid particles suspended in a Newtonian liquid. The scheme separates the contributions of different forces acting on the solid particles. In particular, intermediate- and long-range multi-body hydrodynamic forces, which are computed from the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, are taken into account using an explicit integration; for short-range lubrication forces, velocities of pairwise interacting solid particles are updated implicitly by sweeping over all the neighboring pairs iteratively, until convergence in the solution is obtained. By using the splitting integration, simulations can be run stably and efficiently up to very large solid particle concentrations. Moreover, the proposed scheme is not limited to the SPH method presented here, but can be easily applied to other simulation techniques employed for particulate suspensions.

  5. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licina, Dusan; Bhangar, Seema; Brooks, Brandon; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Tang, Xiaochen; Morowitz, Michael J.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses’ station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3–1 μm) particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3–10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3). Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37–81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18–59% and 1–5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1–10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor

  6. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Licina

    Full Text Available Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses' station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3-1 μm particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3-10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3. Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37-81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18-59% and 1-5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1-10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor

  7. The effects of fluvial transport on radionuclide concentrations on different particle size classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, F.J.; Olley, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of grain abrasion and disaggregation on the distribution of 137 Cs with respect to particle size and the effects this may have on the use of 137 Cs for determining the origin of recent sediment. Cs-137 is a product of above ground nuclear testing and has been deposited on the earth's surface by rainfall. On contact with soil, 137 Cs is strongly adsorbed by soil particles and there is a direct correlation between 137 Cs concentration and decreasing particle size. Rapid adsorption means that 137 Cs is preferentially concentrated in surface soils, and it's subsequent redistribution by physical processes rather than chemical has lead to 137 Cs being widely used to study soil erosion

  8. Distribution of concentration of coarse particle-water mixture in horizontal smooth pipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Konfršt, Jiří; Krupička, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2016), s. 1040-1047 ISSN 0008-4034 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse particle-water mixture * gamma-ray radiometry * concentration distribution * horizontal conveying Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.356, year: 2016

  9. Improved sentinel node visualization in breast cancer by optimizing the colloid particle concentration and tracer dosage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Tanis, P. J.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Nieweg, O. E.; Muller, S. H.; Rutgers, E. J.; Kooi, M. L.; Kroon, B. B.

    2001-01-01

    Faint lymph uptake may hamper sentinel node (SN) identification by scintigraphy and subsequent gamma probe localization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate an adjustment in the colloid particle concentration and tracer dosage to optimize mammary lymphoscintigraphy. Scintigraphy was

  10. Distribution of concentration of coarse particle-water mixture in horizontal smooth pipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Konfršt, Jiří; Krupička, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2016), s. 1040-1047 ISSN 0008-4034 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse particle- water mixture * gamma-ray radiometry * concentration distribution * horizontal conveying Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.356, year: 2016

  11. Mathematical modeling of atmospheric fine particle-associated primary organic compound concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Hildemann, Lynn M.; Mazurek, Monica A.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    1996-08-01

    An atmospheric transport model has been used to explore the relationship between source emissions and ambient air quality for individual particle phase organic compounds present in primary aerosol source emissions. An inventory of fine particulate organic compound emissions was assembled for the Los Angeles area in the year 1982. Sources characterized included noncatalyst- and catalyst-equipped autos, diesel trucks, paved road dust, tire wear, brake lining dust, meat cooking operations, industrial oil-fired boilers, roofing tar pots, natural gas combustion in residential homes, cigarette smoke, fireplaces burning oak and pine wood, and plant leaf abrasion products. These primary fine particle source emissions were supplied to a computer-based model that simulates atmospheric transport, dispersion, and dry deposition based on the time series of hourly wind observations and mixing depths. Monthly average fine particle organic compound concentrations that would prevail if the primary organic aerosol were transported without chemical reaction were computed for more than 100 organic compounds within an 80 km × 80 km modeling area centered over Los Angeles. The monthly average compound concentrations predicted by the transport model were compared to atmospheric measurements made at monitoring sites within the study area during 1982. The predicted seasonal variation and absolute values of the concentrations of the more stable compounds are found to be in reasonable agreement with the ambient observations. While model predictions for the higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are in agreement with ambient observations, lower molecular weight PAH show much higher predicted than measured atmospheric concentrations in the particle phase, indicating atmospheric decay by chemical reactions or evaporation from the particle phase. The atmospheric concentrations of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic polycarboxylic acids greatly exceed the contributions that

  12. Indoor and ambient air concentrations of respirable particles between two hospitals in Kashan (2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammadyan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hospital environment requires special attention to provide healthful indoor air quality for protecting patients and healthcare workers against the occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of respirable particles indoor and ambient air of two hospitals in Kashan. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 3 months (Marth 2014 to May 2015. Indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured four times a week in the operating room, pediatric and ICU2 (Intensive Care Unit wards using a real time dust monitor at two hospitals. A total number of 480 samples (80 samples indoors and 40 outdoors from wards were collected. Results: The highest mean PM2.5 and PM10 for indoors were determined 57.61± 68.57 µg m-3 and 212.36±295.49 µg m-3, respectively. The results showed a significant relationship between PM2.5 and PM10 in the indoor and ambient air of two hospitals (P<0.05. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were different in all of the selected wards (P<0.05. Conclusion: The respirable particle concentrations in the indoor and ambient air in both hospitals were higher than the 24-hours WHO and US-EPA standards. Thence, utilizing sufficient and efficient air conditioning systems in hospitals can be useful in improving indoor air quality and reducing the respirable particle concentrations.

  13. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, M N; Chaikov, L L; Zaritskii, A R

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r -4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids. (paper)

  14. Ultrafine particles in inhabited areas in the Arctic - From very low to high concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pétursdóttir, Una; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Press-Kristensen, Kåre

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic is considered a pristine environment, where pollution mainly originates from global sources. The present study examines particle number concentrations (PNCs) and the main sources of airborne ultrafine particles (UFPs, d < 100 nm) in the town Sisimiut and two nearby settlements, Sarfann......The Arctic is considered a pristine environment, where pollution mainly originates from global sources. The present study examines particle number concentrations (PNCs) and the main sources of airborne ultrafine particles (UFPs, d ..., Sarfannguit and Itilleq, in West Greenland. Measurements were carried out during three weeks in April and May 2016. Air temperatures during the measurements ranged from −4.4 to +8.7 °C. A portable condensation particle counter (P-Trak) was used for the measurements. Results showed that the lowest...... in Sisimiut, while subsequent measurements at the same location showed much lower PNCs. The presence of heavy machinery elevated PNCs highly during two measurement events, giving PNCs up to 270,993 cm−3 but dropping to 1180 cm−3 10 min later, after the vehicle had passed by. A measurement event in Sisimiut...

  15. Measurement of radon progeny concentrations in air by alpha-particle spectrometey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1975-07-01

    A technique is presented for measuring air concentrations of the short-lived progeny of radon-222 by the use of alpha spectrometry. In this technique, the concentration of RaA, RaB, and RaC are calculated from one integral count of the RaA and two integral counts of the RaC' alpha-particle activity collected on a filter with an air sampling device. The influence of air sampling and counting intervals of time on the accuracy of the calculated concentrations is discussed in the report. A computer program is presented for use with this technique. It is written in the BASIC language. The program will calculate the air concentrations of RaA, RaB, and RaC, and will estimate the accuracy in these calculated concentrations. (U.S.)

  16. Reduced Ultrafine Particle Concentration in Urban Air: Changes in Nucleation and Anthropogenic Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Provat K; Robinson, Ellis S; Shah, Rishabh U; Zimmerman, Naomi; Apte, Joshua S; Robinson, Allen L; Presto, Albert A

    2018-06-19

    Nucleation is an important source of ambient ultrafine particles (UFP). We present observational evidence of the changes in the frequency and intensity of nucleation events in urban air by analyzing long-term particle size distribution measurements at an urban background site in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania during 2001-2002 and 2016-2017. We find that both frequency and intensity of nucleation events have been reduced by 40-50% over the past 15 years, resulting in a 70% reduction in UFP concentrations from nucleation. On average, the particle growth rates are 30% slower than 15 years ago. We attribute these changes to dramatic reductions in SO 2 (more than 90%) and other pollutant concentrations. Overall, UFP concentrations in Pittsburgh have been reduced by ∼48% in the past 15 years, with a ∼70% reduction in nucleation, ∼27% in weekday local sources (e.g., weekday traffic), and 49% in the regional background. Our results highlight that a reduction in anthropogenic emissions can considerably reduce nucleation events and UFP concentrations in a polluted urban environment.

  17. High concentrations of coarse particles emitted from a cattle feeding operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hiranuma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing roughly 10 million head of cattle in the United States alone, open air cattle feedlots represent a significant but poorly constrained source of atmospheric particles. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of physical and chemical properties of particles emitted from a large representative cattle feedlot in the Southwest United States. In the summer of 2008, measurements and samplings were conducted at the upwind and downwind edges of the facility. A series of far-field measurements and samplings was also conducted 3.5 km north of the facility. Two instruments, a GRIMM Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS and a GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer (PAS, were used to measure particle size distributions over the range of 0.01 to 25 μm diameter. Raman microspectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of particles on a single particle basis. Volume size distributions of dust were dominated by coarse mode particles. Twenty-four hour averaged concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less were as high as 1200 μg m−3 during the campaign. The primary constituents of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water soluble organics, and less soluble fatty acids, including stearic acid and tristearin. A significant fraction of the organic particles was present in internal mixtures with salts. Basic characteristics such as size distribution and composition of agricultural aerosols were found to be different than the properties of those found in urban and semi-urban aerosols. Failing to account for such differences may lead to errors in estimates of aerosol effects on local air quality, visibility, and public health.

  18. High concentrations of coarse particles emitted from a cattle feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Gramann, J.; Auvermann, B. W.

    2011-08-01

    Housing roughly 10 million head of cattle in the United States alone, open air cattle feedlots represent a significant but poorly constrained source of atmospheric particles. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of physical and chemical properties of particles emitted from a large representative cattle feedlot in the Southwest United States. In the summer of 2008, measurements and samplings were conducted at the upwind and downwind edges of the facility. A series of far-field measurements and samplings was also conducted 3.5 km north of the facility. Two instruments, a GRIMM Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer (PAS), were used to measure particle size distributions over the range of 0.01 to 25 μm diameter. Raman microspectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of particles on a single particle basis. Volume size distributions of dust were dominated by coarse mode particles. Twenty-four hour averaged concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less) were as high as 1200 μg m-3 during the campaign. The primary constituents of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water soluble organics, and less soluble fatty acids, including stearic acid and tristearin. A significant fraction of the organic particles was present in internal mixtures with salts. Basic characteristics such as size distribution and composition of agricultural aerosols were found to be different than the properties of those found in urban and semi-urban aerosols. Failing to account for such differences may lead to errors in estimates of aerosol effects on local air quality, visibility, and public health.

  19. Concentration Measurements of Suspended Load using ADV with Influence of the Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2017-04-01

    ADV backscatter data can be used under certain conditions to gain information about the concentrations of suspended loads. This was shown in many studies before (Fugate and Friedrichs 2002; Chanson et al 2008; Ha et al. 2009). This paper reports on a pre-study to investigate the influence of particle size on concentration measurements for suspended sediment load with ADV. The study was conducted in a flume in the Oskar-von-Miller-Institute using fresh water from a river including the natural suspended load. The ADV used in the experiments was a Vectrino Profiler (Nortek). In addition water samples were taken for TSS and TOC. For the measurements a surge was generated in the flume to ensure that also particles of larger size will be present in the water phase. The measurements and samples were taken during the whole surge event. Therefore we were able to find a good correlation between the backscatter data of the ADV and the TSS as well as TOC results. For the decreasing part of the flow event the concentration of TOC in the suspended load of the water phase is decreasing much slower than the TSS and results in a damped decrease of the backscatter values. This means that the results for concentration measurements might be slightly influenced by the size of the particles. Further evaluations of measurements conducted with a LISST SL (Sequoia) will be investigated to show the trend of the particle sizes during this process and fortify this result. David C. Fugate, Carl T. Friedrichs, Determining concentration and fall velocity of estuarine particle populations using ADV, OBS and LISST, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 22, Issues 11-13, 2002 H.K. Ha, W.-Y. Hsu, J.P.-Y. Maa, Y.Y. Shao, C.W. Holland, Using ADV backscatter strength for measuring suspended cohesive sediment concentration, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 29, Issue 10, 2009 Hubert Chanson, Maiko Takeuchi, Mark Trevethan, Using turbidity and acoustic backscatter intensity as surrogate measures of

  20. Continuous electrodeionization through electrostatic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermentzis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    We report a new continuous electrodeionization cell with electrostatically shielded concentrate compartments or electrochemical Faraday cages formed by porous electronically and ionically conductive media, instead of permselective ion exchange membranes. Due to local elimination of the applied electric field within the compartments, they electrostatically retain the incoming ions and act as 'electrostatic ion pumps' or 'ion traps' and therefore concentrate compartments. The porous media are chemically and thermally stable. Electrodeionization or electrodialysis cells containing such concentrate compartments in place of ion exchange membranes can be used to regenerate ion exchange resins and produce deionized water, to purify industrial effluents and desalinate brackish or seawater. The cells can work by polarity reversal without any negative impact to the deionization process. Because the electronically and ionically active media constituting the electrostatically shielded concentrate compartments are not permselective and coions are not repelled but can be swept by the migrating counterions, the cells are not affected by the known membrane associated limitations, such as concentration polarization or scaling and show an increased current efficiency

  1. Submicron particle mass concentrations and sources in the Amazonian wet season (AMAZE-08)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Farmer, D. K.; Rizzo, L. V.; Pauliqueivis, T.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Karl, Thomas G.; Guenther, Alex B.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Andreae, M. O.; Poeschl, U.; Jiminez, J. L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot T.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time mass spectra of non-refractory component of submicron aerosol particles were recorded in a tropical rainforest in the central Amazon basin during the wet season of 2008, as a part of the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08). Organic components accounted on average for more than 80% of the non-refractory submicron particle mass concentrations during the period of measurements. Ammonium was present in sufficient quantities to halfway neutralize sulfate. In this acidic, isoprene-dominated, low-NOx environment the high-resolution mass spectra as well as mass closures with ion chromatography measurements did not provide evidence for significant contributions of organosulfate species, at least at concentrations above uncertainty levels. Positive-matrix factorization of the time series of particle mass spectra identified four statistical factors to account for the variance of the signal intensities of the organic constituents: a factor HOA having a hydrocarbon-like signature and identified as regional emissions of primary organic material, a factor OOA-1 associated with fresh production of secondary organic material by a mechanism of BVOC oxidation followed by gas-to-particle conversion, a factor OOA-2 consistent with reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially epoxydiols by acidic particles, and a factor OOA-3 associated with long range transport and atmospheric aging. The OOA-1, -2, and -3 factors had progressively more oxidized signatures. Diameter-resolved mass spectral markers also suggested enhanced reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products to the accumulation mode for the OOA-2 factor, and such size partitioning can be indicative of in-cloud process. The campaign-average factor loadings were in a ratio of 1.1:1.0 for the OOA-1 compared to the OOA-2 pathway, suggesting the comparable importance of gas-phase compared to particle-phase (including cloud waters) production pathways of secondary organic material during

  2. Bottom concentrations Determination of particle material in suspension in Medellin City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri Londono, Carlos Alberto

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is at achieving a better understanding of background concentrations of particle materials in suspension (pst) in Medellin. This will allow certain actions and programs for watching and controlling air pollution in this city. Metals analyzed in particle material were: calcium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, nickel and lead. Chromium and nickel were not detected in any station and lead was detected in one station only. It is observed that all metals have a large dispersion, excepting total iron in La America and magnesium in point 2 at Belencito, which demonstrates the high temporal variability of these metals in these places. also It is observed that metals do not have a homogenous variation in their breathable fraction (encountered in pm-10) in relation to the total metals (encountered in PST) which is indication of the different sources contribution to the metals concentration and, in general, of PST and PM - 10

  3. Effect of size and concentration of silt particles on erosion of Pelton turbine buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhy, M.K.; Saini, R.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2009-10-15

    Erosive wear of hydro turbine runners depends upon different parameters such as size, hardness and concentration of silt particles, velocity of flow, properties of the base material of the turbine components and operating hours of the turbine. Various researchers have conducted experiments to study the effect of these parameters on erosive wear. Most of these experiments were on small-size samples at different types of test rigs to simulate the flow conditions in turbines, however actual flow conditions and the phenomenon of erosive wear are too complex to simulate. Under the present study, effect of these parameters on erosion in actual conditions has been investigated experimentally. An extensive experimental study has been carried out on a small scale Pelton turbine. Based on the experimental data collected for different parameters, correlations have been developed for wear rate of Pelton turbine buckets as a function of critical parameters, i.e., size and concentration of silt particles and jet velocity. (author)

  4. Reduction of indoor particles concentration using re-circulating filtration units in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Karottki, Gabriela D.

    2012-01-01

    air was recirculated through the unit during two weeks in a randomized and double blinded design. The measurements included concentration of PM2.5 and ultrafine particles (UPC), carbon dioxide, temperature and relative humidity, ventilation, air flow through the unit, allergen and fungal levels....... Additional information was collected through questionnaires. Several medical tests were made, however the results are not included in this paper. Preliminary results showed significant decrease in PM2.5 concentration during the filtered period compared to placebo period. Likewise was UPC significantly lower...

  5. Flow behaviour and local concentration of coarse particles-water mixture in inclined pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Konfršt, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2017), s. 183-191 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse particle mixture * concentration distribution * effect of pipe inclination * gamma-ray radiometry * Hydraulic conveying * mixture flow behaviour Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  6. Effect of particle size distribution and concentration on flow behavior of dense slurries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2011), s. 53-65 ISSN 0272-6351 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : concentration effect * dense complex slurry * experimental investigation * flow behavior * particle size distribution effect * pressure drop Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2011

  7. Concentration of aqueous extracts of defatted soy flour by ultrafiltration; Effect of suspended particles on the filtration flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, T.R.; Kooiker, K.; Bel, W.; Dekker, M.; Wesselingh, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Suspended particles can have a positive effect on the flux and concentration curve of soy flour extracts during ultrafiltration. This is described by a simple empirical model. The suspended particles in this study were insoluble milled bean material (mean particle size 25 m). It is shown that it is

  8. Concentration, size distribution and dry deposition of amines in atmospheric particles of urban Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengxian; Bi, Xinhui; Zhang, Guohua; Peng, Long; Lian, Xiufeng; Lu, Huiying; Fu, Yuzhen; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying

    2017-12-01

    Size-segregated PM10 samples were collected in Guangzhou, China during autumn of 2014. Nine amines, including seven aliphatic amines and two heterocyclic amines, were detected using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer after derivatization by benzenesulfonyl chloride. The total concentration of the nine amines (Ʃamines) was 79.6-140.9 ng m-3 in PM10. The most abundant species was methylamine (MA), which had a concentration of 29.2-70.1 ng m-3. MA, dimethylamine (DMA), diethylamine (DEA) and dibutylamine (DBA) were the predominant amines in the samples and accounted for approximately 80% of Ʃamines in each size segment. Two heterocyclic amines, pyrrolidine (PYR) and morpholine (MOR), were detected in all samples and had average concentrations of 1.14 ± 0.37 and 1.89 ± 0.64 ng m-3, respectively, in particles with aerodynamic diameters ammonium ranged from 0.0068 to 0.0107 in particles with diameters <1.5 μm, and the maximum ratio occurred in the smallest particles (diameter< 0.49 μm). The average dry deposition flux and velocity of Ʃamines in PM10 were 7.9 ± 1.6 μg m-2 d-1 and 0.084 ± 0.0021 cm s-1, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information on the contribution of amines to secondary organic aerosols and dry removal mechanisms in urban areas.

  9. Mathematical Modelling and Experimental Evaluation of Electrostatic Sensor Arrays for the Flow Measurement of Fine Particles in a Square-shaped Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, S; Yan, Yong; Qian, XC; Hu, YH

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—Square-shaped pneumatic conveying pipes are used in some industrial processes such as fuel injection systems in coal-fired power plants and circulating fluidized beds. However, little research has been conducted to characterise the gas–solid two-phase flow in a square-shaped pneumatic conveying pipe. This paper presents mathematical modelling and experimental assessment of novel non-restrictive electrostatic sensor arrays for the measurement of pulverised fuel flow in a square-shaped...

  10. Aerosol surface area concentration: a governing factor in new particle formation in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The predominating role of aerosol Fuchs surface area, AFuchs, in determining the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF events in Beijing was elucidated in this study. The analysis was based on a field campaign from 12 March to 6 April 2016 in Beijing, during which aerosol size distributions down to  ∼  1 nm and sulfuric acid concentrations were simultaneously monitored. The 26 days were classified into 11 typical NPF days, 2 undefined days, and 13 non-event days. A dimensionless factor, LΓ, characterized by the relative ratio of the coagulation scavenging rate over the condensational growth rate (Kuang et al., 2010, was applied in this work to reveal the governing factors for NPF events in Beijing. The three parameters determining LΓ are sulfuric acid concentration, the growth enhancement factor characterized by contribution of other gaseous precursors to particle growth, Γ, and AFuchs. Different from other atmospheric environments, such as in Boulder and Hyytiälä, the daily-maximum sulfuric acid concentration and Γ in Beijing varied in a narrow range with geometric standard deviations of 1.40 and 1.31, respectively. A positive correlation between the estimated new particle formation rate, J1.5, and sulfuric acid concentration was found with a mean fitted exponent of 2.4. However, the maximum sulfuric acid concentrations on NPF days were not significantly higher (even lower, sometimes than those on non-event days, indicating that the abundance of sulfuric acid in Beijing was high enough to initiate nucleation, but may not necessarily lead to NPF events. Instead, AFuchs in Beijing varied greatly among days with a geometric standard deviation of 2.56, whereas the variabilities of AFuchs in Tecamac, Atlanta, and Boulder were reported to be much smaller. In addition, there was a good correlation between AFuchs and LΓ in Beijing (R2 = 0.88. Therefore, it was AFuchs that fundamentally determined the occurrence of NPF events

  11. Comparison of sources of submicron particle number concentrations measured at two sites in Rochester, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumba, John; Hopke, Philip K; Chalupa, David C; Utell, Mark J

    2009-09-01

    Sources contributing to the submicron particles (100-470 nm) measured between January 2002 and December 2007 at two different New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC) sites in Rochester, NY were identified and apportioned using a bilinear receptor model, positive matrix factorization (PMF). Measurements of aerosol size distributions and number concentrations for particles in the size range of 10-500 nm have been made since December 2001 to date in Rochester. The measurements are being made using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) consisting of a DMA and a CPC (TSI models 3071 and 3010, respectively). From December 2001 to March 2004, particle measurements were made at the NYS DEC site in downtown Rochester, but it was moved to the eastside of Rochester in May 2004. Each measurement period was divided into three seasons i.e., winter (December, January, and February), summer (June, July, and August), and the transitional periods (March, April, May, September, October, and November) so as to avoid experimental uncertainty resulting from too large season-to-season variability in ambient temperature and solar photon intensity that would lead to unstable/non-stationary size distributions. Therefore, the seasons were analyzed independently for possible sources. Ten sources were identified at both sites and these include traffic, nucleation, residential/commercial heating, industrial emissions, secondary nitrate, ozone- rich secondary aerosol, secondary sulfate, regionally transported aerosol, and a mixed source of nucleation and traffic. These results show that the measured total outdoor particle number concentrations in Rochester generally vary with similar temporal patterns, suggesting that the central monitoring site data can be used to estimate outdoor exposure in other parts of the city.

  12. Evaluating Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations From Prognostic Dust Minerals in an Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Knopf, D. A.; Fridlind, A. M.; Miller, R. L.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; DeMott, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of aerosol particles on the radiative properties of clouds, the so-called, indirect effect of aerosols, is recognized as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate prediction. The distribution of water vapor, precipitation, and ice cloud formation are influenced by the atmospheric ice formation, thereby modulating cloud albedo and thus climate. It is well known that different particle types possess different ice formation propensities with mineral dust being a superior ice nucleating particle (INP) compared to soot particles. Furthermore, some dust mineral types are more proficient INP than others, depending on temperature and relative humidity.In recent work, we have presented an improved dust aerosol module in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE2 with prognostic mineral composition of the dust aerosols. Thus, there are regional variations in dust composition. We evaluated the predicted mineral fractions of dust aerosols by comparing them to measurements from a compilation of about 60 published literature references. Additionally, the capability of the model to reproduce the elemental composition of the simulated dusthas been tested at Izana Observatory at Tenerife, Canary Islands, which is located off-shore of Africa and where frequent dust events are observed. We have been able to show that the new approach delivers a robust improvement of the predicted mineral fractions and elemental composition of dust.In the current study, we use three-dimensional dust mineral fields and thermodynamic conditions, which are simulated using GISS ModelE, to calculate offline the INP concentrations derived using different ice nucleation parameterizations that are currently discussed. We evaluate the calculated INP concentrations from the different parameterizations by comparing them to INP concentrations from field measurements.

  13. Vertical profiles of black carbon concentration and particle number size distribution in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, L.; Deng, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical distribution of aerosols is of great importance to our understanding in the impacts of aerosols on radiation balance and climate, as well as air quality and public health. To better understand and estimate the effects of atmospheric components including trace gases and aerosols on atmospheric environment and climate, an intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP), was carried out from late July to early August 2013 over a rural site in the polluted NCP. During the campaign, vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration and particle number size distribution were measured respectively by a micro-Aethalometer and an optical particle counter attached to a tethered balloon within 1000 m height. Meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, were measured simultaneously by a radiosonde also attached to the tethered balloon. Preliminary results showed distinct diurnal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosol total number concentration and BC concentration, following the development of the mixing layer. Generally, there was a well mixing of aerosols within the mixing layer and a sharp decrease above the mixing layer. Particularly, a small peak of BC concentrations was observed around 400-500 m height for several profiles. Further analysis would be needed to explain such phenomenon. It was also found that measured vertical profiles of BC using the filter-based method might be affected by the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  14. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. Electrostatics in Chemistry - Molecular Electrostatic Potential: Visualization and Topography. Shridhar R Gadre Pravin K Bhadane. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 14-23 ...

  15. Residential Electrostatic Precipitator - Performance at efficient and poor combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baefver, Linda; Yngvesson, Johan; Niklasson, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    The performance of a pilot residential electrostatic precipitator R{sub E}SP (Applied Plasma Physics AS), was investigated at laboratory. Measurements of TSP (Total Suspended Particles), content of organic and elemental carbon, and mass size distribution of particles upstream and downstream of ESP were performed. Values for PM1 (particles < 1 {mu}m) were calculated from the particle size distributions. Concentrations and size distributions with respect to particle numbers were measured in separate tests. Gas concentrations, temperatures and boiler parameters were also measured. The TSP concentrations upstream of the R{sub E}SP were varied in range of 15-390 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}. Up to concentrations of about 300 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}, the TSP-concentrations out from the ESP were less than 20 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}, which is well below the German emission limit for wood stoves. The removal efficiencies with respect to mass were about 87% at efficient combustion and 93% at poor combustion. Corresponding values with respect to number concentrations were about 97% at efficient combustion and almost 99% at poor combustion. The better performance at poor combustion may be explained by lower flue gas temperature, leading to longer residence time in the ESP. High removal efficiencies were also found with respect to particulate organic and elemental carbon.

  16. Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Manish; Sapra, B. K.; Khan, Arshad; Tripathi, S. N.; Shamjad, P. M.; Gupta, Tarun; Mayya, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Regional studies focusing on the role of atmospheric nanoparticles in climate change have gained impetus in the last decade. Several multi-institutional studies involving measurement of nanoparticles with several kinds of instruments are on the rise. It is important to harmonize these measurements as the instruments may work on different techniques or principles and are developed by different manufacturers. Scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS) are often used to measure size distribution of nanoparticles in the airborne phase. Two such commercially available instruments namely, GRIMM and TSI-SMPS have been compared for ambient and laboratory generated conditions. A stand-alone condensation particle counter (CPC) of TSI make was used as a reference for particle concentration measurements. The consistency of the results in terms of mean size and geometric standard deviation was seen to be excellent for both the SMPSs, with GRIMM always showing slightly (approximately 10 %) lower mean size. The integrated number concentration from GRIMM-SMPS was seen to be closer to stand-alone reference CPC compared to TSI-SMPS, for an ambient overnight comparison. However, a concentration-dependent response, i.e. the variations between the two instruments increasing with the concentration, was observed and possible reasons for this have been suggested. A separate experiment was performed for studying the modifying effect of diffusion dryer and sheath air dryer on the measured aerosol size spectra. A significant hygroscopic growth was noted when diffusion dryer was attached to one of the SMPS. The introduction of sheath air dryer in GRIMM-SMPS produced a significant shift towards lower mean size. These results have been compared and discussed with the recent inter-comparison results to strengthen and harmonize the measurement protocols.

  17. Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Sapra, B. K.; Khan, Arshad; Tripathi, S. N.; Shamjad, P. M.; Gupta, Tarun; Mayya, Y. S.

    2012-12-01

    Regional studies focusing on the role of atmospheric nanoparticles in climate change have gained impetus in the last decade. Several multi-institutional studies involving measurement of nanoparticles with several kinds of instruments are on the rise. It is important to harmonize these measurements as the instruments may work on different techniques or principles and are developed by different manufacturers. Scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS) are often used to measure size distribution of nanoparticles in the airborne phase. Two such commercially available instruments namely, GRIMM and TSI-SMPS have been compared for ambient and laboratory generated conditions. A stand-alone condensation particle counter (CPC) of TSI make was used as a reference for particle concentration measurements. The consistency of the results in terms of mean size and geometric standard deviation was seen to be excellent for both the SMPSs, with GRIMM always showing slightly (approximately 10 %) lower mean size. The integrated number concentration from GRIMM-SMPS was seen to be closer to stand-alone reference CPC compared to TSI-SMPS, for an ambient overnight comparison. However, a concentration-dependent response, i.e. the variations between the two instruments increasing with the concentration, was observed and possible reasons for this have been suggested. A separate experiment was performed for studying the modifying effect of diffusion dryer and sheath air dryer on the measured aerosol size spectra. A significant hygroscopic growth was noted when diffusion dryer was attached to one of the SMPS. The introduction of sheath air dryer in GRIMM-SMPS produced a significant shift towards lower mean size. These results have been compared and discussed with the recent inter-comparison results to strengthen and harmonize the measurement protocols.

  18. Primary standard for the number concentration of liquid-borne particles in the 10 to 20 µm diameter range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T.; Ehara, K.

    2011-02-01

    The national primary standard for the number concentration of liquid-borne particles in the 10 to 20 µm diameter range has been developed at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. The standard consists of a total number counting type flow cytometer (T-FCM) and an electronic balance. The T-FCM is a commercial flow cytometer modified so that the total number of particles in an aqueous suspension sampled in a test tube can be counted, and the electronic balance is used to determine the mass of the suspension. This standard is intended to be used for calibrating commercial standard suspensions of monodisperse polystyrene latex (PSL) particles. The measurand in the calibration is the mass-based number concentration (the particle number in a unit mass of a suspension), and the calibration capability covers the concentration range from 5 × 102 to 2 × 106 particles g-1. When the concentration of the suspension is higher than 2 × 103 particles g-1, the suspension is first diluted to about 1 × 103 particles g-1 to suppress the coincidence loss in particle counting by the T-FCM. The validity of the calibration with the T-FCM was examined by comparison with an independent method in which a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to determine the number concentration of particles deposited on a silicon wafer. For a suspension of 10 µm PSL particles with a concentration of approximately 1 × 106 particles g-1, the concentration values determined by the T-FCM and SEM methods were 1.042 × 106 and 1.035 × 106 particles g-1, respectively: The difference was less than 0.7%. The relative expanded uncertainty of the measurement by the T-FCM method with the coverage factor k = 2 was 4.4%.

  19. Primary standard for the number concentration of liquid-borne particles in the 10 to 20 µm diameter range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, T; Ehara, K

    2011-01-01

    The national primary standard for the number concentration of liquid-borne particles in the 10 to 20 µm diameter range has been developed at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. The standard consists of a total number counting type flow cytometer (T-FCM) and an electronic balance. The T-FCM is a commercial flow cytometer modified so that the total number of particles in an aqueous suspension sampled in a test tube can be counted, and the electronic balance is used to determine the mass of the suspension. This standard is intended to be used for calibrating commercial standard suspensions of monodisperse polystyrene latex (PSL) particles. The measurand in the calibration is the mass-based number concentration (the particle number in a unit mass of a suspension), and the calibration capability covers the concentration range from 5 × 10 2 to 2 × 10 6 particles g −1 . When the concentration of the suspension is higher than 2 × 10 3 particles g −1 , the suspension is first diluted to about 1 × 10 3 particles g −1 to suppress the coincidence loss in particle counting by the T-FCM. The validity of the calibration with the T-FCM was examined by comparison with an independent method in which a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to determine the number concentration of particles deposited on a silicon wafer. For a suspension of 10 µm PSL particles with a concentration of approximately 1 × 10 6 particles g −1 , the concentration values determined by the T-FCM and SEM methods were 1.042 × 10 6 and 1.035 × 10 6 particles g −1 , respectively: The difference was less than 0.7%. The relative expanded uncertainty of the measurement by the T-FCM method with the coverage factor k = 2 was 4.4%

  20. Multi-step process for concentrating magnetic particles in waste sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John L.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a multi-step, multi-force process for dewatering sludges which have high concentrations of magnetic particles, such as waste sludges generated during steelmaking. This series of processing steps involves (1) mixing a chemical flocculating agent with the sludge; (2) allowing the particles to aggregate under non-turbulent conditions; (3) subjecting the mixture to a magnetic field which will pull the magnetic aggregates in a selected direction, causing them to form a compacted sludge; (4) preferably, decanting the clarified liquid from the compacted sludge; and (5) using filtration to convert the compacted sludge into a cake having a very high solids content. Steps 2 and 3 should be performed simultaneously. This reduces the treatment time and increases the extent of flocculation and the effectiveness of the process. As partially formed aggregates with active flocculating groups are pulled through the mixture by the magnetic field, they will contact other particles and form larger aggregates. This process can increase the solids concentration of steelmaking sludges in an efficient and economic manner, thereby accomplishing either of two goals: (a) it can convert hazardous wastes into economic resources for recycling as furnace feed material, or (b) it can dramatically reduce the volume of waste material which must be disposed.

  1. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel, R.A.; Turner, L.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Barnes, D.C.; Nystrom, W.D.; Bussard, R.W.; Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P. T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2 * 10 10 neutrons/sec. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. Atomic physics effects strongly influence the performance of all of these systems. Important atomic effects include elastic scattering, ionization, excitation, and charge exchange. This paper discusses how an IEC system is influenced by these effects and how to design around them. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented

  2. Improvement in mechanical properties of high concentration particle doped thermoset composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.

    2009-01-01

    The paper relates to high concentration particle doped composites based on thermosetting polymer systems in which the sequential addition of particles of certain size distribution is followed by curing and casting of the slurry to form a thermoset composite. Conventionally, at a threshold of beyond 90% of particles by weight of the polymer using triglyceride, the mechanical properties of the composite exhibit a sharp decline. The present research mitigates this behavior by incorporating a unique combination of cross-linking agents in the base polymer to impart exceptional mechanical properties to the composite. More specifically, the base polymer consists of butadiene, with triglyceride as cross-linking agent together with hydroxy-alkane as the chain extension precursors, when tune to the appropriate level of hard segment ratio in the polymer. An added advantage according to the present work resides in the analytical nature of butadiene pre-polymer as opposed to natural product; traditional composites based on natural sources are hampered by their inconsistent chemical composition and poor shelf life in the fabricated composite. The thermoset composite according the present research exhibits superior tensile strength (200-300 psi) properties using particle loading as high as 92% by weight of the fabricated composite as measured on a Tinius Olsen machine. Dynamic Mechanical Testing reveals interesting combination of storage and loss moduli in the fabricated specimens as a function of optimizing the thermal response of the viscoelastic composite to imposed vibration loading. (author)

  3. Effects of wind on background particle concentrations at truck freight terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ronald; Hart, Jaime E; Davis, Mary E; Reaser, Paul; Natkin, Jonathan; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Truck freight terminals are predominantly located near highways and industrial facilities. This proximity to pollution sources, coupled with meteorological conditions and wind patterns, may affect occupational exposures to particles at these work locations. To understand this process, data from an environmental sampling study of particles at U.S. trucking terminals, along with weather and geographic maps, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the transportation of particles from local pollutant sources elevated observed occupational exposures at these locations. To help identify potential upwind sources, wind direction weighted averages and speed measurements were used to construct wind roses that were superimposed on overhead photos of the terminal and examined for upwind source activity. Statistical tests were performed on these "source" and "nonsource" directions to determine whether there were significant differences in observed particle levels between the two groups. Our results provide evidence that nearby upwind pollution sources significantly elevated background concentrations at only a few of the locations sampled, whereas the majority provided little to no evidence of a significant upwind source effect.

  4. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is divided into four parts: a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year

  5. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruin, S. [California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States); University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Keck School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine; Westerdahl, D.; Sax, T. [California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States); Sioutas, C. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering; Fine, P.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering; South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), particulate matter(PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction ({approx}6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated wth readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles. (author)

  6. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruin, S.; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), particulate matter(PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (∼6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated wth readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles. (author)

  7. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, S.; Westerdahl, D.; Sax, T.; Sioutas, C.; Fine, P. M.

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (˜6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated with readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles.

  8. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrostatics in Chemistry. 3. Molecular Electrostatic Potential: Visualization and Topography. Shridhar R Gadre and Pravin K Bhadane. 1 1. Basic Principles, Resona- nce, Vol.4, No.2, 11-19, 1999. 2. Electrostatic Potentials of. Atoms, Ions and Molecules,. Resonance, Vol.4, No.5, 40-51,. 1999. Topographical features of the ...

  9. Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: s.lane@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.

  10. Dynamics of suspended sediment concentration, flow discharge and sediment particle size interdependency to identify sediment source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-11-01

    Spatiotemporal behavior of sediment yield is a key for proper watershed management. This study analyzed statistical characteristics and trends of suspended sediment concentration (SCS), flow discharge (FD) and sediment particle sizes using data from 24 gage stations scattered throughout the United States. Analysis showed significant time- and location-specific differences of these variables. The median values of SSC, FD and percentage of particle sizes smaller than 63 μm (P63) for all 24 gage stations were found to be 510.236 mg l-1 (right skewed), 45.406 m3 s-1 (left skewed) and 78.648% (right skewed), respectively. Most of the stations exhibited significant trends (P practices which may call for local or regional planning based on natural (i.e., precipitation amount, type and erosivity, watershed area, and soil erodibility) and human-affected (i.e., land use and hydraulic structures and water resources management) factors governing the study variables.

  11. Quantitative nanoscale electrostatics of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Pérez, M; Cartagena-Rivera, A X; Lošdorfer Božič, A; Carrillo, P J P; San Martín, C; Mateu, M G; Raman, A; Podgornik, R; de Pablo, P J

    2015-11-07

    Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed ϕ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material.

  12. PREFACE: Electrostatics 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, James

    2015-10-01

    presentation related to their work. Chilworth Technology and Infolytica both took advantage of this opportunity. David Firth from Chilworth Technology delivered some case studies related to process safety and Chris Emson from Infolytica compared the different types of modelling software used in industry and academia. For two days of the conference, an exhibition was held for delegates to meet and discuss their work with interested companies. Sessions on Modelling and Simulation and on Measurement and Instrumentation were included. Recent successful IOP meetings on Electrospinning and Electrospray prove that this is an important topic, and were the subject of a session in the conference, including an invited talk by Dr Horst von Recum on Electrospun materials for affinity based drug delivery. The conference finished with a session on Environmental and Space Applications. The Southampton Yacht Club provided a fitting venue for the conference dinner on the Wednesday evening. Meal times, and conference dinners in particular, are always a great opportunity to meet with other workers in related fields, and there were many conversations started in question and answer sessions that continued over a plate of food. Within the conference dinner, prizes were awarded for the best student work. Ladislav Konopka's talk in the modelling and simulation session discussed how different particle sizes can be shown to transfer charge in a modelled system. Matthias Perez's poster presented early work on the use of a small-scale wind turbine to generate wind power. The discussions both within the lecture theatre and the ongoing discussions that occur over coffee and tea in between sessions are often a place where new ideas are shared. In fact, the presentation submitted by Dr Atsushi Ohsawa, Charge neutralisation from the side surface of an insulating plate, acknowledged an inspiration from a question raised at a previous Electrostatics conference in Budapest in 2013. In these proceedings the

  13. Electrostatic air filters generated by electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Hebard, H.D.; Lum, B.Y.; Kuhl, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental findings on fibrous filters converted to electrostatic operation by a nonionizing electric field. Compared to a conventional fibrous filter, the electrostatic filter has a higher efficiency and a longer, useful life. The increased efficiency is attributed to a time independent attraction between polarized fibers and charged, polarized particles and a time dependent attraction between charged fibers and charged, polarized particles. The charge on the fibers results from a dynamic process of charge accumulation due to the particle deposits and a charge dissipation due to the fiber conductivity

  14. The Contribution of Black Carbon to Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations from Prescribed Burns and Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, G. P.; DeMott, P. J.; Suski, K. J.; Emerson, E. W.; Rauker, A. M.; Kodros, J.; Levin, E. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Farmer, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) has been implicated as a potential immersion-mode ice nucleating particle (INP) because of its relative abundance in the upper troposphere. Furthermore, several field and aircraft measurements have observed positive correlations between BC and INP concentrations. Despite this, the efficiency of BC to act as an immersion-mode INP is poorly constrained. Indeed, previous results from laboratory studies are in conflict, with estimates of BC's impact on INP ranging from no impact to being efficient enough to rival the well-known INP mineral dust. It is, however, becoming clear that the ice nucleation activity of BC may depend on both its fuel type and combustion conditions. For example, previous work has shown that diesel exhaust BC is an extremely poor immersion-mode INP, but laboratory burns of biomass fuels indicate that BC can contribute up to 70% of all INP for some fuel types. Given these dependencies, we propose that sampling from real-world biomass burning sources would provide the most useful new information on the contribution of BC to atmospheric INP. In this work, we will present recent results looking at the sources of INP from prescribed burns and wildfires. To determine the specific contribution of refractory black carbon (rBC) to INP concentrations, we utilized a new technique that couples the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to the Colorado State University Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC). The SP2 utilizes laser-induced incandescence to quantify rBC mass on a particle-by-particle basis; in doing so, it also selectively destroys rBC particles by heating them to their vaporization temperature. Thus, the SP2 can be used as a selective pre-filter for rBC into the CFDC. Furthermore, we have also used a filter-based technique for measuring INP, the Ice Spectrometer, which can employ pretreatments such as heating and digestion by H2O2 to determine the contribution of heat-labile and organic particles, respectively.

  15. Genotoxic effects of daily personal exposure to particle mass and number concentrations on buccal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Daniela S.; da Costa, Silvano César; Ribeiro, Marcos; Moreira, Camila A. B.; Beal, Alexandra; Squizzato, Rafaela; Rudke, Anderson Paulo; Rafee, Sameh Adib Abou; Martins, Jorge A.; Palioto, Graciana Freitas; Kumar, Prashant; Martins, Leila D.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess personal exposure to Particle Number Concentrations (PNC) in four size ranges between 0.3 and 10 μm, and particulate matter (PM1; PM2.5; PM4; PM10) in order to evaluate possible genotoxic effects through a comet assay in buccal cells. A convenience cohort of 30 individuals from a Brazilian medium-sized city was selected. These individuals aged between 20 and 61 and worked in typical job categories (i.e., administrative, commerce, education, general services and transport). They were recruited to perform personal exposure measurements during their typical daily routine activities, totaling 240 h of sampling. The 8-h average mass concentrations in air for volunteers ranged from 2.4 to 31.8 μg m-3 for PM1, 4.2-45.1 μg m-3 for PM2.5, 7.9-66.1 μg m-3 for PM4 and from 23.1 to 131.7 μg m-3 for PM10. The highest PNC variation was found for 0.3-0.5 range, between 14 and 181 particles cm-3, 1 to 14 particles cm-3 for the 0.5-1.0 range, 0.2 to 2 particles cm-3 for the 1.0-2.5 range, and 0.06 to 0.7 particles cm-3 for the 2.5-10 range. Volunteers in the 'education' category experienced the lowest inhaled dose of PM2.5, as opposed to those involved in 'commercial' activities with the highest doses for PM10 (1.63 μg kg-1 h-1) and PM2.5 (0.61 μg kg-1 h-1). The predominant cause for these high doses was associated with the proximity of the workplace to the street and vehicle traffic. The comet assay performed in buccal cells indicated that the volunteers in 'commerce' category experienced the highest damage to their DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) compared with the control category (i.e. 'education'). These results indicate the variability in personal exposure of the volunteers in different groups, and the potential damage to DNA was much higher for those spending time in close proximity to the vehicle sources (e.g. commercial services) leading to exposure to a higher fraction of fine particles. This study builds understanding on the exposure

  16. Measurements of ice nucleating particle concentrations at 242 K in the free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, L.; Lohmann, U.; Boose, Y.; Zipori, A.; Herrmann, E.; Bukowiecki, N.; Steinbacher, M.; Gute, E.; Kanji, Z. A.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds containing ice play an important role in the Earth's system, but some fundamental knowledge on their formation and further development is still missing. The phase change from vapor or liquid to ice in the atmosphere can occur heterogeneously in the presence of ice nucleating particles (INPs) at temperatures warmer, and supersaturations lower than required for homogeneous freezing. Only a small fraction of particles in an environment relevant for the occurrence of ice- and mixed-phase clouds are INPs, and their identification and quantification remains challenging. We measure INP concentrations with the ETH Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC) at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ) during several field campaigns in different seasons and years. The measurements are performed at 242 K and above water saturation, representing ice- and mixed-phase clouds conditions. Due to its elevation of 3580 m a.s.l. the site encounters mostly free tropospheric conditions, and is influenced by boundary layer injections up to 80% of the time in summer. JFJ regularly encounters Saharan dust events and receives air masses of marine origin, which can both occur within the free troposphere. Our measurements show that INP concentrations in the free troposphere do not follow a seasonal cycle. They are remarkably constant, with concentrations from 0.5 - 8 L-1 (interquartile range), which compares well to measurements performed under the same conditions at another location within the free troposphere, the Izaña Atmospheric Research Station in Tenerife. At JFJ, correlations with parameters of physical properties of ambient particles, meteorology and air mass characteristics do not show a single best estimator to predict INP concentrations, emphasizing the complexity of ice nucleation in the free troposphere. Increases in INP concentrations of a temporary nature were observed in the free troposphere during Saharan dust events and marine air mass influence, which

  17. Inhaled concentrated ambient particles are associated with hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage changes in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W; Coull, B; Reinisch, U; Catalano, P; Killingsworth, C R; Koutrakis, P; Kavouras, I; Murthy, G G; Lawrence, J; Lovett, E; Wolfson, J M; Verrier, R L; Godleski, J J

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammatory and hematologic responses of canines were studied after exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) using the Harvard ambient particle concentrator (HAPC). For pulmonary inflammatory studies, normal dogs were exposed in pairs to either CAPs or filtered air (paired studies) for 6 hr/day on 3 consecutive days. For hematologic studies, dogs were exposed for 6 hr/day for 3 consecutive days with one receiving CAPs while the other was simultaneously exposed to filtered air; crossover of exposure took place the following week (crossover studies). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs exposure samples included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. No statistical differences in biologic responses were found when all CAPs and all sham exposures were compared. However, the variability in biologic response was considerably higher with CAPs exposure. Subsequent exploratory graphical analyses and mixed linear regression analyses suggested associations between CAPs constituents and biologic responses. Factor analysis was applied to the compositional data from paired and crossover experiments to determine elements consistently associated with each other in CAPs samples. In paired experiments, four factors were identified; in crossover studies, a total of six factors were observed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and hematologic data were regressed on the factor scores. Increased BAL neutrophil percentage, total peripheral white blood cell (WBC) counts, circulating neutrophils, and circulating lymphocytes were associated with increases in the aluminum/silicon factor. Increased circulating neutrophils and increased BAL macrophages were associated with the vanadium/nickel factor. Increased BAL neutrophils were associated with the bromine/lead factor when only the compositional data from the third day of CAPs exposure were used. Significant decreases in red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels were correlated with the sulfur

  18. Ultrasonic device for real-time sewage velocity and suspended particles concentration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abda, F; Azbaid, A; Ensminger, D; Fischer, S; François, P; Schmitt, P; Pallarès, A

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of a technological research and innovation network in water and environment technologies (RITEAU, Réseau de Recherche et d'Innovation Technologique Eau et Environnement), our research group, in collaboration with industrial partners and other research institutions, has been in charge of the development of a suitable flowmeter: an ultrasonic device measuring simultaneously the water flow and the concentration of size classes of suspended particles. Working on the pulsed ultrasound principle, our multi-frequency device (1 to 14 MHz) allows flow velocity and water height measurement and estimation of suspended solids concentration. Velocity measurements rely on the coherent Doppler principle. A self developed frequency estimator, so called Spectral Identification method, was used and compared to the classical Pulse-Pair method. Several measurements campaigns on one wastewater collector of the French city of Strasbourg gave very satisfactory results and showed smaller standard deviation values for the Doppler frequency extracted by the Spectral Identification method. A specific algorithm was also developed for the water height measurements. It relies on the water surface acoustic impedance rupture and its peak localisation and behaviour in the collected backscattering data. This algorithm was positively tested on long time measurements on the same wastewater collector. A large part of the article is devoted to the measurements of the suspended solids concentrations. Our data analysis consists in the adaptation of the well described acoustic behaviour of sand to the behaviour of wastewater particles. Both acoustic attenuation and acoustic backscattering data over multiple frequencies are analyzed for the extrapolation of size classes and respective concentrations. Under dry weather conditions, the massic backscattering coefficient and the overall size distribution showed similar evolution whatever the measurement site was and were suggesting a global

  19. Two-phase flow modeling for low concentration spherical particle motion through a Newtonian fluid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit GJF

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available the necessity to model the discrete nature of sep- cite this article in press as: G.J.F. Smit et al., Two-phase flow modeling for low concentration spherical particle motion through a ian fluid, Appl. Math. Comput. (2010), doi:10.1016/j.amc.2010.07.055 2... and Ribberin large-scale and long term morphologica Please cite this article in press as: G.J.F. Smit Newtonian fluid, Appl. Math. Comput. (2010), � 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. modeling of multiphase flow has increasingly become the subject...

  20. On the peculiarities of LDA method in two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplavski, S. V.; Boiko, V. M.; Nesterov, A. U.

    2016-10-01

    Popular applications of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) in gas dynamics are reviewed. It is shown that the most popular method cannot be used in supersonic flows and two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles. A new approach to implementation of the known LDA method based on direct spectral analysis, which offers better prospects for such problems, is presented. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for gas-liquid jets. Owing to the progress in laser engineering, digital recording of spectra, and computer processing of data, the method is implemented at a higher technical level and provides new prospects of diagnostics of high-velocity dense two-phase flows.

  1. Wide-range particle characterization and elemental concentration in Beijing aerosol during the 2013 Spring Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hui; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Bai; Sun, Jialong; Chen, Rui; Gao, Yuxi; Chen, Chunying

    2014-09-01

    The number and mass concentration, size distribution, and the concentration of 16 elements were studied in aerosol samples during the Spring Festival celebrations in 2013 in Beijing, China. Both the number and mass concentration increased sharply in a wide range from 10 nm to 10 μm during the firecrackers and fireworks activities. The prominent increase of the number concentration was in 50 nm-500 nm with a peak of 1.7 × 10(5)/cm(3) at 150 nm, which is 8 times higher than that after 1.5 h. The highest mass concentration was in 320-560 nm, which is 4 times higher than the control. K, Mg, Sr, Ba and Pb increased sharply during the firework activities in PM10. Although the aerosol emission from firework activities is a short-term air quality degradation event, there may be a substantial hazard arising from the chemical composition of the emitted particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Calculations of critical micelle concentration by dissipative particle dynamics simulations: the role of chain rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2013-09-05

    Micelle formation in surfactant solutions is a self-assembly process governed by complex interplay of solvent-mediated interactions between hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, which are commonly called heads and tails. However, the head-tail repulsion is not the only factor affecting the micelle formation. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the effect of chain rigidity on critical micelle concentration and micelle size, which is performed with the dissipative particle dynamics simulation method. Rigidity of the coarse-grained surfactant molecule was controlled by the harmonic bonds set between the second-neighbor beads. Compared to flexible molecules with the nearest-neighbor bonds being the only type of bonded interactions, rigid molecules exhibited a lower critical micelle concentration and formed larger and better-defined micelles. By varying the strength of head-tail repulsion and the chain rigidity, we constructed two-dimensional diagrams presenting how the critical micelle concentration and aggregation number depend on these parameters. We found that the solutions of flexible and rigid molecules that exhibited approximately the same critical micelle concentration could differ substantially in the micelle size and shape depending on the chain rigidity. With the increase of surfactant concentration, primary micelles of more rigid molecules were found less keen to agglomeration and formation of nonspherical aggregates characteristic of flexible molecules.

  3. Determinants of spikes in ultrafine particle concentration whilst commuting by bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shanon; Dirks, Kim N.; Salmond, Jennifer A.; Xie, Shanju

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) based on data collected using high-resolution UFP monitors whilst travelling by bus during rush hour along three different urban routes in Auckland, New Zealand. The factors influencing in-bus UFP concentration were assessed using a combination of spatial, statistical and GIS analysis techniques to determine both spatial and temporal variability. Results from 68 bus trips showed that concentrations varied more within a route than between on a given day, despite differences in urban morphology, land use and traffic densities between routes. A number of trips were characterised by periods of very rapid increases in UFPs (concentration 'spikes'), followed by slow declines. Trips which recorded at least one spike (an increase of greater than 10,000 pt/cm3) resulted in significantly higher mean concentrations. Spikes in UFPs were significantly more likely to occur when travelling at low speeds and when passengers were alighting and boarding at bus stops close to traffic light intersections.

  4. Variability of sub-micrometer particle number size distributions and concentrations in the Western Mediterranean regional background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cusack

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the daily and seasonal variability of particle number size distributions and concentrations, performed at the Montseny (MSY regional background station in the western Mediterranean from October 2010 to June 2011. Particle number concentrations at MSY were shown to be within range of various other sites across Europe reported in literature, but the seasonality of the particle number size distributions revealed significant differences. The Aitken mode is the dominant particle mode at MSY, with arithmetic mean concentrations of 1698 cm3, followed by the accumulation mode (877 cm−3 and the nucleation mode (246 cm−3. Concentrations showed a strong seasonal variability with large increases in particle number concentrations observed from the colder to warmer months. The modality of median size distributions was typically bimodal, except under polluted conditions when the size distribution was unimodal. During the colder months, the daily variation of particle number size distributions are strongly influenced by a diurnal breeze system, whereby the Aitken and accumulation modes vary similarly to PM1 and BC mass concentrations, with nocturnal minima and sharp day-time increases owing to the development of a diurnal mountain breeze. Under clean air conditions, high levels of nucleation and lower Aitken mode concentrations were measured, highlighting the importance of new particle formation as a source of particles in the absence of a significant condensation sink. During the warmer months, nucleation mode concentrations were observed to be relatively elevated both under polluted and clean conditions due to increased photochemical reactions, with enhanced subsequent growth owing to elevated concentrations of condensable organic vapours produced from biogenic volatile organic compounds, indicating that nucleation at MSY does not exclusively occur under clean air conditions. Finally, mixing of air masses between polluted and non

  5. An electrostatic ion pump with nanostructured Si field emission electron source and Ti particle collectors for supporting an ultra-high vacuum in miniaturized atom interferometry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Anirban; Velásquez-García, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We report a field emission-based, magnetic-less ion pump architecture for helping maintain a high vacuum within a small chamber that is compatible with miniaturized cold-atom interferometry systems. A nanostructured silicon field emitter array, with each nano-sharp tip surrounded by a self-aligned proximal gate electrode, is used to generate a surplus of electrons that cause impact ionization of gas molecules. A two-stage cylindrical electron collector, made of titanium, is used to increase the travel distance of the electrons, augmenting the ionization probability; gas ionization is subsequently followed by gettering of the ions by a negatively charged, annular-shaped titanium electrode. A proof-of-concept pump prototype was characterized using a 25 cm 3 stainless steel vacuum chamber backed up by an external turbomolecular pump, a diaphragm pump, and a standard ion pump. Pumping action was observed with the electrostatic pump operating alone after an initial rapid rise of the chamber pressure due to electron/ion scrubbing. In addition, running the electrostatic pump in combination with the standard ion pump results in a lower vacuum level compared to the vacuum level produced by the standard ion pump acting alone. A proposed reduced-order model accurately predicts the functional dependence of the pressure versus time data and provides a good estimate of the characteristic pumping time constant inferred from the experiments. (paper)

  6. Height profile of particle concentration in an aeolian saltating cloud: A wind tunnel investigation by PIV MSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhibao; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Xiaohang; Ayrault, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Attempt is made to define the particle concentration in an aeolian saltating cloud and its variation with height using artificial spherical quartz sand in a wind tunnel. The height profiles of the relative particle concentration in aeolian saltating cloud at three wind velocities were detected by the state of the art PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) MSD (Mie Scattering Diffusion) technique, and converted to actual concentration based on sand transport rate and the variation with height of velocity of the saltating cloud. The particle concentration was found to decay exponentially with height and to increase with wind velocity. It decayed more rapidly when the wind velocity decreased. The volume/volume concentration in the near-surface layer was at the order of 10-4. The results obtained by PIV MSD technique were in good agreement with those derived from the sand flux and velocity profiles, the former being about 15% greater than the later.

  7. Compact electrostatic comb actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Burg, Michael S.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    A compact electrostatic comb actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator is based upon a plurality of meshed electrostatic combs, some of which are stationary and others of which are moveable. One or more restoring springs are fabricated within an outline of the electrostatic combs (i.e. superposed with the moveable electrostatic combs) to considerably reduce the space required for the actuator. Additionally, a truss structure is provided to support the moveable electrostatic combs and prevent bending or distortion of these combs due to unbalanced electrostatic forces or external loading. The truss structure formed about the moveable electrostatic combs allows the spacing between the interdigitated fingers of the combs to be reduced to about one micron or less, thereby substantially increasing the number of active fingers which can be provided in a given area. Finally, electrostatic shields can be used in the actuator to substantially reduce unwanted electrostatic fields to further improve performance of the device. As a result, the compact electrostatic comb actuator of the present invention occupies only a fraction of the space required for conventional electrostatic comb actuators, while providing a substantial increase in the available drive force (up to one-hundred times).

  8. Exposure to fine particulate, black carbon, and particle number concentration in transportation microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Betancourt, R.; Galvis, B.; Balachandran, S.; Ramos-Bonilla, J. P.; Sarmiento, O. L.; Gallo-Murcia, S. M.; Contreras, Y.

    2017-05-01

    This research determined intake dose of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), equivalent black carbon (eBC), and number of sub-micron particles (Np) for commuters in Bogotá, Colombia. Doses were estimated through measurements of exposure concentration, a surrogate of physical activity, as well as travel times and speeds. Impacts of travel mode, traffic load, and street configuration on dose and exposure were explored. Three road segments were selected because of their different traffic loads and composition, and dissimilar street configuration. The transport modes considered include active modes (walking and cycling) and motorized modes (bus, car, taxi, and motorcycle). Measurements were performed simultaneously in the available modes at each road segment. High average eBC concentrations were observed throughout the campaign, ranging from 20 to 120 μgm-3 . Commuters in motorized modes experienced significantly higher exposure concentrations than pedestrians and bicyclists. The highest average concentrations of PM2.5, eBC , and Np were measured inside the city's Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system vehicles. Pedestrians and bicycle users in an open street configuration were exposed to the lowest average concentrations of PM2.5 and eBC , six times lower than those experienced by commuters using the BRT in the same street segment. Pedestrians experienced the highest particulate matter intake dose in the road segments studied, despite being exposed to lower concentrations than commuters in motorized modes. Average potential dose of PM2.5 and eBC per unit length traveled were nearly three times higher for pedestrians in a street canyon configuration compared to commuters in public transport. Slower travel speed and elevated inhalation rates dominate PM dose for pedestrians. The presence of dedicated bike lanes on sidewalks has a significant impact on reducing the exposure concentration for bicyclists compared to those riding in mixed traffic lanes. This study proposes a simple

  9. The role of dust storms in total atmospheric particle concentrations at two sites in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jason C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Munson, Seth M.; Fernandez, Daniel; Belnap, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Mineral aerosols are produced during the erosion of soils by wind and are a common source of particles (dust) in arid and semiarid regions. The size of these particles varies widely from less than 2 µm to larger particles that can exceed 50 µm in diameter. In this study, we present two continuous records of total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations at sites in Mesa Verde and Canyonlands National Parks in Colorado and Utah, USA, respectively, and compare those values to measurements of fine and coarse particle concentrations made from nearby samplers. Average annual concentrations of TSP at Mesa Verde were 90 µg m−3 in 2011 and at Canyonlands were 171 µg m−3 in 2009, 113 µg m−3 in 2010, and 134 µg m−3 in 2011. In comparison, annual concentrations of fine (diameter of 2.5 µm and below) and coarse (2.5–10 µm diameter) particles at these sites were below 10 µg m−3 in all years. The high concentrations of TSP appear to be the result of regional dust storms with elevated concentrations of particles greater than 10 µm in diameter. These conditions regularly occur from spring through fall with 2 week mean TSP periodically in excess of 200 µg m−3. Measurement of particles on filters indicates that the median particle size varies between approximately 10 µm in winter and 40 µm during the spring. These persistently elevated concentrations of large particles indicate that regional dust emission as dust storms and events are important determinants of air quality in this region.

  10. The role of electrostatic interactions in the Streptococcus thermophilus adhesion on human erythrocytes in media with different 1:1 electrolyte concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Гордієнко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of bacterial adhesion is usually discussed in terms of the two-stage sorption model. According to the model, at the first stage the bacteria fastly attaches to the surface by weak physical interactions, while at the second stage irreversible molecular and cellular adhesion process takes place. An important factor, influencing the adhesion processes, is physical-chemical characteristics of the medium, in particular, the presence of monovalent cations therein. The aim of this work is to assess the role of electrostatic component of the intercellular interactions at the first reversible stage of adhesion. Comparison of experimental data of adhesion of lactobacilli S. thermophilus on human erythrocytes and theoretical definition of the Debye radius and the erythrocytes surface potential in the experimental solutions showed that with decreasing ionic strength of the solution the change in the adhesion index in our experiments is fully in line with the theory DLVO predictions.

  11. Explaining the spatiotemporal variation of fine particle number concentrations over Beijing and surrounding areas in an air quality model with aerosol microphysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xueshun; Wang, Zifa; Li, Jie; Chen, Huansheng; Hu, Min; Yang, Wenyi; Wang, Zhe; Ge, Baozhu; Wang, Dawei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a three-dimensional air quality model with detailed aerosol microphysics (NAQPMS + APM) was applied to simulate the fine particle number size distribution and to explain the spatiotemporal variation of fine particle number concentrations in different size ranges over Beijing and surrounding areas in the haze season (Jan 15 to Feb 13 in 2006). Comparison between observations and the simulation indicates that the model is able to reproduce the main features of the particle number size distribution. The high number concentration of total particles, up to 26600 cm −3 in observations and 39800 cm −3 in the simulation, indicates the severity of pollution in Beijing. We find that primary particles with secondary species coating and secondary particles together control the particle number size distribution. Secondary particles dominate particle number concentration in the nucleation mode. Primary and secondary particles together determine the temporal evolution and spatial pattern of particle number concentration in the Aitken mode. Primary particles dominate particle number concentration in the accumulation mode. Over Beijing and surrounding areas, secondary particles contribute at least 80% of particle number concentration in the nucleation mode but only 10–20% in the accumulation mode. Nucleation mode particles and accumulation mode particles are anti-phased with each other. Nucleation or primary emissions alone could not explain the formation of the particle number size distribution in Beijing. Nucleation has larger effects on ultrafine particles while primary particles emissions are efficient in producing large particles in the accumulation mode. Reduction in primary particle emissions does not always lead to a decrease in the number concentration of ultrafine particles. Measures to reduce fine particle pollution in terms of particle number concentration may be different from those addressing particle mass concentration. - Highlights:

  12. Elevated sodium chloride concentrations enhance the bystander effects induced by low dose alpha-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Wei; Zhu Lingyan; Jiang Erkang; Wang Jun; Chen Shaopeng; Bao Linzhi; Zhao Ye; Xu An; Yu Zengliang [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)], E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that high NaCl can be genotoxic, either alone or combined with irradiation. However, little is known about the relationship between environmental NaCl at elevated conditions and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). RIBE, which has been considered as non-targeted bystander responses, has been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. In the present study, RIBE under the elevated NaCl culture condition was assessed in AG 1522 cells by both the induction of {gamma}-H2AX, a reliable marker of DNA double-strand break (DSB) for the early process (<1 h post irradiation), and the generation of micronuclei (MN), a sensitive marker for relative long process of RIBE. Our results showed that in the absence of irradiation, NaCl at elevated concentration such as 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0 g/L did not significantly increase the frequency of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells and the number of foci per positive cell comparing with that NaCl at a normal concentration (6.8 g/L). However, with 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation, the induced fraction of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells and the number of induced {gamma}-H2AX foci per positive cell were significantly increased in both irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions. Similarly, the induction of MN by 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation also increased with the elevated NaCl concentrations. With N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, the induced fraction of foci-positive cells was effectively inhibited both in 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions under either normal or elevated NaCl conditions. These results suggested that the cultures with elevated NaCl medium magnified the damage effects induced by the low dose {alpha}-particle irradiation and nitric oxide generated by irradiation was also very important in this process.

  13. Enhancing effect of marine oligotrophy on environmental concentrations of particle-reactive trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, R.A.; Szymczak, R.

    2000-01-01

    A biogeochemical model has been previously developed that explains the inverse and nonlinear relationship between Po-210 concentration in zooplankton and their biomass, under oligotrophic conditions in French Polynesia. In this study the model structure was reviewed to determine a set of biogeochemical behaviors of Po-210, proposed to be critical to its environmental enhancement under oligotrophy: this set was then used to identify 25 other elements with comparable behaviors to Po-210. Field investigation in the Timor Sea showed that four of these a priori identified elements, viz. Cd, Co, Pb, and Mn as well as Cr and Ni, showed elevated water concentrations with reduced particle removal rates in the euphotic zone, results that are consistent with those previously obtained for Po-210 and the proposed explanatory model. These findings point to the enhanced susceptibility to contamination with particle-reactive elements of oligotrophic marine systems, whose degree and geographic extent may be enhanced by projected increases in sea surface temperatures from global warming

  14. Real-time measurements of suspended sediment concentration and particle size using five techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, D.; Albayrak, I.; Abgottspon, A.; Boes, R. M.

    2016-11-01

    Fine sediments are important in the design and operation of hydropower plants (HPPs), in particular with respect to sediment management and hydro-abrasive erosion in hydraulic machines. Therefore, there is a need for reliable real-time measurements of suspended sediment mass concentration (SSC) and particle size distribution (PSD). The following instruments for SSC measurements were investigated in a field study during several years at the HPP Fieschertal in the Swiss Alps: (1) turbidimeters, (2) a Laser In-Situ Scattering and Trans- missometry instrument (LISST), (3) a Coriolis Flow and Density Meter (CFDM), (4) acoustic transducers, and (5) pressure sensors. LISST provided PSDs in addition to concentrations. Reference SSCs were obtained by gravimetrical analysis of automatically taken water samples. In contrast to widely used turbidimeters and the single-frequency acoustic method, SSCs obtained from LISST, the CFDM or the pressure sensors were less or not affected by particle size variations. The CFDM and the pressure sensors allowed measuring higher SSC than the optical or the acoustic techniques (without dilution). The CFDM and the pressure sensors were found to be suitable to measure SSC ≥ 2 g/l. In this paper, the measuring techniques, instruments, setup, methods for data treatment, and selected results are presented and discussed.

  15. Effects of concentrated ambient particles on normal and hypersecretory airways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkema, Jack R; Keeler, Gerald; Wagner, James; Morishita, Masako; Timm, Edward; Hotchkiss, Jon; Marsik, Frank; Dvonch, Timothy; Kaminski, Norbert; Barr, Edward

    2004-08-01

    .5 from this local urban atmosphere. Rats in the inhalation studies were exposed for 1 day or for 4 or 5 consecutive days (10 hours/day) to either filtered air (controls) or concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) delivered by a Harvard ambient fine particle concentrator. Rats were killed 24 hours after the end of the exposure. Biochemical, morphometric, and molecular techniques were used to identify airway epithelial and inflammatory responses to CAPs. Lung lobes were also either intratracheally lavaged with saline to determine cellular composition and protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or removed for analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS) to detect retention of ambient PM2.5--derived trace elements. The Harvard concentrator effectively concentrated the fine ambient particles from this urban atmosphere (10-30 times) without significantly changing the major physicochemical features of the atmospheric particles. Daily CAPs mass concentrations during the 10-hour exposure period (0800-1800) in July ranged from 16 to 895 microg/m3 and in September ranged from 81 to 755 microg/m3. In general, chemical characteristics of ambient particles were conserved through the concentrator into the exposure chamber. Single or repeated exposures to CAPs did not cause adverse effects in the nasal or pulmonary airways of healthy F344 or BN rats. In addition, CAPs-related toxicity was not observed in F344 rats pretreated with bacterial endotoxin. Variable airway responses to CAPs exposure were observed in BN rats with preexisting allergic airway disease induced by OVA sensitization and challenge. Only OVA-challenged BN rats exposed to CAPs for 5 consecutive days in September 2000 had significant increases in airway mucosubstances and pulmonary inflammation compared to saline-challenged/air-exposed control rats. OVA-challenged BN rats that were repeatedly exposed to CAPs in July 2000 had only minor CAPs-related effects. In only the September 5-day exposure

  16. Modelling Particulate Removal in Tubular Wet Electrostatic Precipitators Using a Modified Drift Flux Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tubular electrostatic precipitators (ESP have been used in a number of chemical processing industries. The tubular ESPs have many advantages over conventional plate-plate and wire-plate ESPs. The present study is concerned with the numerical modeling of particulate removal in a tubular wet single-stage electrostatic precipitator (wESP. The geometric parameters of a model wESP and the corresponding inlet gas velocities for the wESP are chosen from available experimental data. In addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field inside the wESP, the Poisson equation for the electric field, the charge continuity equation and the concentration equation are solved sequentially to obtain a full-fledged solution to the problem under investigation. The proposed drift flux model is implemented in the opensource CFD code OpenFOAM®. The paper discusses the influence of the number of charges acquired by the particles and the corresponding inlet gas velocities on particle concentration distribution within the wESP. Two representative cases with monodispersed particles of 1 μm and 10 μm diameter are considered for the numerical analysis. It is seen from the present analysis that the number of units of charge on particles, the particle size and the inlet gas velocities play a vital role in determining the efficiency of electrostatic precipitation.

  17. Determinants of black carbon, particle mass and number concentrations in London transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ioar; Kumar, Prashant; Hagen-Zanker, Alex; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Slovic, Anne Dorothee; Pritchard, John P.; Geurs, Karst T.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the determinants of personal exposure concentrations of commuters' to black carbon (BC), ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC), and particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) in different travel modes. We quantified the contribution of key factors that explain the variation of the previous pollutants in four commuting routes in London, each covered by four transport modes (car, bus, walk and underground). Models were performed for each pollutant, separately to assess the effect of meteorology (wind speed) or ambient concentrations (with either high spatial or temporal resolution). Concentration variations were mainly explained by wind speed or ambient concentrations and to a lesser extent by route and period of the day. In multivariate models with wind speed, the wind speed was the common significant predictor for all the pollutants in the above-ground modes (i.e., car, bus, walk); and the only predictor variable for the PM fractions. Wind speed had the strongest effect on PM during the bus trips, with an increase in 1 m s-1 leading to a decrease in 2.25, 2.90 and 4.98 μg m-3 of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in car trips were better explained by ambient concentrations with high temporal resolution although from a single monitoring station. On the other hand, ambient concentrations with high spatial coverage but lower temporal resolution predicted better the concentrations in bus trips, due to bus routes passing through streets with a high variability of traffic intensity. In the underground models, wind speed was not significant and line and type of windows on the train explained 42% of the variation of PNC and 90% of all PM fractions. Trains in the district line with openable windows had an increase in concentrations of 1 684 cm-3 for PNC and 40.69 μg m-3 for PM2.5 compared with trains that had non-openable windows. The results from this work can be used to target efforts to reduce personal exposures of

  18. Isoprene in poplar emissions: effects on new particle formation and OH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Andres, S.; Bachner, M.; Behnke, K.; Broch, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Rubach, F.; Springer, M.; Steitz, B.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Schnitzler, J.-P.; Wildt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Stress-induced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from transgenic Grey poplar modified in isoprene emission potential were used for the investigation of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In poplar, acute ozone stress induces the emission of a wide array of VOCs dominated by sesquiterpenes and aromatic VOCs. Constitutive light-dependent emission of isoprene ranged between 66 nmol m-2 s-1 in non-transgenic controls (wild type WT) and nearly zero (plants (line RA22), respectively. Nucleation rates of up to 3600 cm-3 s-1 were observed in our experiments. In the presence of isoprene new particle formation was suppressed compared to non-isoprene containing VOC mixtures. Compared to isoprene/monoterpene systems emitted from other plants the suppression of nucleation by isoprene was less effective for the VOC mixture emitted from stressed poplar. This is explained by the observed high efficiency of new particle formation for emissions from stressed poplar. Direct measurements of OH in the reaction chamber revealed that the steady state concentration of OH is lower in the presence of isoprene than in the absence of isoprene, supporting the hypothesis that isoprenes' suppressing effect on nucleation is related to radical chemistry. In order to test whether isoprene contributes to SOA mass formation, fully deuterated isoprene (C5D8) was added to the stress-induced emission profile of an isoprene free poplar mutant. Mass spectral analysis showed that, despite the isoprene-induced suppression of particle formation, fractions of deuterated isoprene were incorporated into the SOA. A fractional mass yield of 2.3% of isoprene was observed. Future emission changes due to land use and climate change may therefore affect both gas phase oxidation capacity and new particle number formation.

  19. Estimate of main local sources to ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-09-01

    Quantifying and apportioning the contribution of a range of sources to ultrafine particles (UFPs, D oil refineries, and seaport) sources to the total ambient particle number concentration (PNC) in a busy, inner-city area in Brisbane, Australia using Bayesian statistical modelling and other exploratory tools. The Bayesian model was trained on the PNC data on days where NP formations were known to have not occurred, hourly traffic counts, solar radiation data, and smooth daily trend. The model was applied to apportion and quantify the contribution of NP formations and local traffic and non-traffic sources to UFPs. The data analysis incorporated long-term measured time-series of total PNC (D ≥ 6 nm), particle number size distributions (PSD, D = 8 to 400 nm), PM2.5, PM10, NOx, CO, meteorological parameters and traffic counts at a stationary monitoring site. The developed Bayesian model showed reliable predictive performances in quantifying the contribution of NP formation events to UFPs (up to 4 × 104 particles cm- 3), with a significant day to day variability. The model identified potential NP formation and no-formations days based on PNC data and quantified the sources contribution to UFPs. Exploratory statistical analyses show that total mean PNC during the middle of the day was up to 32% higher than during peak morning and evening traffic periods, which were associated with NP formation events. The majority of UFPs measured during the peak traffic and NP formation periods were between 30-100 nm and smaller than 30 nm, respectively. To date, this is the first application of Bayesian model to apportion different sources contribution to UFPs, and therefore the importance of this study is not only in its modelling outcomes but in demonstrating the applicability and advantages of this statistical approach to air pollution studies.

  20. Organic Nitrogen in Atmospheric Drops and Particles: Concentrations, (Limited) Speciation, and Chemical Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, C.; Zhang, Q.

    2003-12-01

    While quite a bit is known of the concentrations, speciation, and chemistry of inorganic forms of nitrogen in the atmosphere, the same cannot be said for organic forms. Despite this, there is growing evidence that organic N (ON) is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, especially in atmospheric condensed phases such as fog/cloud drops and aerosol particles. Although the major compounds that make up organic N are generally unknown, as are the sources of these compounds, it is clear that there are significant fluxes of ON between the atmosphere and ecosystems. It also appears that organic N can have significant effects in both spheres. The goal of our recent work in this area has been to better describe the atmospheric component of the biogeochemistry of organic nitrogen. Based on particle, gas, and fogwater samples from Northern California we have made three major findings: 1) Organic N represents a significant component, approximately 20%, of the total atmospheric N loading in these samples. This is broadly consistent with studies from other locations. 2) Amino compounds, primarily as combined amino acids, account for approximately 20% of the measured ON in our condensed phase samples. Given the properties of amino acids, these compounds could significantly affect the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric particles. 3) Organic nitrogen in atmospheric particles and drops is transformed to inorganic forms - primarily ammonium, nitrate, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) - during exposure to sunlight and/or ozone. These chemical reactions likely increase the bioavailability of the condensed phase nitrogen pool and enhance its biological effects after deposition to ecosystems.

  1. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Hensley, R.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 v has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  2. The effect of a concentration-dependent viscosity on particle transport in a channel flow with porous walls

    KAUST Repository

    Herterich, James G.; Griffiths, Ian M.; Vella, Dominic; Field, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The transport of a dilute suspension of particles through a channel with porous walls, accounting for the concentration dependence of the viscosity, is analyzed. In particular, we study two cases of fluid permeation through the porous channel walls

  3. Improved concentration and separation of particles in a 3D dielectrophoretic chip integrating focusing, aligning and trapping

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming; Li, Shunbo; Cao, Wenbin; Li, Weihua; Wen, Weijia; Alici, Gursel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based microfluidic device with the three-dimensional (3D) microelectrode configuration for concentrating and separating particles in a continuous throughflow. The 3D electrode structure, where

  4. Two-dimensional time-resolved X-ray diffraction study of liquid/solid fraction and solid particle size in Fe-C binary system with an electrostatic levitator furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, M; Okada, J; Ishikawa, T; Nanao, S; Watanabe, Y; Shobu, T; Toyokawa, H

    2013-01-01

    Liquid state provides functions such as matter transport or a reaction field and plays an important role in manufacturing processes such as refining, forging or welding. However, experimental procedures are significantly difficult for an observation of solidification process of iron and iron-based alloys in order to identify rapid transformations subjected to fast temperature evolution. Therefore, in order to study the solidification in iron and iron-based alloys, we considered a combination of high energy X-ray diffraction measurements and an electrostatic levitation method (ESL). In order to analyze the liquid/solid fraction, the solidification of melted spherical specimens was measured at a time resolution of 0.1 seconds during rapid cooling using the two-dimensional time-resolved X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the observation of particle sizes and phase identification was performed on a trial basis using X-ray small angle scattering with X-ray diffraction.

  5. African Anthropogenic Combustion Emissions: Estimate of Regional Mortality Attributable to Fine Particle Concentrations in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Roblou, L.; Assamoi, E.; Criqui, P.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Rosset, R.

    2014-12-01

    Fossil fuel (traffic, industries) and biofuel (domestic fires) emissions of gases and particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities and megacities. In this study, we will present the most recent developments of African combustion emission inventories, including African specificities. Indeed, a regional fossil fuel and biofuel inventory for gases and particulates described in Liousse et al. (2014) has been developed for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° for the years 2005 and 2030. For 2005, the original database of Junker and Liousse (2008) was used after modification for updated regional fuel consumption and emission factors. Two prospective inventories for 2030 are derived based on Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems (POLES) model (Criqui, 2001). The first is a reference scenario (2030ref) with no emission controls and the second is for a "clean" scenario (2030ccc*) including Kyoto policy and African specific emission control. This inventory predicts very large increases of pollutant emissions in 2030 (e.g. contributing to 50% of global anthropogenic organic particles), if no emission regulations are implemented. These inventories have been introduced in RegCM4 model. In this paper we will focus on aerosol modelled concentrations in 2005, 2030ref and 2030ccc*. Spatial distribution of aerosol concentrations will be presented with a zoom at a few urban and rural sites. Finally mortality rates (respiratory, cardiovascular) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 increase from 2005 to 2030, calculated following Lelieveld et al. (2013), will be shown for each scenarios. To conclude, this paper will discuss the effectiveness of scenarios to reduce emissions, aerosol concentrations and mortality rates, underlining the need for further measurements scheduled in the frame of the new DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions) program.

  6. Emulsion Polymerization of Etyl Acrylate: The Effect of Surfactant, Initiator Concentration and PolymerizationTechnique on Particle Size Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nitri Arinda; Emil Budianto; Helmiyati

    2009-01-01

    Emulsion polymerization was conducted using ethyl acrylate monomer. Theeffect of sodium lauryl sulfate concentration, ammonium persulfate concentration, the various of polymerizationtechniques and feeding time to the conversion, particle size and its distribution were observed. The purpose of thisresearch is to obtain the optimum condition of ethyl acrylate homopolymer with particle size around 100 nm, to get theparticle size distribution monodisperse and to get solid content value of the exp...

  7. Concentration levels and source apportionment of ultrafine particles in road microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, G.; Samara, C.; Voutsa, D.; Kouras, A.; Manoli, E.; Voliotis, A.; Tsakis, A.; Chasapidis, L.; Konstandopoulos, A.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2016-03-01

    A mobile laboratory unit (MOBILAB) with on-board instrumentation (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, SMPS; Ambient NOx analyzer) was used to measure size-resolved particle number concentrations (PNCs) of quasi-ultrafine particles (UFPs, 9-372 nm), along with NOx, in road microenvironments. On-road measurements were carried out in and around a large Greek urban agglomeration, the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area (TMA). Two 2-week measurement campaigns were conducted during the warm period of 2011 and the cold period of 2012. During each sampling campaign, MOBILAB was driven through a 5-day inner-city route and a second 5-day external route covering in total a wide range of districts (urban, urban background, industrial and residential), and road types (major and minor urban roads, freeways, arterial and interurban roads). All routes were conducted during working days, in morning and in afternoon hours under real-world traffic conditions. Spatial classification of MOBILAB measurements involved the assignment of measurement points to location bins defined by the aspect ratio of adjacent urban street canyons (USCs). Source apportionment was further carried out, by applying Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to particle size distribution data. Apportioned PMF factors were interpreted, by employing a two-step methodology, which involved (a) statistical association of PMF factor contributions with 12 h air-mass back-trajectories ending at the TMA during MOBILAB measurements, and (b) Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) using PMF factor contributions as the dependent variables, while relative humidity, solar radiation flux, and vehicle speed were used as the independent variables. The applied data analysis showed that low-speed cruise and high-load engine operation modes are the two dominant sources of UFPs in most of the road microenvironments in the TMA, with significant contributions from background photochemical processes during the warm period, explaining the reversed

  8. Electrostatic accelerators fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Electrostatic accelerators are an important and widespread subgroup within the broad spectrum of modern, large particle acceleration devices. They are specifically designed for applications that require high-quality ion beams in terms of energy stability and emittance at comparatively low energies (a few MeV). Their ability to accelerate virtually any kind of ion over a continuously tunable range of energies make them a highly versatile tool for investigations in many research fields including, but not limited to, atomic and nuclear spectroscopy, heavy ion reactions, accelerator mass spectroscopy as well as ion-beam analysis and modification. The book is divided into three parts. The first part concisely introduces the field of accelerator technology and techniques that emphasize their major modern applications. The second part treats the electrostatic accelerator per se: its construction and operational principles as well as its maintenance. The third part covers all relevant applications in which electrosta...

  9. Beyond phthalates: Gas phase concentrations and modeled gas/particle distribution of modern plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossler, Patricia [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schripp, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.schripp@wki.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Salthammer, Tunga [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Bahadir, Muefit [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    The ongoing health debate about polymer plasticizers based on the esters of phthalic acid, especially di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), has caused a trend towards using phthalates of lower volatility such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and towards other acid esters, such as adipates, terephthalates, citrates, etc. Probably the most important of these so-called 'alternative' plasticizers is diisononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH). In the indoor environment, the continuously growing market share of this compound since its launch in 2002 is inter alia apparent from the increasing concentration of DINCH in settled house dust. From the epidemiological point of view there is considerable interest in identifying how semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) distribute in the indoor environment, especially in air, airborne particles and sedimented house dust. This, however, requires reliable experimental concentration data for the different media and good measurements or estimates of their physical and chemical properties. This paper reports on air concentrations for DINP, DINCH, diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), diisobutyl adipate (DIBA), diisobutyl succinate (DIBS) and diisobutyl glutarate (DIBG) from emission studies in the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). For DINP and DINCH it took about 50 days to reach the steady-state value: for four months no decay in the concentration could be observed. Moreover, vapor pressures p{sub 0} and octanol-air partitioning coefficients K{sub OA} were obtained for 37 phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers from two different algorithms: EPI Suite and SPARC. It is shown that calculated gas/particle partition coefficients K{sub p} and fractions can widely differ due to the uncertainty in the predicted p{sub 0} and K{sub OA} values. For most of the investigated compounds reliable experimental vapor pressures are not available. Rough estimates can be obtained from the measured emission rate of the pure compound in a

  10. Seasonal variation of atmospheric particle number concentrations, new particle formation and atmospheric oxidation capacity at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. T. Nguyen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of the physical properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles measured at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS, northeast Greenland, between July 2010 and February 2013. The study focuses on particle number concentrations, particle number size distributions and the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF events and their seasonality in the high Arctic, where observations and characterization of such aerosol particle properties and corresponding events are rare and understanding of related processes is lacking.A clear accumulation mode was observed during the darker months from October until mid-May, which became considerably more pronounced during the prominent Arctic haze months from March to mid-May. In contrast, nucleation- and Aitken-mode particles were predominantly observed during the summer months. Analysis of wind direction and wind speed indicated possible contributions of marine sources from the easterly side of the station to the observed summertime particle number concentrations, while southwesterly to westerly winds dominated during the darker months. NPF events lasting from hours to days were mostly observed from June until August, with fewer events observed during the months with less sunlight, i.e., March, April, September and October. The results tend to indicate that ozone (O3 might be weakly anti-correlated with particle number concentrations of the nucleation-mode range (10–30 nm in almost half of the NPF events, while no positive correlation was observed. Calculations of air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model for the NPF event days suggested that the onset or interruption of events could possibly be explained by changes in air mass origin. A map of event occurrence probability was computed, indicating that southerly air masses from over the Greenland Sea were more likely linked to those

  11. Turbulent Concentration of mm-Size Particles in the Protoplanetary Nebula: Scale-Dependent Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Hartlep, T.

    2015-01-01

    The initial accretion of primitive bodies (here, asteroids in particular) from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Traditional growth-by-sticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" (or even a mm-to-cm-size barrier) in turbulent nebulae, making the preconditions for so-called "streaming instabilities" difficult to achieve even for so-called "lucky" particles. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the meter size barrier, turbulent nebulae present further obstacles through the 1-10km size range. On the other hand, nonturbulent nebulae form large asteroids too quickly to explain long spreads in formation times, or the dearth of melted asteroids. Theoretical understanding of nebula turbulence is itself in flux; recent models of MRI (magnetically-driven) turbulence favor low-or- no-turbulence environments, but purely hydrodynamic turbulence is making a comeback, with two recently discovered mechanisms generating robust turbulence which do not rely on magnetic fields at all. An important clue regarding planetesimal formation is an apparent 100km diameter peak in the pre-depletion, pre-erosion mass distribution of asteroids; scenarios leading directly from independent nebula particulates to large objects of this size, which avoid the problematic m-km size range, could be called "leapfrog" scenarios. The leapfrog scenario we have studied in detail involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in turbulence, which can under certain conditions shrink inexorably on 100-1000 orbit timescales and form 10-100km diameter sandpile planetesimals. There is evidence that at least the ordinary chondrite parent bodies were initially composed entirely of a homogeneous mix of such particles. Thus, while they are arcane, turbulent concentration models acting directly on chondrule size particles are worthy of deeper study. The typical sizes of planetesimals and the rate of their formation can be

  12. Formulation and Stabilization of Concentrated Edible Oil-in-Water Emulsions Based on Electrostatic Complexes of a Food-Grade Cationic Surfactant (Ethyl Lauroyl Arginate) and Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Long; Xiang, Wenchao; Huan, Siqi; Rojas, Orlando J

    2018-05-14

    We report on high-internal-phase, oil-in-water Pickering emulsions that are stable against coalescence during storage. Viscous, edible oil (sunflower) was emulsified by combining naturally derived cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and a food-grade, biobased cationic surfactant obtained from lauric acid and L-arginine (ethyl lauroyl arginate, LAE). The interactions between CNC and LAE were elucidated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and supplementary techniques. LAE adsorption on CNC surfaces and its effect on nanoparticle electrostatic stabilization, aggregation state, and emulsifying ability was studied and related to the properties of resultant oil-in-water emulsions. Pickering systems with tunable droplet diameter and stability against oil coalescence during long-term storage were controllably achieved depending on LAE loading. The underlying stabilization mechanism was found to depend on the type of complex formed, the LAE structures adsorbed on the cellulose nanoparticles (as unimer or as adsorbed admicelles), the presence of free LAE in the aqueous phase, and the equivalent alkane number of the oil phase (sunflower and dodecane oils were compared). The results extend the potential of CNC in the formulation of high-quality and edible Pickering emulsions. The functional properties imparted by LAE, a highly effective molecule against food pathogens and spoilage organisms, open new opportunities in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical applications, where the presence of CNC plays a critical role in achieving synergistic effects with LAE.

  13. Prediction of indoor concentration of 0.5-4 µm particles of outdoor origin in an uninhabited apartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Jensen, K.A.; Clausen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor particle size distributions, indoor-outdoor pressure difference, indoor air-exchange rate, and meteorological conditions were measured at an uninhabited apartment located in a busy street in Copenhagen during 1-month long fall, winter and spring campaigns. Particle penetration...... was estimated from concentration rebound measurements following HEPA filtering of the indoor air by fitting a simple deterministic model. The model included measured air exchange rates and published surface deposition loss rates. This model was then used to predict indoor particle concentration. The model...

  14. The effect of concentration of glycerol and electric current on the morphology and particle size of electrodeposited cadmium powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Viswanath

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium powder was obtained by electrodeposition of cadmium from glycerol and sulphuric acid. The morphology and particle size of these powders were studied. Broken dendrites, intermingled with spongy and irregular particles were observed in the powder. Around 60% of particles were below 100 µm. XRD studies showed that particles with sizes between 212.2 and 303.2 nm were present in the powder. The apparent density of cadmium powder decreased with increase in concentration of glycerol. The stability of the powder and current efficiency were also studied

  15. Embedding beyond electrostatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåbo, Lina J.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic...... repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π∗ transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics....... This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods....

  16. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-10-01

    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  17. Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two Kraft recovery boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Hokkinen, Jouni; Jokiniemi, Jorma K; Hillamo, Risto; Makkonen, Ulla; Raukola, Antti; Rintanen, Jaakko; Saviharju, Kari

    2006-01-15

    Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration atthe ESP inlet was 11-24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30-40 mg/ Nm3 at boiler A and 12-15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 microm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6-99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3-3 microm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.

  18. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  19. Orbital dynamics in a storage ring with electrostatic bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    A storage ring where electrostatic fields contribute to the bending and focusing of the orbital motion has some novel features because, unlike a magnetostatic field, an electrostatic field can change the kinetic energy of the particles. I present analytical formulas to calculate the linear focusing gradient, dispersion, momentum compaction and natural chromaticity for a storage ring with a radial electrostatic field. I solve the formulas explicitly for a weak focusing model.

  20. Waferscale Electrostatic Quadrupole Array for Multiple Ion Beam Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayakumar, K. B.; Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Ji, Q.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Ardanuc, S.; Lal, A.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first through-wafer silicon-based Electrostatic Quadrupole Array (ESQA) to focus high energy ion beams. This device is a key enabler for a wafer based accelerator architecture that lends itself to orders-of-magnitude reduction in cost, volume and weight of charged particle accelerators. ESQs are a key building block in developing compact Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) [1]. In a MEQALAC electrostatic forces are used to focus ions, and elec...

  1. How do changes in bulk soil organic carbon content affect carbon concentrations in individual soil particle fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. M.; Drury, C. F.; Reynolds, W. D.; Yang, J. Y.

    2016-06-01

    We test the common assumption that organic carbon (OC) storage occurs on sand-sized soil particles only after the OC storage capacity on silt- and clay-sized particles is saturated. Soil samples from a Brookston clay loam in Southwestern Ontario were analysed for the OC concentrations in bulk soil, and on the clay (<2 μm), silt (2-53 μm) and sand (53-2000 μm) particle size fractions. The OC concentrations in bulk soil ranged from 4.7 to 70.8 g C kg-1 soil. The OC concentrations on all three particle size fractions were significantly related to the OC concentration of bulk soil. However, OC concentration increased slowly toward an apparent maximum on silt and clay, but this maximum was far greater than the maximum predicted by established C sequestration models. In addition, significant increases in OC associated with sand occurred when the bulk soil OC concentration exceeded 30 g C kg-1, but this increase occurred when the OC concentration on silt + clay was still far below the predicted storage capacity for silt and clay fractions. Since the OC concentrations in all fractions of Brookston clay loam soil continued to increase with increasing C (bulk soil OC content) input, we concluded that the concept of OC storage capacity requires further investigation.

  2. Isoprene in poplar emissions: effects on new particle formation and OH concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiendler-Scharr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced volatile organic compound (VOC emissions from transgenic Grey poplar modified in isoprene emission potential were used for the investigation of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. In poplar, acute ozone stress induces the emission of a wide array of VOCs dominated by sesquiterpenes and aromatic VOCs. Constitutive light-dependent emission of isoprene ranged between 66 nmol m−2 s−1 in non-transgenic controls (wild type WT and nearly zero (<0.5 nmol m−2 s−1 in isoprene emission-repressed plants (line RA22, respectively. Nucleation rates of up to 3600 cm−3 s−1 were observed in our experiments. In the presence of isoprene new particle formation was suppressed compared to non-isoprene containing VOC mixtures. Compared to isoprene/monoterpene systems emitted from other plants the suppression of nucleation by isoprene was less effective for the VOC mixture emitted from stressed poplar. This is explained by the observed high efficiency of new particle formation for emissions from stressed poplar. Direct measurements of OH in the reaction chamber revealed that the steady state concentration of OH is lower in the presence of isoprene than in the absence of isoprene, supporting the hypothesis that isoprenes' suppressing effect on nucleation is related to radical chemistry. In order to test whether isoprene contributes to SOA mass formation, fully deuterated isoprene (C5D8 was added to the stress-induced emission profile of an isoprene free poplar mutant. Mass spectral analysis showed that, despite the isoprene-induced suppression of particle formation, fractions of deuterated isoprene were incorporated into the SOA. A fractional mass yield of 2.3% of isoprene was observed. Future emission changes due to land use and climate change may therefore affect both gas phase oxidation capacity and new particle number formation.

  3. Observations of the vertical concentrations of aerosol particles in the boundary layer by means of tethered balloon method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, Futoshi; Lee, D.I; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kikuchi,Katsuhiro

    1988-09-30

    In general, it is difficult to accurately understand the behavior of aerosol particles in the boundary layer above urban areas because aerosol sources are influenced by time-dependent factors and local climate. To overcome this difficulty, a particle counter which can count Mie particles with diameters of 0.3 /mu/m or more in five diameter ranges was installed on a large tehered balloon. With this method, the vertical distribution of aerosol concentration was measured in several areas different in meteorological condition, and the dependence of the particle behavior on particle diameter was studied. As a result, it has been revealed that the results of the observations explained above agree with the results of studies conducted in the past, but that dependence on particle diameter is not significant. 37 references, 21 figures, 1 table.

  4. Particle concentration and flux dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer as the indicator of formation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauros, J.; Sogachev, Andrey; Smolander, S.

    2011-01-01

    the atmospheric boundary layer during nucleation event days shows a highly dynamical picture, where particle formation is coupled with chemistry and turbulent transport. We have demonstrated the suitability of our turbulent mixing scheme in reproducing the most important characteristics of particle dynamics...... within the boundary layer. Deposition and particle flux simulations show that deposition affects noticeably only the smallest particles...

  5. Edutainment Science: Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Electrostatics should find a special place in all primary school science curricula. It is a great learning area that reinforces the basics that underpin electricity and atomic structure. Furthermore, it has many well documented hands-on activities. Unfortunately, the "traditional" electrostatics equipment such as PVC rods, woollen cloths, rabbit…

  6. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Area, electrostatic septa in long straight sections 2 and 6 precede the magnetic septa. This picture shows such an electrostatic septum in its tank. See 7501120X, 7501199 and 7501201 for more detailed pictures.

  7. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  8. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characteristics and applications of the electrostatic potential of many-electron atoms, ions and molecules are discussed. Electrostatic Potential of Atoms and Singly. Charged ..... [6] R K Pathak and S R Gadre,J. Chat. Phys., 93, 1770, 1990. [7] S R Gadre, S A Kalkarni and I H Shrivastava,J. Chern. Phys., 96,52;3,. 1992. ~ .1.

  9. Aircraft observations and model simulations of concentration and particle size distribution in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Dacre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland emitted a cloud of ash into the atmosphere during April and May 2010. Over the UK the ash cloud was observed by the FAAM BAe-146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft which was equipped with in-situ probes measuring the concentration of volcanic ash carried by particles of varying sizes. The UK Met Office Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME has been used to simulate the evolution of the ash cloud emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano during the period 4–18 May 2010. In the NAME simulations the processes controlling the evolution of the concentration and particle size distribution include sedimentation and deposition of particles, horizontal dispersion and vertical wind shear. For travel times between 24 and 72 h, a 1/t relationship describes the evolution of the concentration at the centre of the ash cloud and the particle size distribution remains fairly constant. Although NAME does not represent the effects of microphysical processes, it can capture the observed decrease in concentration with travel time in this period. This suggests that, for this eruption, microphysical processes play a small role in determining the evolution of the distal ash cloud. Quantitative comparison with observations shows that NAME can simulate the observed column-integrated mass if around 4% of the total emitted mass is assumed to be transported as far as the UK by small particles (< 30 μm diameter. NAME can also simulate the observed particle size distribution if a distal particle size distribution that contains a large fraction of < 10 μm diameter particles is used, consistent with the idea that phraetomagmatic volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, emit very fine particles.

  10. Source apportionment of ambient particle number concentrations in central Los Angeles using positive matrix factorization (PMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Sowlat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor model (version 5.0 was used to identify and quantify major sources contributing to particulate matter (PM number concentrations, using PM number size distributions in the range of 13 nm to 10 µm combined with several auxiliary variables, including black carbon (BC, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC, PM mass concentrations, gaseous pollutants, meteorological, and traffic counts data, collected for about 9 months between August 2014 and 2015 in central Los Angeles, CA. Several parameters, including particle number and volume size distribution profiles, profiles of auxiliary variables, contributions of different factors in different seasons to the total number concentrations, diurnal variations of each of the resolved factors in the cold and warm phases, weekday/weekend analysis for each of the resolved factors, and correlation between auxiliary variables and the relative contribution of each of the resolved factors, were used to identify PM sources. A six-factor solution was identified as the optimum for the aforementioned input data. The resolved factors comprised nucleation, traffic 1, traffic 2 (with a larger mode diameter than traffic 1 factor, urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust. Traffic sources (1 and 2 were the major contributor to PM number concentrations, collectively making up to above 60 % (60.8–68.4 % of the total number concentrations during the study period. Their contribution was also significantly higher in the cold phase compared to the warm phase. Nucleation was another major factor significantly contributing to the total number concentrations (an overall contribution of 17 %, ranging from 11.7 to 24 %, with a larger contribution during the warm phase than in the cold phase. The other identified factors were urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust, with relative contributions of approximately 12

  11. Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Brito, Joel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kristensson, Adam; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Carbone, Samara; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Iwamoto, Yoko; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Herrmann, Erik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Holzinger, Rupert; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Swietlicki, Erik; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ogren, John; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Stratmann, Frank; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here we present a data set - ready to be used for model validation - of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles > 20 nm) across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring), at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer), the rain forest (wet and dry season) or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn). The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6) and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2-0.3). We performed closure studies based on κ-Köhler theory

  12. Achieving secondary prevention low-density lipoprotein particle concentration goals using lipoprotein cholesterol-based data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Mathews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that LDL particle concentration (LDL-P may remain elevated at guideline recommended LDL cholesterol goals, representing a source of residual risk. We examined the following seven separate lipid parameters in achieving the LDL-P goal of <1000 nmol/L goal for very high risk secondary prevention: total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, TC/HDL, <3; a composite of ATP-III very high risk targets, LDL-C<70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL and TG<150 mg/dL; a composite of standard secondary risk targets, LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150; LDL phenotype; HDL-C ≥ 40; TG<150; and TG/HDL-C<3. METHODS: We measured ApoB, ApoAI, ultracentrifugation lipoprotein cholesterol and NMR lipoprotein particle concentration in 148 unselected primary and secondary prevention patients. RESULTS: TC/HDL-C<3 effectively discriminated subjects by LDL-P goal (F = 84.1, p<10(-6. The ATP-III very high risk composite target (LDL-C<70, nonHDL-C<100, TG<150 was also effective (F = 42.8, p<10(-5. However, the standard secondary prevention composite (LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150 was also effective but yielded higher LDL-P than the very high risk composite (F = 42.0, p<10(-5 with upper 95% confidence interval of LDL-P less than 1000 nmol/L. TG<150 and TG/HDL-C<3 cutpoints both significantly discriminated subjects but the LDL-P upper 95% confidence intervals fell above goal of 1000 nmol/L (F = 15.8, p = 0.0001 and F = 9.7, p = 0.002 respectively. LDL density phenotype neared significance (F = 2.85, p = 0.094 and the HDL-C cutpoint of 40 mg/dL did not discriminate (F = 0.53, p = 0.47 alone or add discriminatory power to ATP-III targets. CONCLUSIONS: A simple composite of ATP-III very high risk lipoprotein cholesterol based treatment targets or TC/HDL-C ratio <3 most effectively identified subjects meeting the secondary prevention target level of LDL-P<1000 nmol/L, providing a potential alternative to advanced lipid testing in many clinical

  13. Electrostatic Detumble of Space Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrostatic Tractor Technology research explores the harmony of physics and engineering to develop and test electrostatic actuation methods for touchless detumble...

  14. Direct measurement of the concentration of metastable ions produced from neutral gas particles using laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Feng; Skiff, Fred; Berumen, Jorge; Mattingly, Sean; Hood, Ryan

    2017-10-01

    Extensive information can be obtained on wave-particle interactions and wave fields by direct measurement of perturbed ion distribution functions using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). For practical purposes, LIF is frequently performed on metastables that are produced from neutral gas particles and existing ions in other electronic states. We numerically simulate the ion velocity distribution measurement and wave-detection process using a Lagrangian model for the LIF signal. The results show that under circumstances where the metastable ion population is coming directly from the ionization of neutrals (as opposed to the excitation of ground-state ions), the velocity distribution will only faithfully represent processes which act on the ion dynamics in a time shorter than the metastable lifetime. Therefore, it is important to know the ratio of metastable population coming from neutrals to that from existing ions to correct the LIF measurements of plasma ion temperature and electrostatic waves. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the ratio of these two populations by externally launching an ion acoustic wave and comparing the wave amplitudes that are measured with LIF and a Langmuir probe using a lock-in amplifier. DE-FG02-99ER54543.

  15. Influence of dome phosphor particle concentration on mid-power LED thermal resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexeev, A.; Martin, G.; Hildenbrand, V.D.; Bosschaart, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    The modern white mid-power LEDs usually contain phosphor particles encapsulated in silicone dome material. The particles convert the blue light emitted from the epitaxial layer and play significant role in thermal processes of LED packages. In this paper the influence of the phosphor particles

  16. Collapse of Electrostatic Waves in Magnetoplasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Yu, M. Y.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1984-01-01

    The two-fluid model is employed to investigate the collapse of electrostatic waves in magnetized plasmas. It is found that nonlinear interaction of ion cyclotron, upper-, and lower-hybrid waves with adiabatic particle motion along the external magnetic field can cause wave-field collapse....

  17. Electrostatic-Dipole (ED) Fusion Confinement Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Shrestha, Prajakti J.; Yang, Yang; Thomas, Robert

    2004-11-01

    The Electrostatic-Dipole (ED) concept significantly differs from a "pure" dipole confinement device [1] in that the charged particles are preferentially confined to the high-pressure region interior of the dipole coil by the assistance of a surrounding spherical electrostatic grid. In present ED experiments, a current carrying coil is embedded inside the grid of an IEC such as to produce a magnetic dipole field. Charged particles are injected axisymmetrically from an ion gun (or duo-plasmatron) into the center of the ED confinement grid/dipole ring where they oscillate along the magnetic field lines and pass the peak field region at the center of the dipole region. As particles begin accelerating away from the center region towards the outer electrostatic grid region, they encounter a strong electrostatic potential (order of 10's of kilovolts) retarding force. The particles then decelerate, reverse direction and re-enter the dipole field region where again magnetic confinement dominates. This process continues, emulating a complex harmonic oscillator motion. The resulting pressure profile averaged over the field curvature offers good plasma stability in the ED configuration. The basic concept and results from preliminary experiments will be described. [1] M.E. Mauel, et al. "Dipole Equilibrium and Stability," 18th IAEA Conference of Plasma Phys. and Control. Nuclear Fusion, Varenna, Italy 2000, IAEA-F1-CN-70/TH

  18. Omega-3 PUFA concentration by a novel PVDF nano-composite membrane filled with nano-porous silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Samaneh; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and nano-porous silica particle were used to fabricate an asymmetric nano-composite membrane. Silica particles enhanced the thermal stability of PVDF/SiO 2 membranes; increasing the decomposition temperature from 371°C to 408°C. Cross sectional morphology showed that silica particles were dispersed in polymer matrix uniformly. However, particle agglomeration was found at higher loading of silica (i.e., 20 by weight%). The separation performance of nano-composite membranes was also evaluated using the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentration at a temperature and pressure of 30°C and 4bar, respectively. Silica particle increased the omega-3PUFA concentration from 34.8 by weight% in neat PVDF to 53.9 by weight% in PVDF with 15 by weight% of silica. Moreover, PVDF/SiO 2 nano-composite membranes exhibited enhanced anti-fouling property compared to neat PVDF membrane. Fouling mechanism analysis revealed that complete pore blocking was the predominant mechanism occurring in oil filtration. The concentration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important in the oil industries. While the current methods demand high energy consumptions in concentrating the omega-3, membrane separation technology offers noticeable advantages in producing pure omega-3 PUFA. Moreover, concentrating omega-3 via membrane separation produces products in the triacylglycerol form which possess better oxidative stability. In this work, the detailed mechanisms of fouling which limits the performance of membrane separation were investigated. Incorporating silica particles to polymeric membrane resulted in the formation of mixed matrix membrane with improved anti-fouling behaviour compared to the neat polymeric membrane. Hence, the industrial potential of membrane processing to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids is enhanced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A method based on light scattering to estimate the concentration of virus particles without the need for virus particle standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Makra

    2015-01-01

    • The concentration of virus nanoparticles can be calculated based on the two measured scattered light intensities by knowing the refractive index of the dispersing solution, of the polymer and virus nanoparticles as well as their relative sphere equivalent diameters.

  20. Electrostatic Transport and Manipulation of Lunar Soil and Dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Transport and manipulation technologies of lunar soil and dust are under development utilizing the electrostatic force. Transport of particles is realized by an electrostatic conveyer consisting of parallel electrodes. Four-phase traveling electrostatic wave was applied to the electrodes to transport particles upon the conveyer and it was demonstrated that particles were efficiently transported under conditions of low frequency, high voltage, and the application of rectangular wave. Not only linear but also curved and closed transport was demonstrated. Numerical investigation was carried out with a three-dimensional hard-sphere model of the Distinct Element Method to clarify the mechanism of the transport and to predict performances in the lunar environment. This technology is expected to be utilized not only for the transport of bulk soil but also for the cleaning of a solar panel and an optical lens. Another technology is an electrostatic manipulation system to manipulate single particle. A manipulator consisted of two parallel pin electrodes. When voltage was applied between the electrodes, electrophoresis force generated in non-uniform electrostatic field was applied to the particle near the tip of the electrode. The particle was captured by the application of the voltage and released from the manipulator by turning off the voltage. It was possible to manipulate not only insulative but also conductive particles. Three-dimensional electrostatic field calculation was conducted to calculate the electrophoresis force and the Coulomb force

  1. An electrostatic sensor for the continuous monitoring of particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intra, Panich; Yawootti, Artit [Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Tippayawong, Nakorn [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    We developed and evaluated a particulate air pollution sensor for continuous monitoring of size resolved particle number, based on unipolar corona charging and electrostatic detection of charged aerosol particles. The sensor was evaluated experimentally using combustion aerosol with particle sizes in the range between approximately 50 nm and several microns, and particle number concentrations larger than 10{sup 10} particles/m{sup 3}. Test results were very promising. It was demonstrated that the sensor can be used in detecting particle number concentrations in the range of about 2.02x10{sup 11} and 1.03x10{sup 12} particles/m{sup 3} with a response of approximately 100 ms. Good agreement was found between the developed sensor and a commercially available laser particle counter in measuring ambient PM along a roadside with heavy traffic for about 2 h. The developed sensor proved particularly useful for measuring and detecting particulate air pollution, for number concentration of particles in the range of 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 12} particles/m{sup 3}.

  2. Characterisation of particle mass and number concentration on the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsula during the northeast monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Doreena; Latif, Mohd Talib; Juneng, Liew; Khan, Md Firoz; Amil, Norhaniza; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Moi, Phang Siew; Samah, Azizan Abu; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Sturges, William T.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Robinson, Andrew D.; Pyle, John A.

    2015-09-01

    Particle mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and particle number concentration ((PNC); 0.27 μm ≤ Dp ≤ 34.00 μm) were measured in the tropical coastal environment of Bachok, Kelantan on the Malaysian Peninsula bordering the southern edge of the South China Sea. Statistical methods were applied on a three-month hourly data set (9th January to 24th March 2014) to study the influence of north-easterly winds on the patterns of particle mass and PNC size distributions. The 24-h concentrations of particle mass obtained in this study were below the standard values detailed by the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (RMAQG), United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and European Union (EU) except for PM2.5, which recorded a 24-h average of 30 ± 18 μg m-3 and exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) threshold value (25 μg m-3). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that PNC with smaller diameter sizes (0.27-4.50 μm) showed a stronger influence, accounting for 57.6% of the variability in PNC data set. Concentrations of both particle mass and PNC increased steadily in the morning with a distinct peak observed at around 8.00 h, related to a combination of dispersion of accumulated particles overnight and local traffic. In addition to local anthropogenic, agricultural burning and forest fire activities, long-range transport also affects the study area. Hotspot and backward wind trajectory observations illustrated that the biomass burning episode (around February-March) significantly influenced PNC. Meteorological parameters influenced smaller size particles (i.e. PM1 and Dp (0.27-0.43 μm)) the most.

  3. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  4. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fundamental concepts of electrostatics as applied to atoms and molecules. The electric ... chemistry, the chemistry of the covalent bond, deals with the structures ..... the position of an asteroid named Ceres ... World Scientific. Singapore, 1992.

  5. Calculation of concentration fields of high-inertia aerosol particles in the flow past a cylindrical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaripov, T. S.; Gilfanov, A. K.; Zaripov, S. K.; Rybdylova, O. D.; Sazhin, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The behaviour of high-inertia aerosol particles’ concentration fields in stationary gas suspension flows around a cylinder is investigated using a numerical solution to the Navier-Stokes equations and the fully Lagrangian approach for four Stokes numbers (Stk = 0.1, 1, 4, 10) and three Reynolds numbers (Re = 1, 10, 100). It has been shown that the points of maximum particle concentration along each trajectory shift downstream both when Stk and/or Re increase.

  6. Electrostatic Levitator Electrode Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Schematic of Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) electrodes and controls system. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  7. Electrostatic Levitator Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) general layout with captions. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  8. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  9. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  10. An electrostatic storage ring for low kinetic energy electron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddish, T J; Tessier, D R; Sullivan, M R; Thorn, P A [Department of Physics, University of Windsor, Windsor, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Hammond, P; Alderman, A J [School of Physics, CAMSP, University of Western Australia, Perth WA 6009 (Australia); Read, F H [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-01

    The criteria are presented for stable multiple orbits of charged particles in a race-track shaped storage ring and applied to an electrostatic system consisting of two hemispherical deflector analyzers (HDA) connected by two separate sets of cylindrical lenses. The results of charged particle simulations and the formal matrix theory, including aberrations in the energy-dispersive electrostatic 'prisms', are in good agreement with the observed experimental operating conditions for this Electron Recycling Spectrometer (ERS).

  11. Particle concentrating and sorting under a rotating electric field by direct optical-liquid heating in a microfluidics chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Hong-Ren

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate a functional rotating electrothermal technique for rapidly concentrating and sorting a large number of particles on a microchip by the combination of particle dielectrophoresis (DEP) and inward rotating electrothermal (RET) flows. Different kinds of particles can be attracted (positive DEP) to or repelled (negative DEP) from electrode edges, and then the n-DEP responsive particles are further concentrated in the heated region by RET flows. The RET flows arise from the spatial inhomogeneous electric properties of fluid caused by direct infrared laser (1470 nm) heating of solution in a rotating electric field. The direction of the RET flows is radially inward to the heated region with a co-field (the same as the rotating electric field) rotation. Moreover, the velocity of the RET flows is proportional to the laser power and the square of the electric field strength. The RET flows are significant over a frequency range from 200 kHz to 5 MHz. The RET flows are generated by the simultaneous application of the infrared laser and the rotating electric field. Therefore, the location of particle concentrating can be controlled within the rotating electric field depending on the position of the laser spot. This multi-field technique can be operated in salt solutions and at higher frequency without external flow pressure, and thus it can avoid electrokinetic phenomena at low frequency to improve the manipulation accuracy for lab-on-chip applications.

  12. A concentration correction scheme for Lagrangian particle model and its application in street canyon air dispersion modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiyang Xia [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). Department of Engineering Mechanics; Leung, D.Y.C. [The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Pollutant dispersion in street canyons with various configurations was simulated by discharging a large number of particles into the computation domain after developing a time-dependent wind field. Trajectory of the released particles was predicted using a Lagrangian particle model developed in an earlier study. A concentration correction scheme, based on the concept of 'visibility', was adopted for the Lagrangian particle model to correct the calculated pollutant concentration field in street canyons. The corrected concentrations compared favourably with those from wind tunnel experiments and a linear relationship between the computed concentrations and wind tunnel data were found. The developed model was then applied to four simulations to test for the suitability of the correction scheme and to study pollutant distribution in street canyons with different configurations. For those cases with obstacles presence in the computation domain, the correction scheme gives more reasonable results compared with the one without using it. Different flow regimes are observed in the street canyons, which depend on building configurations. A counter-clockwise rotating vortex may appear in a two-building case with wind flow from left to right, causing lower pollutant concentration at the leeward side of upstream building and higher concentration at the windward side of downstream building. On the other hand, a stable clockwise rotating vortex is formed in the street canyon with multiple identical buildings, resulting in poor natural ventilation in the street canyon. Moreover, particles emitted in the downstream canyon formed by buildings with large height-to-width ratios will be transported to upstream canyons. (author)

  13. Physicochemical characterization of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols I: uranium concentration in aerosols as a function of time and particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Cheng, Yung Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L; Traub, Richard J

    2009-03-01

    During the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, aerosols containing DU were produced inside unventilated armored vehicles (i.e., Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles) by perforation with large-caliber DU penetrators. These aerosols were collected and characterized, and the data were subsequently used to assess human health risks to personnel exposed to DU aerosols. The DU content of each aerosol sample was first quantified by radioanalytical methods, and selected samples, primarily those from the cyclone separator grit chambers, were analyzed radiochemically. Deposition occurred inside the vehicles as particles settled on interior surfaces. Settling rates of uranium from the aerosols were evaluated using filter cassette samples that collected aerosol as total mass over eight sequential time intervals. A moving filter was used to collect aerosol samples over time, particularly within the first minute after a shot. The results demonstrate that the peak uranium concentration in the aerosol occurred in the first 10 s after perforation, and the concentration decreased in the Abrams tank shots to about 50% within 1 min and to less than 2% after 30 min. The initial and maximum uranium concentrations were lower in the Bradley vehicle than those observed in the Abrams tank, and the concentration levels decreased more slowly. Uranium mass concentrations in the aerosols as a function of particle size were evaluated using samples collected in a cyclone sampler, which collected aerosol continuously for 2 h after perforation. The percentages of uranium mass in the cyclone separator stages ranged from 38 to 72% for the Abrams tank with conventional armor. In most cases, it varied with particle size, typically with less uranium associated with the smaller particle sizes. Neither the Abrams tank with DU armor nor the Bradley vehicle results were specifically correlated with particle size and can best be represented by their average uranium mass concentrations of 65

  14. Electrostatic dry powder prepregging of carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throne, James L.; Sohn, Min-Seok

    1990-01-01

    Ultrafine, 5-10 micron polymer-matrix resin powders are directly applied to carbon fiber tows by passing then in an air or nitrogen stream through an electrostatic potential; the particles thus charged will strongly adhere to grounded carbon fibers, and can be subsequently fused to the fiber in a continuously-fed radiant oven. This electrostatic technique derived significant end-use mechanical property advantages from the obviation of solvents, binders, and other adulterants. Additional matrix resins used to produce prepregs to date have been PMR-15, Torlon 40000, and LaRC TPI.

  15. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-08-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEON(LA-BSA), which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEON(LA-BSA) particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEON(LA-BSA) changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  16. Programming of mouse obesity by maternal exposure to concentrated ambient fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjie; Wang, Xiaoke; Hu, Ziying; Zhou, Huifen; Xu, Yanyi; Qiu, Lianglin; Qin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yuhao; Ying, Zhekang

    2017-06-23

    Many diseases including obesity may originate through alterations in the early-life environment that interrupts fetal development. Increasing evidence has shown that exposure to ambient fine particles (PM 2.5 ) is associated with abnormal fetal development. However, its long-term metabolic effects on offspring have not been systematically investigated. To determine if maternal exposure to PM 2.5 programs offspring obesity, female C57Bl/6j mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM 2.5 (CAP) during pre-conception, pregnancy, and lactation, and the developmental and metabolic responses of offspring were assessed. The growth trajectory of offspring revealed that maternal exposure to CAP significantly decreased offspring birth weight but increased body weight of adult male but not female offspring, and the latter was expressed as increased adiposity. These adult male offspring had increased food intake, but were sensitive to exogenous leptin. Their hypothalamic expression of Socs3 and Pomc, two target genes of leptin, was not changed, and the hypothalamic expression of NPY, an orexigenic peptide that is inhibited by leptin, was significantly increased. These decreases in central anorexigenic signaling were accompanied by reduced plasma leptin and its expression in adipose tissues, the primary source of circulating leptin. In contrast, maternal exposure did not significantly change any of these indexes in adult female offspring. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that the leptin promoter methylation of adipocytes was significantly increased in CAP-exposed male but not female offspring. Our data indicate that maternal exposure to ambient PM 2.5 programs obesity in male offspring probably through alterations in the methylation of the promoter region of the leptin gene.

  17. Influence of the ammonium hydroxide concentration in morphological control of meso porous silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sukbon; Jung, Chonghun; Yoon, Inho; Kim, Changki; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new M41S meso porous silica families in 1992 extended the applications into much wider pore ranges, bringing in a new prosperous era in porous material research. The synthesis of these meso porous silicas has been mainly accomplished through a self-assembly between surfactant molecules and inorganic species under various pH conditions. Meanwhile, many studies have been conducted on the application as catalysts, adsorbents, and packing materials for separation columns due to their unique properties such as high specific surface area, large pore volume, tuneable pore size, and narrow pore size distribution. The pore sizes of these materials can be easily controlled by changing the alkyl-chain length of the surfactant used. However, the control of the morphology and the pore structure is not so common. The morphological control of these materials in particular is one of the major challenges for their industrial application. Recently, the meso porous silica materials with various shapes such as fibers, films, polyhedral particles, and spheres have been reported. In our previous study, the core-shell nanoparticles with a silica core and a meso porous shell under basic conditions were synthesized using the silica nanoparticles as a core and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr)-NH 4 OH-H 2 O-C 2 H 5 OH system. In this work, we report the synthesis of the most well known hexagonal MCM-41 among three main mesophases in the M41S families using TEOS-CTABr-NH 4 OH-H 2 O system. Also, in the control of the morphology and pore structure of the meso porous silica materials, the influence of the NH 4 OH concentration was investigated

  18. Electrostatics of Pharmaceutical Aerosols for Pulmonary Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip Kwok, Philip Chi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a review on key research findings in the rapidly developing area of pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics. Solids and liquids can become charged without electric fields, the former by contact or friction and the latter by flowing or spraying. Therefore, charged particles and droplets carrying net charges are produced from pharmaceutical inhalers (e.g. dry powder inhalers, metered dose inhalers, and nebulisers) due to the mechanical processes involved in aerosolisation. The charging depends on many physicochemical factors, such as formulation composition, solid state properties, inhaler material and design, and relative humidity. In silico, in vitro, and limited in vivo studies have shown that electrostatic charges may potentially influence particle deposition in the airways. However, the evidence is not yet conclusive. Furthermore, there are currently no regulatory requirements on the characterisation and control of the electrostatic properties of inhaled formulations. Besides the need for further investigations on the relationship between physicochemical factors and charging characteristics of the aerosols, controlled and detailed in vivo studies are also required to confirm whether charges can affect particle deposition in the airways. Since pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics is a relatively new research area, much remains to be explored. Thus there is certainly potential for development. New findings in the future may contribute to the advancement of pharmaceutical aerosol formulations and respiratory drug delivery.

  19. Total and size-resolved particle number and black carbon concentrations in urban areas near Schiphol airport (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Moerman, M.; Zandveld, P.; Henzing, J.S.; Hoek, G.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of black carbon, and size-resolved and total particle number concentrations (PNC) were investigated in the vicinity of Schiphol airport in the Netherlands, the fourth busiest airport in Europe. Continuous measurements were conducted between March and May 2014at Adamse Bos, located 7km

  20. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  1. Determining the most effective concentration of cypermethrin and the appropriate carrier particle size for fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng-Jen

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the most effective particle size of DDGS (distiller's dried grains with solubles) as fire ant bait carrier, as well as the most effective concentration of cypermethrin as a toxicant against the red imported fire ant (RIFA) Solenopsis invicta Buren under laboratory conditions. The DDGS particle size did not affect the fire ant's preference for the bait, but it did affect the mass of DDGS being carried back to the nest. The size of the DDGS particles and the mass of DDGS being carried back to the nest were positively correlated. The most efficient particle size of DDGS was 0.8-2 mm. The concentration of cypermethrin has a specific range for killing fire ants in an efficient manner. Neither a very low nor a very high concentration of cypermethrin was able to kill fire ants efficiently. The most effective concentration of cypermethrin was 0.13% in DDGS when mixed with 15% shrimp shell powders and 11% soybean oil. Based on its ability to kill fire ants when mixed with cypermethrin, as well as the advantage of having a larger area coverage when sprayed in the field, DDGS as the carrier and cypermethrin as the toxicant can be considered to be an efficient way to prepare fire ant bait for controlling fire ants in infested areas. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Characterization of fluidization regime in circulating fluidized bed reactor with high solid particle concentration using computational fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon; Thummakul, Theeranan; Piumsomboon, Pornpote [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Gidaspow, Dimitri [Armour College of Engineering, Chicago (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The hydrodynamics inside a high solid particle concentration circulating fluidized bed reactor was investigated using computational fluid dynamics simulation. Compared to a low solid particle reactor, all the conventional fluidization regimes were observed. In addition, two unconventional fluidization regimes, circulating-turbulent and dense suspension bypassing regimes, were found with only primary gas injection. The circulating-turbulent fluidization regime showed uniformly dense solid particle distribution in all the system directions, while the dense suspension bypassing fluidization regime exhibited the flow of solid particles at only one side system wall. Then, comprehensive fluidization regime clarification and mapping were evaluated using in-depth system parameters. In the circulating-turbulent fluidization regime, the total granular temperature was low compared to the adjacent fluidization regimes. In the dense suspension bypassing fluidization regime, the highest total granular temperature was obtained. The circulating-turbulent and dense suspension bypassing fluidization regimes are suitable for sorption and transportation applications, respectively.

  3. Changes in lipids and lipoprotein particle concentrations after interruption of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Fiona C; Duprez, Daniel A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2010-01-01

    The effect of interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on lipoprotein particle subclasses has not been studied. We examined short-term changes in lipids and lipoprotein particles among 332 HIV-infected individuals randomized to interrupt or continue ART in the "Strategies for Management...

  4. Titanium Dioxide Particle Type and Concentration Influence the Inflammatory Response in Caco-2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Ichihara, Gaku; Fukatsu, Hitomi; Shimanuki, Yuka; Tanaka, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eri; Suzuki, Yuka; Murakami, Masahiko; Izuoka, Kiyora; Chang, Jie; Wu, Wenting; Yamada, Yoshiji; Ichihara, Sahoko

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics, sunscreens, biomedicine, and food products. When used as a food additive, TiO2 nanoparticles are used in significant amounts as white food-coloring agents. However, the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on the gastrointestinal tract remain unclear. The present study was designed to determine the effects of five TiO2 particles of different crystal structures and sizes in human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells and THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. Twenty-four-hour exposure to anatase (primary particle size: 50 and 100 nm) and rutile (50 nm) TiO2 particles reduced cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophages, but in not Caco-2 cells. However, 72-h exposure of Caco-2 cells to anatase (50 nm) TiO2 particles reduced cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose (50 µg/mL) of anatase (100 nm), rutile (50 nm), and P25 TiO2 particles also reduced cellular viability in Caco-2 cells. The production of reactive oxygen species tended to increase in both types of cells, irrespective of the type of TiO2 particle. Exposure of THP-1 macrophages to 50 µg/mL of anatase (50 nm) TiO2 particles increased interleukin (IL)-1β expression level, and exposure of Caco-2 cells to 50 µg/mL of anatase (50 nm) TiO2 particles also increased IL-8 expression. The results indicated that anatase TiO2 nanoparticles induced inflammatory responses compared with other TiO2 particles. Further studies are required to determine the in vivo relevance of these findings to avoid the hazards of ingested particles. PMID:27092499

  5. Titanium Dioxide Particle Type and Concentration Influence the Inflammatory Response in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeko Tada-Oikawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics, sunscreens, biomedicine, and food products. When used as a food additive, TiO2 nanoparticles are used in significant amounts as white food-coloring agents. However, the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on the gastrointestinal tract remain unclear. The present study was designed to determine the effects of five TiO2 particles of different crystal structures and sizes in human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells and THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. Twenty-four-hour exposure to anatase (primary particle size: 50 and 100 nm and rutile (50 nm TiO2 particles reduced cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophages, but in not Caco-2 cells. However, 72-h exposure of Caco-2 cells to anatase (50 nm TiO2 particles reduced cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose (50 µg/mL of anatase (100 nm, rutile (50 nm, and P25 TiO2 particles also reduced cellular viability in Caco-2 cells. The production of reactive oxygen species tended to increase in both types of cells, irrespective of the type of TiO2 particle. Exposure of THP-1 macrophages to 50 µg/mL of anatase (50 nm TiO2 particles increased interleukin (IL-1β expression level, and exposure of Caco-2 cells to 50 µg/mL of anatase (50 nm TiO2 particles also increased IL-8 expression. The results indicated that anatase TiO2 nanoparticles induced inflammatory responses compared with other TiO2 particles. Further studies are required to determine the in vivo relevance of these findings to avoid the hazards of ingested particles.

  6. Titanium Dioxide Particle Type and Concentration Influence the Inflammatory Response in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Ichihara, Gaku; Fukatsu, Hitomi; Shimanuki, Yuka; Tanaka, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eri; Suzuki, Yuka; Murakami, Masahiko; Izuoka, Kiyora; Chang, Jie; Wu, Wenting; Yamada, Yoshiji; Ichihara, Sahoko

    2016-04-16

    Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics, sunscreens, biomedicine, and food products. When used as a food additive, TiO₂ nanoparticles are used in significant amounts as white food-coloring agents. However, the effects of TiO₂ nanoparticles on the gastrointestinal tract remain unclear. The present study was designed to determine the effects of five TiO₂ particles of different crystal structures and sizes in human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells and THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. Twenty-four-hour exposure to anatase (primary particle size: 50 and 100 nm) and rutile (50 nm) TiO₂ particles reduced cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophages, but in not Caco-2 cells. However, 72-h exposure of Caco-2 cells to anatase (50 nm) TiO₂ particles reduced cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose (50 µg/mL) of anatase (100 nm), rutile (50 nm), and P25 TiO₂ particles also reduced cellular viability in Caco-2 cells. The production of reactive oxygen species tended to increase in both types of cells, irrespective of the type of TiO₂ particle. Exposure of THP-1 macrophages to 50 µg/mL of anatase (50 nm) TiO₂ particles increased interleukin (IL)-1β expression level, and exposure of Caco-2 cells to 50 µg/mL of anatase (50 nm) TiO₂ particles also increased IL-8 expression. The results indicated that anatase TiO₂ nanoparticles induced inflammatory responses compared with other TiO₂ particles. Further studies are required to determine the in vivo relevance of these findings to avoid the hazards of ingested particles.

  7. Effect of traffic restriction on atmospheric particle concentrations and their size distributions in urban Lanzhou, Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Liu, Na; He, Jianjun; Chen, Jinbei

    2014-02-01

    During the 2012 Lanzhou International Marathon, the local government made a significant effort to improve traffic conditions and air quality by implementing traffic restriction measures. To evaluate the direct effect of these measures on urban air quality, especially particle concentrations and their size distributions, atmospheric particle size distributions (0.5-20 microm) obtained using an aerodynamic particle sizer (model 3321, TSI, USA) in June 2012 were analyzed. It was found that the particle number, surface area and volume concentrations for size range 0.5-10 microm were (15.0 +/- 2.1) cm(-3), (11.8 +/- 2.6) microm2/cm3 and (1.9 +/- 0.6) microm2/cm3, respectively, on the traffic-restricted day (Sunday), which is 63.2%, 53.0% and 47.2% lower than those on a normal Sunday. For number and surface area concentrations, the most affected size range was 0.5-0.7 and 0.5-0.8 microm, respectively, while for volume concentration, the most affected size ranges were 0.5-0.8, 1.7-2.0 and 5.0-5.4 microm. Number and volume concentrations of particles in size range 0.5-1.0 microm correlated well with the number of non-CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) powered vehicles, while their correlation with the number of CNG-powered vehicles was very low, suggesting that reasonable urban traffic controls along with vehicle technology improvements could play an important role in improving urban air quality.

  8. Electrostatic coating technologies for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Sheryl A; Sumonsiri, Nutsuda

    2015-01-01

    The application of electrostatics in both powder and liquid coating can improve the quality of food, such as its appearance, aroma, taste, and shelf life. Coatings can be found most commonly in the snack food industry, as well as in confectionery, bakery, meat and cheese processing. In electrostatic powder coating, the most important factors influencing coating quality are powder particle size, density, flowability, charge, and resistivity, as well as the surface properties and characteristics of the target. The most important factors during electrostatic liquid coating, also known as electrohydrodynamic coating, include applied voltage and electrical resistivity and viscosity of the liquid. A good understanding of these factors is needed for the design of optimal coating systems for food processing.

  9. Magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    1979-01-01

    By using measurements with the University of Iowa plasma wave experiment on the Imp 6 satellite a study has been conducted of the spectrum of electrostatic plasma waves in the terrestrial magnetosheath. Electrostatic plasma wave turbulence is almost continuously present throughout the magnetosheath with broadband (20 Hz to 70 kHz) rms field intensities typically 0.01--1.0 mV m -1 . Peak intensities of about 1.0 mV m -1 near the electron plasma frequency (30--60 kHz) have been detected occasionally. Two or three components can usually be identified in the spectrum of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence: a high-frequency (> or =30kHz) component peaking at the electron plasma frequency f/sub p/e, a low-frequency component with a broad intensity maximum below the nominal ion plasma frequency f/sub p/i (approx. f/sub p/e/43), and a less well defined intermediate component in the range f/sub p/i < f< f/sub p/e. The intensity distribution of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence clearly shows that the low-frequency component is associated with the bow shock, suggesting that the ion heating begun at the shock continues into the downstream magnetosheath. Electrostatic waves below 1 kHz are polarized along the magnetic field direction, a result consistent with the polarization of electrostatic waves at the shock. The high- and intermediate-frequency components are features of the magnetosheath spectrum which are not characteristic of the shock spectrum but are often detected in the upstream solar wind. The intensity distribution of electrostatic turbulence at the magnetosheath plasma frequency has no apparent correlation with the shock, indicating that electron plasma oscillations are a general feature of the magnetosheath. The plasma wave noise shows a tendency to decrease toward the dawn and dusk regions, consistent with a general decrease in turbulence away from the subsolar magnetosheath

  10. Emulsion Polymerization of Etyl Acrylate: The Effect of Surfactant, Initiator Concentration and PolymerizationTechnique on Particle Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitri Arinda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion polymerization was conducted using ethyl acrylate monomer. Theeffect of sodium lauryl sulfate concentration, ammonium persulfate concentration, the various of polymerizationtechniques and feeding time to the conversion, particle size and its distribution were observed. The purpose of thisresearch is to obtain the optimum condition of ethyl acrylate homopolymer with particle size around 100 nm, to get theparticle size distribution monodisperse and to get solid content value of the experiment closed to its theoretical value.The optimum condition then could be applied in shell polymerization of core-shell polymers. The results of the researchshowed that semicontinuous technique obtained optimum sodium lauryl sulfate concentration at 20 CMC (criticalmicelle concentration and ammonium persulfate concentration is 3%. By using batch technique that the biggestparticle size is 123 nm with conversion 95.8% and monodisperse. The shorter of feeding time the more monomer ofethyl acrylate being polymerized, it is showed by the higher conversion up to 94.4% and the bigger particle size is107.9 nm.

  11. Impact of electrostatics on the chemodynamics of highly charged metal-polymer nanoparticle complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L; Farinha, José Paulo S; Pinheiro, José P

    2013-11-12

    In this work, the impact of electrostatics on the stability constant, the rate of association/dissociation, and the lability of complexes formed between Cd(II), Pb(II), and carboxyl-modified polymer nanoparticles (also known as latex particles) of radius ∼ 50 nm is systematically investigated via electroanalytical measurements over a wide range of pHs and NaNO3 electrolyte concentrations. The corresponding interfacial structure and key electrostatic properties of the particles are independently derived from their electrokinetic response, successfully interpreted using soft particle electrohydrodynamic formalism, and complemented by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. The results underpin the presence of an ∼0.7-1 nm thick permeable and highly charged shell layer at the surface of the polymer nanoparticles. Their electrophoretic mobility further exhibits a minimum versus NaNO3 concentration due to strong polarization of the electric double layer. Integrating these structural and electrostatic particle features with recent theory on chemodynamics of particulate metal complexes yields a remarkable recovery of the measured increase in complex stability with increasing pH and/or decreasing solution salinity. In the case of the strongly binding Pb(II), the discrepancy at pH > 5.5 is unambiguously assigned to the formation of multidendate complexes with carboxylate groups located in the particle shell. With increasing pH and/or decreasing electrolyte concentration, the theory further predicts a kinetically controlled formation of metal complexes and a dramatic loss of their lability (especially for lead) on the time-scale of diffusion toward a macroscopic reactive electrode surface. These theoretical findings are again shown to be in agreement with experimental evidence.

  12. Zone of influence for particle number concentrations at signalised traffic intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anju; Kumar, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of zone of influences (ZoI) at signalised traffic intersections (TI) is important to accurately model particle number concentrations (PNCs) and their exposure to public at emission hotspot locations. However, estimates of ZoI for PNCs at different types of TIs are barely known. We carried out mobile measurements inside the car cabin with windows fully open for size-resolved PNCs in the 5-560 nm range on a 6 km long busy round route that had 10 TIs. These included four-way TIs without built-up area (TI4w-nb), four-way TIs with built-up area (TI4w-wb), three-way TIs without built-up area (TI3w-nb) and three-way TIs with built-up area (TI3w-wb). Mobile measurements were made with a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50). Driving speed and position of the car were recorded every second using a global positioning system (GPS). Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) modelling was applied on the data to quantify the contribution of PNCs released during deceleration, creep-idling, acceleration and cruising to total PNCs at the TIs. The objectives were to address the following questions: (i) how does ZoI vary at different types of TIs in stop- and go-driving conditions?, (ii) what is the effect of different driving conditions on ZoI of a TI?, (iii) how realistically can the PNC profiles be generalised within a ZoI of a TI?, and (iv) what is the share of emissions during different driving conditions towards the total PNCs at a TI? Average length of ZoI in longitudinal direction and along the road was found to be the highest (148 m; 89 to -59 m from the centre of a TI) at a TI3w-wb, followed by TI4w-nb (129 m; 79 to -42 m), TI3w-nb (86 m; 71 to -15 m) and TI4w-wb (79 m; 46 to -33 m) in stop- and go-driving conditions. During multiple stopping driving conditions when a vehicle stops at a TI more than once in a signal cycle due to oversaturation of vehicles, average length of ZoI increased by 55, 22 and 21% at TI4w-nb, TI3w-nb and TI3w-wb, respectively

  13. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  14. Investigations into the penetration and pressure drop of HEPA filter media during loading with submicron particle aerosols at high concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibold, H; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are typically employed in particle removal and retention within the air cleaning systems of clean rooms in the pharmaceutical, nuclear and semiconductor industries for dust concentrations of some μg/m 3 . Their extremely high removal efficiencies for submicron particles make them attractive candidates in complying with increasingly lower emission limits for industrial processes that involve dust concentrations of up to several g/m 3 . Cost-effective operation under such conditions requires the filter units to be recleanable. The recleanability of HEPA filter media depends not only on the operating conditions during the cleaning process but also on the filtration conditions during particle loading. The structure and location of the particles captured by the glass fiber matrix greatly affect the degree to which they can be subsequently dislodged and removed from the filter medium. Changes in filtration efficiency with service time for various particle diameters in the critical submicron size range, as well as the effects of filtration velocity on the increase in pressure drop, are important criteria with regard to recleaning HEPA filter units. Of special significance for the recleanability of HEPA filter media is knowledge of how operating conditions affect dust cake formation. (author)

  15. Short-term exposure with high concentrations of pristine microplastic particles leads to immobilisation of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehse, Saskia; Kloas, Werner; Zarfl, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies revealed that freshwaters are not only polluted by chemicals, but also by persistent synthetic material like microplastics (plastic particles pollutants or release additives. Although there is rising concern about the pollution of freshwaters by microplastics, knowledge about their potential effects on organisms is limited. For a better understanding of their risks, it is crucial to unravel which characteristics influence their effects on organisms. Analysing effects by the mere particles is the first step before including more complex interactions e.g. with associated chemicals. The aim of this study was to analyse potential physical effects of microplastics on one representative organism for limnic zooplankton (Daphnia magna). We investigated whether microplastics can be ingested and whether their presence causes adverse effects after short-term exposure. Daphnids were exposed for up to 96 h to 1-μm and 100-μm polyethylene particles at concentrations between 12.5 and 400 mg L(-1). Ingestion of 1-μm particles led to immobilisation increasing with dose and time with an EC50 of 57.43 mg L(-1) after 96 h. 100-μm particles that could not be ingested by the daphnids had no observable effects. These results underline that, considering high concentrations, microplastic particles can already induce adverse effects in limnic zooplankton. Although it needs to be clarified if these concentrations can be found in the environment these results are a basis for future impact analysis, especially in combination with associated chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial variation of particle number concentration in school microscale environments and its impact on exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Farhad; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Crilley, Leigh R; Laiman, Rusdin; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-05-21

    It has not yet been established whether the spatial variation of particle number concentration (PNC) within a microscale environment can have an effect on exposure estimation results. In general, the degree of spatial variation within microscale environments remains unclear, since previous studies have only focused on spatial variation within macroscale environments. The aims of this study were to determine the spatial variation of PNC within microscale school environments, in order to assess the importance of the number of monitoring sites on exposure estimation. Furthermore, this paper aims to identify which parameters have the largest influence on spatial variation as well as the relationship between those parameters and spatial variation. Air quality measurements were conducted for two consecutive weeks at each of the 25 schools across Brisbane, Australia. PNC was measured at three sites within the grounds of each school, along with the measurement of meteorological and several other air quality parameters. Traffic density was recorded for the busiest road adjacent to the school. Spatial variation at each school was quantified using coefficient of variation (CV). The portion of CV associated with instrument uncertainty was found to be 0.3, and, therefore, CV was corrected so that only noninstrument uncertainty was analyzed in the data. The median corrected CV (CVc) ranged from 0 to 0.35 across the schools, with 12 schools found to exhibit spatial variation. The study determined the number of required monitoring sites at schools with spatial variability and tested the deviation in exposure estimation arising from using only a single site. Nine schools required two measurement sites and three schools required three sites. Overall, the deviation in exposure estimation from using only one monitoring site was as much as 1 order of magnitude. The study also tested the association of spatial variation with wind speed/direction and traffic density, using partial

  17. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  18. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators

  19. Inertial-particle dynamics in turbulent flows: caustics, concentration fluctuations and random uncorrelated motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, K; Mehlig, B; Meneguz, E; Reeks, M

    2012-01-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of inertial particles in random model flows in the white-noise limit (at zero Kubo number, Ku = 0) and at finite Kubo numbers. Our results for the moments of relative inertial-particle velocities are in good agreement with recent theoretical results (Gustavsson and Mehlig 2011a) based on the formation of phase-space singularities in the inertial-particle dynamics (caustics). We discuss the relation between three recent approaches describing the dynamics and spatial distribution of inertial particles suspended in turbulent flows: caustic formation, real-space singularities of the deformation tensor and random uncorrelated motion. We discuss how the phase- and real-space singularities are related. Their formation is well understood in terms of a local theory. We summarise the implications for random uncorrelated motion. (paper)

  20. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, L.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed...... by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d-1 increase in sinking speed for a 5×105 μm3 ml-1 increase in particle...

  1. Characterisation of sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hirsikko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa holds significant mineral resources, with a substantial fraction of these reserves occurring and being processed in a large geological structure termed the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC. The area is also highly populated by informal, semi-formal and formal residential developments. However, knowledge of air quality and research related to the atmosphere is still very limited in the area. In order to investigate the characteristics and processes affecting sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events, air ion and aerosol particle size distributions and number concentrations, together with meteorological parameters, trace gases and particulate matter (PM were measured for over two years at Marikana in the heart of the western BIC. The observations showed that trace gas (i.e. SO2, NOx, CO and black carbon concentrations were relatively high, but in general within the limits of local air quality standards. The area was characterised by very high condensation sink due to background aerosol particles, PM10 and O3 concentration. The results indicated that high amounts of Aitken and accumulation mode particles originated from domestic burning for heating and cooking in the morning and evening, while during daytime SO2-based nucleation followed by the growth by condensation of vapours from industrial, residential and natural sources was the most probable source for large number concentrations of nucleation and Aitken mode particles. Nucleation event day frequency was extremely high, i.e. 86% of the analysed days, which to the knowledge of the authors is the highest frequency ever reported. The air mass back trajectory and wind direction analyses showed that the secondary particle formation was influenced both by local and regional pollution and vapour sources. Therefore, our observation of the annual cycle and magnitude of the particle formation and growth rates during

  2. Advances in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Advances in the design and performance of electrostatic accelerators since 1969 are reviewed with special emphasis on the ''forefront'' accelerators that are currently leading in voltage capability. A comparison of the acceleration tube design offered by the National Electrostatics Corporation and the High Voltage Engineering Corporation is also made. Other methods of increasing heavy ion energy by means of dual foil stripping are discussed as well as the performance of a newly developed sputter ion source for the production of negative heavy ions with reliability and flexibility that greatly exceeds all other present systems. Finally, new developments in terms of both booster systems and very high voltage electrostatic accelerators (25 to 60 MV) are discussed. (U.S.)

  3. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  4. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Areas, electrostatic septa in long straight sections 2 an 6 precede the magnetic septa. The 2 electrode plates, visible at the entrance to the septum, provide a vertical electric field to remove the ions created by the circulating beam in the residual gas. Here we see one of the electrostatic septa being assembled by Faustin Emery (left) and Jacques Soubeyran (right), in the clean room of building 867. See also 7501199, 7501201, 7801286 and further explanations there.

  5. Impact of human activities on the concentration of indoor air particles in an antarctic research station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Coelho Pagel

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the main characteristics of Antarctic buildings is the fact that they are designed mostly with a focus on energy efficiency. Although human activity is a major source of pollution, indoor air quality is not a matter of significant concern during building planning. This study examines the relationship between indoor activities in an Antarctic Research Station and the size distribution of particulate matter. Real-time particle size distribution data is used in conjunction with time-activity data. The activity number ratio is calculated using the mean number of particles found in each size range during each activity divided by the average number of particles found during a period characterized by the absence of human activities. Cooking, the use of cosmetics, waste incineration and exhaust from light vehicles were responsible for significant deterioration of indoor air related to the presence of fine and ultrafine particles. Cleaning, physical exercise and the movement of people were responsible for the emission of coarse particles. This article emphasizes the importance of post-occupancy evaluation of buildings, generating results relevant to the planning and layout of new buildings, especially regarding better indoor air quality.

  6. Fluorescent bioaerosol particle, molecular tracer, and fungal spore concentrations during dry and rainy periods in a semi-arid forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gosselin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols pose risks to human health and agriculture and may influence the evolution of mixed-phase clouds and the hydrological cycle on local and regional scales. The availability and reliability of methods and data on the abundance and properties of atmospheric bioaerosols, however, are rather limited. Here we analyze and compare data from different real-time ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF instruments with results from a culture-based spore sampler and offline molecular tracers for airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Commercial UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer and WIBS-3 (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor, version 3 instruments with different excitation and emission wavelengths were utilized to measure fluorescent aerosol particles (FAPs during both dry weather conditions and periods heavily influenced by rain. Seven molecular tracers of bioaerosols were quantified by analysis of total suspended particle (TSP high-volume filter samples using a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography system with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD. From the same measurement campaign, Huffman et al. (2013 previously reported dramatic increases in total and fluorescent particle concentrations during and immediately after rainfall and also showed a strong relationship between the concentrations of FAPs and ice nuclei (Huffman et al., 2013; Prenni et al., 2013. Here we investigate molecular tracers and show that during rainy periods the atmospheric concentrations of arabitol (35.2 ± 10.5 ng m−3 and mannitol (44.9 ± 13.8 ng m−3 were 3–4 times higher than during dry periods. During and after rain, the correlations between FAP and tracer mass concentrations were also significantly improved. Fungal spore number concentrations on the order of 104 m−3, accounting for 2–5 % of TSP mass during dry periods and 17–23 % during rainy

  7. Particle dispersing system and method for testing semiconductor manufacturing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrachood, Madhavi; Ghanayem, Steve G.; Cantwell, Nancy; Rader, Daniel J.; Geller, Anthony S.

    1998-01-01

    The system and method prepare a gas stream comprising particles at a known concentration using a particle disperser for moving particles from a reservoir of particles into a stream of flowing carrier gas. The electrostatic charges on the particles entrained in the carrier gas are then neutralized or otherwise altered, and the resulting particle-laden gas stream is then diluted to provide an acceptable particle concentration. The diluted gas stream is then split into a calibration stream and the desired output stream. The particles in the calibration stream are detected to provide an indication of the actual size distribution and concentration of particles in the output stream that is supplied to a process chamber being analyzed. Particles flowing out of the process chamber within a vacuum pumping system are detected, and the output particle size distribution and concentration are compared with the particle size distribution and concentration of the calibration stream in order to determine the particle transport characteristics of a process chamber, or to determine the number of particles lodged in the process chamber as a function of manufacturing process parameters such as pressure, flowrate, temperature, process chamber geometry, particle size, particle charge, and gas composition.

  8. Tuning of electrostatic vs. depletion interaction in deciding the phase behavior of nanoparticle-polymer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sugam, E-mail: sugam@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, H-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-06-24

    Nanoparticle-polymer system interestingly show a re-entrant phase behavior where charge stabilized silica nanoparticles (phase I) undergo particle clustering (phase II) and then back to individual particles (phase I) as a function of polymer concentration. Such phase behavior arises as a result of dominance of various interactions (i) nanoparticle-nanoparticle electrostatic repulsion (ii) polymer induced attractive depletion between nanoparticles and (iii) polymer-polymer repulsion, at different concentration regimes. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the evolution of interaction during this re-entrant phase behavior of nanoparticles by contrast-marching the polymer. The SANS data have been modeled using a two-Yukawa potential accounting for both attractive and repulsive parts of the interaction between nanoparticles. The degree of both of these parts has been separately tuned by varying the polymer concentration and ionic strength of the solution. Both of these parts are found to have long-range nature. At low polymer concentrations, the electrostatic repulsion dominates over the depletion attraction. The magnitude and the range of the depletion interaction increase with the polymer concentration leading to nanoparticle clustering. At higher polymer concentrations, the increased polymer-polymer repulsion reduces the strength of depletion leading to re-entrant phase behavior. The clusters formed under depletion attraction are found to have surface fractal morphology.

  9. Tuning of electrostatic vs. depletion interaction in deciding the phase behavior of nanoparticle-polymer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle-polymer system interestingly show a re-entrant phase behavior where charge stabilized silica nanoparticles (phase I) undergo particle clustering (phase II) and then back to individual particles (phase I) as a function of polymer concentration. Such phase behavior arises as a result of dominance of various interactions (i) nanoparticle-nanoparticle electrostatic repulsion (ii) polymer induced attractive depletion between nanoparticles and (iii) polymer-polymer repulsion, at different concentration regimes. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the evolution of interaction during this re-entrant phase behavior of nanoparticles by contrast-marching the polymer. The SANS data have been modeled using a two-Yukawa potential accounting for both attractive and repulsive parts of the interaction between nanoparticles. The degree of both of these parts has been separately tuned by varying the polymer concentration and ionic strength of the solution. Both of these parts are found to have long-range nature. At low polymer concentrations, the electrostatic repulsion dominates over the depletion attraction. The magnitude and the range of the depletion interaction increase with the polymer concentration leading to nanoparticle clustering. At higher polymer concentrations, the increased polymer-polymer repulsion reduces the strength of depletion leading to re-entrant phase behavior. The clusters formed under depletion attraction are found to have surface fractal morphology

  10. Improved concentration and separation of particles in a 3D dielectrophoretic chip integrating focusing, aligning and trapping

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming

    2012-10-18

    This article presents a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based microfluidic device with the three-dimensional (3D) microelectrode configuration for concentrating and separating particles in a continuous throughflow. The 3D electrode structure, where microelectrode array are patterned on both the top and bottom surfaces of the microchannel, is composed of three units: focusing, aligning and trapping. As particles flowing through the microfluidic channel, they are firstly focused and aligned by the funnel-shaped and parallel electrode array, respectively, before being captured at the trapping unit due to negative DEP force. For a mixture of two particle populations of different sizes or dielectric properties, with a careful selection of suspending medium and applied field, the population exhibits stronger negative DEP manipulated by the microelectrode array and, therefore, separated from the other population which is easily carried away toward the outlet due to hydrodynamic force. The functionality of the proposed microdevice was verified by concentrating different-sized polystyrene (PS) microparticles and yeast cells dynamically flowing in the microchannel. Moreover, separation based on size and dielectric properties was achieved by sorting PS microparticles, and isolating 5 μm PS particles from yeast cells, respectively. The performance of the proposed micro-concentrator and separator was also studied, including the threshold voltage at which particles begin to be trapped, variation of cell-trapping efficiency with respect to the applied voltage and flow rate, and the efficiency of separation experiments. The proposed microdevice has various advantages, including multi-functionality, improved manipulation efficiency and throughput, easy fabrication and operation, etc., which shows a great potential for biological, chemical and medical applications. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. Dependence of the degree of antibacterial and antiphage action of ozone on cell and phage particle concentrations in nutrient media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grits, N.V.; Fomichev, A.Iu.

    1985-05-01

    The work was aimed at studying the inactivating effect of ozone on Escherichia coli K-12 AB1157, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Erwinia herbicola EH103 and their phages T4, SM and I4. The degree of bacterial and phage inactivation was found to increase with a decrease in their initial concentration during the treatment. The effect depends on differences in the quantity of ozone per cell or per phage particle in the reaction medium. This conclusion is based on the fact that, irrespective of the suspension density, the amount of surviving bacteria and phages plotted versus O3 concentration and recalculated per one bacterial cell or phage particle is described graphically by one and the same curve typical of a strain under study. This technique for assessing the sensitivity of microbiological objects to ozone can be used in order to compare experimental data obtained in different laboratories.

  12. Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Here we present a data set – ready to be used for model validation – of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles  > 20 nm across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring, at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer, the rain forest (wet and dry season or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn. The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6 and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2–0.3. We performed closure

  13. Continuum electrostatics for ionic solutions with non-uniform ionic sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo

    2009-01-01

    This work concerns electrostatic properties of an ionic solution with multiple ionic species of possibly different ionic sizes. Such properties are described by the minimization of an electrostatic free-energy functional of ionic concentrations. Bounds are obtained for ionic concentrations with low electrostatic free energies. Such bounds are used to show that there exists a unique set of equilibrium ionic concentrations that minimizes the free-energy functional. The equilibrium ionic concentrations are found to depend sorely on the equilibrium electrostatic potential, resembling the classical Boltzmann distributions that relate the equilibrium ionic concentrations to the equilibrium electrostatic potential. Unless all the ionic and solvent molecular sizes are assumed to be the same, explicit formulae of such dependence are, however, not available in general. It is nevertheless proved that in equilibrium the ionic charge density is a decreasing function of the electrostatic potential. This determines a variational principle with a convex functional for the electrostatic potential

  14. Effects of locust bean gum and mono- and diglyceride concentrations on particle size and melting rates of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, S L; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Tharp, B W; Harper, W J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how varying concentrations of the stabilizer, locust bean gum (LBG), and different levels of the emulsifier, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), influenced fat aggregation and melting characteristics of ice cream. Ice creams were made containing MDGs and LBG singly and in combination at concentrations ranging between 0.0% to 0.14% and 0.0% to 0.23%, respectively. Particle size analysis, conducted on both the mixes and ice cream, and melting rate testing on the ice cream were used to determine fat aggregation. No significant differences (P ice cream mixes. However, higher concentrations of both LBG and MDG in the ice creams resulted in values that were larger than the control. This study also found an increase in the particle size values when MDG levels were held constant and LBG amounts were increased in the ice cream. Ice creams with higher concentrations of MDG and LBG together had the greatest difference in the rate of melting than the control. The melting rate decreased with increasing LBG concentrations at constant MDG levels. These results illustrated that fat aggregation may not only be affected by emulsifiers, but that stabilizers may play a role in contributing to the destabilization of fat globules. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Tethered balloon-based particle number concentration, and size distribution vertical profiles within the lower troposphere of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Dongfang; Bian, Qinggen; Duan, Yusen; Zhao, Mengfei; Fei, Dongnian; Xiu, Guangli; Fu, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    A tethered balloon-based measurement campaign of particle number concentration (PNC) and particle number size distribution (PNSD) in the size range of 15.7-661.2 nm was conducted within the lower troposphere of 1000 m in Shanghai, a Chinese megacity, during December of 2015. The meteorological conditions, PNC, and PNSD were synchronously measured at the ground-based station as well as by the tethered balloon. On ground level, the 88.2 nm particles were found to have the highest PNC. The Pearson correlation analysis based on the ground level data showed NO2 had a strong correlation with PNC. The synchronous measurement of PNC and PNSD at the ground station and on the tethered balloon showed that the 15.7-200 nm particles had higher PNC on ground level, but the PNC of 200-661.2 nm particles was higher at 400 m. One haze event (Dec 22nd-Dec 23rd) was selected for detailed discussion on the variation of vertical profiles of PNSD and PNC. The vertical distribution of characteristics of PNC and PNSD were observed and compared. Results indicated that the highest MaxDm (the diameter with the highest PNC) during those three launches all appeared at a high altitude, usually above 300 m. Compared to the clean days, the relatively bigger MaxDm at each height in the haze days also indicated regional transport of pollutants might contribute to more to that haze event.

  16. Optical tweezers in concentrated colloidal dispersions : Manipulating and imaging individual particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Dirk Leo Joep

    2004-01-01

    Using a laser beam that is focused down to a diffraction-limited spot, particles with a size ranging from several nanometers up to tens of micrometers can be trapped and manipulated. This technique, known as "optical tweezers" or "optical trapping", has been used in a wide variety of

  17. Versatile electrostatic trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhoven, J.; Bethlem, H.L.; Schnell, M.; Meijer, G.

    2006-01-01

    A four electrode electrostatic trap geometry is demonstrated that can be used to combine a dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole field. A cold packet of ND315 molecules is confined in both a purely quadrupolar and hexapolar trapping field and additionally, a dipole field is added to a hexapole field to

  18. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Electrostatics in Chemistry - Basic Principles. Shridhar R Gadre Pravin K Bhadane. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 8-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Electrostatic shielding of transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, Francisco

    2017-11-28

    Toroidal transformers are currently used only in low-voltage applications. There is no published experience for toroidal transformer design at distribution-level voltages. Toroidal transformers are provided with electrostatic shielding to make possible high voltage applications and withstand the impulse test.

  20. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Area, electrostatic septa in long straight sections 2 and 6 precede the magnetic septa. This picture is a detail of 7501199, and shows the suspension of the wires. 7801286 shows a septum in its tank. See also 7501120X.

  1. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  2. Electrostatic powder spraying process for the fabrication of stable superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guotuan; Tian, Yuping; Li, Zhantie; Lu, Dongfang

    2011-03-01

    Nano-sized Al2O3 particles were modified by heptadecafluorodecyl trimethoxysilane and 2,3-epoxy propoxy propyl trimethoxysilicane to make it both hydrophobic and reactive. The reactive nano-particles were mixed with polyester resin containing curing agents and electrostatic sprayed on stainless steel substrates to obtain stable superhydrophobic coatings after curing. The water contact angle (WCA) on the hybrid coating is influenced by the content of Al2O3 particles in the coating. As the Al2O3 concentration in the coating was increased from 0% to 8%, WCA increased from 68° to 165°. Surface topography of the coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano-particles covered on the coating surface formed continuous film with greatly enhanced roughness, which was found to be responsible for the superhydrophobicity. The method is simple and cost effective and can be used for preparing self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating on large areas.

  3. Electrostatic powder spraying process for the fabrication of stable superhydrophobic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Guotuan; Tian Yuping; Li Zhantie; Lu Dongfang

    2011-01-01

    Nano-sized Al 2 O 3 particles were modified by heptadecafluorodecyl trimethoxysilane and 2,3-epoxy propoxy propyl trimethoxysilicane to make it both hydrophobic and reactive. The reactive nano-particles were mixed with polyester resin containing curing agents and electrostatic sprayed on stainless steel substrates to obtain stable superhydrophobic coatings after curing. The water contact angle (WCA) on the hybrid coating is influenced by the content of Al 2 O 3 particles in the coating. As the Al 2 O 3 concentration in the coating was increased from 0% to 8%, WCA increased from 68 o to 165 o . Surface topography of the coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano-particles covered on the coating surface formed continuous film with greatly enhanced roughness, which was found to be responsible for the superhydrophobicity. The method is simple and cost effective and can be used for preparing self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating on large areas.

  4. Electrostatics, small particles, and laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The success of any Inertial Confinement Fusion system for the production of useful power depends critically on the production of suitable targets. This is true whether the arrangement is that proposed by Nuckolls et al. or some other arrangement. The target must have characteristics such as material composition, structure, and surface finish which are tailored to the laser pulse length, energy, peak and average power and pulse shape. To provide useful power on a continuous basis, it is likely that the repetition rate will be 1.0 to 10 per second. Thus, in a 24 hour running period 864,000 targets may be necessary and one must be placed at the focal point of the laser every tenth of a second. For economic operation it is necessary that the targets be produced at costs of less than $1.00 per target

  5. A nonlocal species concentration theory for diffusion and phase changes in electrode particles of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Kamlah, Marc

    2018-01-01

    A nonlocal species concentration theory for diffusion and phase changes is introduced from a nonlocal free energy density. It can be applied, say, to electrode materials of lithium ion batteries. This theory incorporates two second-order partial differential equations involving second-order spatial derivatives of species concentration and an additional variable called nonlocal species concentration. Nonlocal species concentration theory can be interpreted as an extension of the Cahn-Hilliard theory. In principle, nonlocal effects beyond an infinitesimal neighborhood are taken into account. In this theory, the nonlocal free energy density is split into the penalty energy density and the variance energy density. The thickness of the interface between two phases in phase segregated states of a material is controlled by a normalized penalty energy coefficient and a characteristic interface length scale. We implemented the theory in COMSOL Multiphysics^{circledR } for a spherically symmetric boundary value problem of lithium insertion into a Li_xMn_2O_4 cathode material particle of a lithium ion battery. The two above-mentioned material parameters controlling the interface are determined for Li_xMn_2O_4 , and the interface evolution is studied. Comparison to the Cahn-Hilliard theory shows that nonlocal species concentration theory is superior when simulating problems where the dimensions of the microstructure such as phase boundaries are of the same order of magnitude as the problem size. This is typically the case in nanosized particles of phase-separating electrode materials. For example, the nonlocality of nonlocal species concentration theory turns out to make the interface of the local concentration field thinner than in Cahn-Hilliard theory.

  6. Influence of the ambient humidity on the concentration of natural deposition-mode ice-nucleating particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports measurements of deposition-mode ice-nucleating particle (INP concentrations at ground level during the period July–December 2014 in Córdoba, Argentina. Ambient air was sampled into a cloud chamber where the INP concentration was measured at a temperature of −25 °C and a 15 % supersaturation over ice. Measurements were performed on days with different thermodynamic conditions, including rainy days. The effect of the relative humidity at ground level (RHamb on the INP concentration was analyzed. The number of INPs activated varied from 1 L−1 at RHamb of 25 % to 30 L−1 at RHamb of 90 %. In general, a linear trend between the INP concentration and the RHamb was found, suggesting that this variability must be related to the effectiveness of the aerosols acting as INPs. From the backward trajectories analysis, it was found that the link between INP concentration and RHamb is independent of the origin of the air masses. The role of biological INPs and nucleation occurring in pores and cavities was discussed as a possible mechanism to explain the increase of the INP concentration during high ambient relative humidity events. This work provides valuable measurements of deposition-mode INP concentrations from the Southern Hemisphere where INP data are sparse so far.

  7. Trends in size classified particle number concentration in subtropical Brisbane, Australia, based on a 5 year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, J. F.; Wraith, D.; Mengersen, K.; Morawska, L.

    Particle number size distribution data in the range from 0.015 to 0.630 μm were collected over a 5-year period in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia. Particle size distribution was summarised by total number concentration and number median diameter (NMD) as well as the number concentration of the 0.015-0.030 ( N15-30), 0.030-0.050 ( N30-50), 0.050-0.100 ( N50-100), 0.100-0.300 ( N100-300) and 0.300-0.630 ( N300-630) μm size classes. Morning (6:00-10:00) and afternoon (16:00-19:00) measurements, the former representing fresh traffic emissions (based on the local meteorological conditions) and the latter well-mixed emissions from the CBD, during weekdays were extracted and the respective monthly mean values were estimated for time series analysis. For all size fractions, average morning concentrations were about 1.5 higher than in the afternoon whereas NMD did not vary between the morning and afternoon. The trend and seasonal components were extracted through weighted linear regression models, using the monthly variance as weights. Only the morning measurements exhibited significant trends. During this time of the day, total particle number increased by 105.7% and the increase was greater for larger particles, resulting in a shift in NMD by 7.9%. Although no seasonal component was detected the evidence against it remained weak due to the limitations of the database.

  8. Factors affecting the electrostatic charge of ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorite, I.; Romero, J.; Fernandez, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of electrostatic charge in ceramic powders takes place when the particle surfaces enter in contact between them or with the containers. The accumulation of electrostatic charge is of relevance in ceramic powders in view of their insulating character and the risk of explosions during the material handling. In this work the main factors that affect the appearance of intrinsic charge and tribo-charge in ceramic powder have been studied. In ceramic powders of alumina it has been verified that the smallest particle sizes present an increase of the electrostatic charge of negative polarity. A correlation has been observed between the nature of the OH -surface groups and the electrostatic charge. The intrinsic charge and the tribocharge in ceramic powders can be diminished by compensating the surface groups that support the charge. The dry dispersion of nanoparticles on microparticles allows surface charge compensation with a noticeable modification of the powder agglomeration. (Author) 19 refs.

  9. An Electrostatic Precipitator System for the Martian Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Mackey, P. J.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M. R.; Phillips, J. R., III; Clements, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions to Mars will require the development of technologies for the utilization of the planet's own resources for the production of commodities. However, the Martian atmosphere contains large amounts of dust. The extraction of commodities from this atmosphere requires prior removal of this dust. We report on our development of an electrostatic precipitator able to collect Martian simulated dust particles in atmospheric conditions approaching those of Mars. Extensive experiments with an initial prototype in a simulated Martian atmosphere showed efficiencies of 99%. The design of a second prototype with aerosolized Martian simulated dust in a flow-through is described. Keywords: Space applications, electrostatic precipitator, particle control, particle charging

  10. Biological Effects of Osteoblast-Like Cells on Nanohydroxyapatite Particles at a Low Concentration Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells on nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA at the low concentration range (5–25 g/mL for 5 days was investigated. The results showed the viability and actin cytoskeleton of the cells descended with the increase of the concentration of n-HA, and the actin cytoskeleton of cells was depolymerised and became more disordered. Apoptotic rate of cells (1.85%, 1.99%, and 2.29% increased with the increase of n-HA concentration (5, 15, and 25 g/mL and become significantly higher than the control. Total intracellular protein content decreased with n-HA concentration increase, showing significant difference between 25 g/mL and the control, and no significant change of ALP activity was observed at the 5th day. The results revealed that the cell growth was inhibited by n-HA in a concentration-dependent manner, and the obvious biological effects of MG-63 cells on n-HA existed at the low concentration range from 5 to 25 g/mL.

  11. Influence of some atmospheric variables on the concentration and particle size distribution of sulfate in urban air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagman, J; Lee, Jr, R E; Axt, C J

    1967-01-01

    Variations in the particle size distribution and concentration of atmospheric sulfate during a week in each of four cities were assessed with regard to the influence of such factors as location, humidity, sulfur dioxide level and time of day. Average sulfate mass median equivalent diameters (MMD) in Cincinnati, Chicago and Fairfax (Ohio) were nearly the same (0.42 micron) despite large differences in sulfate concentration and heterodispersity. A higher MMD (0.66 micron) in downtown Philadelphia was at least partly attributable to the presence of dust generated by road construction near the sampling site. Sulfate MMD generally increased with increasing relative humidity, whereas sulfate concentration was more closely correlated with absolute humidity except when SO/sub 2/ levels exceeded 3pphm. Periodic variations in the sulfate parameters at the different locations were characterized by the lack of a consistent pattern and could not be explained on the basis of humidity changes alone.

  12. Elevated in-home sediment contaminant concentrations - the consequence of a particle settling-winnowing process from Hurricane Katrina floodwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Nicholas A; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Thibodeaux, Louis J

    2008-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected from two homes which were flooded in the wake of Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. The samples were analyzed for trace metals and semi-volatile organic compounds using techniques based on established EPA methods. The data showed higher concentrations of some metals and semi-volatile organic pollutants than reported in previous outdoor sampling events of soils and sediments. The Lake Pontchartrain sediments became resuspended during the hurricane, and this material subsequently was found in the residential areas of New Orleans following levee breaches. The clay and silt particles appear to be selectively deposited inside homes, and sediment contaminant concentrations are usually greatest within this fraction. Re-entry advisories based on outdoor sample concentration results may have under-predicted the exposure levels to homeowners and first responders. All contaminants found in the sediment sampled in this study have their origin in the sediments of Lake Pontchartrain and other localized sources.

  13. Stability of dispersions in polar organic media. I. Electrostatic stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooy, N. de; Bruyn, P.L. de; Overbeek, J.Th.G.

    Electrostatically stabilized sols of silver, silver iodide, α-goethite, and copper phthalocyanine in methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and acetone have been prepared and characterized. Coagulation concentrations with electrolytes of various charge numbers have been determined in water, in organic

  14. Combined wet electrostatic aerosol removal and energy recovery; Energigenvinding med samtidig fjernelse af sure komponenter og aerosoler fra roeggas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project, entitled 'Combined Wet Electrostatic Aerosol Removal and Energy Recovery', was to develop and test a low-cost process for removal of fine and ultrafine particles as well as acid gases and other pollutants from flue gases. The process is based on a combination of electrostatic precipitation and wet scrubbing in a single unit. This has several potential advantages compared to traditional bag filtering such as lower operational costs, energy recovery by condensation, elimination of fire risk, as well as the possibility of reducing emissions of acid gases and organic compounds in the scrubber section. Moreover, the electrostatic section could be retrofitted on existing wet scrubbers, thus enhancing their particulate removal efficiency significantly. A pilot-plant (approx. 1:10 of full scale, operated at about 60 kV) was constructed at the 2.5 MW straw-fired district heating plant of Hals. During straw firing a large number of submicron particles are generated that are not removed by the existing wet scrubber at Hals. The particle removal efficiency of the process was monitored on-line using SMPS equipment (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers). Special dilution probes were constructed due to a high moisture content of the gas and high particle number concentrations. Two complete SMPS equipments were operated simultaneously on the raw and clean gas side, respectively. The particle removal efficiency of the process relies on the presence of a strong electric field. The results obtained (up to 40% removal efficiency of particles below 0.8 {mu}m mobile diameter) indicate that the strength and stability of the field is insufficient. The reason for this is not exactly known, because loss of current may occur due to several factors such as particulate build-up on electrode and reactor surfaces, condensation of water on surfaces, variations in gas and particulate composition etc. The efforts were concentrated on the electrostatic section

  15. Electrostatic charge characteristics of jet nebulized aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Kumon, Michiko; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2010-06-01

    Liquid droplets can be spontaneously charged in the absence of applied electric fields by spraying. It has been shown by computational simulation that charges may influence particle deposition in the airways. The electrostatic properties of jet nebulized aerosols and their potential effects on lung deposition have hardly been studied. A modified electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was employed to characterize the aerosol charges generated from jet nebulized commercial products. The charge and size measurements were conducted at 50% RH and 22 degrees C with a modified ELPI. Ventolin, Bricanyl, and Atrovent were nebulized using PARI LC Plus jet nebulizers coupled to a DeVilbiss Pulmo-Aide compressor. The aerosols were sampled in 30-sec durations. The drug deposits on the impactor stages were assayed chemically using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The charges of nebulized deionized water, isotonic saline, and the three commercial products diluted with saline were also measured to analyze the contributions of the major nebule ingredients on charging. No mass assays were performed on these runs. All three commercial nebules generated net negative charges. The magnitude of the charges reduced over the period of nebulization. Ventolin and Bricanyl yielded similar charge profiles. Highly variable charges were produced from deionized water. On the other hand, nebulized saline reproducibly generated net positive charges. Diluted commercial nebules showed charge polarity inversion. The charge profiles of diluted salbutamol and terbutaline solutions resembled those of saline, while the charges from diluted ipratropium solutions fluctuated near neutrality. The charge profiles were shown to be influenced by the concentration and physicochemical properties of the drugs, as well as the history of nebulization. The drugs may have unique isoelectric concentrations in saline at which the nebulized droplets would carry near-zero charges. According to results from

  16. Different relationships between personal exposure and ambient concentration by particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guak, Sooyoung; Lee, Kiyoung

    2018-04-06

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations at monitoring stations were often used as an indicator of population exposure to PM in epidemiological studies. The correlation between personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PM varied because of diverse time-activity patterns. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 with minimal impact of time-activity pattern on personal exposure. Performance of the MicroPEM, v3.2 was evaluated by collocation with central ambient air monitors for PM 10 and PM 2.5 . A field technician repeatedly conducted measurement of 24 h personal exposures to PM 10 and PM 2.5 with a fixed time-activity pattern of office worker over 26 days in Seoul, Korea. The relationship between the MicroPEM and the ambient air monitor showed good linearity. Personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PM 2.5 were highly correlated with a fixed time-activity pattern compared with PM 10 . The finding implied a high infiltration rate of PM 2.5 and low infiltration rate of PM 10 . The relationship between personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was different for high level episodes. In the Asian dust episode, staying indoors could reduce personal exposure to PM 10 . However, personal exposure to PM 2.5 could not be reduced by staying indoors during the fine dust advisory episode.

  17. Turbulent Concentration of MM-Size Particles in the Protoplanetary Nebula: Scaled-Dependent Multiplier Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Hartlep, Thomas; Weston, B.; Estremera, Shariff Kareem

    2014-01-01

    The initial accretion of primitive bodies (asteroids and TNOs) from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Here we focus on the asteroids where constituent particle (read "chondrule") sizes are observationally known; similar arguments will hold for TNOs, but the constituent particles in those regions will be smaller, or will be fluffy aggregates, and are unobserved. Traditional growth-bysticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" [1] (or even a mm-cm-size barrier [2]) in turbulent nebulae, while nonturbulent nebulae form large asteroids too quickly to explain long spreads in formation times, or the dearth of melted asteroids [3]. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the meter size barrier, other obstacles are encountered through the 1-10km size range [4]. Another clue regarding planetesimal formation is an apparent 100km diameter peak in the pre-depletion, pre-erosion mass distribution of asteroids [5]; scenarios leading directly from independent nebula particulates to this size, which avoid the problematic m-km size range, could be called "leapfrog" scenarios [6-8]. The leapfrog scenario we have studied in detail involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in turbulence, which can under certain conditions shrink inexorably on 100-1000 orbit timescales and form 10-100km diameter sandpile planetesimals. The typical sizes of planetesimals and the rate of their formation [7,8] are determined by a statistical model with properties inferred from large numerical simulations of turbulence [9]. Nebula turbulence can be described by its Reynolds number Re = L/eta sup(4/3), where L = ETA alpha sup (1/2) the largest eddy scale, H is the nebula gas vertical scale height, and a the nebula turbulent viscosity parameter, and ? is the Kolmogorov or smallest scale in turbulence (typically about 1km), with eddy turnover time t?. In the nebula, Re is far larger than any numerical simulation can

  18. Contribution of road traffic to ambient fine particle concentrations (PM{sub 10}) in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueglin, Ch.; Devos, W.; Gehrig, R.; Hofer, P.; Kobler, J. [Swiss Federal Laboratoires for Materials Testing and Research, EMPA, Dubendorf (Switzerland); Stahel, W.A. [Seminar for Statistics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Monn, Ch. [Institute for Hygiene and Applied Physiology, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    A multivariate receptor model was applied to estimate the contribution of road traffic to ambient levels of fine particles (PM{sub 10}) at different locations in Switzerland. At two roadside sites with heavy local traffic, the road traffic was found to account for 46% and 64% of PM{sub 10}. At an urban background site, the estimated average road traffic contribution was 34%, whereas a slightly higher value was obtained at a suburban site (36%). This results are in good agreement with the findings of a recent study, where a conceptually different approach (dispersion modelling) was applied. (authors)

  19. TIARA electrostatic accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Satoshi; Takada, Isao; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Uno, Sadanori; Ohkoshi, Kiyonori; Nakajima, Yoshinori; Saitoh, Yuichi; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    1996-07-01

    In order to promote the Advanced Radiation Technology Project, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute constructed TIARA facility composed of four ion accelerators at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment for the period from 1988 to 1993. A 3MV tandem accelerator and an AVF cycrotron were completed in 1991 as the first phase of the construction, and a 3MV single-ended accelerator and a 400kV ion implanter were completed in 1993 as the second phase. Three electrostatic accelerators, the tandem, the single-ended and the implanter, were installed in the Multiple-beam facility of TIARA and have been operated for various experiments with using single, dual and triple beams without any serious trouble. This report describes the constructive works, machine performances, control systems, safety systems and accessory equipments of the electrostatic accelerators. (author)

  20. IAE pulsed electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.P.; Ganzhelyuk, M.L.; Kozlov, L.D.; Koltypin, E.A.; Molchanov, Yu.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The modernized pulse electrostatic accelerator using the klystron ion grouping and the beam interruption system prior to acceleration is described. The accelerator is modernized in order to improve parameters of a current pulse and to decrease the background in the measurement room. The ion beam of needed dimensions is obtained with the help of a high-frequency source and a beam grouping and deflection system. The general view of the beam grouping and deflection system is shown. The ion beam forming process is considered in detail. The modernized electrostatic accelerator permits to obtain a pulse current with a pulse length of 1.5 ns and an amplitude of 1.5 - 2 μA. With the repetition frequency of 2 MHz, the average target current is about 6 μA

  1. Method of electrostatic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.

    1975-01-01

    Electrostatic filtration of secondary ions of mass m in a given mass ratio with a primary ion of mass M which has formed the secondary ions by fission is carried out by a method which consists in forming a singly-charged primary ion of the substance having a molecular mass M and extracting the ion at a voltage V 1 with respect to ground. The primary ion crosses a potential barrier V 2 , in producing the dissociation of the ion into at least two fragments of secondary ions and in extracting the fragment ion of mass m at a voltage V 2 . Filtration is carried out in an electrostatic analyzer through which only the ions of energy eV'' are permitted to pass, detecting the ions which have been filtered. The mass m of the ions is such that (M/m) = (V 1 - V 2 )/(V'' - V 2 )

  2. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass–coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow. (paper)

  3. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Chao

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass-coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow.

  4. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Area, electrostatic septa in long straight section 2 and 6 precede the magnetic septa. The 2 electrode plates, visible at the entrance to the septum, establish a vertical electrical field to remove the ions created by the circulating beam in the residual gas. See 7801286 for such a septum in its tank, and 7501201 for a detailed view of the wire suspension. See also 7501120X.

  5. A cosmic-ray nuclear event with an anomalously strong concentration of energy and particles in the central region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.M.; Arata, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1986-01-01

    A cosmic-ray induced nuclear event detected in the emulsion chamber is described. The event consists of 217 shower cores with ΣEγ = 1,275 TeV. In log scale, energy and particles are emitted most densely at the small lateral distance corresponding to 0.5 mm; 77 % of the total energy and 61 % of the total multiplicity are inside the radius of 0.65 cm. The shower cores in the central region show exponential-type energy distribution and non-isotropic azimuthal distribution. This event indicates a possibility that phenomena of large transverse momentum could happen to produce a strong concentration of energy and particles in the very forward direction. (Authors) [pt

  6. Elevated sodium chloride concentrations enhance the bystander effects induced by low dose alpha-particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; Zhu Lingyan; Jiang Erkang; Wang Jun; Chen Shaopeng; Bao Linzhi; Zhao Ye; Xu An; Yu Zengliang; Wu Lijun

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that high NaCl can be genotoxic, either alone or combined with irradiation. However, little is known about the relationship between environmental NaCl at elevated conditions and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). RIBE, which has been considered as non-targeted bystander responses, has been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. In the present study, RIBE under the elevated NaCl culture condition was assessed in AG 1522 cells by both the induction of γ-H2AX, a reliable marker of DNA double-strand break (DSB) for the early process ( G -methyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, the induced fraction of foci-positive cells was effectively inhibited both in 0.2 cGy α-particle irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions under either normal or elevated NaCl conditions. These results suggested that the cultures with elevated NaCl medium magnified the damage effects induced by the low dose α-particle irradiation and nitric oxide generated by irradiation was also very important in this process

  7. Concentration and vertical flux of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in sinking particles from two sites in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Honda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At two stations in the western North Pacific, K2 in the subarctic gyre and S1 in the subtropical gyre, time-series sediment traps were collecting sinking particles when the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1 accident occurred on 11 March 2011. Radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs derived from the FNPP1 accident was detected in sinking particles collected at 500 m in late March 2011 and at 4810 m in early April 2011 at both stations. The sinking velocity of 134Cs and 137Cs was estimated to be 22 to 71 m day−1 between the surface and 500 m and >180 m day−1 between 500 m and 4810 m. 137Cs concentrations varied from 0.14 to 0.25 Bq g−1 dry weight. These values are higher than those of surface seawater, suspended particles, and zooplankton collected in April 2011. Although the radiocesium may have been adsorbed onto or incorporated into clay minerals, correlations between 134Cs and lithogenic material were not always significant; therefore, the form of the cesium associated with the sinking particles is still an open question. The total 137Cs inventory by late June at K2 and by late July at S1 was 0.5 to 1.7 Bq m−2 at both depths. Compared with 137Cs input from both stations by April 2011, estimated from the surface 137Cs concentration and mixed-layer depth and by assuming that the observed 137Cs flux was constant throughout the year, the estimated removal rate of 137Cs from the upper layer (residence time in the upper layer was 0.3 to 1.5% yr−1 (68 to 312 yr. The estimated removal rates and residence times are comparable to previously reported values after the Chernobyl accident (removal rate: 0.2–1%, residence time: 130–390 yr.

  8. Luminescence study on Eu3+ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles: particle size, concentration and core-shell formation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L Robindro; Ningthoujam, R S; Sudarsan, V; Srivastava, Iti; Singh, S Dorendrajit; Dey, G K; Kulshreshtha, S K

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles of Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 (core) and Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 covered with Y 2 O 3 shell (core-shell) are prepared by urea hydrolysis for 3 h in ethylene glycol medium at a relatively low temperature of 140 deg. C, followed by heating at 500 and 900 deg. C. Particle sizes determined from x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies are 11 and 18 nm for 500 and 900 deg. C heated samples respectively. Based on the luminescence studies of 500 and 900 deg. C heated samples, it is confirmed that there is no particle size effect on the peak positions of Eu 3+ emission, and optimum luminescence intensity is observed from the nanoparticles with a Eu 3+ concentration of 4-5 at.%. A luminescence study establishes that the Eu 3+ environment in amorphous Y (OH) 3 is different from that in crystalline Y 2 O 3 . For a fixed concentration of Eu 3+ doping, there is a reduction in Eu 3+ emission intensity for core-shell nanoparticles compared to that of core nanoparticles, and this has been attributed to the concentration dilution effect. Energy transfer from the host to Eu 3+ increases with increase of crystallinity

  9. Influence of dispersed particles on small and large deformation properties of concentrated caseinate composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manski, J.M.; Kretzers, I.M.J.; Brenk, van S.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrated sodium caseinate composites (30% w/w in water), which contained either dispersed palm fat or glass spheres varying in size and surface properties were prepared in a Brabender Do-Corder kneader. The influence of the dispersed phase on the structural properties of the sodium caseinate

  10. Concentrations and compositions of colloidal particles in groundwater near the ICPP, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, M.; McCurry, M.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of colloidal material is being investigated in groundwater near the ICPP to determine whether the concentrations and chemical compositions are suitable to have an impact on the transport of Sr-90. Colloids are proposed as a viable transport mechanism, and may have an influence on the chemical trends observed in three wells near the ICPP. Ultrafiltration of groundwater samples has been performed on difFerent intervals in USGS wells 45, 46, and Site 14, has provided filtrate samples, for analyses by ICP-MS, and filters for analyses by SEM/EDS. Preliminary results indicate that concentrations of colloids are from 2.1-0.8 ppm for the >0.45 μm size fraction, and 2.3-9.8 ppm for the <0.45 μm size fractions. Compositions consist of calcite, silicic acid, ferrihydrite, clay, and possibly dolomite. Calcium was shown to have the largest contribution from both EDS and ICP-MS. Magnesium and silicon were also found to filter out in large concentrations. Iron and aluminum are minor constituents of the colloidal mass and contain concentrations of <10ppb and <1ppb, respectively. These results indicate that if colloids are going to have a major impact on contaminant migration then the coprecipitation of Sr-90 with calcite and dolomite would have to be a sorption mechanism. Sorption onto Fe and Al colloids probably does not have a major impact because of the low concentrations. Clay colloids were noted to be relatively abundant and may also have an impact on Sr-90 migration, due to the exchange of Sr with other cations in the clay structure. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Brominated flame retardants in the urban atmosphere of Northeast China: Concentrations, temperature dependence and gas-particle partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Hong; Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Ma, Wan-Li, E-mail: mawanli002@163.com; Li, Yi-Fan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com

    2014-09-01

    57 pairs of air samples (gas and particle phases) were collected using a high volume air sampler in a typical city of Northeast China. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, including BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, 183, and 209) and 9 alternative BFRs (p-TBX, PBBZ, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, HBBZ, γ-HBCD, BTBPE, and DBDPE) were analyzed. The annual average total concentrations of the 13 PBDEs and the 9 alternative BFRs were 69 pg/m{sup 3} and 180 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively. BDE 209 and γ-HBCD were the dominant congeners, according to the one-year study. The partial pressure of BFRs in the gas phase was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature, except for BDE 85, γ-HBCD and DBDPE, indicating the important influence of ambient temperature on the behavior of BFRs in the atmosphere. It was found that the gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logK{sub p}) for most low molecular weight BFRs were highly temperature dependent as well. Gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logK{sub p}) also correlated with the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logP{sub L}{sup o}). Our results indicated that absorption into organic matter is the main control mechanism for the gas–particle partitioning of atmospheric PBDEs. - Highlights: • Both PBDEs and alternative BFRs were analyzed in the atmosphere of Northeast China. • Partial pressure of BFRs was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature. • A strong temperature dependence of gas-particle partitioning was found. • Absorption into organic matter was the control mechanism for G-P partitioning.

  12. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry; Williams, Scott; McCoy, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA gripper pad surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and

  13. Structural state diagram of concentrated suspensions of jammed soft particles in oscillatory shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabaz, Fardin; Cloitre, Michel; Bonnecaze, Roger T.

    2018-03-01

    In a recent study [Khabaz et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093301 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093301], we showed that jammed soft particle glasses (SPGs) crystallize and order in steady shear flow. Here we investigate the rheology and microstructures of these suspensions in oscillatory shear flow using particle-dynamics simulations. The microstructures in both types of flows are similar, but their evolutions are very different. In both cases the monodisperse and polydisperse suspensions form crystalline and layered structures, respectively, at high shear rates. The crystals obtained in the oscillatory shear flow show fewer defects compared to those in the steady shear. SPGs remain glassy for maximum oscillatory strains less than about the yield strain of the material. For maximum strains greater than the yield strain, microstructural and rheological transitions occur for SPGs. Polydisperse SPGs rearrange into a layered structure parallel to the flow-vorticity plane for sufficiently high maximum shear rates and maximum strains about 10 times greater than the yield strain. Monodisperse suspensions form a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure when the maximum shear rate is low and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure when the maximum shear rate is high. In steady shear, the transition from a glassy state to a layered one for polydisperse suspensions included a significant induction strain before the transformation. In oscillatory shear, the transformation begins to occur immediately and with different microstructural changes. A state diagram for suspensions in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow is found to be in close but not exact agreement with the state diagram for steady shear flow. For more modest amplitudes of around one to five times the yield strain, there is a transition from a glassy structure to FCC and HCP crystals, at low and high frequencies, respectively, for monodisperse suspensions. At moderate frequencies, the transition is from glassy to HCP via

  14. New Small LWR Core Designs using Particle Burnable Poisons for Low Boron Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ho Seong; Hwang, Dae Hee; Hong, Ser Gi

    2015-01-01

    The soluble boron has two major important roles in commercial PWR operations : 1) the control of the long-term reactivity to maintain criticality under normal operation, and 2) the shutdown of the reactor under accidents. However, the removal of the soluble boron gives several advantages in SMRs (Small Modular Reactor). These advantages resulted from the elimination of soluble boron include the significant simplification of nuclear power plant through the removal of pipes, pumps, and purification systems. Also, the use of soluble boron mitigates corrosion problems on the primary coolant loop. Furthermore, the soluble boron-free operation can remove an inadvertent boron dilution accident (BDA) which can lead to a significant insertion of positive reactivity. From the viewpoint of core physics, the removal of soluble boron or reduction of soluble boron concentration makes the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) more negative. From the core design studies using new fuel assemblies, it is shown that the cores have very low critical soluble boron concentrations less than 500ppm, low peaking factors within the design targets, strong negative MTCs over cycles, and large enough shutdown margins both at BOC and EOC. However, the present cores have relatively low average discharge burnups of ∼ 30MWD/kg leading to low fuel economy because the cores use lots of non-fuel burnable poison rods to achieve very low critical boron concentrations. So, in the future, we will perform the trade-off study between the fuel discharge burnup and the boron concentrations by changing fuel assembly design and the core loading pattern

  15. New Small LWR Core Designs using Particle Burnable Poisons for Low Boron Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ho Seong; Hwang, Dae Hee; Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The soluble boron has two major important roles in commercial PWR operations : 1) the control of the long-term reactivity to maintain criticality under normal operation, and 2) the shutdown of the reactor under accidents. However, the removal of the soluble boron gives several advantages in SMRs (Small Modular Reactor). These advantages resulted from the elimination of soluble boron include the significant simplification of nuclear power plant through the removal of pipes, pumps, and purification systems. Also, the use of soluble boron mitigates corrosion problems on the primary coolant loop. Furthermore, the soluble boron-free operation can remove an inadvertent boron dilution accident (BDA) which can lead to a significant insertion of positive reactivity. From the viewpoint of core physics, the removal of soluble boron or reduction of soluble boron concentration makes the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) more negative. From the core design studies using new fuel assemblies, it is shown that the cores have very low critical soluble boron concentrations less than 500ppm, low peaking factors within the design targets, strong negative MTCs over cycles, and large enough shutdown margins both at BOC and EOC. However, the present cores have relatively low average discharge burnups of ∼ 30MWD/kg leading to low fuel economy because the cores use lots of non-fuel burnable poison rods to achieve very low critical boron concentrations. So, in the future, we will perform the trade-off study between the fuel discharge burnup and the boron concentrations by changing fuel assembly design and the core loading pattern.

  16. Round-shape gold nanoparticles: effect of particle size and concentration on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siegel, J.; Záruba, K.; Švorčík, V.; Kroumanová, Kristýna; Burketová, Lenka; Martinec, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, APR 10 (2018), č. článku 95. ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-10907S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Concentration * Gold nanoparticles * Root growth * Size Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2016

  17. The effect of a concentration-dependent viscosity on particle transport in a channel flow with porous walls

    KAUST Repository

    Herterich, James G.

    2014-02-02

    The transport of a dilute suspension of particles through a channel with porous walls, accounting for the concentration dependence of the viscosity, is analyzed. In particular, we study two cases of fluid permeation through the porous channel walls: (1) at a constant flux and (2) dependent on the pressure drop across the wall. We also consider the effect of mixing the suspension first compared with point injection by considering inlet concentration distributions of different widths. We find that a pessimal inlet distribution width exists that maximizes the required hydrodynamic pressure for a constant fluid influx. The effect of an external hydrodynamic pressure, to compensate for the reduced transmembrane pressure difference due to osmotic pressure, is investigated. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Evaluation of indoor aerosol control devices and their effects on radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sextro, R.G.; Offerman, F.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.; Yater, J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven portable air cleaing devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles, and their concomitant effects on radon progeny concentrations have been investigated. Of the devices we examined the electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters had significant particle removal rates, while the particle removal rates for several small panel-filters, an ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans were found to be negligible. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in reducing radon progeny concentrations. Futhermore, at the low particle concentrations, plateout of the unattached radon progeny was found to be a significant removal mechanism. The overall removal rates due to deposition of attached and unattached progeny have been estimated from these data, and the equilibrium factors for total and unattached progeny concentrations have been calculated as a function of particle concentration. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of indoor aerosol control devices and their effects on radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sextro, R.G.; Offermann, F.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles, and their concomitant effects on radon progeny concentrations have been investigated. Of the devices we examined the electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters had significant particle removal rates, while the particle removal rates for several small panel-filters, an ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans were found to be negligible. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in reducing radon progeny concentrations. Furthermore, at the low particle concentrations, plateout of the unattached radon progeny was found to be a significant removal mechanism. The overall removal rates due to deposition of attached and unattached progeny have been estimated from these data, and the equilibrium factors for total and unattached progeny concentrations have been calculated as a function of particle concentration. 7 references, 2 figures

  20. Electrostatic assembly of CTAB-capped silver nanoparticles along predefined λ-DNA template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gang; Wang Li; Zhou Hualan; Liu Zhiguo; Song Yonghai; Li Zhuang

    2005-01-01

    Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-capped positively-charged silver nanoparticles synthesized in water-ethanol system was electrostatic assembled on predefined aligned λ-DNA template. Silver nanowire can be obtained by changing the reaction time and the particles concentration. In our work, the length of the silver nanowire obtained is about 10 μm, and the dimension of the wires is about 20 nm. AFM data reveal that the assembly of CTAB-capped silver nanoparticles on DNA is ordered, but there is space between two particles absorbed on the DNA template. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to characterize the linear silver clusters, which provides an additional proof that the silver particles were assembled onto DNA template with fine order

  1. Atmospheric concentration characteristics and gas-particle partitioning of PCBs in a rural area of eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 14 successive daytime and nighttime air samples collected from Melpitz, a rural site in eastern Germany. The average total concentration of PCBs was 110+/-80pgm -3 and they were predominately present in the gas phase (∼95%). Composition of individual congeners closely resembled those of Clophen A30 and Aroclor 1232. Partial vapor pressures of PCBs were well correlated with temperature and the steep slopes obtained from Clausius-Clapeyron plots (-4500 to -8000) indicated that evaporation from adjacent land surfaces still controls the atmospheric levels of these pollutants. Particle-gas partitioning coefficients (K P ) of PCBs were well correlated with the respective sub-cooled vapor pressures (P L o ), but the slopes obtained from logK P versus logP L o plots (-0.16 to -0.59) deviated significantly from the expected value of -1. Overall, gas-particle partitioning of PCBs was better simulated by Junge-Pankow than octanol/air partition coefficient-based model

  2. Electrostatic Dust Detector with Improved Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, D.P.; Skinner, C.H.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Methods to measure the inventory of dust particles and to remove dust if it approaches safety limits will be required in next-step tokamaks such as ITER. An electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces, biased to 30 or 50 V, has been developed for the detection of dust on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Gaining operational experience of dust detection on surfaces in tokamaks is important, however the level of dust generated in contemporary short-pulse tokamaks is comparatively low and high sensitivity is necessary to measure dust on a shot-by-shot basis. We report on modifications in the detection electronics that have increased the sensitivity of the electrostatic dust detector by a factor of up to 120, - a level suitable for measurements on contemporary tokamaks.

  3. 10Be concentrations and the long-term fate of particle-reactive nuclides in five soil profiles from California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, M.C.; Krishnaswami, S.; Thomas, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration-depth profiles of cosmic-ray-produced 10 Be(tsub(1/2)=1.5 m.y.) have been measured by accelerator-mass spectrometry in five soil profiles. These measurements were made in an effort (1) to understand the retentivity of soil surfaces for particle-reactive tracers depositing from the atmosphere on time scales of 10 4 -10 6 years, and (2) to explore the application of 10 Be as a chronometer of geomorphic surface age. The profiles sampled are from two wave-cut terraces located near Mendocino, California, a table mountain top and an alluvial fan, both located near Friant, California. The ages of the Mendocino terraces are inferred to be (1-5) x 10 5 years based on amino-stratigraphic correlations and models of terrace evolution; those of the table mountain top and alluvial fan are 9.5 x 10 6 years and 6.0 x 10 5 years, respectively, based on K-Ar analyses. All the surfaces sampled are nearly flat and exhibit few erosional features. In addition to 10 Be we measured 210 Pb, sup(239,) 240 Pu and 7 Be to ascertain the retentivity of the soils for particle-reactive nuclides and to assess the present-day delivery rate of nuclides from the atmosphere. The 7 Be inventory is 4.0 dpm/cm 2 similar to those observed at nearby locations. The inventories of 210 Pb and Pu isotopes conform to those predicted from model calculations and suggest that the soil surfaces sampled retain the entire burden of particle-reactive nuclides delivered to them over short time scales, approx.= 100 years. The 10 Be concentrations in the sample range between (0.2 and 7) x 10 8 atoms/g soil and show strong correlations with leachable Fe and/or Al. (orig./WL)

  4. Associations of serum LDL particle concentration with carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Maryam; Miura, Katsuyuki; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Abbott, Robert D; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadota, Aya; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Torii, Sayuki; Miyagawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Sentaro; Takashima, Naoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Sekikawa, Akira; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Horie, Minoru; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein particle (LDL-P) has recently been found to be a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Whether LDL-P is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of LDL-C, as well as other lipid measures has not been fully examined. We aimed to analyze LDL-P associations with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. We examined 870 Japanese men randomly selected from Kusatsu City, Shiga, Japan, aged 40-79 years from 2006-2008, free of clinical CVD and not using lipid-lowering medication. Cross-sectional associations of lipid measures with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and coronary artery calcification (CAC; >0 Agatston score) were examined. LDL-P was significantly positively associated with cIMT and maintained this association after adjustments for LDL-C and other lipid measures. Although these lipid measures were positively associated with cIMT, model adjustment for LDL-P removed any significant relationships. Higher LDL-P was associated with a significantly higher odds ratio of CAC and further adjustment for LDL-C did not affect this relationship. In contrast, the LDL-C association with CAC was no longer significant after adjustment for LDL-P. Other lipid measures attenuated associations of LDL-P with CAC. Likewise, associations of these measures with CAC were attenuated when model adjustments for LDL-P were made. In a community-based sample of Japanese men, free of clinical CVD, LDL-P was a robust marker for subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of LDL-C and other lipid measures. Associations of LDL-C and other lipid measures with either cIMT or CAC were generally not independent of LDL-P. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrostatic accelerator dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, C.M.

    1989-05-01

    High voltage insulation problems in electrostatic accelerators are discussed. The aim of the analysis is to broaden the knowledge, highlight the characteristics of insulation technology and design strategies to improve use. The basic geometry of the insulation in accelerators is considered. A detailed description of each of the insulation regions is provided. The gas gap insulation of the terminal voltage is found to be sensitive to regions of high electric stress. In order to obtain satisfactory performance from solid support insulation, the attention is focused on the electric stress value and distribution. Potential subjects for discussion and further investigations are given

  6. Electrostatically Driven Nanoballoon Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Hamid Reza; Yan, Aiming; Coh, Sinisa; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Dunn, Gabriel; Wågberg, Thomas; Louie, Steven G; Cohen, Marvin L; Zettl, Alex

    2016-11-09

    We demonstrate an inflatable nanoballoon actuator based on geometrical transitions between the inflated (cylindrical) and collapsed (flattened) forms of a carbon nanotube. In situ transmission electron microscopy experiments employing a nanoelectromechanical manipulator show that a collapsed carbon nanotube can be reinflated by electrically charging the nanotube, thus realizing an electrostatically driven nanoballoon actuator. We find that the tube actuator can be reliably cycled with only modest control voltages (few volts) with no apparent wear or fatigue. A complementary theoretical analysis identifies critical parameters for nanotube nanoballoon actuation.

  7. Competing processes of whistler and electrostatic instabilities in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Y.; Matsumoto, H.

    1987-01-01

    Competing processes of whistler mode and electrostatic mode instabilities induced by an electron beam are studied by a linear growth rate analysis and by an electromagnetic particle simulation. In addition to a background cold plasma we assumed an electron beam drifting along a static magnetic field. We studied excitation of whistler and electrostatic mode waves in the direction of the static magnetic field. We first calculated linear growth rates for the whistler mode and electrostatic mode instabilities, assuming various possible parameters in the equatorial magnetosphere. We found that the growth rate for the electrostatic instability is always larger than that of the whistler mode instability. A short simulation run with a monoenergetic electron beam demonstrates that a monoenergetic beam can hardly give energy to whistler mode waves as a result of competition with faster growing electrostatic waves, because the beam electrons are trapped and diffused by the electrostatic waves, and hence the growth rates for whistler mode waves become very small. A long simulation run starting with a warm electron beam demonstrates that whistler mode waves are excited in spite of the small growth rates and the coexisting quasi-linear electrostatic diffusion process

  8. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  9. Electrostatic Force Microscopy of Self Assembled Peptide Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Dimaki, Maria; Pantagos, Spyros P.

    2011-01-01

    In this report electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study different peptide self-assembled structures, such as tubes and particles. It is shown that not only geometrical information can be obtained using EFM, but also information about the composition of different structures. In partic......In this report electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study different peptide self-assembled structures, such as tubes and particles. It is shown that not only geometrical information can be obtained using EFM, but also information about the composition of different structures...

  10. Simultaneous measurement of local particle movement, solids concentrations and bubble properties in fluidized bed reactors using a novel fiber optical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayebi, Davoud

    1999-12-31

    This thesis develops a new method for simultaneous measurements of local flow properties in highly concentrated multiphase flow systems such as gas-solid fluidized bed reactors. The method is based on fiber optical technique and tracer particles. A particle present in the measuring volume in front of the probe is marked with a fluorescent dye. A light source illuminates the particles and the detecting fibres receive reflected light from uncoated particles and fluorescent light from the tracer particle. Using optical filters, the fluorescent light can be distinguished and together with a small fraction of background light from uncoated particles can be used for determination of local flow properties. Using this method, one can simultaneously measure the local movement of a single tracer particle, local bubble properties and the local solids volume fractions in different positions in the bed. The method is independent of the physical properties of the tracer particles. It is also independent of the local solids concentrations in the range of 0 to 60 vol.-%, but is mainly designed for highly concentrated flow systems. A computer programme that uses good signals from at least three sensors simultaneously to calculate the tracer particle velocity in two dimensions have been developed. It also calculates the bubble properties and local solids volume fractions from the same time series. 251 refs., 150 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of local particle movement, solids concentrations and bubble properties in fluidized bed reactors using a novel fiber optical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayebi, Davoud

    1998-12-31

    This thesis develops a new method for simultaneous measurements of local flow properties in highly concentrated multiphase flow systems such as gas-solid fluidized bed reactors. The method is based on fiber optical technique and tracer particles. A particle present in the measuring volume in front of the probe is marked with a fluorescent dye. A light source illuminates the particles and the detecting fibres receive reflected light from uncoated particles and fluorescent light from the tracer particle. Using optical filters, the fluorescent light can be distinguished and together with a small fraction of background light from uncoated particles can be used for determination of local flow properties. Using this method, one can simultaneously measure the local movement of a single tracer particle, local bubble properties and the local solids volume fractions in different positions in the bed. The method is independent of the physical properties of the tracer particles. It is also independent of the local solids concentrations in the range of 0 to 60 vol.-%, but is mainly designed for highly concentrated flow systems. A computer programme that uses good signals from at least three sensors simultaneously to calculate the tracer particle velocity in two dimensions have been developed. It also calculates the bubble properties and local solids volume fractions from the same time series. 251 refs., 150 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Engineering Design of Electrostatic Quadrupole for ISOL Beam Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the ISOL system, the RI beam should be transported from the target ion source to post accelerator through various analyzing and charge-breeding systems such as PS (pre-seperator), HRMS (High Resolution Mass Seperator), RF cooler and A/q separator. A reference particle for the beam dynamics calculation is 132 Sn 1+ . After charge breeder system, the charge state is boosted from +1 to +19 with ECR charge breeder and to +33 with EBIS charge breeder. Because the beam energy is as low as 50 keV, the electrostatic optics was adopted rather than the magnetic optics. The electrostatic quadrupole triplets were used for the beam focusing and the electrostatic bender is used for 90-degree bending. In this paper, the design procedure and engineering design of the electrostatic quadrupole are presented

  13. The Contribution of Surface Potential to Diverse Problems in Electrostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horenstein, M

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatics spans many different subject areas. Some comprise “good electrostatics,” where charge is used for desirable purposes. Such areas include industrial manufacturing, electrophotography, surface modification, precipitators, aerosol control, and MEMS. Other areas comprise “bad electrostatics,” where charge is undesirable. Such areas include hazardous discharges, ESD, health effects, nuisance triboelectrification, particle contamination, and lightning. Conference proceedings such as this one inevitably include papers grouped around these topics. One common thread throughout is the surface potential developed when charge resides on an insulator surface. Often, the charged insulator will be in intimate contact with a ground plane. At other times, the charged insulator will be isolated. In either case, the resulting surface potential is important to such processes as propagating brush discharges, charge along a moving web, electrostatic biasing effects in MEMS, non-contacting voltmeters, field-effect transistor sensors, and the maximum possible charge on a woven fabric. (paper)

  14. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Morrison, P. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States); O' Neil, T. M. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  16. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,ω R ) plane (ω R being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known “thumb curve” for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  17. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    The application of electric propulsion to communications satellites, however, has been limited to the use of hydrazine thrusters with electric heaters for thrust and specific impulse augmentation. These electrothermal thrusters operate at specific impulse levels of approximately 300 s with heater powers of about 500 W. Low power arcjets (1-3 kW) are currently being investigated as a way to increase specific impulse levels to approximately 500 s. Ion propulsion systems can easily produce specific impulses of 3000 s or greater, but have yet to be applied to communications satellites. The reasons most often given for not using ion propulsion systems are their high level of overall complexity, low thrust with long burn times, and the difficulty of integrating the propulsion system into existing commercial spacecraft busses. The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass.

  18. Comparisons of Traffic-Related Ultrafine Particle Number Concentrations Measured in Two Urban Areas by Central, Residential, and Mobile Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew C; Hudda, Neelakshi; Naumova, Elena N; Levy, Jonathan I; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L

    2017-11-01

    Traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFP; monitoring strategies upon which the models are based have varied between studies. Our study compares particle number concentrations (PNC; a proxy for UFP) measured by three different monitoring approaches (central-site, short-term residential-site, and mobile on-road monitoring) in two study areas in metropolitan Boston (MA, USA). Our objectives were to quantify ambient PNC differences between the three monitoring platforms, compare the temporal patterns and the spatial heterogeneity of PNC between the monitoring platforms, and identify factors that affect correlations across the platforms. We collected >12,000 hours of measurements at the central sites, 1,000 hours of measurements at each of 20 residential sites in the two study areas, and >120 hours of mobile measurements over the course of ~1 year in each study area. Our results show differences between the monitoring strategies: mean one-minute PNC on-roads were higher (64,000 and 32,000 particles/cm 3 in Boston and Chelsea, respectively) compared to central-site measurements (23,000 and 19,000 particles/cm 3 ) and both were higher than at residences (14,000 and 15,000 particles/cm 3 ). Temporal correlations and spatial heterogeneity also differed between the platforms. Temporal correlations were generally highest between central and residential sites, and lowest between central-site and on-road measurements. We observed the greatest spatial heterogeneity across monitoring platforms during the morning rush hours (06:00-09:00) and the lowest during the overnight hours (18:00-06:00). Longer averaging times (days and hours vs. minutes) increased temporal correlations (Pearson correlations were 0.69 and 0.60 vs. 0.39 in Boston; 0.71 and 0.61 vs. 0.45 in Chelsea) and reduced spatial heterogeneity (coefficients of divergence were 0.24 and 0.29 vs. 0.33 in Boston; 0.20 and 0.27 vs. 0.31 in Chelsea). Our results suggest that combining stationary and mobile monitoring may lead

  19. Comparisons of traffic-related ultrafine particle number concentrations measured in two urban areas by central, residential, and mobile monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew C.; Hudda, Neelakshi; Naumova, Elena N.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2017-11-01

    Traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFP; strategies upon which the models are based have varied between studies. Our study compares particle number concentrations (PNC; a proxy for UFP) measured by three different monitoring approaches (central-site, short-term residential-site, and mobile on-road monitoring) in two study areas in metropolitan Boston (MA, USA). Our objectives were to quantify ambient PNC differences between the three monitoring platforms, compare the temporal patterns and the spatial heterogeneity of PNC between the monitoring platforms, and identify factors that affect correlations across the platforms. We collected >12,000 h of measurements at the central sites, 1000 h of measurements at each of 20 residential sites in the two study areas, and >120 h of mobile measurements over the course of ∼1 year in each study area. Our results show differences between the monitoring strategies: mean 1 min PNC on-roads were higher (64,000 and 32,000 particles/cm3 in Boston and Chelsea, respectively) compared to central-site measurements (23,000 and 19,000 particles/cm3) and both were higher than at residences (14,000 and 15,000 particles/cm3). Temporal correlations and spatial heterogeneity also differed between the platforms. Temporal correlations were generally highest between central and residential sites, and lowest between central-site and on-road measurements. We observed the greatest spatial heterogeneity across monitoring platforms during the morning rush hours (06:00-09:00) and the lowest during the overnight hours (18:00-06:00). Longer averaging times (days and hours vs. minutes) increased temporal correlations (Pearson correlations were 0.69 and 0.60 vs. 0.39 in Boston; 0.71 and 0.61 vs. 0.45 in Chelsea) and reduced spatial heterogeneity (coefficients of divergence were 0.24 and 0.29 vs. 0.33 in Boston; 0.20 and 0.27 vs. 0.31 in Chelsea). Our results suggest that combining stationary and mobile monitoring may lead to improved characterization of

  20. Study of different 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) concentration on TiO2 particles based IDE for cervical cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raqeema, S.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.; Nadzirah, Sh.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    HPV that also called Human Papillomaviruses is the major cause of the cervical cancer. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are the two types of HPV are the most HPV-associated cancers and responsible as a high-risk HPV. Cervical cancer taken about 70 percent of all cases due HPV infections. Cervical malignancy for the most part development on a lady's cervix and its was developed slowly as cancer disease. TiO2 particles give better performance and low cost of the biosensor. The used of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) will be more efficient for DNA nanochip. APTES used as absorption reaction to immobilize organic biomolecules on the inorganic surface. Besides, APTES give better functionalization of the adsorption mechanism on IDE. The surface functionalized for immobilizing the DNA, which is the combination of the DNA probe and the HPV target produce high sensitivity andfast detection of the IDE. The Current-Voltage (IV) characteristic proved the sensitivity of the DNA nanochip increase as the concentration varied from 0% concentration to 24% of APTES concentration.

  1. Nature of Atmospheric Aerosols over the Desert Areas in the Asian Continent: Chemical State and Number Concentration of Particles Measured at Dunhuang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Shi, G.-Y.; Shen, Z.; Kim, Y. S.; Trochkine, D.; Matsuki, A.; Zhang, D.; Shibata, T.; Nagatani, M.; Nakata, H.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol were made in August and October 2001, and January 2002, at Dunhuang, China (40 o 00'N, 94 o 30'E), to understand the nature of atmospheric particles over the desert areas in the Asian continent. Balloon-borne measurements with an optical particle counter suggested that particle size and concentration had a noticeable peak in size range of super micron in not only the boundary mixing layer but also the free troposphere. Thickness of the boundary mixing layer, from distributions of particle concentration, was about 4 km in summer (17 August 2001), about2.5 km in fall (17 October 2001), and about 3 km in winter (11 January 2002), which suggest active mixing of particles near the boundary in summer. Number-size distribution of particle showed a noticeable peak in the super micron particles size range in the mixing boundary layer: 0.4-2 particles cm -3 at diameter>1.2 μm in summer, 0.05-4 particles cm -3 at diameter >1.2 μm in fall, and 0.1-5 particles cm -3 at diameter>1.2 μm in winter. In winter strong inversion of atmospheric temperature was found in the height range from the boundary to about 3 km and vertical distribution of particle concentration well corresponded with the temperature distribution. Chemical elements of individual aerosols, which were collected in the boundary layer atmosphere at Dunhuang (18 October 2001) were analyzed with an electron microscope equipped with EDX. Those single particle analysis suggested that most of the particles with supermicron size were soil particles, and those particles had little sulfate on its surface. This is a very important different point,comparing with the chemical state of soil particles, which were transported from the desert area of China to Japan, and showed frequently the existence of sulfate on the particle surface. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that dust particles can be chemically modified during their long-range transport from desert areas to Japan

  2. Obtaining the electrostatic screening from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaviv, N.J.; Shaviv, G.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the electrostatic screening effect from first principles and show the basic properties of the screening process. We in particular show that under the conditions prevailing in the Sun the number of particles in the Debye sphere is of the order of unity. Consequently; fluctuations play a dominant role in the screening process. The fluctuations lead to an effective time dependent potential. Particles with low kinetic energy lose on the average energy to the plasma and vice versa with high energy particles. We derive general conditions on the screening energy and show under what conditions the Salpeter approximation is obtained. The connection between the screening and relaxation processes in the plasma is exposed

  3. Effect of flexibility on the growth of concentration fluctuations in a suspension of sedimenting fibers: Particle simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Saintillan, David [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to study the stability of a sedimenting suspension of weakly flexible fibers. It is well known that a suspension of rigid rods sedimenting under gravity at low Reynolds number is unstable to concentration fluctuations owing to hydrodynamic interactions. Flexible fibers, however, reorient while settling and even weak flexibility can alter their collective dynamics. In our recent work [Manikantan et al., “The instability of a sedimenting suspension of weakly flexible fibres,” J. Fluid Mech. 756, 935–964 (2014)], we developed a mean-field theory to predict the linear stability of such a system. Here, we verify these predictions using accurate and efficient particle simulations based on a slender-body model. We also demonstrate the mechanisms by which flexibility-induced reorientation alters suspension microstructure, and through it, its stability. Specifically, we first show that the anisotropy of the base state in the case of a suspension of flexible fibers has a destabilizing effect compared to a suspension of rigid rods. Second, a conflicting effect of flexibility is also shown to suppress particle clustering and slow down the growth of the instability. The relative magnitude of filament flexibility and rotational Brownian motion dictates which effect dominates, and our simulations qualitatively follow theoretically predicted trends. The mechanism for either effects is tied to the flexibility-induced reorientation of particles, which we illustrate using velocity and orientation statistics from our simulations. Finally, we also show that, in the case of an initially homogeneous and isotropic suspension, flexibility always acts to suppress the growth of the instability.

  4. Effect of flexibility on the growth of concentration fluctuations in a suspension of sedimenting fibers: Particle simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Saintillan, David

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to study the stability of a sedimenting suspension of weakly flexible fibers. It is well known that a suspension of rigid rods sedimenting under gravity at low Reynolds number is unstable to concentration fluctuations owing to hydrodynamic interactions. Flexible fibers, however, reorient while settling and even weak flexibility can alter their collective dynamics. In our recent work [Manikantan et al., “The instability of a sedimenting suspension of weakly flexible fibres,” J. Fluid Mech. 756, 935–964 (2014)], we developed a mean-field theory to predict the linear stability of such a system. Here, we verify these predictions using accurate and efficient particle simulations based on a slender-body model. We also demonstrate the mechanisms by which flexibility-induced reorientation alters suspension microstructure, and through it, its stability. Specifically, we first show that the anisotropy of the base state in the case of a suspension of flexible fibers has a destabilizing effect compared to a suspension of rigid rods. Second, a conflicting effect of flexibility is also shown to suppress particle clustering and slow down the growth of the instability. The relative magnitude of filament flexibility and rotational Brownian motion dictates which effect dominates, and our simulations qualitatively follow theoretically predicted trends. The mechanism for either effects is tied to the flexibility-induced reorientation of particles, which we illustrate using velocity and orientation statistics from our simulations. Finally, we also show that, in the case of an initially homogeneous and isotropic suspension, flexibility always acts to suppress the growth of the instability

  5. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of flow generated by two rotating concentric cylinders: II. Lateral dissipative and random forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovic, N; Haber, S; Kojic, M; Tsuda, A

    2008-01-01

    Traditional DPD methods address dissipative and random forces exerted along the line connecting neighbouring particles. Espanol (1998 Phys. Rev. E 57 2930-48) suggested adding dissipative and random force components in a direction perpendicular to this line. This paper focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of such an addition as compared with the traditional DPD method. Our benchmark system comprises fluid initially at rest occupying the space between two concentric cylinders rotating with various angular velocities. The effect of the lateral force components on the time evolution of the simulated velocity profile was also compared with that of the known analytical solution. The results show that (i) the solution accuracy at steady state has improved and the error has been reduced by at least 30% (in one case by 75%), (ii) the DPD time to reach steady state has been halved, (iii) the CPU time has increased by only 30%, and (iv) no significant differences exist in density and temperature distributions

  6. Electrostatic energy of KHF2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, W. van; Bruinink, J.; Bottelberghs, P.H.

    1972-01-01

    Electrostatic lattice energies are calculated in KHF2. Fractional charges occurring in the complex anions are treated with a general procedure and the results are compared to a specialized approach reported earlier. Interstitial potentials are calculated to obtain the electrostatic field through

  7. Effect of (Cd:ZnS Particle Concentration and Photoexcitation on the Electrical and Ferroelectric Properties of (Cd:ZnS/P(VDF-TrFE Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Engel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of semiconductor particle concentration and photoexcitation on the electrical and ferroelectric properties of ferroelectric-semiconductor-composites was investigated. For this purpose, 32 µm thin films of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene with (Cd:ZnS particle concentrations of between 0 and 20 vol % were fabricated and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy. It was shown that the particle concentration has only a negligible influence on the molecular structure of the polymer but strongly determines the optical properties of the composite. For (Cd:ZnS particle concentrations below 20 vol %, the I-V characteristics of the composites is only marginally affected by the particle concentration and the optical excitation of the composite material. On the contrary, a strong influence of both parameters on the ferro- and pyroelectric properties of the composite films was observed. For particle fractions that exhibit ferroelectric hysteresis, an increased remanent polarization and pyroelectric coefficient due to optical excitation was obtained. A theoretical approach that is based on a “three phase model” of the internal structure was developed to explain the observed results.

  8. Temperature dependence of the particle/gas partition coefficient: An application to predict indoor gas-phase concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wenjuan, E-mail: Wenjuan.Wei@cstb.fr [University of Paris-Est, Scientific and Technical Center for Building (CSTB), Health and Comfort Department, French Indoor Air Quality Observatory (OQAI), 84 Avenue Jean Jaurès, Champs sur Marne, 77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Mandin, Corinne [University of Paris-Est, Scientific and Technical Center for Building (CSTB), Health and Comfort Department, French Indoor Air Quality Observatory (OQAI), 84 Avenue Jean Jaurès, Champs sur Marne, 77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); LERES-Environment and Health Research Laboratory (Irset and EHESP Technologic Platform), Rennes (France); Blanchard, Olivier [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); Mercier, Fabien [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); LERES-Environment and Health Research Laboratory (Irset and EHESP Technologic Platform), Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); Pelletier, Maud [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); Le Bot, Barbara [EHESP-School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes (France); LERES-Environment and Health Research Laboratory (Irset and EHESP Technologic Platform), Rennes (France); INSERM-U1085, Irset-Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes (France); and others

    2016-09-01

    The indoor gas-phase concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) can be predicted from their respective concentrations in airborne particles by applying the particle/gas partitioning equilibrium. The temperature used for partitioning is often set to 25 °C. However, indoor temperatures frequently differ from this reference value. This assumption may result in errors in the predicted equilibrium gas-phase SVOC concentrations. To improve the prediction model, the temperature dependence of the particle/gas partition coefficient must be addressed. In this paper, a theoretical relationship between the particle/gas partition coefficient and temperature was developed based on the SVOC absorptive mechanism. The SVOC particle/gas partition coefficients predicted by employing the derived theoretical relationship agree well with the experimental data retrieved from the literature (R > 0.93). The influence of temperature on the equilibrium gas-phase SVOC concentration was quantified by a dimensionless analysis of the derived relationship between the SVOC particle/gas partition coefficient and temperature. The predicted equilibrium gas-phase SVOC concentration decreased by between 31% and 53% when the temperature was lowered by 6 °C, while it increased by up to 750% when the indoor temperature increased from 15 °C to 30 °C. - Highlights: • A theoretical relationship between K{sub p} and temperature was developed. • The relationship was based on the SVOC absorptive mechanism. • The temperature impact was quantified by a dimensionless analysis.

  9. Electrostatic ion acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, certain aspects of plasma physics are illustrated through a study of electrostatic ion acoustic waves. The paper consists of three Sections. Section II deals with linear properties of the ion acoustic wave including derivation of the dispersions relation with the effect of Landau damping and of an ambient magnetic field. The section also introduces the excitation processes of the ion acoustic wave due to an electron drift or to a stimulated Brillouin scattering. The nonlinear properties are introduced in Section III and IV. In Section III, incoherent nonlinear effects such as quasilinear and mode-coupling saturations of the instability are discussed. The coherent nonlinear effects such as the generation of ion acoustic solitons, shocks and weak double layers are presented in Section IV. (Auth.)

  10. Irradiation and electrostatic separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for collecting pollutants in which a passageway is formed to define a path for industrial gases passing therethrough is described. A plurality of isotope sources extend along at least a portion of the path followed by the industrial gases to provide a continuing irradiation zone for pollutants in the gases. Collecting electrode plates are associated with such an irradiation zone to efficiently collect particulates as a result of an electrostatic field established between such plates, particularly very small particulates. The series of isotope sources are extended for a length sufficient to attain material improvement in the efficiency of collecting the pollutants. Such an effective length is established along a substantially unidirectional path of the gases, or preferably a reversing path in a folded conduit assembly to attain further efficiency by allowing more compact apparatus structures

  11. Scrubber-Integrated Wet Electrostatic Precipitator; Skrubberintegrerat vaatt elektrofilter, WESP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Baefver, Linda; Davidsson, Kent; Pettersson, Jens; Schmidt, Hans; Strand, Michael; Yngvesson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Combustion processes for heat and power production are an important source of sub-micron particle emissions, which cause enhanced health risks and premature deaths. To meet future requirements of economical and robust dust cleaning equipment, the Wet Electrostatic Precipitation (WESP) technology has been further developed in this project. A pilot scale slip stream WESP unit, installed by Goetaverken Miljoe, has been successfully installed and tested at the Renova Waste-to-Energy plant in Goeteborg, Sweden. The particles in the gas are charged by an ionizing electrode and collected in a concentric cylinder geometry. The WESP pilot consists of a unique combination of several existing technologies: it is integrated with a packed bed scrubber which means an ideally uniformly distributed gas flow in the WESP inlet. Furthermore, the WESP unit has a water cooled condensing collector, which facilitates continuous formation of a water film. The downward flowing water film transports the collected dust counter current to the upward flowing flue gas in order to minimize particle re-entrainment. The WESP is equipped with a high frequency transformer for stable voltage output and is fabricated in electrically conductive corrosion resistant Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP). The concentration of dust upstream of the WESP unit varied between 6.2 and 28 mg/Nm{sup 3} dry gas. All measured outlet dust concentrations were below 0.3 mg/Nm{sup 3} (dry gas, 11% O{sub 2}), which equals 3% of the applicable emission limit. The dust removal efficiency has been higher than 97% in all the dust measurements. The mean value of all the dust measurements was 15.2 mg/Nm{sup 3} upstream and 0.14 mg/Nm{sup 3} in downstream (both as dry gas, 11% O{sub 2}), which gives an average removal efficiency of slightly more than 99%. The removal efficiency increased with increasing inlet dust concentration, SO{sub 2} concentration and {Delta}T of the collector cooling. Chlorine, potassium, sodium, silicon and

  12. Evaluation and modelling of the size fractionated aerosol particle number concentration measurements nearby a major road in Helsinki - Part I: Modelling results within the LIPIKA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, M. A.; Pirjola, L.; Karppinen, A.; Härkönen, J.; Korhonen, H.; Hussein, T.; Ketzel, M.; Kukkonen, J.

    2007-08-01

    A field measurement campaign was conducted near a major road "Itäväylä" in an urban area in Helsinki in 17-20 February 2003. Aerosol measurements were conducted using a mobile laboratory "Sniffer" at various distances from the road, and at an urban background location. Measurements included particle size distribution in the size range of 7 nm-10 μm (aerodynamic diameter) by the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and in the size range of 3-50 nm (mobility diameter) by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), total number concentration of particles larger than 3 nm detected by an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC), temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, driving route of the mobile laboratory, and traffic density on the studied road. In this study, we have compared measured concentration data with the predictions of the road network dispersion model CAR-FMI used in combination with an aerosol process model MONO32. For model comparison purposes, one of the cases was additionally computed using the aerosol process model UHMA, combined with the CAR-FMI model. The vehicular exhaust emissions, and atmospheric dispersion and transformation of fine and ultrafine particles was evaluated within the distance scale of 200 m (corresponding to a time scale of a couple of minutes). We computed the temporal evolution of the number concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions of various particle size classes. The atmospheric dilution rate of particles is obtained from the roadside dispersion model CAR-FMI. Considering the evolution of total number concentration, dilution was shown to be the most important process. The influence of coagulation and condensation on the number concentrations of particle size modes was found to be negligible on this distance scale. Condensation was found to affect the evolution of particle diameter in the two smallest particle modes. The assumed value of the concentration of condensable organic

  13. Evaluation and modelling of the size fractionated aerosol particle number concentration measurements nearby a major road in Helsinki ─ Part I: Modelling results within the LIPIKA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ketzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A field measurement campaign was conducted near a major road "Itäväylä" in an urban area in Helsinki in 17–20 February 2003. Aerosol measurements were conducted using a mobile laboratory "Sniffer" at various distances from the road, and at an urban background location. Measurements included particle size distribution in the size range of 7 nm–10 μm (aerodynamic diameter by the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI and in the size range of 3–50 nm (mobility diameter by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, total number concentration of particles larger than 3 nm detected by an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, driving route of the mobile laboratory, and traffic density on the studied road. In this study, we have compared measured concentration data with the predictions of the road network dispersion model CAR-FMI used in combination with an aerosol process model MONO32. For model comparison purposes, one of the cases was additionally computed using the aerosol process model UHMA, combined with the CAR-FMI model. The vehicular exhaust emissions, and atmospheric dispersion and transformation of fine and ultrafine particles was evaluated within the distance scale of 200 m (corresponding to a time scale of a couple of minutes. We computed the temporal evolution of the number concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions of various particle size classes. The atmospheric dilution rate of particles is obtained from the roadside dispersion model CAR-FMI. Considering the evolution of total number concentration, dilution was shown to be the most important process. The influence of coagulation and condensation on the number concentrations of particle size modes was found to be negligible on this distance scale. Condensation was found to affect the evolution of particle diameter in the two smallest particle modes. The assumed value of the concentration of

  14. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-01-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  15. Negative corona discharges modelling. Application to the electrostatic precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaychet, S.

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitation presents many advantages from the nuclear wastes treatment's point of view. Indeed, this kind of process can capture submicron particles without producing secondary wastes (no filter media) and without pressure looses in the exhaust circuit. The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of negative corona discharges in air at atmospheric pressure occurring in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) developed by the CEA (Atomic Energy Committee). The aim of this study is to determine how the electrostatic precipitation dedicated phenomena, especially the specific high voltage generator, the gas temperature and the fact that particles are flowing through the gap then collapsing on the electrodes, modify the discharge to improve the efficiency of ESPs. This work is based on a fundamental experimental study of the negative corona discharge and on numerical simulations of this discharge under conditions close to those of the lab scale ESP developed by the CEA. (author) [fr

  16. Evaluation of building characteristics in 27 dwellings in Denmark and the effect of using particle filtration units on PM2.5 concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Kolarik, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter in homes is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and respiratory problems. Due to the extended time people spend at home, reducing the particle concentration in homes may be a means to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and respiratory...... concentrations. Furthermore, the winter period and a location farther from a trafficked street were associated with increased PM2.5 mass. Overall, the use of PFU led to a decrease in the concentrations of PM2.5 of 54.5% (median value).We assessed the PFU particle-removal efficiency by using the amount...

  17. The Dependence of CNT Aerogel Synthesis on Sulfur-driven Catalyst Nucleation Processes and a Critical Catalyst Particle Mass Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoecker, Christian; Smail, Fiona; Pick, Martin; Weller, Lee; Boies, Adam M

    2017-11-06

    The floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) process permits macro-scale assembly of nanoscale materials, enabling continuous production of carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogels. Despite the intensive research in the field, fundamental uncertainties remain regarding how catalyst particle dynamics within the system influence the CNT aerogel formation, thus limiting effective scale-up. While aerogel formation in FC-CVD reactors requires a catalyst (typically iron, Fe) and a promotor (typically sulfur, S), their synergistic roles are not fully understood. This paper presents a paradigm shift in the understanding of the role of S in the process with new experimental studies identifying that S lowers the nucleation barrier of the catalyst nanoparticles. Furthermore, CNT aerogel formation requires a critical threshold of Fe x C y  > 160 mg/m 3 , but is surprisingly independent of the initial catalyst diameter or number concentration. The robustness of the critical catalyst mass concentration principle is proved further by producing CNTs using alternative catalyst systems; Fe nanoparticles from a plasma spark generator and cobaltocene and nickelocene precursors. This finding provides evidence that low-cost and high throughput CNT aerogel routes may be achieved by decoupled and enhanced catalyst production and control, opening up new possibilities for large-scale CNT synthesis.

  18. Luminescence study of Eu3+ doped GdVO4 nanoparticles: Concentration, particle size, and core/shell effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. Shanta; Ningthoujam, R. S.; Devi, L. Romila; Yaiphaba, N.; Sudarsan, V.; Singh, S. Dorendrajit; Vatsa, R. K.; Tewari, R.

    2008-11-01

    Nanoparticles of GdVO4 doped with Eu3+ and core/shell of GdVO4:Eu3+/GdVO4 are prepared by urea hydrolysis method using ethylene glycol as capping agent as well as reaction medium at 130 °C. Unit cell volume increases when GdVO4 is doped with Eu3+ indicating the substitution of Gd3+ lattice sites by Eu3+. From luminescence study, it is confirmed that there is no particle size effect on emission positions of Eu3+. Optimum luminescence intensity is found to be in 5-10 at. % Eu3+. Above these concentrations, luminescence intensity decreases due to concentration quenching effect. There is an enhancement in luminescence intensity of core/shell nanoparticles. This has been attributed to the reduction in surface inhomogenities of Eu3+ surroundings by bonding to GdVO4 shell. The lifetime for D50 level increases with annealing and core/shell formation.

  19. The influence of actuator materials and nozzle designs on electrostatic charge of pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Young, Paul M; Fletcher, David F; Chan, Hak Kim; Long, Edward; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Traini, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the influence of different actuator materials and nozzle designs on the electrostatic charge properties of a series of solution metered dose inhaler (pMDI) aerosols. Actuators were manufactured with flat and cone nozzle designs using five different materials from the triboelectric series (Nylon, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polyethylene-High density, Polypropylene copolymer and Polytetrafluoroethylene). The electrostatic charge profiles of pMDI containing beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) as model drug in HFA-134a propellant, with different concentrations of ethanol were studied. Electrostatic measurements were taken using a modified electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and the deposited drug mass assayed chemically using HPLC. The charge profiles of HFA 134a alone have shown strong electronegativity with all actuator materials and nozzle designs, at an average of -1531.34 pC ± 377.34. The presence of co-solvent ethanol significantly reduced the negative charge magnitude. BDP reduced the suppressing effect of ethanol on the negative charging of the propellant. For all tested formulations, the flat nozzle design showed no significant differences in net charge between different actuator materials, whereas the charge profiles of cone designs followed the triboelectric series. The electrostatic charging profiles from a solution pMDI containing BDP and ethanol can be significantly influenced by the actuator material, nozzle design and formulation components. Ethanol concentration appears to have the most significant impact. Furthermore, BDP interactions with ethanol and HFA have an influence on the electrostatic charge of aerosols. By choosing different combinations of actuator materials and orifice design, the fine particle fractions of formulations can be altered.

  20. Errors analysis in the evaluation of particle concentration by PDA on a turbulent two-phase jet: application for cross section and transit time methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Esteban; García, Juan A.; García, Ignacio; Aísa, Luis A.

    2009-09-01

    Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) is a powerful tool for two-phase flow measurements and testing. Particle concentration and mass flux can also be evaluated using the raw particle data supplied by this technique. The calculation starts from each particle velocity, diameter, transit time data, and the total measurement time. There are two main evaluation strategies. The first one uses the probe volume effective cross section, and it is usually simplified assuming that particles follow quasi one-directional trajectories. In the text, it will be called the cross section method. The second one includes a set of methods which will be denoted as “Generalized Integral Methods” (GIM). Concentration algorithms such as the transit time method (TTM) and the integral volume method (IVM) are particular cases of the GIM. In any case, a previous calibration of the measurement volume geometry is necessary to apply the referred concentration evaluation methods. In this study, concentrations and mass fluxes both evaluated by the cross-section method and the TTM are compared. Experimental data are obtained from a particle-laden jet generated by a convergent nozzle. Errors due to trajectory dispersion, burst splitting, and multi-particle signals are discussed.

  1. Errors analysis in the evaluation of particle concentration by PDA on a turbulent two-phase jet: application for cross section and transit time methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Esteban; Garcia, Juan A.; Garcia, Ignacio; Aisa, Luis A. [University of Zaragoza, Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Centro Politecnico Superior, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) is a powerful tool for two-phase flow measurements and testing. Particle concentration and mass flux can also be evaluated using the raw particle data supplied by this technique. The calculation starts from each particle velocity, diameter, transit time data, and the total measurement time. There are two main evaluation strategies. The first one uses the probe volume effective cross section, and it is usually simplified assuming that particles follow quasi one-directional trajectories. In the text, it will be called the cross section method. The second one includes a set of methods which will be denoted as ''Generalized Integral Methods'' (GIM). Concentration algorithms such as the transit time method (TTM) and the integral volume method (IVM) are particular cases of the GIM. In any case, a previous calibration of the measurement volume geometry is necessary to apply the referred concentration evaluation methods. In this study, concentrations and mass fluxes both evaluated by the cross-section method and the TTM are compared. Experimental data are obtained from a particle-laden jet generated by a convergent nozzle. Errors due to trajectory dispersion, burst splitting, and multi-particle signals are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Spontaneous deswelling of pNIPAM microgels at high concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Urs; Scotti, Andrea; Herman, Emily S.; Pelaez-Fernandez, Miguel; Han, Jun; Menzel, Andreas; Lyon, L. Andrew; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Polydisperse suspensions of pNIPAM microgel particles show a unique, spontaneous particle deswelling behavior. Beyond a critical concentration, the largest microgels deswell and thereby reduce the polydispersity of the suspension. We have recently unraveled the mechanism of this spontaneous, selective deswelling. pNIPAM microgels carry charged sulfate groups originating from the ammonium persulfate starter used in particle synthesis. Most of the ammonium counterions are trapped close to the microgel surface, but a fraction of them escapes the electrostatic attraction and contributes to the osmotic pressure of the suspension. The counterion clouds of neighboring particles progressively overlap with increasing volume fraction, leading to an increase of free counterions and the osmotic pressure outside but not inside the microgel particles. We find particles to deswell when the resulting osmotic pressure difference between the inside and the outside becomes larger their bulk modulus. For pNIPAM microgels synthesized with the same protocol, the largest particles are the softest and deswell first.

  3. Design space of electrostatic chuck in etching chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuchun; Cheng Jia; Lu Yijia; Hou Yuemin; Ji Linhong

    2015-01-01

    One of the core semiconductor devices is the electrostatic chuck. It has been widely used in plasma-based and vacuum-based semiconductor processing. The electrostatic chuck plays an important role in adsorbing and cooling/heating wafers, and has technical advantages on non-edge exclusion, high reliability, wafer planarity, particles reduction and so on. This article extracts key design elements from the existing knowledge and techniques of electrostatic chuck by the method proposed by Paul and Beitz, and establishes a design space systematically. The design space is composed of working objects, working principles and working structures. The working objects involve electrostatic chuck components and materials, classifications, and relevant properties; the working principles involve clamping force, residual force, and temperature control; the working structures describe how to compose an electrostatic chuck and to fulfill the overall functions. The systematic design space exhibits the main issues during electrostatic chuck design. The design space will facilitate and inspire designers to improve the design quality and shorten the design time in the conceptual design. (paper)

  4. Spatial variations in ambient ultrafine particle concentrations and the risk of incident prostate cancer: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Lavigne, Eric; Valois, Marie-France; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Villeneuve, Paul J; Goldberg, Mark S; Parent, Marie-Elise

    2017-07-01

    Diesel exhaust contains large numbers of ultrafine particles (UFPs, <0.1µm) and is a recognized human carcinogen. However, epidemiological studies have yet to evaluate the relationship between UFPs and cancer incidence. We conducted a case-control study of UFPs and incident prostate cancer in Montreal, Canada. Cases were identified from all main Francophone hospitals in the Montreal area between 2005 and 2009. Population controls were identified from provincial electoral lists of French Montreal residents and frequency-matched to cases using 5-year age groups. UFP exposures were estimated using a land use regression model. Exposures were assigned to residential locations at the time of diagnosis/recruitment as well as approximately 10-years earlier to consider potential latency between exposure and disease onset. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated per interquartile range (IQR) increase in UFPs (approximately 4000 particles/cm 3 ) using logistic regression models adjusting for individual-level and ecological covariates. Ambient UFP concentrations were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19) in fully adjusted models when exposures were assigned to residences 10-years prior to diagnosis. This risk estimate increased slightly (OR=1.17, 95% CI; 1.01, 1.35) when modeled as a non-linear natural spline function. A smaller increased risk (OR=1.04, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.11) was observed when exposures were assigned to residences at the time of diagnosis. Exposure to ambient UFPs may increase the risk of prostate cancer. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding as this is the first study to evaluate this relationship. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrostatic fluctuations in soap films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, D.S.; Horgan, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    A field theory to describe electrostatic interactions in soap films, described by electric multilayers with a generalized thermodynamic surface-charging mechanism, is studied. In the limit where the electrostatic interactions are weak, this theory is exactly soluble. The theory incorporates in a consistent way, the surface-charging mechanism and the fluctuations in the electrostatic field that correspond to the zero-frequency component of the van der Waals force. It is shown that these terms lead to a Casimir-like attraction that can be sufficiently large to explain the transition between the common black film to a Newton black film

  6. Electrical operation of electrostatic precipitators

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The electrostatic precipitator remains on of the most cost effective means of controlling the emission of particulates from most industrial processes. This book will be of interest to both users and suppliers of electrostatic precipitators as well as advanced students on environmental based courses. The author identifies the physical and engineering basis for the development of electrical equipment for electrostatic precipitators and thoroughly explores the technological factors which optimize the efficiency of the precipitator and hence minimize emissions, as well as future developments in th

  7. Dynamical chaos of plasma ions in electrostatic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasoli, A.; Kleiber, R.; Tran, M.Q.; Paris, P.J.; Skiff, F.

    1992-09-01

    Chaos generated by the interaction between charged particles and electrostatic plasma waves has been observed in a linear magnetized plasma. The macroscopic wave properties, the kinetic ion dielectric response and the microscopic heating mechanisms have been investigated via optical diagnostic techniques based on laser induced fluorescence. Observations of test-particle dynamical evolution indicate an exponential separation of initially close ion trajectories. (author) 5 figs., 20 refs

  8. Spatial and indoor/outdoor gradients in urban concentrations of ultrafine particles and PM2.5 mass and chemical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Trentini, Arianna; Bacco, Dimitri; Maccone, Claudio; Castellazzi, Silvia; Lauriola, Paolo; Poluzzi, Vanes; Harrison, Roy M.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate relationships between outdoor air pollution and concentrations indoors, a novel design of experiment has been conducted at two sites, one heavily trafficked and the other residential. The novel design aspect involves the introduction of air directly to the centre of an unoccupied room by use of a fan and duct giving a controlled air exchange rate and allowing an evaluation of particle losses purely due to uptake on indoor surfaces without the losses during penetration of the building envelope which affect most measurement programmes. The rooms were unoccupied and free of indoor sources, and consequently reductions in particle concentration were due to deposition processes within the room alone. Measurements were made of indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5, major chemical components and particle number size distributions. Despite the absence of penetration losses, indoor to outdoor ratios were very similar to those in other studies showing that deposition to indoor surfaces is likely to be the major loss process for indoor air. The results demonstrated a dramatic loss of nitrate in the indoor atmosphere as well as a selective loss of particles in the size range below 50 nm, in comparison to coarser particles. Depletion of indoor particles was greater during a period of cold weather with higher outdoor concentrations probably due to an enhancement of semi-volatile materials in the outdoor particulate matter. Indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 were generally higher at the trafficked site than the residential site, but for particle number were generally lower, reflecting the different chemical composition and size distributions of particles at the two sites.

  9. Explosion safety in industrial electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, S. V.; Kiss, I.; Berta, I.

    2011-01-01

    Complicated industrial systems are often endangered by electrostatic hazards, both from atmospheric (lightning phenomenon, primary and secondary lightning protection) and industrial (technological problems caused by static charging and fire and explosion hazards.) According to the classical approach protective methods have to be used in order to remove electrostatic charging and to avoid damages, however no attempt to compute the risk before and after applying the protective method is made, relying instead on well-educated and practiced expertise. The Budapest School of Electrostatics - in close cooperation with industrial partners - develops new suitable solutions for probability based decision support (Static Control Up-to-date Technology, SCOUT) using soft computing methods. This new approach can be used to assess and audit existing systems and - using the predictive power of the models - to design and plan activities in industrial electrostatics.

  10. Ion sources for electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, R.

    1998-01-01

    Maybe the most important part of an electrostatic accelerator system, and also often the most tricky part is the ion source. There has been a rapid growth in activity in ion-source research and development during the last two to three decades. Some of these developments have also been of benefit to electrostatic accelerator users. In this report some of the different types of ion sources used in electrostatic accelerators are described. The list is not complete but more an overview of some of the more commonly used sources. The description is divided into two groups; positive ion sources for single stage electrostatic accelerators and negative ion sources for two stages (i.e. tandem) accelerators

  11. Computational Methods for Biomolecular Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Olsen, Brett; Baker, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of intermolecular interactions is essential for insight into how cells develop, operate, communicate and control their activities. Such interactions include several components: contributions from linear, angular, and torsional forces in covalent bonds, van der Waals forces, as well as electrostatics. Among the various components of molecular interactions, electrostatics are of special importance because of their long range and their influence on polar or charged molecules, including water, aqueous ions, and amino or nucleic acids, which are some of the primary components of living systems. Electrostatics, therefore, play important roles in determining the structure, motion and function of a wide range of biological molecules. This chapter presents a brief overview of electrostatic interactions in cellular systems with a particular focus on how computational tools can be used to investigate these types of interactions. PMID:17964951

  12. Electrostatic beam-position monitor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    Electrostatic beam-position monitor installed in its final location (bake-out cover removed). The ISR will contain about 110 of these monitors. Their accuracy is better than 1 mm, their band width about 1 MHz.

  13. Electrostatic Phenomena on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-02-01

    The diverse planetary environments in the solar system react in somewhat different ways to the encompassing influence of the Sun. These different interactions define the electrostatic phenomena that take place on and near planetary surfaces. The desire to understand the electrostatic environments of planetary surfaces goes beyond scientific inquiry. These environments have enormous implications for both human and robotic exploration of the solar system. This book describes in some detail what is known about the electrostatic environment of the solar system from early and current experiments on Earth as well as what is being learned from the instrumentation on the space exploration missions (NASA, European Space Agency, and the Japanese Space Agency) of the last few decades. It begins with a brief review of the basic principles of electrostatics.

  14. Holes in magneto electrostatic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.

    1996-01-01

    We observe that in magneto electrostatic confinement (MEC) devices the magnetic surfaces are not always equipotentials. The lack of symmetry in the equipotential surfaces can result in holes in MEC plasma traps. (author)

  15. Recombinant albumin monolayers on latex particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofińska, Kamila; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Kujda, Marta; Nattich-Rak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-14

    The adsorption of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) on negatively charged polystyrene latex micro-particles was studied at pH 3.5 and the NaCl concentration range of 10(-3) to 0.15 M. The electrophoretic mobility of latex monotonically increased with the albumin concentration in the suspension. The coverage of adsorbed albumin was quantitatively determined using the depletion method, where the residual protein concentration was determined by electrokinetic measurements and AFM imaging. It was shown that albumin adsorption was irreversible. Its maximum coverage on latex varied between 0.7 mg m(-2) for 10(-3) M NaCl to 1.3 mg m(-2) for 0.15 M NaCl. The latter value matches the maximum coverage previously determined for human serum albumin on mica using the streaming potential method. The increase in the maximum coverage was interpreted in terms of reduced electrostatic repulsion among adsorbed molecules. These facts confirm that albumin adsorption at pH 3.5 is governed by electrostatic interactions and proceeds analogously to colloid particle deposition. The stability of albumin monolayers was measured in additional experiments where changes in the latex electrophoretic mobility and the concentration of free albumin in solutions were monitored over prolonged time periods. Based on these experimental data, a robust procedure of preparing albumin monolayers on latex particles of well-controlled coverage and molecule distribution was proposed.

  16. A quasi-stationary approach to particle concentration and distribution in gear oil for wear mode estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Morten; Eriksen, René Lynge; Jørgensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    that particles less than 14 μm dominate the wear. Hence, it is concluded that abrasion dominate the wear, for the gear in operation, and it is concluded to be in quasi-stationary mode. The distribution of the particles is observed in conjunction with the particle quantity to determine a basis for normal...... operation. Limitations to the model in lack of fitting to large and frequent signal spikes are suggested to be caused by measurement equipment and/or model constraints. Predicting the transition from quasi-stationary (normal) mode to break-down mode is made possible by particle quantity detection as well......Suspension of wear particles in gear oil with respect to the diversity of particle size combined with filter mechanisms has been analyzed. Coupling of wear modes from tribology is combined with particle size bins to show how a mathematical model can be expanded to include information gained from...

  17. Virtual cathode in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu; Miley, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (SIEC) was proposed as a fusion device. Its best feature is that confinement scheme does not need any magnetic field. Ion orbits pass through the center of the device, and thus the resulting ion density profile shows strong peaking. On the other hand, electron orbits are sensitive to the electrostatic self-field. Complete solution of particle orbits and of self-field is difficult to obtain. In the present paper steady-state solutions are obtained for two extreme cases. The first case assumes no electron collision, and the second case frequent electron collisions, and thus electrons are described by the Boltzmann law. (M. Tanaka)