WorldWideScience

Sample records for particle collection device

  1. Evaluation of salt particle collection device for preventing SCC on canister - Effect on particle collection rate by electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.; Saegusa, T.

    2013-01-01

    Now, in Japan, while metal casks are used for spent nuclear fuel storage, a practical use of concrete casks is under review because of its cost effectiveness and procurement easiness. In reviewing the practical use, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of a canister container in the concrete cask becomes an issue and is needed to be resolved soon. A natural ventilation system is generally adopted for the storage facilities, especially in Japan where facilities are built near coasts so that the cooling air includes sea salt particles. Therefore, the occurrence of SCC is concerned when the sea salt particles adhere to welded parts of the canisters. In this study, we proposed a salt particle collection device with low pressure loss which does not interfere with the air flow into the building or the concrete casks. The device is composed of a stack of 10 parallel stainless steel plates, the air is free to circulate in the space between them. Pressure loss tests in a laboratory and salt particle collection tests in the field have been performed. It has been clarified that the pressure loss of the device is one-thirtieth to one-twentieth of that of a commercial filter and 40% of the particles in the air could be collected and the device would not influence the heat removal performance. Moreover, we evaluated the effect of electric field on the particle collection under supposing the particle charge. In the case of electric field over 10 3 kV/m the particle collection rate could be improved dramatically

  2. Output channel design for collecting closely-spaced particle streams from spiral inertial separation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffiyar Mohamed Yousuff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in inertial microfluidics designs have enabled high throughput, label-free separation of cells for a variety of bioanalytical applications. Various device configurations have been proposed for binary separation with a focus on enhancing the separation distance between particle streams to improve the efficiency of separate particle collection. These configurations have not demonstrated scaling beyond 3 particle streams either because the channel width is a constraint at the collection outlets or particle streams would be too closely spaced to be collected separately. We propose a method to design collection outlets for inertial focusing and separation devices which can collect closely-spaced particle streams and easily scale to an arbitrary number of collection channels without constraining the outlet channel width, which is the usual cause of clogging or cell damage. According to our approach, collection outlets are a series of side-branching channels perpendicular to the main channel of egress. The width and length of the outlets can be chosen subject to constraints from the position of the particle streams and fluidic resistance ratio computed from fluid dynamics simulations. We show the efficacy of this approach by demonstrating a successful collection of upto 3 particle streams of 7μm, 10μm and 15μm fluorescent beads which have been focused and separated by a spiral inertial device with a separation distance of only 10μm -15μm. With a throughput of 1.8mL/min, we achieved collection efficiency exceeding 90% for each particle at the respective collection outlet. The flexibility to use wide collection channels also enabled us to fabricate the microfluidic device with an epoxy mold that was created using xurography, a low cost, and imprecise fabrication technique.

  3. Measures of stress corrosion cracking in the canister storage facility of spent nuclear fuel. Vol.3. Development of salt particle collection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hirofumi; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2009-01-01

    A natural ventilation system is generally adopted for storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel. At the storage facilities of concrete casks built near the seashore, the air including the sea salt particles comes into the concrete casks and could cause SCC to the canister made of stainless steel. In this study, we proposed a salt particle collection device with a low flow resistance which does not block the air flow into the building. The effect of the device was evaluated quantitatively in laboratory experiments and in field tests. Obtained results are as follows: (1) The pressure loss of the device is smaller than one-sevenths of pressure loss of a filter used in a forced ventilation system and the efficiency of salt particle collection is more than 80% in both laboratory experiments and field tests. However, the efficiency of salt particle collection depends on the diameter of a salt particle. (2) It was clarified the diameter of the particle which can be collected by the device under the condition of the size of the device, the density and velocity of the particle. And the pressure loss of the device was evaluated. In the case of setting the device in the air inlet of a concrete cask, salt particles lager than 27μm in diameter can be collected by the device under the condition of the same pressure loss of a bard screen which opening ratio is 80%. (author)

  4. Collection of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frew, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus and a method for collecting particles formed by vaporisation during a high temperature treatment of steel (eg cutting or welding) are described in which gas is drawn from the area in which the treatment is taking place through a collector in which the particles are separated magnetically. The air may be drawn by an air ejector from a hood around the treatment area. The invention has particular application where the high temperature treatment is the laser cutting of the stainless steel wrapper around a nuclear fuel sub-assembly. (author)

  5. Fission products collecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fission products trap with no contamination to coolants and cover gas by the provision of a fission products trap above the upper part of a nuclear power plant. Constitution: Upon fuel failures in a reactor core, nuclear fission products leak into coolants and move along the flow of the coolants to the coolants above the reactor core. The fission products are collected in a trap container and guided along a pipeline into fission products detector. The fission products detector monitors the concentration of the fission products and opens the downstream valve of the detector when a predetermined concentration of the fission products is detected to introduce the fission products into a waste gas processing device and release them through the exhaust pipe. (Seki, T.)

  6. Neutron particle injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kiyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma particles are used as target particles for converting ions to neutral particles by a charge exchange reaction in a neutralization cell, and a neutralization cell is disposed in adjacent with drawing electrodes. In addition, a magnetic field generation means is disposed additionally for generating magnetic rays substantially in parallel with the drawing electrode at the downmost stream in the progressing direction of the ions. The intensity of electric fields between the drawing electrode at the downmost stream and the nearest electrode, among electrodes present at the upstream, is made smaller than the intensity of electric fields between other electrodes. Since magnetic rays substantially in parallel with the drawing electrode at the downmost stream in the progressing direction of the ions are generated, the ions are prevented from being accelerated in the direction reverse to the progressing direction thereby further enhancing the neutralization efficiency of the neutralizing cell. Then, there can be provided effects that the constitution of the electrode of NBI (Neutral particle Beam Injector) can be simplified and the power source for preventing acceleration of neutral particles can be saved. (N.H.)

  7. Particle supply and recovery device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kimio; Okazaki, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    This invention concerns a particle supply and recovery device suitable to the supply of fuels and exhaustion of reaction products in a tokamak device. The divertor chamber is divided into an inner side and an outer side, in which only the outer side is constituted as a tightly closed structure. Particles are supplied from the inside of main plasmas and exhausted from the outer side of the divertor chamber. In the divertor equilibrium arrangement, particles escaping from the main plasmas are conveyed mainly passing through the outer side scrape-off layer to the divertor chamber. The particle density is higher at the outer side and lower at the inner side of the scrape-off layer. By making the outer side as a tightly closed structure, the pressure is increased and the particle exhaustion efficiency is improved. Since the particle density is low in the inner scrape-layer, the particle supply efficiency to the main plasma is increased by supplying the particles from the inside. Further, particles ionized in the inner scrape-off layer are returned to the main plasma chamber and then supplied again since the inner divertor chamber is not closed. Accordingly, the particle supply efficiency can further be improved. (K.M.)

  8. RFQ device for accelerating particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, K.W.; Delayen, J.R.

    1995-06-06

    A superconducting radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) device includes four spaced elongated, linear, tubular rods disposed parallel to a charged particle beam axis, with each rod supported by two spaced tubular posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. The rod and post geometry of the device has four-fold rotation symmetry, lowers the frequency of the quadrupole mode below that of the dipole mode, and provides large dipole-quadrupole mode isolation to accommodate a range of mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry of the structure, which can be formed by joining eight simple T-sections, provides a high degree of mechanical stability, is insensitive to mechanical displacement, and is particularly adapted for fabrication with superconducting materials such as niobium. 5 figs.

  9. RFQ device for accelerating particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, Kenneth W. (Park Ridge, IL); Delayen, Jean R. (Naperville, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) device includes four spaced elongated, linear, tubular rods disposed parallel to a charged particle beam axis, with each rod supported by two spaced tubular posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. The rod and post geometry of the device has four-fold rotation symmetry, lowers the frequency of the quadrupole mode below that of the dipole mode, and provides large dipole-quadrupole mode isolation to accommodate a range of mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry of the structure, which can be formed by joining eight simple T-sections, provides a high degree of mechanical stability, is insensitive to mechanical displacement, and is particularly adapted for fabrication with superconducting materials such as niobium.

  10. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  11. A device for transferring, in particular, small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a transfer device, in particular for transferring small particles, comprising a helical channel made in the tube inner surface, a device for causing the tube to rotate about its longitudinal axis, a rotating joint adapted to close one of the tube extremities, a device for inserting a substance in the form of granules or of fluid particles into said tube through said joint, and a device for collecting and discharging said substance at the tube opposite end. This can applied to the transfer of small spherical particles e.g. of fuel [fr

  12. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Don, E-mail: lee.sangdon@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Viani, Brian [Simbol Mining Corp., Pleasanton, CA 94566 (United States); Drake, John [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); MacKinney, John [U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  13. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don; Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert; Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark; Viani, Brian; Drake, John; MacKinney, John

    2010-01-01

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  14. Particles separation in a cyclone device cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevsky Michail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the methods for calculating the efficiency for particles separation in these devices is the subject of article. Finding data show that the particles are discharged from the central zone to periphery by diffusive transport in the zone of high centripetal accelerations. It is found that the central zone is the ejection effect zone on the paraxial flow and intense discharge particle zone. The concentrations distribution and distribution of fractional efficiencies are presented.

  15. α-particle shielding of semiconductor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, P.J.A.; Perry, J.P.; Waddell, J.M.; Barker, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Soft errors in semiconductor devices, e.g. random access memories, arising from the bombardment of the device by alpha particles produced by the disintegration of minute traces of uranium or thorium in the packaging materials are prevented by coating the active surface of the semiconductor chip with a thin layer, e.g. 20 to 100 microns of an organic polymeric material, this layer being of sufficient thickness to absorb the particles. Typically, the polymer is a poly-imide formed by u.v. electron-beam or thermal curing of liquid monomer applied to the chip surface. (author)

  16. Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

    1986-05-01

    The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub α/ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra

  17. Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

    1986-05-01

    The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra.

  18. Particle acceleration by collective effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1976-01-01

    Successful acceleration of protons and other ions has been achieved experimentally in this decade by a number of different collective methods. The attainment of very high accelerating fields has been established although so far the acceleration distance has been confined to only a few centimeters. Efforts are in progress to understand the accelerating mechanisms in detail and, as a result, to devise ways of extending considerably the acceleration distance. This paper is intended to review the current progress, expectations, and limitations of the different approaches. (author)

  19. Particle acceleration by collective effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1976-09-01

    Successful acceleration of protons and other ions has been achieved experimentally in this decade by a number of different collective methods. The attainment of very high accelerating fields has been established although so far the acceleration distance has been confined to only a few centimeters. Efforts are in progress to understand the accelerating mechanisms in detail and, as a result, to devise ways of extending considerably the acceleration distance. A review is given of the current progress, expectations, and limitations of the different approaches

  20. Ultrasonic Sorter for Handling and Collecting Dust or Soil Particles Separated by Size/Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, I.; Pinto, A.

    2018-04-01

    A new device is proposed consisting of an endless screw attached to a small sorter actuated by ultrasounds where particles collect from soil or dust to be separated and collected in different reservoirs for their return to the Earth.

  1. WIND EROSION INTENSITY DETERMINATION USING SOIL PARTICLE CATCHER DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lackóová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze wind erosion events in the real terrain conditions, we proposed to construct a prototype of soil particle catcher devices to trap soil particles. With these devices we are able to measure the intensity of wind erosion at six different heights above the soil surface in one location or at three different heights in two places. It is possible to use them for six different places at the same time as well. We performed field measurements to determine the amount of soil particles transported by the wind between 26th – 31st March 2012. Each measuring took 60 minutes. After this time the soil particle catchers were emptied and further measurements carried out. At the beginning we selected two places for measurement (soil HPJ 16 and 37 at two heights, one above the other. Then we used two measuring systems 40 m apart at two sites (D2 and D4 and the soil captured at two heights (0, 1. The maximum weight of soil particles trapped in measuring system D2 at height (0 was 1242.7 g at a wind speed of 9.6 ms-1. At measurement height (1 the maximum weight was 72.7 g trapped at the same average hourly rate, but during different measurement events. The measuring system at D4 trapped the highest amount of soil at a wind speed of 8.9 ms-1 (1141.7 g at height (0 and at a speed of 9.3 ms-1 (22.3 g at height (1. During the measurements with the two basic measuring systems D4 and D2, we measured the wind erosion intensity together with soil particle catchers D1 and D3. D3 was placed between devices D4 and D2, D1 was 20 m ahead D2. Soil particle catchers were placed on the soil surface at height position (0. We measured increasing soil erosion downwind on four locations spaced at 20 m. The results show that with there is an increasing quantity of particles collected as the erosive surface length increases, due to the so-called snowball effect. We analyzed selected trapped soil samples in order to determine the size of the soil particles and their proportion

  2. Modelling of particles collection by vented limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Pegourie, B.; Granata, G.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with the use of vented limiters for the collection of neutral particles in Tore Supra. The model developed for experiments is presented together with its experimental validation. Some possible improvements to the present limiter are also proposed. (TEC). 5 refs., 3 figs

  3. Ion suppression from blood collection devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Sejr Gothelf, Aase

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in ion suppression in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) methods when using different blood collection devices. Three different methods measuring 18 antidepressants and antipsychotics in total were...... Terumo, S-monovette from Sarstedt, Vacuette from Greiner Bio-One and three BD Vacutainer serum tubes from BD. These seven different blood collection devices were used to withdraw blood from five healthy drug free donors (n=35) in random order. The samples were centrifuged and serum from each sample...... by UHPLC-MS-MS using three different gradients (Group I, II and III). The analytes in group I was measured on an Agilent 6460 mass spectrometer and group II and III were measured on an Agilent 6410 mass spectrometer both utilizing positive electrospray ionization. The experiments demonstrated significant...

  4. ESF collection effectiveness, a study in fine particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winegardner, W.K.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1985-04-01

    The characterization and dynamic behavior of fine particles are the main subjects of an ongoing investigation of the particle collection effectiveness of the engineered safety feature (ESF) systems in nuclear power plants. This investigation is part of a larger study of the release of radionuclides to the environment from such plants during postulated accidents that are severe but extremely unlikely. The ESF systems are installed to prevent the occurrence of severe accidents or mitigate their consequences. Several of these engineered systems can serve as particle collection devices. This report focuses on the analytical models that were developed to predict particle behavior in two systems that were not specifically designed for particle retention: the ice compartments of ice condenser containment systems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and the suppression pools of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). The following section summarizes the topics considered in the development of models and computer codes for estimating the particle retention effectiveness of these two ESF systems. After the summary this paper describes the two ESF systems in more detail and discusses the behavior of particles in both situations

  5. Stochastic motion of particles in tandem mirror devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Kamimura, T.

    1982-01-01

    Stochastic motion of particles in tandem mirror devices is examined on basis of a nonlinear mapping of particle positions on the equatorial plane. Local stability analysis provides detailed informations on particle trajectories. The rate of stochastic plasma diffusion is estimated from numerical observations of motions of particles over a large number of time steps. (author)

  6. Alpha particle collective Thomson scattering in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuzak, J.S.; Woskov, P.P.; Rhee, D.Y.; Gilmore, J.; Bindslev, H.

    1993-01-01

    A collective Thomson scattering diagnostic is being implemented on TFTR to measure alpha particle, energetic and thermal ion densities and velocity distributions. A 60 GHz, 0.1-1 kW gyrotron will be used as the transmitter source, and the scattering geometry will be perpendicular to the magnetic field in the extraordinary mode polarization. An enhanced scattered signal is anticipated from fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range with this scattering geometry. Millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics have the advantage of larger scattering angles to decrease the amount of stray light, and long, high power, modulated pulses to obtain improved signal to noise through synchronous detection techniques

  7. Device for sampling HTGR recycle fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, R.R.; Lackey, W.J.

    1977-03-01

    Devices for sampling High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel microspheres were evaluated. Analysis of samples obtained with each of two specially designed passive samplers were compared with data generated by more common techniques. A ten-stage two-way sampler was found to produce a representative sample with a constant batch-to-sample ratio

  8. Collective processing device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Noboru.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a sealing vessel, a transporting device for transporting spent fuels to the sealing vessel, a laser beam cutting device for cutting the transported spent fuels, a dissolving device for dissolving the cut spent fuels, and a recovering device for recovering radioactive materials from the spent fuels during processing. Reprocessing treatments comprising each processing of dismantling, shearing and dissolving are conducted in the sealing vessel can ensure a sealing barrier for the radioactive materials (fissionable products and heavy nuclides). Then, since spent fuels can be processed in a state of assemblies, and the spent fuels are easily placed in the sealing vessel, operation efficiency is improved, as well as operation cost is saved. Further, since the spent fuels can be cut by a remote laser beam operation, there can be prevented operator's exposure due to radioactive materials released from the spent fuels during cutting operation. (T.M.)

  9. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for medical...

  10. Evaluation of a new simple collection device for sampling of microparticles in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferaj, Sabina; Ullah, Shahid; Tinglev, Åsa; Carlsson, Sten; Winberg, Jesper; Stambeck, Peter; Beck, Olof

    2018-03-12

    The microparticle fraction of exhaled breath is of interest for developing clinical biomarkers. Exhaled particles may contain non-volatile components from all parts of the airway system, formed during normal breathing. This study aimed to evaluate a new, simple sampling device, based on impaction, for collecting microparticles from exhaled breath. Performance of the new device was compared with that of the existing SensAbues membrane filter device. The analytical work used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. The new device collected three subsamples and these were separately analysed from eight individuals. No difference was observed between the centre position (0.91 ng/sample) and the side positions (1.01 ng/sample) using major phosphatidylcholine (PC) 16:0/16:0 as the analyte. Exhaled breath was collected from eight patients on methadone maintenance treatment. The intra-individual variability in measured methadone concentration between the three collectors was 8.7%. In another experiment using patients on methadone maintenance treatment, the sampling efficiency was compared with an established filter device. Compared to the existing device, the efficiency of the new device was 121% greater for methadone and 1450% greater for DPPC. The data from lipid analysis also indicated that a larger fraction of the collected material was from the distal parts. Finally, a study using an optical particle counter indicated that the device preferentially collects the larger particle fraction. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the usefulness of the new device for collecting non-volatile components from exhaled breath. The performance of the device was superior to the filter device in several aspects.

  11. A device for the collection of submandibular saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Sara; Motoi, Lidia; Medlicott, Natalie; Swindells, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the construction of a non-invasive device for the collection of submandibular saliva. Preliminary tests were carried out on saliva collected from a single donor in order to determine whether the rheological properties of submandibular saliva collected using the device were comparable to whole saliva collected using the expectoration (or 'spit') method. The device collected a lower quantity of saliva than that collected using the expectoration method. Stimulated saliva collected using the device had a pH close to that of unstimulated saliva because the sealed collection unit in the device minimised contamination. Saliva exhibited shear-thinning behaviour regardless of the method of collection, although that collected using the device was more viscous. The viscoelasticity of saliva collected using the two methods was different, probably as a result of differences in composition. This difference was greater with stimulated saliva. Despite the discrepancies between whole saliva and submandibular saliva, the device provides a non-invasive method for the collection of high-quality saliva over extended periods.

  12. Automated data collection in single particle electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong Zi; Cheng, Anchi; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Automated data collection is an integral part of modern workflows in single particle electron microscopy (EM) research. This review surveys the software packages available for automated single particle EM data collection. The degree of automation at each stage of data collection is evaluated, and the capabilities of the software packages are described. Finally, future trends in automation are discussed. PMID:26671944

  13. Collected abstracts on particle beam diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of abstracts on work related to particle beam diagnostics for high temperature plasmas. The abstracts were gathered in early 1978 and represent the status of the various programs as of that date. It is not suggested that this is a comprehensive list of all the work that is going on in the development of particle beam diagnostics, but it does provide a representative view of the work in this field. For example, no abstracts were received from the U.S.S.R. even though they have considerable activity in particle beam diagnostics

  14. 77 FR 8260 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Device...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... will be used to evaluate risks associated with medical devices which will enable FDA to take...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Device Reporting... comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on medical device reporting (MDR...

  15. Engineering and evaluating drug delivery particles in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnmalm, Mattias; Yan, Yan; Caruso, Frank

    2014-09-28

    The development of new and improved particle-based drug delivery is underpinned by an enhanced ability to engineer particles with high fidelity and integrity, as well as increased knowledge of their biological performance. Microfluidics can facilitate these processes through the engineering of spatiotemporally highly controlled environments using designed microstructures in combination with physical phenomena present at the microscale. In this review, we discuss microfluidics in the context of addressing key challenges in particle-based drug delivery. We provide an overview of how microfluidic devices can: (i) be employed to engineer particles, by providing highly controlled interfaces, and (ii) be used to establish dynamic in vitro models that mimic in vivo environments for studying the biological behavior of engineered particles. Finally, we discuss how the flexible and modular nature of microfluidic devices provides opportunities to create increasingly realistic models of the in vivo milieu (including multi-cell, multi-tissue and even multi-organ devices), and how ongoing developments toward commercialization of microfluidic tools are opening up new opportunities for the engineering and evaluation of drug delivery particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Particle and impurity control in toroidal fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A review of working particle and impurity control techniques used in and proposed for magnetic fusion devices is presented. The requirements of both present-day machines and envisaged fusion reactors are considered. The various techniques which have been proposed are characterized by whether they affect sources, sinks, or fluxes; in many cases a particular method or device can appear in more than one category. Examples are drawn from published results. The solutions proposed for the large devices which will be operating during the next 5 years are discussed

  17. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  18. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  19. Collection of large and small food particles by Bosmina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleiwas, A.H.; Stokes, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The rate of collection by Bosmina of large and small food particles was measured with 14 C-labeled algae and checked by visual observation. Bosmina collected and ingested a large alga, Cosmarium, about six times faster than a small one, Chlorella. This is consistent with the observation of DeMott and Kerfoot that Bosmina has two modes of feeding: small-particle filtering and large-particle grasping

  20. Device simulation of charge collection and single-event upset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the current status of device simulation of ionizing-radiation-induced charge collection and single-event upset (SEU), with an emphasis on significant results of recent years. The author presents an overview of device-modeling techniques applicable to the SEU problem and the unique challenges this task presents to the device modeler. He examines unloaded simulations of radiation-induced charge collection in simple p/n diodes, SEU in dynamic random access memories (DRAM's), and SEU in static random access memories (SRAM's). The author concludes with a few thoughts on future issues likely to confront the SEU device modeler

  1. Vibration-type particle separation device with piezoceramic vibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Doi, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    During hemanalysis, it is necessary to separate blood cells from whole blood. Many blood separation methods, for example, centrifugation and filtering, are in practical use. However, the use of these methods involves problems from the perspectives of processing speed and processing volume. We develop new types of blood separation devices that use piezo-ceramic vibrators. The first device uses a capillary. One end of the capillary is fixed to the device frame, and the other is fixed to a piezo-ceramic vibrator. The vibrator transmits bending waves to the capillary. This device can process only a small amount of solution; therefore, it is not suitable for hemanalysis. In order to solve this problem, we developed a second device; this device has a pair of thin glass plates with a small gap as a substitute for the capillary used in the first device. These devices are based on the fact that particles heavier than water move toward transverse velocity antinodes while those lighter than water move toward velocity nodes. In this report, we demonstrate the highspeed separation of silica microbeads and 50-vol% glycerol water by using these devices. The first device can separate the abovementioned solution within 3 min while the second can separate it within 1 min. Both devices are driven by a rectangular wave of 15 to 20 Vpp. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that red blood cells are separated from diluted whole blood using the first device within approximately 1 min. These devices have transparency, so they can compose as the analysis system with the chemical analyzer easily.

  2. Morphology of bone particles after harvesting with 4 different devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Dimitrios E V; Schmidt, Erich C; Caton, Jack G; Romanos, Georgios E

    2013-04-01

    Autogenous bone is routinely used for regeneration of osseous defects around teeth and implants, and different instruments are available for bone harvesting. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology of bone particles after harvesting with 4 different instruments. Bone particles were harvested from fresh cow ribs with 2 different types of back action chisels, a safescraper and a sonic device. The samples were examined morphologically using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The bone particles after the back action chisel I had an appearance similar to "pencil shavings." With the back action chisel II, they were like thin paper with an "accordion bellows" appearance. After removal with the safescraper, they had an irregular shape (with an irregular surface) resembling "crushed stone." Finally, the appearance of the bone particles obtained with the sonic device was homogenous, condensed and continuous, and had a "seaweed" appearance. Harvesting of bone particles with 4 different devices produce distinctly difference sizes and shapes, which may influence the results of grafting procedures.

  3. Longitudinal collective echoes in coasting particle beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Khateeb

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal ballistic and collective beam echoes with diffusion effects are investigated theoretically. In the presence of the space-charge impedance, the collective echo amplitude is obtained as a closed form expression. In contrast to the ballistic case, the collective echo amplitude consists of one maximum at time t_{echo}. The echo amplitude grows up and damps down with a rate proportional to the Landau damping rate of space-charge waves. The effect of weak diffusion is found to modify the ballistic and the collective echo amplitudes in the same manner. This effect of diffusion was confirmed using a “noiseless,” grid-based simulation code. As a first application the amount of numerical diffusion in our simulation code was determined using the echo effect.

  4. Study on an Axial Flow Hydraulic Turbine with Collection Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new type of portable hydraulic turbine that uses the kinetic energy of flow in open channels. The turbine comprises a runner with an appended collection device that includes a diffuser section in an attempt to improve the output by catching and accelerating the flow. With such turbines, the performance of the collection device, and a composite body comprising the runner and collection device were studied using numerical analysis. Among four stand-alone collection devices, the inlet velocity ratio was most improved by the collection device featuring an inlet nozzle and brim. The inlet velocity ratio of the composite body was significantly lower than that of the stand-alone collection device, owing to the resistance of the runner itself, the decreased diffuser pressure recovery coefficient, and the increased backpressure coefficient. However, at the maximum output tip speed ratio, the inlet velocity ratio and the loading coefficient were approximately 31% and 22% higher, respectively, for the composite body than for the isolated runner. In particular, the input power coefficient significantly increased (by approximately 2.76 times owing to the increase in the inlet velocity ratio. Verification tests were also conducted in a real canal to establish the actual effectiveness of the turbine.

  5. Evaluation of charge coupled devices as alpha particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, R.; Haskard, M.; Watts, S.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Solanky, M.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of the Charge Coupled Device (CCD) to provide spectroscopic and flux information for highly ionising radiation has been investigated. CCDs and related imaging chips are becoming increasingly affordable. In addition advances in technology are producing smaller and better devices. Since imaging chips are based on some variation of the pn-diode structure it is expected and known that they are sensitive to ionising radiation as well as light. Indeed specially designed CCDs are able to be used to image X-rays. This paper reports on the response of CCDs to alpha particles. (author)

  6. Synchronization and collective motion of globally coupled Brownian particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, Francisco J; Heiblum-Robles, Alexandro; Dossetti, Victor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we study a system of passive Brownian (non-self-propelled) particles in two dimensions, interacting only through a social-like force (velocity alignment in this case) that resembles Kuramoto's coupling among phase oscillators. We show that the kinematical stationary states of the system go from a phase in thermal equilibrium with no net flux of particles, to far-from-equilibrium phases exhibiting collective motion by increasing the coupling among particles. The mechanism that leads to the instability of the equilibrium phase relies on the competition between two time scales, namely, the mean collision time of the Brownian particles in a thermal bath and the time it takes for a particle to orient its direction of motion along the direction of motion of the group. Our results show a clear connection between collective motion and the Kuramoto model for synchronization, in our case, for the direction of motion of the particles. (paper)

  7. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of [le] 10 [mu]m dia.

  8. Numerical calculation of particle collection efficiency in an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theoretical and numerical research has been previously done on ESPs to predict the efficiency ... Lagrangian simulations of particle transport in wire–plate ESP were .... The collection efficiency can be defined as the ratio of the number of ...

  9. Shock waves in collective field theories for many particle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, F; Saito, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Shigemoto, K

    1980-10-01

    We find shock wave solutions to collective field equations for quantum mechanical many particle system. Importance of the existence of a ''tension'' working on the surface of the shock-wave front is pointed out.

  10. The oceanographic toolbox for the collection of sinking and suspended marine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Andrew M. P.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Sanders, Richard; Riley, Jennifer S.; Marsay, Chris; Smith, Helen E. K.; Sargent, Elizabeth C.; Lampitt, Richard S.; Bishop, James K. B.

    2015-04-01

    Marine particles play a central role in controlling the transport, cycling, and inventories of many major elements and trace elements and isotopes throughout the oceans. Studies seeking to elucidate the biogeochemical roles of marine particles often require reliable ways to collect them from the ocean. Here, we review the oceanographic toolbox of techniques and instrumentation that are employed to collect both suspended and sinking particles. With these tools, it is possible to determine both the concentrations and vertical fluxes of important elements and individual particle types. We describe the various methods for quantifying the concentrations of particulate matter with in situ pumps, towed sampling devices, bottle collectors, and large volume capture devices. The uses of various types of flux collection platforms are discussed including surface tethered, neutrally buoyant, and bottom moored devices. We address the issues of sediment trap collection biases and the apparent inconsistencies that can arise due to differences in the temporal and spatial scales sampled by the various methodologies. Special attention is given to collection considerations made for the analysis of trace metals and isotopes, as these methodologies are of high importance to the ongoing GEOTRACES program which seeks to identify the processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of key trace elements and isotopes in the ocean. With the emergence of new particle collection methodologies and the continued reliance on traditional collection methods, it is imperative that we combine these multiple approaches in ways that will help improve their accuracy and precision while enhancing their utility in advancing understanding of the biogeochemical and ecological roles of marine particles.

  11. Particle collector scoops for improved exhaust in ''axisymmetric'' devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Wolf, G.H.

    1987-11-01

    Application of particle collector scoops in front of the pumping ducts of axisymmetric divertor/magnetic limiter configurations is proposed. These scoops should enclose a significant fraction of the recycling particles. The resulting increase in natural particle pressure in front of the pumping ducts leads to an improved exhaust efficiency. This can permit an extension of the operational margin for density control. Alternatively, aiming at a prescribed exhaust flow in reactor-type devices such as INTOR, the pumping ducts could be reduced in aperture, leaving valuable space for other components. The lay-out of the proposed scheme depends on the heat load on the leading edge in front of the scoop and on the deflector in front of the pumping ducts. 14 refs., 5 figs

  12. Impedance technique for measuring dielectrophoretic collection of microbiological particles

    CERN Document Server

    Allsopp, D W E; Brown, A P; Betts, W B

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of the impedance change resulting from the collection of microbiological particles at coplanar electrodes is shown to be an effective and potentially quantitative method of detecting dielectrophoresis. Strong correlations between the frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic collection characteristics measured by impedance change and those observed using an established counting method based on image analysis have been obtained for Escherichia coli. In addition it is shown that the new electrical method can be used to sense dielectrophoretic collection of 19 nm diameter latex beads, particles too small to be resolved by conventional optical detection systems. (author)

  13. Acoustic Devices for Particle and Cell Manipulation and Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Qiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An emerging demand for the precise manipulation of cells and particles for applications in cell biology and analytical chemistry has driven rapid development of ultrasonic manipulation technology. Compared to the other manipulation technologies, such as magnetic tweezing, dielectrophoresis and optical tweezing, ultrasonic manipulation has shown potential in a variety of applications, with its advantages of versatile, inexpensive and easy integration into microfluidic systems, maintenance of cell viability, and generation of sufficient forces to handle particles, cells and their agglomerates. This article briefly reviews current practice and reports our development of various ultrasonic standing wave manipulation devices, including simple devices integrated with high frequency (>20 MHz ultrasonic transducers for the investigation of biological cells and complex ultrasonic transducer array systems to explore the feasibility of electronically controlled 2-D and 3-D manipulation. Piezoelectric and passive materials, fabrication techniques, characterization methods and possible applications are discussed. The behavior and performance of the devices have been investigated and predicted with computer simulations, and verified experimentally. Issues met during development are highlighted and discussed. To assist long term practical adoption, approaches to low-cost, wafer level batch-production and commercialization potential are also addressed.

  14. Collective motion of active Brownian particles with polar alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gómez, Aitor; Levis, Demian; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2018-04-04

    We present a comprehensive computational study of the collective behavior emerging from the competition between self-propulsion, excluded volume interactions and velocity-alignment in a two-dimensional model of active particles. We consider an extension of the active brownian particles model where the self-propulsion direction of the particles aligns with the one of their neighbors. We analyze the onset of collective motion (flocking) in a low-density regime (10% surface area) and show that it is mainly controlled by the strength of velocity-alignment interactions: the competition between self-propulsion and crowding effects plays a minor role in the emergence of flocking. However, above the flocking threshold, the system presents a richer pattern formation scenario than analogous models without alignment interactions (active brownian particles) or excluded volume effects (Vicsek-like models). Depending on the parameter regime, the structure of the system is characterized by either a broad distribution of finite-sized polar clusters or the presence of an amorphous, highly fluctuating, large-scale traveling structure which can take a lane-like or band-like form (and usually a hybrid structure which is halfway in between both). We establish a phase diagram that summarizes collective behavior of polar active brownian particles and propose a generic mechanism to describe the complexity of the large-scale structures observed in systems of repulsive self-propelled particles.

  15. Device for collecting chemical compounds and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Groenewold, Gary S.; Rae, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from the fixed surfaces so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  16. Single-particle states vs. collective modes: friends or enemies ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, T.; Tsunoda, Y.; Togashi, T.; Shimizu, N.; Abe, T.

    2018-05-01

    The quantum self-organization is introduced as one of the major underlying mechanisms of the quantum many-body systems. In the case of atomic nuclei as an example, two types of the motion of nucleons, single-particle states and collective modes, dominate the structure of the nucleus. The collective mode arises as the balance between the effect of the mode-driving force (e.g., quadrupole force for the ellipsoidal deformation) and the resistance power against it. The single-particle energies are one of the sources to produce such resistance power: a coherent collective motion is more hindered by larger spacings between relevant single particle states. Thus, the single-particle state and the collective mode are "enemies" against each other. However, the nuclear forces are rich enough so as to enhance relevant collective mode by reducing the resistance power by changing single-particle energies for each eigenstate through monopole interactions. This will be verified with the concrete example taken from Zr isotopes. Thus, the quantum self-organization occurs: single-particle energies can be self-organized by (i) two quantum liquids, e.g., protons and neutrons, (ii) monopole interaction (to control resistance). In other words, atomic nuclei are not necessarily like simple rigid vases containing almost free nucleons, in contrast to the naïve Fermi liquid picture. Type II shell evolution is considered to be a simple visible case involving excitations across a (sub)magic gap. The quantum self-organization becomes more important in heavier nuclei where the number of active orbits and the number of active nucleons are larger.

  17. The measurement and modeling of alpha-particle-induced charge collection in dynamic memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldiges, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of α-particle-induced charge collection in high-density dynamic random access memories. A novel technique for the measurement of charge collection in high-density memory cells and bit lines due to α-particle strikes was developed. The technique involves D.C. tests on simple test structures with an α-particle source on the device package as a lid. The advantages of this new measurement technique are: the method allows for in-situ measurements of charge collection on both MOS capacitors and bit lines found in present-day memories; the on-chip measurement technique minimizes errors due to external probes loading the device under test; the measurements can be controlled by a personal computer, with the data being able to be reduced on the same machine. Results obtained using this new measurement technique show that the charge collection is found to depend upon test-structure size and the configuration of its neighbors. Results of two-dimensional simulations of charge flow along the surface of an MOS capacitor from current injection due to an α-particle strike indicate that a spatial potential variation of 0.5V may occur between the point of current injection and capacitor edge for a 1M dRAM capacitor

  18. Analyzing heavy-ion-induced charge collection in Si devices by three-dimensional simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    Properties of charge collection in Si devices in response to single-ion bombardment have been studied using transient three-dimensional drift-diffusion simulation. In unloaded Si diodes, the funnel effect is particularly strong in lightly-doped materials for high-density strikes such as 100 MeV Fe, and essentially all charge collection is by funnel-assisted drift. This drift collection may occur at time scales as late as several nanoseconds, much later than is traditionally associated with drift. For more heavily-doped materials or lower-density strikes, such as 5-MeV α-particles, drift and diffusion play more equal roles. In epitaxial structures the funnel is truncated by the heavily-doped substrate, collapses quickly, and a great deal of charge is collected at late times by diffusion. Charge collection in Si circuitry is influenced by the circuit external to the struck device. Loading effects on charge collection were studied using passive external circuit elements as well as by mixed-mode simulation, which allows modeling of active external circuitry. Simulations indicate that the funnel can be significantly affected by the inclusion of passive loads, while active loads may prevent any direct charge collection by funneling. Finally, the use of three-dimensional device simulators is presented as a method of analyzing results obtained from focused ion microbeam experiments

  19. Differences in particle size distributions collected by two wood dust samplers: preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campopiano, A.; Olori, A.; Basili, F.; Ramires, D.; Zakrzewska, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of wood dust as carcinogenic to humans, and the threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 mg/m 3 weighted over an 8-hour work day as defined by Italian legislation, have raised the issue of dust risk assessments in all woodworking environments. The aim is to characterize the particle size distribution for wood particles collected by two samplers used for collecting the inhalable fraction: the IOM sampler (Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, Scotland) and the conical sampler also known in Italy as conetto. These two sampling heads were chosen mainly because the Italian conical sampler, used in the past for total dust sampling, is the most widely used by the Italian Prevention Services and analysis laboratories in general, whereas the IOM sampler was specifically designed to collect the inhalable fraction of airborne particles. The devices were placed side by side within the worker's breathing zone. In addition, another IOM sampler not connected to the personal sampling pump was placed on the same worker, thus functioning as a passive sampler capable of collecting projectile particles normally produced during processing. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDAX) was used to count the number of particles collected on the sampling filters. The size of each particle identified by the SEM was determined by measuring its mean diameter. The SEM analysis revealed that the average size of the largest particles collected by the conetto sampler did not exceed 150 μm, whereas the size of particles collected by the IOM sampler was up to 350 μm. Indeed, the analysis of the filters of the passive IOM samplers showed that particles with mean diameters larger than 100 μm were collected, although the calculated percentage was very low (on average, approximately 1%). This does not mean that their gravimetric contribution is negligible; indeed, the weight of

  20. Characterization of Airborne Particles Collected from Car Engine Air Filters Using SEM and EDX Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Rivera, Birmania; Gerardo Rodriguez, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs) was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters. Larger particles with a diameter of 74–10 µm were observed in the first category. In the second one, the detected particles had a diameter between 16 and 0.7 µm. These particles exhibited different morphologies and composition, indicating mostly a soil origin. The elemental composition revealed the presence of three groups: mineral (clay and asphalt), metallic (mainly Fe), and biological particles (vegetal and animal debris). The palynological analysis showed the presence of pollen grains associated with urban plants. These results suggest that CAFs capture a mixture of atmospheric particles, which can be analyzed in order to monitor urban air. Thus, the continuous availability of large numbers of filters and the retroactivity associated to the car routes suggest that these CAFs are very useful for studying the high traffic zones within a city. PMID:27706087

  1. Characterization of Airborne Particles Collected from Car Engine Air Filters Using SEM and EDX Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birmania Heredia Rivera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX. The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters. Larger particles with a diameter of 74–10 µm were observed in the first category. In the second one, the detected particles had a diameter between 16 and 0.7 µm. These particles exhibited different morphologies and composition, indicating mostly a soil origin. The elemental composition revealed the presence of three groups: mineral (clay and asphalt, metallic (mainly Fe, and biological particles (vegetal and animal debris. The palynological analysis showed the presence of pollen grains associated with urban plants. These results suggest that CAFs capture a mixture of atmospheric particles, which can be analyzed in order to monitor urban air. Thus, the continuous availability of large numbers of filters and the retroactivity associated to the car routes suggest that these CAFs are very useful for studying the high traffic zones within a city.

  2. Collective phenomena with energetic particles in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breizman, B.N.; Berk, H.L.; Candy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory of collective modes driven by energetic particles, as well as interpretations of fast particle effects observed in fusion-related experiments, are described. New developments in linear theory include: (a) Alfven-mode frequency gap widening due to energetic trapped ions, (b) interpretation of JET results for plasma pressure effect on TAE modes, and (c) ''counter'' propagation of TAE modes due to trapped fast ion anisotropy. The new nonlinear results are: (a) theoretical explanation for the pitchfork splitting effect observed in TAE experiments on JET, (b) existence of coherent structures with strong frequency chirping due to kinetic instability, (c) self-consistent nonlinear theory for fishbone instabilities, and (d) intermittent quasilinear diffusion model for anomalous fast particle losses. (author)

  3. Collective phenomena with energetic particles in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breizman, B.N.; Berk, H.L.; Candy, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory of collective modes driven by energetic particles, as well as interpretations of fast particle effects observed in fusion-related experiments, are described. New developments in linear theory include: (a) Alfven-mode frequency gap widening due to energetic trapped ions, (b) interpretation of JET results for plasma pressure effect on TAE modes, and (c) 'counter' propagation of TAE modes due to trapped fast ion anisotropy. The new nonlinear results are: (a) theoretical explanation for the pitchfork splitting effect observed in TAE experiments on JET, (b) existence of coherent structures with strong frequency chirping due to kinetic instability, (c) self-consistent nonlinear theory for fishbone instabilities, and (d) intermittent quasilinear diffusion model for anomalous fast particle losses. (author)

  4. Single-particle and collective states in transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhenry, I.; Suomijaervi, T.; Giai, N. van

    1993-01-01

    The possibility to excite collective states in transfer reactions induced by heavy ions is studied. Collective states are described within the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and the collectivity is defined according to the number of configurations contributing to a given state. The particle transfer is described within the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA). Calculations are performed for two different stripping reactions: 207 Pb( 20 Ne, 19 Ne) 208 Pb and 59 Co( 20 Ne, 19 F) 60 Ni at 48 MeV/nucleon for which experimental data are available. The calculation shows that a sizeable fraction of collective strength can be excited in these reactions. The comparison with experiment shows that this parameter-free calculation qualitatively explains the data. (author) 19 refs.; 10 figs

  5. Verification of Gyrokinetic Particle of Turbulent Simulation of Device Size Scaling Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhihong; S. ETHIER; T. S. HAHM; W. M. TANG

    2012-01-01

    Verification and historical perspective are presented on the gyrokinetic particle simulations that discovered the device size scaling of turbulent transport and indentified the geometry model as the source of the long-standing disagreement between gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulations.

  6. Human Saliva Collection Devices for Proteomics: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib Khurshid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in the interest and adaptation of saliva as a diagnostic specimen over the last decade, and in the last few years in particular, there have been major developments involving the application of saliva as a clinically relevant specimen. Saliva provides a “window” into the oral and systemic health of an individual, and like other bodily fluids, saliva can be analyzed and studied to diagnose diseases. With the advent of new, more sensitive technologies to detect smaller concentrations of analytes in saliva relative to blood levels, there have been a number of critical developments in the field that we will describe. In particular, recent advances in standardized saliva collection devices that were not available three to four years ago, have made it easy for safe, simple, and non-invasive collection of samples to be carried out from patients. With the availability of these new technologies, we believe that in the next decade salivary proteomics will make it possible to predict and diagnose oral as well as systemic diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases, among others. The aim of this article is to review recent developments and advances in the area of saliva specimen collection devices and applications that will advance the field of proteomics.

  7. Particle Trajectories in Rotating Wall Cell Culture Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran N.; Downey, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Cell cultures are extremely important to the medical community since such cultures provide an opportunity to perform research on human tissue without the concerns inherent in experiments on individual humans. Development of cells in cultures has been found to be greatly influenced by the conditions of the culture. Much work has focused on the effect of the motions of cells in the culture relative to the solution. Recently rotating wall vessels have been used with success in achieving improved cellular cultures. Speculation and limited research have focused on the low shear environment and the ability of rotating vessels to keep cells suspended in solution rather than floating or sedimenting as the primary reasons for the improved cellular cultures using these devices. It is widely believed that the cultures obtained using a rotating wall vessel simulates to some degree the effect of microgravity on cultures. It has also been speculated that the microgravity environment may provide the ideal acceleration environment for culturing of cellular tissues due to the nearly negligible levels of sedimentation and shear possible. This work predicts particle trajectories of cells in rotating wall vessels of cylindrical and annular design consistent with the estimated properties of typical cellular cultures. Estimates of the shear encountered by cells in solution and the interactions with walls are studied. Comparisons of potential experiments in ground and microgravity environments are performed.

  8. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  9. submitter Introduction to Collective Effects in Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The beam intensity and the beam brightness of particle accelerators or colliders operated for high - energy physics were, and are, often severely limited by “collective effects” (e.g.[1]). By contrast, new light sources, such as linac - based free electron lasers, may even rely on collective instabilities to accomplish their mission! The term “collective effects” refers to the interaction of beam particles with each other through a variety of processes, e.g. (1) non-delayed self-fields and image fields present even for constant perfectly conducting and magnetic boundaries (direct and indirect “space - charge effects”), (2) longer - lived electro-magnetic “wake fields” due to a finite chamber resistivity or geometric variation in the beam - pipe cross section, which typically affect later parts of the beam, (3) coherent synchrotron radiation, which on a curved trajectory may even influence earlier parts of the beam, giving rise to “non-causal” wake fields, otherwise not normally encountered...

  10. Single-particle and collective excitations in Ni-63

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, M.; Zhu, S.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Gellanki, Jnaneswari; Ragnarsson, Ingemar; Alcorta, M.; Baugher, T.; Bertone, P. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Deacon, A. N.; Gade, A.; DiGiovine, B.; Hoffman, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    A study of excited states in Ni-63 up to an excitation energy of 28 MeV and a probable spin of 57/2 was carried out with the Mg-26(Ca-48,2 alpha 3n gamma)Ni-63 reaction at beam energies between 275 and 320 MeV. Three collective bands, built upon states of single-particle character, were identified. For two of the three bands, the transition quadrupole moments were extracted, herewith quantifying the deformation at high spin. The results have been compared with shell-model and cranked Nilsson-...

  11. Method and device for the separation of particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van Kooy, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of in a liquid separating a mixture of particles that within chosen limits have different physical property values, wherein the particles to be separated are supplied via a feeder to a screen upon which a layer of facilitating particles is disposed, the size of the

  12. TFTR 60 GHz alpha particle collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuzak, J.S.; Woskov, P.P.; Gilmore, J.; Bretz, N.L.; Park, H.K.; Bindslev, H.

    1995-03-01

    A 60 GHz gyrotron collective Thomson Scattering alpha particle diagnostic has been implemented for the D-T period on TFM. Gyrotron power of 0.1-1 kW in pulses of up to 1 second can be launched in X-mode. Efficient corrugated waveguides are used with antennaes and vacuum windows of the TFTR Microwave Scattering system. A multichannel synchronous detector receiver system and spectrum analyzer acquire the scattered signals. A 200 Megasample/sec digitizer is used to resolve fine structure in the frequency spectrum. By scattering nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field, this experiment will take advantage of an enhancement of the scattered signal which results from the interaction of the alpha particles with plasma resonances in the lower hybrid frequency range. Significant enhancements are expected, which will make these measurements possible with gyrotron power less than 1 kW, while maintaining an acceptable signal to noise ratio. We hope to extract alpha particle density and velocity distribution functions from the data. The D and T fuel densities and temperatures may also be obtainable by measurement of the respective ion cyclotron harmonic frequencies

  13. Particle-Based Microfluidic Device for Providing High Magnetic Field Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Adam Y. (Inventor); Wong, Tak S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic device for manipulating particles in a fluid has a device body that defines a main channel therein, in which the main channel has an inlet and an outlet. The device body further defines a particulate diverting channel therein, the particulate diverting channel being in fluid connection with the main channel between the inlet and the outlet of the main channel and having a particulate outlet. The microfluidic device also has a plurality of microparticles arranged proximate or in the main channel between the inlet of the main channel and the fluid connection of the particulate diverting channel to the main channel. The plurality of microparticles each comprises a material in a composition thereof having a magnetic susceptibility suitable to cause concentration of magnetic field lines of an applied magnetic field while in operation. A microfluidic particle-manipulation system has a microfluidic particle-manipulation device and a magnet disposed proximate the microfluidic particle-manipulation device.

  14. Device-independent quantum key distribution secure against collective attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pironio, Stefano; Gisin, Nicolas; AcIn, Antonio; Brunner, Nicolas; Massar, Serge; Scarani, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD) represents a relaxation of the security assumptions made in usual quantum key distribution (QKD). As in usual QKD, the security of DIQKD follows from the laws of quantum physics, but contrary to usual QKD, it does not rely on any assumptions about the internal working of the quantum devices used in the protocol. In this paper, we present in detail the security proof for a DIQKD protocol introduced in AcIn et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 230501). This proof exploits the full structure of quantum theory (as opposed to other proofs that exploit only the no-signaling principle), but only holds against collective attacks, where the eavesdropper is assumed to act on the quantum systems of the honest parties independently and identically in each round of the protocol (although she can act coherently on her systems at any time). The security of any DIQKD protocol necessarily relies on the violation of a Bell inequality. We discuss the issue of loopholes in Bell experiments in this context.

  15. Charge-coupled devices for particle detection with high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, F.J.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Gillman, A.R.; Wickens, F.J.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a study of the possible application of a thin microelectronic device (the charge-coupled device) to high energy physics as particle detectors with good spatial resolution which can distinguish between tracks emerging from the primary vertex and those from secondary vertices due to the decay of short lived particles with higher flavours, are reported. Performance characteristics indicating the spatial resolution, particle discrimination, time resolution, readout time and lifetime of such detectors have been obtained. (U.K.)

  16. Oscillating microbubbles for selective particle sorting in acoustic microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Priscilla; Xu, Lin; Neild, Adrian

    2012-05-01

    In this study, acoustic waves were used to excite a microbubble for selective particle trapping and sorting. Excitation of the bubble at its volume resonance, as necessary to drive strong fluid microstreaming, resulted in the particles being either selectively attracted to the bubble or continuing to follow the local microstreamlines. The operating principle exploited two acoustic phenomena acting on the particle suspension: the drag force arising from the acoustic microstreaming and the secondary Bjerknes force, i.e. the attractive radiation force produced between an oscillating bubble and a non-buoyant particle. It was also found that standing wave fields within the fluid chamber could be used to globally align bubbles and particles for local particle sorting by the bubble.

  17. Method for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles, device for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yung Y

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for dispersing particles within a reaction field, the method comprising confining the particles to the reaction field using a standing wave. The invention also provides a system for coating particles, the system comprising a reaction zone; a means for producing fluidized particles within the reaction zone; a fluid to produce a standing wave within the reaction zone; and a means for introducing coating moieties to the reaction zone. The invention also provides a method for coating particles, the method comprising fluidizing the particles, subjecting the particles to a standing wave; and contacting the subjected particles with a coating moiety.

  18. Single-particle Analyses of Compositions, Morphology, and Viscosity of Aerosol Particles Collected During GoAmazon2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Gong, Z.; Bateman, A. P.; Martin, S. T.; Cirino, G. G.; Artaxo, P.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Buseck, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Single-particle analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows composition and morphology of individual aerosol particles collected during the GoAmazon2014 campaign. These TEM results indicate aerosol types and mixing states, both of which are important for evaluating particle optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei activity. The samples were collected at the T3 site, which is located in the Amazon forest with influences from the urban pollution plume from Manaus. Samples were also collected from the T0 site, which is in the middle of the jungle with minimal to no influences of anthropogenic sources. The aerosol particles mainly originated from 1) anthropogenic pollution (e.g., nanosphere soot, sulfate), 2) biogenic emissions (e.g., primary biogenic particles, organic aerosols), and 3) long-range transport (e.g., sea salts). We found that the biogenic organic aerosol particles contain homogeneously distributed potassium. Particle viscosity is important for evaluating gas-particle interactions and atmospheric chemistry for the particles. Viscosity can be estimated from the rebounding behavior at controlled relative humidities, i.e., highly viscous particles display less rebound on a plate than low-viscosity particles. We collected 1) aerosol particles from a plate (non-rebounded), 2) those that had rebounded from the plate and were then captured onto an adjacent sampling plate, and 3) particles from ambient air using a separate impactor sampler. Preliminary results show that more than 90% of non-rebounded particles consisted of nanosphere soot with or without coatings. The coatings mostly consisted of organic matter. Although rebounded particles also contain nanosphere soot (number fraction 64-69%), they were mostly internally mixed with sulfate, organic matter, or their mixtures. TEM tilted images suggested that the rebounded particles were less deformed on the substrate, whereas the non-rebounded particles were more deformed, which could

  19. Charges collection induced in APS by heavy particles: influence of design parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belredon, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the design parameters influence on heavy ions-induced charge collection physics in APS. The goal is to determine the key parameters for an optimised space environment 'particle detector' APS design. It appears that diffusion is the dominant charge collection mechanism in all the studied technology types, with a smaller magnitude in case of epitaxial technologies. Following proton irradiation, a delayed charge collection and loss of collected charges have been observed. These phenomena are explained by the combination of carriers diffusion and action of the traps generated in the device. Even if they cannot be avoid in space applications, these effects are reduced in case of epitaxial technologies. This work led to the design parameters definition of an optimized APS 'particle detector' and to its fabrication. The results obtained on this APS confirm the previous conclusions and let us define the detection range of such detectors from 0.03 to 50 MeV.cm 2 .mg -1 . (author) [fr

  20. Aspects of a collective single-particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutz, U.

    1985-01-01

    The successful application of time-reversal breaking wave functions in the framework of collective models based on a mean-field approach is for fermionic accesses known for a long while. In this thesis this concept is confirmed also for bosons. Especially in the study of some simple models the physical content of which is determined by the IBA model analytical model-solutions are found which are in a surprisingly well agreement with the exact IBA solutions and the experimental spectra. These solutions which describe the ground-state band are thereby dependent on geometrical shape parameters and of a simpler structure than those of the IBA model. Thereby the cranking model serves as an essential support. In order to obtain a better understanding of the cranking model it is tried to go beyond the mean-field approach. Thereby also the neighbourhood of the stationary point is studied. The approach consecuted here is based on the necessity of a variation after the projection. This is forced by the application of as simple wave functions as possible in the solution of the nuclear many-body problem by means of a symmetry breaking mean-field. Exactly performable is the projection however only in the case of the particle-number symmetry. The particle-number projection was applied to the study of the high spin excitations of 168 Hf. The two-quasiparticle band of this nucleus exhibits a rotational band with the moment of inertia of a rigid body. The speculation of a phase transition of the nuclear system from superfluid to normally fluid resulting from this is not confirmed in the theoretical study. The energy gap remains also in the two-quasiparticle band up to high angular momenta nearly undiminishedly. Especially it is shown that the energy-level scheme of a nucleus contains no information about phase transitions. (orig./HSI) [de

  1. The DIRC counter: A new type of particle identification device for B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.; Lu, A.

    1992-07-01

    A very thin, solid radiator, totally internally reflecting, imaging Cherenkov counter (DIRC) is described. this device is well matched to the hadronic charged particle identification requirements at an asymmetric e + e - B Factory

  2. The DIRC counter: A new type of particle identification device for B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliff, B.

    1993-01-01

    A very thin, solid radiator, totally internally reflecting, imaging Cherenkov counter (DIRC) is described. This device is well matched to the hadronic charged particle identification requirements at an asymmetric e + e - B Factory

  3. A size selective nanoparticle collection device based on diffusion and thermophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyyraenen, Jussi; Backman, Ulrika; Tapper, Unto; Auvinen, Ari; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing industry fabricating products that are based on nanoparticles (particle diameter d p ≤100 nm). The production of these particles requires detection, classification and characterisation of even smaller particles because of, e.g. preventing unwanted particle emissions from the processes and health issues. Monitoring of the processes is needed on one hand for product quality determinations, on the other hand to ensure safe and particle-free working conditions. Thus simple, fast and reliable measurement devices are needed for particle characterisation.

  4. Device and method for enhanced collection and assay of chemicals with high surface area ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addleman, Raymond S.; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Cinson, Anthony D.; Bays, John T.; Wallace, Krys

    2016-02-16

    A method and device for enhanced capture of target analytes is disclosed. This invention relates to collection of chemicals for separations and analysis. More specifically, this invention relates to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) device having better capability for chemical collection and analysis. This includes better physical stability, capacity for chemical collection, flexible surface chemistry and high affinity for target analyte.

  5. Particle interaction and displacement damage in silicon devices operated in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Claude; Rancoita, Pier-Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Silicon is used in radiation detectors and electronic devices. Nowadays, these devices achieving submicron technology are parts of integrated circuits of large to very large scale integration (VLSI). Silicon and silicon-based devices are commonly operated in many fields including particle physics experiments, nuclear medicine and space. Some of these fields present adverse radiation environments that may affect the operation of the devices. The particle energy deposition mechanisms by ionization and non-ionization processes are reviewed as well as the radiation-induced damage and its effect on device parameters evolution, depending on particle type, energy and fluence. The temporary or permanent damage inflicted by a single particle (single event effect) to electronic devices or integrated circuits is treated separately from the total ionizing dose (TID) effect for which the accumulated fluence causes degradation and from the displacement damage induced by the non-ionizing energy-loss (NIEL) deposition. Understanding of radiation effects on silicon devices has an impact on their design and allows the prediction of a specific device behaviour when exposed to a radiation field of interest

  6. Collective dynamics of particles from viscous to turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The book surveys the state-of-the-art methods that are currently available to model and simulate the presence of rigid particles in a fluid flow. For particles that are very small relative to the characteristic flow scales and move without interaction with other particles, effective equations of motion for particle tracking are formulated and applied (e.g. in gas-solid flows). For larger particles, for particles in liquid-solid flows and for particles that interact with each other or possibly modify the overall flow detailed model are presented. Special attention is given to the description of the approximate force coupling method (FCM) as a more general treatment for small particles, and derivations in the context of low Reynolds numbers for the particle motion as well as application at finite Reynolds numbers are provided. Other topics discussed in the book are the relation to higher resolution immersed boundary methods, possible extensions to non-spherical particles and examples of applications of such met...

  7. Collective rotations of active particles interacting with obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Zahra; Aspelmeier, Timo; Zippelius, Annette

    2017-10-01

    We consider active particles in a heterogeneous medium, modeled by static, random obstacles. In accordance with the known tendency of active particles to cluster, we observe accumulation and crystallization of active particles around the obstacles which serve as nucleation sites. In the limit of high activity, the crystals start to rotate spontaneously, resembling a rotating rigid body. We trace the occurrence of these oscillations to the enhanced attraction of particles whose orientation points along the rotational velocity as compared to those whose orientation points in the opposite direction.

  8. Ultrasonic device for real-time sewage velocity and suspended particles concentration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abda, F; Azbaid, A; Ensminger, D; Fischer, S; François, P; Schmitt, P; Pallarès, A

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of a technological research and innovation network in water and environment technologies (RITEAU, Réseau de Recherche et d'Innovation Technologique Eau et Environnement), our research group, in collaboration with industrial partners and other research institutions, has been in charge of the development of a suitable flowmeter: an ultrasonic device measuring simultaneously the water flow and the concentration of size classes of suspended particles. Working on the pulsed ultrasound principle, our multi-frequency device (1 to 14 MHz) allows flow velocity and water height measurement and estimation of suspended solids concentration. Velocity measurements rely on the coherent Doppler principle. A self developed frequency estimator, so called Spectral Identification method, was used and compared to the classical Pulse-Pair method. Several measurements campaigns on one wastewater collector of the French city of Strasbourg gave very satisfactory results and showed smaller standard deviation values for the Doppler frequency extracted by the Spectral Identification method. A specific algorithm was also developed for the water height measurements. It relies on the water surface acoustic impedance rupture and its peak localisation and behaviour in the collected backscattering data. This algorithm was positively tested on long time measurements on the same wastewater collector. A large part of the article is devoted to the measurements of the suspended solids concentrations. Our data analysis consists in the adaptation of the well described acoustic behaviour of sand to the behaviour of wastewater particles. Both acoustic attenuation and acoustic backscattering data over multiple frequencies are analyzed for the extrapolation of size classes and respective concentrations. Under dry weather conditions, the massic backscattering coefficient and the overall size distribution showed similar evolution whatever the measurement site was and were suggesting a global

  9. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrah K. Sleeth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling. However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138, including conventions for extrathoracic (ET deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET1 and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET2. For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm–44.3 µm were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device.

  10. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeth, Darrah K; Balthaser, Susan A; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R

    2016-03-07

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET₁) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET₂). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm-44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device.

  11. Particle collection by a pilot plant venturi scrubber downstream from a pilot plant electrostatic precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L. E.; Ramsey, G. H.; Daniel, B. E.

    The results of pilot plant experiments of particulate collection by a venturi scrubber downstream from an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are presented. The data, which cover a range of scrubber operating conditions and ESP efficiencies, show that particle collection by the venturi scrubber is not affected by the upstream ESP; i.e., for a given scrubber pressure drop, particle collection efficiency as a function of particle diameter is the same for both ESP on and ESP off. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Order of magnitude cost estimates indicate that particle collection by ESP scrubber systems may be economically attractive when scrubbers must be used for SO x control.

  12. Interplay of single particle and collective response in molecular dynamics simulation of dusty plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Srimanta; Das, Amita; Kumar, Sandeep; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The collective response of the plasma medium is well known and has been explored extensively in the context of dusty plasma medium. On the other hand, the individual particle response associated with the collisional character giving rise to the dissipative phenomena has not been explored adequately. In this paper, two-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation of dust particles interacting via Yukawa potential has been considered. It has been shown that disturbances induced in a dust crystal elicit both collective and single particle responses. Generation of a few particles moving at speeds considerably higher than acoustic and/or shock speed (excited by the external disturbance) is observed. This is an indication of a single particle response. Furthermore, as these individual energetic particles propagate, the dust crystal is observed to crack along their path. Initially when the energy is high, these particles generate secondary energetic particles by the collisional scattering process. However, ultimately as these particles slow down they excite a collective response in the dust medium at secondary locations in a region which is undisturbed by the primary external disturbance. The condition when the cracking of the crystal stops and collective excitations get initiated has been identified quantitatively. The trailing collective primary disturbances would thus often encounter a disturbed medium with secondary and tertiary collective perturbations, thereby suffering significant modification in its propagation. It is thus clear that there is an interesting interplay (other than mere dissipation) between the single particle and collective response which governs the dynamics of any disturbance introduced in the medium.

  13. Experimental study of elementary collection efficiency of aerosols by spray: Design of the experimental device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducret, D.; Vendel, J.; Garrec. S.L.

    1995-02-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant containment building, in which pressure and temperature could increase because of a overheating reactor accident, can be achieved by spraying water drops. The spray reduces the pressure and the temperature levels by condensation of steam on cold water drops. The more stringent thermodynamic conditions are a pressure of 5.10{sup 5} Pa (due to steam emission) and a temperature of 413 K. Moreover its energy dissipation function, the spray leads to the washout of fission product particles emitted in the reactor building atmosphere. The present study includes a large program devoted to the evaluation of realistic washout rates. The aim of this work is to develop experiments in order to determine the collection efficiency of aerosols by a single drop. To do this, the experimental device has to be designed with fundamental criteria:-Thermodynamic conditions have to be representative of post-accident atmosphere. Thermodynamic equilibrium has to be attained between the water drops and the gaseous phase. Thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and mechanical effects have to be studied independently. Operating conditions have to be homogenous and constant during each experiment. This paper presents the design of the experimental device. In practice, the consequences on the design of each of the criteria given previously and the necessity of being representative of the real conditions will be described.

  14. Diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol and DHEA using a novel collection device: electronic monitoring confirms accurate recording of collection time using this device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudenslager, Mark L; Calderone, Jacqueline; Philips, Sam; Natvig, Crystal; Carlson, Nichole E

    2013-09-01

    The accurate indication of saliva collection time is important for defining the diurnal decline in salivary cortisol as well as characterizing the cortisol awakening response. We tested a convenient and novel collection device for collecting saliva on strips of filter paper in a specially constructed booklet for determination of both cortisol and DHEA. In the present study, 31 healthy adults (mean age 43.5 years) collected saliva samples four times a day on three consecutive days using filter paper collection devices (Saliva Procurement and Integrated Testing (SPIT) booklet) which were maintained during the collection period in a large plastic bottle with an electronic monitoring cap. Subjects were asked to collect saliva samples at awakening, 30 min after awakening, before lunch and 600 min after awakening. The time of awakening and the time of collection before lunch were allowed to vary by each subjects' schedule. A reliable relationship was observed between the time recorded by the subject directly on the booklet and the time recorded by electronic collection device (n=286 observations; r(2)=0.98). However, subjects did not consistently collect the saliva samples at the two specific times requested, 30 and 600 min after awakening. Both cortisol and DHEA revealed diurnal declines. In spite of variance in collection times at 30 min and 600 min after awakening, the slope of the diurnal decline in both salivary cortisol and DHEA was similar when we compared collection tolerances of ±7.5 and ±15 min for each steroid. These unique collection booklets proved to be a reliable method for recording collection times by subjects as well as for estimating diurnal salivary cortisol and DHEA patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of silicon devices (diodes, RAMs, etc.) for alpha particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Foglio Para, A.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon electronic devices (diodes, random access memories (RAMs), etc.) can be employed in alpha particle detection and spectroscopy with a good energy resolution. The detection mechanisms are first discussed; the performances of these devices operating in the pulse and in the current mode are then described starting from the pioneering works of the last decade. Some peculiar applications of RAMs are finally reported. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  16. Counterpropagating wave acoustic particle manipulation device for the effective manufacture of composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Marc-S; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Llewellyn-Jones, Thomas M; Trask, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    An ultrasonic assembly device exhibiting broadband behavior and a sacrificial plastic frame is described. This device is used to assemble a variety of microscopic particles differing in size, shape, and material into simple patterns within several host fluids. When the host fluid is epoxy, the assembled materials can be cured and the composite sample extracted from the sacrificial frame. The wideband performance means that within a single device, the wavelength can be varied, leading to control of the length scale of the acoustic radiation force field. We show that glass fibers of 50 μm length and 14 μm diameter can be assembled into a series of stripes separated by hundreds of microns in a time of 0.3 s. Finite element analysis is used to understand the attributes of the device which control its wideband characteristics. The bandwidth is shown to be governed by the damping produced by a combination of the plastic frame and the relatively large volume of the fluid particle mixture. The model also reveals that the acoustic radiation forces are a maximum near the substrate of the device, which is in agreement with experimental observations. The device is extended to 8-transducers and used to assemble more complex particle distributions.

  17. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a collective microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2016-02-16

    An electric power storage device is described herein, wherein the electric power storage device is included in a microgrid. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for a collective microgrid. The collective microgrid includes at least two connected microgrids. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the at least two connected microgrids and specified load parameters in the at least two connected microgrids.

  18. High Tc superconducting three-terminal device under quasi-particle injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Kabasawa, U.; Tonouchi, M.; Kobayashi, T.

    1988-01-01

    A new type of the current injection type three terminal device was fabricated using the high Tc YBaCuO thin epitaxial films, wherein the hot quasi-particle injection effect on the superconducting current was closely examined. The zero bias drain current was efficiently suppressed by the injection of the hot quasi-particles through the gate electrode. Though it is speculative, a comparison of the experimental results and analyses based on the familiar BCS theory intimates that the main mechanism of the current modulation is the non-equilibrium superconductivity due to accumulation of the excess quasi-particles

  19. Comparison of Pectin Hydrogel Collection Methods in Microfluidic Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chaeyeon; Park, Ki-Su; Kang, Sung-Min; Kim, Jongmin; Song, YoungShin; Lee, Chang-Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated the effect of different collection methods on physical properties of pectin hydrogels in microfluidic synthetic approach. The pectin hydrogels were simply produced by the incorporation of calcium ions dissolved in continuous mineral oil. Then, different collection methods, pipetting, tubing, and settling, for harvesting pectin hydrogels were applied. The settling method showed most uniform and monodispersed hydrogels. In the case of settling, a coefficient of variation was 3.46 which was lower than pipetting method (18.60) and tubing method (14.76). Under the settling method, we could control the size of hydrogels, ranging from 30 μm to 180 μm, by simple manipulation of the viscosity of pectin and volumetric flow rate of dispersed and continuous phase. Finally, according to the characteristics of simple encapsulation of biological materials, we envision that the pectin hydrogels can be applied to drug delivery, food, and biocompatible materials.

  20. Collective and single-particle states at high excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, A.M.; Van der Molen, H.K.T.; Harakeh, M.N.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Ihara, F.; Inomata, T.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Damping of high-lying single-particle states was investigated by the study of proton decay from high-lying states in 91 Nb, populated by the 90 Zr(α,t) reaction with E α = 180 MeV. In addition to decay to the ground state of 90 Zr, semi-direct decay was observed to the low-lying (2 + and 3 - ) phonon states, confirming the conclusion from other experiments that these phonon states play an important role in the damping process of the single-particle states. Furthermore, the population and decay of Isobaric Analogue States of 91 Zr, which are located at an excitation energy of about 10 - 12 MeV in 91 Nb, has been studied in the same reaction. (author)

  1. Analysis of the particle stability in a new designed ultrasonic levitation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Sebastian; Andrade, Marco A B; Esen, Cemal; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    The use of acoustic levitation in the fields of analytical chemistry and in the containerless processing of materials requires a good stability of the levitated particle. However, spontaneous oscillations and rotation of the levitated particle have been reported in literature, which can reduce the applicability of the acoustic levitation technique. Aiming to reduce the particle oscillations, this paper presents the analysis of the particle stability in a new acoustic levitator device. The new acoustic levitator consists of a piezoelectric transducer with a concave radiating surface and a concave reflector. The analysis is conducted by determining numerically the axial and lateral forces that act on the levitated object and by measuring the oscillations of a sphere particle by a laser Doppler vibrometer. It is shown that the new levitator design allows to increase the lateral forces and reduce significantly the lateral oscillations of the levitated object.

  2. Levitation and dynamics of a collection of dust particles in a fully ionized plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitter, T.; Aslaksen, T.K.; Melandsoe, F.; Havnes, O.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have examined the dynamics of a collection of charged dust particles in the plasma sheath above a large body in a fully ionized space plasma when the radius of the large body is much larger than the sheath thickness. The dust particles are charged by the plasma, and the forces on the dust particles are assumed to be from the electric field in the sheath and from gravitation only. These forces will often act in opposite direction and may balance, making dust suspension and collection possible. The dust particles are supplied by injection or by electrostatic levitation. The ability of the sheath to collect dust particles, will be optimal for a certain combination of gravitation and plasma and dust particle parameters. In a dense dust sheath, the charges on the dust particles contribute significantly to the total space charge, and collective effects become important. These effects will reduce the magnitude of the sheath electric field strength and the charge on the dust particles. As dust particles are collected, the dust sheath is stretched and the largest dust particles may drop out, because the sheath is no longer able to suspend them. In a tenuous dust sheath, the inner layer, from the surface and about one Debye length thick, will be unstable for dust particle motion, and dust will not collect there. In a dense dust sheath, collective effects will decrease the thickness of this inner dust-free layer, making dust collection closer to the surface possible. By linearization of the force and current equations, they find the necessary and sufficient conditions which resemble those of planetary system bodies, but the results may also be of relevance to some laboratory plasmas

  3. Reliability data collection on IC and VLSI devices tested under accelerated life conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, D.M.; Meniconi, M.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a more general investigation into the reliability and failure causes of semiconductor devices, statistical samples of integrated circuit devices (LM741C) and dynamic random access memory devices (TMS4116) were tested destructively to failure using elevated temperature as the accelerating stress. The devices were operated during the life test and the failure data generated were collected automatically using a multiple question-and-answer program and a process control computer. The failure data were modelled from the lognormal, inverse Gaussian and Weibull distribution using an Arrhenius reaction rate model. The failed devices were later decapsulated for failure cause determination. (orig./DG)

  4. An innovative device for powders classification based on combined aerodynamic and electrostatic separation of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriou, Bruno; Mayer-Laigle, Claire; Maalel, Firas; Plissot, Jorys; Rouau, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    An innovative separator have been developed which aims at sorting out powders fractions according to aerodynamic and electrostatic properties of particles. The prototype is composed of a projection unit, a separation module and a classification/collection zone. The projection part is ensured by a pressurized gun. The separation module is conceived to disperse particles according to front and transverse directions. At the output of the gun, electrodes can be disposed to deviate the trajectory of charged particles. The classification part is made of a series of collecting bins. Starch, fine ash powders, and mixtures of these two materials were used to test the working of the separator. The efficiency of the separation was assessed by yields and particle sizes distribution of the collected fractions in the different bins. An aerodynamic classification was achieved along the main axis, with the finest particles crossing larger distances. With a blend of starch and ash, particles from both materials were unevenly distributed in the classifyier, opening the way to a possible separation based simply on aerodynamic properties. When an electric deviation was applied in addition to the projection of powders, the distribution of particles in the collecting part was modified.

  5. An innovative device for powders classification based on combined aerodynamic and electrostatic separation of particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriou Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative separator have been developed which aims at sorting out powders fractions according to aerodynamic and electrostatic properties of particles. The prototype is composed of a projection unit, a separation module and a classification/collection zone. The projection part is ensured by a pressurized gun. The separation module is conceived to disperse particles according to front and transverse directions. At the output of the gun, electrodes can be disposed to deviate the trajectory of charged particles. The classification part is made of a series of collecting bins. Starch, fine ash powders, and mixtures of these two materials were used to test the working of the separator. The efficiency of the separation was assessed by yields and particle sizes distribution of the collected fractions in the different bins. An aerodynamic classification was achieved along the main axis, with the finest particles crossing larger distances. With a blend of starch and ash, particles from both materials were unevenly distributed in the classifyier, opening the way to a possible separation based simply on aerodynamic properties. When an electric deviation was applied in addition to the projection of powders, the distribution of particles in the collecting part was modified.

  6. Endovascular Device Testing with Particle Image Velocimetry Enhances Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Priya; Ankeny, Casey J.; Ryan, Justin; Okcay, Murat; Frakes, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of a new system, HemoFlow™, which utilizes state of the art technologies such as particle image velocimetry to test endovascular devices as part of an undergraduate biomedical engineering curriculum. Students deployed an endovascular stent into an anatomical model of a cerebral aneurysm and measured intra-aneurysmal flow…

  7. TEM study of soot, organic aerosol, and sea-salt particles collected during CalNex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosol particles are emitted in abundance from megacities. Those particles can have important effects on both human health and climate. In this study, aerosol particles having aerodynamic diameters between 50 and 300 nm were collected during the CalNex campaign at the Pasadena ground site from May 15 to June 15, 2010, ~15 km northeast of downtown Los Angeles. The samples were analyzed using transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) to characterize particle shapes and compositions. Most samples are dominated by soot, organic aerosol (OA), sulfate, sea salt, or combinations thereof. Sizes and amounts of OA particles increased during the afternoons, and most soot particles were internally mixed with OA and sulfate in the afternoons. The proportion of soot to other material in individual particles increased and soot particles were more compact during the nights and early mornings. Sea-salt particles were commonly internally mixed with other materials. They have high Na contents with lesser N, Mg, S, K, and Ca and almost no Cl, suggesting that the Cl was replaced by sulfate or nitrate in the atmosphere. There is less OA and more sea salt and sulfate in the CalNex samples than in the samples from Mexico City that were collected during the MILAGRO campaign. Our study indicates that compositions of internally mixed aerosol particles and shapes of soot particles change significantly within a day. These changes probably influence the estimates of their effects on human health and climate.

  8. A supplemental device to return escaping particles to a magnetic mirror reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Mitsuaki [Nippon Electronic Engineering College, Noboribetsu-shi, Hokkaido (Japan); Sawada, Keiichi [Soft Creator Company, Kyoto (Japan)

    2018-12-15

    Cyclotron resonance is now applied as one of the important means for heating plasma in a fusion reactor. We examined this phenomenon from the viewpoint of electron gyration orbits through a solution of the linearized relativistic equation of motion. We found a powerful term that accelerates a relativistic charged particle largely at a resonance point when a magnetic field strength is very large. In this study, aiming an effect of this term, we consider applying a resonance phenomenon to reducing the number of charged particles that escape from a magnetic mirror reactor. We install a long supplemental device at the exit of a main magnetic bottle and make a cyclotron resonance space within the device, as shown in Fig. 7. If velocities (perpendicular to a magnetic field) of charged particles are accelerated largely within the cyclotron resonance space, the reflection efficiency of a magnetic mirror behind the resonance space ought to be improved. Based on this idea, we discuss such a supplemental device for recovering the maximum number of escaping charged particles. (orig.)

  9. A neural network device for on-line particle identification in cosmic ray experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrimaglio, R.; Finetti, N.; D'Altorio, L.; Rantucci, E.; Raso, M.; Segreto, E.; Tassoni, A.; Cardarilli, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    On-line particle identification is one of the main goals of many experiments in space both for rare event studies and for optimizing measurements along the orbital trajectory. Neural networks can be a useful tool for signal processing and real time data analysis in such experiments. In this document we report on the performances of a programmable neural device which was developed in VLSI analog/digital technology. Neurons and synapses were accomplished by making use of Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) structures. In this paper we report on the results of measurements performed in order to verify the agreement of the characteristic curves of each elementary cell with simulations and on the device performances obtained by implementing simple neural structures on the VLSI chip. A feed-forward neural network (Multi-Layer Perceptron, MLP) was implemented on the VLSI chip and trained to identify particles by processing the signals of two-dimensional position-sensitive Si detectors. The radiation monitoring device consisted of three double-sided silicon strip detectors. From the analysis of a set of simulated data it was found that the MLP implemented on the neural device gave results comparable with those obtained with the standard method of analysis confirming that the implemented neural network could be employed for real time particle identification

  10. Device for fracturing silicon-carbide coatings on nuclear-fuel particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L.J.; Willey, M.G.; Tiegs, S.M.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    This invention is a device for fracturing particles. It is designed especially for use in hot cells designed for the handling of radioactive materials. In a typical application, the device is used to fracture a hard silicon-carbide coating present on carbon-matrix microspheres containing nuclear-fuel materials, such as uranium or thorium compounds. To promote remote control and facilitate maintenance, the particle breaker is pneumatically operated and contains no moving parts. It includes means for serially entraining the entrained particles on an anvil housed in a leak-tight chamber. The flow rate of the gas is at a value effecting fracture of the particles; preferably, it is at a value fracturing them into product particulates of fluidizable size. The chamber is provided with an outlet passage whose cross-sectional area decreases in the direction away from the chamber. The outlet is connected tangentially to a vertically oriented vortex-flow separator for recovering the product particulates entrained in the gas outflow from the chamber. The invention can be used on a batch or continuous basis to fracture the silicon-carbide coatings on virtually all of the particles fed thereto.

  11. A Pressure Controlled Pinched Flow Fractionation Device for Continuous Particle Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Trosborg, Jacqueline; Tanzi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    In this work the problem of separating small particles of di↵erent sizes is solved by developing a simple microfluidic device using pinched flow fractionation (PFF), a technique originally presented by Yamada et al. in 2004 [1]. The present work takes the concept of PFF to the next level by makin...... Polymers GmbH) using a micro machined silicon master. The functionality of the device was confirmed using polymer beads, and by adjusting the pressure accordingly a complete separation of 2 μm and 4.5 μm beads was demonstrated....

  12. 76 FR 58301 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Information Collection; Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device Systems; Examination and Test Requirements ACTION: Notice of request for public comments. SUMMARY: The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA... public comment version of this information collection package. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Roslyn B...

  13. Recent advances in particle and droplet manipulation for lab-on-a-chip devices based on surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuochen; Zhe, Jiang

    2011-04-07

    Manipulation of microscale particles and fluid liquid droplets is an important task for lab-on-a-chip devices for numerous biological researches and applications, such as cell detection and tissue engineering. Particle manipulation techniques based on surface acoustic waves (SAWs) appear effective for lab-on-a-chip devices because they are non-invasive, compatible with soft lithography micromachining, have high energy density, and work for nearly any type of microscale particles. Here we review the most recent research and development of the past two years in SAW based particle and liquid droplet manipulation for lab-on-a-chip devices including particle focusing and separation, particle alignment and patterning, particle directing, and liquid droplet delivery.

  14. Electron Production and Collective Field Generation in Intense Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Cohen, R; Friedman, A; Lee, E; Verboncoeur, J; Covo, M K

    2006-01-01

    Electron cloud effects (ECEs) are increasingly recognized as important, but incompletely understood, dynamical phenomena, which can severely limit the performance of present electron colliders, the next generation of high-intensity rings, such as PEP-II upgrade, LHC, and the SNS, the SIS 100/200, or future high-intensity heavy ion accelerators such as envisioned in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF). Deleterious effects include ion-electron instabilities, emittance growth, particle loss, increase in vacuum pressure, added heat load at the vacuum chamber walls, and interference with certain beam diagnostics. Extrapolation of present experience to significantly higher beam intensities is uncertain given the present level of understanding. With coordinated LDRD projects at LLNL and LBNL, we undertook a comprehensive R and D program including experiments, theory and simulations to better understand the phenomena, establish the essential parameters, and develop mitigating mechanisms. This LDRD project laid the essential groundwork for such a program. We developed insights into the essential processes, modeled the relevant physics, and implemented these models in computational production tools that can be used for self-consistent study of the effect on ion beams. We validated the models and tools through comparison with experimental data, including data from new diagnostics that we developed as part of this work and validated on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. We applied these models to High-Energy Physics (HEP) and other advanced accelerators. This project was highly successful, as evidenced by the two paragraphs above, and six paragraphs following that are taken from our 2003 proposal with minor editing that mostly consisted of changing the tense. Further benchmarks of outstanding performance are: we had 13 publications with 8 of them in refereed journals, our work was recognized by the accelerator and plasma physics communities by 8 invited papers and we have

  15. Pseudo-random number generation for Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations on GPU devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Molecular Dynamics codes implemented on GPUs have achieved two-order of magnitude computational accelerations. → Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations require a large number of random numbers per time step. → We introduce a method for generating small batches of pseudorandom numbers distributed over many threads of calculations. → With this method, Dissipative Particle Dynamics is implemented on a GPU device without requiring thread-to-thread communication. - Abstract: Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.

  16. Dissolution of aerosol particles collected from nuclear facility plutonium production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Xu; Martinez, Alex; Schappert, Michael; Montoya, D.P.; Martinez, Patrick; Tandon, Lav

    2016-01-01

    A simple, robust analytical chemistry method has been developed to dissolve plutonium containing particles in a complex matrix. The aerosol particles collected on Marple cascade impactor substrates were shown to be dissolved completely with an acid mixture of 12 M HNO 3 and 0.1 M HF. A pressurized closed vessel acid digestion technique was utilized to heat the samples at 130 deg C for 16 h to facilitate the digestion. The dissolution efficiency for plutonium particles was 99 %. The resulting particle digestate solution was suitable for trace elemental analysis and isotope composition determination, as well as radiochemistry measurements. (author)

  17. Impact of beam ions on α-particle measurements by collective Thomson scattering in ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egedal, J.; Bindslev, H.; Budny, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has been proposed as a viable diagnostic for characterizing fusion born a-distributions in ITER. However, the velocities of the planned 1 MeV deuterium heating beam ions in 1TER are similar to that of fusion born a-particles and may therefore mask the measureme......Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has been proposed as a viable diagnostic for characterizing fusion born a-distributions in ITER. However, the velocities of the planned 1 MeV deuterium heating beam ions in 1TER are similar to that of fusion born a-particles and may therefore mask...... and the alpha-particles are calculated. Our investigations show that the CTS measurements of alpha-particles will not be masked by the presence of the beam ions in H-mode plasmas. In lower density reversed shear plasmas, only a part of the CTS alpha-particle spectrum will be perturbed....

  18. External circuit integration with electromagnetic particle in cell modeling of plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    The pinch performance of a plasma focus (PF) device is sensitive to the physical conditions of the breakdown phase. It is therefore essential to model and study the initial phase in order to optimize device performance. An external circuit is self consistently coupled to the electromagnetic particle in cell code to model the breakdown and initial lift phase of the United Nations University/International Centre for Theoretical Physics (UNU-ICTP) plasma focus device. Gas breakdown during the breakdown phase is simulated successfully, following a drop in the applied voltage across the device and a concurrent substantial rise in the circuit current. As a result, the plasma becomes magnetized, with the growing value of the magnetic field over time leading to the gradual lift off of the well formed current sheath into the axial acceleration phase. This lifting off, with simultaneous outward sheath motion along the anode and vertical cathode, and the strong magnetic fields in the current sheath region, was demonstrated in this work, and hence validates our method of coupling the external circuit to PF devices. Our method produces voltage waveforms that are qualitatively similar to the observed experimental voltage profiles of the UNU-ICTP device. Values of the mean electron energy before and after voltage breakdown turned out to be different, with the values after breakdown being much lower. In both cases, the electron energy density function turned out to be non-Maxwellian

  19. Study of a charge-coupled device for high-energy-particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiya, A.H.

    1983-05-01

    This presentation is based on measurements made to evaluate the application of charge-coupled devices as detectors of high-energy particles. The experiment was performed with a Fairchild Linear 256-Cell CCD111 array (size 8μm x 17 μm/cell), utilizing a light source instead of a particle beam. It was observed that the minimum detectable signal was limited to approx. 488 electrons at -50 0 C, where the readout and exposure times were about 260 ms and 400 ms respectively. The transfer inefficiency of the CCD111 was determined to be approx. 10 -4 . It has been concluded that at a lower temperature (approx. -100 0 C) or with faster readout (approx. 10 ms), the CCD111 would be able to detect the total deposited energy of minimum-ionizing charged particles

  20. Design of a device for simultaneous particle size and electrostatic charge measurement of inhalation drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kewu; Ng, Wai Kiong; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H; Heng, Paul W S

    2008-11-01

    To develop a device for simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic diameter and electrostatic charge of inhalation aerosols. An integrated system consisting of an add-on charge measurement device and a liquid impinger was developed to simultaneously determine particle aerodynamic diameter and electrostatic charge. The accuracy in charge measurement and fine particle fraction characterization of the new system was evaluated. The integrated system was then applied to analyze the electrostatic charges of a DPI formulation composed of salbutamol sulphate-Inhalac 230 dispersed using a Rotahaler. The charge measurement accuracy was comparable with the Faraday cage method, and incorporation of the charge measurement module had no effect on the performance of the liquid impinger. Salbutamol sulphate carried negative charges while the net charge of Inhalac 230 and un-dispersed salbutamol sulphate was found to be positive after being aerosolized from the inhaler. The instantaneous current signal was strong with small noise to signal ratio, and good reproducibility of charge to mass ratio was obtained for the DPI system investigated. A system for simultaneously measuring particle aerodynamic diameter and aerosol electrostatic charges has been developed, and the system provides a non-intrusive and reliable electrostatic charge characterization method for inhalation dosage forms.

  1. 75 FR 36092 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Good Manufacturing Practice Quality System Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an opportunity for public... existing collection of information, and to allow 60 days for public comment in response to the notice. This...

  2. Mineralogy of Interplanetary Dust Particles from the Comet Giacobini-Zinner Dust Stream Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Westphal, A. J.; Palma, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Draconoid meteor shower, originating from comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, is a low-velocity Earth-crossing dust stream that had a peak anticipated flux on Oct. 8, 2012. In response to this prediction, NASA performed dedicated stratospheric dust collections to target interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) from this comet stream on Oct 15-17, 2012 [3]. Twelve dust particles from this targeted collection were allocated to our coordinated analysis team for studies of noble gas (Univ. Minnesota, Minnesota State Univ.), SXRF and Fe-XANES (SSL Berkeley) and mineralogy/isotopes (JSC). Here we report a mineralogical study of 3 IDPs from the Draconoid collection..

  3. Light collection optics for measuring flux and spectrum from light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mark A.; DiRegolo, Joseph A.; Gluszczak, Michael R.

    2016-05-24

    Systems and methods for accurately measuring the luminous flux and color (spectra) from light-emitting devices are disclosed. An integrating sphere may be utilized to directly receive a first portion of light emitted by a light-emitting device through an opening defined on the integrating sphere. A light collector may be utilized to collect a second portion of light emitted by the light-emitting device and direct the second portion of light into the integrating sphere through the opening defined on the integrating sphere. A spectrometer may be utilized to measure at least one property of the first portion and the second portion of light received by the integrating sphere.

  4. Collective ratchet effects and reversals for active matter particles on quasi-one-dimensional asymmetric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Danielle; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Reichhardt, Charles

    2016-10-19

    Using computer simulations, we study a two-dimensional system of sterically interacting self-mobile run-and-tumble disk-shaped particles with an underlying periodic quasi-one-dimensional asymmetric substrate, and show that a rich variety of collective active ratchet behaviors arise as a function of particle density, activity, substrate period, and the maximum force exerted by the substrate. The net dc drift, or ratchet transport flux, is nonmonotonic since it increases with increased activity but is diminished by the onset of self-clustering of the active particles. Increasing the particle density decreases the ratchet transport flux for shallow substrates but increases the ratchet transport flux for deep substrates due to collective hopping events. At the highest particle densities, the ratchet motion is destroyed by a self-jamming effect. We show that it is possible to realize reversals of the direction of the net dc drift in the deep substrate limit when multiple rows of active particles can be confined in each substrate minimum, permitting emergent particle-like excitations to appear that experience an inverted effective substrate potential. We map out a phase diagram of the forward and reverse ratchet effects as a function of the particle density, activity, and substrate properties.

  5. Emergency response activities and collecting damaged radiation devices from a war affected area in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasic, Damir; Schaller, Antum

    1997-01-01

    A number of various devices containing ionizing radiation sources were in use in the area affected by the recent war in Croatia. In destruction caused by the war operations, a number of these devices were damaged, destroyed or even missed/lost. The actions undertaken to (re)collect these radiation sources, experience gained and lessons learned are reviewed. The importance of a well-organized national regulatory system is highlighted as a precondition for the efficient identification and safe collection of radiation sources which were under ruins. Experience from this event could be well applicable to similar situations caused by disasters and particularly for regulatory authorities who design emergency preparedness plans. (author)

  6. Simulations and measurements of coupling impedance for modern particle accelerator devices

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2158523; Biancacci, Nicolò; Mostacci, Andrea

    In this document it has been treated the study of the coupling impedance in modern devices, already installed or not, in different particle accelerators. In the specific case: • For a device in-phase of project, several simulations for impedance calculation have been done. • For a component already realized and used, measurements of coupling impedance value have been done. Simulations are used to determine the impact of the interconnect between to magnets, designed for the future particle accelerator FCC, on the overall impedance of the machine which is about 100 km long. In particular has been done a check between theory, simulations and measurements of components already built, allowing a better and deeper study of the component we have analysed. Controls that probably will be helpful to have a clear guideline in future works. The measurements instead concern in an existing component that was already used in LHC, the longest particle accelerator ever realised on the planet, 27 km long. The coupling impe...

  7. Complete system of three-particle hyperspherical harmonics in collective variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtarova, M.I.; Ehfros, V.D.

    1983-01-01

    A complete system of three-particle hyperspherical harmonics (HH) is built in a simple closed form for arbitrary Values of L making use of collectiVe variables including Euler angles of the system. A method of expanding the HH product into HH series is presented. A number of formulas are derived for differentiating Jacobi polynomials. The obtained results are, in particular, usefUl for phenomenological analysis of three-particle reactions and for dynamical problems concerning three interacting atoms

  8. Quasi-particle and collective magnetism: Rotation, pairing and blocking in high-K isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.; Stone, J.R.; Walker, P.M.; Bingham, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, a wide range of collective magnetic g-factors g R , obtained from a novel analysis of experimental data for multi-quasi-particle configurations in high-K isomers, is shown to exhibit a striking systematic variation with the relative number of proton and neutron quasi-particles, N p −N n . Using the principle of additivity, the quasi-particle contribution to magnetism in high-K isomers of Lu–Re, Z=71–75, has been estimated. Based on these estimates, band-structure branching ratio data are used to explore the behavior of the collective contribution as the number and proton/neutron nature (N p , N n ), of the quasi-particle excitations, change. Basic ideas of pairing, its quenching by quasi-particle excitation and the consequent changes to moment of inertia and collective magnetism are discussed. Existing model calculations do not reproduce the observed g R variation adequately. The paired superfluid system of nucleons in these nuclei, and their excitations, present properties of general physics interest. The new-found systematic behavior of g R in multi-quasi-particle excitations of this unique system, showing variation from close to zero for multi-neutron states to above 0.5 for multi-proton states, opens a fresh window on these effects and raises the important question of just which nucleons contribute to the ‘collective’ properties of these nuclei

  9. Microscopic composition measurements of organic individual particles collected in the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, D.; China, S.; Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Kulkarni, G.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Campaign was carried out to gain a better understanding of the lifecycle of shallow clouds. The HISCALE experiment was designed to contrast two seasons, wet and dry, and determine their effect on atmospheric cloud and aerosol processes. The spring component to HISCALE was selected to characterize mixing state for particles collected onto substrates. Sampling was performed before and after rain events to obtain airborne soil organic particles (ASOP), which are ejected after rain events. The unique composition of the ASOP may affect optical properties and/or hygroscopic properties. The collection of particles took place at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) field site. The Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscope (STXM) was used to image the samples collected during the first HI-SCALE Campaign to determine the carbonaceous mixing state. Scanning Electron Microscopy Energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis is more sensitive to the inorganic makeup of particles, while STXM renders a more comprehensive analysis of the organics. Measurements such as nephelometry, Particle Soot Absorption Photometry (PSAP), and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) from the ARM archive will be correlated with microscopy measurements. The primary focus is the relation between composition and morphology of ASOP with hygroscopicity and optical properties. Further investigation of these organic particles will be performed to provide a mixing state parameterization and aid in the advancement of current climate models.

  10. First operations with the new Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous emissions were found over the last few years in spectra of Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in tokamak devices such as TEXTOR, ASDEX and FTU, in addition to real CTS signals. The signal frequency, down-shifted with respect to the probing one, suggested a possible origin i...

  11. New ideas for the design of optical devices with applications in solar energy collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio; Pereira, Manuel Collares

    2001-07-01

    New ideas for the design of optical devices and some applications to solar energy collection are presented. These are mainly solar concentrators resulting from the combination of known anidoloc (nonimaging) optics devices and known curves such as parabolic, elliptical, hyperbolic, circular arcs or flat mirrors. Other tailored curves are also used in some cases. Two possible applications are in compact high concentration devices for solar energy and ideal concentrators having a gap between the optics and the receiver. Only two dimensional solutions are explored in these cases. Due to the high number of internal reflections, the use of high reflectivity mirrors is mandatory or, alternatively, the use of total internal reflection. Combinations of 3D CPCs and torus are also presented. The obtained devices allow tracking of the sun without the need to move the receiver. An application to solar cooking is presented.

  12. Elemental analysis of airborne fine particles collected at the roadside of an arterial road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected at the intersection of Industrial Road in Kawasaki-city, Kanagawa, Japan using a 12-stage low-pressure impactor. High concentrations of airborne particulate matter have been observed in this area. The collected samples were analyzed for 34 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and data on the elemental concentrations were obtained. High concentrations of fine particles of As, Br, Sb, V, and Zn were observed. It was further observed that these fine particles were originated predominantly from the wear of tires and brakes, and not from automobile exhaust emissions. (author)

  13. Study on edge plasma physics and particle control in the Heliotron-E device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuuchi, T; Obiki, T; Noda, N; Matsuura, H; Kondo, K; Akaishi, K; Motojima, O; Kaneko, H; Zushi, H; Takeiri, Y

    1989-04-01

    The edge plasma physics and the particle control under the intrinsic magnetic limiter configuration of a helical system have been studied with the Heliotron-E device, where currentless plasmas of T/sub e//le/1-2 keV, T/sub i//le/1 keV and anti n/sub e//le/2x10/sup 20//m/sup 3/ are produced by a combination of ECRH, NBI and/or ICRH. It is indicated that the separatrix region of the heliotron device is able to act as a divertor magnetic field. According to calculations of the magnetic field line in the edge region, the separatrix region has some different characteristics from the scrape-off layer in tokamak devices; the existence of a fine structure in the separatrix region and asymmetry of the region in toroidal and poloidal directions are observed. A localized pattern of the heat load on the first wall is experimentally observed. This agrees with the heat-load profile expected from the magnetic configuration and the distribution of the plasma in the edge region. A carbonization of the first wall is successfully applied to the Heliotron E device for reduction of metallic impurity contents. The heat load at the divertor trace decreased and that on the other part of the first wall increased in the high recycling conditions after the carbonization. (orig.).

  14. Maximizing the performance of a multiple-stage variable-throat venturi scrubber for particle collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D. M.; Akeredolu, F.

    The high collection efficiencies that are required nowadays to meet the stricter pollution control standards necessitate the use of high-energy scrubbers, such as the venturi scrubber, for the arrestment of fine particulate matter from exhaust gas streams. To achieve more energy-efficient particle collection, several venturi stages may be used in series. This paper is principally a theoretical investigation of the performance of a multiple-stage venturi scrubber, the main objective of the study being to establish the best venturi design configuration for any given set of operating conditions. A mathematical model is used to predict collection efficiency vs pressure drop relationships for particle sizes in the range 0.2-5.0 μm for one-, two-, three- and four-stage scrubbers. The theoretical predictions are borne out qualitatively by experimental work. The paper shows that the three-stage venturi produces the highest collection efficiencies over the normal operating range except for the collection of very fine particles at low pressure drops, when the single-stage venturi is best. The significant improvement in performance achieved by the three-stage venturi when compared with conventional single-stage operation increases as both the particle size and system pressure drop increase.

  15. Collection strategy, inner morphology, and size distribution of dust particles in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balden, M.; Endstrasser, N.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Rohde, V.; Rasinski, M.; von Toussaint, U.; Elgeti, S.; Neu, R.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-07-01

    The dust collection and analysis strategy in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is described. During five consecutive operation campaigns (2007-2011), Si collectors were installed, which were supported by filtered vacuum sampling and collection with adhesive tapes in 2009. The outer and inner morphology (e.g. shape) and elemental composition of the collected particles were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The majority of the ˜50 000 analysed particles on the Si collectors of campaign 2009 contain tungsten—the plasma-facing material in AUG—and show basically two different types of outer appearance: spheroids and irregularly shaped particles. By far most of the W-dominated spheroids consist of a solid W core, i.e. solidified W droplets. A part of these particles is coated with a low-Z material; a process that seems to happen presumably in the far scrape-off layer plasma. In addition, some conglomerates of B, C and W appear as spherical particles after their contact with plasma. By far most of the particles classified as B-, C- and W-dominated irregularly shaped particles consist of the same conglomerate with varying fraction of embedded W in the B-C matrix and some porosity, which can exceed 50%. The fragile structures of many conglomerates confirm the absence of intensive plasma contact. Both the ablation and mobilization of conglomerate material and the production of W droplets are proposed to be triggered by arcing. The size distribution of each dust particle class is best described by a log-normal distribution allowing an extrapolation of the dust volume and surface area. The maximum in this distribution is observed above the resolution limit of 0.28 µm only for the W-dominated spheroids, at around 1 µm. The amount of W-containing dust is extrapolated to be less than 300 mg on the horizontal areas of AUG.

  16. Collection strategy, inner morphology, and size distribution of dust particles in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balden, M.; Endstrasser, N.; Rohde, V.; Rasinski, M.; Von Toussaint, U.; Elgeti, S.; Neu, R.; Humrickhouse, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The dust collection and analysis strategy in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is described. During five consecutive operation campaigns (2007–2011), Si collectors were installed, which were supported by filtered vacuum sampling and collection with adhesive tapes in 2009. The outer and inner morphology (e.g. shape) and elemental composition of the collected particles were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The majority of the ∼50 000 analysed particles on the Si collectors of campaign 2009 contain tungsten—the plasma-facing material in AUG—and show basically two different types of outer appearance: spheroids and irregularly shaped particles. By far most of the W-dominated spheroids consist of a solid W core, i.e. solidified W droplets. A part of these particles is coated with a low-Z material; a process that seems to happen presumably in the far scrape-off layer plasma. In addition, some conglomerates of B, C and W appear as spherical particles after their contact with plasma. By far most of the particles classified as B-, C- and W-dominated irregularly shaped particles consist of the same conglomerate with varying fraction of embedded W in the B–C matrix and some porosity, which can exceed 50%. The fragile structures of many conglomerates confirm the absence of intensive plasma contact. Both the ablation and mobilization of conglomerate material and the production of W droplets are proposed to be triggered by arcing. The size distribution of each dust particle class is best described by a log-normal distribution allowing an extrapolation of the dust volume and surface area. The maximum in this distribution is observed above the resolution limit of 0.28 µm only for the W-dominated spheroids, at around 1 µm. The amount of W-containing dust is extrapolated to be less than 300 mg on the horizontal areas of AUG. (paper)

  17. Study of the loss cone feature using neutral particle analyzer in large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Goncharov, P.; Sudo, S.; Sanuki, H.; Watanabe, T.; Murakami, S.

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to control the trapped particle by the helical ripple to realize the helical type plasma fusion device. High-energy particles generated by the ion cyclotron resonance heating and the neutral beam injection (NBI) heating have a wide pitch angle distribution by the initial heating mechanism and the atomic process in plasma. The particle with large pitch angle has a complicated orbit, sometimes the loss orbit at certain energy and pitch angle, although the particle with large parallel component against magnetic field line is well confined along the magnetic surface. The loss region in the phase space, so call a loss cone, can be clarified by measuring the pitch angle distribution of the high-energy particle. To this purpose, the lost ion has been directly measured near the plasma. Here the charge exchange neutral particle between the high-energy ion and the background neutral is measured to obtain the pitch angle of the high-energy ion in the plasma. In the large helical device (LHD), we have used two different neutral particle analyzers, the time-of-flight (TOF-NPA) and the silicon detector (SD-NPA) neutral particle analyzer. NBI heating in long discharge is suitable for this purpose in LHD. Three NBIs are tangentially injected to minimize the particle number toward the loss cone region in LHD. The energy of the high-energy ion supplied from NBI decreases by the plasma electron. The pitch angle scattering is occurred by the plasma ion at the energy of the several times of the electron temperature. Therefore we can easily compare the experimental pitch angle distribution with the simulation result, which is obtained by considering the initial pitch angle distribution and the atomic process. The pitch angle distribution from 40 to 100 degrees can be obtained by horizontal scanning the TOF-NPA during the long discharge over 100 seconds sustained by the NBI 2 (co-injection) at the magnetic axis (R ax ) of 3.6 m. The trapped particle by the helical

  18. Comparison of the ion induced charge collection in Si epilayer and SOI devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Toshio; Mori, Hidenobu; Laird, Jamie Stuart; Onoda, Shinobu; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2003-01-01

    It is known that the single-event phenomena (SEP) are the malfunction of micro electronics devices caused by the impact of an energetic heavy ion. Improving the tolerance of devices to the SEP requires a better understanding of basic charge collection mechanisms on the timescales of the order of picoseconds. In order to better elucidate these mechanisms, we measure the fast transient current resulting from heavy ion strikes with a fast sampling data collection system and a heavy ion microbeam line at JAERI. In this paper we report on differences in both the transient current and charge collection from 15 MeV carbon ions on silicon-on-insulator, Si epilayer and bulk p + n junction diodes and charge transportation under MeV ion injection is discussed

  19. [Socianalytical device: intervention instrument and data collection in qualitative research in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnol, Carla Aparecida; L'Abbate, Solange; Monceau, Gilles; Jovic, Ljiljana

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this paper is to describe and to analyze the use of a socioanalytical device as a data collection too as well as a space of professional practice and work relations analysis, with nurses from a School Hospital of the Minas Gerais Federal University, Brazil. The qualitative approach was chosen to develop an intervention research with Institutional Analysis as theoretical and methodological framework. In the first stage of data collection, an exploratory research was carried out through a questionnaire and, in the second phase, a socianalytical device was built in 5 meetings that took place during two months. For the nurses, the analysis device has enabled personal and professional growth; to review positions; to exchange experience and to reflect on their own problems through the experience of other colleagues. We conclude that the socioanalytical device was a space for discussion, for analysis of professional practice and was the methodological strategy for data collection in this research. It has allowed the creation and recreation of forms of intervention, the production of knowledge and has improved quality of health work.

  20. Collective behaviour of self-propelling particles with conservative kinematic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratushna, Valeriya Igorivna

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I considered the dynamics of self-propelling particles (SPP). Flocking of living organisms like birds, fishes, ants, bacteria etc. is an area where the theory of the collective behaviour of SPP can be applied. One can often see how these animals develop coherent motion, amazing the

  1. Single-particle characterization of urban aerosol particles collected in three Korean cites using low-Z electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Chul-Un; Kim, HyeKyeong; Oh, Keun-Young; Yea, Sun Kyung; Lee, Chong Bum; Jang, Meongdo; Van Grieken, René

    2002-11-15

    A recently developed single-particle analytical technique, called low-Z electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z EPMA), was applied to characterize urban aerosol particles collected in three cities of Korea (Seoul, CheongJu, and ChunCheon) on single days in the winter of 1999. In this study, it is clearly demonstrated that the low-Z EPMA technique can provide detailed and quantitative information on the chemical composition of particles in the urban atmosphere. The collected aerosol particles were analyzed and classified on the basis of their chemical species. Various types of particles were identified, such as soil-derived, carbonaceous, marine-originated, and anthropogenic particles. In the sample collected in Seoul, carbonaceous, aluminosilicates, silicon dioxide, and calcium carbonate aerosol particles were abundantly encountered. In the CheongJu and ChunCheon samples, carbonaceous, aluminosilicates, reacted sea salts, and ammonium sulfate aerosol particles were often seen. However, in the CheongJu sample, ammonium sulfate particles were the most abundant in the fine fraction. Also, calcium sulfate and nitrate particles were significantly observed. In the ChunCheon sample, organic particles were the most abundant in the fine fraction. Also, sodium nitrate particles were seen at high levels. The ChunCheon sample seemed to be strongly influenced by sea-salt aerosols originating from the Yellow Sea, which is located about 115 km away from the city.

  2. Acoustic streaming in the transducer plane in ultrasonic particle manipulation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Junjun; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Hill, Martyn

    2013-06-07

    In acoustofluidic manipulation and sorting devices, Rayleigh streaming flows are typically found in addition to the acoustic radiation forces. However, experimental work from various groups has described acoustic streaming that occurs in planar devices in a plane parallel to the transducer face. This is typically a four-quadrant streaming pattern with the circulation parallel to the transducer. Understanding its origins is essential for creating designs that limit or control this phenomenon. The cause of this kind of streaming pattern has not been previously explained as it is different from the well-known classical streaming patterns such as Rayleigh streaming and Eckart streaming, whose circulation planes are generally perpendicular to the face of the acoustic transducer. In order to gain insight into these patterns we present a numerical method based on Nyborg's limiting velocity boundary condition that includes terms ignored in the Rayleigh analysis, and verify its predictions against experimental PIV results in a simple device. The results show that the modelled particle trajectories match those found experimentally. Analysis of the dominant terms in the driving equations shows that the origin of this kind of streaming pattern is related to the circulation of the acoustic intensity.

  3. Security of a practical semi-device-independent quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Li Hong-Wei; Zhou Chun; Li Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Similar to device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD), semi-device-independent quantum key distribution (SDI-QKD) provides secure key distribution without any assumptions about the internal workings of the QKD devices. The only assumption is that the dimension of the Hilbert space is bounded. But SDI-QKD can be implemented in a one-way prepare-and-measure configuration without entanglement compared with DI-QKD. We propose a practical SDI-QKD protocol with four preparation states and three measurement bases by considering the maximal violation of dimension witnesses and specific processes of a QKD protocol. Moreover, we prove the security of the SDI-QKD protocol against collective attacks based on the min-entropy and dimension witnesses. We also show a comparison of the secret key rate between the SDI-QKD protocol and the standard QKD. (general)

  4. Thixotropic gel-like composition and sterile blood-collecting and separating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semersky, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    A thixotropic gel-like composition comprising liquid polybutadiene and an inorganic inert filler dispersed therein is adapted for use as a sealing barrier between separated phases of differing densities of a fluid in which said composition has at rest a density intermediate said differing densities, said gel-like composition being substantially resistant to sterilizing radiation. There is also disclosed a pre-packaged blood collecting and separating device which contains a mixture of liquid polybutadiene and an inorganic, inert filler, such as silica, as a thixotropic gel adapted at rest to form a sealing barrier between separated blood phases. The device and gel are subjected to sterilizing radiation to form a substantially sterile device, substantially free of backflow contamination without degradation of the physical properties of the gel. (author)

  5. DUSTER: collection of meteoric CaO and carbon smoke particles in the upper stratosphere .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Corte, V.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Rotundi, A.; Ferrari, M.; Palumbo, P.

    Nanometer- to micrometer-size particles present in the upper stratosphere are a mixture of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial origins. They can be extraterrestrial particles condensed after meteor ablation. Meteoric dust in bolides is occasionally deposited into the lower stratosphere around 20 km altitude. Nanometer CaO and pure carbon smoke particles were collected at 38 km altitude in the upper stratosphere in the Arctic during June 2008 using DUSTER (Dust in the Upper Stratosphere Tracking Experiment and Retrieval), a balloon-borne instrument for the non-destructive collection of solid particles between 200 nm to 40 microns. We report the collection of micron sized CaCO_3 (calcite) grains. Their morphologies show evidence of melting and condensation after vaporization suggest at temperatures of approximately 3500 K. The formation environment of the collected grains was probably a dense dust cloud formed by the disintegration of a carbonaceous meteoroid during deceleration in the Earth� atmosphere. For the first time, DUSTER collected meteor ablation products that were presumably associated with the disintegration of a bolide crossing the Earth's atmosphere. The collected mostly CaO and pure carbon nanoparticles from the debris cloud of a fireball, included: 1) intact fragments; 2) quenched melted grains; and 3) vapor phase condensation products. The DUSTER project was funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), PRIN2008/MIUR (Ministero dell'Istruzione dell'Universitá e della Ricerca), PNRA 2013(Piano Nazionale Ricerca Antartide). CNES graciously provided this flight opportunity. We thank E. Zona and S. Inarta at the Laboratorio di Fisica Cosmica INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte-Universitá di Napoli Parthenope. F.J.M.R. was supported by grant NNX07AI39G from the NASA Cosmochemistry Program. We thank three anonymous reviewers who assisted us in introducing our new instrument.

  6. Nonlinear Delta-f Particle Simulations of Collective Effects in High-Intensity Bunched Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Hong; Hudson, Stuart R; Startsev, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The collective effects in high-intensity 3D bunched beams are described self-consistently by the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations.* The nonlinear delta-f method,** a particle simulation method for solving the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations, is being used to study the collective effects in high-intensity 3D bunched beams. The delta-f method, as a nonlinear perturbative scheme, splits the distribution function into equilibrium and perturbed parts. The perturbed distribution function is represented as a weighted summation over discrete particles, where the particle orbits are advanced by equations of motion in the focusing field and self-consistent fields, and the particle weights are advanced by the coupling between the perturbed fields and the zero-order distribution function. The nonlinear delta-f method exhibits minimal noise and accuracy problems in comparison with standard particle-in-cell simulations. A self-consistent 3D kinetic equilibrium is first established for high intensity bunched beams. The...

  7. The thermal history of interplanetary dust particles collected in the Earth's stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Fragments of 24 individual interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth's stratosphere were obtained from NASA's Johnson Space Center collection and subjected to pulse-heating sequences to extract He and Ne and to learn about the thermal history of the particles. A motivation for the investigation was to see if the procedure would help distinguish between IDPs of asteroidal and cometary origin. The use of a sequence of short-duration heat pulses to perform the extractions is an improvement over the employment of a step-heating sequence, as was used in a previous investigation. The particles studied were fragments of larger parent IDPs, other fragments of which, in coordinated experiments, are undergoing studies of elemental and mineralogical composition in other laboratories. While the present investigation will provide useful temperature history data for the particles, the relatively large size of the parent IDPs (approximately 40 micrometers in diameter) resulted in high entry deceleration temperatures. This limited the usefulness of the study for distinguishing between particles of asteroidal and cometary origin.

  8. The high energy multicharged particle exposure of the microbial ecology evaluation device on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. V.; Henke, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    The high energy multicharged cosmic-ray-particle exposure of the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device package on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft was monitored using cellulose nitrate, Lexan polycarbonate, nuclear emulsion, and silver chloride crystal nuclear-track detectors. The results of the analysis of these detectors include the measured particle fluences, the linear energy transfer spectra, and the integral atomic number spectrum of stopping particle density. The linear energy transfer spectrum is used to compute the fractional cell loss in human kidney (T1) cells caused by heavy particles. Because the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device was better shielded, the high-energy multicharged particle exposure was less than that measured on the crew passive dosimeters.

  9. Emergency response activities and collecting damaged radiation devices from a war affected area in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subasic, Damir; Schaller, Antum [APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    A number of various devices containing ionizing radiation sources were in use in the area affected by the recent war in Croatia. In destruction caused by the war operations, a number of these devices were damaged, destroyed or even missed/lost. The actions undertaken to (re)collect these radiation sources, experience gained and lessons learned are reviewed. The importance of a well-organized national regulatory system is highlighted as a precondition for the efficient identification and safe collection of radiation sources which were under ruins. Experience from this event could be well applicable to similar situations caused by disasters and particularly for regulatory authorities who design emergency preparedness plans. (author) 4 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Storing and managing information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, William A; Riensche, Roderick M; Best, Daniel M; Roberts, Ian E; Whyatt, Marie V; Hart, Michelle L; Carr, Norman J; Thomas, James J

    2012-09-18

    Systems and computer-implemented processes for storage and management of information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device. The processes and systems can capture a sequence of interactive operation elements that are performed by the information analyst, who is collecting an information artifact from at least one of the plurality of software applications. The information artifact can then be stored together with the interactive operation elements as a snippet on a memory device, which is operably connected to the processor. The snippet comprises a view from an analysis application, data contained in the view, and the sequence of interactive operation elements stored as a provenance representation comprising operation element class, timestamp, and data object attributes for each interactive operation element in the sequence.

  11. Feature of Dust Particles in the Spring Free Troposphere over Dunhuang in Northwestern China: Electron Microscopic Experiments on Individual Particles Collected with a Balloon-borne Impactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Iwasaka, Y.; Matsuki, A.; Trochkine, D.; Kim, Y. S.; Zhang, D.; Nagatani, T.; Shi, G.-Y.; Nagatani, M.; Nakata, H.; Shen, Z.; Chen, B.; Li, G.

    2005-01-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol particles were collected using a balloon-borne particle impactor in August of 2002 and March of 2003 at Dunhuang in northwestern China (40 o 00'N, 94 o 30'E), and the morphology and elemental composition of the aerosol particles were analyzed in order to understand the mixing state of coarse dust particles (diameter >1 μm) over the desert areas in the Asian continent in spring. Electron microscopic experiments on the particles revealed that dust particles were major constituents of coarse mode particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert in spring and summer.Si-rich or Ca-rich particles are major components of dust particles collected in the free troposphere over dunhuang and the values of [number of Ca-rich particles]/[number of Si-rich particles] differs markedly between spring and summer, being about 0.3 in the spring of 2003 and about 1.0 in the summer of 2002 at heights 3-5 km above sea level. It is likely that the condition of the ground surface and the strength of vertical mixing in source areas of Asian dust are potential factors causing the difference in the chemical types of dust particles.Comparison of the elemental compositions of these particles with those of particles collected over Japan strongly suggests that these particles were chemically modified during their long-range transport in the free troposphere. Analysis of wind systems shows that both the predominating westerly wind in the free troposphere and the surface wind strongly controlled by the geographical structure of the Tarim Basin are important in the long-range transport of KOSA particles originating in the Taklamakan Desert

  12. The further development of the active urine collection device: a novel continence management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnion, E; Jowitt, F; Clarke-O'Neill, S; Cottenden, A M; Fader, M; Sutherland, I

    2003-01-01

    Continence difficulties affect the lives of a substantial minority of the population. Women are far more likely than men to be affected by urinary incontinence but the range of management options for them is limited. There has been considerable interest in developing an external urine collection system for women but without success to date. This paper describes the development and preliminary clinical testing of an active urine collection device (AUCD), which could provide a solution for sufferers. The device uses stored vacuum, protected by a high bubble point filter, to remove urine as quickly as it is produced. This allows a small battery-operated pump to provide the required vacuum, enabling the device to be portable. Two different types of non-invasive patient/device interface were developed, and tested by volunteers: urinal and small pad. The slimline urinal was popular with users although liquid noise was a problem. The pad interface was successful on occasions but further work is necessary to produce a reliable pad. This study has successfully demonstrated that a prototype AUCD liquid handling system can remove urine at clinically relevant flowrates. While further development is required, volunteer tests have shown that the AUCD could be a useful advance in continence management.

  13. Measurements of multi-particle correlations and collective flow with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bold, Tomasz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of flow harmonics of charged particles from v_2 to v_7 in Pb+Pb collisions in the wide range of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity provides not only a way to study the initial state of the nuclear collisions and soft particle collective dynamics, but also provides insight into jet quenching via the measurement of flow harmonics at high transverse momenta. The longitudinal fluctuations of the v_n and event-plane angles Psi_n are also presented. The longitudinal flow decorrelations have contributions from v_n-magnitude fluctuations and event plane twist. A four-particle correlator is used to separate these two effects. Results show both effects have a linear dependence on pseudorapidity separation from v_2 to v_5, and show a small but measurable variation with collision energy. While collectivity is well established in collisions involving heavy nuclei, its evidence in pp collisions is less clear. In order to assess the collective nature of multi-particle production, the correlation measurem...

  14. Plume particle collection and sizing from static firing of solid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambamurthi, Jay K.

    1995-01-01

    A unique dart system has been designed and built at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to collect aluminum oxide plume particles from the plumes of large scale solid rocket motors, such as the space shuttle RSRM. The capability of this system to collect clean samples from both the vertically fired MNASA (18.3% scaled version of the RSRM) motors and the horizontally fired RSRM motor has been demonstrated. The particle mass averaged diameters, d43, measured from the samples for the different motors, ranged from 8 to 11 mu m and were independent of the dart collection surface and the motor burn time. The measured results agreed well with those calculated using the industry standard Hermsen's correlation within the standard deviation of the correlation . For each of the samples analyzed from both MNASA and RSRM motors, the distribution of the cumulative mass fraction of the plume oxide particles as a function of the particle diameter was best described by a monomodal log-normal distribution with a standard deviation of 0.13 - 0.15. This distribution agreed well with the theoretical prediction by Salita using the OD3P code for the RSRM motor at the nozzle exit plane.

  15. Measurements of multi-particle correlations and collective flow with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bold, Tomasz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of flow harmonics of charged particles from $v_2$ to $v_7$ in Pb+Pb collisions in the wide range of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity provides not only a way to study the initial state of the nuclear collisions and soft particle collective dynamics, but also provides insight into jet quenching via the measurement of flow harmonics at high transverse momenta. The longitudinal fluctuations of the $v_n$ and event-plane angles $\\Psi_n$ are also presented. The longitudinal flow decorrelations have contributions from $v_n$-magnitude fluctuations and event plane twist. A four-particle correlator is used to separate these two effects. Results show both effects have a linear dependence on pseudorapidity separation from $v_2$ to $v_5$, and show a small but measurable variation with collision energy. While collectivity is well established in collisions involving heavy nuclei, its evidence in pp collisions is less clear. In order to assess the collective nature of multi-particle production, the corre...

  16. Detection of Soot Using a Resistivity Sensor Device Employing Thermophoretic Particle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Lutic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are reported for thermophoretic deposition of soot particles on resistivity sensors as a monitoring technique for diesel exhaust particles with the potential of improved detection limit and sensitivity. Soot with similar characteristics as from diesel exhausts was generated by a propane flame and diluted in stages. The soot in a gas flow at 240–270C∘ was collected on an interdigitated electrode structure held at a considerably lower temperature, 105–125C∘. The time delay for reaching measurable resistance values, the subsequent rate, and magnitude of resistance decrease were a function of the distance between the fingers in the electrodes and the degree of dilution of the soot containing flow. Soot deposition and subsequent removal by heating the sensor support was also performed in a real diesel exhaust. Good similarities between the behavior in our laboratory system and the real diesel exhaust were noticed.

  17. Three-dimensional simulation of charge collection and multiple-bit upset in Si devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, P.E.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional numerical simulation is used to explore the basic charge-collection mechanisms in silicon n + /p diodes. For diodes on lightly-doped substrates ( 15 cm -3 ) struck by a 100-MeV Fe ion, the funneling effect is very strong and essentially all collection is by funnel-assisted drift. This drift collection may occur as late as several nanoseconds after the strike, later than is usually associated with drift collection. For moderately-doped substrates (∼1 x 10 16 cm -3 ) and epitaxial structures grown on heavily-doped substrates, the funnel effect is weaker and drift and diffusion are of more equal importance. For 5-MeV He (α-particle) strikes with low-density charge tracks, the charge-collection transient exhibits both drift and diffusion regimes regardless of the substrate doping. Simulations of diodes with passive external loads indicate that while the current response is altered considerably by the load, total collected charge is not greatly affected for the simple resistive loads studied. Three-dimensional mixed-mode simulation is performed to investigate charge-collection behavior and upset mechanisms in complete CMOS SRAM cells. Simulations of double SRAM cell structures indicate that only collection by diffusion from ''between-node'' strikes is capable of producing multiple-bit upsets in the simulated technology. Limitations of the simulations, specifically carrier-carrier scattering models and large concentration gradients, are also discussed

  18. Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with a Collective Local Unimodal Search for Continuous Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasomwan, Martins Akugbe; Adewumi, Aderemi Oluyinka

    2014-01-01

    A new local search technique is proposed and used to improve the performance of particle swarm optimization algorithms by addressing the problem of premature convergence. In the proposed local search technique, a potential particle position in the solution search space is collectively constructed by a number of randomly selected particles in the swarm. The number of times the selection is made varies with the dimension of the optimization problem and each selected particle donates the value in the location of its randomly selected dimension from its personal best. After constructing the potential particle position, some local search is done around its neighbourhood in comparison with the current swarm global best position. It is then used to replace the global best particle position if it is found to be better; otherwise no replacement is made. Using some well-studied benchmark problems with low and high dimensions, numerical simulations were used to validate the performance of the improved algorithms. Comparisons were made with four different PSO variants, two of the variants implement different local search technique while the other two do not. Results show that the improved algorithms could obtain better quality solution while demonstrating better convergence velocity and precision, stability, robustness, and global-local search ability than the competing variants. PMID:24723827

  19. Evidence for collective multi-particle correlations in pPb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Molina, Jorge; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Tziaferi, Eirini; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Ryu, Min Sang; Kim, Jae Yool; Moon, Dong Ho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Musella, Pasquale; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Scarborough, Tara; Wu, Zhenbin; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Sagir, Sinan; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Krohn, Michael; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bierwagen, Katharina; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Ratnikov, Fedor; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Malik, Sudhir; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Primavera, Federica; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Korjenevski, Sergey; Petrillo, Gianluca; Verzetti, Mauro; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-06-29

    The second-order azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics, $v_2$, are obtained in pPb and PbPb collisions over a wide pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) range based on correlations among six or more charged particles. The pPb data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 nb$^{-1}$, were collected during the 2013 LHC pPb run at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV by the CMS experiment. A sample of semi-peripheral PbPb collision data at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.5 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ and covering a similar range of particle multiplicities as the pPb data, is also analyzed for comparison. The six- and eight-particle cumulant and the Lee-Yang zeros methods are used to extract the $v_2$ coefficients, extending previous studies of two- and four-particle correlations. For both the pPb and PbPb systems, the $v_2$ values obtained with correlations among more than four particles are consistent with previously published four-particle results. These data supp...

  20. Additional collection devices used in conjunction with the SurePath Liquid-Based Pap Test broom device do not enhance diagnostic utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Jason C

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that use of an EC brush device in combination with the Rovers Cervex-Brush (SurePath broom offered no significant improvement in EC recovery. Here we determine if use of additional collection devices enhance the diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap for gynecologic cytology. Methods After informed consent, 37 women ages 18–56 receiving their routine cervical examinations were randomized into four experimental groups. Each group was first sampled with the SurePath broom then immediately re-sampled with an additional collection device or devices. Group 1: Rover endocervix brush (n = 8. Group 2: Medscand CytoBrush Plus GT (n = 7. Group 3: Rover spatula + endocervix brush (n = 11. Group 4: Medscand spatula + CytoBrush Plus GT (n = 11. Results Examination of SurePath broom-collected cytology yielded the following abnormal diagnoses: atypia (n = 2, LSIL (n = 5 and HSIL (n = 3. Comparison of these diagnoses to those obtained from paired samples using the additional collection devices showed that use of a second and or third device yielded no additional abnormal diagnoses. Importantly, use of additional devices did not improve upon the abnormal cell recovery of the SurePath broom and in 4/10 cases under-predicted or did not detect the SurePath broom-collected lesion as confirmed by cervical biopsy. Finally, in 36/37 cases, the SurePath broom successfully recovered ECs. Use of additional devices, in Group 3, augmented EC recovery to 37/37. Conclusions Use of additional collection devices in conjunction with the SurePath broom did not enhance diagnostic utility of the SurePath Pap. A potential but not significant improvement in EC recovery might be seen with the use of three devices.

  1. Mechanical engineering and design of silicon-based particle tracking devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Thompson, T.C.; Gamble, M.T.; Reid, R.S.; Woloshun, K.A.; Dransfield, G.D.; Ziock, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering and Electronics Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been investigating silicon-based particle tracking device technology as part of the Superconducting Super Collider-sponsored silicon subsystem collaboration. Structural, thermal, and materials issues have been addressed. This paper discussed detector structural integrity and stability, including detailed finite element models of the silicon chip support and predictive methods used in designing with advanced composite materials. Electronic thermal loading and efficient dissipation of such energy using heat pipe technology has been investigated. The use of materials whose coefficients of thermal expansion are engineered to match silicon or to be near zero, as appropriate, have been explored. Material analysis and test results from radiation, chemical, and static loading are compared with analytical predictions and discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Method and device for monochromatization of the internal accelerated particles beam in isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Dinev, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The invention assures a reduced size of the supplementary electrode which leads to economy of a material and a more effective use of the accelerator space, where the elements of an axial injection system of the cyclotron particles can be situated. The amplitude homogeneity of the supplementary accelerating field is also improved. To the main high-frequency field, covering the whole scope of the acceleration radiuses, an additional accelerating high-frequency field is introduced comprising a part of the scope of the acceleration radiuses. The frequency of this additional accelerating high frequency field is a third harmonics of the main field frequency. The device consists of a supplementary accelerating electrode, connected to an additional resonator and an additional exciting high-frequency generator. 2 cls., 7 figs

  3. Correlative degree and collective side ward flow of final state particles in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weigang

    1999-01-01

    A concept of correlative degree is proposed. Using the method of particle-group correlation's function, the effects of the particles with different correlative degrees on collective side ward flow are studied for 1.2A GeV Ar + Bal 2 collisions at the Bevalac stream chamber. The studies indicate that correlative degree is an important parameter on describing collective side ward flow properties. The minority of correlative particles (or fragments) with larger correlative degrees can produce the effect arising from the collective side ward flow, but the effect arising from high-order collective flow correlations can not be dominated by these minority of particles (or fragments). It is results from the collective contribution of the majority of collective particles (or fragments) with various correlative degrees

  4. Ice nucleation properties of atmospheric aerosol particles collected during a field campaign in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Petya; Maier, Stefanie; Lang-Yona, Naama; Tamm, Alexandra; Meusel, Hannah; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, including desert and soil dust as well as marine aerosols, are well known to act as ice nuclei (IN) and thus have been investigated in numerous ice nucleation studies. Based on their cloud condensation nuclei potential and their impacts on radiative properties of clouds (via scattering and absorption of solar radiation), aerosol particles may significantly affect the cloud and precipitation development. Atmospheric aerosols of the Eastern Mediterranean have been described to be dominated by desert dust, but only little is known on their composition and ice nucleating properties. In this study we investigated the ice nucleating ability of total suspended particles (TSP), collected at the remote site Agia Marina Xyliatou on Cyprus during a field campaign in April 2016. Airborne TSP samples containing air masses of various types such as African (Saharan) and Arabian dust and European and Middle Eastern pollution were collected on glass fiber filters at 24 h intervals. Sampling was performed ˜5 m above ground level and ˜521 m above sea level. During the sampling period, two major dust storms (PM 10max 118 μg/m3 and 66 μg/m3) and a rain event (rainfall amount: 3.4 mm) were documented. Chemical and physical characterizations of the particles were analyzed experimentally through filtration, thermal, chemical and enzyme treatments. Immersion freezing experiments were performed at relatively high subzero temperatures (-1 to -15˚ C) using the mono ice nucleation array. Preliminary results indicate that highest IN particle numbers (INPs) occurred during the second dust storm event with lower particle concentrations. Treatments at 60˚ C lead to a gradual IN deactivation, indicating the presence of biological INPs, which were observed to be larger than 300 kDa. Additional results originating from this study will be shown. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the DFG Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT).

  5. Plume Particle Collection and Sizing from Static Firing of Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambamurthi, Jay K.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal radiation from the plume of any solid rocket motor, containing aluminum as one of the propellant ingredients, is mainly from the microscopic, hot aluminum oxide particles in the plume. The plume radiation to the base components of the flight vehicle is primarily determined by the plume flowfield properties, the size distribution of the plume particles, and their optical properties. The optimum design of a vehicle base thermal protection system is dependent on the ability to accurately predict this intense thermal radiation using validated theoretical models. This article describes a successful effort to collect reasonably clean plume particle samples from the static firing of the flight simulation motor (FSM-4) on March 10, 1994 at the T-24 test bed at the Thiokol space operations facility as well as three 18.3% scaled MNASA motors tested at NASA/MSFC. Prior attempts to collect plume particles from the full-scale motor firings have been unsuccessful due to the extremely hostile thermal and acoustic environment in the vicinity of the motor nozzle.

  6. Micro-fabricated silicon devices for advanced thermal management and integration of particle tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, Giulia; Gambaro, Carla

    Since their first studies targeting the cooling of high-power computing chips, micro-channel devices are proven to provide a very efficient cooling system. In the last years micro-channel cooling has been successfully applied to the cooling of particle detectors at CERN. Thanks to their high thermal efficiency, they can guarantee a good heat sink for the cooling of silicon trackers, fundamental for the reduction of the radiation damage caused by the beam interactions. The radiation damage on the silicon detector is increasing with temperature and furthermore the detectors are producing heat that should be dissipated in the supporting structure. Micro-channels guarantee a distributed and uniform thermal exchange, thanks to the high flexibility of the micro-fabrication process that allows a large variety of channel designs. The thin nature of the micro-channels etched inside silicon wafers, is fulfilling the physics requirement of minimization of the material crossed by the particle beam. Furthermore micro-chan...

  7. Ghost Particle Velocimetry implementation in millimeters devices and comparison with μPIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomi, Marco; Alberini, Federico; Brunazzi, Elisabetta; Vigolo, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Micro/milli-fluidic devices are becoming an important reference for several disciplines and are quickly increasing their applications in scientific, as well as industrial, environment. As a consequence, the development of techniques able to analyse these kinds of systems is required to allow their progress. Here we show the implementation of the Ghost Particle Velocimetry (GPV) for the flow velocity field investigation in milli-fluidic devices. This innovative technique has been recently introduced, and has been already proven to be useful in describing rapid phenomenon at a small scale. In this work, the GPV has been used to characterize the trapping of light suspended material in a branching junction. Experiments have been performed to identify the flow velocity field close to a millimeters scale T-junction, at different Reynolds numbers. Particularly interesting are the complex structures, such as vortices and recirculation zones, induced by the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The results obtained have been deeply validated and compared with the well-established μPIV, highlighting the differences in terms of qualitative and quantitative parameters. A performance comparison has been designed to underline the strengths and weaknesses of the two experimental techniques.

  8. Possibility of simulation experiments for fast particle physics in the large helical device (LHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.N.; Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Itoh, K.

    1995-01-01

    The confinement of fusion produced or high energy particles is one of the most important issues to be studied in the helical confinement system. A preliminary study has been carried out on the possibility of developing techniques for simulation experiments for the study of high energy particle physics in the Large Helical Device (LHD) project. Candidate methods have been considered as follows: (a) a high energy (∼ 3.5 MeV) He 0 beam injection method; (b) a medium energy (∼ 200 keV) H 0 beam injection method; (c) a method involving high energy tail production by an ICRF wave and/or a method of reaction rate enhancement by an ICRF wave; and (d) a method involving the combination of neutral beam injection and ICRF wave. Various features of each method have been considered. Although the high energy He 0 beam injection method has some advantages, the technique for production of this beam is extremely difficult because of the difficulties of the production of both negative helium and ground state neutral helium by neutralization. It is pointed out, on the other hand, that a wide range of simulation experiments for fast particle physics may be carried out even by the medium energy beam method, because the typical orbit deviation (e.g. equivalent super-banana size in a classical sense) can be largely controlled by controlling the magnetic field configuration in the case of a helical system, for example by shifting the magnetic axis. This is one of the unique features of a helical system in contrast to an axisymmetric system. (author). 12 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Energy dependence of collective flow of neutrons and charged particles in 197Au+197Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaich, T.; Freiesleben, H.; Holzmann, R.; Keller, J.G.; Prokopowicz, W.; Schuetter, C.; Wajda, E.; Zude, E.

    1994-01-01

    Our contribution focusses on one particular aspect of collective flow of nuclear matter: the so-called ''squeeze-out'', i.e. the preferential emission of mid-rapidity particles perpendicular to the reaction plane. The data were taken for the system 197 Au + 197 Au at 400, 600 and 800 MeV/u. We cover two topics, the comparison of neutrons and protons, and the bombarding energy dependence of the neutrons' squeeze-out. (orig.)

  10. Competition between collective and single particle excitations in nuclear structure description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The microscopic description of the quadrupole collective dynamics in even krypton isotopes is presented. A microscopic calculation of Bohr's collective Hamiltonian is used to describe the collective motion in 76 Kr. A single-particle basis calculated in a deformed Woods-Saxon potential leads to the potential energy surface obtained by the Strutinsky renormalization procedure, and to the inertial functions determined in the cranking model approximation. The collective Schroedinger equation is solved numerically to analyse the low-energy, even parity states in 76 Kr. A good agreement between experiment and theory is obtained without specifically adjusting any parameter in the model for this nucleus. Some results regarding statical and dynamical characteristics of sup(74,78,80)Kr isotopes are also presented. The asymmetric rotor model with admixture of two quasiparticles is used to describe the sup(66,68,70)Ge and the sup(64,66)Zn isotopes. The interplay of collective and single particle motions is further investigated by magnetic moment measurements using the method of integral angular correlations perturbed by recoil into gas. The results involve g-factor measurements for 166 Ho, 68 Ge, 64 Zn, 66 Zn and 68 Ga nuclei. Finally, a discussion of further possible improvements and more general developments of the problems under investigation is given. (author)

  11. Tailored long range forces on polarizable particles by collective scattering of broadband radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzmann, D; Ritsch, H

    2016-01-01

    Collective coherent light scattering by polarizable particles creates surprisingly strong, long range inter-particle forces originating from interference of the light scattered by different particles. While for monochromatic laser beams this interaction decays with the inverse distance, we show here that in general the effective interaction range and geometry can be controlled by the illumination bandwidth and geometry. As generic example we study the modifications inter-particle forces within a 1D chain of atoms trapped in the field of a confined optical nanofiber mode. For two particles we find short range attraction as well as optical binding at multiple distances. The range of stable distances shrinks with increasing light bandwidth and for a very large bandwidth field as e.g. blackbody radiation. We find a strongly attractive potential up to a critical distance beyond which the force gets repulsive. Including multiple scattering can even lead to the appearance of a stable configuration at a large distance. Such broadband scattering forces should be observable contributions in ultra-cold atom interferometers or atomic clocks setups. They could be studied in detail in 1D geometries with ultra-cold atoms trapped along or within an optical nanofiber. Broadband radiation force interactions might also contribute in astrophysical scenarios as illuminated cold dust clouds. (paper)

  12. Structural data collection with mobile devices: Accuracy, redundancy, and best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmendinger, Richard W.; Siron, Christopher R.; Scott, Chelsea P.

    2017-09-01

    Smart phones are equipped with numerous sensors that enable orientation data collection for structural geology at a rate up to an order of magnitude faster than traditional analog compasses. The rapidity of measurement enables field structural geologists, for the first time, to enjoy the benefits of data redundancy and quantitative uncertainty estimates. Recent work, however, has called into question the reliability of sensors on Android devices. We present here our experience with programming a new smart phone app from scratch, and using it and commercial apps on iOS devices along with analog compasses in a series of controlled tests and typical field use cases. Additionally, we document the relationships between iPhone measurements and visible structures in satellite, drawing on a database of 3700 iPhone measurements of coseismic surface cracks we made in northern Chile following the Mw8.1 Pisagua earthquake in 2014. By comparing phone-collected attitudes to orientations determined independently of the magnetic field, we avoid having to assume that the analog compass, which is subject to its own uncertainties, is the canonical instrument. Our results suggest that iOS devices are suitable for all but the most demanding applications as long as particular care is taken with respect to metal and electronic objects that could affect the magnetic field.

  13. Output power fluctuations due to different weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell simulations of Cerenkov devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Rong; Li, Yongdong; Liu, Chunliang; Wang, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    The output power fluctuations caused by weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a backward wave oscillator and a travelling wave tube are statistically analyzed. It is found that the velocities of electrons passed a specific slow-wave structure form a specific electron velocity distribution. The electron velocity distribution obtained in PIC simulation with a relative small weight of macro particles is considered as an initial distribution. By analyzing this initial distribution with a statistical method, the estimations of the output power fluctuations caused by different weights of macro particles are obtained. The statistical method is verified by comparing the estimations with the simulation results. The fluctuations become stronger with increasing weight of macro particles, which can also be determined reversely from estimations of the output power fluctuations. With the weights of macro particles optimized by the statistical method, the output power fluctuations in PIC simulations are relatively small and acceptable.

  14. Text recognition and correction for automated data collection by mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarslan, Suleyman; Eren, P. Erhan

    2014-03-01

    Participatory sensing is an approach which allows mobile devices such as mobile phones to be used for data collection, analysis and sharing processes by individuals. Data collection is the first and most important part of a participatory sensing system, but it is time consuming for the participants. In this paper, we discuss automatic data collection approaches for reducing the time required for collection, and increasing the amount of collected data. In this context, we explore automated text recognition on images of store receipts which are captured by mobile phone cameras, and the correction of the recognized text. Accordingly, our first goal is to evaluate the performance of the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) method with respect to data collection from store receipt images. Images captured by mobile phones exhibit some typical problems, and common image processing methods cannot handle some of them. Consequently, the second goal is to address these types of problems through our proposed Knowledge Based Correction (KBC) method used in support of the OCR, and also to evaluate the KBC method with respect to the improvement on the accurate recognition rate. Results of the experiments show that the KBC method improves the accurate data recognition rate noticeably.

  15. Method and device for fabricating dispersion fuel comprising fission product collection spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaber, Eric L; Fielding, Randall S

    2015-05-05

    A method of fabricating a nuclear fuel comprising a fissile material, one or more hollow microballoons, a phenolic resin, and metal matrix. The fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined. The combined fissile material, phenolic resin and the hollow microballoons are heated sufficiently to form at least some fissile material carbides creating a nuclear fuel particle. The resulting nuclear fuel particle comprises one or more fission product collection spaces. In a preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by forming the fissile material into microspheres. The fissile material microspheres are then overcoated with the phenolic resin and microballoon. In another preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by overcoating the microballoon with the fissile material, and phenolic resin.

  16. Optimization of FIBMOS Through 2D Silvaco ATLAS and 2D Monte Carlo Particle-based Device Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, J.; He, X.; Vasileska, D.; Schroder, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    Focused Ion Beam MOSFETs (FIBMOS) demonstrate large enhancements in core device performance areas such as output resistance, hot electron reliability and voltage stability upon channel length or drain voltage variation. In this work, we describe an optimization technique for FIBMOS threshold voltage characterization using the 2D Silvaco ATLAS simulator. Both ATLAS and 2D Monte Carlo particle-based simulations were used to show that FIBMOS devices exhibit enhanced current drive ...

  17. n-particle transverse correlation and collectivity for collisions 1.2 A GeV Ar + KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingjun; Jiang Yuzhen; Wang Shan; Liu Yiming; Fung, S.Y.; Chu, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    A method of n-particle transverse correlation function for the study of collective flow is proposed, which extends both the study of n-particle azimuthal correlations and the estimation of collectivity to the study including the magnitudes as well as the azimuthal angles for all the n-particle transverse momentum vectors. This method is more sensitive to the collectivity of collective flow than the method based on multi-particle azimuthal correlations. Using the new method, n-particle transverse correlations are analyzed for collisions of 1.2 A GeV Ar + KCl in the Bevalac streamer chamber, and the results have been compared with a Monte-Carlo simulation, which show that the collectivity for this experiment is between 85% and 95%

  18. Particle size distribution of dust collected from Alcator C-MOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, S.V.; Carmack, W.J.; Hembree, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    There are important safety issues associated with tokamak dust, accumulated primarily from sputtering and disruptions. The dust may contain tritium, it may be activated, chemically toxic, and chemically reactive. The purpose of this paper is to present results from analyses of particulate collected from the Alcator C-MOD tokamak located at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The sample obtained from C-MOD was not originally intended for examination outside of MIT. The sample was collected with the intent of performing only a composition analysis. However, MIT provided the INEEL with this sample for particle analysis. The sample was collected by vacuuming a section of the machine (covering approximately 1/3 of the machine surface) with a coarse fiber filter as the collection surface. The sample was then analyzed using an optical microscope, SEM microscope, Microtrac FRA particle size analyzer. The data fit a log-normal distribution. The count median diameter (CMD) of the samples ranged from 0.3 microm to 1.1 microm with geometric standard deviations (GSD) ranging from 2.8 to 5.2 and a mass median diameter (MMD) ranging from 7.22 to 176 microm

  19. A very sensitive ion collection device for plasma-laser characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, S; Torrisi, L; Cutroneo, M; Amato, A; Sarta, F; Wen, L

    2012-06-01

    In this paper a very sensitive ion collection device, for diagnostic of laser ablated-target plasma, is described. It allows for reducing down to few microvolts the signal threshold at digital scope input. A standard ion collector is coupled to a transimpedance amplifier, specially designed, which increases data acquisition sensitivity by a gain ≈1100 and does not introduce any significant distortion of input signal. By time integration of current intensity, an amount of charge as small as 2.7 × 10(-2) pC can be detected for photopeak events.

  20. Characterisation of nano- and micron-sized airborne and collected subway particles, a multi-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midander, Klara; Elihn, Karine; Wallén, Anna; Belova, Lyuba; Karlsson, Anna-Karin Borg; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2012-06-15

    Continuous daily measurements of airborne particles were conducted during specific periods at an underground platform within the subway system of the city center of Stockholm, Sweden. Main emphasis was placed on number concentration, particle size distribution, soot content (analyzed as elemental and black carbon) and surface area concentration. Conventional measurements of mass concentrations were conducted in parallel as well as analysis of particle morphology, bulk- and surface composition. In addition, the presence of volatile and semi volatile organic compounds within freshly collected particle fractions of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were investigated and grouped according to functional groups. Similar periodic measurements were conducted at street level for comparison. The investigation clearly demonstrates a large dominance in number concentration of airborne nano-sized particles compared to coarse particles in the subway. Out of a mean particle number concentration of 12000 particles/cm(3) (7500 to 20000 particles/cm(3)), only 190 particles/cm(3) were larger than 250 nm. Soot particles from diesel exhaust, and metal-containing particles, primarily iron, were observed in the subway aerosol. Unique measurements on freshly collected subway particle size fractions of PM(10) and PM(2.5) identified several volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, the presence of carcinogenic aromatic compounds and traces of flame retardants. This interdisciplinary and multi-analytical investigation aims to provide an improved understanding of reported adverse health effects induced by subway aerosols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interplay between collective and single particle excitations around neutron-rich doubly-magic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The excitation spectra of nuclei with one or two particles outside a doubly-magic core are expected to be dominated, at low energy, by the couplings between phonon excitations of the core and valence particles. A survey of the experimental situation is given for some nuclei lying in close proximity of neutron-rich doubly-magic systems, such as 47,49Ca, 133Sb and 210Bi. Data are obtained with various types of reactions (multinucleon transfer with heavy ions, cold neutron capture and neutron induced fission of 235U and 241Pu targets, with the employment of complex detection systems based on HPGe arrays. A comparison with theoretical calculations is also presented, in terms of large shell model calculations and of a phenomenological particle-phonon model. In the case of 133Sb, a new microscopic “hybrid” model is introduced: it is based on the coupling between core excitations (both collective and non-collective of the doubly-magic core and the valence nucleon, using the Skyrme effective interaction in a consistent way.

  2. Interplay between collective and single particle excitations around neutron-rich doubly-magic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, S.

    2016-05-01

    The excitation spectra of nuclei with one or two particles outside a doubly-magic core are expected to be dominated, at low energy, by the couplings between phonon excitations of the core and valence particles. A survey of the experimental situation is given for some nuclei lying in close proximity of neutron-rich doubly-magic systems, such as 47,49Ca, 133Sb and 210Bi. Data are obtained with various types of reactions (multinucleon transfer with heavy ions, cold neutron capture and neutron induced fission of 235U and 241Pu targets), with the employment of complex detection systems based on HPGe arrays. A comparison with theoretical calculations is also presented, in terms of large shell model calculations and of a phenomenological particle-phonon model. In the case of 133Sb, a new microscopic "hybrid" model is introduced: it is based on the coupling between core excitations (both collective and non-collective) of the doubly-magic core and the valence nucleon, using the Skyrme effective interaction in a consistent way.

  3. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, $Q$, greater than that of the electron, $e$. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0~fb$^{-1}$ and 18.8~fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7~$TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=8~$TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of-flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to $1e \\leq |Q| \\leq 8e$. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724~GeV are excluded for $|Q|=1e$, $2e$, $3e$, $4e$, $5e$, $6e$, $7e$, and $8e$, respectivel...

  4. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2013-10-30

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb-1 and 18.8 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.

  5. Visible-IR and Raman micro-spectroscopic investigation of three Itokawa particles collected by Hayabusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, R.; Bonal, L.; Beck, P.; Dartois, E.; Dionnet, Z.; Djouadi, Z.; Füri, E.; Kakazu, Y.; Oudayer, P.; Quirico, E.; Engrand, C.

    2014-07-01

    HAYABUSA grains offer a unique perspective to better understand the link between asteroids and cosmomaterials available in the laboratory and to get an insight on the early stages of surface space weathering. The scientific objectives of our consortium are threefold: (i) the characterization of asteroidal surface processes (e.g., space weathering alteration); (ii) the assessment of parent-body alteration processes; (iii) the search for a possible association between S-type asteroids and micrometeorites. To this aim, our strategy is based on a combination of analytical techniques. Here we report a first series of results obtained through Visible-Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of three Itokawa particles (RA-QD02-0163, -0174, and -0213) collected by the Hayabusa spacecraft and provided by JAXA for our consortium. In a first step, our main objective was to collect maximum information without altering the particles. Reported results were thus obtained on the raw particles, both (i) in their original containers, and (ii) deposited on diamond windows. Raman and IR confocal spectra were acquired at the SMIS beamline of the French national synchrotron facility SOLEIL and at the Lyon Raman national facility using spots of 2 μ m for the Raman, and 10--20 μ m for the IR analyses. Point analyses and automatic mapping were performed. Analytical parameters (e.g., laser power on the sample) were optimized to prevent any damage. Diffuse reflectance spectra (i=45°, e=0°) in the visible and near-IR wavelengths were obtained with an IAS-CSNSM in-home system coupling a fiber spectrometer to an optical microscope, providing a 20-μ m spot on sample. In the case of particle -0163, Raman and IR results reveal a heterogeneous mixing of minerals, mostly olivine (Fo76), and Ca-rich (En50, Wo50) and Ca-poor (En85) pyroxenes. The modal distribution of these minerals is determined based on the spectral maps. The mineral compositions of -0163 are consistent with those previously reported on

  6. Development of Parkinson Patient Generated Data Collection Platform Using FHIR and IoT Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Young; Hwang, Sun-Ho; Kim, Min-Gyu; Song, Joon-Hyun; Lee, Sin-Woong; Kim, Il Kon

    2017-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) devices can be effectively used in cases where continuous observation of patients is required, such as Parkinson's disease. This is due to the characteristics of the IoT (Internet of Things), which allows data to be measured and transmitted at any time, anywhere. In this study, we developed a health data collection platform that stores and transmits the foot pressure data of Parkinson patients using FHIR (Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources). The platform can be used to collect the foot pressure of a large number of Parkinson's patients. Based on the accumulated data, it is possible to identify abnormal behaviors such as walking pattern, tilt and instability of stride length in patients with Parkinson's disease. Based on the results of this study, accurate diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson's disease can be made.

  7. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  8. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  9. Theoretical aspects of some collective instabilities in high-energy particle storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, F.

    1986-01-01

    After an introduction to single-particle dynamics, based on a unified Hamiltonian treatment of betatron and synchrotron oscillations, we consider two examples of collective instabilities which can limit the performances of high-energy storage rings: the transverse mode coupling instability, due to wake fields, and the incoherent beam-beam instability. Special emphasis is placed on the localization of the interactions between particles and surrounding structures, such as the accelerating RF cavities. We derive an exact invariant for the linearized synchrotron motion and, starting from the Vlasov equation, we discuss the coherent synchro-betatron resonances caused by localized impedance. Under suitable assumptions, we show that the effect of the beam-beam kicks in electron-positron machines can be described by new diffusive terms in a ''renormalized'' Fokker-Planck equation and is therefore equivalent to an additional source of noise for the betatron oscillations. (orig.)

  10. Study on collection efficiency of fission products by spray: Experimental device and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducret, D.; Roblot, D.; Vendel, J. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Billarand, Y. [ECCO Pharmacie et Chimie, Neuilly (France)

    1997-08-01

    Consequences of an hypothetical overheating reactor accident in nuclear power plants can be limited by spraying cold water drops into containment building. The spray reduces the pressure and the temperature levels by condensation of steam and leads to the washout of fission products (aerosols and gaseous iodine). The present study includes a large program devoted to the evaluation of realistic washout rates. An experimental device (named CARAIDAS) was designed and built in order to determine the collection efficiency of aerosols and iodine absorption by drops with representative conditions of post-accident atmosphere. This experimental device is presented in the paper and more particularly: (1) the experimental enclosure in which representative thermodynamic conditions can be achieved, (2) the monosized drops generator, the drops diameter measurement and the drops collector, (3) the cesium iodide aerosols generator and the aerosols measurements. Modelling of steam condensation on drops aerosols collection and iodine absorption are described. First experimental and code results on drops and aerosols behaviour are compared. 8 refs., 18 figs.

  11. Numerical study on the complete blood cell sorting using particle tracing and dielectrophoresis in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Haider; Park, Cheol Woo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a microfluidic device with particle tracing and dielectrophoresis field-flow fractionation was employed to perform a complete and continuous blood cell sorting. A low voltage was applied to electrodes to separate the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets based on their cell size. Blood cell sorting and counting were performed by evaluating the cell trajectories, displacements, residence times, and recovery rates in the device. A novel numerical technique was used to count the number of separated blood cells by estimating the displacement and residence time of the cells in a microfluidic device. For successful blood cell sorting, the value of cells displacement must be approximately equal to or higher than the corresponding maximum streamwise distance. The study also proposed different outlet designs to improve blood cell separation. The basic outlet design resulted in a higher cells recovery rate than the other outlets design. The recovery rate decreased as the number of inlet cells and flow rates increased because of the high particle-particle interactions and collisions with walls. The particle-particle interactions significantly affect blood cell sorting and must therefore be considered in future work.

  12. Transverse energy per charged particle in heavy-ion collisions: Role of collective flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Tiwari, Swatantra; Sahoo, Raghunath

    2018-03-01

    The ratio of (pseudo)rapidity density of transverse energy and the (pseudo)rapidity density of charged particles, which is a measure of the mean transverse energy per particle, is an important observable in high energy heavy-ion collisions. This ratio reveals information about the mechanism of particle production and the freeze-out criteria. Its collision energy and centrality dependence is almost similar to the chemical freeze-out temperature until top Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) energy. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) measurement at √{s_{NN}} = 2.76 TeV brings up new challenges towards understanding the phenomena like gluon saturation and role of collective flow, etc. being prevalent at high energies, which could contribute to the above observable. Statistical Hadron Gas Model (SHGM) with a static fireball approximation has been successful in describing both the centrality and energy dependence until top RHIC energies. However, the SHGM predictions for higher energies lie well below the LHC data. In order to understand this, we have incorporated collective flow in an excluded-volume SHGM (EV-SHGM). Our studies suggest that the collective flow plays an important role in describing E T/ N ch and it could be one of the possible parameters to explain the rise observed in E T/ N ch from RHIC to LHC energies. Predictions are made for E T/ N ch , participant pair normalized-transverse energy per unit rapidity and the Bjorken energy density for Pb+Pb collisions at √{s_{NN}} = 5.02 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider.

  13. Single-particle measurements of bouncing particles and in situ collection efficiency from an airborne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with light-scattering detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jin; Brock, Charles A.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Sueper, Donna T.; Welti, André; Middlebrook, Ann M.

    2017-10-01

    A light-scattering module was coupled to an airborne, compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (LS-AMS) to investigate collection efficiency (CE) while obtaining nonrefractory aerosol chemical composition measurements during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) campaign. In this instrument, particles scatter light from an internal laser beam and trigger saving individual particle mass spectra. Nearly all of the single-particle data with mass spectra that were triggered by scattered light signals were from particles larger than ˜ 280 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter. Over 33 000 particles are characterized as either prompt (27 %), delayed (15 %), or null (58 %), according to the time and intensity of their total mass spectral signals. The particle mass from single-particle spectra is proportional to that derived from the light-scattering diameter (dva-LS) but not to that from the particle time-of-flight (PToF) diameter (dva-MS) from the time of the maximum mass spectral signal. The total mass spectral signal from delayed particles was about 80 % of that from prompt ones for the same dva-LS. Both field and laboratory data indicate that the relative intensities of various ions in the prompt spectra show more fragmentation compared to the delayed spectra. The particles with a delayed mass spectral signal likely bounced off the vaporizer and vaporized later on another surface within the confines of the ionization source. Because delayed particles are detected by the mass spectrometer later than expected from their dva-LS size, they can affect the interpretation of particle size (PToF) mass distributions, especially at larger sizes. The CE, measured by the average number or mass fractions of particles optically detected that had measurable mass spectra, varied significantly (0.2-0.9) in different air masses. The measured CE agreed well with a previous parameterization when CE > 0.5 for acidic particles but was sometimes lower than the minimum parameterized CE of 0.5.

  14. Hot gas path component cooling system having a particle collection chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2018-02-20

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component includes a substrate having an outer surface and an inner surface. The inner surface defines at least one interior space. A passage is formed in the substrate between the outer surface and the inner surface. An access passage is formed in the substrate and extends from the outer surface to the inner space. The access passage is formed at a first acute angle to the passage and includes a particle collection chamber. The access passage is configured to channel a cooling fluid to the passage. Furthermore, the passage is configured to channel the cooling fluid therethrough to cool the substrate.

  15. Incorporating Geoscience, Field Data Collection Workflows into Software Developed for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, D. A.; Mookerjee, M.; Matsa, S.

    2014-12-01

    Modern geological sciences depend heavily on investigating the natural world in situ, i.e., within "the field," as well as managing data collections in the light of evolving advances in technology and cyberinfrastructure. To accelerate the rate of scientific discovery, we need to expedite data collection and management in such a way so as to not interfere with the typical geoscience, field workflow. To this end, we suggest replacing traditional analog methods of data collection, such as the standard field notebook and compass, with primary digital data collection applications. While some field data collecting apps exist for both the iOS and android operating systems, they do not communicate with each other in an organized data collection effort. We propose the development of a mobile app that coordinates the collection of GPS, photographic, and orientation data, along with field observations. Additionally, this application should be able to pair with other devices in order to incorporate other sensor data. In this way, the app can generate a single file that includes all field data elements and can be synced to the appropriate database with ease and efficiency. We present here a prototype application that attempts to illustrate how digital collection can be integrated into a "typical" geoscience, field workflow. The purpose of our app is to get field scientists to think about specific requirements for the development of a unified field data collection application. One fundamental step in the development of such an app is the community-based, decision-making process of adopting certain data/metadata standards and conventions. In August of 2014, on a four-day field trip to Yosemite National Park and Owens Valley, we engaged a group of field-based geologists and computer/cognitive scientists to start building a community consensus on these cyberinfrastructure-related issues. Discussing the unique problems of field data recording, conventions, storage, representation

  16. Effects of particle's off-axis position, shape, orientation and entry position on resistance changes of micro Coulter counting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhenpeng; Zhe, Jiang; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    With the recent advance in micro/nano-fabrication technology, micro Coulter counters have been widely used in detecting and characterizing micro- and nanoscale objects. In this paper, the electrical resistance change during translocation of a non-conducting particle through a channel is studied numerically. The numerical results are validated by proven analytical results available in the literature. The effects of particle's off-axis position, shape and orientation, and entry position are studied for particles with a large dynamic range. From the numerical results, a new fitted correlation is proposed that can accurately predict the resistance change caused by off-axis spherical particles regardless of their size. The shape and orientation effects of the electrical resistance change are studied by changing the axis ratio of spheroid particles and their orientation angles. Results show that a particle's shape and orientation have a significant influence on the resistance change. Simulation of an entry effect indicates that a particle starts to induce a resistance change before it enters the channel and still causes a resistance change even after the particle exits the channel completely. This study will offer some guidelines in designing and implementing Coulter counting devices and experiments, and provide insights into explaining experimental results

  17. Lesson Learned from Collecting Quantified Self Information via Mobile and Wearable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rawassizadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity and affordability of mobile and wearable devices has enabled us to continually and digitally record our daily life activities. Consequently, we are seeing the growth of data collection experiments in several scientific disciplines. Although these have yielded promising results, mobile and wearable data collection experiments are often restricted to a specific configuration that has been designed for a unique study goal. These approaches do not address all the real-world challenges of “continuous data collection” systems. As a result, there have been few discussions or reports about such issues that are faced when “implementing these platforms” in a practical situation. To address this, we have summarized our technical and user-centric findings from three lifelogging and Quantified Self data collection studies, which we have conducted in real-world settings, for both smartphones and smartwatches. In addition to (i privacy and (ii battery related issues; based on our findings we recommend further works to consider (iii implementing multivariate reflection of the data; (iv resolving the uncertainty and data loss; and (v consider to minimize the manual intervention required by users. These findings have provided insights that can be used as a guideline for further Quantified Self or lifelogging studies.

  18. Collection and Processing of Data from Wrist Wearable Devices in Heterogeneous and Multiple-User Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Arriba-Pérez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, we have witnessed the development of mobile and wearable technologies to collect data from human vital signs and activities. Nowadays, wrist wearables including sensors (e.g., heart rate, accelerometer, pedometer that provide valuable data are common in market. We are working on the analytic exploitation of this kind of data towards the support of learners and teachers in educational contexts. More precisely, sleep and stress indicators are defined to assist teachers and learners on the regulation of their activities. During this development, we have identified interoperability challenges related to the collection and processing of data from wearable devices. Different vendors adopt specific approaches about the way data can be collected from wearables into third-party systems. This hinders such developments as the one that we are carrying out. This paper contributes to identifying key interoperability issues in this kind of scenario and proposes guidelines to solve them. Taking into account these topics, this work is situated in the context of the standardization activities being carried out in the Internet of Things and Machine to Machine domains.

  19. Collection and Processing of Data from Wrist Wearable Devices in Heterogeneous and Multiple-User Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba-Pérez, Francisco; Caeiro-Rodríguez, Manuel; Santos-Gago, Juan M

    2016-09-21

    Over recent years, we have witnessed the development of mobile and wearable technologies to collect data from human vital signs and activities. Nowadays, wrist wearables including sensors (e.g., heart rate, accelerometer, pedometer) that provide valuable data are common in market. We are working on the analytic exploitation of this kind of data towards the support of learners and teachers in educational contexts. More precisely, sleep and stress indicators are defined to assist teachers and learners on the regulation of their activities. During this development, we have identified interoperability challenges related to the collection and processing of data from wearable devices. Different vendors adopt specific approaches about the way data can be collected from wearables into third-party systems. This hinders such developments as the one that we are carrying out. This paper contributes to identifying key interoperability issues in this kind of scenario and proposes guidelines to solve them. Taking into account these topics, this work is situated in the context of the standardization activities being carried out in the Internet of Things and Machine to Machine domains.

  20. Nonlinear delta f Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Hong Qi

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, ...

  1. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  2. Particle-size distribution of fission products in airborne dust collected at Tsukuba from April to June 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooe, Hiroko; Seki, Riki; Ikeda, Nagao

    1988-01-01

    The radioactivity released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl was detected in surface air at Tsukuba, Japan. Gamma-spectrometry of airborne dust collected using aerodynamic separation showed higher concentrations of radionuclides in fine particles. The particle-size distribution of radionuclides changed with time. (author)

  3. First operations with the new Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Castaldo, C.; De Angeli, M.; Figini, L.; Galperti, C.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, G.; Korsholm, S. B.; Lontano, M.; Mellera, V.; Minelli, D.; Moro, A.; Nardone, A.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Simonetto, A.; Stejner, M.; Tartari, U.

    2015-10-01

    Anomalous emissions were found over the last few years in spectra of Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in tokamak devices such as TEXTOR, ASDEX and FTU, in addition to real CTS signals. The signal frequency, down-shifted with respect to the probing one, suggested a possible origin in Parametric Decay Instability (PDI) processes correlated with the presence of magnetic islands and occurring for pumping wave power levels well below the threshold predicted by conventional models. A threshold below or close to the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) power levels could limit, under certain circumstances, the use of the ECRH in fusion devices. An accurate characterization of the conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon and of its consequences is thus of primary importance. Exploiting the front-steering configuration available with the real-time launcher, the implementation of a new CTS setup now allows studying these anomalous emission phenomena in FTU under conditions of density and wave injection geometry that are more similar to those envisaged for CTS in ITER. The upgrades of the diagnostic are presented as well as a few preliminary spectra detected with the new system during the very first operations in 2014. The present work has been carried out under an EUROfusion Enabling Research project. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  4. Device for the separation of spherically shaped fuel or breeding material particles for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyarmati, E.; Muenzer, R.

    1974-01-01

    Spherical fuel or blanket material particles are graded by diameter. The particles, which are present in a loose pebble bed, are singulized by means of a drum and by pneumatic suction. Next they pass through a drop section past an optical barrier which generates pulses corresponding to the number of particles. The particles then run through an eccentric wheel. This generates an electric voltage across a potentiometer which corresponds to the size of the particles. The slider of the potentiometer is connected with the axle of the eccentric wheel whose distance to the wall of the drop canal varies between the largest and the smallest possible diameters of the particles over half a revolution. Another barrier downstream of the eccentric wheel causes the particles to be graded in different containers in accordance with their diameters determined in this way. (DG) [de

  5. Single-particle and collective dynamics of methanol confined in carbon nanotubes: a computer simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garberoglio, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of computer simulations of methanol confined in carbon nanotubes. Different levels of confinement were identified as a function of the nanotube radius and characterized using a pair-distribution function adapted to the cylindrical geometry of these systems. Dynamical properties of methanol were also analysed as a function of the nanotube size, both at the level of single-particle and collective properties. We found that confinement in narrow carbon nanotubes strongly affects the dynamical properties of methanol with respect to the bulk phase, due to the strong interaction with the carbon nanotube. In the other cases, confined methanol shows properties quite similar to those of the bulk phase. These phenomena are related to the peculiar hydrogen bonded network of methanol and are compared to the behaviour of water confined in similar conditions. The effect of nanotube flexibility on the dynamical properties of confined methanol is also discussed.

  6. Evolution of Single Particle and Collective properties in the Neutron-Rich Mg Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Wiens, A; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Van duppen, P L E; Finke, F

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the single particle and collective properties of the neutron-rich Mg isotopes in transfer reactions and Coulomb excitation using REX-ISOLDE and MINIBALL. From the Coulomb excitation measurement precise and largely model independent B( E2 ; 0$^{+}_{g.s.}\\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}_{1}$ ) will be determined for the even-even isotopes. For the odd isotopes the distribution of the E2 strength over a few low-lying states will be measured. The sign of the M1/E2 mixing ratio, extracted from angular distributions, is characteristic of the sign of the deformation, as is the resulting level scheme. The neutron-pickup channel in the transfer reactions will allow for a determination of the single particle properties (spin, parity, spectroscopic factors) of these nuclei. This information will give new insights in changes of nuclear structure in the vicinity of the island of deformation around $^{32}$Mg. A total of 24 shifts of REX beam time is requested.

  7. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure of zinc particles formed by condensation for transportation to an analytic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, T.; Wochele, J.; Ludwig, C.; Schuler, A.J.; Ketterer, B.

    2002-03-01

    Aerosol containing small particles with homogeneous structural characteristics are desired for analysis in Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). To investigate heavy metal evaporation behaviour during thermal treatment a laboratory on-line elemental analyzer has been developed. The analyzer consists of a Condensation Interface (CI) for the generation of aerosols and an ICP-OES as detector. The settings at the CI can strongly influence the particle formation, and therefore the quality of the measurements. To improve the method preliminary experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of zinc particles formed in the evaporation/condensation process. System conditions, such as vaporization temperature, carrier gas, and flow rate, were varied to investigate their influence on particle size, homogeneity and shape. The experiments suggest that particles vary most with temperature, lower vaporization temperatures resulted in the formation of smaller particles. (author)

  9. Influence of the pulse wave in the stratification of high density particles in a JIG device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Ospina-Alarcón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of particle motion subjected to four different pulsation profiles on a pulsated fluidized bed jig concentrator was carried out. The profiles used in the simulation were – sinusoidal, triangle, sawtooth-backward and sawtooth-forward. Two-dimensional local velocities of the water flow field were calculated from the continuity and momentum equations by CFD techniques implementing SIMPLE algorithm. The particle motion is modeled by a forces balance applying the Newton’s second law of motion. Liquid-solid interactions forces are calculated by the mathematical Euler-Lagrangian model extended to a particle suspension having a wide size and density distribution. To analyze the particle motion in jig, we derived a trajectory equation for the response time of particle that include virtual mass, gravity, pressure gradient, drag and Basset forces. The study demonstrates significant differences in the particle trajectories for various pulsation profiles applied to the boundary condition at the inlet to the jig chamber.

  10. Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittone, E., E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Department of Physics, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pastuovic, Z. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Breese, M.B.H. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Garcia Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Sevilla University, J. Andalucia, CSIC, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jaksic, M. [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruder Boškovic Institute (RBI), P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Raisanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014 (Finland); Siegele, R. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Simon, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Vizkelethy, G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • We study the electronic degradation of semiconductors induced by ion irradiation. • The experimental protocol is based on MeV ion microbeam irradiation. • The radiation induced damage is measured by IBIC. • The general model fits the experimental data in the low level damage regime. • Key parameters relevant to the intrinsic radiation hardness are extracted. - Abstract: This paper investigates both theoretically and experimentally the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation in silicon diodes induced by energetic ions. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out on n- and p-type silicon diodes which were previously irradiated with MeV He ions show evidence that the CCE degradation does not only depend on the mass, energy and fluence of the damaging ion, but also depends on the ion probe species and on the polarization state of the device. A general one-dimensional model is derived, which accounts for the ion-induced defect distribution, the ionization profile of the probing ion and the charge induction mechanism. Using the ionizing and non-ionizing energy loss profiles resulting from simulations based on the binary collision approximation and on the electrostatic/transport parameters of the diode under study as input, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental CCE degradation curves without introducing any phenomenological additional term or formula. Although limited to low level of damage, the model is quite general, including the displacement damage approach as a special case and can be applied to any semiconductor device. It provides a method to measure the capture coefficients of the radiation induced recombination centres. They can be considered indexes, which can contribute to assessing the relative radiation hardness of semiconductor materials.

  11. Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1981-10-26

    In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

  12. A Parallel Implementation of a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method on Graphics Hardware Using the Compute Unified Device Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong Unhong; Wong Honcheng; Tang Zesheng

    2010-01-01

    The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which is a class of meshfree particle methods (MPMs), has a wide range of applications from micro-scale to macro-scale as well as from discrete systems to continuum systems. Graphics hardware, originally designed for computer graphics, now provide unprecedented computational power for scientific computation. Particle system needs a huge amount of computations in physical simulation. In this paper, an efficient parallel implementation of a SPH method on graphics hardware using the Compute Unified Device Architecture is developed for fluid simulation. Comparing to the corresponding CPU implementation, our experimental results show that the new approach allows significant speedups of fluid simulation through handling huge amount of computations in parallel on graphics hardware.

  13. Optically sensitive devices based on Pt nano particles fabricated by atomic layer deposition and embedded in a dielectric stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Eisenstein, G. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Weindling, S.; Salzman, J. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, Z.; Kaplan, W. D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Ankonina, G. [Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Photovoltaic Laboratory, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel)

    2015-10-07

    We report a series of metal insulator semiconductor devices with embedded Pt nano particles (NPs) fabricated using a low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Optically sensitive nonvolatile memory cells as well as optical sensors: (i) varactors, whose capacitance-voltage characteristics, nonlinearity, and peak capacitance are strongly dependent on illumination intensity; (ii) highly linear photo detectors whose responsivity is enhanced due to the Pt NPs. Both single devices and back to back pairs of diodes were used. The different configurations enable a variety of functionalities with many potential applications in biomedical sensing, environmental surveying, simple imagers for consumer electronics and military uses. The simplicity and planar configuration of the proposed devices makes them suitable for standard CMOS fabrication technology.

  14. Optically sensitive devices based on Pt nano particles fabricated by atomic layer deposition and embedded in a dielectric stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Eisenstein, G.; Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Weindling, S.; Salzman, J.; Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, Z.; Kaplan, W. D.; Ankonina, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of metal insulator semiconductor devices with embedded Pt nano particles (NPs) fabricated using a low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Optically sensitive nonvolatile memory cells as well as optical sensors: (i) varactors, whose capacitance-voltage characteristics, nonlinearity, and peak capacitance are strongly dependent on illumination intensity; (ii) highly linear photo detectors whose responsivity is enhanced due to the Pt NPs. Both single devices and back to back pairs of diodes were used. The different configurations enable a variety of functionalities with many potential applications in biomedical sensing, environmental surveying, simple imagers for consumer electronics and military uses. The simplicity and planar configuration of the proposed devices makes them suitable for standard CMOS fabrication technology

  15. A multilayer concentric filter device to diminish clogging for separation of particles and microalgae based on size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chung; Chen, Yu-An; Liu, Yi-Ju; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2014-04-21

    Microalgae species have great economic importance; they are a source of medicines, health foods, animal feeds, industrial pigments, cosmetic additives and biodiesel. Specific microalgae species collected from the environment must be isolated for examination and further application, but their varied size and culture conditions make their isolation using conventional methods, such as filtration, streaking plate and flow cytometric sorting, labour-intensive and costly. A separation device based on size is one of the most rapid, simple and inexpensive methods to separate microalgae, but this approach encounters major disadvantages of clogging and multiple filtration steps when the size of microalgae varies over a wide range. In this work, we propose a multilayer concentric filter device with varied pore size and is driven by a centrifugation force. The device, which includes multiple filter layers, was employed to separate a heterogeneous population of microparticles into several subpopulations by filtration in one step. A cross-flow to attenuate prospective clogging was generated by altering the rate of rotation instantly through the relative motion between the fluid and the filter according to the structural design of the device. Mixed microparticles of varied size were tested to demonstrate that clogging was significantly suppressed due to a highly efficient separation. Microalgae in a heterogeneous population collected from an environmental soil collection were separated and enriched into four subpopulations according to size in a one step filtration process. A microalgae sample contaminated with bacteria and insect eggs was also tested to prove the decontamination capability of the device.

  16. Technical Note: A novel rocket-based in situ collection technique for mesospheric and stratospheric aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Reid

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A technique for collecting aerosol particles between altitudes of 17 and 85 km is described. Spin-stabilized collection probes are ejected from a sounding rocket allowing for multi-point measurements. Each probe is equipped with 110 collection samples that are 3 mm in diameter. The collection samples are one of three types: standard transmission electron microscopy carbon grids, glass fibre filter paper or silicone gel. Collection samples are exposed over a 50 m to 5 km height range with a total of 45 separate ranges. Post-flight electron microscopy will give size-resolved information on particle number, shape and elemental composition. Each collection probe is equipped with a suite of sensors to capture the probe's status during the fall. Parachute recovery systems along with GPS-based localization will ensure that each probe can be located and recovered for post-flight analysis.

  17. Collective motion of groups of self-propelled particles following interacting leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinandy, B.; Ozogány, K.; Vicsek, T.

    2017-08-01

    In order to keep their cohesiveness during locomotion gregarious animals must make collective decisions. Many species boast complex societies with multiple levels of communities. A common case is when two dominant levels exist, one corresponding to leaders and the other consisting of followers. In this paper we study the collective motion of such two-level assemblies of self-propelled particles. We present a model adapted from one originally proposed to describe the movement of cells resulting in a smoothly varying coherent motion. We shall use the terminology corresponding to large groups of some mammals where leaders and followers form a group called a harem. We study the emergence (self-organization) of sub-groups within a herd during locomotion by computer simulations. The resulting processes are compared with our prior observations of a Przewalski horse herd (Hortobágy, Hungary) which we use as results from a published case study. We find that the model reproduces key features of a herd composed of harems moving on open ground, including fights for followers between leaders and bachelor groups (group of leaders without followers). One of our findings, however, does not agree with the observations. While in our model the emerging group size distribution is normal, the group size distribution of the observed herd based on historical data have been found to follow lognormal distribution. We argue that this indicates that the formation (and the size) of the harems must involve a more complex social topology than simple spatial-distance based interactions.

  18. Recovery and Stability of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Using the Oral-Eze® Oral Fluid Collection System and Intercept® Oral Specimen Collection Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samano, Kimberly L; Anne, Lakshmi; Johnson, Ted; Tang, Kenneth; Sample, R H Barry

    2015-10-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is increasingly used for clinical, forensic and workplace drug testing as an alternative to urine. Uncertainties surrounding OF collection device performance, drug stability and testing reproducibility may be partially responsible for delays in the implementation of OF testing in regulated drug testing programs. Stability of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) fortified and authentic specimens was examined after routine collection, transport and laboratory testing. Acceptable recovery and stability were observed when THC-fortified OF (1.5 and 4.5 ng/mL) was applied to Oral-Eze devices. Neat OF samples collected with Oral-Eze, processed per the package insert, and fortified with THC (3 and 6 ng/mL) were stable (±20%) at room temperature (21-25°C), refrigerated (2-8°C) and frozen (-25 to -15°C) conditions up to 1 month, while samples collected with Intercept devices showed decreases at refrigerated and room temperatures. After long-term refrigerated or frozen storage, maximum reductions in THC concentrations were 42% for Oral-Eze and 69% for Intercept. After ≥1 year frozen storage, 80.7% of laboratory specimens positive for THC (3 ng/mL cut-off) by GC-MS were reconfirmed positive (within 25%), with an average THC decrease of 4.2%. Specimens (n = 47) processed with Oral-Eze (diluted) and tested via enzyme immunoassay were concordant with LC-MS-MS results and showed 100% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Paired specimens collected with Oral-Eze and Intercept exhibited 98% overall agreement between the immunoassay test systems. Collectively, these data demonstrate consistent and reproducible recovery and stability of THC in OF after collection, transport and laboratory testing using the Oral-Eze OF Collection System. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pseudo-random number generation for Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations on GPU devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2011-08-01

    Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.

  20. Particle Size Distribution of E-Cigarette Aerosols and the Relationship to Cambridge Filter Pad Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alderman Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively volatile nature of the particulate matter fraction of e-cigarette aerosols presents an experimental challenge with regard to particle size distribution measure-ments. This is particularly true for instruments requiring a high degree of aerosol dilution. This was illustrated in a previous study, where average particle diameters in the 10-50 nm range were determined by a high-dilution, electrical mobility method. Total particulate matter (TPM masses calculated based on those diameters were orders of magnitude smaller than gravimetrically determined TPM. This discrepancy was believed to result from almost complete particle evaporation at the dilution levels of the electrical mobility analysis. The same study described a spectral transmission measurement of e-cigarette particle size in an undiluted state, and reported particles from 210-380 nm count median diameter. Observed particle number concentrations were in the 109 particles/cm3 range. Additional particle size measurements described here also found e-cigarette particle size to be in the 260-320 nm count median diameter range. Cambridge filter pads have been used for decades to determine TPM yields of tobacco burning cigarettes, and collection of e-cigarette TPM by fibrous filters is predicted to be a highly efficient process over a wide range of filtration flow rates. The results presented in this work provide support for this hypothesis.

  1. Filtration device for rapid separation of biological particles from complex matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangil; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman; Liou, Megan

    2018-01-09

    Methods and systems for filtering of biological particles are disclosed. Filtering membranes separate adjacent chambers. Through osmotic or electrokinetic processes, flow of particles is carried out through the filtering membranes. Cells, viruses and cell waste can be filtered depending on the size of the pores of the membrane. A polymer brush can be applied to a surface of the membrane to enhance filtering and prevent fouling.

  2. Raman microscopy of size-segregated aerosol particles, collected at the Sonnblick Observatory in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, Johannes; Kasper-Giebl, Anneliese; Kistler, Magdalena; Matzl, Julia; Schauer, Gerhard; Hitzenberger, Regina; Lohninger, Johann; Lendl, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Size classified aerosol samples were collected using low pressure impactors in July 2013 at the high alpine background site Sonnnblick. The Sonnblick Observatory is located in the Austrian Alps, at the summit of Sonnblick 3100 m asl. Sampling was performed in parallel on the platform of the Observatory and after the aerosol inlet. The inlet is constructed as a whole air inlet and is operated at an overall sampling flow of 137 lpm and heated to 30 °C. Size cuts of the eight stage low pressure impactors were from 0.1 to 12.8 µm a.d.. Alumina foils were used as sample substrates for the impactor stages. In addition to the size classified aerosol sampling overall aerosol mass (Sharp Monitor 5030, Thermo Scientific) and number concentrations (TSI, CPC 3022a; TCC-3, Klotz) were determined. A Horiba LabRam 800HR Raman microscope was used for vibrational mapping of an area of about 100 µm x 100 µm of the alumina foils at a resolution of about 0.5 µm. The Raman microscope is equipped with a laser with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm and a grating with 300 gr/mm. Both optical images and the related chemical images were combined and a chemometric investigation of the combined images was done using the software package Imagelab (Epina Software Labs). Based on the well-known environment, a basic assignment of Raman signals of single particles is possible at a sufficient certainty. Main aerosol constituents e.g. like sulfates, black carbon and mineral particles could be identified. First results of the chemical imaging of size-segregated aerosol, collected at the Sonnblick Observatory, will be discussed with respect to standardized long-term measurements at the sampling station. Further, advantages and disadvantages of chemical imaging with subsequent chemometric investigation of the single images will be discussed and compared to the established methods of aerosol analysis. The chemometric analysis of the dataset is focused on mixing and variation of single compounds at

  3. Controlled and tunable polymer particles' production using a single microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyav, Benzion; Benny, Ofra

    2018-04-01

    Microfluidics technology offers a new platform to control liquids under flow in small volumes. The advantage of using small-scale reactions for droplet generation along with the capacity to control the preparation parameters, making microfluidic chips an attractive technology for optimizing encapsulation formulations. However, one of the drawback in this methodology is the ability to obtain a wide range of droplet sizes, from sub-micron to microns using a single chip design. In fact, typically, droplet chips are used for micron-dimension particles, while nanoparticles' synthesis requires complex chips design (i.e., microreactors and staggered herringbone micromixer). Here, we introduce the development of a highly tunable and controlled encapsulation technique, using two polymer compositions, for generating particles ranging from microns to nano-size using the same simple single microfluidic chip design. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA 50:50) or PLGA/polyethylene glycol polymeric particles were prepared with focused-flow chip, yielding monodisperse particle batches. We show that by varying flow rate, solvent, surfactant and polymer composition, we were able to optimize particles' size and decrease polydispersity index, using simple chip designs with no further related adjustments or costs. Utilizing this platform, which offers tight tuning of particle properties, could offer an important tool for formulation development and can potentially pave the way towards a better precision nanomedicine.

  4. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul; Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-04-30

    Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail-wheel-brake and catenaries-pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 μm, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi station was iron metal, whereas those at Yangjae station contained a small amount of Fe mixed with Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and C. The difference in composition of the Fe-containing particles between the two subway stations was attributed to the different ballast tracks used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility of using a handheld electronic device for the collection of patient reported outcomes data from children

    OpenAIRE

    Vinney, Lisa A.; Grade, John; Connor, Nadine P.

    2011-01-01

    The manner in which a communication disorder affects health-related quality of life (QOL) in children is not known. Unfortunately, collection of quality of life data via traditional paper measures is labor intensive and has several other limitations, which hinder the investigation of pediatric quality of life in children. Currently, there is not sufficient research regarding the use of electronic devices to collect pediatric patient reported outcomes in order to address such limitations. Thus...

  6. Application of a particle separation device to reduce inductively coupled plasma-enhanced elemental fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillong, Marcel; Kuhn, Hans-Rudolf; Guenther, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    The particle size distribution of laser ablation aerosols are a function of the wavelength, the energy density and the pulse duration of the laser, as well as the sample matrix and the gas environment. Further the size of the particles affects the vaporization and ionization efficiency in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Some matrices produce large particles, which are not completely vaporized and ionized in the ICP. The previous work has shown that analytical results such as matrix-independent calibration, accuracy and precision can be significantly influenced by the particle sizes of the particles. To minimize the particle size related incomplete conversion of the sample to ions in the ICP a particle separation device was developed, which allows effective particle separation using centrifugal forces in a thin coiled tube. In this device, the particle cut-off size is varied by changing the number of turns in the coil, as well as by changing the gas flow and the tube diameter. The interaction of the laser with the different samples leads to varying particle size distributions. When carrying out quantitative analysis with non-matrix matched calibration reference materials, it was shown that different particle cut-off sizes were required depending on the ICP conditions and the instrument used for analysis. Various sample materials were investigated in this study to demonstrate the applicability of the device. For silicate matrices, the capability of the ICP to produce ions was significantly reduced for particles larger than 0.5 μm, and was dependent on the element monitored. To reduce memory effects caused by the separated particles, a washout procedure was developed, which additionally allowed the analysis of the trapped particles. These results clearly demonstrate the very important particle size dependent ICP-MS signal response and the potential of the described particle size based separator for the reduction of ICP induced elemental fractionation

  7. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol

  8. The use of mobile devices as means of data collection in supporting elementary school students' conceptual understanding about plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Lazaridou, Charalambia; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of mobile learning among young learners. Specifically, we investigated whether the use of mobile devices for data collection during field trips outside the classroom could enhance fourth graders' learning about the parts of the flower and their

  9. The Use of Mobile Devices as Means of Data Collection in Supporting Elementary School Students' Conceptual Understanding about Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Lazaridou, Charalambia; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of mobile learning among young learners. Specifically, we investigated whether the use of mobile devices for data collection during field trips outside the classroom could enhance fourth graders' learning about the parts of the flower and their functions, flower pollinators and the process of…

  10. 78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ...; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: 60-Day... mines. CPDMs must be designed and constructed for coal miners to wear and operate without impeding their... related to Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices. MSHA is particularly interested in comments that: Evaluate...

  11. Development of a PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) analysis device using an extracted proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, A.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental device described allows the extention of the PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method to the analysis, by means of proton beams, of solid or liquid samples, which can not be analyzed under vacuum conditions. The homogeneity of the surfaces to be analysed and elements (in the atmosphere) which absorb X-rays must be taken into account. Liquid samples do not need special care. The results show that: at high energies, the extracted beam sensibility is of the same order of magnitude as those obtained under vacuum; at low energies, the performance under vacuum conditions is better. The particles energy losses, at the exit membrane and in the outer atmosphere, decrease the X-rays production efficiency [fr

  12. Electrophoresis device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

  13. Process and devices of detection of hard electromagnetic or particle radiations using a superconducting element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukier, A.K.; Valette, Claude; Waysand, Georges.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to processes and systems for the detection of hard electromagnetic or particle radiations and the sensors fitted to these systems. 'Hard radiations' means those whose energy is greater than a variable threshold, depending on the applications, but always more than 5 keV. The use of these sensors and the associated systems can therefore be envisaged in radiography and also in emission gammagraphy in the biological, anatomic and medical fields. In these processes, in order to detect a photon or a radiation particle, use is made of the transition phenomenon of a homogeneous grain of superconducting material of the first kind, from the metastable superconducting state to the normal state, under the effect of a photoelectron ejected by the impact of the photon or of the particle on the grain of superconducting material [fr

  14. Possible control scenario of radial electric field by loss-cone-particle injection into helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, Osamu; Shishkin, A.A.; Inagaki, Shigeru; Watanabe, Kiyomasa

    1999-08-01

    The possibility of controlling the radial electric field of toroidal plasmas by injecting high energy electrons along the reversible loss cone orbit of the helical magnetic traps is investigated. It is well known that the radial electric field plays an important role in the confinement improvement scenario especially in the low collisional regime under the physics picture of neoclassical theory. For this purpose, it is made clear that the most suitable particles are transit particles, which show a transition from helically trapped orbits to blocked ones. It is also found that a parallel AC electric field launched from outside assists this transition and makes it possible for particles to penetrate deeply into the plasma. In addition we clarify that the viscosity of the plasma coupled with the helical field configuration provide a bifurcation of plasma states and its stable solution results in confinement improvement. (author)

  15. The role of natural mineral particles collected at one site in Patagonia as immersion freezing ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María Laura; Borgnino, Laura; Ávila, Eldo E.

    2018-05-01

    This work studies the role of mineral particles collected in the region of Patagonia (Neuquén, Argentina) as ice nuclei particles (INPs) by immersion freezing mode. The particle immersion-freezing ability was analyzed under laboratory conditions by using an established drop-freezing technique. Mineralogical composition was characterized by using X-ray diffraction and electron micro probe analysis. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine the grain size distribution of particles, while the N2 adsorption and methylene blue adsorption methods were applied to determine their specific surface area. Water droplets of different volumes containing different concentrations of particles were cooled until droplets were frozen. For all the analyzed drop volumes, an increase in the freezing temperature of the drops was observed with increasing dust concentration. In the same way, the freezing temperature increased when the drop volume was increased at constant dust concentration. Both behaviors were linked to the availability of active sites in the particles. A plateau in the freezing temperature was observed at high suspension concentration for all the drop volumes. This plateau was related to the aggregation of the particles when the suspension concentration was increased and to the consequent decrease in the number of active sites. The active sites per unit of surface area were calculated and reported. For the studied range of temperature, results are in agreement with those reported for different sites and particles. From the chemical and morphological analysis of the particle components and the results obtained from the literature, it was concluded that even though montmorillonite was the main mineral in the collected sample, the accessory minerals deserve to be analyzed in detail in order to know if they could be responsible for the ability of the collected soil particles to act as INPs. Considering that the region of Patagonia has been identified as an important

  16. Studying fluid-to-particle heat transfer coefficients in vessel cooking processes using potatoes as measuring devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Christensen, Martin Gram; Pedersen, Søren Juhl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a novel idea of using spherical potatoes as a dispensable, cheap device for determining the fluid-to-particle heat transfer coefficient, hfp in vessel cooking processes. The transmission of heat through the potato can be traced by measuring the distance from...... that the method is rather precise at relevant values of hfp in vessel cooking (100–300 [W/m2K]), allowing a prediction of the centre temperature within ±0.6°C....

  17. Axisymmetric charge-conservative electromagnetic particle simulation algorithm on unstructured grids: Application to microwave vacuum electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Dong-Yeop; Omelchenko, Yuri A.; Moon, Haksu; Borges, Ben-Hur V.; Teixeira, Fernando L.

    2017-10-01

    We present a charge-conservative electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) algorithm optimized for the analysis of vacuum electronic devices (VEDs) with cylindrical symmetry (axisymmetry). We exploit the axisymmetry present in the device geometry, fields, and sources to reduce the dimensionality of the problem from 3D to 2D. Further, we employ 'transformation optics' principles to map the original problem in polar coordinates with metric tensor diag (1 ,ρ2 , 1) to an equivalent problem on a Cartesian metric tensor diag (1 , 1 , 1) with an effective (artificial) inhomogeneous medium introduced. The resulting problem in the meridian (ρz) plane is discretized using an unstructured 2D mesh considering TEϕ-polarized fields. Electromagnetic field and source (node-based charges and edge-based currents) variables are expressed as differential forms of various degrees, and discretized using Whitney forms. Using leapfrog time integration, we obtain a mixed E - B finite-element time-domain scheme for the full-discrete Maxwell's equations. We achieve a local and explicit time update for the field equations by employing the sparse approximate inverse (SPAI) algorithm. Interpolating field values to particles' positions for solving Newton-Lorentz equations of motion is also done via Whitney forms. Particles are advanced using the Boris algorithm with relativistic correction. A recently introduced charge-conserving scatter scheme tailored for 2D unstructured grids is used in the scatter step. The algorithm is validated considering cylindrical cavity and space-charge-limited cylindrical diode problems. We use the algorithm to investigate the physical performance of VEDs designed to harness particle bunching effects arising from the coherent (resonance) Cerenkov electron beam interactions within micro-machined slow wave structures.

  18. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  19. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He 2+ and Fe 24+ transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He 2+ studies. By examining the electron and He 2+ responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed

  20. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon [Department of Physics, Inha University, 253, Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Youn-Suk [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jo-Chun [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, HyeKyoung [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Chul-Un, E-mail: curo@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined chemical species of floor dusts and airborne magnetic subway particles collected at underground subway stations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRD, SEM/EDX, and VSM measurements provided information on their major iron species, which is relatively harmless iron metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. - Abstract: Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail-wheel-brake and catenaries-pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the <25 {mu}m size fractions with minor fractions of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, and C. From SEM analysis, the floor dusts of the <25 {mu}m size fractions collected on railroad ties appeared to be smaller than 10 {mu}m, indicating that their characteristics should somewhat reflect the characteristics of airborne particles in the tunnel and the platform. As most floor dusts are magnetic, PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 {mu}m, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi

  1. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul; Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined chemical species of floor dusts and airborne magnetic subway particles collected at underground subway stations. ► XRD, SEM/EDX, and VSM measurements provided information on their major iron species, which is relatively harmless iron metal. ► PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. - Abstract: Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail–wheel–brake and catenaries–pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions with minor fractions of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, and C. From SEM analysis, the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions collected on railroad ties appeared to be smaller than 10 μm, indicating that their characteristics should somewhat reflect the characteristics of airborne particles in the tunnel and the platform. As most floor dusts are magnetic, PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 μm, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi station was iron metal, whereas those at Yangjae station contained a small amount

  2. g factors and the interplay of collective and single-particle degrees of freedom in superdeformed mass-190 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Jing-ye; Guidry, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Interplay of collective and single-particle degrees of freedom is a common phenomenon in strongly correlated many-body systems. Despite many successful efforts in the study of superdeformed nuclei, there is still unexplored physics that can be best understood only through the nuclear magnetic properties. We point out that study of the gyromagnetic factor (g factor) may open a unique opportunity for understanding superdeformed structure. Our calculations suggest that investigation of the g-factor dependence on spin and particle number can provide important information on single-particle structure and its interplay with collective motion in the superdeformed mass-190 nuclei. Modern experimental techniques combined with the new generation of sensitive detectors should be capable of testing our predictions

  3. Microtubule self-organisation by reaction-diffusion processes causes collective transport and organisation of cellular particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demongeot Jacques

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transport of intra-cellular particles by microtubules is a major biological function. Under appropriate in vitro conditions, microtubule preparations behave as a 'complex' system and show 'emergent' phenomena. In particular, they form dissipative structures that self-organise over macroscopic distances by a combination of reaction and diffusion. Results Here, we show that self-organisation also gives rise to a collective transport of colloidal particles along a specific direction. Particles, such as polystyrene beads, chromosomes, nuclei, and vesicles are carried at speeds of several microns per minute. The process also results in the macroscopic self-organisation of these particles. After self-organisation is completed, they show the same pattern of organisation as the microtubules. Numerical simulations of a population of growing and shrinking microtubules, incorporating experimentally realistic reaction dynamics, predict self-organisation. They forecast that during self-organisation, macroscopic parallel arrays of oriented microtubules form which cross the reaction space in successive waves. Such travelling waves are capable of transporting colloidal particles. The fact that in the simulations, the aligned arrays move along the same direction and at the same speed as the particles move, suggest that this process forms the underlying mechanism for the observed transport properties. Conclusions This process constitutes a novel physical chemical mechanism by which chemical energy is converted into collective transport of colloidal particles along a given direction. Self-organisation of this type provides a new mechanism by which intra cellular particles such as chromosomes and vesicles can be displaced and simultaneously organised by microtubules. It is plausible that processes of this type occur in vivo.

  4. Microtubule self-organisation by reaction-diffusion processes causes collective transport and organisation of cellular particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, Nicolas; Demongeot, Jacques; Tabony, James

    2004-01-01

    Background The transport of intra-cellular particles by microtubules is a major biological function. Under appropriate in vitro conditions, microtubule preparations behave as a 'complex' system and show 'emergent' phenomena. In particular, they form dissipative structures that self-organise over macroscopic distances by a combination of reaction and diffusion. Results Here, we show that self-organisation also gives rise to a collective transport of colloidal particles along a specific direction. Particles, such as polystyrene beads, chromosomes, nuclei, and vesicles are carried at speeds of several microns per minute. The process also results in the macroscopic self-organisation of these particles. After self-organisation is completed, they show the same pattern of organisation as the microtubules. Numerical simulations of a population of growing and shrinking microtubules, incorporating experimentally realistic reaction dynamics, predict self-organisation. They forecast that during self-organisation, macroscopic parallel arrays of oriented microtubules form which cross the reaction space in successive waves. Such travelling waves are capable of transporting colloidal particles. The fact that in the simulations, the aligned arrays move along the same direction and at the same speed as the particles move, suggest that this process forms the underlying mechanism for the observed transport properties. Conclusions This process constitutes a novel physical chemical mechanism by which chemical energy is converted into collective transport of colloidal particles along a given direction. Self-organisation of this type provides a new mechanism by which intra cellular particles such as chromosomes and vesicles can be displaced and simultaneously organised by microtubules. It is plausible that processes of this type occur in vivo. PMID:15176973

  5. Active particle control experiments and critical particle flux discriminating between the wall pumping and fuelling in the compact plasma wall interaction device CPD spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zushi, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Yoshinaga, T.; Higashizono, Y.; Hanada, K.; Yoshida, N.; Tokunaga, K.; Kawasaki, S.; Sato, K. N.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Hirooka, Y.; Bhattacharyay, R.; Okamoto, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Honma, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Nishino, N.; Kado, S.; Shikama, T.

    2009-01-01

    Two approaches associated with wall recycling have been performed in a small spherical tokamak device CPD (compact plasma wall interaction experimental device), that is, (1) demonstration of active particle recycling control, namely, 'active wall pumping' using a rotating poloidal limiter whose surface is continuously gettered by lithium and (2) a basic study of the key parameters which discriminates between 'wall pumping and fuelling'. For the former, active control of 'wall pumping' has been demonstrated during 50 kW RF current drive discharges whose pulse length is typically ∼300 ms. Although the rotating limiter is located at the outer board, as soon as the rotating drum is gettered with lithium, hydrogen recycling measured with H α spectroscopy decreases by about a factor of 3 not only near the limiter but also in the centre stack region. Also, the oxygen impurity level measured with O II spectroscopy is reduced by about a factor of 3. As a consequence of the reduced recycling and impurity level, RF driven current has nearly doubled at the same vertical magnetic field. For the latter, global plasma wall interaction with plasma facing components in the vessel is studied in a simple torus produced by electron cyclotron waves with I p -4 to ∼0.1 x 10 -4 Torr during the experimental campaign (∼3000 shots). In the wall pumping pressure range the wall pumping fraction is reduced with increasing surface temperature up to 150 deg. C.

  6. Water and sludge treatment device provided with a system for irradiating by accelerated charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Guy; Bensussan, Andre; Levaillant, Claude; Huber, Harry; Mevel, Emile; Tronc, Dominique.

    1977-01-01

    Treatment system for a fluid made up of water and sludge, provided with a system for irradiating the fluid by a beam of accelerated charged particles comprising means for obtaining a constant flow of the fluid to be treated, facilities for monitoring this flow, an irradiation channel located on the path of the beam, in which the fluid to be treated can flow, a portion of this channel having at least one window transparent to the beam of accelerated particles. A safety system associated with the system for monitoring the characteristics of the beam and with the system for monitoring the flow of the fluid to be treated, stops the flow of the fluid and the recycling of the fluid defectively treated [fr

  7. Experimental and analytical characterization of the 3D motion of particles in acoustofluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, M.; Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, P.

    2012-01-01

    and to examine the accuracy of analytical force predictions. Polystyrene spheres with diameter of 0.5µm and 5µm were displaced under controlled conditions in a long straight rectangular acoustofluidic microchannel, actuated in its 2-MHz resonance mode, a transverse half-wavelength standing acoustic wave......In this work we present an experimental and analytical study of the acoustophoretic motion of spherical polystyrene particles of different sizes. The primary aim is to understand the three-dimensional extension of the acoustic radiation force and the acoustic streaming-induced drag force...... for the smaller 0.5-µm particles. The experimental 3D data is used to validate new theoretical predictions of the streaming velocity....

  8. A versatile analog device for identifying charged particles by their energies and ionizing powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmanci, Ali Emre

    1971-06-01

    The various methods of identification previously used are discussed; particular attention is given to an ΔE-E telescope. The usual approximations of the equation of Beth-Livingstone are examined and a more universal formula is given. It is shown that when this formula is applied to the case of light particles (p, d, t, H e 3 , α) identification over a wide energy range is possible. The equipment operates logarithmically using analog operators. The identifier possesses certain number of special features, especially concerning the logarithmic converters and the base line restorers. High accuracy, speed, and a good performance at high counting rates have been achieved. Experimental results confirm the performance of the equipment and the validity of the formulas used. A large number of particles corresponding to Z = 8, were identified. (author) [fr

  9. Application of the reduction of scale range in a Lorentz boosted frame to the numerical simulation of particle acceleration devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.; Fawley, W.M.; Geddes, C.G.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the ratio of longest to shortest space and time scales of a system of two or more components crossing at relativistic velocities is not invariant under Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference minimizing an aggregate measure of the ratio of space and time scales. It was demonstrated that this translated into a reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times, using methods based on first principles (e.g., Particle-In-Cell), for particle acceleration devices and for problems such as: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. Since then, speed-ups ranging from 75 to more than four orders of magnitude have been reported for the simulation of either scaled or reduced models of the above-cited problems. In it was shown that to achieve full benefits of the calculation in a boosted frame, some of the standard numerical techniques needed to be revised. The theory behind the speed-up of numerical simulation in a boosted frame, latest developments of numerical methods, and example applications with new opportunities that they offer are all presented

  10. Size-segregated compositional analysis of aerosol particles collected in the European Arctic during the ACCACIA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Young

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-particle compositional analysis of filter samples collected on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM BAe-146 aircraft is presented for six flights during the springtime Aerosol–Cloud Coupling and Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA campaign (March–April 2013. Scanning electron microscopy was utilised to derive size-segregated particle compositions and size distributions, and these were compared to corresponding data from wing-mounted optical particle counters. Reasonable agreement between the calculated number size distributions was found. Significant variability in composition was observed, with differing external and internal mixing identified, between air mass trajectory cases based on HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT analyses. Dominant particle classes were silicate-based dusts and sea salts, with particles notably rich in K and Ca detected in one case. Source regions varied from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland through to northern Russia and the European continent. Good agreement between the back trajectories was mirrored by comparable compositional trends between samples. Silicate dusts were identified in all cases, and the elemental composition of the dust was consistent for all samples except one. It is hypothesised that long-range, high-altitude transport was primarily responsible for this dust, with likely sources including the Asian arid regions.

  11. Feasibility of using a handheld electronic device for the collection of patient reported outcomes data from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinney, Lisa A; Grade, John D; Connor, Nadine P

    2012-01-01

    The manner in which a communication disorder affects health-related quality of life (QOL) in children is not known. Unfortunately, collection of quality of life data via traditional paper measures is labor intensive and has several other limitations, which hinder the investigation of pediatric quality of life in children. Currently, there is not sufficient research regarding the use of electronic devices to collect pediatric patient reported outcomes in order to address such limitations. Thus, we used a cross-over design to compare responses to a pediatric health quality of life instrument (PedsQL 4.0) delivered using a handheld electronic device to those from a traditional paper form. Respondents were children with (n=9) and without (n=10) a speech or voice disorder. For paper versus the electronic format, we examined time to completion, number of incomplete or inaccurate question responses, intra-rater reliability, ease of use, and child and parent preference. There were no significant differences between children's scores, time to complete the measure, or ratings related to ease of answering questions. The percentage of children who made answering errors or omissions with paper and pencil was significantly greater than the percentage of children who made such errors using the device. This preliminary study demonstrated that use of an electronic device to collect QOL or patient-reported outcomes (PRO) data from children is more efficient than and just as feasible, reliable, and acceptable as using paper forms. The development of hardware and software applications for the collection of QOL and/or PRO data in children with speech disorders is likely warranted. The reader will be able to understand: (1) The potential benefits of using electronic data capture via handheld devices for collecting pediatric patient reported outcomes; (2) The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 is a measure of the perception of general health quality that has distinguished between

  12. Use of Electronic Hand-held Devices for Collection of Savannah River Site Environmental Data - 13329

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marberry, Hugh [SRNS Savannah River Site 730-4B Room 3043 Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Moore, Winston [SRNS Savannah River Site 735B Room 116 Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Savannah River Nuclear Solutions has begun using Xplore Tablet PC's to collect data in the field for soil samples, groundwater samples, air samples and round sheets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). EPA guidelines for groundwater sampling are incorporated into the application to ensure the sample technician follows the proper protocol. The sample technician is guided through the process for sampling and round sheet data collection by a series of menus and input boxes. Field measurements and well stabilization information are entered into the tablet for uploading into Environmental Restoration Data Management System (ERDMS). The process helps to eliminate input errors and provides data integrity. A soil sample technician has the ability to collect information about location of sample, field parameter, describe the soil sample, print bottle labels, and print chain of custody for the sample that they have collected. An air sample technician has the ability to provide flow, pressure, hours of operation, print bottle labels and chain of custody for samples they collect. Round sheets are collected using the information provided in the various procedures. The data are collected and uploaded into ERDMS. The equipment used is weather proof and hardened for the field use. Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities are integrated into the applications to provide the location where samples were collected and to help sample technicians locate wells that are not visited often. (authors)

  13. Reliable laboratory urinalysis results using a new standardised urine collection device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs-Thijssen, M.A.; Schreuder, M.F.; Hogeveen, M.; Herwaarden, A.E. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: While urine sampling is necessary in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection and electrolyte disturbances, the collection of urine in neonates and non-toilet-trained children is often difficult. A universal urine collection method providing representative urinalyses results is needed.

  14. Use of Electronic Hand-held Devices for Collection of Savannah River Site Environmental Data - 13329

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marberry, Hugh; Moore, Winston

    2013-01-01

    Savannah River Nuclear Solutions has begun using Xplore Tablet PC's to collect data in the field for soil samples, groundwater samples, air samples and round sheets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). EPA guidelines for groundwater sampling are incorporated into the application to ensure the sample technician follows the proper protocol. The sample technician is guided through the process for sampling and round sheet data collection by a series of menus and input boxes. Field measurements and well stabilization information are entered into the tablet for uploading into Environmental Restoration Data Management System (ERDMS). The process helps to eliminate input errors and provides data integrity. A soil sample technician has the ability to collect information about location of sample, field parameter, describe the soil sample, print bottle labels, and print chain of custody for the sample that they have collected. An air sample technician has the ability to provide flow, pressure, hours of operation, print bottle labels and chain of custody for samples they collect. Round sheets are collected using the information provided in the various procedures. The data are collected and uploaded into ERDMS. The equipment used is weather proof and hardened for the field use. Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities are integrated into the applications to provide the location where samples were collected and to help sample technicians locate wells that are not visited often. (authors)

  15. In Vitro Capture of Small Ferrous Particles with a Magnetic Filtration Device Designed for Intravascular Use with Intraarterial Chemotherapy: Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabray, Marc C; Lillaney, Prasheel; Sze, Chia-Hung; Losey, Aaron D; Yang, Jeffrey; Kondapavulur, Sravani; Liu, Derek; Saeed, Maythem; Patel, Anand; Cooke, Daniel; Jun, Young-Wook; El-Sayed, Ivan; Wilson, Mark; Hetts, Steven W

    2016-03-01

    To establish that a magnetic device designed for intravascular use can bind small iron particles in physiologic flow models. Uncoated iron oxide particles 50-100 nm and 1-5 µm in size were tested in a water flow chamber over a period of 10 minutes without a magnet (ie, control) and with large and small prototype magnets. These same particles and 1-µm carboxylic acid-coated iron oxide beads were likewise tested in a serum flow chamber model without a magnet (ie, control) and with the small prototype magnet. Particles were successfully captured from solution. Particle concentrations in solution decreased in all experiments (P particles in water with a large magnet), 97% (50-100-nm particles in water with a small magnet), 99% (1-5-µm particles in water with a large magnet), 99% (1-5-µm particles in water with a small magnet), 95% (50-100-nm particles in serum with a small magnet), 92% (1-5-µm particles in serum with a small magnet), and 75% (1-µm coated beads in serum with a small magnet) lower compared with matched control runs. This study demonstrates the concept of magnetic capture of small iron oxide particles in physiologic flow models by using a small wire-mounted magnetic filter designed for intravascular use. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon Nano-particle Synthesized by Pulsed Arc Discharge Method as a Light Emitting Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ramin; Ahmadi, Mohamad Taghi; Ismail, Razali

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the specific properties such as high mobility, ballistic carrier transport and light emission, carbon nano-particles (CNPs) have been employed in nanotechnology applications. In the presented work, the CNPs are synthesized by using the pulsed arc discharge method between two copper electrodes. The rectifying behaviour of produced CNPs is explored by assuming an Ohmic contact between the CNPs and the electrodes. The synthesized sample is characterized by electrical investigation and modelling. The current-voltage (I-V) relationship is investigated and bright visible light emission from the produced CNPs was measured. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity was explored by changing the distance between two electrodes. An incremental behaviour on EL by a resistance gradient and distance reduction is identified.

  17. Recent progress of ultrahigh voltage SiC devices for particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kenji; Tsuji, Takashi; Shiomi, Hiromu; Mizushima, Tomonori; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Chikara; Otake, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is the promising material for next power electronics technology used in the field such as HEV, EV, and railway, electric power infrastructure. SiC enables power devices with low loss to easily operate in an ultrahigh-voltage region because of the high breakdown electric field of SiC. In this paper, we report static and dynamic electric performances of 3300 V class SiC SBDs, IE-MOSFETs, >10 kV PiN diodes and IE-IGBTs. Especially, the electrical characteristics of IE-IGBT with the blocking voltage of 16.5 kV indicate the sufficient ability to convert the thyratron in high power RF system of an accelerator. (author)

  18. A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kwok, Y.C.; Eijkel, J.C.T.

    2003-01-01

    A microfabricated capillary electrophoresis device for velocity measurements of flowing particles is presented. It consists of a 1 x 128 planar waveguide beam splitter monolithically integrated with an electrically insulated fluidic channel network for fluorescence excitation at multiple points...... optics. The integrated planar waveguide beam splitter was, furthermore, permanently connected to the light source by a glued-on optical fiber, to achieve a robust and alignment-free operation of the system. The velocity was measured using a Fourier transformation with a Shah function, since the response...... of the fight array was designed to approximate a square profile. Deviations from this response were observed as a result of the multimode nature of the integrated waveguides....

  19. The ALICE TPC, a high resolution device for ultra-high particle multiplicities. Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Marian [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the ALICE apparatus is a large 3-dimensional tracking and particle identification device for ultra-high multiplicity collision events. It has been operated successfully at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, recording data from pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions. Presently, LHC is in its first long shutdown (LS1), the next round of data taking will start in summer 2015 at or close to the LHC design energy and luminosity. During the second long shutdown (LS2), LHC will undergo a further increase in the Pb-Pb luminosity together with a major upgrade of ALICE. After the upgrade, the ALICE TPC will operate with Pb-Pb collisions at an interaction rate of 50 kHz. We present the performance in operation, calibration and reconstruction with the ALICE TPC together with ongoing work and plans for the near future and the coming 10 years.

  20. Stark interaction of identical particles with the vacuum electromagnetic field as quantum Poisson process suppressing collective spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharov, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The effective Hamiltonian describing resonant interaction of an ensemble of identical quantum particles with a photon-free vacuum electromagnetic field has been obtained with allowance for terms of second order in the coupling constant (the Stark interaction) by means of the perturbation theory on the basis of the unitary transformation of the system quantum state. It has been shown that in the Markov approximation the effective Hamiltonian terms of first order in the coupling constant are represented by the quantum Wiener process, whereas terms of second order are expressed by the quantum Poisson process. During the course of the investigation, it was established that the Stark interaction played a significant role in the ensemble dynamics, thus influencing the collective spontaneous decay of the ensemble of an appreciably high number of identical particles. Fundamental effects have been discovered, i.e., the excitation conservation in a sufficiently dense ensemble of identical particles and superradiance suppression in the collective decaying process of an excited ensemble with a determined number of particles.

  1. A hybrid organic-inorganic electrode for enhanced charge injection or collection in organic optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Omer F; Chaudhary, Sumit; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2006-01-01

    Here we report a novel hybrid organic-inorganic anode for organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic (PV) cells. This hybrid anode structure is realized from a composite of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) and indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles. Owing to the phase separation, this anodic structure leads to a graded work function from patterned ITO to the photoactive polymer, which in turn reduces the barrier height for holes by ∼70%. The resulting devices based on this design show up to 67% reduction in turn-on voltage (for polymer LEDs) and up to 40% increase in short-circuit current and power conversion efficiency (for PV cells). Current-voltage characteristics, Fowler-Nordheim analysis, SEM imaging and energy band diagram analysis are employed to characterize the improved performance of our devices. The reported approach is expected to be immensely useful for the molecular design of next-generation efficient organic devices

  2. Emergency response activities and the collection of damaged radiation devices in the war areas of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasic, D.; Schaller, A.

    1998-01-01

    Several kinds of devices containing sources of ionizing radiation had been in use in the areas of Croatia which were affected by the recent war, principally in industrial and medical applications. The greater share of these devices was constituted by 151 radioactive lightning conductors with a maximum individual activity of 19.5 GBq and some 8300 smoke detectors. In the destruction caused by the war, some of these devices were damaged, destroyed or lost. The actions undertaken to retrieve them and their sources are described, as well as the experience gained and lessons learned. The importance of a well organized national regulatory system is underscored as a precondition for the efficient identification and safe recovery of radiation sources lying amidst the ruins in the area affected by the war. The experience gained in these actions may be applicable to similar situations caused by natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, etc. and of particular interest to regulatory authorities for the drawing up of emergency preparedness plans. (author)

  3. Quadrupole collectivity of angular-momentum projected states of nucleons in the high-j intruder single-particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Kahane, S.; Bhatt, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Elliott (Elliott J P 1958 London Series A 245 128, 562), quadrupole collectivity in deformed nuclei has been economically described in terms of SU 3 symmetry. Microscopic SU 3 symmetry is not present in the deformed intrinsic states of n nucleons in the abnormal-parity single-particle states j a . However, such (j a ) n states do possess some SU 3 -symmetry-like properties as shown in this work. (author)

  4. High throughput DNA damage quantification of human tissue with home-based collection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, Sylvain V.; Tang, Jonathan; Yannone, Steven M.

    2018-04-03

    Kits, methods and systems for providing a service to provide a subject with information regarding the state of a subject's DNA damage. Collection, processing and analysis of samples are also described.

  5. High throughput DNA damage quantification of human tissue with home-based collection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Sylvain V.; Tang, Jonathan; Yannone, Steven M.

    2018-04-03

    Kits, methods and systems for providing a service to provide a subject with information regarding the state of a subject's DNA damage. Collection, processing and analysis of samples are also described.

  6. On the role of cavitation in particle collection in flotation - A critical review. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.A.; Xu, Z.H.; Finch, J.A.; Masliyah, J.H.; Chow, R.S. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    Research in applying hydrodynamic cavitation to recovery of natural resources during the last decade is reviewed. The existence and formation of tiny bubbles or gas nuclei (diameter from microns down to nano sizes) in natural water were verified from both direct and in-direct measurements, providing a foundation for applying hydrodynamic cavitation to flotation systems. The interactions between tiny bubbles and fine particles in aqueous slurry were analysed. Tiny bubbles generated by hydrodynamic cavitation increased contact angle of solids and hence attachment force, bridge fine particles to form aggregates, minimize slime coating, remove oxidation layers on particle surfaces, and in hence reduce reagents consumption. Experiments revealed that the energy dissipation levels for cavity formation in a flowing liquid could be much lower than predicted, depending on the content of dissolved gases, presence of free gas nuclei and design of cavitation tubes. Application of hydrodynamic cavitation to fine and coarse particle flotation, high intensity conditioning, oil agglomeration of fine coal, and oil sands processing has confirmed the role of tiny bubbles formed by cavitation in improving recovery efficiency. Increased flotation kinetics by hydrodynamic cavitation could be attributed to a dual role: some collapsing cavity bubbles serving to break interfacial layers on particle surfaces while other cavity bubbles attaching to those freshly exposed mineral surfaces. The role of water vapor and other gases within cavity bubbles in particle-bubble attachment remains to be explored. Incorporating hydrodynamic cavitation into flotation systems to take advantage of its unique features is expected to develop the next generation of flotation machines.

  7. Collecting and Analyzing Data from Smart Device Users with Local Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyên, Thông T.; Xiao, Xiaokui; Yang, Yin; Hui, Siu Cheung; Shin, Hyejin; Shin, Junbum

    2016-01-01

    Organizations with a large user base, such as Samsung and Google, can potentially benefit from collecting and mining users' data. However, doing so raises privacy concerns, and risks accidental privacy breaches with serious consequences. Local differential privacy (LDP) techniques address this problem by only collecting randomized answers from each user, with guarantees of plausible deniability; meanwhile, the aggregator can still build accurate models and predictors by analyzing large amount...

  8. PARTICLE PHYSICS: CERN Gives Higgs Hunters Extra Month to Collect Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, O

    2000-09-22

    After 11 years of banging electrons and positrons together at higher energies than any other machine in the world, CERN, the European laboratory for particle physics, had decided to shut down the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP) and install a new machine, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in its 27-kilometer tunnel. In 2005, the LHC will start bashing protons together at even higher energies. But tantalizing hints of a long-sought fundamental particle have forced CERN managers to grant LEP a month's reprieve.

  9. Loss of collected particles from the filter of the stack monitor, the Ringhals-1 power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, L.

    1993-01-01

    The function of the filter holder was examined in the laboratory and in the Ringhals measurement installation. It was concluded that a loss of sample could occur, if the filter has a heavy particle deposit. An approximate relation between deposits thickness and loss of sample could be determined. Particle concentration in the stack air is sometimes so high, that loss of sample can occur. The test have also revealed that the sample air stream can by-pass the filter, without proper indication of the defect. Control instrumentation is proposed

  10. Salamfestschrift. A collection of talks from the conference on highlights of particle and condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Ellis, J.; Randjbar Daemi, S.; eds)

    1994-01-01

    The book contains papers, mainly on particle physics, presented at the meeting held between 8 and 12 March 1993 at the ICTP in Trieste to honor Professor Abdus Salam. The articles have been grouped in 6 chapters: Standard Model (6 papers), Beyond the Standard Model (4 papers), Astro-Particle Physics and Cosmology (3 papers), Strings and Quantum Gravity (5 papers), Mathematical Physics and Condensed Matter (2 papers), Salam's Collaborators and Students (13 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Single event upsets in semiconductor devices induced by highly ionising particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannikov, A V

    2004-01-01

    A new model of single event upsets (SEUs), created in memory cells by heavy ions and high energy hadrons, has been developed. The model takes into account the spatial distribution of charge collection efficiency over the cell area not considered in previous approaches. Three-dimensional calculations made by the HADRON code have shown good agreement with experimental data for the energy dependence of proton SEU cross sections, sensitive depths and other SEU observables. The model is promising for prediction of SEU rates for memory chips exposed in space and in high-energy experiments as well as for the development of a high-energy neutron dosemeter based on the SEU effect.

  12. Simulation analysis of dust-particle transport in the peripheral plasma in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Mamoru; Masuzaki, Suguru; Kawamura, Gakushi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Pigarov, Alexander Yu.; Smirnov, Roman D.

    2014-01-01

    The function of the peripheral plasma in the Large Helical Device (LHD) on transport of dusts is investigated using a dust transport simulation code (DUSTT) in a non-axisymmetric geometry. The simulation shows that the transport of the dusts is dominated by the plasma flow (mainly by ion drag force) formed in the peripheral plasma. The trajectories of dusts are investigated in two probable situations: release of spherical iron dusts from the inboard side of the torus, and drop of spherical carbon dusts from a divertor plate installed near an edge of an upper port. The trajectories in these two situations are calculated in various sized dust cases. From a viewpoint of protection of the main plasma from dust penetration, it proves that there are two functions in the LHD peripheral plasma. One is sweeping of dusts by the effect of the plasma flow in the divertor legs, and another one is evaporation/sublimation of dusts by heat load onto the dusts in the ergodic layer. (author)

  13. Macroscopic Description of Pressure-anisotropy-driven Collective Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasburg, Sean; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    The macroscopic warm-fluid model developed by Lund and Davidson [Phys.Plasmas 5, 3028 (1998)] is used in the smooth-focusing approximation to investigate detailed stability properties of an intense charged particle beam with pressure anisotropy, assuming small-amplitude electrostatic perturbations about a waterbag equilibrium

  14. The Impact of Taxation of the Domestic Economic Transactions on the Vat Collection Through Electronic Fiscal Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of collecting tax resources to the consolidated budget has determined and still determines difficulties which cannot be neglected in all the former socialist countries of the Central and Eastern Europe. From the Members States of the European Union, Romania is the country with the highest VAT Gap between EU Member States: 41%, compared to a European average of 15.2%. One solution tried to solve this problem was the regulation of mandatory use of electronic cash registers with fiscal memory. In this way, it was considered that a better highlight and also a tighter control of economic transactions will be achieved, from a fiscal point of view. In our study, we analyze, for the Romanian context in the postEU accession, whether the mandatory introduction of these devices in recording commercial transactions has had a significant impact on VAT collection. The study includes two stages of the analysis: in the first stage we estimated the influence of VAT rate variation on the degree of the VAT collection. Then we used the residual component to test the influence of EFDs’ mandatory introduction on VAT collection or on fiscal efficiency. The results indicate an improvement in the collection of VAT but also a decrease in the efficiency of fiscal collection.

  15. A Comparison between Temperature-Controlled Laminar Airflow Device and a Room Air-Cleaner in Reducing Exposure to Particles While Asleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Sigsgaard, Torben; Takai, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep...... was significantly lower with the TLA device compared to the room air cleaner. The TLA device provided a barrier which significantly reduced the introduction of airborne particles into the breathing zone. Further studies should be conducted for the understanding of the transport of resuspended particles between...

  16. Magnetic dipolar coupling and collective effects for binary information codification in cost-effective logic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro; Allia, Paolo; Graziano, Mariagrazia

    2012-01-01

    Physical limitations foreshadow the eventual end to traditional Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) scaling. Therefore, interest has turned to various materials and technologies aimed to succeed to traditional CMOS. Magnetic Quantum dot Cellular Automata (MQCA) are one of these technologies. Working MQCA arrays require very complex techniques and an excellent control on the geometry of the nanomagnets and on the quality of the magnetic thin film, thus limiting the possibility for MQCA of representing a definite solution to cost-effective, high density and low power consumption device demand. Counter-intuitively, moving towards bigger sizes and lighter technologies it is still possible to develop multi-state logic devices, as we demonstrated, whose main advantage is cost-effectiveness. Applications may be seen in low cost logic devices where integration and computational power are not the main issue, eventually using flexible substrates and taking advantage of the intrinsic mechanical toughness of systems where long range interactions do not need wirings. We realized cobalt micrometric MQCA arrays by means of Electron Beam Lithography, exploiting cost-effective processes such as lift-off and RF sputtering that usually are avoided due to their low control on array geometry and film roughness. Information relative to the magnetic configuration of MQCA elements including their eventual magnetic interactions was obtained from Magnetic Force Microscope (MFM) images, enhanced by means of a numerical procedure and presented in differential maps. We report the existence of bi-stable magnetic patterns, as detected by MFM while sampling the z-component of magnetic induction field, arising from dipolar inter-element magnetostatic coupling, able to store and propagate binary information. This is achieved despite the array quality and element magnetic state, which are low and multi-domain, respectively. We discuss in detail shape, inter-element spacing and dot profile

  17. Changes in collection efficiency in nylon net filter media through magnetic alignment of elongated aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christopher O; Finlay, W H

    2009-10-01

    Fiber aerosols tend to align parallel to surrounding fluid streamlines in shear flows, making their filtration more difficult. However, previous research indicates that composite particles made from cromoglycic acid fibers coated with small nanoscaled magnetite particles can align with an applied magnetic field. The present research explored the effect of magnetically aligning these fibers to increase their filtration. Nylon net filters were challenged with the aerosol fibers, and efficiency tests were performed with and without a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the flow direction. We investigated the effects of varying face velocities, the amount of magnetite material on the aerosol particles, and magnetic field strengths. Findings from the experiments, matched by supporting single-fiber theories, showed significant efficiency increases at the low face velocity of 1.5 cm s(-1) at all magnetite compositions, with efficiencies more than doubling due to magnetic field alignment in certain cases. At a higher face velocity of 5.12 cm s(-1), filtration efficiencies were less affected by the magnetic field alignment being, at most, 43% higher for magnetite weight compositions up to 30%, while at a face velocity of 10.23 cm s(-1) alignment effects were insignificant. In most cases, efficiencies became independent of magnetic field strength above 50 mT, suggesting full alignment of the fibers. The present data suggest that fiber alignment in a magnetic field may warrant applications in the filtration and detection of fibers, such as asbestos.

  18. Cytologic features of nipple aspirate fluid using an automated non-invasive collection device: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Leslie R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of cytologic atypia in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF has been shown to be a predictor of risk for development of breast carcinoma. Manual collection of NAF for cytologic evaluation varies widely in terms of efficacy, ease of use, and patient acceptance. We investigated a new automated device for the non-invasive collection of NAF in the office setting. Methods A multi-center prospective observational clinical trial involving asymptomatic women designed to assess fluid production, adequacy, safety and patient acceptance of the HALO NAF Collection System (NeoMatrix, Irvine, CA. Cytologic evaluation of all NAF samples was performed using previously described classification categories. Results 500 healthy women were successfully enrolled. Thirty-eight percent (190/500 produced fluid and 187 were available for cytologic analysis. Cytologic classification of fluid producers showed 50% (93/187 Category 0 (insufficient cellular material, 38% (71/187 Category I (benign non-hyperplastic ductal epithelial cells, 10% (18/187 Category II (benign hyperplastic ductal epithelial cells, 3% (5/187 Category III (atypical ductal epithelial cells and none were Category IV (unequivocal malignancy. Overall, 19% of the subjects produced NAF with adequate cellularity and 1% were found to have cytologic atypia. Conclusion The HALO system is a simple, safe, rapid, automated method for standardized collection of NAF which is acceptable to patients. Cytologic assessment of HALO-collected NAF showed the ability to detect benign and pre-neoplastic ductal epithelial cells from asymptomatic volunteers.

  19. Selective Leaching of aerosol particles collected by cascade impactor in the ventilation stack of NPP V1 in Jaslovske Bohunice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rulik, P; Beckova, V; Bucina, I; Foltanova, S; Poliak, R [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The study was apart of investigation of the size distribution of aerosol in air effluents from NPP V1 Jaslovske Bohunice. The evaluation the possible relationship between aerodynamic diameter of aerosol particles and chemical forms of radionuclides attached to the discharged aerosol was tried. Selective leaching was used for speciation of radionuclides present in the aerosol particles and for the estimation of their behaviour in the environment and absorption in gastro-intestinal tract. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the air, collected on collection substrates taken from individual impact stages and on back-up filter, were determined by sensitive gamma-spectrometric analysis using high purity Ge detectors. For the individual groups seven leaching steps were used. Following 12 radionuclides: silver-110m, cobalt-58, cobalt-60, cesium-134, cesium-137, manganese-54, ruthenium-103, antimony-124, antimony-125, tin-113, zinc-65, zirconium-95. Result shows that the leached fraction of the of the activity concentration does not depend on the size of the aerosol particles. (J.K.) 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Dela Rue, B.; Turner, S.A.; Petch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting

  1. Comparison of the Chemical Composition of Mineral Particles Collected in Dunhuang, China and those Collected in the Free Troposphere over Japan: Possible Chemical Modification during Long-Range Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trochkine, D.; Iwasaka, Y.; Matsuki, A.; Yamada, M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Zhang, D.; Shi, G.-Y.; Shen, Z.; Li, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Asian continent is recognized as one of the most important sources of mineral (or soil) particles. These particles have a large potential to effect global changes through the biogeochemical cycle of particulates and through radiative balance (IPCC Third Assessment Report, 2001). Therefore, comparison of particle compositions near the source region and those after long-range transport is important in understanding the long-range particle transport phenomenon. Individual aerosol particles were collected in Dunhuang (40 o 09'N; 94 o 41'E), China. Particles were collected at the campus of the Meteorological Bureau of Dunhuang City (17 August 2001) and near the Mogao Grots, located approximately 30 km from Dunhuang (18 August 2001, 18 October 2001 and 13 January 2002) using a two-stage low-volume impactor. The morphology of individual aerosol particles and their elemental compositions were examined via a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi, S-3000N) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer (Horiba, EMAX-500). The particles collected at these locations were comprised primarily of minerals, with the exception of sulphate particles in the submicron range that were contained in the sample collected on 18 October 2001 (likely, ammonium sulphate). The most abundant elements were found to be Si and Al. Approximately 46-77% of the collected particles were Si-rich particles (composed primarily of quartz and aluminosilicate),and 13-41% of the collected particles were Ca-rich particles,such as calcite (CaCO 3 ), dolomite (CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ),and gypsum (CaSO 4 c2H 2 O). The fractions of Fe-rich, Mg-rich, Ti-rich, K-rich, and Cl-rich were 3-10, 0-7, 0-3, 0-1, and 0-1%, respectively. Similar types of mineral particles were found in the free troposphere over Japan(Trochkine et al., 2002). A number of differences were found to exist between the particles collected in China and those collected in Japan, and these differences can be explained by chemical modification of

  2. Brownian agents and active particles collective dynamics in the natural and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Schweitzer, Frank

    2007-01-01

    ""This book lays out a vision for a coherent framework for understanding complex systems"" (from the foreword by J. Doyne Farmer). By developing the genuine idea of Brownian agents, the author combines concepts from informatics, such as multiagent systems, with approaches of statistical many-particle physics. This way, an efficient method for computer simulations of complex systems is developed which is also accessible to analytical investigations and quantitative predictions. The book demonstrates that Brownian agent models can be successfully applied in many different contexts, ranging from

  3. Brownian Agents and Active Particles: Collective Dynamics in the Natural and Social Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKane, Alan

    2003-01-01

    This is a book about the modelling of complex systems and, unlike many books on this subject, concentrates on the discussion of specific systems and gives practical methods for modelling and simulating them. This is not to say that the author does not devote space to the general philosophy and definition of complex systems and agent-based modelling, but the emphasis is definitely on the development of concrete methods for analysing them. This is, in my view, to be welcomed and I thoroughly recommend the book, especially to those with a theoretical physics background who will be very much at home with the language and techniques which are used. The author has developed a formalism for understanding complex systems which is based on the Langevin approach to the study of Brownian motion. This is a mesoscopic description; details of the interactions between the Brownian particle and the molecules of the surrounding fluid are replaced by a randomly fluctuating force. Thus all microscopic detail is replaced by a coarse-grained description which encapsulates the essence of the interactions at the finer level of description. In a similar way, the influences on Brownian agents in a multi-agent system are replaced by stochastic influences which sum up the effects of these interactions on a finer scale. Unlike Brownian particles, Brownian agents are not structureless particles, but instead have some internal states so that, for instance, they may react to changes in the environment or to the presence of other agents. Most of the book is concerned with developing the idea of Brownian agents using the techniques of statistical physics. This development parallels that for Brownian particles in physics, but the author then goes on to apply the technique to problems in biology, economics and the social sciences. This is a clear and well-written book which is a useful addition to the literature on complex systems. It will be interesting to see if the use of Brownian agents becomes

  4. Assessing the role of learning devices and geovisualisation tools for collective action in natural resource management: Experiences from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castella, Jean-Christophe

    2009-02-01

    In northern Vietnam uplands the successive policy reforms that accompanied agricultural decollectivisation triggered very rapid changes in land use in the 1990s. From a centralized system of natural resource management, a multitude of individual strategies emerged which contributed to new production interactions among farming households, changes in landscape structures, and conflicting strategies among local stakeholders. Within this context of agrarian transition, learning devices can help local communities to collectively design their own course of action towards sustainable natural resource management. This paper presents a collaborative approach combining a number of participatory methods and geovisualisation tools (e.g., spatially explicit multi-agent models and role-playing games) with the shared goal to analyse and represent the interactions between: (i) decision-making processes by individual farmers based on the resource profiles of their farms; (ii) the institutions which regulate resource access and usage; and (iii) the biophysical and socioeconomic environment. This methodological pathway is illustrated by a case study in Bac Kan Province where it successfully led to a communication platform on natural resource management. In a context of rapid socioeconomic changes, learning devices and geovisualisation tools helped embed the participatory approach within a process of community development. The combination of different tools, each with its own advantages and constraints, proved highly relevant for supporting collective natural resource management.

  5. Collective transport of Lennard–Jones particles through one-dimensional periodic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jian-hui; Wen Jia-le; Chen Pei-rong; Zheng Dong-qin; Zhong Wei-rong

    2017-01-01

    The surrounding media in which transport occurs contains various kinds of fields, such as particle potentials and external potentials. One of the important questions is how elements work and how position and momentum are redistributed in the diffusion under these conditions. For enriching Fick’s law, ordinary non-equilibrium statistical physics can be used to understand the complex process. This study attempts to discuss particle transport in the one-dimensional channel under external potential fields. Two kinds of potentials—the potential well and barrier—which do not change the potential in total, are built during the diffusion process. There are quite distinct phenomena because of the different one-dimensional periodic potentials. By the combination of a Monte Carlo method and molecular dynamics, we meticulously explore why an external potential field impacts transport by the subsection and statistical method. Besides, one piece of evidence of the Maxwell velocity distribution is confirmed under the assumption of local equilibrium. The simple model is based on the key concept that relates the flux to sectional statistics of position and momentum and could be referenced in similar transport problems. (rapid communication)

  6. Collective flow in a cylindrically symmetric expansion geometry and its influence on particle spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnedermann, E.; Heinz, U.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics has a long tradition of application to high energy collisions from e + e - to AA. A new way within the hydrodynamical environment is presented to compute the global expansion characteristics of the reaction zone. The method consists of integrating the hydrodynamical equations in a cylindrically symmetric region assuming specific thermal and velocity profiles to obtain global conservation laws from the local ones. Monitoring these, the system may be followed from its hot and dense initial state until freeze-out, where particle spectra can be computed and compared to experiments. By varying the initial conditions, both the rapidity distribution and the transverse momentum spectrum of pions from NA35 200 GeV/A S+S central collisions can be fitted and thus information gained about the early stages of the collision. As a further perspective, the method provides a framework within which hydrodynamical effects on the particle spectra can be discussed. It furthermore has the advantage to be numerically orders of magnitude faster than traditional local hydrodynamics. (author) 13 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Security Analysis of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution in Collective-Rotation Noisy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Yu; Wen, Shuang; Li, Lei-lei; Li, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Noise is a problem that communication channels cannot avoid. It is, thus, beneficial to analyze the security of MDI-QKD in noisy environment. An analysis model for collective-rotation noise is introduced, and the information theory methods are used to analyze the security of the protocol. The maximum amount of information that Eve can eavesdrop is 50%, and the eavesdropping can always be detected if the noise level ɛ ≤ 0.68. Therefore, MDI-QKD protocol is secure as quantum key distribution protocol. The maximum probability that the relay outputs successful results is 16% when existing eavesdropping. Moreover, the probability that the relay outputs successful results when existing eavesdropping is higher than the situation without eavesdropping. The paper validates that MDI-QKD protocol has better robustness.

  8. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  9. Single-particle And Collective Effects Of Cubic Nonlinearity In The Beam Dynamics Of Proton Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tran Hy, J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes some new studies of the effects of cubic nonlinearities arising from image-charge forces and octupole magnets on the transverse beam dynamics of proton synchrotrons and storage rings, and also a study of the damping of coherent oscillations using a feed-back damper. In the latter case, various corrective algorithms were modeled using linear one-turn maps. Kicks of fixed amplitude but appropriate sign were shown to provide linear damping and no coherent tune shift, though the rate predicted analytically was somewhat higher than that observed in simulations. This algorithm gave much faster damping (for equal power) than conventional proportional kicks, which damp exponentially. Two single-particle effects of the image-change force were investigated: distortion of the momentum dispersion function and amplitude dependence of the betatron tunes (resulting in tune spread). The former is calculated using transfer maps and the method of undetermined coefficients, the latter by solving the cubic ...

  10. Streamline-based microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a streamline-based device and a method for using the device for continuous separation of particles including cells in biological fluids. The device includes a main microchannel and an array of side microchannels disposed on a substrate. The main microchannel has a plurality of stagnation points with a predetermined geometric design, for example, each of the stagnation points has a predetermined distance from the upstream edge of each of the side microchannels. The particles are separated and collected in the side microchannels.

  11. Electrode geometry effects on the collection efficiency of submicron and ultra-fine dust particles in spike-plate electrostatic precipitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocilo, D; Podlinski, J; Chang, J S; Mizeraczyk, J; Findlay, R D

    2008-01-01

    The collection efficiency of electrostatic precipitators for the submicron particles ranging from 0.1 to 1 μm and ultrafine particles smaller than 0. lμm is below the requirements of new PM2.5 emission regulations. In this work, numerical and experimental studies were conducted to examine the effect of discharge and collecting electrode geometries on the ion density and electric field profiles and consequently their effect on the particle surface charge and collection efficiency. The collection efficiency prediction was based on a modified Deutsche's equation after calculation of three dimensional electric field and ion density profiles. Whereas, the particle surface charge was obtained from diffusion and field charging models. Results show that the collection efficiency of fine particles for the spike-type discharge electrode when compared to the conventional wire-type was improved. Experimental validations were conducted on a bench scale electrostatic precipitator for total and partial collection efficiency of particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 20 μm and the results indicated that the model can be effectively applied for prototype design, modification, and scale-up of collecting and discharge electrodes.

  12. Interplay between Single-Particle and Collective Effects in the Odd-A Cu Isotopes beyond N=40

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, I; Balabanski, D L; Blasi, N; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Cederkäll, J; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; Diriken, J; Eberth, J; Ekström, A; Fedorov, D; Fedosseev, V; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Gladnishki, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Ivanov, I; Iwanicki, J; Jolie, J; Konstantinopoulos, T; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Köster, U; Lagoyannis, A; Lo Bianco, G; Maierbeck, P; Marsh, B A; Napiorkowski, P; Patronis, N; Pauwels, D; Rainovski, G; Reiter, P; Riisager, K; Seliverstov, M; Sletten, G; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wrzosek, K

    2008-01-01

    Collective properties of the low-lying levels in the odd-A 67–73Cu were investigated by Coulomb excitation with radioactive beams. The beams were produced at ISOLDE and postaccelerated by REX-ISOLDE up to 2.99  MeV/u. In 67,69Cu, low-lying 1/2-, 5/2-, and 7/2- states were populated. In 71,73Cu, besides the known transitions deexciting the single-particle-like 5/2- and core-coupled 7/2- levels, γ rays of 454 and 135 keV, respectively, were observed for the first time. Based on a reanalysis of β-decay work and comparison with the systematics, a spin 1/2- is suggested for these excited states. Three B(E2) values were determined in each of the four isotopes. The results indicate a significant change in the structure of the odd-A Cu isotopes beyond N=40 where single-particle-like and collective levels are suggested to coexist at very low excitation energies.

  13. A discrete particle model reproducing collective dynamics of a bee swarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Sara; Colombi, Annachiara; Scianna, Marco

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we present a microscopic discrete mathematical model describing collective dynamics of a bee swarm. More specifically, each bee is set to move according to individual strategies and social interactions, the former involving the desire to reach a target destination, the latter accounting for repulsive/attractive stimuli and for alignment processes. The insects tend in fact to remain sufficiently close to the rest of the population, while avoiding collisions, and they are able to track and synchronize their movement to the flight of a given set of neighbors within their visual field. The resulting collective behavior of the bee cloud therefore emerges from non-local short/long-range interactions. Differently from similar approaches present in the literature, we here test different alignment mechanisms (i.e., based either on an Euclidean or on a topological neighborhood metric), which have an impact also on the other social components characterizing insect behavior. A series of numerical realizations then shows the phenomenology of the swarm (in terms of pattern configuration, collective productive movement, and flight synchronization) in different regions of the space of free model parameters (i.e., strength of attractive/repulsive forces, extension of the interaction regions). In this respect, constraints in the possible variations of such coefficients are here given both by reasonable empirical observations and by analytical results on some stability characteristics of the defined pairwise interaction kernels, which have to assure a realistic crystalline configuration of the swarm. An analysis of the effect of unconscious random fluctuations of bee dynamics is also provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Definition of key parameters for constructing an online reference micrographs collection of processed animal particles in feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinchon Crespo, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Reference Laboratory for the detection of animal proteins in feedingstuffs (EURL-AP has developed an online micrographs collection supporting its network activities within the European Union for the detection of prohibited animal by-products in feed. So far, the only official method for detecting these by-products is light microscopy, which is highly dependent on the skills of a microscopist because it relies on particle recognition. In order to help the microscopist network to achieve high proficiency levels, it was necessary to create an online reference tool based on micrographs and accessible via an Intranet platform. Members of the National Reference Laboratories for animal proteins in feedingstuffs (NRL-AP and the International Association for Feedingstuff Analysis – Section Feedingstuff Microscopy (IAG have access to this micrographs collection. This paper describes how the online collection was created and what conditions had to be taken into account in creating such a tool. It also describes how information are periodically updated and managed within the context of the large amount of information included in each micrograph. The need for a robust back-office system as the foundation for all the research activities in this project is also covered, and the evaluation of the use of the online collection is discussed.

  15. Physics of microswimmers—single particle motion and collective behavior: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgeti, J; Winkler, R G; Gompper, G

    2015-01-01

    Locomotion and transport of microorganisms in fluids is an essential aspect of life. Search for food, orientation toward light, spreading of off-spring, and the formation of colonies are only possible due to locomotion. Swimming at the microscale occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where fluid friction and viscosity dominates over inertia. Here, evolution achieved propulsion mechanisms, which overcome and even exploit drag. Prominent propulsion mechanisms are rotating helical flagella, exploited by many bacteria, and snake-like or whip-like motion of eukaryotic flagella, utilized by sperm and algae. For artificial microswimmers, alternative concepts to convert chemical energy or heat into directed motion can be employed, which are potentially more efficient. The dynamics of microswimmers comprises many facets, which are all required to achieve locomotion. In this article, we review the physics of locomotion of biological and synthetic microswimmers, and the collective behavior of their assemblies. Starting from individual microswimmers, we describe the various propulsion mechanism of biological and synthetic systems and address the hydrodynamic aspects of swimming. This comprises synchronization and the concerted beating of flagella and cilia. In addition, the swimming behavior next to surfaces is examined. Finally, collective and cooperate phenomena of various types of isotropic and anisotropic swimmers with and without hydrodynamic interactions are discussed. (report on progress)

  16. Automated integration of wireless biosignal collection devices for patient-centred decision-making in point-of-care systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menychtas, Andreas; Tsanakas, Panayiotis

    2016-01-01

    The proper acquisition of biosignals data from various biosensor devices and their remote accessibility are still issues that prevent the wide adoption of point-of-care systems in the routine of monitoring chronic patients. This Letter presents an advanced framework for enabling patient monitoring that utilises a cloud computing infrastructure for data management and analysis. The framework introduces also a local mechanism for uniform biosignals collection from wearables and biosignal sensors, and decision support modules, in order to enable prompt and essential decisions. A prototype smartphone application and the related cloud modules have been implemented for demonstrating the value of the proposed framework. Initial results regarding the performance of the system and the effectiveness in data management and decision-making have been quite encouraging. PMID:27222731

  17. Automated integration of wireless biosignal collection devices for patient-centred decision-making in point-of-care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menychtas, Andreas; Tsanakas, Panayiotis; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2016-03-01

    The proper acquisition of biosignals data from various biosensor devices and their remote accessibility are still issues that prevent the wide adoption of point-of-care systems in the routine of monitoring chronic patients. This Letter presents an advanced framework for enabling patient monitoring that utilises a cloud computing infrastructure for data management and analysis. The framework introduces also a local mechanism for uniform biosignals collection from wearables and biosignal sensors, and decision support modules, in order to enable prompt and essential decisions. A prototype smartphone application and the related cloud modules have been implemented for demonstrating the value of the proposed framework. Initial results regarding the performance of the system and the effectiveness in data management and decision-making have been quite encouraging.

  18. Behavior of secondary particles in particulate matter collected at eastern Kanagawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Tomohiro; Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao; Honda, Teruyuki

    2008-01-01

    The suspended particulate matters collected in 100 periods from 2002/10/28 to 2004/10/29 were separated into the water soluble and insoluble components and their main components were analyzed. The characteristics of atmosphere in the east part of Kagawa prefecture and of the secondary particulates were presumed. Therefore, it was considered that in the samples other than Mn the origins of water soluble and insoluble components are different each other from their behavior. The water-soluble part may be mostly ammonium salt (secondary particulate) from the measurement of NH 4 + . Furthermore, it became clear that the evolution of secondary particulate varies largely with season. Then, the variation with season was presumed by the main component analysis using the statistical software, SPSS adding to the correlation coefficient. This method has proved to be effective. (M.H.)

  19. Collective motion and alignment of particles at high angular momentum. Study of transition nuclei 54 ≤Z ≤60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Samman, H.

    1986-03-01

    A Multidetector system such as multiplicity filter, set-up for energy γ energy γ correlation measurements and 12 and 14 element modular sum-spectrometers has been built with hexagonal cross-section NaI (T1) detectors. This system is used in studies of continuum γ-ray spectra at high angular momentum to determine the collective J band (2) and effective J eff (2) dynamic moments of inertia in 54≤Z≤60 transitional nuclei. Comparisons between our measurements and calculations in a cranking Nilsson-Strutinsky model show that 128,130 Ba have a pure collective behaviour with pure prolate (γ =0 deg) deformation at high spin while 118,122 Xe are triaxial (γ = 33 deg) with moderate deformation (ε = 0.25). We demonstrate the existence of a secondary minimum at larger deformation (ε = 0.35) in the potential energy surfaces of 128,130 Ba. This minimum is associated with the alignment of h 9/2 and i 13/2 neutrons and produces a shape change in the bariums. The influence of the odd proton in the A = 120 region is also demonstrated by the shape change from triaxial to prolate we observed in 123 Cs at high frequency. Informations on deformation and particle alignement are obtained from measurements of J eff (2) in Xe, Ba, Ce and Nd isotopes. A direct comparison of J band (2) and J eff (2) shows that collective motion and particle alignment participate for about 50 % each in the total increase of angular momentum [fr

  20. Presence of plastic particles in waterbirds faeces collected in Spanish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Delgado, J A; Guijarro, D; Gosálvez, R U; López-Iborra, G M; Ponz, A; Velasco, A

    2017-01-01

    Plastic intake by marine vertebrates has been widely reported, but information about its presence in continental waterfowl is scarce. Here we analyzed faeces of waterbirds species (European coot, Fulica atra, mallard, Anas platyrhynchos and shelduck, Tadorna tadorna) for plastic debris in five wetlands in Central Spain. We collected 89 faeces of shelduck distributed in four lakes, 43.8% of them presented plastic remnants. Sixty percent of 10 faeces of European coot and 45% of 40 faeces of mallard contained plastic debris. Plastic debris found was of two types, threads and fragments, and were identified as remnants of plastic objects used in agricultural fields surrounding the lakes. Differences in prevalence of plastic in faeces, number of plastic pieces per excrement and size of the plastic pieces were not statistically significant between waterfowl species. Thus, our results suggest that plastic may also be frequently ingested by waterfowl in continental waters, at least in our study area. Future studies should address this potential problem for waterbird conservation in other wetlands to evaluate the real impact of this pollutant on waterbirds living in inland water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Disentangling random thermal motion of particles and collective expansion of source from transverse momentum spectra in high energy collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hua-Rong; Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A.

    2016-12-01

    In the framework of a multisource thermal model, we describe experimental results of the transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavor particles produced in gold-gold (Au-Au), copper-copper (Cu-Cu), lead-lead (Pb-Pb), proton-lead (p-Pb), and proton-proton (p -p) collisions at various energies, measured by the PHENIX, STAR, ALICE, and CMS Collaborations, by using the Tsallis-standard (Tsallis form of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein), Tsallis, and two- or three-component standard distributions which can be in fact regarded as different types of ‘thermometers’ or ‘thermometric scales’ and ‘speedometers’. A central parameter in the three distributions is the effective temperature which contains information on the kinetic freeze-out temperature of the emitting source and reflects the effects of random thermal motion of particles as well as collective expansion of the source. To disentangle both effects, we extract the kinetic freeze-out temperature from the intercept of the effective temperature (T) curve as a function of particle’s rest mass (m 0) when plotting T versus m 0, and the mean transverse flow velocity from the slope of the mean transverse momentum ( ) curve as a function of mean moving mass (\\overline{m}) when plotting versus \\overline{m}.

  2. Novel collective excitations and the quasi-particle picture of quarks coupled with a massive boson at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Kunihiro, Teiji; Nemoto, Yukio

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the observation that there may exist hadronic excitations even in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase, we investigate how the properties of quarks, especially within the quasi-particle picture, are affected by the coupling with bosonic excitations at finite temperature (T), employing Yukawa models with a massive scalar (pseudoscalar) and vector (axial-vector) boson of mass m. The quark spectral function and the quasi-dispersion relations are calculated at one-loop order. We find that there appears at three-peak structure in the quark spectral function with a collective nature when T is comparable with m, irrespective of the type of boson considered. Such a multi-peak structure was first found in a chiral model yielding scalar composite bosons with a decay width. We elucidate the mechanism through which the new quark collective excitations are realized in terms of the Landau damping of a quark (an antiquark) induced by scattering with the thermally excited boson, which gives rise to mixing and hence a level repulsion between a quark (antiquark) and an antiquark-hole (quark-hole) in the thermally excited antiquark (quark) distribution. Our results suggest that the quarks in the QGP phase can be described within an interesting quasi-particle picture with a multi-peak spectral function. Because the models employed here are rather generic, our findings may represent a universal phenomenon for fermions coupled to a massive bosonic excitation with a vanishing or small width. The relevance of these results to other fields of physics, such as neutrino physics, is also briefly discussed. In addition, we describe a new aspect of the plasmino excitation obtained in the hard-thermal loop approximation. (author)

  3. The brief fatigue inventory: comparison of data collection using a novel audio device with conventional paper questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Edward; Rentowl, Patricia; Hanning, Christopher

    2009-09-01

    An Electronic Portable Information Collection audio device (EPIC-Vox) has been developed to deliver questionnaires in spoken word format via headphones. Patients respond by pressing buttons on the device. The aims of this study were to determine limits of agreement between, and test-retest reliability of audio (A) and paper (P) versions of the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI). Two hundred sixty outpatients (204 male, mean age 55.7 years) attending a sleep disorders clinic were allocated to four groups using block randomization. All completed the BFI twice, separated by a one-minute distracter task. Half the patients completed paper and audio versions, then an evaluation questionnaire. The remainder completed either paper or audio versions to compare test-retest reliability. BFI global scores were analyzed using Bland-Altman methodology. Agreement between categorical fatigue severity scores was determined using Cohen's kappa. The mean (SD) difference between paper and audio scores was -0.04 (0.48). The limits of agreement (mean difference+/-2SD) were -0.93 to +1.00. Test-retest reliability of the paper BFI showed a mean (SD) difference of 0.17 (0.32) between first and second presentations (limits -0.46 to +0.81). For audio, the mean (SD) difference was 0.17 (0.48) (limits -0.79 to +1.14). For agreement between categorical scores, Cohen's kappa=0.73 for P and A, 0.67 (P at test and retest) and 0.87 (A at test and retest). Evaluation preferences (n=128): 36.7% audio; 18.0% paper; and 45.3% no preference. A total of 99.2% found EPIC-Vox "easy to use." These data demonstrate that the English audio version of the BFI provides an acceptable alternative to the paper questionnaire.

  4. Water-soluble ions in nano/ultrafine/fine/coarse particles collected near a busy road and at a rural site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Chen, S.-J.; Huang, K.-L.; Lee, W.-J.; Lin, W.-Y.; Liao, C.-J.; Chaung, H.-C.; Chiu, C.-H.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated water-soluble ions in the sized particles (particularly nano (PM 0.01-0.056 )/ultrafine (PM 0.01-0.1 )) collected using MOUDI and Nano-MOUDI samplers near a busy road site and at a rural site. The analytical results demonstrate that nano and coarse particles exhibited the highest (16.3%) and lowest (8.37%) nitrate mass ratios, respectively. The mass ratio of NO 3 - was higher than that of SO 4 2- in all the sized particles at the traffic site. The secondary aerosols all displayed trimodal distributions. The aerosols in ultrafine particles collected at the roadside site exhibited Aitken mode distributions indicating they were of local origin. This finding was not observed for those ultrafine particles collected at the rural site. The mass median diameters (MMDs) of the nano, ultrafine, and fine particles were smaller at the traffic site than at the rural site, possibly related to the contribution of mobile engine emissions. - NO 3 - > SO 4 2- in mass ratio, different from common observations in rural areas, was found in (particularly the nano) traffic-associated particles

  5. Chemical characterization of individual particles and residuals of cloud droplets and ice crystals collected on board research aircraft in the ISDAC 2008 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Moffet, R. C.; Glen, A.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Liu, P.; MacDonald, A. M.; Strapp, J. W.; McFarquhar, G. M.

    2013-06-01

    Ambient particles and the dry residuals of mixed-phase cloud droplets and ice crystals were collected during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) near Barrow, Alaska, in spring of 2008. The collected particles were analyzed using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy coupled with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to identify physico-chemical properties that differentiate cloud-nucleating particles from the total aerosol population. A wide range of individually mixed components was identified in the ambient particles and residuals including organic carbon compounds, inorganics, carbonates, and black carbon. Our results show that cloud droplet residuals differ from the ambient particles in both size and composition, suggesting that both properties may impact the cloud-nucleating ability of aerosols in mixed-phase clouds. The percentage of residual particles which contained carbonates (47%) was almost four times higher than those in ambient samples. Residual populations were also enhanced in sea salt and black carbon and reduced in organic compounds relative to the ambient particles. Further, our measurements suggest that chemical processing of aerosols may improve their cloud-nucleating ability. Comparison of results for various time periods within ISDAC suggests that the number and composition of cloud-nucleating particles over Alaska can be influenced by episodic events bringing aerosols from both the local vicinity and as far away as Siberia.

  6. FEASIBILITY OF THE AEROSOL-TO-LIQUID PARTICLE EXTRACTION SYSTEM (ALPES) FOR COLLECTION OF VIABLE FRANCISELLA SP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitkamp, M

    2006-08-07

    Several Biowatch monitoring sites in the Houston area have tested positive for Francisella tularensis and there is a need to determine whether natural occurring Francisella-related microorganism(s) may be responsible for these observed positive reactions. The collection, culturing and characterization of Francisella-related natural microorganisms will provide the knowledge base to improve the future selectivity of Biowatch monitoring for Francisella. The aerosol-to-liquid particle extraction system (ALPES) is a high-efficiency, dual mechanism collection system that utilizes a liquid collection medium for capture of airborne microorganisms. Since the viability of microorganisms is preserved better in liquid medium than on air filters, this project was undertaken to determine whether Francisella philomiragia and Francisella tularensis LVS maintain acceptable viability in the continuous liquid recirculation, high direct current voltage and residual ozone concentrations which occur during ALPES operation. Throughout a series of preliminary trial runs with representative gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms, several design modifications and improvements to the ALPES optimized liquid handling, electrical stability, sampling and overall performance for biological sampling. Initial testing with Francisella philomiragia showed viability was preserved better in PBS buffer than HBSS buffer. Trial runs at starting cell concentrations of 1.8 x 10{sup 6} and 2.5 x 10{sup 4} CFU/L showed less than a 1-log decrease in viability for F. philomiragia after 24 h in the ALPES. Francisella tularensis LVS (live vaccine strain) was used as a surrogate for virulent F. tularensis in ALPES trial runs conducted at starting cell concentrations of 10{sup 4}, 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/L. F. tularensis LVS was slow-growing and required highly selective growth media to prevent overgrowth by collected airborne microorganisms. In addition, one ALPES unit intake was HEPA filtered during

  7. Evaluation of a New Technique for iFOBT Utilising a New Sample Collection Device with Increased Buffer Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns-Toepler, Markus; Hardt, Philip

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the present study were: (i) Evaluate specificity and sensitivity of Hb Smart enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (ScheBo Biotech) compared to colonoscopy results and (ii) assess stability of a new sample collection device containing a newly formulated buffer to extract haemoglobin using buffer and stool samples spiked with defined concentrations of haemoglobin. Stool samples were quantified with the ELISA method. The stability of haemoglobin in the extraction buffer and in native stool samples, respectively, was determined daily by ELISA during storage for 5 days at 4°C and at room temperature after addition of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin ELISA had a sensitivity of 78.4% for detection of CRC with a specificity of 98%. Haemoglobin extracted in corresponding extraction buffer demonstrated stability throughout storage for 5 days at 4°C and at room temperature. Hb Smart represents a very promising tool for large-scale screening of CRC with regard to sample handling, stability and analysis of haemoglobin in faeces. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. The circular thermo-phoretic spectrometer (CTSM), a new device for the study of the thermophoresis, Application on the fractals soot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugiere, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to improve the understanding of soot particle deposition by thermophoresis. In order to show the influence of the morphology of a fractal aggregate on its thermo-phoretic behavior, a new experimental device has been developed; the SpectroMetre Thermophoretique Circulaire (SMTC). This instrument is used to measure the mean thermo-phoretic velocity of particles selected between a hot plate and a cold plate thanks to a transfer function based on the geometry of the radial flow differential mobility analyser RF-DMA or SMEC (Spectrometre de Mobilite Electrique Circulaire). For the experimental validation, effective thermo-phoretic velocities of monodispersed spherical latex particles for diameters ranging from 64 nm to 500 nm and a temperature gradient equal to 50 750 K/m are measured and compared with theoretical values. The good agreement between the experimental results and theoretical values of Beresnev and Chernyak (1995) helps us to validate the operation of the instrument. Then we compare experimental thermo-phoretic velocity obtained with the SMTC for spherical particles and aggregates produced by a combustion aerosol generator. Contrary to the results obtained with the PSL particles, we observe that the thermo-phoretic velocity of aggregates increases with the electrical mobility diameter. Thanks to a morphological study of the aggregates, we showed that the thermo-phoretic velocity depends on the number of primary particles of the aggregate. These experimental results confirm, for the first time, the theoretical data of Mackowski (2006) obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation. Moreover, a comparison with the experimental results of Messerer et al. (2003) shows that the thermo-phoretic velocity of aggregates seems independent of the primary particle size. (author)

  9. A high-speed beam of lithium droplets for collecting diverted energy and particles in ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    A high-speed (160m/s) beam (0.14 x 0.86m) of liquid-lithium droplets passing through the divertor region(s) below (and above) the main plasma has the potential to replace and out-perform ''conventional'' solid divertor plates in both heat and particle removal. In addition to superior heat-collection properties, the lithium beam would: remove impurities; require low power to circulate the lithium; exhibit low-recycle divertor operation compatible with lower-hybrid current drive, H-mode plasma confinement, and no flow reversal in the edge plasma; be insensitive to plasma shifts; and finally protect solid structures from the plasma thermal energy for those disruptions that deposit energy preferentially into the divertor while simultaneously being rapidly re-established after a major disruption. Scoping calculations identifying the beam configuration and the droplet dynamics, including formation, MHD effects, gravitational effects, thermal response and hydrodynamics, are presented. Limitations and uncertainties are also discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Characterization of dust particles produced in an all-tungsten wall tokamak and potentially mobilized by airflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondeau, A., E-mail: anthony.rondeau@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SCA, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Peillon, S.; Roynette, A.; Sabroux, J.-C.; Gelain, T.; Gensdarmes, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SCA, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Grisolia, C. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chassefière, E. [Laboratoire Géosciences Paris Sud (GEOPS), UMR 8148, Université Paris Sud, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    At the starting of the shutdown of the AUG (ASDEX Upgrade: Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment) German tokamak, we collected particles deposited on the divertor surfaces by means of a dedicated device called “Duster Box”. This device allows to collect the particles using a controlled airflow with a defined shear stress. Consequently, the particles collected correspond to a potentially mobilizable fraction, by an airflow, of deposited dust. A total of more than 70,000 tungsten particles was, analysed showing a bimodal particle size distribution with a mode composed of flakes at 0.6 μm and a mode composed of spherical particles at 1.8 μm.

  11. A study on the gas-solid particle flows in a needle-free drug delivery device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasel, Md. Alim Iftekhar; Taher, Md. Abu; Kim, H. D.

    2013-08-01

    Different systems have been used over the years to deliver drug particles to the human skin for pharmaceutical effect. Research has been done to improve the performance and flexibility of these systems. In recent years a unique system called the transdermal drug delivery has been developed. Transdermal drug delivery opened a new door in the field of drug delivery as it is more flexible and offers better performance than the conventional systems. The principle of this system is to accelerate drug particles with a high speed gas flow. Among different transdermal drug delivery systems we will concentrate on the contour shock tube system in this paper. A contoured shock tube is consists of a rupture chamber, a shock tube and a supersonic nozzle section. The drug particles are retained between a set of bursting diaphragm. When the diaphragm is ruptured at a certain pressure, a high speed unsteady flow is initiated through the shock tube which accelerates the particles. Computational fluid dynamics is used to simulate and analyze the flow field. The DPM (discrete phase method) is used to model the particle flow. As an unsteady flow is initiated though the shock tube the drag correlation proposed by Igra et al is used other than the standard drag correlation. The particle velocities at different sections including the nozzle exit are investigated under different operating conditions. Static pressure histories in different sections in the shock tube are investigated to analyze the flow field. The important aspects of the gas and particle dynamics in the shock tube are discussed and analyzed in details.

  12. Computation of many-particle quantum trajectories with exchange interaction: application to the simulation of nanoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcón, A; Yaro, S; Cartoixà, X; Oriols, X

    2013-01-01

    Following Oriols (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 066803), an algorithm to deal with the exchange interaction in non-separable quantum systems is presented. The algorithm can be applied to fermions or bosons and, by construction, it exactly ensures that any observable is totally independent of the interchange of particles. It is based on the use of conditional Bohmian wave functions which are solutions of single-particle pseudo-Schrödinger equations. The exchange symmetry is directly defined by demanding symmetry properties of the quantum trajectories in the configuration space with a universal algorithm, rather than through a particular exchange–correlation functional introduced into the single-particle pseudo-Schrödinger equation. It requires the computation of N 2 conditional wave functions to deal with N identical particles. For separable Hamiltonians, the algorithm reduces to the standard Slater determinant for fermions (or permanent for bosons). A numerical test for a two-particle system, where exact solutions for non-separable Hamiltonians are computationally accessible, is presented. The numerical viability of the algorithm for quantum electron transport (in a far-from-equilibrium time-dependent open system) is demonstrated by computing the current and fluctuations in a nano-resistor, with exchange and Coulomb interactions among electrons. (paper)

  13. Image Information Obtained Using a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Camera During an Immersion Liquid Evaporation Process for Measuring the Refractive Index of Solid Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Ilpo; Sutinen, Veijo; Thungström, Göran; Räty, Jukka

    2018-06-01

    The refractive index is a fundamental physical property of a medium, which can be used for the identification and purity issues of all media. Here we describe a refractive index measurement technique to determine simultaneously the refractive index of different solid particles by monitoring the transmittance of light from a suspension using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. An important feature of the measurement is the liquid evaporation process for the refractive index matching of the solid particle and the immersion liquid; this was realized by using a pair of volatile and non-volatile immersion liquids. In this study, refractive indices of calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) and barium fluoride (BaF 2 ) were determined using the proposed method.

  14. 3D imaging of magnetic particles using the 7-channel magnetoencephalography device without pre-magnetization or displacement of the sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polikarpov, M.A., E-mail: polikarpov_imp@mail.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinin, M.N.; Rykunov, S.D. [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Yurenya, A.Y. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Naurzakov, S.P.; Grebenkin, A.P. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Panchenko, V.Y. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    SQUID-based magnetoencephalography device was used for the measurement of a magnetic noise generated by ferrofluid in the stationary standing vial. It was found that a free surface of the ferrofluid generates spontaneous magnetic field sufficient to detect the presence of nanoparticles in the experimental setup. The spatial distribution of elementary magnetic sources was reconstructed by the frequency-pattern analysis of multichannel time series. The localization of ferrofluids was performed based on the analysis of quasirandom time series in two cases of oscillation source. One of them was infrasound from outer noise, and another one was the human heartbeat. These results are prospective for 3D imaging of magnetic particles without pre-magnetization. - Highlights: • A new method of imaging of magnetic nanoparticles in human body is proposed. • The method uses quasi-random fluctuations of the particles in geomagnetic field. • The use of heartbeats as a source of such fluctuations is demonstrated.

  15. Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosić, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health.

  16. Quantifying particulate matter deposition in Niwot Ridge, Colorado: Collection of dry deposition using marble inserts and particle imaging using the FlowCAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Natasha R.; Mladenov, Natalie; Seibold, Christine M.; Chowanski, Kurt; Seitz, Leslie; Wellemeyer, T. Barret; Williams, Mark W.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric wet and dry deposition are important sources of carbon for remote alpine lakes and soils. The carbon inputs from dry deposition in alpine National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) collectors, including aeolian dust and biological material, are not well constrained due to difficulties in retaining particulate matter in the collectors. Here, we developed and tested a marble insert for dry deposition collection at the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station (NWT LTER) Soddie site (3345 m) between 24 May and 8 November 2011. We conducted laboratory tests of the insert's effect on particulate matter (PM) mass and non-purgeable organic carbon (DOC) and found that the insert did not significantly change either measurement. Thus, the insert may enable dry deposition collection of PM and DOC at NADP sites. We then developed a method for enumerating the collected wet and dry deposition with the Flow Cytometer and Microscope (FlowCAM), a dynamic-image particle analysis tool. The FlowCAM has the potential to establish morphology, which affects particle settling and retention, through particle diameter and aspect ratio. Particle images were used to track the abundance of pollen grains over time. Qualitative image examination revealed that most particles were biological in nature, such as intact algal cells and pollen. Dry deposition loading to the Soddie site as determined by FlowCAM measurements was highly variable, ranging from 100 to >230 g ha-1 d-1 in June-August 2011 and peaking in late June. No significant difference in diameter or aspect ratio was found between wet and dry deposition, suggesting fundamental similarities between those deposition types. Although FlowCAM statistics and identification of particle types proved insightful, our total-particle enumeration method had a high variance and underestimated the total number of particles when compared to imaging of relatively large volumes (60-125 mL) from a single sample. We recommend use of

  17. Use of a dry-plasma collection device to overcome problems with storage and transportation of blood samples for epidemiology studies in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurgalieva, Z Z; Almuchambetova, R; Machmudova, A; Kapsultanova, D; Osato, M S; Peacock, J; Zoltek, R P; Marchildon, P A; Graham, D Y; Zhangabylov, A

    2000-11-01

    Studies are difficult in areas lacking modern facilities due to the inability to reliably collect, store, and ship samples. Thus, we sought to evaluate the use of a dry plasma collection device for seroepidemiology studies. Plasma was obtained by fingerstick using a commercial dry plasma collection device (Chemcard Plasma Collection Device) and serum (venipuncture) from individuals in Kazakhstan. Plasma samples were air dried for 15 min and then stored desiccated in foil zip-lock pouches at 4 to 6 degrees C and subsequently shipped to the United States by air at ambient temperature. Serum samples remained frozen at -20 degrees C until assayed. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HM-CAP EIA) for the dry plasma and the serum samples. The results were concordant in 250 of the 289 cases (86.5%). In 25 cases (8.6%), the dry plasma samples gave indeterminate results and could not be retested because only one sample was collected. Five serum samples were positive, and the corresponding dry plasma samples were negative; one serum sample was negative, and the corresponding plasma sample was positive. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the Chemcard samples to serum were 97.6 and 97.9%, respectively, excluding those with indeterminate results. Repeated freeze-thawing had no adverse effect on the accuracy of the test. We found the dry plasma collection device to provide an accurate and practical alternative to serum when venipuncture may be difficult or inconvenient and sample storage and handling present difficulties, especially for seroepidemiologic studies in rural areas or developing countries and where freeze-thawing may be unavoidable.

  18. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen

    1992-01-01

    We shall discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection (including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a few ideas on future developments.

  19. The effect of charge collection recovery in silicon p-n junction detectors irradiated by different particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Abreu, M.; Anbinderis, P.; Anbinderis, T.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Casagrande, L.; Chen, W.; Cindro, V.; Dezillie, B.; Dierlamm, A.; Eremin, V.; Gaubas, E.; Gorbatenko, V.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Grohmann, S.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Hempel, O.; Herzog, R.; Haerkoenen, J.; Ilyashenko, I.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Kalesinskas, V.; Kapturauskas, J.; Laiho, R.; Li, Z.; Mandic, I.; De Masi, Rita; Menichelli, D.; Mikuz, M.; Militaru, O.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Perea Solano, B.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato Mendes, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Tuominen, E.; Vaitkus, J.; Da Via, C.; Wobst, E.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2003-01-01

    The recovery of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) at low temperatures, the so-called 'Lazarus effect', was studied in Si detectors irradiated by fast reactor neutrons, by protons of medium and high energy, by pions and by gamma-rays. The experimental results show that the Lazarus effect is observed: (a) after all types of irradiation; (b) before and after space charge sign inversion; (c) only in detectors that are biased at voltages resulting in partial depletion at room temperature. The experimental temperature dependence of the CCE for proton-irradiated detectors shows non-monotonic behaviour with a maximum at a temperature defined as the CCE recovery temperature. The model of the effect for proton-irradiated detectors agrees well with that developed earlier for detectors irradiated by neutrons. The same midgap acceptor-type and donor-type levels are responsible for the Lazarus effect in detectors irradiated by neutrons and by protons. A new, abnormal 'zigzag'-shaped temperature dependence of the CCE was observed for detectors irradiated by all particles (neutrons, protons and pions) and by an ultra-high dose of γ-rays, when operating at low bias voltages. This effect is explained in the framework of the double-peak electric field distribution model for heavily irradiated detectors. The redistribution of the space charge region depth between the depleted regions adjacent to p + and n + contacts is responsible for the 'zigzag'- shaped curves. It is shown that the CCE recovery temperature increases with reverse bias in all detectors, regardless of the type of radiation

  20. Use of mobile device technology to continuously collect patient-reported symptoms during radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: A prospective feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchook, Aaron D; Tracton, Gregg; Stravers, Lori; Fleming, Mary E; Snavely, Anna C; Noe, Jeanne F; Hayes, David N; Grilley-Olson, Juneko E; Weiss, Jared M; Reeve, Bryce B; Basch, Ethan M; Chera, Bhishamjit S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of toxicity allows for timely delivery of supportive measures during radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. The current paradigm requires weekly evaluation of patients by a provider. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring patient reported symptoms via mobile devices. We developed a mobile application for patients to report symptoms in 5 domains using validated questions. Patients were asked to report symptoms using a mobile device once daily during treatment or more often as needed. Clinicians reviewed patient-reported symptoms during weekly symptom management visits and patients completed surveys regarding perceptions of the utility of the mobile application. The primary outcome measure was patient compliance with mobile device reporting. Compliance is defined as number of days with a symptom report divided by number of days on study. There were 921 symptom reports collected from 22 patients during treatment. Median reporting compliance was 71% (interquartile range, 45%-80%). Median number of reports submitted per patient was 34 (interquartile range, 21-53). Median number of reports submitted by patients per week was similar throughout radiation therapy and there was significant reporting during nonclinic hours. Patients reported high satisfaction with the use of mobile devices to report symptoms. A substantial percentage of patients used mobile devices to continuously report symptoms throughout a course of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future studies should evaluate the impact of mobile device symptom reporting on improving patient outcomes.

  1. Device for irradiation with electron and a magnetic lens for deviation of beams of charged particles, especially electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderberg, B.

    1990-01-01

    An electron beam is sweeping aver the object while this is moved forward. In order to achieve a uniform irradiation and compensate for geometric errors, an additional magnetic lens is located immediately beneath the exposed area. The magnetic lens refract the electron beam in such a manner that the particle trajectories become parallel or slightly convergent after the lens. The lens consists of two parallel permanent bar magnets, preferably laminated magnets. (L.F.)

  2. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elin; Dahmcke, Christina M; Steven, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid...... filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance...... degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane...

  3. First evidence of collective alpha particle effect on TAE modes in the TFTR D-T experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Schmidt, G.; Batha, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    The alpha particle effect on the excitation of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) was investigated in deuterium-tritium (d-t) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). RF power was used to position the plasma near the instability threshold, and the alpha particle effect was inferred from the reduction of RF power threshold for TAE instability in d-t plasmas. Initial calculations indicate that the alpha particles contribute 10--30% of the total drive in a d-t plasma with 3 MW of peak fusion power

  4. SUBMICRON PARTICLES EMISSION CONTROL BY ELECTROSTATIC AGGLOMERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krupa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop a device for more effective treatment of flue gases from submicron particles emitted by power plants burning bituminous coal and by this way the reduction of environment pollution. Electrostatic processes were employed to this goal, as the most effective solution. The solutions hitherto applied in electrostatic precipitation techniques were designed for large particles, typically with sizes> 5 µm, which are easily removed by the action of electrostatic force on the electrically charged particles. In submicron size range (0.1-1 µm the collection efficiency of an ESP is minimal, because of the low value of electric charge on such particles. In order to avoid problems with the removal of submicron particles of fly ash from the flue gases electrostatic agglomeration has been used. In this process, by applying an alternating electric field, larger charged particles (> 1 µm oscillate, and the particles "collect" smaller uncharged particles. In the developed agglomerator with alternating electric field, the charging of particles and the coagulation takes place in one stage that greatly simplified the construction of the device, compared to other solutions. The scope of this study included measurements of fractional collection efficiency of particles in the system comprising of agglomerator and ESP for PM1 and PM2.5 ranges, in device made in pilot scale. The collection efficiency for PM2.5 was greater than 90% and PM1 slightly dropped below 90%. The mass collection efficiency for PM2.5 was greater than 95%. The agglomerator stage increases the collection efficiency for PM1 at a level of 5-10%.

  5. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Elin; Dahmcke, Christina M; Steven, Kenneth; Larsen, Louise K; Guldberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance of the device was further evaluated by DNA-based analysis of urinary cells collected from 57 patients subjected to transurethral resection following flexible cystoscopy indicating the presence of a tumor. All samples were tested for FGFR3 mutations and seven DNA methylation markers (BCL2, CCNA1, EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, SALL3 and VIM). In the group of patients where a transitional cell tumor was confirmed at histopathological evaluation, urine DNA was positive for one or more markers in 29 out of 31 cases (94%), including 19 with FGFR3 mutation (61%). In the group of patients with benign histopathology, urine DNA was positive for methylation markers in 13 out of 26 cases (50%). Only one patient in this group was positive for a FGFR3 mutation. This patient had a stage Ta tumor resected 6 months later. The ability to easily collect, store and ship diagnostic cells from urine using the presented device may facilitate non-invasive testing for bladder cancer.

  6. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Andersson

    Full Text Available Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance of the device was further evaluated by DNA-based analysis of urinary cells collected from 57 patients subjected to transurethral resection following flexible cystoscopy indicating the presence of a tumor. All samples were tested for FGFR3 mutations and seven DNA methylation markers (BCL2, CCNA1, EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, SALL3 and VIM. In the group of patients where a transitional cell tumor was confirmed at histopathological evaluation, urine DNA was positive for one or more markers in 29 out of 31 cases (94%, including 19 with FGFR3 mutation (61%. In the group of patients with benign histopathology, urine DNA was positive for methylation markers in 13 out of 26 cases (50%. Only one patient in this group was positive for a FGFR3 mutation. This patient had a stage Ta tumor resected 6 months later. The ability to easily collect, store and ship diagnostic cells from urine using the presented device may facilitate non-invasive testing for bladder cancer.

  7. Pseudorapidity and Centrality Dependence of the Collective Flow of Charged Particles in Au+Au Collisions at (sNN)=130 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-11-01

    This paper describes the measurement of collective flow for charged particles in Au+Au collisions at (sNN)=130 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The measured azimuthal hit anisotropy is presented over a wide range of pseudorapidity (-5.0<η<5.3) for the first time at this energy. The result, averaged over momenta and particle species, is observed to reach 7% for peripheral collisions at midrapidity, falling off with centrality and increasing |η|. These results call into question the common assumption of longitudinal boost invariance over a large region of rapidity in RHIC collisions.

  8. A high-order particle-in-cell method for low density plasma flow and the simulation of gyrotron resonator devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Within this thesis a parallelized, transient, three-dimensional, high-order discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell solver is developed and used to simulate the resonant cavity of a gyrotron. The high-order discontinuous Galerkin approach - a Finite-Element type method - provides a fast and efficient algorithm to numerically solve Maxwell's equations used within this thesis. Besides its outstanding dissipation and dispersion properties, the discontinuous Galerkin approach easily allows for using unstructured grids, as required to simulate complex-shaped engineering devices. The discontinuous Galerkin approach approximates a wavelength with significantly less degrees of freedom compared to other methods, e.g. Finite Difference methods. Furthermore, the parallelization capabilities of the discontinuous Galerkin framework are excellent due to the very local dependencies between the elements. These properties are essential for the efficient numerical treatment of the Vlasov-Maxwell system with the Particle-in-Cell method. This system describes the self-consistent interaction of charged particles and the electromagnetic field. As central application within this thesis gyrotron resonators are simulated with the discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell method on high-performance-computers. The gyrotron is a high-power millimeter wave source, used for the electron cyclotron resonance heating of magnetically confined fusion plasma, e.g. in the Wendelstein 7-X experimental fusion-reactor. Compared to state-of-the-art simulation tools used for the design of gyrotron resonators the Particle-in-Cell method does not use any significant physically simplifications w.r.t. the modelling of the particle-field-interaction, the geometry and the wave-spectrum. Hence, it is the method of choice for validation of current simulation tools being restricted by these simplifications. So far, the Particle-in-Cell method was restricted to be used for demonstration calculations only, because

  9. A high-order particle-in-cell method for low density plasma flow and the simulation of gyrotron resonator devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, Andreas

    2013-04-26

    Within this thesis a parallelized, transient, three-dimensional, high-order discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell solver is developed and used to simulate the resonant cavity of a gyrotron. The high-order discontinuous Galerkin approach - a Finite-Element type method - provides a fast and efficient algorithm to numerically solve Maxwell's equations used within this thesis. Besides its outstanding dissipation and dispersion properties, the discontinuous Galerkin approach easily allows for using unstructured grids, as required to simulate complex-shaped engineering devices. The discontinuous Galerkin approach approximates a wavelength with significantly less degrees of freedom compared to other methods, e.g. Finite Difference methods. Furthermore, the parallelization capabilities of the discontinuous Galerkin framework are excellent due to the very local dependencies between the elements. These properties are essential for the efficient numerical treatment of the Vlasov-Maxwell system with the Particle-in-Cell method. This system describes the self-consistent interaction of charged particles and the electromagnetic field. As central application within this thesis gyrotron resonators are simulated with the discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell method on high-performance-computers. The gyrotron is a high-power millimeter wave source, used for the electron cyclotron resonance heating of magnetically confined fusion plasma, e.g. in the Wendelstein 7-X experimental fusion-reactor. Compared to state-of-the-art simulation tools used for the design of gyrotron resonators the Particle-in-Cell method does not use any significant physically simplifications w.r.t. the modelling of the particle-field-interaction, the geometry and the wave-spectrum. Hence, it is the method of choice for validation of current simulation tools being restricted by these simplifications. So far, the Particle-in-Cell method was restricted to be used for demonstration calculations only, because

  10. Morphological and light-absorption characteristics of individual BC particles collected in an urban seaside area at Tokaimura, eastern central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Fengfu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Xu Xueqin; Xu Liangjun; Akagi, Tasuku

    2008-01-01

    To observe surface morphology and light-absorption property of different black carbon (BC) particles, different-sized aerosols were collected in Tokaimura (36.27 o N, 140.36 o E), an urban seaside area of eastern central Japan, using a high-volume Andersen type sampler during a whole year (Jan. to Dec. in 2004). The morphology of individual BC particle separated from different-sized aerosols was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and four types of morphology were observed: 50 nm spherical particles, micrometer-sized plates with homogeneous surfaces, micrometer-sized spherical particles with homogeneous surfaces and micrometer-sized spherical particles with small holes on surfaces. The light-absorption property of BC particles with different morphology has been determined by infrared spectrometry (IRS) with a photoacoustic technique in a region of 400-4000 wavenumbers (cm -1 ). All morphology BC particles showed a strong light-absorption during 500-3000 wavenumbers (cm -1 ) with two strong broad peaks in 750-1100 and 1200-2200 wavenumbers (cm -1 ), implying that all morphology BC particles can absorb a significant part of thermal infrared emitted from the earth (wavelength 4000-50,000 nm). The seasonal variation and the size-distribution of aerosols and its chemical components (e.g. C, Na, Cl, NH 4 + , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Al, Ca, Mg and Fe) were also measured in this study. More than 55% of non-inorganic carbon (OC + BC) in the atmosphere was detected in the aerosols with a size smaller than 1.1 μm and the concentration of non-inorganic carbon in the atmosphere showed only a faint variation during a whole year, although the concentrations of total aerosols and its chemical components exhibited a distinct variation

  11. Morphological and light-absorption characteristics of individual BC particles collected in an urban seaside area at Tokaimura, eastern central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Feng Fu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Xu, Xueqin; Xu, Liangjun; Akagi, Tasuku

    2008-04-15

    To observe surface morphology and light-absorption property of different black carbon (BC) particles, different-sized aerosols were collected in Tokaimura (36.27 degrees N, 140.36 degrees E), an urban seaside area of eastern central Japan, using a high-volume Andersen type sampler during a whole year (Jan. to Dec. in 2004). The morphology of individual BC particle separated from different-sized aerosols was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and four types of morphology were observed: 50 nm spherical particles, micrometer-sized plates with homogeneous surfaces, micrometer-sized spherical particles with homogeneous surfaces and micrometer-sized spherical particles with small holes on surfaces. The light-absorption property of BC particles with different morphology has been determined by infrared spectrometry (IRS) with a photoacoustic technique in a region of 400-4000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)). All morphology BC particles showed a strong light-absorption during 500-3000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)) with two strong broad peaks in 750-1100 and 1200-2200 wavenumbers (cm(-1)), implying that all morphology BC particles can absorb a significant part of thermal infrared emitted from the earth (wavelength 4000-50,000 nm). The seasonal variation and the size-distribution of aerosols and its chemical components (e.g. C, Na, Cl, NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Al, Ca, Mg and Fe) were also measured in this study. More than 55% of non-inorganic carbon (OC+BC) in the atmosphere was detected in the aerosols with a size smaller than 1.1 microm and the concentration of non-inorganic carbon in the atmosphere showed only a faint variation during a whole year, although the concentrations of total aerosols and its chemical components exhibited a distinct variation.

  12. Documentation of particle-size analyzer time series, and discrete suspended-sediment and bed-sediment sample data collection, Niobrara River near Spencer, Nebraska, October 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Coleman, Anthony M.; Zelt, Ronald B.

    2018-04-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, monitored a sediment release by Nebraska Public Power District from Spencer Dam located on the Niobrara River near Spencer, Nebraska, during the fall of 2014. The accumulated sediment behind Spencer Dam ordinarily is released semiannually; however, the spring 2014 release was postponed until the fall. Because of the postponement, the scheduled fall sediment release would consist of a larger volume of sediment. The larger than normal sediment release expected in fall 2014 provided an opportunity for the USGS and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to improve the understanding of sediment transport during reservoir sediment releases. A primary objective was to collect continuous suspended-sediment data during the first days of the sediment release to document rapid changes in sediment concentrations. For this purpose, the USGS installed a laser-diffraction particle-size analyzer at a site near the outflow of the dam to collect continuous suspended-sediment data. The laser-diffraction particle-size analyzer measured volumetric particle concentration and particle-size distribution from October 1 to 2 (pre-sediment release) and October 5 to 9 (during sediment release). Additionally, the USGS manually collected discrete suspended-sediment and bed-sediment samples before, during, and after the sediment release. Samples were collected at two sites upstream from Spencer Dam and at three bridges downstream from Spencer Dam. The resulting datasets and basic metadata associated with the datasets were published as a data release; this report provides additional documentation about the data collection methods and the quality of the data.

  13. Characterization of Libby, MT amphibole (LA) elongated particles for toxicology studies: Field Collection, sample preparation, dose characterization, and particle counting methods using SEM/EDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1999, the US EPA and USGS have been studying the chemistry, mineralogy, and morphology of the amphiboles from the Rainy Creek Complex of Libby, MT (LA), following an increased incidence of lung and pleural diseases. LA material collected in 2000 (LA2000) was described in M...

  14. Coupling of collective and single-particle degrees of freedom in atomic nuclei (commentary to thesis qualifying for assistant-professorship)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlebowska, D.

    1992-11-01

    The analysis of the spectroscopic properties of the spherical and transitional nuclei is performed from the point of view of the relation between the single-particle and collective degrees of freedom on the ground of the core-particle coupling model with the total angular momentum conserved and without any unphysical parameters (such as the attenuation parameter). A new definition of the rotational alignment is given. The staggering effect is interpreted as a manifestation of the vibrational structure. The rotational dependence of the energy gap parameter is shown to have an influence on the energy spectra of the transitional nuclei. The nuclei with A 130 are shown to have a tendency to be rather rigid. The vibrational and rotational structures, and the magnitude of the rotation-particle coupling in the considered nuclei are determined. 18 figs., 9 tabs., 66 refs. (author)

  15. Collective versus single-particle motion in quantum many-body systems from the perspective of an integrable model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemmerling, Jens; Gutkin, Boris; Guhr, Thomas, E-mail: jens.haemmerling@uni-due.d [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-07-02

    We study the emergence of collective dynamics in the integrable Hamiltonian system of two finite ensembles of coupled harmonic oscillators. After identification of a collective degree of freedom, the Hamiltonian is mapped onto a model of Caldeira-Leggett type, where the collective coordinate is coupled to an internal bath of phonons. In contrast to the usual Caldeira-Leggett model, the bath in the present case is part of the system. We derive an equation of motion for the collective coordinate which takes the form of a damped harmonic oscillator. We show that the distribution of quantum transition strengths induced by the collective mode is determined by its classical dynamics.

  16. Collective versus single-particle motion in quantum many-body systems from the perspective of an integrable model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemmerling, Jens; Gutkin, Boris; Guhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We study the emergence of collective dynamics in the integrable Hamiltonian system of two finite ensembles of coupled harmonic oscillators. After identification of a collective degree of freedom, the Hamiltonian is mapped onto a model of Caldeira-Leggett type, where the collective coordinate is coupled to an internal bath of phonons. In contrast to the usual Caldeira-Leggett model, the bath in the present case is part of the system. We derive an equation of motion for the collective coordinate which takes the form of a damped harmonic oscillator. We show that the distribution of quantum transition strengths induced by the collective mode is determined by its classical dynamics.

  17. Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Parker, Mary L.; Bisignano, Carlo; Raciti, Roberto; Baer, David J.; Wilde, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA), roasted diced almonds (DA) and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB). Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB) was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm). Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut. PMID:29443942

  18. Distinct high molecular weight organic compound (HMW-OC) types in aerosol particles collected at a coastal urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Healy, R. M.; Wenger, J. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Harrison, Roy M.; Beddows, D. C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Organic oligomers were discovered in laboratory-generated atmospheric aerosol over a decade ago. However, evidence for the presence of oligomers in ambient aerosols is scarce and mechanisms for their formation have yet to be fully elucidated. In this work, three unique aerosol particle types internally mixed with High molecular weight organic compounds (HMW-OC) species - likely oligomers - were detected in ambient air using single particle Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) in Cork (Ireland) during winter 2009. These particle types can be described as follows: (1) HMW-OCs rich in organic nitrogen - possibly containing nitrocatechols and nitroguaiacols - originating from primary emissions of biomass burning particles during evening times; (2) HMW-OCs internally mixed with nitric acid, occurring in stagnant conditions during night time; and (3) HMW-OCs internally mixed with sea salt, likely formed via photochemical reactions during day time. The study exemplifies the power of methodologies capable of monitoring the simultaneous formation of organic and inorganic particle-phase reaction products. Primary emissions and atmospheric aging of different types of HMW-OC contributes to aerosol with a range of acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties, which can have different impacts on climate and health.

  19. Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mandalari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT. In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA, roasted almonds (RA, roasted diced almonds (DA and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB. Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm. Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut.

  20. Application of the Reduction of Scale Range in a Lorentz Boosted Frame to the Numerical Simulation of Particle Acceleration Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.-L.; Fawley, W.M.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown (1) that it may be computationally advantageous to perform computer simulations in a boosted frame for a certain class of systems: particle beams interacting with electron clouds, free electron lasers, and laser-plasma accelerators. However, even if the computer model relies on a covariant set of equations, it was also pointed out that algorithmic difficulties related to discretization errors may have to be overcome in order to take full advantage of the potential speedup (2) . In this paper, we focus on the analysis of the complication of data input and output in a Lorentz boosted frame simulation, and describe the procedures that were implemented in the simulation code Warp(3). We present our most recent progress in the modeling of laser wakefield acceleration in a boosted frame, and describe briefly the potential benefits of calculating in a boosted frame for the modeling of coherent synchrotron radiation.

  1. A comparison of macroscopic models describing the collective response of sedimenting rod-like particles in shear flows

    KAUST Repository

    Helzel, Christiane; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    We consider a kinetic model, which describes the sedimentation of rod-like particles in dilute suspensions under the influence of gravity, presented in Helzel and Tzavaras (submitted for publication). Here we restrict our considerations to shear flow and consider a simplified situation, where the particle orientation is restricted to the plane spanned by the direction of shear and the direction of gravity. For this simplified kinetic model we carry out a linear stability analysis and we derive two different nonlinear macroscopic models which describe the formation of clusters of higher particle density. One of these macroscopic models is based on a diffusive scaling, the other one is based on a so-called quasi-dynamic approximation. Numerical computations, which compare the predictions of the macroscopic models with the kinetic model, complete our presentation.

  2. Chemical composition of anthropogenic particles on needles collected close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinander, O.

    1995-01-01

    Within the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, north-eastern Estonia is among the most polluted areas. Emissions from the oil-shale power plants produce air pollution problems both locally and on a larger scale. In the atmosphere, pollutants mix and convert. Consequently, the particles deposited due to the use of oil-shale can have various chemical compositions. From the point of view of air chemistry, ecological effects and air pollution modelling, knowledge of the chemical composition of the deposited particles can be of great value. The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition of single anthropogenic particles occurring on needle surfaces in north-eastern Estonia and Southern Finland close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants. For the purpose, scanning electron microscopical microanalysis was used

  3. A comparison of macroscopic models describing the collective response of sedimenting rod-like particles in shear flows

    KAUST Repository

    Helzel, Christiane

    2016-07-22

    We consider a kinetic model, which describes the sedimentation of rod-like particles in dilute suspensions under the influence of gravity, presented in Helzel and Tzavaras (submitted for publication). Here we restrict our considerations to shear flow and consider a simplified situation, where the particle orientation is restricted to the plane spanned by the direction of shear and the direction of gravity. For this simplified kinetic model we carry out a linear stability analysis and we derive two different nonlinear macroscopic models which describe the formation of clusters of higher particle density. One of these macroscopic models is based on a diffusive scaling, the other one is based on a so-called quasi-dynamic approximation. Numerical computations, which compare the predictions of the macroscopic models with the kinetic model, complete our presentation.

  4. Investigation of the particle size distribution and particle density characteristics of Douglas fir hogged fuel fly ash collected under known combustion conditions. Technical Progress Report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, A.J.; Junge, D.C.

    1978-12-01

    The increased interest in wood as a fuel source, coupled with the increasing demand to control the emission generated by wood combustion, has created a need for information characterizing the emissions that occur for given combustion conditions. This investigation characterizes the carbon char and inorganic fly ash size and density distribution for each of thirty-eight Douglas fir bark samples collected under known conditions of combustion.

  5. Observation of enhanced radial transport of energetic ion due to energetic particle mode destabilized by helically-trapped energetic ion in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Kawase, H.; Nishitani, T.; Seki, R.; Osakabe, M.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-04-01

    A deuterium experiment was initiated to achieve higher-temperature and higher-density plasmas in March 2017 in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The central ion temperature notably increases compared with that in hydrogen experiments. However, an energetic particle mode called the helically-trapped energetic-ion-driven resistive interchange (EIC) mode is often excited by intensive perpendicular neutral beam injections on high ion-temperature discharges. The mode leads to significant decrease of the ion temperature or to limiting the sustainment of the high ion-temperature state. To understand the effect of EIC on the energetic ion confinement, the radial transport of energetic ions is studied by means of the neutron flux monitor and vertical neutron camera newly installed on the LHD. Decreases of the line-integrated neutron profile in core channels show that helically-trapped energetic ions are lost from the plasma.

  6. Design and characterization of a device to quantify the magnetic drug targeting efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in a tube flow phantom by magnetic particle spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radon, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.radon@ptb.de; Löwa, Norbert; Gutkelch, Dirk; Wiekhorst, Frank

    2017-04-01

    The aim of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) is to transfer a therapeutic drug coupled to magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to desired disease locations (e.g. tumor region) with the help of magnetic field gradients. To transfer the MDT approach into clinical practice a number of important issues remain to be solved. We developed and characterized an in-vitro flow phantom to provide a defined and reproducible MDT environment. The tube system of the flow phantom is directed through the detection coil of a magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) device to determine the targeting efficiency. MPS offers an excellent temporal resolution of seconds and an outstanding specific sensitivity of some nanograms of iron. In the flow phantom different MNP types, magnet geometries and tube materials can be employed to vary physical parameters like diameter, flow rate, magnetic targeting gradient, and MNP properties. - Highlights: • Flow phantom for magnetic targeting. • MPS for quantitative MNP detection. • ng detection limit for MNP.

  7. Modeling of beam customization devices in the pencil-beam splitting algorithm for heavy charged particle radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nkanemat@nirs.go.jp [Department of Accelerator and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-03-07

    A broad-beam-delivery system for radiotherapy with protons or ions often employs multiple collimators and a range-compensating filter, which offer complex and potentially useful beam customization. It is however difficult for conventional pencil-beam algorithms to deal with fine structures of these devices due to beam-size growth during transport. This study aims to avoid the difficulty with a novel computational model. The pencil beams are initially defined at the range-compensating filter with angular-acceptance correction for upstream collimation followed by stopping and scattering. They are individually transported with possible splitting near the aperture edge of a downstream collimator to form a sharp field edge. The dose distribution for a carbon-ion beam was calculated and compared with existing experimental data. The penumbra sizes of various collimator edges agreed between them to a submillimeter level. This beam-customization model will be used in the greater framework of the pencil-beam splitting algorithm for accurate and efficient patient dose calculation.

  8. Modeling of beam customization devices in the pencil-beam splitting algorithm for heavy charged particle radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-03-07

    A broad-beam-delivery system for radiotherapy with protons or ions often employs multiple collimators and a range-compensating filter, which offer complex and potentially useful beam customization. It is however difficult for conventional pencil-beam algorithms to deal with fine structures of these devices due to beam-size growth during transport. This study aims to avoid the difficulty with a novel computational model. The pencil beams are initially defined at the range-compensating filter with angular-acceptance correction for upstream collimation followed by stopping and scattering. They are individually transported with possible splitting near the aperture edge of a downstream collimator to form a sharp field edge. The dose distribution for a carbon-ion beam was calculated and compared with existing experimental data. The penumbra sizes of various collimator edges agreed between them to a submillimeter level. This beam-customization model will be used in the greater framework of the pencil-beam splitting algorithm for accurate and efficient patient dose calculation.

  9. Electrospray ionizer for mass spectrometry of aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siqin; Hogan, Chris; Li, Lin; Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Naqwi, Amir; Romay, Francisco

    2017-09-19

    A device and method are disclosed to apply ESI-based mass spectroscopy to submicrometer and nanometer scale aerosol particles. Unipolar ionization is utilized to charge the particles in order to collect them electrostatically on the tip of a tungsten rod. Subsequently, the species composing the collected particles are dissolved by making a liquid flow over the tungsten rod. This liquid with dissolved aerosol contents is formed into highly charged droplets, which release unfragmented ions for mass spectroscopy, such as time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. The device is configured to operate in a switching mode, wherein aerosol deposition occurs while solvent delivery is turned off and vice versa.

  10. Coupled PIXE and RBS using a 6MeV 4He2+ external beam: A new experimental device for particle detection and dose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, F.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Dubreuil, O.; Salomon, J.

    2005-01-01

    AGLAE (Accelerateur Grand Louvre d'Analyses Elementaire), the IBA facility of the 'Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France' (C2RMF) has been equipped for several years with an external micro-beam line, in order to perform ion beam analysis on materials relevant to cultural heritage. This beam line is undergoing constant improvement. Recently, a new extraction nozzle for the external beam of the accelerator has been designed in order to obtain simultaneously from the same spot: - detection of the X-ray emission by two detectors, for low and high energies; - detection of the backscattered particles for a backscattering angle between 170 and 175 deg., thanks to an annular surface barrier detector included in the nozzle; - particle current monitoring by intermittent beam deflection on a reference material included in the system. This technical development has been induced by the study of artificial patinas on archaeological copper-alloy objects and the attempt to characterize them with a 6MeV 4 He 2+ beam, an unusual beam for this type of investigation. A detailed description of the new device and some results on an application of the use of high-energy alpha beam in PIXE and RBS made on a Roman strigil are presented here

  11. Particle and power balances of hot-filament discharge plasmas in a multi-dipole device in the presence of a positively biased electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.H.; Hershkowitz, N.; Intrator, T.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma potential is typically assumed to float above an anode potential by a few times of an electron temperature (T /e). The difference between the plasma potential and the anode potential can be estimated by considering the particle production and loss. However, it has been reported experimentally that the plasma potential of a steady state plasma can be more negative than the anode potential with a potential dip (-- T /e) in front of the anode. This paper describes particle and power balances to estimate the bulk plasma potential of a hot-filament discharge plasma produced in a multi-dipole plasma device. The bulk plasma potential dependence on positive DC bias applied to an anode is analyzed, and the predicted characteristics of the plasma potential dependence are compared to the experiment. A steady state potential dip in front of an anode is experimentally observed using emissive probes with the zero emission inflection point method, and the conditions for the potential dip formation are derived

  12. GA/particle swarm intelligence based optimization of two specific varieties of controller devices applied to two-area multi-units automatic generation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Praghnesh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Charotar Institute of Technology, Changa 388 421, Gujarat (India); Roy, Ranjit [Department of Electrical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Ghoshal, S.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713 209, West Bengal (India)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents the comparative performance analysis of the two specific varieties of controller devices for optimal transient performance of automatic generation control (AGC) of an interconnected two-area power system, having multiple thermal-hydro-diesels mixed generating units. The significant improvement of optimal transient performance is observed with the addition of a thyristor-controlled phase shifter (TCPS) in the tie-line or capacitive energy storage (CES) units fitted in both the areas. Three different optimization algorithms are adopted for the sake of comparison of optimal performances and obtaining the optimal values of the gain settings of the devices independently. Craziness based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO) proves to be moderately fast algorithm and yields true optimal gains and minimum overshoot, minimum undershoot and minimum settling time of the transient response for any system. Comparative studies of TCPS and CES by any algorithm reveals that the CES units fitted in both the areas improve the transient performance to a greater extent following small load disturbance(s) in both the areas. (author)

  13. Fluorescence detection using optical waveguide collection device with high efficiency on assembly of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaowen; Ma, Zongmin; Qin, Li; Fu, Yueping; Shi, Yunbo; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan Jun

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a fluorescence waveguide excitation and collection (FWEC) method that allows for an excess of 45% collection efficiency of pump photons into optically detected magnetic resonance. The FWEC system used can collect fluorescence 96 times higher than the confocal system under spin manipulation with a microwave. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the FWEC system is improved 9 times compared with that of the confocal system. In addition, the increase in contrast observed using the FWEC system shows that the integration of the system is much improved with 3D printing technology. Thus, this research has a great potential application in subsequent magnetic detection and quantum optics.

  14. Collection of summaries of reports on result of research at basic experiment device for nuclear fusion reactor blanket design, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This report meeting was held on May 22, 1995 at University of Tokyo by about 40 participants. As the topics on the fusion reactor engineering research in Japan, lectures were given on the present state and future of nuclear fusion networks and on the strong magnetic field tokamak using electromagnetic force-balanced coils being planned. Thereafter, the reports of the results of the researches which were carried out by using this experimental facility were made, centering around the subject related to the future conception 'The interface properties of fusion reactor materials and particle transport control'. The publication was made on the future conception of the basic experiment setup for fusion reactor blanket design, the application of high temperature superconductors to the advancement of nuclear fusion reactors, the modeling of the dynamic irradiation behavior of fusion reactor materials, the interface particle behavior in plasma-wall interaction, the behavior of tritium on the surface of breeding materials, and breeding materials and the behavior of tritium in plasma-wall interaction. (K.I.)

  15. Feasibility of Using a Handheld Electronic Device for the Collection of Patient Reported Outcomes Data from Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinney, Lisa A.; Grade, John D.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2012-01-01

    The manner in which a communication disorder affects health-related quality of life (QOL) in children is not known. Unfortunately, collection of quality of life data via traditional paper measures is labor intensive and has several other limitations, which hinder the investigation of pediatric quality of life in children. Currently, there is not…

  16. Experimental and simulated fast ion velocity distributions on collective Thomson scattering diagnostic in the Large Helical Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a collective Thomson scattering diagnostic system in the LHD. The CTS spectrum spread is observed in the frequency region corresponding to the bulk and fast ions during NB injection. The NB originated fast ions are evaluated by the MORH code for understanding the measured CTS sp...

  17. Angularly-resolved elastic scatter from single particles collected over a large solid angle and with high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptowicz, Kevin B; Chang, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    Elastic light scattering from a single non-spherical particle of various morphologies has been measured simultaneously with a large angular range (90 deg. < θ < 165 deg. and 0 deg. < φ < 360 deg.) and with high angular resolution (1024 pixels in θ and 512 pixels in φ). Because the single-shot laser pulse is short (pulse duration of 70 ns), the tumbling and flowing particle can be treated as frozen in space. The large angle two-dimensional angular optical scattering (hereafter referred to as LA TAOS) intensity pattern, I(θ,φ), has been measured for a variety of particle morphology, such as the following: (1) single polystyrene latex (PSL) sphere; (2) cluster of PSL spheres; (3) single Bacillus subtilis (BG) spore; (4) cluster of BG spores; (5) dried aggregates of bio-aerosols as well as background clutter aerosols. All these measurements were made using the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (0.532 μm). Islands structures in the LA TAOS patterns seem to be the prominent feature. Efforts are being made to extract metrics from these islands and compare them to theoretical results based on the T-matrix method

  18. Collection of Summaries of reports on result of research at basic experiment device for nuclear fusion reactor blanket design, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The development of nuclear fusion reactors reached such stage that the generation of fusion power output comparable with the input power into core plasma is possible. At present, the engineering design of the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor, ITER, is advanced by the cooperation of Japan, USA, Europe and Russia, aiming at the start of operation at the beginning of 21st century. This meeting for reporting the results has been held every year, and this time, it was held on May 19, 1995 at University of Tokyo with the theme ''The interface properties of fusion reactor materials and the control of particle transport''. About 50 participants from academic, governmental and industrial circles discussed actively on the theme. Three lectures on the topics of fusion reactor engineering and materials and seven lectures on the basic experiment of fusion reactor blanket design related to the next period project were given at the meeting. (K.I.)

  19. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  20. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

    2014-05-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

  1. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosaki, Osamu; Masuda, Kenju.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide excellent electric properties and high reliability in a thermonuclear device by improving a current collecting board connected to a coil device. Constitution: A current collecting board element perforated with an opening for enserting a connecting terminal is sized to be inserted into a plating tank, and is surface treated in the plating tank. Only the current collecting board element preferably surface treated is picked up. A plurality of such current collecting board elements are connected and welded to form a large current collecting board. In this manner, the current collecting board having several m 2 to several ten order m 2 in area can be obtained as preferably surface treated at the connecting terminal hole. The current collecting board element can be determined in shape with the existing facility without increasing the size of a surface treating tank. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Coupling of transverse and longitudinal collective motions due to closed orbit distortion and dispersion in a two-particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin Yongho.

    1986-09-01

    In order to explain the large discrepancy between the measured transverse coherent tune shifts and analytical ones in a short bunch in PETRA, the effects of the closed orbit distortion y co and the dispersion η on a beam instability is studied with a two-particle model. It follows the result which supports Kohaupt's previous results; they hardly contribute to real tune shift, while the momentum dependence of the wake force can make a beam unstable, with the growth rate which is proportional to the product of y co and η. (orig.)

  3. Microfluidic device for the assembly and transport of microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Conrad D [Albuquerque, NM; Kumar, Anil [Framingham, MA; Khusid, Boris [New Providence, NJ; Acrivos, Andreas [Stanford, CA

    2010-06-29

    A microfluidic device comprising independently addressable arrays of interdigitated electrodes can be used to assembly and transport large-scale microparticle structures. The device and method uses collective phenomena in a negatively polarized suspension exposed to a high-gradient strong ac electric field to assemble the particles into predetermined locations and then transport them collectively to a work area for final assembly by sequentially energizing the electrode arrays.

  4. Diseño y evaluación de un equipo para obtener aire espirado condensado Design and evaluation of a device for collecting exhaled breath condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Florencio Araneda Valenzuela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de muestras de aire espirado condensado ha cobrado gran relevancia en los últimos años como método no invasivo de estudio de la fisiología y las enfermedades de origen pulmonar. En el presente trabajo se describe un equipo para tomar muestras de aire espirado condensado de bajo costo, fácil de fabricar, de transportar al terreno y que permite tomar muestras en forma simultánea. La concentración de metabolitos relativos a procesos inflamatorios y al daño oxidativo (pH, peróxido de hidrógeno y nitrito de muestras de aire espirado condensado obtenido con este equipo son comparables a los reportados con otros previamente.In recent years, the analysis of exhaled breath condensate samples has been given great weight as a noninvasive methodology of studying physiology and lung diseases. The present study describes a device for measuring exhaled breath condensate that is affordable, easily constructed, portable and suitable for use in the field, as well as allowing the collection of simultaneous samples. The results obtained with this device in terms of the concentrations of pH, peroxide oxide and nitrite, metabolites related to inflammatory and oxidative damage, in exhaled breath condensate samples are comparable to those obtained with other devices previously described.

  5. THE EFFECT OF THE REYNOLDS NUMBER OF AIR FLOW TO THE PARTICLE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF A FIBROUS FILTER MEDIUM WITH CYLINDRICAL SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Kouropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At this study an attempt for the theoretical approach of the Re ynolds number effect of air flow to the particle collection efficiency of a fibrous fil ter with cylindrical section will be made. Initially, a report of the air filtration models to fibrous filter media will be presented along with an explanation of both the parameters and the physical quantities which govern the air filtration process. Furthermore, the resul ting equation from the mathematical model will be applied to a real filter medium and the characteristic curves of filter efficiency will be drawn. The change of a filter medi um efficiency with regard to the Reynolds number of air flow that passes through the filt er, derived from the curves, will be studied. The general conclusion that we have is that as the Reynolds number of filtered air increases, the collection efficiency of the filter decreases.

  6. Comparison of the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 particles collected in urban environments and volcanic areas of metropolitan Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PM10 and PM2,5 were sampled simultaneously in urban and volcanic environments in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica from October to November 2012. Higher mass concentrations (42-29 μgm-3 of PM10 and PM2,5 were found at industrial and commercial areas with high traffic flow (La Uruca, Heredia and Belen compared with those found in the volcanic areas. The daily concentrations of PM10 and PM2,5 obtained in the Poas Volcano ranged from 3 -14 μgm-3 and 2-11 μgm-3, respectively. However the acidity of the collected particles in the Poas volcano was higher than those sampled in urban environments probably due to a lower occurrence rate of neutralization. The contribution of secondary ions was more important to the volcanic PM10 composition (around 40%, unlike the PM10 collected in urban areas.

  7. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  8. Particle size of sediments collected from the bed of the Amazon River and its tributaries in June and July 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Carl F.; Meade, R.H.; Mahoney, H.A.; Delany, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    Sixty-five samples of bed material were collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries between Belem, Brazil, and Iquitos, Peru. Samples were taken with a standard BM-54 sampler, a pipe dredge, or a Helley-Smith bedload sampler. Most of the samples have median diameters in the size range of fine to medium sand and contain small percentages of fine gravel. Complete size distributions are tabulated.

  9. Application of particle image velocimetry measurement techniques to study turbulence characteristics of oscillatory flows around parallel-plate structures in thermoacoustic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Xiaoan; Jaworski, Artur J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the experimental setup and measurement methodologies to study the physics of oscillatory flows in the vicinity of parallel-plate stacks by using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. Parallel-plate configurations often appear as internal structures in thermoacoustic devices and are responsible for the hydrodynamic energy transfer processes. The flow around selected stack configurations is induced by a standing acoustic wave, whose amplitude can be varied. Depending on the direction of the flow within the acoustic cycle, relative to the stack, it can be treated as an entrance flow or a wake flow. The insight into the flow behaviour, its kinematics, dynamics and scales of turbulence, is obtained using the classical Reynolds decomposition to separate the instantaneous velocity fields into ensemble-averaged mean velocity fields and fluctuations in a set of predetermined phases within an oscillation cycle. The mean velocity field and the fluctuation intensity distributions are investigated over the acoustic oscillation cycle. The velocity fluctuation is further divided into large- and small-scale fluctuations by using fast Fourier transform (FFT) spatial filtering techniques

  10. Technical note: A simple rumen collection device for calves: An adaptation of a manual rumen drenching system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, R N; Oconitrillo, M J; Sackett, A; Hill, T M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Lascano, G J

    2018-07-01

    A limited amount of research is available related to the rumen microbiota of calves, yet there has been a recent spike of interest in determining the diversity and development of calf rumen microbial populations. To study the microbial populations of a calf's rumen, a sample of the rumen fluid is needed. One way to take a rumen fluid sample from a calf is by fistulating the animal. This method requires surgery and can be very stressful on a young animal that is trying to adapt to a new environment and has a depressed immune system. Another method that can be used instead of fistulation surgery is a rumen pump. This method requires a tube to be inserted into the rumen through the calf's esophagus. Once inside the rumen, fluid can be pumped out and collected in a few minutes. This method is quick, inexpensive, and does not cause significant stress on the animal. This technical note presents the materials and methodology used to convert a drenching system into a rumen pump and its respective utilization in 2 experiments using dairy bull calves. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydride generation – in-atomizer collection of Pb in a quartz trap-and-atomizer device for atomic absorption spectrometry – an interference study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotný, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v.i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); High School in Hořice, Husova 1414, 508 01 Hořice (Czech Republic); Kratzer, Jan, E-mail: jkratzer@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v.i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2013-01-01

    Interferences of selected hydride forming elements (As, Sb, Bi, Se and Sn) on lead determination by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry were extensively studied in both on-line atomization and preconcentration (collection) modes. The commonly used on-line atomization mode was found free of significant interferences, whereas strong interference from Bi was observed when employing the preconcentration mode with plumbane collection in a quartz trap-and-atomizer device. Interference of Bi seems to take place in the preconcentration step. Interference of Bi in the collection mode cannot be reduced by increased hydrogen radical amount in the trap and/or the atomizer. - Highlights: ► Interference study on Pb determination by in-atomizer trapping was performed for the first time. ► Bi was found as a severe interferent in the preconcentration mode (Pb:Bi ratio 1:100). ► No interference was found in the on-line atomization (no preconcentration). ► Bi interference occurs during preconcentration.

  12. Pinpointing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, David J.

    1987-01-01

    The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics

  13. Pinpointing particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David J.

    1987-10-15

    The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics.

  14. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Gracia [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain); Ainia, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Bioenergía e Higiene Industrial, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Bonmatí, August [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain); Fernández, Belén, E-mail: belen.fernandez@irta.cat [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Methane production rate increased between 56% and 208% during OFMSW–SS codigestion. • The OFMSW particle size reduction from 20 to 8 mm did not affect the methane yield. • OFMSW–SS codigestion promoted β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. • The evolution of specific activity was a feasible tool to control the process. - Abstract: The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The SS–OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1 kg{sub COD} m{sup −3} d{sup −1} (1.9 kg{sub VS} m{sup −3} d{sup −1}), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20 mm to 8 mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  15. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  16. Automatic size analysis of coated fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallisch, K.; Koss, P.

    1977-01-01

    The determination of the diameter, coating thickness, and sphericity of coated fuel particles by conventional methods is very time consuming. Therefore, statistical data can only be obtained with limited accuracy. An alternative method is described that avoids these disadvantages by utilizing a fast optical data-collecting system of high accuracy. This system allows the determination of the diameter of particles in the range between 100 and 1500 μm, with an accuracy of better than +-2 μm and with a rate of 100 particles per second. The density and thickness of coating layers can be determined by comparing the data obtained before and after coating, taking into account the relative increase of weight. A special device allows the automatic determination of the sphericity of single particles as well as the distribution in a batch. This device measures 50 to 100 different diameters of each particle per second. An on-line computer stores the measured data and calculates all parameters required, e.g., number of particles measured, particle diameter, standard deviation, diameter limiting values, average particle volume, average particle surface area, and the distribution of sphericity in absolute and percent form

  17. Estimating chemical composition of atmospheric deposition fluxes from mineral insoluble particles deposition collected in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the mass flux of atmospheric insoluble deposition and to constrain regional models of dust simulation, a network of automatic deposition collectors (CARAGA has been installed throughout the western Mediterranean Basin. Weekly samples of the insoluble fraction of total atmospheric deposition were collected concurrently on filters at five sites including four on western Mediterranean islands (Frioul and Corsica, France; Mallorca, Spain; and Lampedusa, Italy and one in the southern French Alps (Le Casset, and a weighing and ignition protocol was applied in order to quantify their mineral fraction. Atmospheric deposition is both a strong source of nutrients and metals for marine ecosystems in this area. However, there are few data on trace-metal deposition in the literature, since their deposition measurement is difficult to perform. In order to obtain more information from CARAGA atmospheric deposition samples, this study aimed to test their relevance in estimating elemental fluxes in addition to total mass fluxes. The elemental chemical analysis of ashed CARAGA filter samples was based on an acid digestion and an elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES and mass spectrometry (MS in a clean room. The sampling and analytical protocols were tested to determine the elemental composition for mineral dust tracers (Al, Ca, K, Mg and Ti, nutrients (P and Fe and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V and Zn from simulated wet deposition of dust analogues and traffic soot. The relative mass loss by dissolution in wet deposition was lower than 1 % for Al and Fe, and reached 13 % for P due to its larger solubility in water. For trace metals, this loss represented less than 3 % of the total mass concentration, except for Zn, Cu and Mn for which it could reach 10 %, especially in traffic soot. The chemical contamination during analysis was negligible for all the elements except for Cd

  18. Evidence for collective expansion in light-particle emission following Au+Au collisions at 100, 150 and 250 A·MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, G.; Pasquali, G.; Bini, M.; Maurenzig, P.; Olmi, A.; Taccetti, N.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belayev, I. M.; Berger, L.; Blaich, Th.; Boussange, S.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cerruti, C.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Donà, R.; Dupieux, P.; Dželalija, M.; Erö, J.; Fan, Z. G.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R.; Frolov, S.; Gobbi, A.; Grigorian, Y.; Guillaume, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hölbling, S.; Houari, A.; Jeong, S. C.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Krämer, M.; Kuhn, C.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Legrand, I.; Lebedev, A.; Maguire, C.; Manko, V.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Mösner, J.; Moisa, D.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Morel, P.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Rami, F.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Sadchikov, A.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Smolyankin, S.; Sodan, U.; The, K.; Tezkratt, R.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A. V.; Danielewicz, P.; FOPI Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    Light-particle emission from Au+Au collisions has been studied in the bombarding-energy range 100-250 A·MeV, using ΔE- ER telescopes in coincidence with the FOPI detector in its phase I configuration. Center-of-mass energy spectra have been measured for Z = 1,2 isotopes emitted in central collisions at CM polar angles between 60° and 90°. Evidence for a collective expansion is reported, on the basis of the mean kinetic energies of hydrogen isotopes. Comparison is presented with statistical calculations (WIX code). For CM kinetic energy spectra, fair agreement is found between data and a recently developed transport model.

  19. Evidence for collective expansion in light-particle emission following Au+Au collisions at 100, 150 and 250 A.MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, G.; Pasquali, G.; Bini, M.

    1995-01-01

    Light-particle emission from Au+Au collisions has been studied in the bombarding-energy range 100-250A.MeV, using ΔE-E R telescopes in coincidence with the FOPI detector in its phase I configuration. Center-of-mass energy spectra have been measured for Z=1, 2 isotopes emitted in central collisions at CM polar angles between 60 circle and 90 circle . Evidence for a collective expansion is reported, on the basis of the mean kinetic energies of hydrogen isotopes. Comparison is presented with statistical calculations (WIX code). For CM kinetic energy spectra, fair agreement is found between data and a recently developed transport model. ((orig.))

  20. Dust collected in air filters - Possible source of volatile organic compounds and particles; Ger smutsiga luftfilter foersaemrad tilluft ? En studie av emissioner med ursprung i filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, J.H.P.; Rosell, Lars

    1998-06-01

    Emissions from dust collected in air filters have been investigated using in situ measurements. Two air filters of different classes (F6 and F8/9) have been exposed to outdoor air for a preconditioning period of six months. After this period measurements have been carried out using two operating conditions, continuous and intermittent. Air samples were taken both up- and downstream of the filters. The air samples were analysed regarding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and microbial VOCs (mVOC) and the samples of airborne dust were examined regarding the contents of colony forming units, ergosterol (marker of fungi), and endotoxin (marker of gram negative bacteria). Furthermore, a visual inspection of the airborne dust was conducted using SEM. Particles released when the fan was turned on and a short period after, were monitored using an optical particle counter, slitsamplers (fungus spores) and membrane filters for SEM analysis. After finishing the in situ measurements, the filters were placed in climate chambers for emission sampling. Finally, samples were cut out for analysis of microbial contents in the filter material, both on the dusty and `clean` side of the filters. No consistent change of VOC, aldehyde or mVOC concentrations across the filters could be measured. A significant ozone reduction was seen in one of the in situ measurements. The chamber experiments showed that the filters were a source of various VOCs, e.g. aldehydes and mVOCs. The emission of mVOCs in the chambers was significantly higher for the F8/9 filter, probably due to more and finer dust in that filter. Only a few colonization units (fungi) penetrate filters when running continuously but an increase was noted at the moment the fans were started. The same phenomenon was observed with the optical particle counter, but both the intensity and length of the increase, for colonization units and other particles, were moderate. Mycological examination of the filter

  1. Estimation of gas-particle partitioning coefficients (Kp) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous aerosols collected at Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Junji

    2013-01-01

    To assess environmental contamination with carcinogens, carbonaceous compounds, water-soluble ionic species and trace gaseous species were identified and quantified every three hours for three days at three different atmospheric layers at the heart of Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai from December 2006 to February 2007. A DRI Model 2001 Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer with the IMPROVE thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) protocol was used to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents in PM10. Diurnal and vertical variability was also carefully investigated. In general, OC and EC mass concentration showed the highest values at the monitoring period of 21.00-00.00 as consequences of human activities at night bazaar coupled with reduction of mixing layer, decreased wind speed and termination of photolysis at nighttime. Morning peaks of carbonaceous compounds were observed during the sampling period of 06:00-09:00, emphasizing the main contribution of traffic emission in the three cities. The estimation of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) raises concern of high risk of carbonaceous accumulation over workers and residents living close to the observatory sites. The average values of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) of total carbon at Baiyoke Suit Hotel and Baiyoke Sky Hotel are approximately ten times higher than those air samples collected at Prince of Songkla University Hat-Yai campus corpse incinerator and fish-can manufacturing factory but only slightly higher than those of rice straw burning in Songkla province. This indicates a high risk of developing lung cancer and other respiratory diseases across workers and residents living in high buildings located in Pratunam area. Using knowledge of carbonaceous fractions in PM10, one can estimate the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Dachs-Eisenreich model highlights the crucial role of adsorption in gas-particle

  2. Comparison of particle-wall interaction boundary conditions in the prediction of cyclone collection efficiency in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Ramirez, M.; Coury, J.R.; Goncalves, J.A.S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have appeared attempting to predict cyclone pressure drop and collection efficiency. While these studies have been able to predict pressure drop well, they have been only moderately successful in predicting collection efficiency. Part of the reason for this failure has been attributed to the relatively simple wall boundary conditions implemented in the commercially available CFD software, which are not capable of accurately describing the complex particle-wall interaction present in a cyclone. According, researches have proposed a number of different boundary conditions in order to improve the model performance. This work implemented the critical velocity boundary condition through a user defined function (UDF) in the Fluent software and compared its predictions both with experimental data and with the predictions obtained when using Fluent's built-in boundary conditions. Experimental data was obtained from eight laboratory scale cyclones with varying geometric ratios. The CFD simulations were made using the software Fluent 6.3.26. (author)

  3. Use of mobile device technology to continuously collect patient-reported symptoms during radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: A prospective feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. Falchook, MD

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: A substantial percentage of patients used mobile devices to continuously report symptoms throughout a course of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future studies should evaluate the impact of mobile device symptom reporting on improving patient outcomes.

  4. Atomic data for controlled fusion research. Volume III. Particle interactions with surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report provides a handbook of data concerning particle solid interactions that are relevant to plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. Published data have been collected, assessed, and represented by a single functional relationship which is presented in both tabular and graphical form. Mechanisms reviewed here include sputtering, secondary electron emission, particle reflection, and trapping

  5. Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath using a device for rapid collection: comparison with plasma, urine and self-reporting in 47 drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work aims to further document this application using a new and simple collection device in patients following recovery from acute intoxication. Breath, plasma and urine samples were collected from 47 patients (38 males, age range 25-74) together with interview data. Analysis of breath and plasma samples was done by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 12 analytes investigated were: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, diazepam, oxazepam, alprazolam, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In all 47 cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported, but in one case the substance (ketobemidone) was not investigated. In 40 of the remaining cases (87%) breath analysis gave a positive finding of any of the substances that were part of the analytical investigation. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. In general, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-reporting were in good agreement, but in 23% of the cases substances were detected that had not been self-reported. All substances covered were detected in a number of breath samples. Considering that breath sampling was often done about 24 h after intake, the detection rate was considered to be high for most substances. Analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines, and a further increase in analytical sensitivity is needed to overcome this. This study further supports use of exhaled breath as a new matrix in clinical toxicology.

  6. Multi-scale analysis of collective behavior in 2D self-propelled particle models of swarms: An Advection-Diffusion with Memory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghib, Michael; Levin, Simon; Kevrekidis, Ioannis

    2010-05-01

    Self-propelled particle models (SPP's) are a class of agent-based simulations that have been successfully used to explore questions related to various flavors of collective motion, including flocking, swarming, and milling. These models typically consist of particle configurations, where each particle moves with constant speed, but changes its orientation in response to local averages of the positions and orientations of its neighbors found within some interaction region. These local averages are based on `social interactions', which include avoidance of collisions, attraction, and polarization, that are designed to generate configurations that move as a single object. Errors made by the individuals in the estimates of the state of the local configuration are modeled as a random rotation of the updated orientation resulting from the social rules. More recently, SPP's have been introduced in the context of collective decision-making, where the main innovation consists of dividing the population into naïve and `informed' individuals. Whereas naïve individuals follow the classical collective motion rules, members of the informed sub-population update their orientations according to a weighted average of the social rules and a fixed `preferred' direction, shared by all the informed individuals. Collective decision-making is then understood in terms of the ability of the informed sub-population to steer the whole group along the preferred direction. Summary statistics of collective decision-making are defined in terms of the stochastic properties of the random walk followed by the centroid of the configuration as the particles move about, in particular the scaling behavior of the mean squared displacement (msd). For the region of parameters where the group remains coherent , we note that there are two characteristic time scales, first there is an anomalous transient shared by both purely naïve and informed configurations, i.e. the scaling exponent lies between 1 and

  7. Devices for separation of particle emissions from biofuel plants smaller than 10 MW - Today's technology and potential for development; Stoftreningsteknik foer biobraensleanlaeggningar mindre aen 10 MW - tekniklaege och utvecklingspotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Gustavsson, Lennart; Martinsson, Lars; Tullin, Claes; Johansson, Linda

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this report is to compile a survey of available technologies for separation of particles and to present research and development in the area of particle separation for biofuel plants smaller than 10 MW. Technical and economical opportunities to transfer the technologies used today in larger plants to smaller ones are discussed. As the health effects of aerosols are under investigation, the issue of separation of particle less than 1 {mu}m is especially scrutinised. Current research concerning the particle size distribution at different load is presented. The project has been realised partly as a literature survey, partly through contacts with scientists in the area and manufacturers of devices for flue gas cleaning and particle separation. The target group is owners of plants, manufacturers of devices and authorities with responsibility for air quality and energy planning. Fabric filters is an established technology that can perform low particle emissions (less than a few mg/m{sup 3}) at a low cost also at smaller plants. Also electrostatic precipitators can perform the same low emissions, but the cost for installation at smaller plants has to be reduced. Both these technologies can, properly designed, separate submicron particles. Cyclones can today as its best perform a little less than 100 mg/m{sup 3} at 13 % CO{sub 2}. Cyclones are used together with other technologies to achieve high separation at a low cost. Cyclones are attractive because of their simplicity and low price, but because they use inertia forces as separation mechanism, they can never separate submicron particles. Conventional scrubbers and flue gas condensers are capable of separation of submicron particles but the efficiency is lower compared with fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators. The emission level after a scrubber/flue gas condenser is about 70 - 80 mg/m{sup 3} at 13 % CO{sub 2}. New technologies for separation of particles oriented towards smaller plants and

  8. Light-Directed Particle Patterning by Evaporative Optical Marangoni Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanakkottu, Subramanyan Namboodiri; Anyfantakis, Manos; Morel, Mathieu; Rudiuk, Sergii; Baigl, Damien

    2016-01-13

    Controlled particle deposition on surfaces is crucial for both exploiting collective properties of particles and their integration into devices. Most available methods depend on intrinsic properties of either the substrate or the particles to be deposited making them difficult to apply to complex, naturally occurring or industrial formulations. Here we describe a new strategy to pattern particles from an evaporating drop, regardless of inherent particle characteristics and suspension composition. We use light to generate Marangoni surface stresses resulting in flow patterns that accumulate particles at predefined positions. Using projected images, we generate a broad variety of complex patterns, including multiple spots, lines and letters. Strikingly, this method, which we call evaporative optical Marangoni assembly (eOMA), allows us to pattern particles regardless of their size or surface properties, in model suspensions as well as in complex, real-world formulations such as commercial coffee.

  9. Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    While biomedicine and geoscience use grids to bring together many different sub-disciplines, particle physicists use grid computing to increase computing power and storage resources, and to access and analyze vast amounts of data collected from detectors at the world's most powerful accelerators (1 page)

  10. Accelerators of atomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarancev, V.

    1975-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of accelerators and methods of accelerating elementary particles. The principle of collective accelerating of elementary particles is clarified and the problems are discussed of its realization. (B.S.)

  11. Method and device for thermal control of biological and chemical reactions using magnetic particles or magnetic beads and variable magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Zilch, C.; Gerdes, W.; Bauer, J.; Holschuh, K.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the thermal control of at least one temperature-dependent enzymatic reaction in the presence of magnetic particles, particularly nanoparticles, or magnetic beads, in vitro by heating the magnetic beads or magnetic particles to at least one defined target temperature using alternating magnetic fields. The thermally controllable enzymatic reaction carried out with the method according to the invention is preferably a PCR reaction or another reaction for elo...

  12. Single-particle characterization of summertime Antarctic aerosols collected at King George Island using quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, Shila; Geng, Hong; Song, Young-Chul; Hwang, Heejin; Yoon, Young-Jun; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-08-01

    Single-particle characterization of Antarctic aerosols was performed to investigate the impact of marine biogenic sulfur species on the chemical compositions of sea-salt aerosols in the polar atmosphere. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis was used to characterize 2900 individual particles in 10 sets of aerosol samples collected between March 12 and 16, 2009 at King Sejong Station, a Korean scientific research station located at King George Island in the Antarctic. Two size modes of particles, i.e., PM(2.5-10) and PM(1.0-2.5), were analyzed, and four types of particles were identified, with sulfur-containing sea-salt particles being the most abundant, followed by genuine sea-salt particles without sulfur species, iron-containing particles, and other species including CaCO(3)/CaMg(CO(3))(2), organic carbon, and aluminosilicates. When a sulfur-containing sea-salt particle showed an atomic concentration ratio of sulfur to sodium of >0.083 (seawater ratio), it is regarded as containing nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-SO(4)(2-)) and/or methanesulfonate (CH(3)SO(3)(-)), which was supported by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging measurements. These internal mixture particles of sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) were very frequently encountered. As nitrate-containing particles were not encountered, and the air-masses for all of the samples originated from the Pacific Ocean (based on 5-day backward trajectories), the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) emitted from phytoplanktons in the ocean is most likely to be responsible for the formation of the mixed sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) particles.

  13. Individual particle analysis of aerosols collected under haze and non-haze conditions at a high-elevation mountain site in the North China plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The North China plain is a region with megacities and huge populations. Aerosols over the highly polluted area have a significant impact on the regional and global climate. In order to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosol particles in elevated layers there, observations were carried out at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m a.s.l. from 19 to 28 April, 2010, when the air masses were advected from the east (phase-I: 19–21 April, from the south (phase-II: 22–25 April, and from the northwest (phase-III: 26–28 April. Individual aerosol particles were identified with transmission electron microscopy (TEM, new particle formation (NPF and growth events were monitored by a wide-range particle spectrometer, and ion concentrations in PM2.5 were analyzed. During phase-I and phase-II, haze layers caused by anthropogenic pollution were observed, and a high percentage of particles were sulfur-rich (47–49%. In phase-III, the haze disappeared due to the intrusion of cold air from the northwest, and mineral dust particles from deserts were dominant (43%. NPF followed by particle growth during daytime was more pronounced on hazy than on clear days. Particle growth during daytime resulted in an increase of particle geometric mean diameter from 10–22 nm in the morning to 56–96 nm in the evening. TEM analysis suggests that sulfuric acid and secondary organic compounds should be important factors for particle nucleation and growth. However, the presence of fine anthropogenic particles (e.g., soot, metal, and fly ash embedded within S-rich particles indicates that they could weaken NPF and enhance particle growth through condensation and coagulation. Abundant mineral particles in phase-III likely suppressed the NPF processes because they supplied sufficient area on which acidic gases or acids condensed.

  14. Detection systems for high energy particle producing gaseous ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.; Duran, I.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a review on the most used detectors based on the collection of the ionization produced by high energy particles: proportional counters, multiwire proportional chambers, Geiger-Muller counters and drift chambers. In six sections, the fundamental principles, the field configuration and useful gas mixtures, are discussed, most relevant devices are reported along 90 pages with 98 references. (Author) 98 refs

  15. Detection systems for high energy particle producing gaseous ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez, L.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a review on the most used detectors based on the collection of the ionization produced by high energy particles: proportional counters, multiwire proportional chambers, Geiger-Mueller counters and drift chambers. In six sections, the fundamental principles, the field configuration and useful gas mixtures are discussed, most relevant devices are reported. (author)

  16. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the breath of infected cattle using a hand-held device to collect aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Brehm, Katharina E.; Skov, Julia

    2011-01-01

    electrostatic particle capture in a microchip chamber of 10–15μL and was shown to effectively capture a high percentage of airborne microorganisms. The particles were eluted subsequently from the chip chamber and subjected to real-time RT-PCR. Sampling exhaled air for as little as 1min allowed the detection...

  17. Particle acceleration by plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    2006-01-01

    In an advanced particle accelerator particles are driven near by light velocity through ionized gas. Such plasma devices are compact, cost efficient and usable in many fields. Examples are given in detail. (GL)

  18. Experimental data on study of cosmic ray particles in the E≥2 TeV energy range at the Kosmos-1713 satellite with the Sokol-2 device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, I.P.; Rapoport, I.D.; Shestoperov, V.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    Primary data of results of experiment on studying the cosmic ray particles with energy in the range exceeding 2 TeV at the Kosmos-1713 satellite using the Sokol-2 equipment are presented in the tabular form. A brief description of the equipment is given. 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Real-time measurement of aerosol particle concentration at high temperatures; Hiukkaspitoisuuden reaaliaikainen mittaaminen korkeassa laempoetilassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, J; Hautanen, J; Laitinen, A [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Physics

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a new method for continuous aerosol particle concentration measurement at elevated temperatures (up to 800-1000 deg C). The measured property of the aerosol particles is the so called Fuchs surface area. This quantity is relevant for diffusion limited mass transfer to particles. The principle of the method is as follows. First, aerosol particles are charged electrically by diffusion charging process. The charging takes place at high temperature. After the charging, aerosol is diluted and cooled. Finally, aerosol particles are collected and the total charge carried by the aerosol particles is measured. Particle collection and charge measurement take place at low temperature. Benefits of this measurement method are: particles are charged in-situ, charge of the particles is not affected by the temperature and pressure changes after sampling, particle collection and charge measurement are carried out outside the process conditions, and the measured quantity is well defined. The results of this study can be used when the formation of the fly ash particles is studied. Another field of applications is the study and the development of gasification processes. Possibly, the method can also be used for the monitoring the operation of the high temperature particle collection devices. (orig.)

  20. Microchip Coulter particle counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik Darling; Blankenstein, Gert; Branebjerg, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a micro device employing the Coulter principle for counting and sizing of living cells and particles in liquid suspension. The microchip Coulter particle counter (μCPC) has been employed in a planar silicon structure covered with glass, which enables detailed observation during...

  1. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  2. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  3. Large scale collective modeling the final 'freeze out' stages of energetic heavy ion reactions and calculation of single particle measurables from these models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyiri, Agnes

    2005-01-01

    -relativistic heavy ion reactions is an important hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. The flow analysis involves the particles, which have already been frozen out. Therefore, to perform realistic flow computations from the Multi Module Model we need a complete freeze out description and a well identified freeze out surface. However, the freeze out module is still not ready. Although we have not yet been able to evaluate collective flow using the Multi Module Model, the method and code for the calculation of flow components has been worked out in an independent module. This module is completed and can be coupled to the previous modules when those are ready for use. In order to test the code, we have calculated directed and elliptic flow from a tilted, ellipsoidally expanding source using a simple, blast wave type of model. This model was developed directly for this aim based on Buda-Lund hydro models. Although, this oversimplified blast wave model is not suitable to reproduce the experimental data -which will be an important task in the future to check our Multi Module Model-, it has provided us with important information. We have found that the directed flow, is very sensitive to the correct identification of the reaction plane included the determination of the impact parameter vector, and can be misinterpreted by some experimental methods. We have shown that misidentification of the reaction plane may even set the directed flow to zero by construction. We have presented results of the rapidity dependence of the directed flow, v1, and elliptic flow, v2, furthermore, the transverse momentum dependence of v2. We have also investigated the dependence of the flow pattern on the initial geometry of the fireball by calculating flow components from two ellipsoidal sources with the same thermodynamical properties but different shape. The code determining the freeze out hypersurface should still be improved in order to avoid inaccuracies in the further

  4. Large scale collective modeling the final 'freeze out' stages of energetic heavy ion reactions and calculation of single particle measurables from these models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyiri, Agnes

    2005-07-01

    -relativistic heavy ion reactions is an important hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. The flow analysis involves the particles, which have already been frozen out. Therefore, to perform realistic flow computations from the Multi Module Model we need a complete freeze out description and a well identified freeze out surface. However, the freeze out module is still not ready. Although we have not yet been able to evaluate collective flow using the Multi Module Model, the method and code for the calculation of flow components has been worked out in an independent module. This module is completed and can be coupled to the previous modules when those are ready for use. In order to test the code, we have calculated directed and elliptic flow from a tilted, ellipsoidally expanding source using a simple, blast wave type of model. This model was developed directly for this aim based on Buda-Lund hydro models. Although, this oversimplified blast wave model is not suitable to reproduce the experimental data--which will be an important task in the future to check our Multi Module Model--it has provided us with important information. We have found that the directed flow, is very sensitive to the correct identification of the reaction plane included the determination of the impact parameter vector, and can be misinterpreted by some experimental methods. We have shown that misidentification of the reaction plane may even set the directed flow to zero by construction. We have presented results of the rapidity dependence of the directed flow, v1, and elliptic flow, v2, furthermore, the transverse momentum dependence of v2. We have also investigated the dependence of the flow pattern on the initial geometry of the fireball by calculating flow components from two ellipsoidal sources with the same thermodynamical properties but different shape. The code determining the freeze out hypersurface should still be improved in order to avoid inaccuracies in the further

  5. Large scale collective modeling the final 'freeze out' stages of energetic heavy ion reactions and calculation of single particle measurables from these models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyiri, Agnes

    2005-07-01

    -relativistic heavy ion reactions is an important hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. The flow analysis involves the particles, which have already been frozen out. Therefore, to perform realistic flow computations from the Multi Module Model we need a complete freeze out description and a well identified freeze out surface. However, the freeze out module is still not ready. Although we have not yet been able to evaluate collective flow using the Multi Module Model, the method and code for the calculation of flow components has been worked out in an independent module. This module is completed and can be coupled to the previous modules when those are ready for use. In order to test the code, we have calculated directed and elliptic flow from a tilted, ellipsoidally expanding source using a simple, blast wave type of model. This model was developed directly for this aim based on Buda-Lund hydro models. Although, this oversimplified blast wave model is not suitable to reproduce the experimental data--which will be an important task in the future to check our Multi Module Model--it has provided us with important information. We have found that the directed flow, is very sensitive to the correct identification of the reaction plane included the determination of the impact parameter vector, and can be misinterpreted by some experimental methods. We have shown that misidentification of the reaction plane may even set the directed flow to zero by construction. We have presented results of the rapidity dependence of the directed flow, v1, and elliptic flow, v2, furthermore, the transverse momentum dependence of v2. We have also investigated the dependence of the flow pattern on the initial geometry of the fireball by calculating flow components from two ellipsoidal sources with the same thermodynamical properties but different shape. The code determining the freeze out hypersurface should still be improved in order to avoid inaccuracies in the further

  6. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaguma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.

    1996-01-01

    In a processing device for filtering laundry liquid wastes and shower drains incorporated with radioactive materials, a fiber filtration device is disposed and an activated carbon filtration device is also disposed subsequent to the fiber filtration device. In addition, a centrifugal dewatering device is disposed for dewatering spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device, and a minute filtering device is disposed for filtering the separated dewatering liquid. Filtrates filtered by the minute filtration device are recovered in a collecting tank. Namely, at first, suspended solid materials in laundry liquid wastes and shower drains are captured, and then, ingredients concerning COD are adsorbed in the activated carbon filtration device. The radioactive liquid wastes of spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device are reduced by dewatering them by the centrifugal dewatering device, and then the granular activated carbon is subjected to an additional processing. Further, it is separated by filtration using the minute filtration device and removed as cakes. Since the filtrates are recovered to the collecting tank and filtered again, the water quality of the drains is not degraded. (N.H.)

  7. Laser Nanosoldering of Golden and Magnetite Particles and its Possible Application in 3D Printing Devices and Four-Valued Non-Volatile Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski Jacek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the 3D printing methods have been developing rapidly. This article presents researches about a new composite consisted of golden and magnetite nanoparticles which could be used for this technique. Preparation of golden nanoparticles by laser ablation and their soldering by laser green light irradiation proceeded in water environment. Magnetite was obtained on chemical way. During experiments it was tested a change of a size of nanoparticles during laser irradiation, surface plasmon resonance, zeta potential. The obtained golden - magnetite composite material was magnetic after laser irradiation. On the end there was considered the application it for 3D printing devices, water filters and four-valued non-volatile memories.

  8. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  9. Dielectrokinetic chromatography devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirica, Gabriela S; Fiechtner, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K

    2014-12-16

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for dielectrokinetic chromatography. As disclosed, the devices comprise microchannels having at least one perturber which produces a non-uniformity in a field spanning the width of the microchannel. The interaction of the field non-uniformity with a perturber produces a secondary flow which competes with a primary flow. By decreasing the size of the perturber the secondary flow becomes significant for particles/analytes in the nanometer-size range. Depending on the nature of a particle/analyte present in the fluid and its interaction with the primary flow and the secondary flow, the analyte may be retained or redirected. The composition of the primary flow can be varied to affect the magnitude of primary and/or secondary flows on the particles/analytes and thereby separate and concentrate it from other particles/analytes.

  10. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  11. A nuclear micro battery for Mems devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, J.; Lal, A.; Henderson, D.; Bilbao Y Leon, R.; Guo, H.; Li, H.; Santanam, S.; Yao, R.

    2001-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS) have not gained wide use because they lack the on-device power required by many important applications. Several forms of energy could be considered to supply this needed power (solar, fossil fuels, etc), but nuclear sources provide an intriguing option in terms of power density and lifetime. This paper describes several approaches for establishing the viability of nuclear sources for powering realistic MEMS devices. Isotopes currently being used include low-energy beta emitters (solid and liquid) and alpha emitters (solid). Several approaches are being explored for the production of MEMS power sources. The first concept is a junction-type battery. In this case, the charged particles emitted from the decay of the radioisotopes are absorbed by a semiconductor and dissipate most of their energy as ionization of the atoms in the solid. The carriers generated in this fashion are in excess of the number permitted by thermodynamic equilibrium and, if they diffuse to the vicinity of a rectifying junction, induce a voltage across the junction. The second concept involves a more direct use of the charged particles produced by the decay: the creation of a resonator by inducing movement due to attraction or repulsion resulting from the collection of charged particles. As the charge is collected, the deflection of a cantilever beam increases until it contacts a grounded element, thus discharging the beam and causing it to return to its original position. This process will repeat as long as the source is active. One final concept relies on temperature gradients produced by the sources, along with appropriate insulation, to create power using a Peltier device. The source is isolated in order to allow it to reach sufficient temperatures, and the temperature difference between the source and the rest of the device is exploited using the Peltier effect. Performance results will be provided for each of these concepts. (author)

  12. Vaginal tampons as specimen collection device for the molecular diagnosis of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections in antenatal clinic attendees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, P.D.J.; Connolly, C.E.; Khan, N.; Ebrahim, S.; Sturm, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    Self-inserted vaginal tampons for the molecular diagnosis of non-ulcerative STIs were evaluated. Cervical and vaginal swabs, tampons and urines were collected from 185 first-time antenatal clinic attendees. Cultures and nucleic acid amplification assays (NAA) were performed. The sensitivity of PCR

  13. Partial Device Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, M.; Hernandez Ganan, C.; van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    In computing, remote devices may be identified by means of device fingerprinting, which works by collecting a myriad of clientside attributes such as the device’s browser and operating system version, installed plugins, screen resolution, hardware artifacts, Wi-Fi settings, and anything else

  14. Impact of Flow Rate, Collection Devices, and Extraction Methods on Tear Concentrations Following Oral Administration of Doxycycline in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbag, Lionel; Showman, Lucas; McDowell, Emily M; Perera, Ann; Mochel, Jonathan P

    2018-04-30

    Compare the precision of doxycycline quantification in tear fluid collected with either Schirmer strips or polyvinyl acetal (PVA) sponges following oral drug administration. Three dogs and 3 cats were administered doxycycline orally at a dose of 4.2-5 mg/kg every 12 h for 6 consecutive days. At day 5 and 6, blood and tear fluid were sampled to capture doxycycline trough and maximal concentrations. Tear fluid was collected 3 times (spaced 10 min apart) at each session with the absorbent material placed in the lower conjunctival fornix until the 20-mm mark was reached (Schirmer strip, one eye) or for 1 min (PVA sponge, other eye). Tear extraction was performed with either centrifugation or elution in methanol. Doxycycline concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Low (100 ng/mL) and high (1,000 ng/mL) tear concentrations measured in vivo were spiked into each absorbent material in vitro to evaluate percentage drug recovery. After oral administration of doxycycline, the drug reached the tear compartment at concentrations of 45.1-900.7 ng/mL in cats and 45.4-632.0 ng/mL in dogs, representing a tear-to-serum ratio of 12% and 16%, respectively. Doxycycline tear concentrations were significantly more precise when tear collection was performed with Schirmer strips rather than PVA sponges (P = 0.007), but were not correlated with tear flow rate. In vitro doxycycline recovery was poor to moderate (<75%). Schirmer strips represent a good option for lacrimal doxycycline quantification, although the collection and subsequent extraction have to be optimized to improve drug recovery.

  15. Methods for forming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  16. Collective processes in a tokamak with high-energy particles: general problems of the linear theory of Alfven instabilities of a tokamak with high-energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Some general problems of the theory of Alfven instabilities of a tokamak with high-energy ions are considered. It is assumed that such ions are due to either ionization of fast neutral atoms, injected into the tokamak, or production of them under thermo-nuclear conditions. Small-oscillation equations are derived for the Alfven-type waves, which allow for both destabilizing effects, associated with the high-energy particles, and stabilizing ones, such as effects of shear and bulk-plasm dissipation. A high-energy ion contribution is calculated into the growth rate of the Alfven waves. The author considers the role of trapped-electron collisional dissipation

  17. Intra-event correlations and the statistical moments of the identified particle multiplicity distributions in the RHIC beam energy scan data collected by STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llope, W. J.; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Specific products of the statistical moments of the multiplicity distributions of identified particles can be directly compared to susceptibility ratios obtained from lattice QCD calculations. They may also diverge for nuclear systems formed close to a possible QCD critical point due to the phenomenon of critical opalescence. Of particular interest are the moments products for net-protons, net-kaons, and net-charge, as these are considered proxies for conserved quantum numbers. The moments products have been measured by the STAR experiment for Au+Au collisions at seven beam energies ranging from 7.7 to 200 GeV. In this presentation, the experimental results are compared to data-based calculations in which the intra-event correlations of the numbers of positive and negative particles are broken by construction. The importance of intra-event correlations to the moments products values for net-protons, net-kaons, and net-charge can thus be evaluated. Work supported by the U.S. Dept of Energy under grant DE-PS02-09ER09.

  18. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of fungi in the genus Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Binbin; Ross, Shane D.; Prussin, Aaron J.; Schmale, David G.

    2014-09-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. We hypothesized that (1) atmospheric concentrations of Fusarium spores in an agricultural ecosystem vary with height and season and (2) transport distances from potential inoculum source(s) vary with season. To test these hypotheses, spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season, and produced mean transport distances of 1.4 km for the spring, 1.7 km for the summer, 1.2 km for the fall, and 4.1 km for the winter. Environmental signatures that predict atmospheric loads of Fusarium could inform disease spread, air pollution, and climate change.

  19. Device convolution effects on the collective scattering signal of the E × B mode from Hall thruster experiments: 2D dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalier, J.; Lemoine, N.; Bonhomme, G.; Tsikata, S.; Honoré, C.; Grésillon, D.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the collective light scattering diagnostic transfer function is considered in the context of the dispersion relation of the unstable E×B mode previously reported. This transfer function is found to have a contribution to the measured frequencies and mode amplitudes which is more or less significant depending on the measurement wavenumbers and angles. After deconvolution, the experimental data are found to be possibly compatible with the idea that the mode frequency in the jet frame (after subtraction of the Doppler effect due to the plasma motion along the thruster axis) is independent of the orientation of the wave vector in the plane orthogonal to the local magnetic field.

  20. The ''ATOS'' experimental device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Dorovskij, A.P.; Dubrovin, M.M.; Khlopkin, A.N.

    1980-08-01

    This paper contains a brief description of the ATOS experimental device at the I.V. Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, USSR, which has been designed in accordance with the merged beam principle to investigate collisions between heavy atomic particles and multiply-charged ions of impurity elements - following the programme of the Joint IFRC/INDC Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion

  1. Ionization particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L.

    1982-01-01

    A new device is claimed for detecting particles in a gas. The invention comprises a low cost, easy to assemble, and highly accurate particle detector using a single ionization chamber to contain a reference region and a sensing region. The chamber is designed with the radioactive source near one electrode and the second electrode located at a distance less than the distance of maximum ionization from the radioactive source

  2. Tracking and imaging elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuker, H.; Drevermann, H.; Grab, C.; Rademakers, A.A.; Stone, H.

    1991-01-01

    The Large Electron-Positron (LEP) Collider is one of the most powerful particle accelerators ever built. It smashes electrons into their antimatter counterparts, positrons, releasing as much as 100 billion electron volts of energy within each of four enormous detectors. Each burst of energy generates a spray of hundreds of elementary particles that are monitored by hundreds of thousands of sensors. In less than a second, an electronic system must sort through the data from some 50,000 electron-positron encounters, searching for just one or two head-on collisions that might lead to discoveries about the fundamental forces and the elementary particles of nature. When the electronic systems identify such a promising event, a picture of the data must be transmitted to the most ingenious image processor ever created. The device is the human brain. Computers cannot match the brain's capacity to recognize complicated patterns in the data collected by the LEP detectors. The work of understanding subnuclear events begins therefore through the visualization of objects that are trillions of times smaller than the eye can see and that move millions of times faster than the eye can follow. During the past decade, the authors and their colleagues at the European laboratory for particle physics (CERN) have attempted to design the perfect interface between the minds of physicists and the barrage of electronic signals from the LEP detectors. Using sophisticated computers, they translate raw data - 500,000 numbers from each event - into clear, meaningful images. With shapes, curves and colors, they represent the trajectories of particles, their type, their energy and many other properties

  3. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  4. Design of a Thermal Precipitator for the Characterization of Smoke Particles from Common Spacecraft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    A thermal precipitator (TP) was designed to collect smoke aerosol particles for microscopic analysis in fire characterization research. Information on particle morphology, size and agglomerate structure obtained from these tests supplements additional aerosol data collected. Modeling of the thermal precipitator throughout the design process was performed with the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element software package, including the Eulerian flow field and thermal gradients in the fluid. The COMSOL Particle Tracing Module was subsequently used to determine particle deposition. Modeling provided optimized design parameters such as geometry, flow rate and temperatures. The thermal precipitator was built and testing verified the performance of the first iteration of the device. The thermal precipitator was successfully operated and provided quality particle samples for microscopic analysis, which furthered the body of knowledge on smoke particulates. This information is a key element of smoke characterization and will be useful for future spacecraft fire detection research.

  5. Automatic particle-size analysis of HTGR nuclear fuel microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic particle-size analyzer (PSA) has been developed at ORNL for measuring and counting samples of nuclear fuel microspheres in the diameter range of 300 to 1000 μm at rates in excess of 2000 particles per minute, requiring no sample preparation. A light blockage technique is used in conjunction with a particle singularizer. Each particle in the sample is sized, and the information is accumulated by a multi-channel pulse height analyzer. The data are then transferred automatically to a computer for calculation of mean diameter, standard deviation, kurtosis, and skewness of the distribution. Entering the sample weight and pre-coating data permits calculation of particle density and the mean coating thickness and density. Following this nondestructive analysis, the sample is collected and returned to the process line or used for further analysis. The device has potential as an on-line quality control device in processes dealing with spherical or near-spherical particles where rapid analysis is required for process control

  6. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  7. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  8. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  9. Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

    2013-05-21

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  10. Particle kickers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    These devices are designed to provide a current pulse of 5000 Amps which will in turn generate a fast magnetic pulse that steers the incoming beam into the LHC. Today, the comprehensive upgrade of the LHC injection kicker system is entering its final stages. The upgraded system will ensure the LHC can be refilled without needing to wait for the kicker magnets to cool, thus enhancing the performance of the whole accelerator.   An upgraded kicker magnet in its vacuum tank, with an upgraded beam screen. The LHC is equipped with two kicker systems installed at the injection points (near points 2 and 8, see schematic diagram) where the particle beams coming from the SPS are injected into the accelerator’s orbit. Each system comprises four magnets and four pulse generators in which the field rises to 0.12 Tesla in less than 900 nanoseconds and for a duration of approximately 8 microseconds. Although the injection kickers only pulse 12 times to fill the LHC up with beam, the LHC beam circ...

  11. Evaluating Attenuation of Vibration Response using Particle Impact Damping for a Range of Equipment Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Brent; Parsons, David; Smith, Andrew; Hunt, Ron; LaVerde, Bruce; Towner, Robert; Craigmyle, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Particle dampers provide a mechanism for diverting energy away from resonant structural vibrations. This experimental study provides data from a series of acoustically excited tests to determine the effectiveness of these dampers for equipment mounted to a curved orthogrid panel for a launch vehicle application. Vibration attenuation trends are examined for variations in particle damper fill level, component mass, and excitation energy. A significant response reduction at the component level was achieved, suggesting that comparatively small, strategically placed, particle damper devices might be advantageously used in launch vehicle design. These test results were compared to baseline acoustic response tests without particle damping devices, over a range of isolation and damping parameters. Instrumentation consisting of accelerometers, microphones, and still photography data will be collected to correlate with the analytical results.

  12. Rare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to search for hypothetical particles and known particles of rare processes is discussed. The hypothetical particles considered include fractionally charged particles, anomalously heavy isotopes, and superheavy elements. The known particles produced in rare processes discussed include doubly-charged negative ions, counting neutrino-produced atoms in detectors for solar neutrino detection, and the spontaneous emission of 14 C from 223 Ra. 35 references

  13. Continuous air monitor for alpha-emitting aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, A.R.; Ortiz, C.A.; Rodgers, J.C.; Nelson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) sampler is being developed for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. The effort involves design, fabrication and evaluation of systems for the collection of aerosol and for the processing of data to speciate and quantify the alpha emitters of the interest. At the present time the authors have a prototype of the aerosol sampling system and they have performed wind tunnel tests to characterize the performance of the device for different particle sizes, wind speeds, flow rates and internal design parameters. The results presented herein deal with the aerosol sampling aspects of the new CAM sampler. Wind tunnel tests show that ≥ 50% of 10 μm aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED) particles penetrate the flow system from the ambient air to the collection filter when the flow rate is 57 L/min (2 cfm) and the wind speed is 1 m/s. The coefficient of variation of deposits of 10 μm AED aerosol particles on the collection filter is 7%. An inlet fractionator for removing high mobility background aerosol particles has been designed and successfully tested. The results show that it is possible to strip 95% of freshly formed radon daughters and 33% of partially aged radon daughters from the aerosol sample. This approach offers the opportunity to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the alpha energy spectrum region of interest thereby enhancing the performance of background compensation algorithms

  14. Detection systems for high energy particle producing gaseous ionization; Sistemas de deteccion de particulas de alta energia mediante ionizacion gaseosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L; Duran, I

    1985-07-01

    This report contains a review on the most used detectors based on the collection of the ionization produced by high energy particles: proportional counters, multiwire proportional chambers, Geiger-Muller counters and drift chambers. In six sections, the fundamental principles, the field configuration and useful gas mixtures, are discussed, most relevant devices are reported along 90 pages with 98 references. (Author) 98 refs.

  15. Optical Near-field Interactions and Forces for Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, John Michael

    Throughout history, as a particle view of the universe began to take shape, scientists began to realize that these particles were attracted to each other and hence came up with theories, both analytical and empirical in nature, to explain their interaction. The interaction pair potential (empirical) and electromagnetics (analytical) theories, both help to explain not only the interaction between the basic constituents of matter, such as atoms and molecules, but also between macroscopic objects, such as two surfaces in close proximity. The electrostatic force, optical force, and Casimir force can be categorized as such forces. A surface plasmon (SP) is a collective motion of electrons generated by light at the interface between two mediums of opposite signs of dielectric susceptibility (e.g. metal and dielectric). Recently, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been exploited in many areas through the use of tiny antennas that work on similar principles as radio frequency (RF) antennas in optoelectronic devices. These antennas can produce a very high gradient in the electric field thereby leading to an optical force, similar in concept to the surface forces discussed above. The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was introduced in the 1980s at IBM. Here we report on its uses in measuring these aforementioned forces and fields, as well as actively modulating and manipulating multiple optoelectronic devices. We have shown that it is possible to change the far field radiation pattern of an optical antenna-integrated device through modification of the near-field of the device. This modification is possible through change of the local refractive index or reflectivity of the "hot spot" of the device, either mechanically or optically. Finally, we have shown how a mechanically active device can be used to detect light with high gain and low noise at room temperature. It is the aim of several of these integrated and future devices to be used for applications in molecular sensing

  16. Memristor: the illusive device

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-05-03

    The memristor (M) is considered to be the fourth two-terminal passive element in electronics, alongside the resistor (R), the capacitor (C), and the inductor (L). Its existence was postulated in 1971 but its first implementation was reported in 2008. Where was it hiding all that time and what can we do with it? Come and learn how the memristor completes the roster of electronic devices much like a missing particle that physicists seek to complete their tableaus.

  17. Memristor: the illusive device

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    The memristor (M) is considered to be the fourth two-terminal passive element in electronics, alongside the resistor (R), the capacitor (C), and the inductor (L). Its existence was postulated in 1971 but its first implementation was reported in 2008. Where was it hiding all that time and what can we do with it? Come and learn how the memristor completes the roster of electronic devices much like a missing particle that physicists seek to complete their tableaus.

  18. Rf superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, W.H.; Passow, C.

    1975-01-01

    Topics discussed include (1) the theory of superconductors in high-frequency fields (London surface impedance, anomalous normal surface resistance, pippard nonlocal theory, quantum mechanical model, superconductor parameters, quantum mechanical calculation techniques for the surface, impedance, and experimental verification of surface impedance theories); (2) residual resistance (separation of losses, magnetic field effects, surface resistance of imperfect and impure conductors, residual loss due to acoustic coupling, losses from nonideal surfaces, high magnetic field losses, field emission, and nonlinear effects); (3) design and performance of superconducting devices (design considerations, materials and fabrication techniques, measurement of performance, and frequency stability); (4) devices for particle acceleration and deflection (advantages and problems of using superconductors, accelerators for fast particles, accelerators for particles with slow velocities, beam optical devices separators, and applications and projects under way); (5) applications of low-power superconducting resonators (superconducting filters and tuners, oscillators and detectors, mixers and amplifiers, antennas and output tanks, superconducting resonators for materials research, and radiation detection with loaded superconducting resonators); and (6) transmission and delay lines

  19. Sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  20. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  1. Gauging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurnell, F.D.; Patterson, C.B.

    1979-01-01

    A gauge supporting device for measuring say a square tube comprises a pair of rods or guides in tension between a pair of end members, the end members being spaced apart by a compression member or members. The tensioned guides provide planes of reference for measuring devices moved therealong on a carriage. The device is especially useful for making on site dimensional measurements of components, such as irradiated and therefore radioactive components, that cannot readily be transported to an inspection laboratory. (UK)

  2. System of data collection of muon super-telescope and neutron monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepach, E.; Yanke, V.; Kryakunova, O.; Sarlanis, K.; Souvatsoglou, Zh.; Mavromichalaki, E.

    2005-01-01

    The system of collection of information, integrated with system of selection on concurrences which is easily modified and for collection of the neutron data for the multi directed telescopes and godoscopes is offered. The system of data collection completely is solved at program level on the basis of the super fast processor. Coincidences and decoding of directions of arrival of particles are executed at a program level, and also counters of impulses for necessary number of channels are organized. The system of data collection is executed as the universal external device. Depending on the loaded managing program, this device can be used as: 1) system of telescope data collection, combined with system of selection of double coincidences; or 2) 32-channel system of data collection, for example the neutron monitor; or 3) as the register of the multiple neutrons, generated in the neutron monitor. (author)

  3. Single particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, P.J.; Jensen, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the opening of the 3-quasiparticle continuum at 3Δ sets the energy scale for the enhancement of the effective mass near the Fermi surface of nuclei. The authors argue that the spreading width of single-particle states due to coupling with low-lying collective modes is qualitatively different from the two-body collision mechanism, and contributes little to the single-particle lifetime in the sense of the optical model. (orig.)

  4. Particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    2000-01-01

    In this article G.Charpak presents the principles on which particle detection is based. Particle accelerators are becoming more and more powerful and require new detectors able to track the right particle in a huge flux of particles. The gigantic size of detectors in high energy physics is often due to the necessity of getting a long enough trajectory in a magnetic field in order to deduce from the curvature an accurate account of impulses in the reaction. (A.C.)

  5. Firework displays as sources of particles similar to gunshot residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, Matthew; Butler, Mark; Hanson, Robert; Mohameden, Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    In light of past research being targeted to find specific particles which may be similar to gunshot residue (GSR), this project was formulated to detect any possible particulate by random particle fallout onto substrates at firework displays and to assess the impact this may have on GSR evidence. Firework residue was collected at a display site, from amongst spectators as well as from the author's hair 90min after the display. SEM-EDX analysis has detected such particulate in all three scenarios, with the firework particle population at large providing a solid ground for discrimination from GSR. Wind dispersal was found to decrease the particle population and subsequently, the latter's discriminatory power. Some particles, if treated individually were found to be indistinguishable from GSR. Findings also include residues which may mimic strontium based GSR as well as GSR which may be mixed with that from previous firings. The continuous changes made to primer and propellant compositions by manufacturers also call for greater consideration when classifying particles as originating from pyrotechnic devices. Furthermore, authorities such as police forces should be made more aware about the incidence of such particle transfer in firework related periods. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CMOS-based avalanche photodiodes for direct particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapels, Christopher J.; Squillante, Michael R.; Lawrence, William G.; Augustine, Frank L.; Christian, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology are augmenting Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) as imaging devices and cameras in some demanding optical imaging applications. Radiation Monitoring Devices are investigating the APS concept for nuclear detection applications and has successfully migrated avalanche photodiode (APD) pixel fabrication to a CMOS environment, creating pixel detectors that can be operated with internal gain as proportional detectors. Amplification of the signal within the diode allows identification of events previously hidden within the readout noise of the electronics. Such devices can be used to read out a scintillation crystal, as in SPECT or PET, and as direct-conversion particle detectors. The charge produced by an ionizing particle in the epitaxial layer is collected by an electric field within the diode in each pixel. The monolithic integration of the readout circuitry with the pixel sensors represents an improved design compared to the current hybrid-detector technology that requires wire or bump bonding. In this work, we investigate designs for CMOS APD detector elements and compare these to typical values for large area devices. We characterize the achievable detector gain and the gain uniformity over the active area. The excess noise in two different pixel structures is compared. The CMOS APD performance is demonstrated by measuring the energy spectra of X-rays from 55 Fe

  7. Strange particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinowsky, W.

    1989-01-01

    Work done in the mid 1950s at Brookhaven National Laboratory on strange particles is described. Experiments were done on the Cosmotron. The author describes his own and others' work on neutral kaons, lambda and theta particles and points out the theoretical gap between predictions and experimental findings. By the end of the decade, the theory of strange particles was better understood. (UK)

  8. Compact and portable system for evaluation of individual exposure at aerosol particle in urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zaiacomo, T.

    1995-01-01

    A compact and portable system for real-time acquisition of aerosol concentration data in urban and extra-urban area is presented. It is based on two optical type aerosol monitors integrated by aerosol particle separating and collecting devices, assembled into a carrying case together with temperature and relative humidity sensors and a programmable analog data logger; data output is addressed to a dedicated printer or personal computer. Further data about particle size, morphological aspect and particle mass concentration are obtainable by weighing supports used to concurrently collect aerosol particles and/or by means of microanalytical techniques. System performances are evaluated from the point of view of portability, possibility of use as stationary sampler for long-term monitoring purposes and coherence between optical response and ponderal mass. Some tests are finally carried out, to investigate the effect of relative humidity on the optical response of this type of instruments

  9. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  10. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srednicki, M.

    1990-01-01

    At least eighty percent of the mass of the universe consists of some material which, unlike ordinary matter, neither emits nor absorbs light. This book collects key papers related to the discovery of this astonishing fact and its profound implications for astrophysics, cosmology, and the physics of elementary particles. The book focusses on the likely possibility that the dark matter is composed of an as yet undiscovered elementary particle, and examines the boundaries of our present knowledge of the properties such a particle must possess. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  11. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  12. BRAKE DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T.J.

    1959-03-10

    A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

  13. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  14. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  15. A nuclear micro battery for Mems devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, A.; Bilbao Y Leon, R.M.; Guo, H.; Li, H.; Santanam, S.; Yao, R.; Blanchard, J.; Henderson, D.

    2001-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS) have not gained wide use because they lack the on-device power required by many important applications. Several forms of energy could be considered to supply this needed power (solar, fossil fuels, etc), but nuclear sources provide an intriguing option in terms of power density and lifetime. This paper describes several approaches for establishing the viability of nuclear sources for powering realistic MEMS devices. Isotopes currently being used include alpha and low-energy beta emitters. The sources are in both solid and liquid form, and a technique for plating a solid source from a liquid source has been investigated. Several approaches are being explored for the production of MEMS power sources. The first concept is a junction-type battery. The second concept involves a more direct use of the charged particles produced by the decay: the creation of a resonator by inducing movement due to attraction or repulsion resulting from the collection of charged particles. Performance results are provided for each of these concepts. (authors)

  16. Dielectrokinetic chromatography and devices thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirica, Gabriela S; Fiechtner, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for dielectrokinetic chromatography. As disclosed, the devices comprise microchannels having at least one perturber which produces a non-uniformity in a field spanning the width of the microchannel. The interaction of the field non-uniformity with a perturber produces a secondary flow which competes with a primary flow. By decreasing the size of the perturber the secondary flow becomes significant for particles/analytes in the nanometer-size range. Depending on the nature of a particle/analyte present in the fluid and its interaction with the primary flow and the secondary flow, the analyte may be retained or redirected. The composition of the primary flow can be varied to affect the magnitude of primary and/or secondary flows on the particles/analytes and thereby separate and concentrate it from other particles/analytes.

  17. Structure and application of galvanomagnetic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, H

    1969-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Semiconductors, Volume 8: Structure and Application of Galvanomagnetic Devices focuses on the composition, reactions, transformations, and applications of galvanomagnetic devices. The book first ponders on basic physical concepts, design and fabrication of galvanomagnetic devices, and properties of galvanomagnetic devices. Discussions focus on changes in electrical properties on irradiation with high-energy particles, magnetoresistor field-plate, Hall generator, preparation of semiconductor films by vacuum deposition, structure of field-plate magnetoresist

  18. The effects of cosmic radiation on implantable medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    1996-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits, with the benefits of low power consumption, represent the state of the art technology for implantable medical devices. Three significant sources of radiation are classified as having the ability to damage or alter the behavior of implantable electronics; Secondary neutron cosmic radiation, alpha particle radiation from the device packaging and therapeutic doses(up to 70 Gγ) of high energy radiation used in radiation oncology. The effects of alpha particle radiation from the packaging may be eliminated by the use of polyimide or silicone rubber die coatings. The relatively low incidence of therapeutic radiation incident on an implantable device and the use of die coating leaves cosmic radiation induced secondary neutron single event upset (SEU) as the main pervasive ionising radiation threat to the reliability of implantable devices. A theoretical model which predicts the susceptibility of a RAM cell to secondary neutron cosmic radiation induced SEU is presented. The model correlates well within the statistical uncertainty associated with both the theoretical and field estimate. The predicted Soft Error Rate (SER) is 4.8 x l0 -12 upsets/(bit hr) compared to an observed upset rate of 8.5 x 10 -12 upsets/(bit hr) from 20 upsets collected over a total of 284672 device days. The predicted upset rate may increase by up to 20% when consideration is given to patients flying in aircraft The upset rate is also consistent with the expected geographical variations of the secondary cosmic ray neutron flux, although insufficient upsets precluded a statistically significant test. This is the first clinical data set obtained indicating the effects of cosmic radiation on implantable devices. Importantly, it may be used to predict the susceptibility of future to the implantable device designs to the effects of cosmic radiation

  19. The influence of design and fuel parameters on the particle emissions from wood pellets combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiinikka, Henrik; Gebart, Rikard [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Combustion of solid biomass under fixed bed conditions is a common technique to generate heat and power in both small and large scale grate furnaces (domestic boilers, stoves, district heating plants). Unfortunately, combustion of biomass will generate particle emissions containing both large fly ash particles and fine particles that consist of fly ash and soot. The large fly ash particles have been produced from fusion of non-volatile ash-forming species in burning char particle. The inorganic fine particles have been produced from nucleation of volatilised ash elements (K, Na, S, Cl and Zn). If the combustion is incomplete, soot particles are also produced from secondary reaction of tar. The particles in the fine fraction grows by coagulation and coalescence to a particle diameter around 0.1 pm. Since the smallest particles are very hard to collect in ordinary cleaning devices they contribute to the ambient air pollution. Furthermore, fine airborne particles have been correlated to adverse effects on the human health. It is therefore essential to minimize particle formation from the combustion process and thereby reduce the emissions of particulates to the ambient air. The aim with this project is to study particle emissions from small scale combustion of wood pellets and to investigate the impact of different operating, construction and fuel parameters on the amount and characteristic of the combustion generated particles. To address these issues, experiments were carried out in a 10 kW updraft fired wood pellets reactor that has been custom designed for systematic investigations of particle emissions. In the flue gas stack, particle emissions were sampled on a filter. The particle mass and number size distributions were analysed by a low pressure cascade impactor and a SMPS (Scanning Electron Mobility Particle Sizer). The results showed that the temperature and the flow pattern in the combustion zone affect the particle emissions. Increasing combustion

  20. Apparatus for blending small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.A.; Reese, C.R.; Sease, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is described for blending small particles and uniformly loading the blended particles in a receptacle. Measured volumes of various particles are simultaneously fed into a funnel to accomplish radial blending and then directed onto the apex of a conical splitter which collects the blended particles in a multiplicity of equal subvolumes. Thereafter the apparatus sequentially discharges the subvolumes for loading in a receptacle. A system for blending nuclear fuel particles and loading them into fuel rod molds is described in a preferred embodiment

  1. Sealing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sealing device for minimising the leakage of toxic or radioactive contaminated environments through a biological shield along an opening through which a flexible component moves that penetrates the shield. The sealing device comprises an outer tubular member which extends over a length not less than the maximum longitudinal movement of the component along the opening. An inner sealing block is located intermediate the length of the component by connectors and is positioned in the bore of the outer tubular member to slide in the bore and effect a seal over the entire longitudinal movement of the component. The cross-section of the device may be circular and the block may be of polytetrafluoroethylene or of nylon impregnated with molybdenum or may be metallic. A number of the sealing devices may be combined into an assembly for a plurality of adjacent longitudinally movable components, each adapted to sustain a tensile load, providing the various drives of a master-slave manipulator. (author)

  2. Diamond Pixel Detectors and 3D Diamond Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Results from detectors of poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposited (pCVD) diamond are presented. These include the first analysis of data of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). The DBM module consists of pCVD diamond sensors instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end electronics. Six diamond telescopes, each with three modules, are placed symmetrically around the ATLAS interaction point. The DBM tracking capabilities allow it to discriminate between particles coming from the interaction point and background particles passing through the ATLAS detector. Also, analysis of test beam data of pCVD DBM modules are presented. A new low threshold tuning algorithm based on noise occupancy was developed which increases the DBM module signal to noise ratio significantly. Finally first results from prototypes of a novel detector using pCVD diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk, forming a 3D diamond device, are discussed. 3D devices based on pCVD diamond were successfully tested with test beams at CERN. The measured charge is compared to that of a strip detector mounted on the same pCVD diamond showing that the 3D device collects significantly more charge than the planar device.

  3. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  4. Particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  5. Performance evaluation of air cleaning devices of an operating low level radioactive solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Surya Narayana, D.S.; Sundararajan, A.R.; Satyasai, P.M.; Ahmed, Jaleel

    1997-01-01

    Particle removal efficiencies of a cyclone separator, baghouse filters and a high efficiency particulate activity (HEPA) filter bank of an incinerator have been determined during the incineration of combustible low level solid radioactive wastes with surface dose of 20 - 50 gy/h. Experimental runs have been carried out to collect the particulates in various aerodynamic size ranges using an eight stage Andersen sampler and a low pressure impactor (LPI) while the incinerator is in operation. The collection efficiencies of the cyclone, baghouse and HEPA filters have been found to be 100 per cent for particles of size greater than 4.7, 2.1 and 1.1 μm respectively. The results of our investigations indicate that the air cleaning devices of the incinerator are working according to their design criteria. The data will be useful in the design and operation of air cleaning devices for toxic gaseous effluents. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  7. Particle cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.

  8. Collection shield for ion separation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, K.L.; Pugh, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The ion separation electrodes in isotope separation apparatus are provided with removable collection shields to collect neutral particles which would normally pass through the ionization region. A preferred collection shield comprises a u-shaped section for clipping onto the leading edge of an electrode and a pair of flanges projecting substantially perpendicular to the clipping section for collecting neutral particles

  9. Operation training aid device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Sadanori.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention evaluates the propriety of an operation which is conducted optionally by a trainee depending on the state of the plant, analyzes the cause of an operation error and aids the preparation of training policy and teaching materials based on the results of the evaluation and the analysis. Namely, an operation data collection device collects operation data for the plant operation conducted by the trainee and the state of the plant during the operation. Since an operation evaluation device evaluates the plant operation in a short period of time based on the evaluation criteria of an operation evaluation knowledge base, an operation error is never overlooked. Accordingly, uniform and highly reliable operation training at definite evaluation criteria can be obtained. In addition, an error-cause analyzing device and a training policy knowledge base analyze the cause of an error inherent to each of the trainee, and it is recorded systematically independently on every trainees. Since a training policy guide device retrieves and presents an operation error and a cause of the error, there can be prepared a training policy incorporating training with respect to the operation error that each of the trainee tends to commit. (I.S.)

  10. TDA's validity to study 18O collectivity in terms of collective pair model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuanyi; Vitturi, A.; Catara, F.; Sambataro, M.

    1991-01-01

    Conclusion proved that if the authors calculate 18 O collective spectra in terms of the Collective Pair Model, the authors can get the positive low laying levels of 18 O which are of the particle particle pair, independent on the excitation of hole within closed shell. 1 - low laying levels are of non-collective 3 particle 1 hole states. 1 - fourth level is of collective 3 particle 1 hole states. 3 - low laying levels are of collective 3 particle 1 hole states. 1 - , 3 - low laying levels agree very well with the experiment data. Hence the TDA is sufficient for the calculations of 1 - ,3 - collective low levels of 18 O

  11. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  12. Magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.

  13. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A.; McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used

  14. Device for removing fur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Minoru; Nakagawa, Takao; Sakuma, Toyoo; Yonemura, Eizo.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove fur adhered to fuel rods and to increase working efficiency without use of a lengthy hose. Constitution: In the fur removing device of the present invention, brushes rotated by gears are provided within a casing so that fur adhered to the fuel rods are removed by the brushes and water is rotatably moved by blades housed therein to outwardly blow fur floating in water by means of a centrifugal force. Then, the fur is filtered by a filter outwardly provided. In this way, the fur may be collected within the device to avoid contamination to others. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  16. Particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, R.I.

    1976-01-01

    Charged particles are entrained in a predetermined direction, independent of their polarity, in a circular orbit by a magnetic field rotating at high speed about an axis in a closed cylindrical or toroidal vessel. The field may be generated by a cylindrical laser structure, whose beam is polygonally reflected from the walls of an excited cavity centered on the axis, or by high-frequency energization of a set of electromagnets perpendicular to the axis. In the latter case, a separate magnetostatic axial field limits the orbital radius of the particles. These rotating and stationary magnetic fields may be generated centrally or by individual magnets peripherally spaced along its circular orbit. Chemical or nuclear reactions can be induced by collisions between the orbiting particles and an injected reactant, or by diverting high-speed particles from one doughnut into the path of counterrotating particles in an adjoining doughnut

  17. Amorphous silicon based particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, N.; Franco, A.; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Dunand, S.; Powolny, F.; Jarron, P.; Ballif, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hard monolithic particle sensors can be fabricated by a vertical integration of amorphous silicon particle sensors on top of CMOS readout chip. Two types of such particle sensors are presented here using either thick diodes or microchannel plates. The first type based on amorphous silicon diodes exhibits high spatial resolution due to the short lateral carrier collection. Combination of an amorphous silicon thick diode with microstrip detector geometries permits to achieve micromete...

  18. Guide device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, C.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel handling guide tube centering device for use in nuclear reactors during fuel assembly handling operations. The device comprises an outer ring secured to the flange of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, a rotatable table rotatably coupled to the outer ring, and a plurality of openings through the table. Truncated locating cones are positioned in each of the openings in the table, and the locating cones center the guide tube during fuel handling operations. The openings in the table are located such that each fuel assembly in the nuclear core may be aligned with one of the openings by a suitable rotation of the table. The locating cones thereby provide alignment between the fuel handling mechanism located in the guide tube and the individual fuel assemblies of the cone. The need for a device to provide alignment is especially critical for floating nuclear power plants, where wave motion may exist during fuel handling operations. 5 claims, 4 figures

  19. Reactor feedwater device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Noboru.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress soluble radioactive corrosion products in a feedwater device. Method: In a light water cooled nuclear reactor, an iron injection system is connected to feedwater pipeways and the iron concentration in the feedwater or reactor coolant is adjusted between twice and ten times of the nickel concentration. When the nickel/iron ratio in the reactor coolant or feedwater goes nearer to 1/2, iron ions are injected together with iron particles to the reactor coolant to suppress the leaching of stainless steels, decrease the nickel in water and increase the iron concentration. As a result, it is possible to suppress the intrusion of nickel as one of parent nuclide of radioactive nuclides. Further, since the iron particles intruded into the reactor constitute nuclei for capturing the radioactive nuclides to reduce the soluble radioactive corrosion products, the radioactive nuclides deposited uniformly to the inside of the pipeways in each of the coolant circuits can be reduced. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toyokazu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a highly reliable reactor shutdown device capable of checking its function irrespective of the state whether shutdown or operation in a gas-cooled type reactor. Constitution: A hopper is disposed above a guide tube inserted into the reactor core and particulate neutron absorbers are contained in the hopper. An opening for falling particles is disposed to the bottom of the hopper in opposition to the upper end of the guide pipe and the opening is closed by a plug suspended by way of a weld line so as to be capable of dropping. A power source for supplying electrical current to the weld line is disposed. Accordingly, if the current is supplied to the weld line, the line is cut by welding to fall the plug so that the neutron-absorbing particles fall from the opening into the guide pipe to shutdown the reactor, whereby high reliability is obtained for the operation. (Seki, T.)

  1. Impedance and Collective Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Metral, E; Rumolo, R; Herr, W

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '4 Impedance and Collective Effects' with the content: 4 Impedance and Collective Effects Introduction 4.1 Space Charge 4.2 Wake Fields and Impedances 4.3 Coherent Instabilities 4.4 Landau Damping 4.5 Two-Stream Effects (Electron Cloud and Ions) 4.6 Beam-Beam Effects 4.7 Numerical Modelling

  2. Precipitation scavenging of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radke, L.F.; Eltgroth, M.W.; Hobbs, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents the results of precipitation scavenging measurements of particles in the atmosphere and in plumes which were obtained using an airborne measuring system. Attention is given to the so-called 'Greenfield gap' and collection efficiencies for submicron particles

  3. Toroidal nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yutaka; Kasahara, Tatsuo; Takizawa, Teruhiro.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To design a device so as to be formed into a large-size and to arrange ports, through which neutral particles enter, in inclined fashion. Structure: Toroidal coils are wound about vacuum vessels which are divided into plural number. In the outer periphery of the vacuum vessels, ports are disposed inclined in the peripheral direction of the vacuum vessels and communicated with the vacuum vessels, and wall surfaces opposed to the ports of the toroidal coils adjacent at least the inclined sides of the ports are inclined substantially simularly to the port wall surfaces. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. WORKSHOP: Low temperature devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    With extraterrestrial neutrinos (whether from the sun or further afield) continuing to make science news, and with the search for the so far invisible 'dark matter' of the universe a continual preoccupation, physicists from different walks of life (solid state, low temperature, particles, astrophysics) gathered at a workshop on low temperature devices for the detection of neutrinos and dark matter, held from 12-13 March at Ringberg Castle on Lake Tegernsee in the Bavarian Alps, and organized by the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in Munich

  5. WORKSHOP: Low temperature devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-06-15

    With extraterrestrial neutrinos (whether from the sun or further afield) continuing to make science news, and with the search for the so far invisible 'dark matter' of the universe a continual preoccupation, physicists from different walks of life (solid state, low temperature, particles, astrophysics) gathered at a workshop on low temperature devices for the detection of neutrinos and dark matter, held from 12-13 March at Ringberg Castle on Lake Tegernsee in the Bavarian Alps, and organized by the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in Munich.

  6. Plasma physics via particle simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    Plasmas are studied by following the motion of many particles in applied and self fields, analytically, experimentally and computationally. Plasmas for magnetic fusion energy devices are very hot, nearly collisionless and magnetized, with scale lengths of many ion gyroradii and Debye lengths. The analytic studies of such plasmas are very difficult as the plasma is nonuniform, anisotropic and nonlinear. The experimental studies have become very expensive in time and money, as the size, density and temperature approach fusion reactor values. Computational studies using many particles and/or fluids have complemented both theories and experiments for many years and have progressed to fully three dimensional electromagnetic models, albeit with hours of running times on the fastest largest computers. Particle simulation methods are presented in some detail, showing particle advance from acceleration to velocity to position, followed by calculation of the fields from charge and current densities and then further particle advance, and so on. Limitations due to the time stepping and use of a spatial grid are given, to avoid inaccuracies and instabilities. Examples are given for an electrostatic program in one dimension of an orbit averaging program, and for a three dimensional electromagnetic program. Applications of particle simulations of plasmas in magnetic and inertial fusion devices continue to grow, as well as to plasmas and beams in peripheral devices, such as sources, accelerators, and converters. (orig.)

  7. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olawoyin, L.

    1995-09-01

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by 222 Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It's major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented

  8. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olawoyin, L.

    1995-09-01

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by {sup 222}Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It`s major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented.

  9. Lecture review, question collection: accelerators, detectors, particle and heavy ion physics, cosmology / Az előadások megbeszélése, kérdések összegyűjtése: gyorsítók, detektorok, részecske- és nehézion-fizika, kozmológia

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Lecture review, question collection: accelerators, detectors, particle and heavy ion physics, cosmology / Az előadások megbeszélése, kérdések összegyűjtése: gyorsítók, detektorok, részecske- és nehézion-fizika, kozmológia

  10. Effective modelling of acoustofluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld

    , and 3) acoustic streaming patterns in the devices considered in model 2). 1) We derive an effective model for numerical studies of hydrodynamic particle-particle interactions in microfluidic high-concentration suspensions. A suspension of microparticles placed in a microfluidic channel and influenced......, and of the momentum transfer between the particles and the suspension. 2) We derive a full 3D numerical model for the coupled acoustic fields in mm-sized water-filled glass capillaries, calculating pressure field in the liquid coupled to the displacement field of the glass channel, taking into account mixed standing...... for the acoustic field in glass capillary devices derived in 2), we make an effective model for calculating the acoustic streaming velocity in 3D. To do this, we use recent analytical results that allows calculation of the acoustic streaming field resulting from channel-wall oscillations in any direction...

  11. Medical Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Mahieu, H.F.; Geertsema, A.A.; Hermann, I.F.; van Horn, J.R.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van Loon, J.P.; Mihaylov, D.; van der Plaats, A.; Schraffordt Koops, H.; Schutte, H.K.; Veth, R.P.H.; de Vries, M.P.; Rakhorst, G.; Shi, Donglu

    2004-01-01

    The development of new medical devices is a very time-consuming and costly process. Besides the time between the initial idea and the time that manufacturing and testing of prototypes takes place, the time needed for the development of production facilities, production of test series, marketing,

  12. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  13. Assistive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have a disability or injury, you may use a number of assistive devices. These are tools, products or types of equipment that help you perform tasks and activities. They may help you move around, see, communicate, eat, or get ...

  14. Detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  15. Study by {alpha}-particle scattering, of the collective states of closed shell nuclei with 28 neutrons, 28 and 50 protons; Etude des etats a caractere collectif des noyaux au voisinage des couches fermees par diffusion inelastique des particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruge, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    This report gives the results from a systematic study by 44 MeV {alpha} particle scattering on the collective states of closed shell nuclei with 28 neutrons, 28 and 50 protons especially in the energy region corresponding to the two phonon vibrational triplet. The nuclei studied are: {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn and {sup 124}Sn. The theoretical analysis has been made with the Austern and Blair model using a phase shift analysis of the elastic scattering. Deformation lengths {delta}{sub I} = {beta}{sub I}R and transition probabilities obtained are compared with several experimental and theoretical data. (author) [French] Ce rapport donne les resultats d'une etude systematique par diffusion de particules {alpha} de 44 MeV des etats collectifs des noyaux au voisinage des couches fermees a 28 neutrons et 28 et 50 protons, specialement dans la region correspondant au triplet vibrationnel a deux phonons. Les noyaux etudies sont: {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn et {sup 124}Sn. L'analyse theorique a ete faite a l'aide du modele de Austern et Blair utilisant une analyse en dephasages de la diffusion elastique. Les longueurs de deformation {delta}I = {beta}{sub I}R obtenues pour chaque niveau sont comparees a plusieurs donnees experimentales et theoriques. (auteur)

  16. Cooling device in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Tsutomu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent loss of cooling effect over the entire torus structure directly after accidental toubles in a cooling device of a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Coolant recycling means of a cooling device comprises two systems, which are alternately connected with in-flow pipeways and exit pipeways of adjacent modules. The modules are cooled by way of the in-flow pipeways and the exist pipeways connected to the respective modules by means of the coolant recycling means corresponding to the respective modules. So long as one of the coolant recycling means is kept operative, since every one other modules of the torus structure is still kept cooled, the heat generated from the module put therebetween, for which the coolant recycling is interrupted, is removed by means of heat conduction or radiation from the module for which the cooling is kept continued. No back-up emergency cooling system is required and it can provide high economic reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Electromagnetic spin–orbit interaction and giant spin-Hall effect in dielectric particle clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yineng [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xiangdong, E-mail: zhangxd@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Nanophotonics and Ultrafine Optoelectronic Systems, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, Beijing (China)

    2013-12-09

    We report a phenomenon that electromagnetic spin–orbit interactions can be tailored by dielectric nanoparticles, and self-similar giant spin-Hall effect has been observed in the dielectric particle cluster. The near-field phase singularities and phase vorticity in the longitudinal component of scattered field can also be controlled by such a dielectric structure. The origin of phenomena is believed to be due to the collective resonance excitation in the dielectric particle cluster. It is expected to find applications in optics information processing and designing new nanophotonic devices.

  18. Alpha particles (citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base). Report for 1974-July 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauk, S.C.

    1979-09-01

    This bibliography of citations to the international literature covers various aspects of alpha particles as applied to controlled fusion devices, solar activity, and geomagnetically trapped particles. Included are articles concerning Tokamak devices, plasma heating and control, plasma-particle interactions, solar particles, solar wind, solar flares, energy spectra, and magnetohydrodynamic stability. Articles concerning effects of alpha particles on different kinds of devices are also included

  19. Impact of two particle measurement techniques on the determination of N95 class respirator filtration performance against ultrafine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostofi, Reza; Noël, Alexandra; Haghighat, Fariborz; Bahloul, Ali; Lara, Jaime; Cloutier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance evaluation of respirator using two different measurement techniques. ► Impaction and electrical mobility were used to characterize ultrafine particle. ► The experiment was done using ultrafine-sized poly-dispersed aerosols. ► Both techniques show that MPPS would occur at a similar size range. - Abstract: The purpose of this experimental study was to compare two different particle measurement devices; an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), to measure the number concentration and the size distribution of NaCl salt aerosols to determine the collection efficiency of filtering respirators against poly disperse aerosols. Tests were performed on NIOSH approved N95 filtering face-piece respirators (FFR), sealed on a manikin head. Ultrafine particles found in the aerosols were also collected and observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the results, there is a systematic difference for the particle size distribution measured by the SMPS and the ELPI. It is largely attributed to the difference in the measurement techniques. However, in spite of these discrepancies, reasonably similar trends were found for the number concentration with both measuring instruments. The particle penetration, calculated based on mobility and aerodynamic diameters, never exceeded 5% for any size range measured at constant flow rate of 85 L/min. Also, the most penetrating particle size (MPPS), with the lowest filtration efficiency, would occur at a similar ultrafine size range <100 nm. With the ELPI, the MPPS was at 70 nm aerodynamic diameter, whereas it occurred at 40 nm mobility diameter with the SMPS.

  20. Auroral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries